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Sample records for african community influenced

  1. Influence of persistent monodominance on functional diversity and functional community assembly in African tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, Elizabeth; Verbeeck, Hans; Hufkens, Koen; Beeckman, Hans; Steppe, Kathy; Boeckx, Pascal; Huygens, Dries

    2015-04-01

    Lowland tropical rainforest are taxonomically diverse and complex systems, although not all tropical communities are equally diverse. Naturally occuring monodominant patches of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei are commonly found across Central Africa alongside higher diversity forests. Nevertheless, a low taxonomical diversity does not necessarily indicate an equivalently low functional diverse system. We investigate the functional diversity and functional community assembly of mixed and monodominant tropical forests in a central region of the Congo Basin in D. R. Congo using 15 leaf and wood traits covering 95% of all species within each community. This unique dataset allows us to investigate differences in functional diversity and ecosystem functioning between mixed and monodominant forest types. Functional richness, functional divergence and functional evenness are three functional diversity measures providing different aspects of functional diversity. The largest difference between the two forest types was found for functional richness, with a lower functional richness in the monodominant forest indicating a higher amount of niche space filled in the mixed forest. The mixed forest also had a higher species richness and Simpson diversity index, indicating that the higher species richness increases the functional niche space. Subsequently, we identified whole community trait shifts within the monodominant forest compared to the mixed forest. The dominance of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei, for which a distinct niche is found for most traits, presented a significant influence on the entire (trait) community expressing fundamental differences in ecosystem functioning. More detailed investigation of species unique within the monodominant forest and species occurring in both forest types provide more insight into the influence of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei. Both the unique and the shared species showed significant shifts in leaf nutrients, specific leaf area and water use

  2. The influence of nondisclosure on the mental health of urban African-American adolescents exposed to community violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E; McIntosh, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and internalizing symptoms, but there has been little investigation of moderating processes that might attenuate or exacerbate this association. The current study examined nondisclosure as a possible moderator of the association between community violence and internalizing symptoms with a sample of 152 low-income urban African-American early adolescents using hierarchical regression analyses. Results revealed that nondisclosure for relationship reasons (e.g., adults could not be trusted to provide needed support) moderated the association between exposure to community violence and internalizing symptoms. Unexpectedly, however, results of simple effects analyses revealed a stronger association between exposure to violence and internalizing symptoms for youth who disclosed more to adults. Although unexpected, this pattern builds upon prior research indicating that adult-child relationships are compromised within the context of urban poverty and that protective factors may lose their power under conditions of extreme stress.

  3. In black south africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. de Lange (Zelda); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman); T. Hoekstra (Tiny); K.R. Conradie (Karin); J.C. Jerling (Johann); M. Pieters (Marlien)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractData on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysi

  4. TB treatment initiation and adherence in a South African community influenced more by perceptions than by knowledge of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller Valerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a global health concern. Inadequate case finding and case holding has been cited as major barrier to the control of TB. The TB literature is written almost entirely from a biomedical perspective, while recent studies show that it is imperative to understand lay perception to determine why people seek treatment and may stop taking treatment. The Eastern Cape is known as a province with high TB incidence, prevalence and with one of the worst cure rates of South Africa. Its inhabitants can be considered lay experts when it comes to TB. Therefore, we investigated knowledge, perceptions of (access to TB treatment and adherence to treatment among an Eastern Cape population. Methods An area-stratified sampling design was applied. A total of 1020 households were selected randomly in proportion to the total number of households in each neighbourhood. Results TB knowledge can be considered fairly good among this community. Respondents' perceptions suggest that stigma may influence TB patients' decision in health seeking behavior and adherence to TB treatment. A full 95% of those interviewed believe people with TB tend to hide their TB status out of fear of what others may say. Regression analyses revealed that in this population young and old, men and women and the lower and higher educated share the same attitudes and perceptions. Our findings are therefore likely to reflect the actual situation of TB patients in this population. Conclusions The lay experts' perceptions suggests that stigma appears to effect case holding and case finding. Future interventions should be directed at improving attitudes and perceptions to potentially reduce stigma. This requires a patient-centered approach to empower TB patients and active involvement in the development and implementation of stigma reduction programs.

  5. Feeling good in your own skin: the influence of complimentary sexual stereotypes on risky sexual attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Jamieson L; Oser, Carrie B; Mooney, Jenny; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2013-01-01

    Although negative racial stereotypes may affect the mental and physical health of African Americans, little research has examined the influence of positive or complimentary racial stereotypes on such outcomes. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between African American women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and attitudes/behaviors that have been associated with sexual risk. Data were gathered from 206 African American women as part of the Black Women in the Study of Epidemics project. Multivariate regression models were used to examine associations between women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and selected sex-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants' endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes was significantly positively associated with beliefs that having sex without protection would strengthen their relationship (B = .28, SE = .10, p stereotypes and the number of casual sexual partners women reported in the past year (B = .29, SE = .15, p = .05) as well as their willingness to have sex in exchange for money or drugs during that time (B = .78, OR = 2.18, p stereotypes by African American women can lead to increased risk behavior, particularly relating to possible infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections.

  6. Jumping through Hoops: College Choice Experiences of African American Male Community College Club Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…

  7. PUBLISHING SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOLARSHIP IN THE GLOBAL ACADEMIC COMMUNITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Elizabeth

    2015-09-20

    South Africa's academic publishing history has been profoundly influenced by its colonial heritage. This is reflected in the publication of Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society (later, the Royal Society of South Africa) from 1878. Although the Society and journal sought to promote original research about South Africa, it was modelled after the Royal Society in London and formed part of an imperial scientific community. As the local higher education institutions grew more independent and research-focused, local scholarly publishing developed as well, with university presses playing an increasingly important role. The University of South Africa (Unisa) Press started publishing departmental journals in the 1950s, with a focus on journals that 'speak to the student', and it is today the only South African university press with an active journals publishing programme. As external funding declined and the country became intellectually isolated in the high apartheid period, the Press managed to attract journals that could no longer be subsidized by learned societies and other universities. More recently, new co-publishing arrangements have brought South African journals back into an international intellectual community. Although some argue that this constitutes a re-colonization of South African knowledge production, it is also an innovative strategy for positioning local research in a global context.

  8. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Zelda; Rijken, Dingeman C; Hoekstra, Tiny; Conradie, Karin R; Jerling, Johann C; Pieters, Marlien

    2013-01-01

    Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT). We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009) but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central) obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%). Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  9. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelda de Lange

    Full Text Available Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT. We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009 but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%. Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  10. Media and Cultural Influences in African-American Girls’ Eating Disorder Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American female...

  11. Media and cultural influences in african-american girls' eating disorder risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lakaii A; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American females, mainstream sociocultural identification, cultural ethnic identification, and body dissatisfaction significantly predicted eating disorder behavior; and cultural ethnic identification was positively correlated with mainstream sociocultural identification. This study provides support for the importance of eating disorder prevention interventions that focus specifically on African-American girls.

  12. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

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    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  13. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

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    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  14. Embedding Community Engagement in South African Higher Education

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    Lazarus, Josef; Erasmus, Mabel; Hendricks, Denver; Nduna, Joyce; Slamat, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    Community engagement was a relatively unknown concept in South African higher education until the late 1990s. In response to the call of the White Paper on the Transformation of Higher Education (1997) for "feasibility studies and pilot programmes which explore the potential of community service in higher education" the Joint Education…

  15. A therapeutic community as a relevant and efficient ecclesial model in African Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsobane Manala

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article sets forth the argument that Christian ministry in Africa must become socially and culturally informed and constructed or else it will not touch the African soul and thus remain superficial. Black African people aspire above everything else to experience fullness of life and wellbeing here and now, as demonstrated by their greetings that are actually an enquiry into each other’s health and an expression of the wish for the other’s good health and wellbeing. The mainline churches that operate in Africa should embrace the scripturally sound Christian healing ministry in obedience to Christ’s commission to preach the gospel and heal the sick, if they are to prosper. Hence, this article discusses the following eight points, namely, (1 good health and healing as Africans’ important aspiration, (2 healing as the work of God and thus of the church, (3 the imperative of serious consideration of and respect for the African worldview, (4 membership decline and mainline churches’ loss of influence, (5 rethinking church in African Christianity, (6 the need for the black African church to adopt a therapeutic or healing community ecclesial model in order to position itself strategically to cater for the holistic needs of African (South African church members and surrounding communities, (7 the rationale of the healing ministry in today’s Reformed Church in Africa and (8 the recommended healing ministry. The article closes with a few concluding statements and advice

  16. Assessment of religious and spiritual capital in African American communities.

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    Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Williams, Beverly; Clark, Eddie M; Wang, Min Qi; Southward, Penny L

    2012-12-01

    African American faith communities are an important source of social capital. The present study adapted a theory-based social capital instrument to result in religious (e.g., from organized worship) and spiritual (e.g., from relationship with higher power) capital measures. Data from a national sample of 803 African Americans suggest the instruments have high internal reliability and are distinct from general religiosity. Measurement models confirmed factor structures. Religious capital was positively associated with self-rated health status. Religious and spiritual capital were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, but these associations largely became nonsignificant in multivariate models that controlled for demographic characteristics. An exception is for spiritual capital in the form of community participation, which retained a negative association with depressive symptoms. These instruments may have applied value for health promotion research and practice in African American communities.

  17. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions...... to flooding across the city, at the finest administrative level....

  18. Barriers to Conducting a Community Mobilization Intervention among Youth in a Rural South African Community

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    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…

  19. Linguistic Struggles within and beyond the Southern African Development Community

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    Bagwasi, Mompoloki Mmangaka

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the linguistic struggles faced by the Southern African Development Community (the SADC) represent common linguistic struggles found in Africa and the world where some languages are accused of dominating, stifling and suppressing others. However, the language situation within the SADC is interesting because it offers us a…

  20. Community engagement: an essential component of well-being in older African-American adults.

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    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Active engagement in life is a critical factor for successful aging. Research indicates that community engagement is strongly associated with health and well-being in late life. However, less is understood regarding the influence of neighborhood conditions on health and well-being, particularly in older African-American adults. The current study describes a convenience sample of older African Americans (N = 501, mean age = 70.7 [range 55-95] years) living in Detroit. The specific goal is to examine the relationships between their perceptions of neighborhood conditions, level of community engagement, and their health and well-being. Survey findings reveal a sample of highly engaged older African Americans in reasonable health who perceive their neighborhoods favorably. Regression analysis results indicate that community engagement is closely associated with both neighborhood perceptions and well-being in this sample. We propose that community engagement or "participation" mediates the relationship between neighborhood conditions and well-being for older African Americans living in Detroit.

  1. African American Perspectives and Experiences of Domestic Violence in a Rural Community.

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    Valandra; Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Higgins, Brandon M; Brown, Lucy M

    2016-09-21

    Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women (n = 33) and men (n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas. Demographic data were collected from 47 women (n = 28) and men (n = 19) participating in focus groups regarding their perceptions and experiences of domestic violence, media messages, help-seeking behaviors, and services. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Three major themes emerged, including (a) a heightened awareness of race, gender, and class differences; (b) imbalanced and mixed messages from media; and (c) multi-systemic dynamics influencing abusive behavior and relationships. Results indicate that study participants' perspectives and experiences with domestic violence reflect a complex interrelated gamut of societal, community, familial, and individual dynamics. Participant recommendations related to interpersonal dynamics, media messages, and societal influences are reported with implications for practice, policy, and future research.

  2. African American families on autism diagnosis and treatment: the influence of culture.

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    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2015-10-01

    Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD professionals. Cultural caring meant families protected their child from harm including potential or actual distrustful encounters, and took action for their child and community to optimize their child's health and address the knowledge deficits of ASD within their community. Families and professionals believed cultural influences delayed families' receiving and seeking appropriate health care for the African American child with ASD affecting timely autism diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Promoting HIV Vaccine Research in African American Communities: Does the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Potential Outcomes of Involvement?

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    Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration of community engagement outcomes including future attendance, community mobilization, and study participation. Within the context of HIV vaccine outreach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in early 2007 with 175 African-American adults (>/= 18 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed and the findings support the potential of the model in understanding behavioral intentions toward HIV vaccine research.

  4. Aspects of the Student Engagement of African American Men in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, Paulette B.

    2012-01-01

    High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…

  5. Cultural knowledge and local vulnerability in African American communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.

  6. African American and Latina(o) Community College Students' Social Capital and Student Success

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    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby

    2014-01-01

    Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students'…

  7. African American and Latina(o) Community College Students' Social Capital and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby

    2014-01-01

    Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students' relationships…

  8. The biggest fish in the sea? Dynamic Kenyan labour migration in the East African community

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    Ong'ayo, A.O.O.; Oucho, J.O.; Oucho, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the Kenyan policy and institutional framework concerning South–South labour migration with particular focus on the East African Community (EAC) countries. It focuses mainly on one particular policy instrument, the East African Community Common Market framework. The research furth

  9. African-American lesbian identity management and identity development in the context of family and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shannon J

    2011-01-01

    Don't Ask, Don't Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they defined and navigated Don't Ask, Don't Tell. They encountered challenges and successes in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning African-American lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and communities.

  10. Calling Out the Elephant: An Examination of African American Male Achievement in Community Colleges

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    Edward C. Bush

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This mixed method study examines the effects of community college institutional factors on the academic achievement of African American males and their perceptions of their college experience. We found that African American men in comparison to other ethnic and gender sub-groups (for both the California community college system and at Inland Community College are disproportionately underachieving in all segments of the academic outcomes measured. African American men throughout California’s community college system (including Inland Community College are the lowest performing subgroup when one considers: percentage of degrees earned, persistence rates, and average cumulative grade point average. The analysis of African American men’s perceptions of their college experience suggest that African American men have greater amounts of dissatisfaction and do not engage with the various segments of the college when compared to the other subgroups in the study. African American males were more likely not to meet with faculty members or have contact with them outside of the classroom. More importantly, faculty interaction predicted if African American male students persisted, transferred, and maintained a higher grade point average at the case study institution. The variables associated with campus climate predicted if African American male students transferred, had higher grade point averages, and graduated at higher rates from the case institution.

  11. Effects of Community African Drumming on Generalised Anxiety in Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Akombo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the effects of community music projects (CMPs, such as after-school African drumming circles, on academic performance and generalised anxiety in adolescents. Adolescents from a Junior High (7th, 8th, and 9th graders, age range from 12-14 in the State of Utah (USA participated in the study. A one-sample t-test found a significant difference in reading scores (df(4 p=.004. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the maths trait anxiety score pre-intervention and the total state anxiety score pre-test (df(4 p=.033. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the reading trait anxiety score post-intervention and the total state anxiety score post-test (df(4 p=.030. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of community music such as drumming for reducing anxiety and also for improving academic performance in adolescents. CMPs are recommended as a non-invasive intervention modality for adolescents.

  12. Helping Moms, Saving Babies: Faith-Based Partnerships to Reduce Prematurity in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, LaToya L.

    2008-01-01

    The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…

  13. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  14. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, April E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  15. Children's exposure to community and war violence and mental health in four African countries.

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    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-12-01

    In this article we review the mental health consequences of children's exposure to community and war violence (ETV) in four African countries: South Africa, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Rwanda. A focus on Africa is particularly pressing because of children's high levels of community and war ETV in countries therein. Regions of Africa present important macro-contexts for understanding children's various types of violence exposure amidst war and economic disadvantage. Findings of the review across 20 quantitative studies from 2004 to 2015 indicate consistent associations between exposure to war and community violence and children's symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and aggression. School climate and family support mitigate these ETV influences upon children: however, more research is needed on the buffering effects of such resources. The effects of war violence are mediated by perceived discrimination in communities post-conflict. We integrate findings across studies to synthesize knowledge on children's ETV in Africa around a model of its correlates, mediators, and moderators in relation to mental health. Emerging research points to avenues for prevention and future inquiry.

  16. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon

    2011-01-01

    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  17. Development of a Faith-Based Stress Management Intervention in a Rural African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Keneshia; Moore, Todd; Willis, Nathaniel; Hadden, Kristie

    2017-01-01

    Background Faith-based mental health interventions developed and implemented using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach hold promise for reaching rural African Americans and addressing health disparities. Objectives To describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Trinity Life Management, a faith-based stress management intervention in a rural African American faith community. Methods The researchers used a CBPR approach by partnering with the African American faith community to develop a stress management intervention. Development strategies include working with key informants, focus groups, and a community advisory board (CAB). Results The community identified the key concepts that should be included in a stress management intervention. Conclusions The faith-based “Trinity Life Management” stress management intervention was developed collaboratively by a CAB and an academic research team. The intervention includes stress management techniques that incorporate Biblical principles and information about the stress–distress–depression continuum. PMID:26548794

  18. Behavioral adjustments of African herbivores to predation risk by lions: spatiotemporal variations influence habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeix, M; Loveridge, A J; Chamaillé-Jammes, S; Davidson, Z; Murindagomo, F; Fritz, H; Macdonald, D W

    2009-01-01

    Predators may influence their prey populations not only through direct lethal effects, but also through indirect behavioral changes. Here, we combined spatiotemporal fine-scale data from GPS radio collars on lions with habitat use information on 11 African herbivores in Hwange National Park (Zimbabwe) to test whether the risk of predation by lions influenced the distribution of herbivores in the landscape. Effects of long-term risk of predation (likelihood of lion presence calculated over four months) and short-term risk of predation (actual presence of lions in the vicinity in the preceding 24 hours) were contrasted. The long-term risk of predation by lions appeared to influence the distributions of all browsers across the landscape, but not of grazers. This result strongly suggests that browsers and grazers, which face different ecological constraints, are influenced at different spatial and temporal scales in the variation of the risk of predation by lions. The results also show that all herbivores tend to use more open habitats preferentially when lions are in their vicinity, probably an effective anti-predator behavior against such an ambush predator. Behaviorally induced effects of lions may therefore contribute significantly to structuring African herbivore communities, and hence possibly their effects on savanna ecosystems.

  19. Religious socialization in African American families: the relative influence of parents, grandparents, and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ian A; Goodwin, Lucas J; Kirkinis, Katherine; Mattis, Jacqueline S

    2014-12-01

    The family is the principal context for religious and spiritual socialization. Although religion remains a central force in the lives of most African Americans, research has failed to explore the role and impact of family on religious socialization within this population. This study addresses that gap in the literature by (1) exploring adults' perceptions of the influence of their parents, grandparents, and siblings on their religious and spiritual lives, and (2) examining the extent to which those perceptions are associated with subjective religiosity, subjective spirituality, religious importance, and commitment to religious socialization among a community sample of urban-residing African American adults in the Midwest and Northeast (N = 319). Findings revealed that, on average, parents, grandparents, and siblings positively influenced adults' religious commitment and values. However, mothers had the greatest positive influence on these outcomes. Religious commitment and values were differentially associated with family members as a function of the generation and gender of the family member. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Community influences on contraceptive use in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Boaventura Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Fertility in sub-Saharan Africa remains the highest in the world. Yet, the average contraceptive prevalence in Africa is the lowest in major world regions and there is limited understanding of the mechanisms through which community context shapes contraceptive use in the region. Using data from the 2011 Mozambique Demographic and Health Survey, we examine the mechanisms through which community context influences women's use of modern methods of contraception in Mozambique. We find that community context influences the use of modern methods of contraception by shaping the environment in which women live.

  1. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted.

  2. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  3. Community, Self and Identity: Participatory Action Research and the Creation of a Virtual Community across Two South African Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, Paul; Swartz, Leslie; Bozalek, Vivienne; Carolissen, Ronelle; Leibowitz, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Fourth year students in psychology and social work from two South African universities worked together across boundaries of race and class in a course which required them to engage in a personal reflexive way with issues of community and identity. A combination of face-to-face workshops and online tutorial groups was used. The course was demanding…

  4. Childhood lead exposure in an enslaved African community in Barbados

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Shuler, Kristrina; Chenery, Simon

    2013-01-01

    a clear association between low (i.e., below 1 ppm) enamel lead concentrations and higher enamel 87Sr/86Sr ratios which have previously been interpreted as being indicative of African birth, suggesting that individuals with low enamel lead levels were indeed born in Africa as opposed to the New World...... the colonial period....

  5. Exploring Artistic Practice in Global Communities of the African Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Auburn E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012 an African Centered single case study was conducted in the United States. The problem is as follows: K-12 practitioners in urban areas are faced with unique circumstances while serving marginalized students in urban areas. As a response to this issue, the purpose of this study was to identify and describe curricula used in three African…

  6. Low Income African Americans' Parental Involvement in Intermediate Schools: Perceptions, Practices, and Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how the parental involvement perceptions, practices, and influences of low-income African Americans in an intermediate school setting are affected by low-incomes. Although involving African American parents in the educational process is a difficult task for educators (Alldred & Edwards, 2000;…

  7. Fear factors: cross validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, L Kevin; Vines, Lauren; Petrie, Jenny

    2011-05-01

    The current study attempted a cross-validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults based on a previous model of phobia domains in a college student sample of African Americans. Subjects were 100 African American community-dwelling adults who completed the Fear Survey Schedule-Second Edition (FSS-II). Domains of fear were created using a similar procedure as the original, college sample of African American adults. A model including all of the phobia domains from the FSS-II was initially tested and resulted in poor model fit. Cross-validation was subsequently attempted through examining the original factor pattern of specific phobia domains from the college sample (Chapman, Kertz, Zurlage, & Woodruff-Borden, 2008). Data from the current, community based sample of African American adults provided poor fit to this model. The trimmed model for the current sample included the animal and social anxiety factors as in the original model. The natural environment-type specific phobia factor did not provide adequate fit for the community-based sample of African Americans. Results indicated that although different factor loading patterns of fear may exist among community-based African Americans as compared to African American college students, both animal and social fears are nearly identical in both groups, indicating a possible cultural homogeneity for phobias in African Americans. Potential explanations of these findings and future directions are discussed.

  8. Developing Self-Expression and Community among South African Women with Persona Doll Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Dorothy Yumi

    2014-01-01

    Township-dwelling Black South African women must cope with an array of traumatizing stressors that stunt individual voice and diminish the creation of supportive female communities. At issue was the capacity of women under these conditions to thrive as individuals and contributing members of society, thus the rationale for this project study. The…

  9. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…

  10. African-American Children and the Case for Community: Eleanora Tate's South Carolina Trilogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Carole Brown

    1998-01-01

    Three books by Eleanora Tate, "The Secret of Gumbo Grove" (1988), "Thank You, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.!" (1992), and "A Blessing in Disguise" (1995) are discussed with respect to their portrayal of African-American children and their responsibility to both themselves and their community. (MAK)

  11. Sex Education Targeting African Communities in the United Kingdom: Is It Fit for Purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E.; Olomo, F.; Corcoran, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of the sexual needs of ethnic minority groups in the UK. Using focus group discussions with health service users and third-sector providers, it explores the perception of sex education by Black African communities living in a culturally diverse area in East London, focusing specifically on participants' understanding…

  12. North African influences and potential bias in case-control association studies in the Spanish population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pino-Yanes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the limited genetic heterogeneity of Spanish populations, substantial evidences support that historical African influences have not affected them uniformly. Accounting for such population differences might be essential to reduce spurious results in association studies of genetic factors with disease. Using ancestry informative markers (AIMs, we aimed to measure the African influences in Spanish populations and to explore whether these might introduce statistical bias in population-based association studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 93 AIMs in Spanish (from the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africans, and conducted population and individual-based clustering analyses along with reference data from the HapMap, HGDP-CEPH, and other sources. We found significant differences for the Northwest African influence among Spanish populations from as low as ≈ 5% in Spanish from the Iberian Peninsula to as much as ≈ 17% in Canary Islanders, whereas the sub-Saharan African influence was negligible. Strikingly, the Northwest African ancestry showed a wide inter-individual variation in Canary Islanders ranging from 0% to 96%, reflecting the violent way the Islands were conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the XV century. As a consequence, a comparison of allele frequencies between Spanish samples from the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands evidenced an excess of markers with significant differences. However, the inflation of p-values for the differences was adequately controlled by correcting for genetic ancestry estimates derived from a reduced number of AIMs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the African influences estimated might be biased due to marker ascertainment, these results confirm that Northwest African genetic footprints are recognizable nowadays in the Spanish populations, particularly in Canary Islanders, and that the uneven African influences existing in these

  13. The Digital Barbershop: Blogs and Online Oral Culture Within the African American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Knight Steele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For African Americans, the legacy of oral communication within the community is being transferred to online spaces. Blogging provides a platform with features that mirror many of the components of the Black barbershop. The barber and beauty shop symbolize a space of retreat, wherein African Americans have formed alternate publics used to critique the dominant culture, foster resistance, and strengthen African American institutions. Analysis of nine African American–authored blogs using a method of critical technocultural discourse analysis demonstrates that each blog used traditional Black rhetorical strategies while making modifications to contemporary goals. The strategies involve modifications made to traditional Black humor and folktales. The writing style is highly performative, yet relies upon participant interaction. This reliance on orality is a necessary force in the maintenance of cultural traditions that have long worked to assist in group definition and acts of resistance in political power struggles. By utilizing modified song, narrative, and fables to articulate resistance and craft African American identity, African American online oral culture persists as a strategy to house political discourse within the often hidden enclave spaces of the digital barbershop.

  14. TESTING NONLINEAR INFLATION CONVERGENCE FOR THE CENTRAL AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anoruo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses nonlinear unit root testing procedures to examine the issue of inflation convergence for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC member states including Cameron, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The results from nonlinear STAR unit root tests suggest that inflation differentials for the sample countries are nonlinear and mean reverting processes. These results provide evidence of inflation convergence among countries within CEMAC. The finding of inflation convergence indicates the feasibility of a common monetary policy and/or inflation targeting regime within CEMAC.

  15. The Effect of Education plus Access on Perceived Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Rural African American Community Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnidge, E. K.; Baker, E. A.; Schootman, M.; Motton, F.; Sawicki, M.; Rose, F.

    2015-01-01

    African Americans have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease partly due to low fruit and vegetable consumption. This article reports the results of an intervention to provide nutrition education and access to fruits and vegetables through community gardens to change dietary behaviors among African Americans in rural Missouri. Cross-sectional…

  16. South African Deaf Education and the Deaf Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Claudine, Ed.; Martin, David, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    In a special section of the "American Annals of the Deaf", Deaf education and the Deaf community in South Africa are discussed. The special section is organized into 7 segments: a historical overview to establish context, the educational context, educators and learners, postgraduate education and employment, perspectives of Deaf children and their…

  17. Barriers to prostate cancer prevention and community recommended health education strategies in an urban African American community in Jackson, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi.

  18. African Dust Influence on Atlantic Hurricane Activity and the Peculiar Behaviour of Category 5 Hurricanes

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Victor M Velasco; H., Graciela Velasco; Gonzalez, Laura Luna

    2010-01-01

    We study the specific influence of African dust on each one of the categories of Atlantic hurricanes. By applying wavelet analysis, we find a strong decadal modulation of African dust on Category 5 hurricanes and an annual modulation on all other categories of hurricanes. We identify the formation of Category 5 hurricanes occurring mainly around the decadal minimum variation of African dust and in deep water areas of the Atlantic Ocean, where hurricane eyes have the lowest pressure. According to our results, future tropical cyclones will not evolve to Category 5 until the next decadal minimum that is, by the year 2015 +/- 2.

  19. Feasibility of utilizing pedometer diaries in a rural African American community-based walking intervention for health promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Limited research is available on the feasibility or effectiveness of utilizing pedometer diaries in community-based interventions targeting rural, low socioeconomic, African American populations. The objectives of this walking intervention study were to assess participant adherence to maint...

  20. Transgressive Partnerships: Community engagement in a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hall

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conceptualizing community engagement as intertwined with teaching and long-established approaches to research requires a consideration of the epistemology of knowledge itself. What is accepted as legitimate knowledge? And what is the scope of the university’s role in recognizing and validating forms of knowledge and defining curriculum boundaries, understood as the ways in which the university disseminates knowledge that it has validated as authentic? A working understanding of community engagement would include service learning, problem-based teaching and research that addresses specific wants and needs, the pursuit of alternative forms of knowledge and challenges to established authorities that control and direct research systems and the allocation of qualifications. This article considers why this kind of engagement has remained on the margins of the traditional university in South Africa – via a case study of community engagement at the University of Cape Town – despite a decade of clear public policy and asks: why does there appear to be resistance to its inclusion despite a number of incentives that include moral affirmation for contributing to social and economic justice.

  1. East African Community (EAC) as Regionalism : The Exclusion and Inclusion of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Butanaziba, Yunus Lubega

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine and recommend possible prescriptions against problems that regionalism has since occasioned for the last 110 years, and the ones we might face in the short and long term future. It brings forward the East African Community (EAC) as a regional grouping under the ‘exclusive’ and ‘inclusive’ damages of controls by western dominant states, particularly Britain and the United States of America (USA). The problem is that official reasoning and incompetence ...

  2. What Motivational Factors Influence African American Males to Enter a Doctorial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the motivational factors that influence African American men to enter a doctoral program by identifying the motivational factors that influenced them to enter a doctorial program. The findings were compared to Dr. Gloria J. Hill's dissertation study (2005), "What Motivational Factors Influence…

  3. Lifestyle risk factors in an urban South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCD Wright

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The research question addressed in the study was to determine the prevalence of the following lifestyle risk factors: obesity, waist-hip ratio, physical inactivity, high blood glucose, and hypertension in an urban community. The research objective for the study was to determine the prevalence of specific risk factors in an urban community. Based on the results, a health intervention could be planned and implemented to reduce the prevalence of the risk factors and the possibility of chronic noncommunicable diseases in later life. The design was a quantitative survey using physical measurement and a structured questionnaire. The target population of the study was black urban adults (n=218. The sampling method was convenient and purposive. The results of the study indicated that the prevalence of hypertension and obesity were higher than the national prevalence for South Africa. The waist-hip ratio revealed that 20% of the men and 49.7% of the women were at risk for cardiovascular disease. High blood glucose levels were demonstrated for 21.6% of the group. Physical activity was also shown to be inadequate. In conclusion, the potential for cardiovascular and metabolic health problems in future is high. It is recommended that an intervention, based on the results of the study, should and must be developed and implemented. The more challenging question is to know what to do and how to do it. A framework is suggested to guide the development of an intervention.

  4. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  5. The influence of urban literature on African-American adolescent girls' sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-07-01

    Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.

  6. Influence Strategies in South African Wine Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Ewert

    2015-11-01

    Drawing on a number of detailed case studies, in this paper we investigate this conclusion in more depth. By doing so, we try to explain which paths South African producer cellars have or have not chosen, and why. As global value chain theory posits that the governance structure of value chains are of crucial importance, we will pay particular interest to the design of the chains as a success factor.

  7. STEM Outreach to the African Canadian Community - The Imhotep Legacy Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Like the African American community in the US, the African Canadian community is underrepresented in the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields. To serve these communities two outreach organizations emerged in Canadian cities where there is a critical mass of learners of African Descent - Toronto and Halifax. I will describe the Imhotep's Legacy Academy, which began in the Physics labs of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia and has grown to a province-wide program serving three-quarters of the school boards in the province with an annual budget that has grown to 400,000 in 2011-12. It follows the learner from the time they enter grade 7 to the time they graduate from university, through three programs: (a) Weekly After-School science enrichment for junior high learners, (b) Virtual High school tutoring program and (c) Summer student internships and research scholarships for post-secondary students. This year, the program was the beneficiary of funding from TD Bank to establish scholarships for program participants to enter Dalhousie university. Modeled on the Meyerhoff scholarships the program participants are identified at an early stage and are promised a subset of funding as they meet selected criteria during participation in the program. The program enjoys support from the Department of Education and the highest levels of government. A tri-mentoring system exists where faculty of African descent train mentors, who are science students of African descent at associated universities, to deliver hands-on enrichment activities to learners of African Descent. Evidence supporting the success of the program will be highlighted. Project outcomes measured include (i) recruitment; (ii) attendance; (iii) stakeholder relationships; (iv) programming; (v) staff training; (vi) perception of ILASP's value; (vii) academic performance. The end results are new lessons and best practices that are incorporated into a strategic plan for the new project

  8. Faculty of health sciences, walter sisulu university: training doctors from and for rural South african communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iputo, Jehu E

    2008-10-01

    Introduction The South African health system has disturbing inequalities, namely few black doctors, a wide divide between urban and rural sectors, and also between private and public services. Most medical training programs in the country consider only applicants with higher-grade preparation in mathematics and physical science, while most secondary schools in black communities have limited capacity to teach these subjects and offer them at standard grade level. The Faculty of Health Sciences at Walter Sisulu University (WSU) was established in 1985 to help address these inequities and to produce physicians capable of providing quality health care in rural South African communities. Intervention Access to the physician training program was broadened by admitting students who obtained at least Grade C (60%) in mathematics and physical science at standard grade, and who demonstrated appropriate personal attributes. An innovative curriculum, combining problem-based learning with community-based education (PBL/CBE) in small tutorial group settings, was also adopted. This approach was aimed at educating and graduating a broader cohort of students, while training future doctors to identify, analyze, and treat health problems in the rural South African context. Outcomes To date, 745 doctors (72% black Africans) have graduated from the program, and 511 students (83% black Africans) are currently enrolled. After the PBL/CBE curriculum was adopted, the attrition rate for black students dropped from 23% to 80%, and the proportion of students graduating within the minimum period rose from 55% to >70%. Many graduates are still completing internships or post-graduate training, but preliminary research shows that 36% percent of graduates practice in small towns and rural settings. Further research is underway to evaluate the impact of their training on health services in rural Eastern Cape Province and elsewhere in South Africa. Conclusions The WSU program increased access to

  9. No Safe Havens: Protective Parenting Strategies for African American Youth Living in Violent Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter; Berringer, Kathryn; Takahashi, Lois; Burr, Sean; Kuhnen, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Africans American youth experience disproportionately high rates of exposure to community violence. Such exposures are associated with a myriad of physical and mental health challenges. However, few qualitative studies have examined the ways in which parental figures have attempted to manage youth exposure to violence. This study recruited 4 focus groups composed of the parents of African American youth (n = 54). Participants reported that (a) there were no safe places immune from community violence, (b) there were no populations or subgroups protected from community violence, and (c) strategies to manage exposure to violence were often defined by the gender of the child. Although common protective parental strategies included mixed benefits, they ranged from "sheltering" (keeping children off the streets), "chauffeuring" (transporting or accompanying children to and from places), "removal" (enrolling children in schools outside of the neighborhood), and attempting "to rebuild the village." However, several of these strategies had constraints including money, time, and child maturation. Based on these findings, we offer research, policy, and practice implications in response to community violence exposure among this population.

  10. Descriptive analysis of individual and community factors among African American youths in urban public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von E; Williams, James Herbert; Lombe, Margaret; McCoy, Henrika; Stephens, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    African American adolescents are disproportionately represented in urban public housing developments. These neighborhoods are generally characterized by high rates of poverty, crime, violence, and disorganization. Although evidence is emerging on youths in these communities, little is known about their depressive symptoms, perceived efficacy, or frequency of substance use and sex-risk behavior. Further, even less is known about their exposure to community and household violence, their parents' behavior, or their sense of connection to their communities. Using a sample of 782 African American adolescents living in public housing neighborhoods located in four large U.S. cities, this article attempts to rectify the observed gap in knowledge by presenting a descriptive overview of their self-reported depressive symptoms; self-efficacy; frequencies of delinquent and sexual-risk behavior; and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. The self-reported ratings of their parents' behavior as well as their exposure to community and household violence are presented. Analytic procedures include descriptive statistics and mean comparisons between genders and across research cities. Results suggest several differences between genders and across research sites. However, results are not very different from national data. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  11. Engaging black sub-Saharan African communities and their gatekeepers in HIV prevention programs: Challenges and strategies from England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Nyashanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HIV infection is a sensitive issue in black communities [Serrant-Green L. Black Caribbean men, sexual health decisions and silences. Doctoral thesis. Nottingham School of Nursing, University of Nottingham; 2004]. Statistics show black sub-Saharan African (BSSA communities disproportionately constitute two-thirds of people with HIV [Heath Protection Agency. Health protection report: latest infection reports-GOV.UK; 2013]. African communities constitute 30% of people accessing HIV treatment in the United Kingdom yet represent less than 1% of the population [Health Protection Agency. HIV in the United Kingdom: 2012 report; 2012], [Department of Health. DVD about FGM. 2012. Available from fgm@dh.gsi.gov.uk.]. This article explores the sociocultural challenges in engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs in England and possible strategies to improve their involvement. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions and 24 semistructured interviews were conducted in a 2-year period with participants from the BSSA communities and sexual health services in the West Midlands, England. The research was supported by the Ubuntu scheme, a sexual health initiative working with African communities in Birmingham, England. Results: Ineffective engagement with African communities can hinder the effectiveness of HIV prevention programs. Skills and strategies sensitive to BSSA culture are important for successful implementation of prevention programs. HIV prevention programs face challenges including stigma, denial, and marginalized views within BSSA communities. Conclusion: Networking, coordination, and cultural sensitivity training for health professionals are key strategies for engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs.

  12. Conceptualizing community mobilization for HIV prevention: implications for HIV prevention programming in the African context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri A Lippman

    Full Text Available Community mobilizing strategies are essential to health promotion and uptake of HIV prevention. However, there has been little conceptual work conducted to establish the core components of community mobilization, which are needed to guide HIV prevention programming and evaluation.We aimed to identify the key domains of community mobilization (CM essential to change health outcomes or behaviors, and to determine whether these hypothesized CM domains were relevant to a rural South African setting.We studied social movements and community capacity, empowerment and development literatures, assessing common elements needed to operationalize HIV programs at a community level. After synthesizing these elements into six essential CM domains, we explored the salience of these CM domains qualitatively, through analysis of 10 key informant in-depth-interviews and seven focus groups in three villages in Bushbuckridge.CM DOMAINS INCLUDE: 1 shared concerns, 2 critical consciousness, 3 organizational structures/networks, 4 leadership (individual and/or institutional, 5 collective activities/actions, and 6 social cohesion. Qualitative data indicated that the proposed domains tapped into theoretically consistent constructs comprising aspects of CM processes. Some domains, extracted from largely Western theory, required little adaptation for the South African context; others translated less effortlessly. For example, critical consciousness to collectively question and resolve community challenges functioned as expected. However, organizations/networks, while essential, operated differently than originally hypothesized - not through formal organizations, but through diffuse family networks.To date, few community mobilizing efforts in HIV prevention have clearly defined the meaning and domains of CM prior to intervention design. We distilled six CM domains from the literature; all were pertinent to mobilization in rural South Africa. While some adaptation of

  13. Collective Memory: The African Presence in Latin America. A Study Guide on the Maroon Community of Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, Allen; And Others

    In this brief study guide, the focus is on the "maroons," those Africans who bravely threw off the chains of slavery and established independent communities within colonial Latin America. The specific study is of the history and culture of Esmeraldas, a province in northwestern Ecuador and home to one of the most interesting maroon communities,…

  14. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems.

  15. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starla Hairston Blanks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW. Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW- led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW.

  16. Factors that Influence Career Choice among Native American and African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Smith, Keisha K.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for research in the area of career choice of minority students in the United States. This descriptive study examined the factors that may influence Native American and African American high school students' career choices. These factors include such variables as parental educational level, family composition, and potential grade…

  17. African American Career Aspirations: Examining the Relative Influence of Internalized Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danice L.; Segrist, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relative influence of aspects of internalized racism on the career aspirations of a sample of African American adults. Participants (N = 315), ranging in age from 18 to 62 years, completed measures of internalized racism and career aspirations online. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to…

  18. Influence of Perceived Contextual Stress on Self-Esteem and Academic Outcomes in African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael; Hurley, Megan; Foney, Dana; Hayes, DeMarquis

    2002-01-01

    Studied factors that influence academic success among 84 high-achieving African American students exposed to many stressful life events often associated with life in urban neighborhoods. Results show that adolescent-perceived hassles were indications of parental monitoring, and parental monitoring was positively related to self-esteem. Discusses…

  19. The influence of African air pollution on regional and global tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aghedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of African biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions on the tropospheric ozone over Africa and globally using a coupled global chemistry climate model. Our model studies indicate that surface ozone concentration may rise by up to 50 ppbv in the burning region during the biomass burning seasons. Biogenic emissions yield between 5–30 ppbv increase in the near surface ozone concentration over tropical Africa. The impact of lightning on surface ozone is negligible, while anthropogenic emissions yield a maximum of 7 ppbv increase in the annual-mean surface ozone concentration over Nigeria, South Africa and Egypt. Our results show that biogenic emissions are the most important African emission source affecting total tropospheric ozone. The influence of each of the African emissions on the global tropospheric ozone burden (TOB of 384 Tg yields about 9.5 Tg, 19.6 Tg, 9.0 Tg and 4.7 Tg for biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions emitted in Africa respectively. The impact of each of these emission categories on African TOB of 33 Tg is 2.5 Tg, 4.1 Tg, 1.75 Tg and 0.89 Tg respectively, which together represents about 28% of the total TOB calculated over Africa. Our model calculations also suggest that more than 70% of the tropospheric ozone produced by each of the African emissions is found outside the continent, thus exerting a noticeable influence on a large part of the tropical troposphere. Apart from the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, Latin America experiences the largest impact of African emissions, followed by Oceania, the Middle East, Southeast and south-central Asia, northern North America (i.e. the United States and Canada, Europe and north-central Asia, for all the emission categories.

  20. Influence of Inter-Community Link Strength on Community Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qian-Jin; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2013-09-01

    This paper mainly discusses how the strength of inter-community links affects the synchronization state of the whole network and the individual community. It is found, when the inter-community link number is neither too small nor too large and the overall coupling strength takes right values, there will be an optimal inter-community link strength value, in which the community networks are in a balance region where the individual community is maximally independent, while the information transmission remains effective among different communities. Combining the result of this paper and that of the number of inter-community links, it is easy to help us find the most effective community networks.

  1. The influence of life history milestones and association networks on crop-raiding behavior in male African elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick I Chiyo

    Full Text Available Factors that influence learning and the spread of behavior in wild animal populations are important for understanding species responses to changing environments and for species conservation. In populations of wildlife species that come into conflict with humans by raiding cultivated crops, simple models of exposure of individual animals to crops do not entirely explain the prevalence of crop raiding behavior. We investigated the influence of life history milestones using age and association patterns on the probability of being a crop raider among wild free ranging male African elephants; we focused on males because female elephants are not known to raid crops in our study population. We examined several features of an elephant association network; network density, community structure and association based on age similarity since they are known to influence the spread of behaviors in a population. We found that older males were more likely to be raiders than younger males, that males were more likely to be raiders when their closest associates were also raiders, and that males were more likely to be raiders when their second closest associates were raiders older than them. The male association network had sparse associations, a tendency for individuals similar in age and raiding status to associate, and a strong community structure. However, raiders were randomly distributed between communities. These features of the elephant association network may limit the spread of raiding behavior and likely determine the prevalence of raiding behavior in elephant populations. Our results suggest that social learning has a major influence on the acquisition of raiding behavior in younger males whereas life history factors are important drivers of raiding behavior in older males. Further, both life-history and network patterns may influence the acquisition and spread of complex behaviors in animal populations and provide insight on managing human

  2. The influence of life history milestones and association networks on crop-raiding behavior in male African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyo, Patrick I; Moss, Cynthia J; Alberts, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    Factors that influence learning and the spread of behavior in wild animal populations are important for understanding species responses to changing environments and for species conservation. In populations of wildlife species that come into conflict with humans by raiding cultivated crops, simple models of exposure of individual animals to crops do not entirely explain the prevalence of crop raiding behavior. We investigated the influence of life history milestones using age and association patterns on the probability of being a crop raider among wild free ranging male African elephants; we focused on males because female elephants are not known to raid crops in our study population. We examined several features of an elephant association network; network density, community structure and association based on age similarity since they are known to influence the spread of behaviors in a population. We found that older males were more likely to be raiders than younger males, that males were more likely to be raiders when their closest associates were also raiders, and that males were more likely to be raiders when their second closest associates were raiders older than them. The male association network had sparse associations, a tendency for individuals similar in age and raiding status to associate, and a strong community structure. However, raiders were randomly distributed between communities. These features of the elephant association network may limit the spread of raiding behavior and likely determine the prevalence of raiding behavior in elephant populations. Our results suggest that social learning has a major influence on the acquisition of raiding behavior in younger males whereas life history factors are important drivers of raiding behavior in older males. Further, both life-history and network patterns may influence the acquisition and spread of complex behaviors in animal populations and provide insight on managing human-wildlife conflict.

  3. Spirituality in Leadership: How Male African American Leaders in Higher Education Perceive the Influence of Spirituality in Their Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Dale S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how male African American leaders in higher education perceive the influence of spirituality on their leadership decision making. This phenomenological study provided the opportunity for seven male African American leaders in higher education to explain in their own words how they perceive the…

  4. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  5. Assessing Vitamin D Status in African Americans and the Influence of Vitamin D on Skeletal Health Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Albert; Aloia, John F

    2017-03-01

    In the United States, there is a significant disparity in vitamin D status among individuals of African versus European descent. Despite having lower total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels compared with white Americans, African Americans have higher bone mineral density and lower fracture risk. This article reviews classical and nonclassical vitamin D physiology, describes whether total versus free 25-hydroxyvitamin D is a better marker of vitamin D status in African Americans, and summarizes the influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D supplementation on markers of vitamin D bioactivity (intestinal calcium absorption, parathyroid hormone secretion, bone mineral density, fracture) in African Americans.

  6. Influence of Reading Ability on Neuropsychological Performance in African American Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brooke C.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Use of normative data stratified by education may result in misclassification of African American older adults because reading ability, an estimate of educational attainment, is lower than reported years of education for some African American elders. This study examined the contribution of reading ability versus education to neuropsychological test performance in 86 community-dwelling African American elders ages 56–91 with 8–18 years of education. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that reading ability, but not education, was significantly associated with performances on the Trail Making Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Animal Naming, Digit Span, and the Stroop test. Reading ability was not significantly related to performances on measures of memory. Medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.58–1.41) were found when comparing mean performances on neuropsychological measures in groups with low versus high reading scores. Results indicate that reading ability contributes beyond educational attainment to performances on some neuropsychological measures among African American elders. These findings have implications for reducing misclassification among minority populations through the use of appropriate normative data. PMID:21835850

  7. Advancing understanding of the sustainability of lay health advisor (LHA) programs for African-American women in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Charles, Thana-Ashley; Dunston, Sheba King; Jandorf, Lina; Erwin, Deborah O

    2017-03-23

    Lay health advisor (LHA) programs have made strong contributions towards the elimination of health disparities and are increasingly being implemented to promote health and prevent disease. Developed in collaboration with African-American survivors, the National Witness Project (NWP) is an evidence-based, community-led LHA program that improves cancer screening among African-American women. NWP has been successfully disseminated, replicated, and implemented nationally in over 40 sites in 22 states in diverse community settings, reaching over 15,000 women annually. We sought to advance understanding of barriers and facilitators to the long-term implementation and sustainability of LHA programs in community settings from the viewpoint of the LHAs, as well as the broader impact of the program on African-American communities and LHAs. In the context of a mixed-methods study, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted among 76 African-American LHAs at eight NWP sites at baseline and 12-18 months later, between 2010 and 2013. Qualitative data provides insight into inner and outer contextual factors (e.g., community partnerships, site leadership, funding), implementation processes (e.g., training), as well as characteristics of the intervention (e.g., perceived need and fit in African-American community) and LHAs (e.g., motivations, burnout) that are perceived to impact the continued implementation and sustainability of NWP. Factors at the contextual levels and related to motivations of LHAs are critical to the sustainability of LHA programs. We discuss how findings are used to inform (1) the development of the LHA Sustainability Framework and (2) strategies to support the continued implementation and sustainability of evidence-based LHA interventions in community settings.

  8. Ethnic identities, social capital and health inequalities: factors shaping African-Caribbean participation in local community networks in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; McLean, Carl

    2002-08-01

    This paper examines the impact of ethnic identity on the likelihood of peoples' participation in local community networks, in the context of recent policy emphasis on the participation of marginalised communities in such networks as a means of reducing health inequalities. Conceptually, the paper is located against the background of debates about possible links between health and social capital--defined in terms of grassroots participation in local community networks--and an interest in the way in which social exclusion impacts on social capital. The paper draws on lengthy semi-structured, open-ended interviews with 25 African-Caribbean residents of a deprived multi-ethnic area of a south England town. While African-Caribbean identity played a central role in peoples' participation in inter-personal networks, this inter-personal solidarity did not serve to unite people at the local community level beyond particular face-to-face networks. Levels of participation in voluntary organisations and community activist networks were low. Informants regarded this lack of African-Caribbean unity within the local community as a problem, saying that it placed African-Caribbean people at a distinct disadvantage--furthering their social exclusion through limiting their access to various local community resources. The paper examines the way in which the construction of ethnic identities--within a context of institutionalised racism at both the material and symbolic levels--makes it unlikely that people will view local community organisations or networks as representative of their interests or needs, or be motivated to participate in them. Our findings highlight the limitations of policies which simply call for increased community participation by socially excluded groups, in the absence of specific measures to address the obstacles that stand in the way of such participation.

  9. Factors influencing customer retention, satisfaction and loyalty in the South African banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Craucamp, Frederik Willem

    2012-01-01

    Customer retention, loyalty and satisfaction are extremely important elements in any company’s strategy, especially in the highly competitive South African banking industry. Understanding the various factors that could influence these constructs is therefore critical to organizational success. Several studies showed the impact of these measures on profitability and shareholder value, but there has been little effort to access the factors that might lead to higher levels of retention, loyal...

  10. Internet’s influence on the marketing activities of South African companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsty-Lee Sharp; Ayesha Lian Bevan-Dye; Natasha De Klerk

    2013-01-01

    Although research studies regarding the Internet’s impact on marketing conducted in the past in different countries and at different times produced quite similar trends in responses, advances in Internet technologies and the increased Internet usage necessitated reinvestigating marketers’ perceptions as to the changes in marketing practices brought about by the Internet. This study sought to determine the South African marketing practitioners’ perceptions of the Internet’s influence on the pr...

  11. Human Rights in the Context of Deepening Integration of East African Community (EAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard MUKO OCHANDA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to the discourse on the process of political integration by studying East African Community (EAC’s integration efforts in the light of Human Rights Based Approach (HBRA. Data used has been assembled from various sources such as media reports, EAC documents and country statistical reports from various institutions such as bureaus of statistics, UNDP, UNAIDS, World Bank, Freedom House and Transparency International. This study has been on-going from 2008 to 2012. The study found that various structures have been created to aid the deepening integration efforts in East Africa. With the exception of human rights, the EAC treaty stipulates eleven areas of collaboration. It was also found that Tanzania scores better than other countries on political and civil liberties, while Human Welfare Indicators were a challenge in the entire EAC. The Gini index scores were high and worsening in some countries over time, indicating the presence of distributive injustices.Other areas of concern comprised media control, gender based challenges, harassment of opposition and poor protection of minorities and vulnerable populations. Four countries of the region are part of the Africa Peer Review Mechanism (APRMprocess. The APRM as a process is meant to promote good governance and presents an opportunity for bettering human rights in the region.The study ends by recommending the mainstreaming of Human Rights Based Approach (HBRA through the formation of East African Human Rights Commission (EAHRC within EAC structures.

  12. Conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and HIV risk in five East African communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duby, Zoe; Colvin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual anal sex is underresearched and little understood, particularly in the African context. Existing prevalence data indicate that heterosexual anal sex is a widespread practice, yet little is known about the way in which it is conceptualized and understood. Describing findings from qualitative research conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, we shed light on conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and its relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These findings suggest that penile-anal sex is practiced by men and women in Africa for a range of reasons, including virginity maintenance, contraception, fulfillment of male pleasure, relationship security, menstruation, in the presence of vaginal complications, financial gain, fidelity, and prestige. Despite anal sex being the most efficient way to transmit HIV sexually, there is widespread lack of knowledge about its risks. These findings describe the ways in which anal sex is conceptualized in five East African communities, highlighting how penile-anal intercourse is often not considered "sex" and how the omission of anal sex in safe-sex messaging is interpreted as meaning that anal sex is safe. In light of its frequency and risks, greater attention must be paid to heterosexual anal sex in Africa to ensure a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.

  13. Accentuating River Border Conflicts and Water Privatization:The Southern African Development Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Essawi, Mohammed H. K.; Ntuli, Elijah M.

    The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an international organization that has been in existence since 1980. Previously known as the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), its primary aim was to coordinate development projects in order to lessen economic dependence on the then apartheid South Africa. Over the years, the coordination of such developmental projects has increasingly demanded a collective utilization of resources, such as energy, health and water sectors, among others. However, national boarders have also been pivotal in not only conflict management aspects, but also as protocolly agreed-upon component defining SADC`s contemporary international relations and legal regime. In the context of the accessibility and insufficiency of resources, our findings show that water as a resource has not only sparked inter-boarder issues, but also internal resistance from non-governmental organizations and major labor organizations in the SADC region. Policy formulation and implementation (under the international law umbrella) remain a greatest challenge in addressing the pressing issues of water privatization through political means.

  14. Collective Memory: The African Presence in Latin America. A Study Guide on the Maroon Community of Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, Allen; And Others

    In this brief study guide, the focus is on the "maroons," those Africans who bravely threw off the chains of slavery and established independent communities within colonial Latin America. The specific study is of the history and culture of Esmeraldas, a province in northwestern Ecuador and home to one of the most interesting maroon…

  15. Good Governance and Foreign Direct Investment : A Legal Contribution to a Balanced Economic Development in the East African Community (EAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbembe, Binda

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of the East African Community (EAC) is the promotion of a balanced economic development between its Partner States: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. And one of the ways to reach this economic development is the attraction of investment, especially Foreign Direct In

  16. Turning the Tide: Creating Professional Learning Communities (PLC) to Improve Teaching Practice and Learning in South African Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Poor learner performance in South African schools raises concerns related to lack of commitment and accountability from school leaders and teachers with no common vision to promote a culture of high learner performance. This paper provides a literature overview of research available on the impact of professional learning communities (PLC) on…

  17. Beliefs Contributing to HIV-related Stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean Communities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutterheim, S.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Kesteren, N.M.C. van; Shiripinda, I.; Pryor, J.B.; Bruin, M. de; Schaalma, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the first diagnosis, people living with HIV (PLWH) around the world continue to report stigmatizing experiences. In this study, beliefs contributing to HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities and their cultural context were explored through semi-struc

  18. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Debra J.; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Riley, Natasha E.; Behar, Alma I.; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was…

  19. Male ancestry structure and interethnic admixture in African-descent communities from the Amazon as revealed by Y-chromosome Strs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palha, Teresinha de Jesus Brabo Ferreira; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea; Guerreiro, João Farias; de Moura, Luciene Soraya Souza; Santos, Sidney

    2011-03-01

    Some genetic markers on both the Y chromosome and mtDNA are highly polymorphic and population-specific in humans, representing useful tools for reconstructing the past history of populations with poor historical records. Such lack of information is usually true in the case of recent African-descent populations of the New World founded by fugitive slaves throughout the slavery period in the Americas, particularly in Brazil, where those communities are known as quilombos. Aiming to recover male-derived ethnic structure of nine quilombos from the Brazilian Amazon, a total of 300 individuals, belonging to Mazagão Velho (N = 24), Curiaú (N = 48), Mazagão (N = 36), Trombetas (N = 20), Itacoã (N = 22), Saracura (N = 46), Marajó (N = 58), Pitimandeua (N = 26), and Pontal (N = 20), were investigated for nine Y-STRs (DYS393, DYS19, DYS390, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS392, DYS391, DYS385 I/II). From the 169 distinct haplotypes obtained, 120 were singletons. The results suggest the West African coast as the main origin of slaves brought to Brazil (54% of male contribution); the European contribution was high (41%), while the Amerindian's was low (5%). Those results contrast with previous mtDNA data that showed high Amerindian female contribution (46.6%) in African-descent populations. AMOVA suggests that the genetic differentiation among the quilombos is mainly influenced by admixture with European. However, when restricting AMOVA to African-specific haplotypes, low differentiation was detected, suggesting great genetic homogeneity of the African founding populations and/or a later homogenization by intense slave trade inside Brazil.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward breast cancer screening in a rural South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and breast cancer screening practices amongst women aged 30–65 years residing in a rural South African community.Method: A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design was used and a systematic sampling technique was employed to select 150 participants. The questionnaire was pretested for validity and consistency. Ethical considerations were adhered to in protecting the rights of participants. Thereafter, data were collected and analysed descriptively using the Predictive Analytics Software program.Results: Findings revealed that the level of knowledge about breast cancer of women in Makwarani Community was relatively low. The attitude toward breast cancer was negative whereas the majority of women had never performed breast cancer diagnostic methods.Conclusion: Health education on breast cancer screening practices is lacking and the knowledge deficit can contribute negatively to early detection of breast cancer and compound late detection. Based on the findings, community-based intervention was recommended in order to bridge the knowledge gap

  1. Father participation in a community-doula home-visiting intervention with young, African American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, Matthew J; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Korfmacher, Jon; Humphries, Marisha L; Bellamy, Jennifer; Henson, Linda; Hans, Sydney

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the extent and nature of father participation in a perinatal, community-based doula home-visiting intervention that served young, African American mothers from low-income backgrounds and their infants. Home-visitor service records were used to assess the quantity, setting, and content of father-attended visits. Correlates of fathers' participation and thematic insights from mothers' and home-visitors' perspectives on how fathers perceived and interacted with the home-visiting program were analyzed to further characterize the nature of father participation. Although the community-doula home-visiting model does not include special outreach to increase father participation, almost half of the mothers had a doula visit at which their baby's father was present, many of which took place in medical settings. Mothers and doulas reported that fathers were generally positive about the doula, but expressed that fathers viewed the doula as a substitute provider of support that fathers seemed reticent to provide themselves. These results suggest that community doulas who visit pre- and postpartum in multiple settings have unique opportunities to have contact with fathers that traditional home visitors or early childhood specialists may not have.

  2. Treatment of Diarrhoea in Rural African Communities: An Overview of Measures to Maximise the Medicinal Potentials of Indigenous Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rural communities in Africa, particularly in children under the age of five. This calls for the development of cost effective alternative strategies such as the use of herbal drugs in the treatment of diarrhoea in these communities. Expenses associated with the use of orthodox medicines have generated renewed interest and reliance on indigenous medicinal plants in the treatment and management of diarrhoeal infections in rural communities. The properties of many phenolic constituents of medicinal plants such as their ability to inhibit enteropooling and delay gastrointestinal transit are very useful in the control of diarrhoea, but problems such as scarcity of valuable medicinal plants, lack of standardization of methods of preparation, poor storage conditions and incertitude in some traditional health practitioners are issues that affect the efficacy and the practice of traditional medicine in rural African communities. This review appraises the current strategies used in the treatment of diarrhoea according to the Western orthodox and indigenous African health-care systems and points out major areas that could be targeted by health-promotion efforts as a means to improve management and alleviate suffering associated with diarrhoea in rural areas of the developing world. Community education and research with indigenous knowledge holders on ways to maximise the medicinal potentials in indigenous plants could improve diarrhoea management in African rural communities.

  3. The meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean, and the influence of the East African Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingo, Julia; Spencer, Hilary; Hoskins, Brian; Berrisford, Paul; Black, Emily

    2005-01-15

    This paper reviews the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean and uses a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model to investigate the influence of the East African Highlands on the climate of the Indian Ocean and its surrounding regions. The new 44-year re-analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has been used to construct a new climatology of the Western Indian Ocean. A brief overview of the seasonal cycle of the Western Indian Ocean is presented which emphasizes the importance of the geography of the Indian Ocean basin for controlling the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean. The principal modes of inter-annual variability are described, associated with El Nino and the Indian Ocean Dipole or Zonal Mode, and the basic characteristics of the subseasonal weather over the Western Indian Ocean are presented, including new statistics on cyclone tracks derived from the ECMWF re-analyses. Sensitivity experiments, in which the orographic effects of East Africa are removed, have shown that the East African Highlands, although not very high, play a significant role in the climate of Africa, India and Southeast Asia, and in the heat, salinity and momentum forcing of the Western Indian Ocean. The hydrological cycle over Africa is systematically enhanced in all seasons by the presence of the East African Highlands, and during the Asian summer monsoon there is a major redistribution of the rainfall across India and Southeast Asia. The implied impact of the East African Highlands on the ocean is substantial. The East African Highlands systematically freshen the tropical Indian Ocean, and act to focus the monsoon winds along the coast, leading to greater upwelling and cooler sea-surface temperatures.

  4. Factors influencing the preparation, support and training of South African expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Vogel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine if the independent variables; location of an international assignment, the age of an expatriate, the duration of an assignment and the management level of an expatriate, influence the preparation, support and training that they require for an international assignment. Design/Methodology/Approach: This formal, empirical study was undertaken using an electronic questionnaire that was distributed to expatriates who were on an international assignment. Expatriates who were on an international assignment were thought to be in the best position to respond to their preparation, support and training needs. Findings: The research found that the preparation, support and training required by South African expatriates are not influenced by the location of an international assignment, the age of the expatriate, the duration of an international assignment or the management level of the expatriate. Implications: The findings highlight the fact that human resource managers of South African multinational enterprises should provide all their expatriates with the same preparation, support and training, as well as identifies five requirements that should be included in all South African expatriate policies.

  5. Change and Variation in Family Religious Language Policy in a West African Muslim Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Leslie C.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines variation in family religious language policy in a Muslim community in West Africa. Taking an ethnographically grounded case study approach, I situate families' choices with regards to their children's religious (language) education within the larger linguistic, social, and cultural context, focusing on new influences on…

  6. The influences and experiences of African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockus, Linda Helen

    The purpose of this study is to describe and explore some of the social and academic experiences of successful African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities with the expectation of conceptualizing emerging patterns for future study. The study surveyed 80 upperclass African Americans at 11 public research universities about their perceptions of the influences that affect their educational experiences and career interests in science. The mailed survey included the Persistence/ voluntary Dropout Decision Scale, the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale. A variety of potential influences were considered including family background, career goals, psychosocial development, academic and social connections with the university, faculty relationships, environmental fit, retention factors, validation, participation in mentored research projects and other experiences. The students' sources of influences, opportunities for connection, and cultural values were considered in the context of a research university environment and investigated for emerging themes and direction for future research. Results indicate that performance in coursework appears to be the most salient factor in African American students' experience as science majors. The mean college gpa was 3.01 for students in this study. Challenging content, time demands, study habits and concern with poor grades all serve to discourage students; however, for most of the students in this study, it has not dissuaded them from their educational and career plans. Positive course performance provided encouragement. Science faculty provide less influence than family members, and more students find faculty members discouraging than supportive. Measures of faculty relations were not associated with academic success. No evidence was provided to confirm the disadvantages of being female in a scientific discipline. Students were concerned with lack of minority role models

  7. Stable isotope evidence for trophic niche partitioning in a South African savanna rodent community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacqueline CODRON; Kevin J DUFFY; Nico L AVENANT; Matt SPONHEIMER; Jennifer LEICHLITER; Oliver PAINE; Paul SANDBERG; Daryl CODRON

    2015-01-01

    Species’ partitioning of resources remains one of the most integral components for understanding community assem-bly. Analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in animal tissues has the potential to help resolve patterns of partitioning be-cause these proxies represent the individual’s diet and trophic niche, respectively. Using free-ranging rodents in a southern Afri-can savanna as a model community, we find that syntopic species within habitats occupy distinct isotope niches. Moreover, spe-cies with strongly overlapping isotope niches did not overlap in their spatial distribution patterns, suggesting an underlying effect of competitive exclusion. Niche conservatism appears to characterize the behaviour of most species in our sample – with little or no observed changes across habitats – with the exception of one species,Mastomys coucha. This species displayed a generalist distribution, being found in similar abundances across a variety of habitats. This spatial pattern was coupled with a generalist isotope niche that shifted across habitats, likely in response to changes in species composition over the same spatial gradient. The case forM. coucha supports contentions that past competition effects played a significant evolutionary role in shaping community structures of today, including the absence of strong interspecific niche overlaps within particular habitats. Our study highlights the value of stable isotope approaches to help resolve key questions in community ecology, and moreover introduces novel ana-lytical approaches to quantifying isotope niche breadths and niche overlaps that are easily comparable with traditional metrices [Current Zoology 61 (3): 397–441, 2015].

  8. Influence of community structure on the synchronization of power network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Xin; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the synchronizability of power network with community structure. Second-order Kuramoto-like oscillators with dissimilar natural frequencies are used as a coarse-scale model for an electrical power network that contains generators and consumers. The impact of community structure on frequency synchronization of power network is investigated, focusing on the parameters such as community strength, community number and connection strategy between communities. Numerical simulations show that increasing the community strength above a certain critical threshold or adding new communities to the network will be beneficial for the synchronization. Of course, connecting high-degree nodes among communities will be a best strategy to enhance synchronization. Furthermore, it is observed that the synchronizability of the network is significantly influenced by adding new links with different characteristics.

  9. A Political Analysis of Community Influence over School Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, Kara S.; Lavner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to understand community member participation in and influence over an urban school district's school closure process. Data from interviews with School Board members, district administrators, and community members, as well as district documents and newspaper articles suggest that district administrators limited participation…

  10. Factors influencing citizen participation in community management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.

  11. Black African and Caribbean British Communities' Perceptions of Memory Problems: "We Don't Do Dementia.".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharne Berwald

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify and explore the barriers to help-seeking for memory problems, specifically within UK Black African and Caribbean communities.We purposively recruited participants from community groups and subsequent snowball sampling, to achieve a maximum variation sample and employed thematic analysis. Our qualitative semi-structured interviews used a vignette portraying a person with symptoms of dementia, and we asked what they or their family should do. We stopped recruiting when no new themes were arising.We recruited 50 people from a range of age groups, country of origin, time in the UK, religion and socio-economic background. Some of the barriers to presentation with dementia have been reported before, but others were specific to this group and newly identified. Many people recognised forgetfulness but neither that it could be indicative of dementia, nor the concept of dementia as applying to them. Dementia was viewed as a white person's illness. Participants felt there was little point in consulting a doctor for forgetfulness. Many thought that seeing a GP was only for severe problems. Some said that their culture was secretive and highly valued privacy of personal affairs and therefore did not want to discuss what they regarded as a private and stigmatising problem with a GP. Participants did not appreciate their GP could refer to memory services who have more time and expertise. They were concerned about harm from medication and compulsory institutionalisation. Care should be from the family. Any intervention should emphasise the legitimacy of seeing a doctor early for memory concerns, that dementia is a physical illness which also occurs in the Black community, that help and time are available from memory services whose role is to prolong independence and support families in caring.

  12. Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases: report of the First International African Vaccinology Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    One means of improving healthcare workers' knowledge of and attitudes to vaccines is through running vaccine conferences which are accessible, affordable, and relevant to their everyday work. Various vaccinology conferences are held each year worldwide. These meetings focus heavily on basic science with much discussion about new developments in vaccines, and relatively little coverage of policy, advocacy, and communication issues. A negligible proportion of delegates at these conferences come from Africa, home to almost 40% of the global burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no major vaccinology conference has ever been held on the African continent apart from World Health Organization (WHO) meetings. The content of the first International African Vaccinology Conference was planned to be different; to focus on the science, with a major part of discussions being on clinical, programmatic, policy, and advocacy issues. The conference was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 8 to 11 November 2012. The theme of the conference was "Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases". There were more than 550 registered participants from 55 countries (including 37 African countries). There were nine pre-conference workshops, ten plenary sessions, and 150 oral and poster presentations. The conference discussed the challenges to universal immunisation in Africa as well as the promotion of dialogue and communication on immunisation among all stakeholders. There was general acknowledgment that giant strides have been made in Africa since the global launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in 1974. For example, there has been significant progress in introducing new and under-utilised vaccines; including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, meningococcal A conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines. In May 2012, African countries

  13. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: identifying interfering and facilitating sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D; Panos, Stella E; Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree A; Hinkin, Charles H; Arbid, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with higher neurocognitive performance. (b) African American participants would report higher levels of anxiety about negative performance evaluation than European Americans. (c) European Americans would report higher levels of anxiety unrelated to negative performance evaluation. The first two hypotheses were supported: Ethnic/racial differences in test-taking anxiety emerged such that African Americans reported significantly higher levels of negative performance evaluation, which was associated with lower cognitive performance. The third hypothesis was not supported: African Americans and European Americans reported similar levels of test-anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation.

  14. The influence of impaction on the rate of third molar mineralisation in male black Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olze, Andreas; van Niekerk, Piet; Schulz, Ronald; Ribbecke, Sebastian; Schmeling, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    One of the main criteria used in dental age diagnostics in living adolescents and young adults is assessment of the mineralisation stage of the third molars. In the case of Europid populations, it has been established that impaction status has an influence on the rate of mineralisation of the third molars. In view of this, a study was undertaken to determine whether the chronological process of wisdom tooth mineralisation is dependent upon impaction status in black Africans too. Orthopantomograms (553) of 437 male and 116 female black South Africans with verified birth dates in the age group between 10 and 26 years were studied. Mineralisation stage and impaction status were determined for all third molars. Statistical measures were calculated for the mandibular wisdom teeth at stages F, G and H and for the maxillary wisdom teeth at stage H in the male gender for both impacted and non-impacted third molars. It was ascertained that the minimum age in persons with impacted third molars, depending on the wisdom tooth observed, was 0.19-2.57 years higher than in those with non-impacted wisdom teeth. Test persons with impacted mandibular wisdom teeth at stage F or G were on average between 0.32 and 1.88 years older than those with non-impacted mandibular wisdom teeth. The 50 % probability values of impacted wisdom teeth at stage H were 1.85-3.31 years higher than those in non-impacted wisdom teeth. The conclusion was drawn that in male black Africans, impacted mandibular wisdom teeth mineralise more slowly than non-impacted lower third molars. The presence of impacted mandibular wisdom teeth in mineralisation stage H in male black Africans does not, however, furnish proof of completion of the 18(th) year of life beyond reasonable doubt.

  15. Influence of the Bologna Process on African higher education: Ethiopian higher education in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftu Hindeya Gebremeskel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking the Ethiopian public higher education as a case in point, this paper examined the influence of the Bologna Process on African higher education. It showed how the goals of the Process have been reflected on the current reforms undergoing in Ethiopian higher education. In doing so, relevant policy documents and national guidelines were reviewed taking the Bologna elements as a framework for discussion. Developments of partnership between the African and European Unions in higher education were also examined to see the influence of the Process at continental level in the foreseeable future. Though the process might have influence in other aspects of Ethiopian higher education, emphasis was given in this paper to elements reflected in academic curricula and teaching learning process. In this regard, elements such as modularization, European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS, Competence Based Education (CBE, flexibility of learning and recognition of prior learning were identified. Opportunities and challenges of implementing the spillover effects of the Process were also discussed.

  16. Discrepancies between self-reported years of education and estimated reading level among elderly community-dwelling African-Americans: Analysis of the MOAANS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryant, Sid E; Lucas, John A; Willis, Floyd B; Smith, Glenn E; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Ivnik, Robert J

    2007-03-01

    The influence of education on cognition has received a great deal of attention in the literature. Although there is general consensus regarding the importance of education on cognitive functioning, the extent to which self-reported level of education corresponds to true educational attainment remains unclear, especially in ethnic minority populations where equal access to education has not always been available. Several investigators have suggested that reading skill may serve as a quantitative estimate of true education experience. Among African-Americans, however, research has shown that self-reported educational level consistently over predicts estimated reading level. The current study analyzed the discrepancy between self-reported years of education completed and estimated reading level in a sample of community-dwelling, elderly African-Americans participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS) (Lucas, J.A., Ivnik, R.J., Willis, F.B., Ferman, T.J., Smith, G.E., Parfitt, F.C., Petersen, R.C., & Graff-Radford, N.R. (2005). Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: Normative data for commonly used clinical neuropsychological measures. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 19, 162-183). In this sample, 29% of the participants read at a level that was 3 or more years below what would be expected based on self-report of education attained. This study also sought to evaluate the extent to which this discrepancy fluctuated as a function of demographic variables such as location of schooling (urban, suburban, rural; North vs. South), parental education and literacy, and percentage of segregation in schooling. Implications of these results are discussed, as are areas for further inquiry.

  17. Elucidating biotic factors that influence assembly of fungal endophyte communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most plants harbor a diverse assemblage of non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes. These fungi can directly influence the host plant, and can instigate trophic cascades that affect surrounding communities of herbivores, plants, and animals. Despite this, biotic mechanisms that influence assembly of funga...

  18. Reflections and perspectives of African-American community leaders regarding genetics and genomics research: sentiment and wisdom of Sankofa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Sandra Millon; Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Townsend, Leolia; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2013-07-01

    Advances in genetic and genomic research are shifting the typical disease timeline. For those afflicted by disease and for population groups known to experience excess disease-related morbidity and mortality, the ability to use genetics and genomics to predict an individuals' predisposition for developing a disease and/or to anticipate an individual's response to treatments holds tremendous promise. Over the past two decades several public and private institutions within the United States have been established for the purpose of collecting and storing biological specimens for the purpose of conducting genetic/genomic research. Multiple reports indicate that the involvement of racial/ethnic minority participants in these bio-repositories is limited. Little is known about the willingness of African-Americans, one of the largest and most vulnerable racial/ethnic population groups, to participate in genetic research, genomic research, and to contribute biological specimens to bio-repositories. An exploratory study was undertaken using principles of community engagement and community-based participatory research to examine the perspectives of leaders within the African-American community about participation in genetics research, genomics research, and bio-banking. Semi-structured focus groups with twenty-one African-American community leaders were the primary means of gathering the study data. Reflections and commentary of the community leaders were interspersed with sentiments of "Sankofa." The emergent themes, health-related disparities, historical injustices in medical research, the promise of genetic and genomic research, and genetics/genomic research engagement, implicated the importance of conducting genetics/genomics research in the context of the community interdependent with efforts to address determinants of health and health disparities.

  19. Engaging an Urban African American Community to Deliver Cognitive Health Education to Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bail, Jennifer; Nolan, Timiya S; Vo, Jacqueline B; Gisiger-Camata, Silvia; Meneses, Karen

    2016-12-28

    Little is known about cognitive changes among African American (AA) breast cancer survivors (BCS). Here, we report our experience with engagement of leaders of urban AA churches in Birmingham, Alabama to deliver and evaluate Think Well: Healthy Living to Improve Cognitive Function, an educational cognitive health program for BCS. The Think Well team engaged leaders of urban AA churches using a 7-step process: 1) identify leaders, 2) develop connection with leaders, 3) assess AA community preferences, 4) tailor for cultural relevance, 5) plan seminars, 6) deliver seminars, and 7) evaluate cultural relevance and overall program quality. Program evaluation was via a 22-item survey and sociodemographic questionnaire. Data from AA participants were analyzed using SPSS. The engagement process resulted in sustained partnerships with three urban AA churches and delivery of three Think Well seminars to 172 participants. Of the 172 participants, 138 (80%) AA participants (40 BCS, 98 co-survivors) returned the program survey. Respondents reported Think Well to be culturally relevant (90%) and of high quality (94%). Think Well was developed and evaluated with the collaboration of urban AA church leaders. Engaging church leaders facilitated reach of AA BCS. Partnership facilitated a culturally relevant, high quality program for AA BCS and co-survivors.

  20. SECURITY CO-OPERATION IN THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY: INSIGHTS FROM THE NEW INSTITUTIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoni Van Nieuwkerk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the institutional dimensions of security cooperationas it manifests in the Southern African Development Community(SADC. As the quotations above suggest, security co-operation, as part of a biggerproject of regional integration, is not obvious. Indeed, should southern Africansbelieve their politicians when the latter claim that SADC is ‘forging ahead’ on theroad to formal integration? Slabbert is not convinced. Not only academics, but civilsociety increasingly question its raison d’ etre. For many, it is unclear whether orhow SADC provides human security to the people of the region. Instead, SADCmembers’ positions on the key regional challenges (trade, growth and development,security and stability are driven by national interest rather than regional interest – asrealists argue, national interests (a must-have are hard and measurable; regional cooperation(often a nice-to-have is hard to measure. Or should we accept a regionalconsciousness shaped by a shared historical experience – a problematic assumption?

  1. Influences on Women’s Choices of Careers in Construction: A South African Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Haupt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  This paper analyses the factors influencing the choices of careers in construction by South African women. The literature on challenges which influence women‟s choices of careers in construction was reviewed and questionnaires were conducted with multiple samples, including construction organisations, construction students and professional women working in construction. The study found that women have a role to play in the construction industry and that they can build successful careers within the sector. However, it was not easy given the various barriers to entry such as gender-based discrimination against them, the harsh work environment of the construction site, the lack of sufficient knowledge about the industry itself and the shortage of successful women in construction as role models. There was evidence of discrimination and sexual harassment. All these factors impacted negatively on the choices of careers in construction by South African women. This study makes a contribution to our understanding of the factors that have marginalised women in a male dominated industry and provides some indication of approaches to attract more women into the sector. It is hoped that it will stimulate debate about how the low representation of women in construction can be addressed and how construction careers for women can be promoted and encouraged and that the resource pool will be enlarged given the prevalent acute skills shortage in the industry.

  2. Influences on Women’s Choices of Careers in Construction: A South African Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolosa Madikizela

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available  This paper analyses the factors influencing the choices of careers in construction by South African women. The literature on challenges which influence women‟s choices of careers in construction was reviewed and questionnaires were conducted with multiple samples, including construction organisations, construction students and professional women working in construction. The study found that women have a role to play in the construction industry and that they can build successful careers within the sector. However, it was not easy given the various barriers to entry such as gender-based discrimination against them, the harsh work environment of the construction site, the lack of sufficient knowledge about the industry itself and the shortage of successful women in construction as role models. There was evidence of discrimination and sexual harassment. All these factors impacted negatively on the choices of careers in construction by South African women. This study makes a contribution to our understanding of the factors that have marginalised women in a male dominated industry and provides some indication of approaches to attract more women into the sector. It is hoped that it will stimulate debate about how the low representation of women in construction can be addressed and how construction careers for women can be promoted and encouraged and that the resource pool will be enlarged given the prevalent acute skills shortage in the industry.  

  3. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.

  4. The influence of cultural and racial identification on the psychosocial adjustment of inner-city African American children in school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E; Townsend, Tiffany G; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship and combined influence of racial identity and Africentric values on African American children's psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 104 (53 males, 51 females) African American fourth-grade students attending an inner-city public school in a northeastern city. Child and teacher ratings were used to assess the relationship between racial identity, Africentric values, and several indices of child psychosocial adjustment, including child behavior control, school interest, and teacher perceptions of child strengths and problems in the classroom. Child self-esteem and the effects of gender and cohort were used as covariates in several analyses in the study. Overall, findings from the study supported the usefulness of combining racial identity and Africentric values into a single model of ethnic identification for African American children. Implications for risk prevention and enhancement of psychosocial functioning among African American children are discussed.

  5. A Campus-Community Partnership to Disseminate Health Internet Technology Resources among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…

  6. Investigating the influence of African American and African Caribbean race on primary care doctors' decision making about depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries

  7. A Qualitative Examination of Health Barriers and Facilitators Among African American Mothers in a Subsidized Housing Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W; Hamilton, Natia S; Kelly, Nichole R; Harney, Megan B; Greene, LaShaun; White, Kelly A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2016-09-01

    Although African American families are at particular risk for obesity and its associated health comorbidities, few interventions have directly targeted low-income members of this group living in subsidized public housing. Using a consensual qualitative research approach, we conducted 11 interviews with African American mothers living in two public housing communities to enhance understanding of their perceived barriers and facilitators to health. Five primary domains emerged, including barriers (access, financial, personal, and neighborhood concerns), resources (personal and community), current behaviors (diet, physical activity, and program participation), definition of health (mental well-being, physical well-being, and health behaviors), and needs/interests in programming (health behavior-specific programs, non-health-related programs, child-focused programming, and qualities of programs and their leaders). Results demonstrate the complex interaction among social, environmental, and personal factors on health behaviors for this priority population, and highlight the need for community members' involvement in the development of community-based obesity prevention programming.

  8. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105

  9. Community-based fortified dietary intervention improved health outcomes among low-income African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Adegoke, Korede K; Das, Rachita; Wilson, Ronee E; Mazza, Jessica; Okoh, Jennifer O; Naik, Eknath; Berry, Estrellita Lo

    2016-08-01

    Poor dietary exposure disproportionately affects African-Americans and contributes to the persistence of disparities in health outcomes. In this study, we hypothesized that fortified dietary intervention (FDI) will improve measured dietary and related health outcomes and will be acceptable among low-income African-American women living in Tampa, FL. These objectives were tested using a prospective experimental study using pretest and posttest design with a control group, using a community-based participatory research approach. The intervention (FDI) was designed by the community through structural modification of a preexisting, diet-based program by the addition of a physical and mental health component. Paired sample t tests were used to examine preintervention and postintervention changes in study outcomes. A total of 49 women participated in the study, 26 in the FDI group and 23 controls. Two weeks postintervention, there were significant improvements in waist circumference and health-related quality of life related to physical health (PFDI group. Among overweight/obese women, improvement in health-related quality of life related to physical health, a significant decrease in depressive score, and a reduction in waist circumference were noted. In the control group, a decrease in waist circumference was observed. Implementation of the FDI through a community-based participatory research approach is feasible and effective among low-income African-American women in general and overweight/obese women in particular. Social reengineering of a nutritional intervention coupled with community-based approach will enhance health outcomes of low-income women.

  10. Communicating Effectively About Clinical Trials With African American Communities: A Comparison of African American and White Information Sources and Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Andrea; Bergeron, Caroline D; Zheng, Yue; Friedman, Daniela B; Kim, Sei-Hill; Foster, Caroline B

    2016-03-01

    Clinical trial (CT) participation is low among African Americans (AAs). To better communicate with AAs about the importance of CTs, the purpose of this study was to explore the communication sources and perceived effective communication channels and strategies through which the general public, AAs, and White individuals receive CT information. A quantitative telephone survey was conducted with AAs and Whites in one Southern state (N = 511). The measures assessed CT sources of information, perceived effectiveness of communication channels and strategies, CT understanding, and CT participation. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to compare responses overall and by race. AAs reported being exposed to more CT information than Whites. AAs received CT information most often through television, social media, and doctors compared to Whites. Perceived effectiveness of communication strategies and channels varied by race. AAs preferred simple and easy-to-understand CT information distributed through faith-based organizations. Whites preferred to receive CT information through a trustworthy source (e.g., doctor). There were no significant differences between AAs and Whites in their perceived effectiveness of media sources (e.g., Internet). Recommendations are provided to help health promotion practitioners and CT recruiters tailor information and communicate it effectively to potential AA and White CT participants.

  11. The influence of spiritual beliefs and practices on the treatment preferences of African Americans: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly S; Elbert-Avila, Katja I; Tulsky, James A

    2005-04-01

    Spirituality is an important part of African-American culture and is often cited as an explanation for the more-aggressive treatment preferences of some African Americans at the end of life. This paper reviews the literature on spiritual beliefs that may influence the treatment decisions of African Americans. Medline 1966 to February 2003, Psych Info 1872 to February 2003, and CINAHL 1982 to February 2003 were searched for studies exploring spiritual beliefs that may influence the treatment preferences of African Americans. All candidate papers were examined for quality, and data were extracted on study population, design, analysis, and results to identify recurrent themes. Forty studies met inclusion criteria. Recurrent themes describing spiritual beliefs that may influence the treatment preferences of African Americans throughout the course of illness include the following: spiritual beliefs and practices are a source of comfort, coping, and support and are the most effective way to influence healing; God is responsible for physical and spiritual health; and the doctor is God's instrument. Spiritual beliefs specifically addressing treatment preferences at the end of life include: only God has power to decide life and death, there are religious prohibitions against physician-assisted death or advance directives limiting life-sustaining treatments, and divine intervention and miracles occur. For some African Americans, spiritual beliefs are important in understanding and coping with illness and may provide a framework within which treatment decisions are made. Given the growing ethnic diversity of the United States, some understanding of the complexities of culture and spirituality is essential for healthcare providers.

  12. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B

    1996-09-01

    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans.

  13. Listening to their voices: Exploring mathematics-science identity development of African American males in an urban school community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kimi Leemar

    National data continues to show an underrepresentation of African American males pursuing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors, careers and professions in the United States. Whites and Asian Americans are continuously positioned as the face of STEM education and participation. And while research has provided ways to support mathematics and science learning for African American males, there still remains a gap in understanding how their formed mathematics-science identities in K-12 public schooling influences STEM participation. The research undertaken in this study explores this gap, and uses an integrative identity framework to understand mathematics-science identity development which goes beyond personal identity, and explores the relational, collective and material components of identity. Specifically, this research seeks to answer the following research questions: What are the shared lived experiences that exist between a group of African American male students developing a mathematics-science identity, and how these shared lived experiences shape their mathematics-science identity development? Therefore, by analyzing African American males lived experiences employing an integrative identity framework fosters a greater understanding of how mathematics-science identity is formed in K-12 public schools, which impacts STEM education and participation. The high school aged youth featured in this study consist of four African American males, who live in a moderate size city in California. Data for this study consists of observations, phenomenological interviews, and policy document analysis that took place over six months. Data has been analyzed to describe and interpret the young men's mathematics and science experiences, as revealed in their K-12 public school education. This inquiry sought to make meaning of how African American males experience mathematics and science teaching and learning within K-12 public schooling and how these

  14. Pattern and determinants of BCG immunisation delays in a sub-Saharan African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusanya Bolajoko O

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood immunisation is recognised worldwide as an essential component of health systems and an indispensable indicator of quality of care for vaccine-preventable diseases. While performance of immunisation programmes is more commonly measured by coverage, ensuring that every child is immunised at the earliest/appropriate age is an important public health goal. This study therefore set out to determine the pattern and predictors of Bacille de Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation delays in the first three months of life in a Sub-Saharan African community where BCG is scheduled at birth in order to facilitate necessary changes in current policy and practices for improved services. Methods A cross-sectional study in which immunisation delays among infants aged 0-3 months attending community-based BCG clinics in Lagos, Nigeria over a 2-year period from July 2005 to June 2007 were assessed by survival analysis and associated factors determined by multivariable logistic regression. Population attributable risk (PAR was computed for the predictors of delays. Results BCG was delayed beyond three months in 31.6% of all eligible infants. Of 5171 infants enrolled, 3380 (65.4% were immunised within two weeks and a further 1265 (24.5% by six weeks. A significantly higher proportion of infants born in hospitals were vaccinated in the first six weeks compared to those born outside hospitals. Undernourishment was predictive of delays beyond 2 and 6 weeks while treated hyperbilirubinaemia was associated with decreased odds for any delays. Lack of antenatal care and multiple gestations were also predictive of delays beyond 6 weeks. Undernourishment was associated with the highest PAR for delays beyond 2 weeks (18.7% and 6 weeks (20.8%. Conclusions BCG immunisation is associated with significant delays in this setting and infants at increased risk of delays can be identified and supported early possibly through improved maternal uptake of

  15. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  16. Community-based Participatory Research Examining the Health Care Needs of African Americans who are Homeless with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick; Pickett, Susan; Kraus, Dana; Burks, Raymond; Schmidt, Anne

    2017-01-01

    African Americans with mental illness who are homeless experience significant health risks and illnesses leading to high mortality and morbidity rates. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) team conducted a qualitative study to begin to describe these problems. Results from focus groups and key informant interviews of 42 individuals yielded 98 themes which were sorted into three categories: problems, solutions, and peer navigators. Results included a review of the problems and solutions which the community or people might adopt. An additional goal was to understand and develop impact of peer navigators for addressing health problems in this group. Results yielded a list of values in hiring peer navigators as well as skills and resources they might need to successfully do their job. Findings from the study are currently being used by the CBPR team to develop a peer navigator program for this community. PMID:25702732

  17. The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

  18. Collective emotions online and their influence on community life

    CERN Document Server

    Chmiel, Anna; Thelwall, Mike; Paltoglou, Georgios; Buckley, Kevan; Kappas, Arvid; Hołyst, Janusz A

    2011-01-01

    E-communities, social groups interacting online, have recently become an object of interdisciplinary research. As with face-to-face meetings, Internet exchanges may not only include factual information but also emotional information - how participants feel about the subject discussed or other group members. Emotions are known to be important in affecting interaction partners in offline communication in many ways. Could emotions in Internet exchanges affect others and systematically influence quantitative and qualitative aspects of the trajectory of e-communities? The development of automatic sentiment analysis has made large scale emotion detection and analysis possible using text messages collected from the web. It is not clear if emotions in e-communities primarily derive from individual group members' personalities or if they result from intra-group interactions, and whether they influence group activities. We show the collective character of affective phenomena on a large scale as observed in 4 million po...

  19. Influences on Case-Managed Community Aged Care Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Emily Chuanmei; Dunt, David; Doyle, Colleen

    2016-10-01

    Case management has been widely implemented in the community aged care setting. In this study, we aimed to explore influences on case-managed community aged care practice from the perspectives of community aged care case managers. We conducted 33 semistructured interviews with 47 participants. We drew these participants from a list of all case managers working in aged care organizations that provided publicly funded case management program(s)/packages in Victoria, Australia. We used a multilevel framework that included such broad categories of factors as structural, organizational, case manager, client, and practice factors to guide the data analysis. Through thematic analysis, we found that policy change, organizational culture and policies, case managers' professional backgrounds, clients with culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and case management models stood out as key influences on case managers' practice. In the future, researchers can use the multilevel framework to undertake implementation research in similar health contexts.

  20. Advancing Understanding of the Characteristics and Capacity of African American Women Who Serve as Lay Health Advisors in Community-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Dunston, Sheba King; Leoce, Nicole; Jandorf, Lina; Thompson, Hayley S.; Erwin, Deborah O.

    2017-01-01

    Lay Health Advisor (LHA) programs hold tremendous promise for reducing health disparities and addressing social determinants of health in medically underserved communities, including African American populations. Very little is understood about the capacity of LHAs in these roles and the broader contributions they make to their communities. This…

  1. Detecting Communities and Surveying the Most Influence of Online Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Ho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social network is a virtual environment that provides services for connecting users with the same interests, points of view, gender, space and time. Beside connection, information exchange, communication, entertainment and so on. Social network is also an environment for users who work in online business, advertisement or politics, criminal investigation. How to know what users discuss topics via exchanged contents and communities which users join in? In this paper, we propose a model by using topic model combined with K-means to detect communities of online users. Each user in social network is represented by a vector in which the components are the distribution probabilities of interested topics of that user. Based on the components of this vector, we discover the interested topics of online users to detect communities and survey users who are the most influence in communities to recommend for spreading information on social network.

  2. Influence of culture and discrimination on care-seeking behavior of elderly African Americans: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shadi S; Trask, Jacqueline; Peterson, Tina; Martin, Bryan C; Baldwin, Josh; Knapp, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the influence of culture and discrimination on care-seeking behavior of elderly African Americans was explored. This was a qualitative phenomenological study that involved in-depth interviews with 15 African American men and women aged 60 and older in Alabama. The sample size of 15 was adequate for the phenomenological method of this study. While this was a small exploratory study and was not intended for any generalizations, it did provide a unique opportunity to hear the voices, the concerns, and the stories of elderly African Americans, which have often been overlooked in the literature. The following themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) perception of health as ability to be active, (2) reluctance toward prescription medicine use, (3) lack of trust in doctors, (4) avoidance of bad news, (5) race of doctors, (6) use of home remedies, and (7) importance of God and spirituality on health, illness, and healing.

  3. Understanding contextual influences of community reintegration among injured servicemembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brent L; McGuire, Francis A; Linder, Sandra M; Britt, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger mixed-methods research project investigating the influence of contextual factors on community reintegration (CR), this qualitative study sought to understand the subjective experiences of injured servicemembers and their perception of how contextual factors influenced their CR. More specifically, this article addresses how the influences of contextual factors differ between injured servicemembers with different levels of CR. Using a phenomenological framework, semistructured interviews were conducted with nine injured, community-dwelling servicemembers with low, moderate, and high levels of CR (three per category). Participants provided in-depth descriptions of the contextual barriers and facilitators of CR. Thematic analysis indicated the importance of social support and personal factors (e.g., self-efficacy, personal motivation) as the primary means for being reintegrated into their homes and communities. Other themes indicated factors that had an indirect but important influence on CR, including adapted sports, recreation, and other social programs; rehabilitation programs and therapists; school, work, and volunteering; and organizations and policies in developing social supports and personal factors. Comparisons between servicemembers indicated participants with low CR described many more contextual barriers and far fewer contextual facilitators to reintegration than those with high CR. Those with moderate CR were unique in that they described many facilitators and barriers to reintegration.

  4. Lactobacillus-Deficient Cervicovaginal Bacterial Communities Are Associated with Increased HIV Acquisition in Young South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmann, Christina; Anahtar, Melis N; Handley, Scott A; Farcasanu, Mara; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Bowman, Brittany A; Padavattan, Nikita; Desai, Chandni; Droit, Lindsay; Moodley, Amber; Dong, Mary; Chen, Yuezhou; Ismail, Nasreen; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Wesemann, Duane R; Mitchell, Caroline; Dong, Krista L; Huttenhower, Curtis; Walker, Bruce D; Virgin, Herbert W; Kwon, Douglas S

    2017-01-17

    Elevated inflammation in the female genital tract is associated with increased HIV risk. Cervicovaginal bacteria modulate genital inflammation; however, their role in HIV susceptibility has not been elucidated. In a prospective cohort of young, healthy South African women, we found that individuals with diverse genital bacterial communities dominated by anaerobes other than Gardnerella were at over 4-fold higher risk of acquiring HIV and had increased numbers of activated mucosal CD4(+) T cells compared to those with Lactobacillus crispatus-dominant communities. We identified specific bacterial taxa linked with reduced (L. crispatus) or elevated (Prevotella, Sneathia, and other anaerobes) inflammation and HIV infection and found that high-risk bacteria increased numbers of activated genital CD4(+) T cells in a murine model. Our results suggest that highly prevalent genital bacteria increase HIV risk by inducing mucosal HIV target cells. These findings might be leveraged to reduce HIV acquisition in women living in sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Collective emotions online and their influence on community life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chmiel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: E-communities, social groups interacting online, have recently become an object of interdisciplinary research. As with face-to-face meetings, Internet exchanges may not only include factual information but also emotional information--how participants feel about the subject discussed or other group members. Emotions in turn are known to be important in affecting interaction partners in offline communication in many ways. Could emotions in Internet exchanges affect others and systematically influence quantitative and qualitative aspects of the trajectory of e-communities? The development of automatic sentiment analysis has made large scale emotion detection and analysis possible using text messages collected from the web. However, it is not clear if emotions in e-communities primarily derive from individual group members' personalities or if they result from intra-group interactions, and whether they influence group activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, for the first time, we show the collective character of affective phenomena on a large scale as observed in four million posts downloaded from Blogs, Digg and BBC forums. To test whether the emotions of a community member may influence the emotions of others, posts were grouped into clusters of messages with similar emotional valences. The frequency of long clusters was much higher than it would be if emotions occurred at random. Distributions for cluster lengths can be explained by preferential processes because conditional probabilities for consecutive messages grow as a power law with cluster length. For BBC forum threads, average discussion lengths were higher for larger values of absolute average emotional valence in the first ten comments and the average amount of emotion in messages fell during discussions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our results prove that collective emotional states can be created and modulated via Internet communication and that emotional

  6. Comparative study of potential transfer of natural and anthropogenic cadmium to plankton communities in the North-West African upwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, P.A., E-mail: pierreamael.auger@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Machu, E.; Gorgues, T.; Grima, N. [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Waeles, M. [Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO), Laboratoire de l' Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR-CNRS 6539/IRD/UBO, place N. Copernic, 29280 Plouzané (France)

    2015-02-01

    A Lagrangian approach based on a physical–biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the North-West African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the North-West African upwelling is the result of an interplay between the Cd dispersion (by advection processes) and the simulated biological productivity. In the Moroccan waters, advection processes limit the residence time of water masses resulting in a low natural Cd-uptake by plankton communities while anthropogenic Cd-uptake is high. As expected, the situation is reversed in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling where natural Cd-uptake is higher than anthropogenic Cd-uptake. Based upon an estimate of Cd sources, our modeling study shows, unexpectedly, that the anthropogenic signal of potential Cd-bioaccumulation in the Moroccan upwelling is of the same order of magnitude as the natural signal mainly present in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region. A comparison with observed Cd levels in mollusk and fishes, which shows overall agreement with our simulations, is confirming our estimates. - Highlights: • We model the physical–biogeochemical dynamics in the North-West African upwelling. • We model the transport of cadmium from natural and anthropogenic sources. • We derive proxies of potential cadmium absorption and bioaccumulation in the plankton food chain. • The anthropogenic signal off Morocco at least equals the natural upwelling signal off Mauritania. • We compare our results with observed cadmium levels in mollusks and fishes.

  7. Navigating Racialized Contexts: The Influence of School and Family Socialization on African American Students' Racial and Educational Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Shuntay Z.

    2013-01-01

    Within the United States, African American students experience school socialization that exposes them to racial segregation, economic stratification, and route learning masked as education. Consequently African American families are compelled to engage in socialization practices that buffer against the adverse influences of racism, oppression, and…

  8. Associating with Occupational Depictions: How African American College Women Are Influenced by the Portrayals of Women in Professional Careers on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…

  9. Biofilm diatom community structure: Influence of temporal and substratum variability

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, J.S.; Anil, A.C.

    -chemical and biological properties. Of these, physical variability, driven primarily by external forces is fundamental. Wind- and weather-driven events cause physical changes and disruptions. These events lead to variability in temperature, irradiance, precipitation, run... in the microphyto- benthic community of this study area (Mitabavkar & Anil, 2002). They frequently resuspend into the surface waters through physical processes such as waves, tides and currents (de Jonge, 1995; de Jonge & van Beusekom, 1995) and thereby influence...

  10. Perceived community environmental influences on eating behaviors: A Photovoice analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2016-12-01

    People's perceptions of local food environments influence their abilities to eat healthily. PhotoVoice participants from four communities in Alberta, Canada took pictures of barriers and opportunities for healthy eating and shared their stories in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Using a socioecological framework, emergent themes were organized by type and size of environment. Findings show that, while availability and access to food outlets influence healthy eating practices, these factors may be eclipsed by other non-physical environmental considerations, such as food regulations and socio-cultural preferences. This study identifies a set of meta-themes that summarize and illustrate the interrelationships between environmental attributes, people's perceptions, and eating behaviors: a) availability and accessibility are interrelated and only part of the healthy eating equation; b) local food is synonymous with healthy eating; c) local food places for healthy eating help define community identity; d) communal dining (commensality) does not necessarily mean healthy eating; e) rewarding an achievement or celebrating special occasions with highly processed foods is socially accepted; f) food costs seemed to be driving forces in food decisions; g) macro-environmental influences are latent in food decisions. Recognizing the interrelationship among multiple environmental factors may help efforts to design effective community-based interventions and address knowledge gaps on how sociocultural, economic, and political environments intersect with physical worlds.

  11. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  12. A Community-Driven Intervention for Prostate Cancer Screening in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…

  13. Caregiver Mental Health, Neighborhood, and Social Network Influences on Mental Health Needs among African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Browne, Dorothy C.; Thompson, Richard; Hawley, Kristin M.; Graham, Christopher J.; Weisbart, Cindy; Harrington, Donna; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the combined effects of caregiver mental health, alcohol use, and social network support/satisfaction on child mental health needs among African American caregiver-child dyads at risk of maltreatment. The sample included 514 eight-year-old African American children and their caregivers who participated in the…

  14. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  15. Urban African American youth exposed to community violence: a school-based anxiety preventive intervention efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley-Strickland, Michele R; Griffin, Robert S; Darney, Dana; Otte, Katherine; Ko, Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3rd-5th-grade students (ages 8-12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus wait list comparison groups. Students attended 13 biweekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS, a cognitive-behavioral anxiety intervention program. Results indicated that both intervention and control groups manifested significant reductions in anxiety symptomatology and total exposure to community violence, along with improved standardized reading achievement scores. Additional gains observed only in the intervention group were increased standardized mathematics achievement scores, decreased life stressors, and reduced victimization by community violence. The intervention was equally efficacious for both genders and for children exposed to higher, compared to lower, levels of community violence. Implications for comprehensive, culturally and contextually relevant prevention programs and research are discussed.

  16. Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosley Thomas M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny of the most abundant haplogroup (preHV1 (R0a was constructed based on 13 whole mtDNA genomes. Results The Saudi Arabian group showed greatest similarity to other Arabian Peninsula populations (Bedouin from the Negev desert and Yemeni and to Levantine populations. Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs had only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component (7%, similar to the specific North-African contribution (5%. In addition, a small Indian influence (3% was also detected. Conclusion The majority of the Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85% have a western Asia provenance. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Alcohol Use During Pregnancy in a South African Community: Reconciling Knowledge, Norms, and Personal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Dennis, Alexis C.; Choi, Karmel W.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Due to high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in South Africa, reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore knowledge and attitudes about maternal alcohol consumption among women who reported alcohol use during pregnancy. Methods The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants were pregnant or within 1 year postpartum and self-reported alcohol use during pregnancy. In-depth interviews explored personal experiences with drinking during pregnancy, community norms and attitudes towards maternal drinking, and knowledge about FASD. Transcripts were analyzed using a content analytic approach, including narrative memos and data display matrices. Results Interviews revealed competing attitudes. Women received anti-drinking messages from several sources, but these sources were not highly valued and the messages often contradicted social norms. Women were largely unfamiliar with FASD, and their knowledge of impacts of fetal alcohol exposure was often inaccurate. Participants' personal experiences influenced their attitudes about the effects of alcohol during pregnancy, which led to internalization of misinformation. The data revealed a moral conflict that confronted women in this setting, leaving women feeling judged, ambivalent, or defensive about their behaviors, and ultimately creating uncertainty about their alcohol use behaviors. Conclusions Data revealed the need to deliver accurate information about the harms of fetal alcohol exposure through sources perceived as trusted and reliable. Individual-level interventions to help women reconcile competing attitudes and identify motivations for reducing alcohol use during pregnancy would be beneficial. PMID:26197733

  18. Are There Common Familial Influences for Major Depressive Disorder and an Overeating-Binge Eating Dimension in both European-American and African-American Female Twins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; Grant, Julia D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Koren, Rachel; Glowinski, Anne L.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Duncan, Alexis E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although prior studies have demonstrated that depression is associated with an overeating-binge eating dimension (OE-BE), phenotypically, little research has investigated whether familial factors contribute to the co-occurrence of these phenotypes, especially in community samples with multiple racial/ethnic groups. We examined the extent to which familial (i.e., genetic and shared environmental) influences overlapped between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and OE-BE in a population-based sample and whether these influences were similar across racial/ethnic groups Method Participants included 3226 European-American (EA) and 550 African-American (AA) young adult women from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study. An adaptation of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was administered to assess lifetime DSM-IV MDD and OE-BE. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate familial influences between both phenotypes; all models controlled for age. Results The best-fitting model, which combined racial/ethnic groups, found that additive genetic influences accounted for 44% (95% CI: 34%, 53%) of the MDD variance and 40% (25%, 54%) for OE-BE, with the remaining variances due to non-shared environmental influences. Genetic overlap was substantial (rg = .61 [.39, .85]); non-shared environmental influences on MDD and OE-BE overlapped weakly (re = .26 [.09, .42]) Discussion Results suggest that common familial influences underlie MDD and OE-BE, and the magnitude of familial influences contributing to the comorbidity between MDD and OE-BE is similar between EA and AA women. If racial/ethnic differences truly exist, then larger sample sizes may be needed to fully elucidate familial risk for comorbid MDD and OE-BE across these groups. PMID:24659561

  19. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvert Melanie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  20. INDIRECT INFLUENCE OF COMMUNITY LAW OVER NATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of influence of Community law over national criminal law is difficult to be solved even now, because criminal law is very closely related to state sovereignty. However, at European level it is a series of unifying trends in the field of criminal law. This includes: the Corpus Juris Project to develop a number of guiding principles on the protection through criminal law of financial interests of EU, within the European judiciary space; the project of founding a European Prosecutor , which would have extended jurisdiction over the entire European judicial area; at the doctrinaire level the project called ”The Criminal Code of the European Union ” result of encoding the provisions relevant for the Community criminal law and published likewise. Romanian criminal law could not remain outside these trends and this paper reveal some internal acts that reflect the trends observed at European level. Some of this acts have a direct influence, and some of them an indirect influence. An example is represented by art. 3022 of the Romanian Penal Code, which, in the basic variant, besides any operations regarding the import of wastes and residue of any kind or other dangerous goods for public health and environment, incriminates the placing or transit operations on the country without observing the laws. In this text, the phrase "without observing the laws" must be reported to both national regulations and international legal instruments.

  1. DIGITAL MARKETING INFLUENCE ON THE FORMATION OF BRAND COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian, Morozan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The digital environment in which the interests of communicating and promoting brands is manifested, in a growing extent, exerts its influence on dynamic economic sectors, changing consumer habits but mainly affects how content is consumed in brand communities. This environment is still not a channel or ad format yet, forming a parallel reality, a complex system which is constantly changing. To enter and to remain here, brand owner organizations must approach communication, both in entertainment as well as in production and sales in a most pleasant and useful way for members of the communities they support. In this context, this paper consists in a qualitative research method; various sources of secondary information such as summaries of some events, analysis, case studies, etc. have been consulted accordingly.

  2. Socialization of Coping with Community Violence: Influences of Caregiver Coaching, Modeling, and Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Wendy; Parrish, Katie Adams; Taylor, Kelli W.; Jackson, Kate; Walker, Jean M.; Shivy, Victoria A.

    2006-01-01

    A socialization model of coping with community violence was tested in 101 African American adolescents (55% male, ages 9-13) and their maternal caregivers living in high-violence areas of a mid-sized, southeastern city. Participants completed interviews assessing caregiver coping, family context, and child adjustment. Caregiver-child dyads also…

  3. Reducing refugee mental health disparities: a community-based intervention to address postmigration stressors with African adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Jessica R; Hess, Julia M; Isakson, Brian; LaNoue, Marianna; Githinji, Ann; Roche, Natalie; Vadnais, Kathryn; Parker, Danielle P

    2014-08-01

    Refugees resettled in the United States have disproportionately high rates of psychological distress. Research has demonstrated the roles of postmigration stressors, including lack of meaningful social roles, poverty, unemployment, lack of environmental mastery, discrimination, limited English proficiency, and social isolation. We report a multimethod, within-group longitudinal pilot study involving the adaptation for African refugees of a community-based advocacy and learning intervention to address postmigration stressors. We found the intervention to be feasible, acceptable, and appropriate for African refugees. Growth trajectory analysis revealed significant decreases in participants' psychological distress and increases in quality of life, and also provided preliminary evidence of intervention mechanisms of change through the detection of mediating relationships whereby increased quality of life was mediated by increases in enculturation, English proficiency, and social support. Qualitative data helped to support and explain the quantitative data. Results demonstrate the importance of addressing the sociopolitical context of resettlement to promote the mental health of refugees and suggest a culturally appropriate, and replicable model for doing so.

  4. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  5. Self-Determination and Goal Aspirations: African American and Latino Males' Perceptions of Their Persistence in Community College Basic and Transfer-Level Writing Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, María de Lourdes; García, Hugo A.

    2016-01-01

    This Grounded Theory study utilized Self-determination Theory to analyze the interview results of 18 community college African American and Latino males. The goal was to learn what helped participants to succeed and persist in developmental and transfer-level writing courses despite the obstacles that they faced. Three major themes emerged: (a)…

  6. African-American clergy's perceptions of the leading health problems in their communities and their role in supporting parishioners' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Donnie W; West, Donnie W; Bisesi, Lorrie; Tanamly, Susie; Branch, Cheryl A; Novgrod, Judith; Sim, Tiffanie; Williams, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    This article is a report on a survey of Southern California pastors to learn of their perceptions of the leading health problems in their congregations. Participants (N=41) identified stress, overweight, and obesity as the top three health indicators that effect the health of their congregations. Tobacco use and substance abuse were listed among the top five. From a list of health problems, pastors felt that from the pulpit they could impact parishioners responsible sexual behavior most. Pastors expressed their opinions about the reasons for certain maladies and addictions. The findings indicate room for improvement in building clergy's understanding of the nature of illness and addiction and in empowering them in their role of supporting healthy behaviors in the African-American community.

  7. Effects of a non-native cichlid fish (African jewelfish, Hemichromis letourneuxi Sauvage 1880) on a simulated Everglades aquatic community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Slone, Daniel H.; Gregoire, Denise R.; Loftus, William F.

    2014-01-01

    In an 8-month mesocosm experiment, we examined how a simulated Everglades aquatic community of small native fishes, snails, and shrimp changed with the addition of either a native predator (dollar sunfish Lepomis marginatus) or a non-native predator (African jewelfish Hemichromis letourneuxi) compared to a no-predator control. Two snail species (Planorbella duryi, Physella cubensis) and the shrimp (Palaemonetes paludosus) displayed the strongest predator-treatment effects, with significantly lower biomasses in tanks with Hemichromis. One small native fish (Heterandria formosa) was significantly less abundant in Hemichromis tanks, but there were no significant treatment effects for Gambusia holbrooki, Jordanella floridae, or Pomacea paludosa (applesnail). Overall, there were few treatment differences between native predator and no-predator control tanks. The results suggest that the potential of Hemichromis to affect basal food-web species that link primary producers with higher-level consumers in the aquatic food web, with unknown consequences for Florida waters.

  8. The complexity of rural contexts experienced by community disability workers in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Booyens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of rural communities is fundamental to effective community-based rehabilitation work with persons with disabilities. By removing barriers to community participation, persons with disabilities are enabled to satisfy their fundamental human needs. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the challenges that rural community disability workers (CDWs face in trying to realise these objectives. This qualitative interpretive study, involving in-depth interviews with 16 community disability workers in Botswana, Malawi and South Africa, revealed the complex ways in which poverty, inappropriately used power and negative attitudes of service providers and communities combine to create formidable barriers to the inclusion of persons with disabilities in families and rural communities. The paper highlights the importance of understanding and working with the concept of ‘disability’ from a social justice and development perspective. It stresses that by targeting attitudes, actions and relationships, community disability workers can bring about social change in the lives of persons with disabilities and the communities in which they live.

  9. A qualitative exploration of the influence of heavy metal music on South African

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Bianca Simone

    2015-01-01

    This mini-dissertation presents a discussion of the qualitative study exploring how South African youth, between the ages of 18 and 35, who are active listeners of Heavy Metal music experience this genre of music. The sample in the present study consists of 26 South African youths, living in various parts of the country, who listen to Heavy Metal music. Participants were recruited from attendees of the Heavy Metal music festival, Witchfest, which took place in Newtown, Johannesburg during 3-5...

  10. Turning the Tables: Double Benefits Attained from Training HBCU Students to Teach Geosciences in African-American Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, C. J.; Olsen, M. M.

    2004-12-01

    To make the greatest impact on African-American participation in the geosciences it is most efficient to bring programs designed to recruit future geoscientists to neighborhoods, campuses, and communities where African-Americans are actually in the majority rather than the minority. The "Natural History Interpretation Training Program" sponsored by SE-COSEE (NSF), SSU and SINERR did just that and impacted two generations of students in coastal Georgia in the process. In the first implementation of this program, ten HBCU science majors participated in an intensive week-long training program on coastal ecosystems, outdoor education, and regional internship/employment opportunities. The training session was followed by the planning and implementation of a two-day science camp for the youth of Sapelo Island, GA in which the undergraduates taught 15 children of Gullah/Geechee heritage aged 6 to 14 about the geology and ecology of their barrier island home. Key components to successfully recruiting undergraduate participants were to coordinate training activities around the college schedule to accommodate students who needed to enroll in summer courses and to base acceptance into the training program on interest rather than GPA. We facilitated the participation of campers by holding the camp on Sapelo Island, providing transportation, and charging no fees. Having HBCU students teach younger minority students served multiple purposes. It inspired the undergraduates to further their studies in science, to explore internship opportunities, and to consider careers in science education. For some it provided an opportunity to review and master material from past courses and inspired confidence in their approach to future course work. The program also piqued the curiosity of Sapelo Island youth so that they would further explore the science of their island home and, hopefully, will consider college attendance and majoring in the geosciences a natural path to follow. HBCU

  11. Identifying contextual influences of community reintegration among injured servicemembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brent L; McGuire, Francis A; Britt, Thomas W; Linder, Sandra M

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that community reintegration (CR) after injury and rehabilitation is difficult for many injured servicemembers. However, little is known about the influence of the contextual factors, both personal and environmental, that influence CR. Framed within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Social Cognitive Theory, the quantitative portion of a larger mixed-methods study of 51 injured, community-dwelling servicemembers compared the relative contribution of contextual factors between groups of servicemembers with different levels of CR. Cluster analysis indicated three groups of servicemembers showing low, moderate, and high levels of CR. Statistical analyses identified contextual factors (e.g., personal and environmental factors) that significantly discriminated between CR clusters. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis indicated significant contributions of general self-efficacy, services and assistance barriers, physical and structural barriers, attitudes and support barriers, perceived level of disability and/or handicap, work and school barriers, and policy barriers on CR scores. Overall, analyses indicated that injured servicemembers with lower CR scores had lower general self-efficacy scores, reported more difficulty with environmental barriers, and reported their injuries as more disabling.

  12. Community History as a Male-Constructed Space: Challenging Gendered Memories among South African Muslim Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Doria

    2009-01-01

    The post-Apartheid community history is a male-constructed space, narrated into present-day consciousness by male community leaders and history writers. The patriarchal worldview disparages women's contributions and activisms. This article reports on how Muslim women from a small fishing village in South Africa in the early 1900s strategized to…

  13. The role and influence of wine awards as perceived by the South African wine consumers

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    F. J. Herbst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether, in the mind of the consumer, wine awards do indeed play a significant role in influencing consumer choices. Initially, a literature review was conducted to establish the role of wine awards in wine marketing. Problem investigated: The increasing number of wine competitions appears to dilute the value of wine awards as a marketing tool. The local wine consumers are currently bombarded by a variety of wine choices and need to use cues to assist them in making buying decisions. Consumers are also sceptical about the honesty of producers in marketing their awards. The question arises, whether, in the minds of South Africa's wine consumers, awards play a strong enough role in influencing their choice when buying wine. Research design: A convenience sample was drawn among South African wine consumers by using an online survey questionnaire. A sample of 285 was realised and the data analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings and implications: Wine awards are indeed recognised by the consumer as a cue that shapes their choices / selection criteria, but their importance is relatively low compared to other cues such as variety, vintage, producer, production method, packaging, place of origin and price. Yet, having established that decision-making is a complex set of interactions, wine awards do nevertheless play a role in supporting a decision in certain circumstances and for certain customer segments. Generally speaking, it was found that the more sophisticated a consumer (connoisseur is the less regard exists for wine awards. Not only do wine awards have lesser power in shaping decisions, but also attitudes towards the concept of wine awards are more negative. Lesser informed consumers tend to take more guidance from, and are less opinionated about the concept of wine awards. An independent monitoring authority is seen as a solution to raise the profile of wine

  14. Influence of Soil Moisture on the Asian and African Monsoons. Part II: Interannual Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, H.

    2002-04-01

    The relevance of soil moisture (SM) for simulating the interannual climate variability has not been much investigated until recently. Much more attention has been paid on SST anomalies, especially in the Tropics where the El Niño-Southern Oscillation represents the main mode of variability. In the present study, ensembles of atmospheric integrations based on the Action de Recherche Petit Echelle Grande Echelle (ARPEGE) climate model have been performed for two summer seasons: 1987 and 1988, respectively. The aim is to compare the relative impacts of using realistic boundary conditions of SST and SM on the simulated variability of the Asian and African monsoons. Besides control runs with interactive SM, sensitivity tests have been done in which SM is relaxed toward a state-of-the-art SM climatology, either globally or regionally over the monsoon domain. The simulations indicate that the variations of the Asian monsoon between 1987 and 1988 are mainly driven by SST anomalies. This result might be explained by the strong teleconnection with the ENSO and by a weak SM-precipitation feedback over south Asia (Part I of the study). The influence of SM is more obvious over Africa. The model needs both realistic SST and SM boundary conditions to simulate the observed variability of the Sahelian monsoon rainfall. The positive impact of the SM relaxation is not only due to a local mechanism whereby larger surface evaporation leads to larger precipitation. The best results are obtained when the relaxation is applied globally, suggesting that remote SM impacts also contribute to the improved simulation of the precipitation variability. A relationship between the Sahelian rainfall anomalies and the meridional wind anomalies over North Africa points out the possible influence of the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. The comparison of the low- and midtropospheric anomalies in the various pairs of experiments indicates that SM anomalies can trigger stationary waves over Europe, and

  15. Deciphering the prokaryotic community and metabolisms in South African deep-mine biofilms through antibody microarrays and graph theory.

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    Yolanda Blanco

    Full Text Available In the South African deep mines, a variety of biofilms growing in mine corridor walls as water seeps from intersections or from fractures represents excellent proxies for deep-subsurface environments. However, they may be greatly affected by the oxygen inputs through the galleries of mining activities. As a consequence, the interaction between the anaerobic water coming out from the walls with the oxygen inputs creates new conditions that support rich microbial communities. The inherent difficulties for sampling these delicate habitats, together with transport and storage conditions may alter the community features and composition. Therefore, the development of in situ monitoring methods would be desirable for quick evaluation of the microbial community. In this work, we report the usefulness of an antibody-microarray (EMChip66 immunoassay for a quick check of the microbial diversity of biofilms located at 1.3 km below surface within the Beatrix deep gold mine (South Africa. In addition, a deconvolution method, previously described and used for environmental monitoring, based on graph theory and applied on antibody cross-reactivity was used to interpret the immunoassay results. The results were corroborated and further expanded by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Both culture-independent techniques coincided in detecting features related to aerobic sulfur-oxidizers, aerobic chemoorganotrophic Alphaproteobacteria and metanotrophic Gammaproteobacteria. 16S rRNA gene sequencing detected phylotypes related to nitrate-reducers and anaerobic sulfur-oxidizers, whereas the EMChip66 detected immunological features from methanogens and sulfate-reducers. The results reveal a diverse microbial community with syntrophic metabolisms both anaerobic (fermentation, methanogenesis, sulphate and nitrate reduction and aerobic (methanotrophy, sulphur oxidation. The presence of oxygen-scavenging microbes might indicate that the system is modified by the artificial

  16. Examining the perceptions, preferences, and practices that influence healthy aging for African American older adults: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, Cheryl

    2013-10-01

    This study explored the healthy aging and health promotion perceptions, preferences, and practices of a purposive sample of African American older adults who resided in two communities in the south. An ecological framework was used to capture environmental factors, perceptions regarding access to health promotion resources, and health behavior preferences and practices. A mixed-method approach was used. Health supporting amenities were mapped, focus groups were conducted, and demographic information was obtained. The data were merged to create consolidated themes. The results indicated that health promotion amenities were available, but with some limitations. Convenient access to transportation strongly affected ability to use resources. Older adults were interested in preserving their health and independence, but some had difficulty staying motivated to maintain a healthy lifestyle. They wanted easier access to amenities. Implications for best practice include attention to culturally responsive outreach, motivating with social support and incentives, and developing community-based culturally compatible programming.

  17. Intrapersonal and community factors associated with prostate cancer screening among African-American males in the US

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    Dickey SL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sabrina L Dickey,1 Eileen Cormier,1 James Whyte IV,1 Penny A Ralston2 1College of Nursing, 2Center on Better Health and Life for Underserved Populations, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA Purpose: The purpose of this research was to examine intrapersonal and community factors associated with prostate cancer screening (PCS among African-American (AA males of ≥40 years from a nationally representative data set in the US. The theory of planned behavior was utilized as the theoretical framework. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional secondary analysis employed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. The sample consisted of 377 AA males. The primary outcome variables were two PCS tests, the digital rectal exam (DRE and the prostate-specific antigen test. Logistic regression models were developed to test for associations between the PCS tests and the factors of interest. Results: The factors of age, education, and access to a health care facility were associated with AA males receiving the DRE. The age group of 40–49 years was least likely to receive the DRE when compared to the age group of ≥70 years. Similarly AA males without a college degree were also least likely to receive the DRE when compared to AA males with a college degree. AA males with access to health care were more likely than those without access to receive the DRE. Age <70 years along with church attendance was associated with AA males receiving the prostate-specific antigen test. Conclusion: Differences were present for significant associations among intrapersonal and community variables and the two PCS exams. A culturally sensitive approach is necessary for understanding factors associated with PCS among AA males, which is central to designing and appropriately targeting public health interventions to decrease the health disparity of prostate cancer among this high-risk population. Keywords: prostate cancer screening

  18. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

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    Oswell Rusinga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  19. Community as Classroom: Dilemmas of Valuing African Indigenous Literacy in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semali, Ladislaus

    1999-05-01

    The interface between school and indigenous knowledge of local plants is rarely a focus of attention in classrooms. The transfer of indigenous knowledge from everyday life to schoolwork is not always valued or encouraged, and indigenous ways of knowing may not be recognized by teachers. This article defines and documents the interplay between indigenous folk knowledge and modern (western) curriculum practice in African schools within the framework of critical theory. It raises important questions of cultural identity at a time of economic and educational globalization. First, the author explores the definition of indigenous knowledge, second, he examines the dilemmas that undermine and undervalue efforts to integrate indigenous education in the formal school curriculum and third, he outlines the rationale for valuing indigenous literacy and makes some suggestions as to how this may be achieved.

  20. Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…

  1. Sociocultural Influences on Weight-Related Behaviors in African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Nutrena H; Davis, Jean E; Yarandi, Hossein N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociocultural factors related to weight behaviors in African American adolescents utilizing a social ecological approach. A descriptive correlational design included a sample of 145 African American adolescents. Perceived familial socialization, ethnic identity, physical activity, and eating behavior patterns were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and multiple regression equations. Perceived maternal socialization was significantly related to adolescent eating behaviors and physical activity whereas perceived paternal socialization was significantly related only to their physical activity. The adolescents' ethnic identity was not significantly related to their eating behaviors or physical activity. Health care providers who work with adolescents and their families can use the initial findings from this study to encourage healthy weight-related behaviors while reducing the obesity epidemic within the African American adolescent population in a developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive manner.

  2. Myths or theories? Alternative beliefs about HIV and AIDS in South African working class communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David

    2013-09-01

    Despite three decades of public health promotion based on the scientific explanation of HIV/AIDS, alternative explanations of the disease continue to circulate. While these are seen as counter-productive to health education efforts, what is rarely analysed is their plurality and their tenacity. This article analyses the 'AIDS myths' collected by African HIV/AIDS workplace peer educators during an action research project. These beliefs about HIV/AIDS are organised, in this article, around core ideas that form the basis of 'folk' and 'lay theories' of HIV/AIDS. These constitute non-scientific explanations of HIV/AIDS, with folk theories drawing on bodies of knowledge that are independent of HIV/AIDS while lay theories are generated in response to the disease. A categorisation of alternative beliefs about HIV/AIDS is presented which comprises three folk theories - African traditional beliefs, Christian theology, and racial conspiracy - and three lay theories, all focused on avoiding HIV infection. Using this schema, the article describes how the plausibility of these alternative theories of HIV/AIDS lies not in their scientific validity, but in the robustness of the core idea at the heart of each folk or lay theory. Folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS are also often highly palatable in that they provide hope and comfort in terms of prevention, cure, and the allocation of blame. This study argue that there is coherence and value to these alternative HIV/AIDS beliefs which should not be dismissed as ignorance, idle speculation or simple misunderstandings. A serious engagement with folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS helps explain the continued circulation of alternative beliefs of HIV/AIDS and the slow uptake of behavioural change messages around the disease.

  3. Mass media influence spreading in social networks with community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2008-07-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across a society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considering inhomogeneous mass media fields, we study the conditions for successful message spreading and find a novel phase diagram in the multidimensional parameter space. These findings show that social modularity effects are of paramount importance for designing successful, cost-effective advertising campaigns.

  4. Local and regional factors influencing bacterial community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Eva S; Langenheder, Silke

    2012-02-01

    The classical view states that microbial biogeography is not affected by dispersal barriers or historical events, but only influenced by the local contemporary habitat conditions (species sorting). This has been challenged during recent years by studies suggesting that also regional factors such as mass effect, dispersal limitation and neutral assembly are important for the composition of local bacterial communities. Here we summarize results from biogeography studies in different environments, i.e. in marine, freshwater and soil as well in human hosts. Species sorting appears to be the most important mechanism. However, this result might be biased since this is the mechanism that is easiest to measure, detect and interpret. Hence, the importance of regional factors may have been underestimated. Moreover, our survey indicates that different assembly mechanisms might be important for different parts of the total community, differing, for example, between generalists and specialists, and between taxa of different dispersal ability and motility. We conclude that there is a clear need for experimental studies, first, to clearly separate regional and local factors in order to study their relative importance, and second, to test whether there are differences in assembly mechanisms depending on different taxonomic or functional groups.

  5. Spatial patterns of sea surface temperature influences on East African precipitation as revealed by empirical orthogonal teleconnections

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    Tim eAppelhans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available East Africa is characterized by a rather dry annual precipitation climatology with two distinct rainy seasons. In order to investigate sea surface temperature driven precipitation anomalies for the region we use the algorithm of empirical orthogonal teleconnection analysis as a data mining tool. We investigate the entire East African domain as well as 5 smaller sub-regions mainly located in areas of mountainous terrain. In searching for influential sea surface temperature patterns we do not focus any particular season or oceanic region. Furthermore, we investigate different time lags from zero to twelve months. The strongest influence is identified for the immediate (i.e. non-lagged influences of the Indian Ocean in close vicinity to the East African coast. None of the most important modes are located in the tropical Pacific Ocean, though the region is sometimes coupled with the Indian Ocean basin. Furthermore, we identify a region in the southern Indian Ocean around the Kerguelen Plateau which has not yet been reported in the literature with regard to precipitation modulation in East Africa. Finally, it is observed that not all regions in East Africa are equally influenced by the identified patterns.

  6. Models of and approaches to the station management of six African community radio broadcasters

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    Linje Manyozo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a political economy critique that contributes to current scholarship on community radio and development by examining the question of the management of six networks from Mali, Mozambique and Uganda. This discussion argues that understanding the models and functions of management committees will go a long way towards contributing to conversations on how community radios could achieve social, institutional, financial and ideological sustainability. The article also examines how management committees approach their work in the age of new Information Communication Technologies (especially mobile phones, computers and the Internet, and whether there is a gender digital divide within such committees. At the centre of thecurrent discussion, therefore, is an attempt to understand the flow and contestation of power within community radio management committees.

  7. Filaria dance sign and subclinical hydrocoele in two east African communities with bancroftian filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Paul E; Bernhard, Peter; Jaoko, Walter G; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Magnussen, Pascal; Michael, Edwin

    2002-01-01

    During population-wide cross-sectional surveys for Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia, circulating antigenaemia, and clinical disease in a high and a low endemicity community in East Africa in 1998, a portable ultrasound scanner was used simultaneously to examine the scrotal tissue of the male populations (n = 422 and 328, respectively) for signs of adult worms. The overall microfilaria (mf) and circulating filarial antigen (CFA) prevalences in the scanned males were 30.8% and 53.6% in the high and 4.3% and 19.8% in the low endemicity community, respectively. During ultrasound examination, the filaria dance sign (FDS)--indicating the presence of live adult W. bancrofti worms--was observed in 16.1% and 6.7% of the males in these communities, respectively. This examination also revealed that subclinical hydrocoele (fluid accumulation in the scrotal sac, not detected during physical examination for clinical hydrocoele) was very common, affecting 25.3% and 15.5% of the examined males in the high and low endemicity community, respectively. Both of these ultrasonographic signs started to appear around the age of puberty and were most common in adults. In the high endemicity community, the prevalence and mean intensity of mf and CFA were considerably higher in FDS-positive than in FDS-negative adult males, whereas no obvious difference in these parameters was noted between adult males with and without subclinical or the combination of clinical and subclinical hydrocoele. Associations were less clear in the low endemicity community, probably because of the low number of infected individuals. The application of ultrasonography as a tool in bancroftian filariasis epidemiological field studies thus indicated that scrotal pathology may be much more common in endemic areas than hitherto reported.

  8. Development and validation of risk profiles of West African rural communities facing multiple natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare-Kyei, Daniel; Renaud, Fabrice G; Kloos, Julia; Walz, Yvonne; Rhyner, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    West Africa has been described as a hotspot of climate change. The reliance on rain-fed agriculture by over 65% of the population means that vulnerability to climatic hazards such as droughts, rainstorms and floods will continue. Yet, the vulnerability and risk levels faced by different rural social-ecological systems (SES) affected by multiple hazards are poorly understood. To fill this gap, this study quantifies risk and vulnerability of rural communities to drought and floods. Risk is assessed using an indicator-based approach. A stepwise methodology is followed that combines participatory approaches with statistical, remote sensing and Geographic Information System techniques to develop community level vulnerability indices in three watersheds (Dano, Burkina Faso; Dassari, Benin; Vea, Ghana). The results show varying levels of risk profiles across the three watersheds. Statistically significant high levels of mean risk in the Dano area of Burkina Faso are found whilst communities in the Dassari area of Benin show low mean risk. The high risk in the Dano area results from, among other factors, underlying high exposure to droughts and rainstorms, longer dry season duration, low caloric intake per capita, and poor local institutions. The study introduces the concept of community impact score (CIS) to validate the indicator-based risk and vulnerability modelling. The CIS measures the cumulative impact of the occurrence of multiple hazards over five years. 65.3% of the variance in observed impact of hazards/CIS was explained by the risk models and communities with high simulated disaster risk generally follow areas with high observed disaster impacts. Results from this study will help disaster managers to better understand disaster risk and develop appropriate, inclusive and well integrated mitigation and adaptation plans at the local level. It fulfills the increasing need to balance global/regional assessments with community level assessments where major decisions

  9. Actor interfaces and practices of power in a community health worker programme: a South African study of unintended policy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Uta; Gilson, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    This paper makes a contribution to a much-neglected aspect of policy analysis: the practice of power in implementation. Practices of power are at the heart of every policy process, yet are rarely explicitly explored in the health policy literature. This paper provides a detailed study of micro-practices of power by those at the frontline of service delivery in the implementation of a national community health worker policy in one rural South African sub-district. The paper is based on a small-scale qualitative study which collected data through observations, interviews and focus group discussions with health services and facility managers, community health workers and community members. Practices of power were analysed using VeneKlasen and Miller's categorization of multiple dimensions of power, as power over, power with, power to and power within. Furthermore, the concept of 'actor interface analysis' allowed exploration of different actors' experience, interests and their specific location in the landscape of local health system governance. The study revealed that almost all policy actors exercised some form of power, from authoritative power, derived from hierarchy and budget control, to the discretionary power of those working at lower levels to withhold labour or organize in-service training. Each of these practices of power had their rationale in different actors' efforts to make the intervention 'fit' their understandings of local reality. While each had a limited impact on policy outcomes, their cumulative effect produced a significant thinning down of the policy's intent. However, discretionary power was not always used to undermine policy. One manager's use of discretionary power in fact led to a partial reconstruction of the original policy intent. The paper concludes that understanding and being responsive to the complexity of local realities, interests and contexts and the multi-layered practices of power may allow managers to adopt more appropriate

  10. Influence of Mentoring on African American and Hispanic Males in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacqueline A.

    2016-01-01

    The mixed method research study was designed to evaluate the effects on a mentoring initiative on 40 African American and Hispanic males in an urban high school. The study took place over a three-month period in a traditional public school with 2,000 students. Data collection methods used included individual interview with student mentees, surveys…

  11. Friendships Influence Hispanic Students' Implicit Attitudes toward White Non-Hispanics Relative to African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberson, Christopher L.; Porter, Michael K.; Gaffney, Amber M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of Hispanic students' friendships with White non-Hispanics (n-Hs) and African Americans (AAs) in predicting implicit and explicit prejudices toward these groups. Participants (N = 73) completed implicit and explicit attitude measures and a friendship questionnaire. Friendships were associated with implicit attitudes…

  12. African American Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Competence at School: The Influence of Teachers and Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Strickland, Jennifer; Keenan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Children learn social and emotional competence through socialization. Research has focused on the role of parents, however teachers also play an important part. This study examined the social and emotional competence of preschool African American children and the role teachers and mothers played in supporting these competencies. Teachers who…

  13. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women's Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use.

  14. The Influence of Science Summer Camp on African-American High School Students' Career Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumita; Mead, Timothy P.; Nathaniel, Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    This study explored if a weeklong science camp changed Louisiana African-American high school students' perception of science. A semi-structured survey was used before and after the camp to determine the changes in science attitudes and career choices. Among the perceived benefits were parental involvement, increased science academic ability, and…

  15. The Influence of Demographic and Economic Factors on Fear of Crime among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Keith D.; Onyekwuluje, Anne B.

    1992-01-01

    Studies factors associated with fear of crime for 585 African-American urban residents from Atlanta (Georgia) and Washington (DC). Many residents thought the streets were safe day or night. Gender was a predictor of fear of crime during the day, and gender and age predicted fear of night crime. (SLD)

  16. Predicting the Influence of Social Resources on African American Wife and Daughter Caregivers' Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozario, Philip A.; Chadiha, Letha A.; Proctor, Enola K.; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This study--on 100 African American wife and 258 daughter primary caregivers--uses a contextual approach in its examination of the relationship between social resources and caregiver depressive symptoms. At the bivariate level, significant differences in certain key characteristics of primary caregivers and care receivers underscore the…

  17. Evolutionary and Political Economic Influences on Biological Diversity in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fatimah Linda Collier

    1993-01-01

    Examines existing data on biological diversity among Americans of African descent within the contexts of their evolutionary backgrounds and political and economic realities. Explores the origins of the diversity, and provides an evolutionary and political economy synthesis for evaluating the biological distinctions apparent among African…

  18. Influence of Family Perceptions of Acting White on Acculturative Stress in African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…

  19. Rural communities in the Central African context : the Nkoya of Central Western Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Nkoya is an ethnic and linguistic label applying to about 50,000 people inhabiting the wooded plateau of Central Western Zambia. The author discusses the valley as the effective rural community and the villages as the main constituent social units within the valley and finally indicates the place of

  20. Exploring factors influencing voluntary turnover intent of Generation X public servants: A South African case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Nienaber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report on the factors perceived to influence the turnover intent of Generation X public servants. The problem: The researcher investigated the factors that Generation X public servants in South Africa perceive as influencing their turnover intent. Design: The problem was studied by way of a case study. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. A total of eight purposively selected Generation X public servants participated in this study. Findings: The findings of the study show that the factors influencing the turnover intent of the Generation X public servants correspond to some of those proposed in the literature, including the nature of the job, traditional attitudes, and organisational context, both on the macro- and the micro-levels. Furthermore, these factors are also congruent with the drivers of engagement as set out in the literature, specifically content, coping, compensation, community and career. One of the implications of the findings of this study is that although the value of employees to organisations were established as long ago as the Renaissance, organisations still do not capitalise on their most important asset. It is in particular the direct (line manager that plays a crucial role in optimising the value-add of employees. Value: This study is original as it was the first to investigate the turnover intentions of Generation X public servants. Generation X employees are important as they are deemed to be the knowledge repositories of organisations and they are next in line to support the organisation when the Baby Boomers retire. The perceived turnover intentions correspond to some of the components of the generic turnover model proposed by Holtom et al. (2008. The question that arises is whether the turnover intentions of Generation X are any different from other generations. Conclusions: Given their unique characteristics, Generation X is a turnover risk, which

  1. Feasibility and acceptability of ACT for the community case management of malaria in urban settings in five African sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traoré Abdoulaye

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The community case management of malaria (CCMm is now an established route for distribution of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT in rural areas, but the feasibility and acceptability of the approach through community medicine distributors (CMD in urban areas has not been explored. It is estimated that in 15 years time 50% of the African population will live in urban areas and transmission of the malaria parasite occurs in these densely populated areas. Methods Pre- and post-implementation studies were conducted in five African cities: Ghana, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Malawi. CMDs were trained to educate caregivers, diagnose and treat malaria cases in Results Qualitative findings: In all sites, interviews revealed that caregivers' knowledge of malaria signs and symptoms improved after the intervention. Preference for CMDs as preferred providers for malaria increased in all sites. Quantitative findings: 9001 children with an episode of fever were treated by 199 CMDs in the five study sites. Results from the CHWs registers show that of these, 6974 were treated with an ACT and 6933 (99% were prescribed the correct dose for their age. Fifty-four percent of the 3,025 children for which information about the promptness of treatment was available were treated within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. From the household survey 3700 children were identified who had an episode of fever during the preceding two weeks. 1480 (40% of them sought treatment from a CMD and 1213 of them (82% had received an ACT. Of these, 1123 (92.6% were administered the ACT for the correct number of doses and days; 773 of the 1118 (69.1% children for which information about the promptness of treatment was available were treated within 24 hours from onset of symptoms, and 768 (68.7% were treated promptly and correctly. Conclusions The concept of CCMm in an urban environment was positive, and caregivers were generally satisfied with the services

  2. Reading, Interpreting, and Teaching African American History: Examining How African American History Influences the Curricular and Pedagogical Decisions of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2012-01-01

    African American history and how it is taught in classroom spaces have been a point of contention with activists, historians, and educators for decades. In it current form, African American history narratives often are ambiguous and truncated, leaving students with a disjointed construction about U.S. history. Additionally, the pedagogical…

  3. Uncovering cryptic species diversity of a termite community in a West African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Barbara; Kimpel, Dorothea; van Neer, Abbo; Korb, Judith

    2011-12-01

    To uncover the termite species diversity of a natural African savanna ecosystem, we combined morphological analyses and sequencing of three gene fragments (cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome oxidase II and 28SrDNA, total length about 2450 bp) to infer putative species from phylogenetic trees. We identified 18 putative species clusters with high support values and which we retrieved consistently. Samples from two genera (Ancistrotermes and Microcerotermes) were excluded from the mitochondrial phylogenetic analyses as they might represent nuclear mitochondrial sequences (NUMTs). In total, our data suggest a species richness of at least 20 species, all but one belonging to the Termitidae (higher termites), and among them the fungus-growing Macrotermitinae were most prevalent with at least nine putative species. Within the fungus-growers the most species-rich genus was Microtermes and its four putative species were all cryptic species. Their abundance in the samples suggests that they play an important ecological role which is completely unstudied also due to the lack of reliable identification means. Our study shows that morphological traits are unreliable means of species identification for several termite taxa. Yet reliable and consistent identification is necessary for studying the functional role of termites in ecosystem and global processes.

  4. Maternal views on infant hearing loss and early intervention in a South African community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, DeWet; Almec, Nizha

    2008-01-01

    Parental knowledge and attitudes regarding infant hearing loss are crucial to the successful implementation of EHDI programs, especially in developing countries where concerns have been raised of cultural-based ignorance and resistance towards childhood disabilities. This study investigated maternal knowledge and attitudes amongst 100 South African mothers accessing the public healthcare system using a face-to-face survey. The questionnaire (16 items) probed knowledge of infant hearing loss, superstitious cultural beliefs, and attitude towards early detection and intervention for hearing loss. Results indicate that more than 50% of the sample correctly identified three common etiological factors (ear discharge, medication, congenital) for infant hearing loss. At least one superstitious cultural belief regarding a possible cause of hearing loss was held by 57%. Maternal attitude was overwhelmingly positive with 99% indicating the desire to have their baby's hearing screened after birth and a high acceptance of hearing aids. The study demonstrates a need for increased maternal awareness regarding infant hearing loss but also a readiness for implementation of EHDI programs.

  5. Utilizing findings from a gender-based analysis to address chronic disease prevention and management among African-American women in a Michigan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women.

  6. "Just Piles of Rocks to Developers but Places of Worship to Native Americans" - Exploring the Significance of Earth Jurisprudence for South African Cultural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matome M Ratiba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the years cultural communities across the world have borne witness to many unending attempts at the destruction of their places of worship. This endemic problem has arisen in a number of places, such as in the USA and in most of the world's former colonies. Having been colonised, South African cultural communities have experienced the same threats to their various sacred sites. This article seeks to argue and demonstrate that cultural communities in South Africa stand to benefit from the properly construed and rich earth jurisprudence arising out of the courtroom experiences of some of the cultural communities identified elsewhere in the world. It also proposes several arguments peculiar to South Africa which could be advanced by cultural communities seeking to protect their sacred lands.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a South African community with high HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelkoop, Keren; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mathema, Barun; Shashkina, Elena; Kurepina, Natalia; Whitelaw, Andrew; Fallows, Dorothy; Morrow, Carl; Kreiswirth, Barry; Kaplan, Gilla; Wood, Robin

    2009-10-15

    To explore the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes, we performed IS6110-based restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis on M. tuberculosis culture specimens from patients with smear-positive tuberculosis in a periurban community in South Africa from 2001 through 2005. Among 151 isolates, 95 strains were identified within 26 families, with 54% clustering. HIV status was associated with W-Beijing strains (P = .009) but not with clustering per se. The high frequency of clustering suggests ongoing transmission in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals in this community. The strong association between W-Beijing and HIV infection may have important implications for tuberculosis control.

  8. Validity of the SF-12 for Use in a Low-Income African American Community-Based Research Initiative (REACH 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia O. Larson, PhD

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe objective of our study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Medical Outcomes Study’s 12-Item Short Form Survey Instrument (SF-12 for use in a low-income African American community. The SF-12, a commonly used functional health status assessment, was developed based on responses of an ethnically homogeneous sample of whites. Our assessment addressed the appropriateness of the instrument for establishing baseline indicators for mental and physical health status as part of Nashville, Tennessee’s, Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH 2010 initiative, a community-based participatory research study.MethodsA cross-sectional random residential sample of 1721 African Americans responded to a telephone survey that included the SF-12 survey items and other indicators of mental and physical health status. The SF-12 was assessed by examining item-level characteristics, estimates of scale reliability (internal consistency, and construct validity.ResultsConstruct validity assessed by the method of extreme groups determined that SF-12 summary scores varied for individuals who differed in self-reported medical conditions. Convergent and discriminate validity assessed by multitrait analysis yielded satisfactory coefficients. Concurrent validity was also shown to be satisfactory, assessed by correlating SF-12 summary scores with independent measures of physical and mental health status.ConclusionThe SF-12 appears to be a valid measure for assessing health status of low-income African Americans.

  9. Factors influencing editorial work within the sectors of the South African editing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Ann Law

    2014-01-01

    South African editors currently work in a highly diversified industry that comprises a number of different sectors. As a result of this, the role of the editor remains contentious, with varied definitions and demarcations of editorial tasks and skills. This article sets out the argument that editorial work in South Africa is characterised by specific factors which determine the importance (or otherwise) of certain editorial tasks and skills in each sector. To demonstrate this, this article re...

  10. The influence of ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on African American adolescents' school and socioemotional adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carol A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Sameroff, Arnold

    2003-12-01

    Do experiences with racial discrimination at school predict changes in African American adolescents' academic and psychological functioning? Does African American ethnic identity buffer these relations? This paper addresses these two questions using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of African American adolescents living in and near a major East Coast metropolis. The data were collected at the beginning of the 7th grade and after the completion of the 8th grade. As expected, experiences of racial discrimination at school from one's teachers and peers predicts declines in grades, academic ability self-concepts, academic task values, mental health (increases in depression and anger, decreases in self-esteem and psychological resiliency), and increases in the proportion of one's friends who are not interested in school and who have problem behaviors. A strong, positive connection to one's ethnic group (our measure of ethnic identity) reduced the magnitude of the association of racial discrimination experiences with declines in academic self-concepts, school achievement, and perception of friends' positive characteristics, as well as the association of the racial discrimination experiences with increases in problem behaviors.

  11. Elder abuse and neglect in African American families: informing practice based on ecological and cultural frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A

    2011-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model.

  12. Changed and changing gender and family roles and domestic violence in African refugee background communities post-settlement in Perth, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Colleen

    2013-07-01

    In this study, domestic violence (DV) in five African refugee background communities post-settlement in Perth, Australia, is investigated-specifically, the interrelationship between experiences of DV, and changed and changing gender and family roles and responsibilities. The participatory qualitative design utilized in-depth interviews with 54 members of the Somalian, Sierra Leonean, Ethiopian, Liberian and Sudanese Communities, and focus groups with 24 professionals who support them. Three key dimensions of this interrelationship are discussed: "male loss of the breadwinner role and status," "financial independence," and "mismatch between formal response and expectations." The importance of understanding experiences of DV within the context of cultural transition is highlighted here.

  13. Identifying communities by influence dynamics in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Stanoev, Angel; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2011-01-01

    Communities are not static; they evolve, split and merge, appear and disappear, i.e. they are product of dynamical processes that govern the evolution of the network. A good algorithm for community detection should not only quantify the topology of the network, but incorporate the dynamical processes that take place on the network. We present a novel algorithm for community detection that combines network structure with processes that support creation and/or evolution of communities. The algorithm does not embrace the universal approach but instead tries to focus on social networks and model dynamic social interactions that occur on those networks. It identifies leaders, and communities that form around those leaders. It naturally supports overlapping communities by associating each node with a membership vector that describes node's involvement in each community. This way, in addition to overlapping communities, we can identify nodes that are good followers to their leader, and also nodes with no clear commu...

  14. Can E- Commerce Enable Marketing in an African Rural Women's Community Based Development Organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Rhodes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested by various sources (Worldbank, 2000; Cypher, 1997 that investment in infrastructure and modern technologies such as ITC's may break down some of the barriers of access such as physical remoteness for poor rural communities. However there is little existing research that examines this sce-nario at the micro level. This paper uses a case study- the Rural Women's Association (RWA of Sek-huhkuneland, Northern Province, South Africa to examine if E- commerce can enable access to markets in an impoverished, under resourced rural location. This paper has five parts: Part 1 consists of the background and rationale for this study, Part 2 focuses on the education, business acumen and gender issues. Part 3 discusses the current market environment. Part 4 discusses possible business models that can integrate e-commerce in its implementation. Part 5 provides the research questions and the method-ology for this study. The final discussion in this study provides us with a viable e-commerce model that could be used in a rural setting and could provide greater economic development for this community.

  15. Community Attitudes towards Culture-Influenced Mental Illness: Scrupulosity vs. Nonreligious OCD among Orthodox Jews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirutinsky, Steven; Rosmarin, David H.; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Culture may particularly influence community attitudes towards mental illness, when the illness itself is shaped by a cultural context. To explore the influence of culture-specific, religious symptoms on Orthodox Jewish community attitudes, the authors compared the attitudes of 169 Orthodox Jews, who randomly viewed one of two vignettes describing…

  16. Factors Influencing Teachers' Level of Participation in Online Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Fariza; Joyes, Gordon; Ellison, Linda; Daud, Md Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    The use of an online learning community is one possible approach to teachers' professional development that can enhance the opportunity for collaboration. Discussions in online learning communities not only allow community members to share resources, ideas and expertise, but also contribute to the fulfilment of teachers' needs in terms of…

  17. Interpreting the Influence of Community College Attendance upon Baccalaureate Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    2007-01-01

    National quantitative studies examining the impact of community college attendance upon educational attainment conclude that initial attendance at a community college (as opposed to a 4-year institution) reduces the likelihood of attaining a bachelor's degree. Yet these studies, which suggest that initial attendance at a community college is not a…

  18. Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

    2011-09-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model

  19. Household and community socioeconomic influences on early childhood malnutrition in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Kuate-Defo, Barthelemy

    2006-05-01

    This paper uses multilevel modelling and Demographic and Health Survey data from five African countries to investigate the relative contributions of compositional and contextual effects of socioeconomic status and place of residence in perpetuating differences in the prevalence of malnutrition among children in Africa. It finds that community clustering of childhood malnutrition is accounted for by contextual effects over and above likely compositional effects, that urban-rural differentials are mainly explained by the socioeconomic status of communities and households, that childhood malnutrition occurs more frequently among children from poorer households and/or poorer communities and that living in deprived communities has an independent effect in some instances. This study also reveals that socioeconomic inequalities in childhood malnutrition are more pronounced in urban centres than in rural areas.

  20. Introduction of standard measles vaccination in an urban African community in 1979 and overall child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Aaby, Peter; Smedman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    in the anthropometric survey. The cohort was followed for 2 years. INTERVENTION: In December 1979, the children were re-examined anthropometrically. The participating children, aged 6 months to 6 years, were offered MV if they did not have a history of measles infection. There were no routine vaccinations in 1979......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the first introduction of measles vaccine (MV) in Guinea-Bissau in 1979. SETTING: Urban community study of the anthropometric status of all children under 6 years of age. PARTICIPANTS: The study cohort included 1451 children in December 1978; 82% took part......-1980. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for measles vaccinated and not vaccinated children; changes in nutritional status. RESULTS: The nutritional status deteriorated significantly from 1978 to 1979. Nonetheless, children who received MV at the December 1979...

  1. Democratic local governance in the Southern African Development Community region: Some emerging issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornwell Chikulo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent reforms have been transforming the structure of local governance in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC region. Since the 1990s, a critical objective of governance reform has been the strengthening of local government by the decentralization of powers, resources and responsibilities to local authorities and other locally administered bodies. These reforms have been labelled ‘democratic decentralization’ by scholars (Ribot, 2004; Olowu & Wunsch, 2004. Democratic decentralization refers to initiatives which entail the transfer of significant authority, responsibility for services, fiscal and human resources to local governance. The objective of the reforms was to capacitate local governance structures, as well as to increase the capacity and productivity of the public sector in general (Hope & Chikulo, 2000. Efforts to improve institutional effectiveness, accountability and service delivery at the local level thus have been a major focus throughout the region.

  2. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults' Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research,…

  3. The influence of interspecific competition and host preference on the phylogeography of two African ixodid tick species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangi, Nídia; Horak, Ivan G; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Matthee, Sonja; das Neves, Luís C B G; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Matthee, Conrad A

    2013-01-01

    A comparative phylogeographic study on two economically important African tick species, Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma rufipes was performed to test the influence of host specificity and host movement on dispersion. Pairwise AMOVA analyses of 277 mtDNA COI sequences supported significant population differentiation among the majority of sampling sites. The geographic mitochondrial structure was not supported by nuclear ITS-2 sequencing, probably attributed to a recent divergence. The three-host generalist, A. hebraeum, showed less mtDNA geographic structure, and a lower level of genetic diversity, while the more host-specific H. rufipes displayed higher levels of population differentiation and two distinct mtDNA assemblages (one predominantly confined to South Africa/Namibia and the other to Mozambique and East Africa). A zone of overlap is present in southern Mozambique. A mechanistic climate model suggests that climate alone cannot be responsible for the disruption in female gene flow. Our findings furthermore suggest that female gene dispersal of ticks is more dependent on the presence of juvenile hosts in the environment than on the ability of adult hosts to disperse across the landscape. Documented interspecific competition between the juvenile stages of H. rufipes and H. truncatum is implicated as a contributing factor towards disrupting gene flow between the two southern African H. rufipes genetic assemblages.

  4. The influence of interspecific competition and host preference on the phylogeography of two African ixodid tick species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nídia Cangi

    Full Text Available A comparative phylogeographic study on two economically important African tick species, Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma rufipes was performed to test the influence of host specificity and host movement on dispersion. Pairwise AMOVA analyses of 277 mtDNA COI sequences supported significant population differentiation among the majority of sampling sites. The geographic mitochondrial structure was not supported by nuclear ITS-2 sequencing, probably attributed to a recent divergence. The three-host generalist, A. hebraeum, showed less mtDNA geographic structure, and a lower level of genetic diversity, while the more host-specific H. rufipes displayed higher levels of population differentiation and two distinct mtDNA assemblages (one predominantly confined to South Africa/Namibia and the other to Mozambique and East Africa. A zone of overlap is present in southern Mozambique. A mechanistic climate model suggests that climate alone cannot be responsible for the disruption in female gene flow. Our findings furthermore suggest that female gene dispersal of ticks is more dependent on the presence of juvenile hosts in the environment than on the ability of adult hosts to disperse across the landscape. Documented interspecific competition between the juvenile stages of H. rufipes and H. truncatum is implicated as a contributing factor towards disrupting gene flow between the two southern African H. rufipes genetic assemblages.

  5. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  6. Social Media and eBusiness: Cultural Impacts on the Influence Process in Consumer Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Hong; Xu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Social media has been used as an important tool by firms to influence consumers’ attitude and behavior. Influence occurs in consumer communities in social media because community members have the control of discovering, producing, sharing, and distributing information and because the spread out of their experiences and opinions in the format of electronic word-of-mouth forms emerging conformance. Prior research has explored how the influence occurring in online social media communities impacts consumers’ attitude and behavior (e.g., product attitude and purchase decision, effectual thinking and behavior, brand trust and brand loyalty). But because social media has the ability of global reach, cross-border factors should not be neglected in studying the influence process. As such, this paper adopts national cultural dimensions identified by Hofstede (1984), individualism/collectivism and power distance particularly, the index of cultural distance, and the social influence theory to explore how culture impacts the influence occurring in consumer communities in social media.

  7. African dust influence on ambient PM levels in South-Western Europe (Spain and Portugal): A quantitative approach to support implementation of Air Quality Directives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X; Alastuey, A; Pey, J; Perez, N; Escudero, M; Castillo, S; Alonso-Perez, S [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC. Barcelona (Spain); Cristobal, A; Pallares, M; Gonzalez, A; Jimenez, S; Alonso, N [D.G. Calidad y Evaluacion Ambiental, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (Spain); Cuevas, E [Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Agencia Estatal de MeteorologIa, Tenerife (Spain); Rosa, J de la [Universidad de Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: xavier.querol@ija.csic.es

    2009-03-01

    This manuscript proposes and validates a methodology for the quantification of the daily African PM load during dust outbreaks in southern Europe. The daily net dust load in PM10 attributable to an African episode can be obtained by subtracting the daily regional background (RB) level from the PM{sub 10} concentration value at a RB station. The daily RB level can be obtained by applying a monthly moving 30th percentile to the PM{sub 10} time series at a RB station after a prior extraction of the data coincident with African dust transport. For days with influence of African dust, the dust load is given by the difference between the daily PM{sub 10} values minus the daily PM{sub 10} RB levels. This method allows us to quantify the net African dust load without chemical speciation. The comparison between the estimated net load during African dust outbreaks (ADO) and the crustal load determined by chemical speciation of PM{sub 10} filters at three RB stations in Spain had resulted in a very good correlation (R{sup 2}=0.60-0.83), being the equivalence (correlation lines' slopes {approx} 1) highly significant in the three cases.

  8. The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale: confirmatory factor structure and relationship with body dissatisfaction among African American and Anglo American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen

    2009-06-01

    The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale (MMIS; Cusumano & Thompson, 2001). Media influence and body image in 8-11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on the multidimensional media influence scale. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 37-44) is a child-appropriate, 3-factor scale designed to assess perceived media influence on body image. It has been used in studies exploring the relationship between the entire scale as well as its subscales (awareness, internalization, and pressure) and variables related to body image. However, the 3-factor structure of the scale has never been confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), nor has the scale been evaluated with a racially diverse sample of children. This paper reports the results of CFAs establishing the multidimensionality of the scale and the unidimensionality of its subscales among a sample of 661 girls and boys aged 7-12 years, primarily African American and Anglo American. The pressure factor of the MMIS predicted the idealization of a thinner current (child) and future (adult) body both cross-sectionally and one year later for girls and for Anglo American children.

  9. The significance of social context: the case of adolescent childbearing in the African American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henly, J R

    1993-11-01

    The persistence of racial differences in US adolescent pregnancy and contraceptive use rates even after traditional indicators of social class (e.g., parental education, income, or occupation) are controlled suggests a need to focus on broader social contextual issues. Important dimensions of the social context neglected in traditional approaches to socioeconomic status include the level of racial discrimination in the community, the percentage of same-race high status workers, the differential incentives of Blacks and Whites to avoid adolescent childbearing, the quality of schools attended, and the ability of families to provide child supervision. In addition, studies comparing the long-term effects of adolescent childbearing have found less severe costs for Blacks than Whites. This finding suggests the salience of psychosocial factors such as individual resiliency and survival. Although amelioration of poverty must be a major emphasis of social policy aimed at preventing adolescent pregnancy, employment programs that prepare teens for low-paying or nonexistent jobs and other interventions that fail to address the broader social context of discrimination are insufficient.

  10. Population education and ILO: African programmes of population and social community welfare education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon-castaneda, P; Pour, H; Simbeye, A

    1985-06-01

    The information and population education and social and community welfare program drawn up by the International Labor Organization (ILO) aims at the improvement of the living conditions of workers through relating their incomes and needs to the basic needs of the family. The integration of voluntary associations in project activities can increase the effectiveness of messages; the multiplicity of information channels enlarges the scope and strenthens credibility insofar as these channels are accepted by the target groups. When it comes to determining the contents intended for groups such as trade unions, village committees, or cooperatives, a study of the area is undertaken to know their specific situation and the aspects concerning their population and social welfare problems. Population education provided by ILO deals with 2 primordial factors: 1) the improvement of working methods which will make it possible for individuals to improve of their health and living conditions while earning better incomes, and 2) the sharing all knowledge between men and women to encourage men to assume better responsibilities. The level of education of persons affected by projects is very different; they represent a complete range from the literate and semi-literate to the illiterate. Different units of production of educational equipment are being organized to meet material demand. In conclusion, educational and social welfare programs conform to the recommendations of the conference and will continue to draw on the World Population Action Plan to improve standards of living and quality of life for all people.

  11. Photochemistry of the African troposphere: Influence of biomass-burning emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marufu, L.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    2000-06-01

    The relative importance of biomass-burning (pyrogenic) emissions from savannas, deforestation, agricultural waste burning, and biofuel consumption to tropospheric ozone abundance over Africa has been estimated for the year 1993, on the basis of global model calculations. We also calculated the importance of this emission source to tropospheric ozone in other regions of the world and compared it to different sources on the African regional and global scales. The estimated annual average total tropospheric ozone abundance over Africa for the reference year is 26 Tg. Pyrogenic, industrial, biogenic, and lightning emissions account for 16, 19, 12, and 27%, respectively, while stratospheric ozone input accounts for 26%. In the planetary boundary layer over Africa, the contribution by biomass burning is ˜24%. A large fraction of the African biomass-burning-related ozone is transported away from the continent. On a global scale, biomass burning contributes ˜9% to tropospheric ozone. Our model calculations suggest that Africa is the single most important region for biomass-burning-related tropospheric ozone, accounting for ˜35% of the global annual pyrogenic ozone enhancement of 29 Tg in 1993.

  12. Social factors influence ovarian acyclicity in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elizabeth W; Guagnano, Greg; Olson, Deborah; Keele, Mike; Brown, Janine L

    2009-01-01

    Nearly one-third of reproductive age African elephants in North America that are hormonally monitored fail to exhibit estrous cycle activity, which exacerbates the nonsustainability of the captive population. Three surveys were distributed to facilities housing female African elephants to determine how social and environmental variables contribute to cyclicity problems. Forty-six facilities returned all three surveys providing information on 90% of the SSP population and 106 elephants (64 cycling, 27 noncycling and 15 undetermined). Logistic analyses found that some physiological and social history variables were related to ovarian acyclicity. Females more likely to be acyclic had a larger body mass index and had resided longer at a facility with the same herdmates. Results suggest that controlling the weight of an elephant might be a first step to helping mitigate estrous cycle problems. Data further show that transferring females among facilities has no major impact on ovarian activity. Last, social status appears to impact cyclicity status; at 19 of 21 facilities that housed both cycling and noncycling elephants, the dominant female was acyclic. Further studies on how social and environmental dynamics affect hormone levels in free-living, cycling elephants are needed to determine whether acyclicity is strictly a captivity-related phenomenon.

  13. Social capital, narratives of fragmentation, and schizophrenia: an ethnographic exploration of factors shaping African-Caribbeans' social capital and mental health in a North London community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliacin, Johanne

    2013-09-01

    Recent research studies have proposed the concept of social capital-broadly defined as social networks, community cohesion, and participation-as a social risk factor for health disparities and the high rates of schizophrenia among individuals of Caribbean heritage in England. However, many of the existing studies lack sociohistorical contexts and do not capture the experiential dimensions of individuals' social capital. This paper adds to the debate by examining the mechanisms and sociocultural processes that shape the understandings and experiences of social capital in a sample of British African-Caribbeans. Drawing on ethnographic and survey data collected over 2 years in a North London community, the paper focuses on participants' every day experiences and the stories they tell about their community and social fragmentation. These stories suggest that social changes and historical forces interact to affect the social capital and emotional well-being of local African-Caribbean residents. I argue that my participants' collective narratives about their social environment contribute to the emotional tone of the community, and create added stressors that may impact their mental health.

  14. Vegetation factors influencing density and distribution of wild large herbivores in a southern African savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing large herbivore densities and distribution in terrestrial ecosystems is a fundamental goal of ecology. This study examined environmental factors influencing the density and distribution of wild large herbivores in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Vegetation and s

  15. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could

  16. The Influence of Involvement with Faculty and Mentoring on the Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement of African American and Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreitas, Stacie Craft; Bravo, Antonio, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    African American and Latino college students were surveyed to examine the influence of involvement with faculty and mentoring on self-efficacy and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that involvement with faculty and mentoring were related to greater academic achievement. It was suggested that the relationship of these factors was mediated…

  17. An Action Research Study on the Influence of Gangsta Rap on Academic and Behavioral Issues of 5th Grade African-American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shaun; Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julie S.

    2015-01-01

    This small action research study (ARS) began with a review of the literature examining the relationship of gangsta rap in regards to academic achievement, self-esteem, decision-making, identity issues and development of young African American males. The purpose of the ARS was to examine the correlation between gangsta rap and its influence on 5th…

  18. Influences on HIV Testing among Young African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men and the Moderating Effect of the Geographic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Miller, Robin L.; Clark, Leslie F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, knowledge, and psychosocial variables on HIV testing among a sample (n = 551) of young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) from three cities--Atlanta (n = 241), Birmingham (n = 174), and Chicago (n = 136). Among the entire sample of young men, age,…

  19. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  20. Physical and Radiative Properties of Aerosol Particles in the Caribbean: Influence of African Dust and Soufriere Volcanic Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Birriel, C. M.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Sheridan, P.; Ogren, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric particles such as dust and volcanic ash have the potential of influencing the earth's radiative budget directly by scattering or absorbing solar radiation in the atmosphere and indirectly by affecting cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and, therefore, cloud albedo. The radiatively-important properties of atmospheric particles are determined at the most fundamental level by their chemical composition and size distributions; therefore, the importance of studying the chemical, physical, and optical aerosol properties. Over the summer months, the island of Puerto Rico receives African dust incursions that reduce visibility and have an impact on public health, ecosystem, and climate. Visibility is also negatively affected when the island receives south-east winds and the Soufriere volcano (Montserrat Island) has been active. Here we present preliminary results of measurements performed during 2006 and 2007 at Cape San Juan, a ground-based station located at the northeastern tip of Puerto Rico. The cases investigated showed three possible types of air masses: clean (C), with African Dust (AD), and with volcanic ash (VA) from the Soufriere. We used a condensation particle counter to determine the particle number concentration, a sunphotometer (part of the AERONET) to determine volume size distributions and aerosol optical thickness (AOT), a 3-wavelength nephelometer to determine the scattering coefficients, and a 3-wavelength particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP) for the absorption coefficients. The particle number concentrations were higher for AD and VA periods (up to about 700 cm-3 on average for both cases) in contrast to ~400 cm-3 for the C period. Volume size distributions showed bimodal distributions for the three cases with a greater influence of the coarse fraction for the C and VA periods and an increase in the fine particles for the AD period. The total scattering coefficient showed higher values for the AD (30 Mm-1) and the VA (26

  1. Admixture mapping scans identify a locus affecting retinal vascular caliber in hypertensive African Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Reich, David; Wong, Tien Y; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Patterson, Nick; Tandon, Arti; Li, Man; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sharrett, A Richey; Kao, W H Linda

    2010-04-15

    Retinal vascular caliber provides information about the structure and health of the microvascular system and is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Compared to European Americans, African Americans tend to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, even after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors. This has suggested the hypothesis that differences in genetic background may contribute to racial/ethnic differences in retinal vascular caliber. Using 1,365 ancestry-informative SNPs, we estimated the percentage of African ancestry (PAA) and conducted genome-wide admixture mapping scans in 1,737 African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE) representing summary measures of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, respectively, were measured from retinal photographs. PAA was significantly correlated with CRVE (rho = 0.071, P = 0.003), but not CRAE (rho = 0.032, P = 0.182). Using admixture mapping, we did not detect significant admixture association with either CRAE (genome-wide score = -0.73) or CRVE (genome-wide score = -0.69). An a priori subgroup analysis among hypertensive individuals detected a genome-wide significant association of CRVE with greater African ancestry at chromosome 6p21.1 (genome-wide score = 2.31, locus-specific LOD = 5.47). Each additional copy of an African ancestral allele at the 6p21.1 peak was associated with an average increase in CRVE of 6.14 microm in the hypertensives, but had no significant effects in the non-hypertensives (P for heterogeneity retinal vascular caliber and further insights into the interaction between genetic effects of the microvascular system and hypertension.

  2. Admixture mapping scans identify a locus affecting retinal vascular caliber in hypertensive African Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Cheng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vascular caliber provides information about the structure and health of the microvascular system and is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Compared to European Americans, African Americans tend to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, even after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors. This has suggested the hypothesis that differences in genetic background may contribute to racial/ethnic differences in retinal vascular caliber. Using 1,365 ancestry-informative SNPs, we estimated the percentage of African ancestry (PAA and conducted genome-wide admixture mapping scans in 1,737 African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study. Central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE representing summary measures of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, respectively, were measured from retinal photographs. PAA was significantly correlated with CRVE (rho = 0.071, P = 0.003, but not CRAE (rho = 0.032, P = 0.182. Using admixture mapping, we did not detect significant admixture association with either CRAE (genome-wide score = -0.73 or CRVE (genome-wide score = -0.69. An a priori subgroup analysis among hypertensive individuals detected a genome-wide significant association of CRVE with greater African ancestry at chromosome 6p21.1 (genome-wide score = 2.31, locus-specific LOD = 5.47. Each additional copy of an African ancestral allele at the 6p21.1 peak was associated with an average increase in CRVE of 6.14 microm in the hypertensives, but had no significant effects in the non-hypertensives (P for heterogeneity <0.001. Further mapping in the 6p21.1 region may uncover novel genetic variants affecting retinal vascular caliber and further insights into the interaction between genetic effects of the microvascular system and hypertension.

  3. Red Sea extension influenced by Pan-African tectonic grain in eastern Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebreab, Woldai; Talbot, Christopher J.

    2000-07-01

    Middle to lower crustal rocks with dominantly flat-lying Pan-African fabrics at amphibolite metamorphic facies are exposed along the actively extending Red Sea lowlands of Eritrea. West of a major escarpment, these rocks are structurally overlain in the plateau by greenschist facies metamorphic rocks with steep fabrics dominant. Three Pan-African phases of deformation in eastern Eritrea (PAD1-3) were superposed during the Cenozoic by three phases of Red Sea lateral extension (RSE1-3). PAD1 is characterised by steep penetrative foliation S1, which is axial planar to upright F1 folds. These folds were distorted at depth by F2 recumbent folds and subhorizontal shear zones during PAD2. PAD3 deformation resulted mainly in steep strike-slip shear zones. All phases of NE-SW lateral extension of the Red Sea exploited steep PAD1 and PAD3 and flat-lying PAD2 fabrics and structures. RSE1 was semi-brittle and resulted in top-to-basin low-angle (=35°) NW-SE-trending normal faults that sole out to subhorizontal detachments at deep exposure levels. RSE2 involved seaward block tilting on a new system of moderate to steep (≥40°) domino-style normal faults and dykes with NW-SE strikes above a younger detachment inferred beneath exposure levels. RSE2 structures concentrate in zones of maximum crustal flexure across the escarpment and were preceded and/or accompanied by reverse faults near the foot of the escarpment. RSE2 structures truncate RSE1 and PAD2 subhorizontal shear zones in the lowlands by exploiting steep PAD3 structures along the escarpment and the in the plateau. The away-from-basin dip of the RSE2 faults and dykes is attributed to isostatic rise of the asthenosphere offshore. RSE3 involved NNW-SSE- to NNE-SSW-trending strike-slip faults associated with counterclockwise opening of the hinge where the Danakil block is still joined to Africa. The overall geometric relationships between Cenozoic faults and dykes and the Pan-African tectonic grain suggest that the Red Sea

  4. Contextual Influences: Building Brand Community in Large and Small Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlexander, J. Harry; Koenig, Harold F.

    2010-01-01

    This research extends recent efforts that have introduced and empirically tested a conceptual model of brand community in the context of higher education. This emerging literature has indicated that brand community provides a framework that can inform and guide marketing investments in ways that lead to affinity and stronger loyalty to the brand…

  5. Structure and function of a benthic invertebrate stream community as influenced by beaver (Castor canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Donald M; Naiman, Robert J

    1986-03-01

    Beaver (Castor canadensis) affect the benthic invertebrate community of small woodland streams in Quebec through habitat modifications. Their activities influence community structure through the replacement of lotic taxa by lentic forms and community function by increasing the absolute importance of collectors and predators while decreasing the relative importance of shredders and scrapers in impounded sites. At our study site during the 1983 ice-free season, standing stocks of coarse particulate organic matter (>1 mm) were 2-5 times greater (Podonates, Tubificidae, and filtering pelycopods. Our results suggest that current paradigms applied to lotic ecosystems need to be reevaluated to incorporate the influence of beaver upon invertebrate communities.

  6. Risks associated with communication delays in infants from underserved South African communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, De Wet; Glascoe, Frances P.; Louw, E.M.; Hugo, Jannie F.M.; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Background For optimal development young children need warm, responsive, enriched and communicative environments for learning social, language, and other skills. Infants and toddlers exposed to psychosocial risk lack enriched environments and may present with communication delays. Aim To investigate the relationship between psychosocial risks and communication delays in infants from underserved communities in South Africa. Setting Primary healthcare facilities in Tshwane district, South Africa. Methods A parent interview and Rossetti Infant Toddler Language Scales were used to collect data from caregivers of 201 infants aged 6–12 months, selected through convenience sampling. Associations between communication delays and risks were determined (Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests). A log-linear model analysis was used to model the simultaneous effect of significant risks on the probability of having communication delays. Results Communication delays were present in 13% of infants. Infants with two or more siblings, born from mothers aged 18–29 years who own their house, had a 39% chance of presenting with communication delays. Conclusion Developmental screening and early intervention is important in primary healthcare contexts in South Africa, as a clear relationship has been established between three risk factors and communication delays in infants. Contexte Risques associés à des retards de communication verbale chez les nourrissons des communautés sud-africaines non desservies. Pour s'épanouir complètement les jeunes enfants ont besoin d'un environnement chaud, réceptif, enrichi et communicatif pour apprendre le langage social et d'autres compétences. Les nourrissons et les tout-petits exposés à des risques psychosociaux souffrent d'un manque d'environnements enrichissants et pourraient souffrir de retards de communication verbale. Objectif Pour étudier la relation entre les risques psychosociaux et les retards de communication verbale chez les

  7. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny A Becker

    Full Text Available The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1 test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2 model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively. Only one of the six (16.7% breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed.

  8. Does employee perceptions of fit to job, fit to organisation and fit to community influence job performance? The case of Zimbabwe’s manufacturing sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chinomona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The influence of the fit components of job embeddedness (fit to job, fit to organization and fit to community on job performance has not been extensively researched and the relationship is largely unknown.Research purpose: This study investigated the influence of the fit components of job embeddedness (employee fit to job, fit to organization and fit to community on employees’ job performance.Motivation for the study: There is a dearth of studies on the fit components of job embeddedness and the relationship with job performance in developing countries especially in Southern Africa.Research design, approach and method: This cross-sectional study made use of a quantitative survey design. The target population comprised employees working in Zimbabwe’s manufacturing sector (n = 452.Main findings: The results revealed that employee fit to job, fit to organization and fit to community positively influences employees’ job performance.Practical/managerial implications: The findings have implications for human resource managers in Zimbabwe’s manufacturing sector, who are encouraged to consider the three fit factors of job embeddedness during the job applicants interviewing process as they have a significant potential to influence job performance.Contribution/value-addition: The research is one of the primary research papers to investigate the direct effects of the fit components of job embeddedness on employee job performance within the Zimbabwean context. It provides a rich platform for further studies and replication in other industry sectors especially within the African context.

  9. Microbial community shifts influence patterns in tropical forest nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C; Townsend, Alan R; Cleveland, Cory C; Nemergut, Diana R

    2010-10-01

    The role of biodiversity in ecosystem function receives substantial attention, yet despite the diversity and functional relevance of microorganisms, relationships between microbial community structure and ecosystem processes remain largely unknown. We used tropical rain forest fertilization plots to directly compare the relative abundance, composition and diversity of free-living nitrogen (N)-fixer communities to in situ leaf litter N fixation rates. N fixation rates varied greatly within the landscape, and 'hotspots' of high N fixation activity were observed in both control and phosphorus (P)-fertilized plots. Compared with zones of average activity, the N fixation 'hotspots' in unfertilized plots were characterized by marked differences in N-fixer community composition and had substantially higher overall diversity. P additions increased the efficiency of N-fixer communities, resulting in elevated rates of fixation per nifH gene. Furthermore, P fertilization increased N fixation rates and N-fixer abundance, eliminated a highly novel group of N-fixers, and increased N-fixer diversity. Yet the relationships between diversity and function were not simple, and coupling rate measurements to indicators of community structure revealed a biological dynamism not apparent from process measurements alone. Taken together, these data suggest that the rain forest litter layer maintains high N fixation rates and unique N-fixing organisms and that, as observed in plant community ecology, structural shifts in N-fixing communities may partially explain significant differences in system-scale N fixation rates.

  10. The influence of PTSD, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress on insomnia and short sleep duration in urban, young adult, African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Brown, Tyish; Mellman, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    African Americans residing in stressful urban environments have high rates of insomnia and short sleep duration, both of which are associated with adverse health outcomes. However, limited data exist that explore factors influencing inadequate sleep in this high-risk population. This study sought to evaluate the contributions of demographics, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress to both insomnia and short sleep in urban African American young adults. Data were analyzed from self-report measures completed by 378 participants 18-35 years of age. PTSD symptom severity and sleep fears were independently associated with insomnia severity, and sleep fears was associated with sleep duration. Results have implications for preventative health intervention strategies for urban African American young adults.

  11. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married Women in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-03-01

    Short birth spacing continues to be a problem in Uganda and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda and Zimbabwe, using Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011 (Uganda) and 2010-2011 (Zimbabwe). Women living in communities with higher mean maternal age, mean age at marriage, and mean parity were significantly more likely to have longer birth spacing. Women living in communities with higher levels of contraceptive use and low levels of unmet contraceptive need were more likely to have short birth spacing. The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level interventions in order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing.

  12. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Fordyce, James A.;

    2012-01-01

    of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution......There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species...... pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use...

  13. The influence of African easterly waves on Atlantic tropical cyclone activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehling, Erica M.

    A high-resolution global atmospheric model is used to disentangle the relationship between African easterly waves (AEWs) and Atlantic tropical storms (TCs) from the large-scale environmental factors that may obscure their connection. Since the two most cited references on AEW interannual variability in relation to TC activity draw conflicting conclusions about the historical relationship, and the AEW counts in each study do not show agreement on historical variability, novel analysis procedures are developed to produce consistent AEW and TC count statistics for the historical record using reanalysis products. This reanalysis-derived historical record is used to legitimize the model for the study of AEWs, which is subsequently utilized to investigate the relationship between AEWs and TCs. The internal variability of the relationship between AEW and TC count, including the sensitivity to ENSO phase and annual trends, and the interplay between environmental factors, AEW activity, and TC activity are probed using three sets of simulations: 1) climatological simulations, consisting of three ensemble members forced with historical seasonally and annually varying SST; 2) simulations with interannually invariant forcing, including a control simulation with climatological mean SST and a perpetual La Nina simulation with composite SST from strong La Nina years; 3) perturbed simulations, in which the large-scale environment is drastically altered through the manipulation of African albedo. Since variability exists in AEW count that is unexplained by known indicators of large-scale environmental favorability, across all simulations and multiple timescales, it is unlikely that the ubiquitous covariance between AEW and TC count is simply a response to environmental factors. The statistically significant correlations between AEW and TC statistics suggest that AEW variability accounts for a portion of the observed variability in TC count not due to known environmental factors

  14. Community Influences on Married Women's Safer Sex Negotiation Attitudes in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of disadvantaged or deprived community on individuals' health risk-behaviors is increasingly being documented in a growing body of literature. However, little is known about the effects of community characteristics on women's sexual attitudes and behaviors. To examine community effects on married women's safer sex negotiation attitudes, we analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys on a sample of 15,134 married women in 600 communities. We estimated two multilevel logistic regression models. Model 1, which included only individual-level variables, showed that women's autonomy/empowerment, age, and HIV knowledge had significant associations with their safer sex negotiation attitudes. We did not find any socioeconomic status gradient in safer sex negotiation attitudes at the individual level. Adding community-level variables in Model 2 significantly improved the fit of the model. Strikingly, we found that higher community-level poverty was associated with greater positive safer sex negotiation attitudes. Prevailing gender norms and overall women's empowerment in the community also had significant effects. While research on community influences calls for focusing on disadvantaged communities, our research highlights the importance of not underestimating the challenges that married women in economically privileged communities may face in negotiating safer sex. To have sufficient and equitable impact on married women's sexual and reproductive health, sexual and reproductive health promotion policies and programs need to be directed to women in wealthier communities as well.

  15. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  16. Baccalaureate Expectations of Community College Students: Socio-Demographic, Motivational, and Contextual Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Although much research has dealt with the factors that influence educational expectations, few studies have addressed recent high school graduates who attend community colleges as their first postsecondary institutions. As the costs associated with attending a four-year institution keep rising, community colleges increasingly…

  17. Consulting, Mediating, Conducting, and Supporting: How Community-Based Organizations Engage with Research to Influence Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Evans, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in critical policy theories and democratic conceptions of research, case studies of three community-based organizations, one in Canada and two in the U.S., were analyzed to determine if and how the groups engaged with research in their efforts to influence education policy. The findings demonstrate that the community-based organizations…

  18. The influence of the user needs paradigm in specialised lexicography: Some reflections in connection with two South African wine dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele F. van der Merwe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the influence of the user needs paradigm in the construction of specialised dictionaries. It shows that this paradigm coincides with the main tenets of the function theory of lexicography, a theoretical construction that offers theoretical and practical solutions for improving the quality of specialised dictionaries. This theoretical stance is illustrated with reference to how encyclopaedic information is dealt with in two wine dictionaries that are separated by almost 40 years, and which are, therefore, ideal candidates for investigating the influence of the user paradigm on their compilation. More specifically, this article considers the lexicographic treatment accorded to subject field labels, which are presented as essential lexicographic data for helping non-experts and interested laypeople. These labels assist users more in communication functions in a foreign language than in their native language, and are consequently needed in trilingual dictionaries such as the South African Trilingual Wine Dictionary, a free access Internet dictionary that targets experts, semi-experts and interested laypeople.

  19. Low School Engagement and Sexual Behaviors among African American Youth: Examining the Influences of Gender, Peer Norms, and Gang Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Neilands, Torsten B

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether negative peer influences (i.e., norms favoring risky sex and drug use and gang involvement) mediated the relationship between school engagement (i.e., grade point averages [GPAs] obtained from school records and student-teacher connectedness) and sexual behaviors (i.e., sexual début, sex without condoms, group sex, and sex while using drugs) among African American high school adolescents, and whether these relationships varied by gender. Five hundred sixty-three high school adolescents (ages 13 to 19) completed self-administered questionnaires that assessed school engagement markers (GPAs obtained from student records, and student-teacher connectedness), peer influences, sexual début, and risky sex (sex without condoms, group sex, and sex while using drugs). Major findings for boys indicate that GPA was negatively associated with both sexual début and risky sex. Additionally, the relationship between student-teacher connectedness and risky sex was mediated by gang involvement. For girls, higher GPAs were associated with fewer norms favoring risky sex and drug use and such norms were associated with sexual début. Moreover, the relationship between GPA, sexual début and risky sex was mediated by risky peer norms. Intervention programs to delay sexual début and reduce risky sex among youths should attend to the gendered ways through which such behaviors occur.

  20. Genetic factors influencing inhibitor development in a cohort of South African haemophilia A patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochan, A; Macaulay, S; Chen, W C; Mahlangu, J N; Krause, A

    2014-09-01

    A critical complication of factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy in Haemophilia A (HA) treatment is inhibitor development. Known genetic factors predisposing to inhibitor development include FVIII (F8) gene mutations, ethnicity, a family history of inhibitors and FVIII haplotype mismatch. The aim of this study was to characterize and correlate these genetic factors in a cohort of South African HA patients. This was a retrospective study that included 229 patients and involved the analysis of patient files, HA molecular and clinical databases and molecular analysis of the F8 gene haplotype. Of the 229 patients, 51% were of black ethnicity, 49% were white, 5% had mild HA, 4% were moderate and 91% were severe, 36% were int22 positive and 13% were inhibitor positive. Of the inhibitor positive patients, 72% were black patients. Inhibitors were reported in 27% of black int22 positive patients, 13% of black int22 negative patients, 9% of white int22 positive patients and 7% of white int22 negative. The H1 haplotype was more common in whites (75%) and H2 was more common in blacks (74%). H3 and H5 were only found in black patients and had a higher frequency of inhibitor development than H1 and H2. In this small HA cohort, black patients had a significantly higher frequency of inhibitor development and the results were indicative of an association between inhibitor development, ethnicity and haplotype.

  1. School violence, adjustment, and the influence of hope on low-income, African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeno, Linda A; Elias, Maurice J; Kelly, Shalonda; Chu, Brian C

    2010-04-01

    The current study investigated the prevalence and impact of exposure to school violence using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 132 low-income, African American fifth graders (mean age = 10.20). Additionally, hope was examined in relation to adjustment and as a potential resilience factor in the context of school violence. Students completed self-report measures for exposure to school violence frequencies, self-concept, and hope. Teachers completed a teacher-rated survey assessing levels of problem behaviors, social skills, and academic competence. Results indicated that the majority of youth had been personally victimized or witnessed violence during a 3-month period. Exposure to school violence was positively associated with problem behaviors, and negatively associated with social skills, self-concept, and academic competence; hope was inversely related to externalizing behaviors and positively related to self-concept. Hope buffered the effects of personal victimization and witnessing violence on self-concept. Gender differences were observed for a number of the analyses. The implications of both the prevalence and impact of exposure to school violence, as well as the moderating effects of hope, are discussed.

  2. Influence of watershed activities on the water quality and fish assemblages of a tropical African reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-09-01

    Agricultural and fisheries activities around the watershed of an African tropical reservoir (Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria) were found to contribute significantly to water quality deterioration of the dam axis of the reservoir, leading to eutrophication of that part of the reservoir. This is evident from the high amount of nitrate (6.4 mg/l), phosphate (2.2 mg/l) and sulphate (16.9 mg/l) in the water body which was higher than most other reservoirs in Nigeria. These nutrients originate in fertilizer run-offs from nearby farmlands and were found in higher concentrations in the rainy season which is usually the peak of agricultural activities in the locality. The eutrophication was more pronounced on the dam axis because it is the point of greatest human contact where pressure and run-off of sediments were high. The eutrophication altered the food web cycle which consequently affected the fish species composition and abundance with the dominance of cichlids (planktivorous group) and decline of some species in the fish population. Best management practices (BMP) to control and reduce the eutrophication and improve water quality and fish assemblages should be adopted and adapted to suit the situation in the reservoir.

  3. Evaluation of an HIV prevention intervention for African Americans and Hispanics: findings from the VOICES/VOCES Community-based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Holly H; Patel-Larson, A; Green, K; Shapatava, E; Uhl, G; Kalayil, E J; Moore, A; Williams, W; Chen, B

    2011-11-01

    There is limited knowledge about whether the delivery of evidence-based, HIV prevention interventions in 'real world' settings will produce outcomes similar to efficacy trial outcomes. In this study, we describe longitudinal changes in sexual risk outcomes among African American and Hispanic participants in the Video Opportunities for Innovative Condom Education and Safer Sex (VOICES/VOCES) program at four CDC-funded agencies. VOICES/VOCES was delivered to 922 high-risk individuals in a variety of community settings such as substance abuse treatment centers, housing complex centers, private residences, shelters, clinics, and colleges. Significant risk reductions were consistently observed at 30- and 120-days post-intervention for all outcome measures (e.g., unprotected sex, self-reported STD infection). Risk reductions were strongest for African American participants, although Hispanic participants also reported reducing their risky behaviors. These results suggest that, over a decade after the first diffusion of VOICES/VOCES across the U.S. by CDC, this intervention remains an effective tool for reducing HIV risk behaviors among high-risk African American and Hispanic individuals.

  4. Factors that influence the acceptance of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, A. S.; Tschanz, J. F.; Mosena, D.; Erley, D.; Gil, E.; Slovak, P.; Lenth, C. S.

    1977-01-01

    This report is part of a series of studies designed to analyze the commercialization potential of various concepts of community-scale energy systems that have been termed Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). The study reported here concerns ways that affected individuals and organizations will respond to proposed ICES development projects. The intent is an initial examination of several institutional sectors that will: (1) anticipate responses that could impede ICES proposals and (2) provide an information base from which strategies to address adverse responses can be formulated.

  5. Influence of organic matter on collembolan communities in reedbed habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uteseny, K.; Drapela, T.; Frouz, J.

    2009-04-01

    The combination of the organic matter, micro-climatic environments and plant cover belongs to important factors for the distribution of soil meso-fauna, especially Collembola. There are no studies attending to these factors on collembolan communities in reedbed vegetation. The main goals of our investigation were therefore to compare diversity of Collembola in redbed habitats of Lake Neudsiedl, eastern Austria, and to assess particularly the role of organic matter with regard to the collembolan community structure. Soil samples were taken from April 1997 to October 1997 at fifteen study sites covered with Phragmatis australis of different age. Changes in the structure and composition of the assemblages of Collembola were examined.

  6. Unjust waters. Climate change, flooding and the protection of poor urban communities. Experiences from six African cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    Floods are natural phenomena, but damage and losses from floods are the consequence of human action. The increasing climatic variability, storminess and more frequent flooding driven by climate change will affect poor urban communities far more than other people living in towns and cities. Although driven by human activities ranging from modernisation and development to land degradation by poor farmers and grazing flocks, climate change in Africa has uneven impacts, affecting the poor severely. Flooding in urban areas is not just related to heavy rainfall and extreme climatic events; it is also related to changes in the built-up areas themselves. Urbanisation aggravates flooding by restricting where floods waters can go, by covering large parts of the ground with roofs, roads and pavements, by obstructing sections of natural channels, and by building drains that ensure that water moves to rivers more rapidly than it did under natural conditions. As people crowd into African cities, these human impacts on urban land surfaces and drainage intensify. The proportions of small stream and river catchment areas that are urbanised will increase. As a result, even quite moderate storms now produce quite high flows in rivers because much more of the catchment area supplies direct surface runoff from its hard surfaces and drains. Where streams flow through a series of culverts and concrete channels, they cannot adjust to changes in the frequency of heavy rain as natural streams do. They often get obstructed by silt and urban debris, particularly when houses are built close to the channels. Such situations frequently arise where poor people build their shelters on low-lying flood plains, over swamps or above the tidewater on the coast. The effects of climate change are superimposed on these people-driven local land surface modifications. The links between changes in land use and in heavy rainfall patterns, the frequency and depth of flooding and the problems of the urban poor

  7. Minimal Processing: Its Context and Influence in the Archival Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzalski, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Since its publication in 2005, Mark A. Greene and Dennis Meissner's "More Product, Less Process: Revamping Traditional Archival Processing" has led to much discussion and self-examination within the archival community about working through backlogs. This article discusses the impact of Greene and Meissner's work and considers the questions and…

  8. Geographic locality greatly influences fungal endophyte communities in Cephalotaxus harringtonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenfeld, Aude; Prado, Soizic; Nay, Bastien; Cruaud, Corine; Lacoste, Sandrine; Bury, Edith; Hachette, François; Hosoya, Tsuyoshi; Dupont, Joëlle

    2013-02-01

    Although endophytes of conifers have been extensively studied, few data are available on Cephalotaxaceae. We examined foliar and stem endophytes of Cephalotaxus harringtonia, within its natural range in Japan and outside its natural range in France to study the effect of geography on endophyte community composition. In Japan, rapidly growing endophytes were dominant and may have masked the real diversity, in comparison to France where most endophytes were growing slowly. Analyses of ITS rDNA revealed 104 different Blast Groups among 554 isolates. Almost no overlap between endophyte assemblages of C. harringtonia from the two countries was observed. It seems that Japanese C. harringtonia trees, which should be well adapted to their native site, would host a specific, endemic endophyte community, while trees that have been introduced recently to a foreign site, in France, should have captured existing cosmopolitan and more generalist taxa. In Japan the majority of xylariaceous taxa, which dominated the communities, were unknown and, although closely related to Asian taxa, may be new to science. Dothideomycetes were more prevalent in France. Locally, urban environment, particularly in Japan, may have introduced some perturbations in the native endophyte community of C. harringtonia, with an abundance of generalist fungi such as Nigrospora and Colletotrichum.

  9. Community College Mission Influence on Culture: An Organizational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, E. Gerome

    2013-01-01

    Strong agreement of mission and culture has been found in more effective colleges (Fjortoft & Smart, 1994). For leaders, the culture of an organization provides the context for which decisions about organizational change processes can be made (Malm, 2008). The purpose of this study was to explore the culture present within a community college…

  10. The Learning Library in Context: Community, Integration, and Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Kevin; Young, James; Gibson, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the theory behind learning libraries focuses on four programmatic models at the George Mason University library: course-related, course-integrated, orientation/peer advising, and information/term paper counseling and coaching. Topics include sociocultural theories; social interaction; learning communities; curricular integration; and…

  11. Reading the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engage with, if it has to be relevant to the African context. In this vein, the article argued that a correct reading of the African context would lead to a more relevant theory and praxis of African Christianity for the benefit of all African peoples and their global neighbours. The contention of this article was that African Christianity has a significant role to play in the re-shaping of the African society and in the global community of humans, only that this role must be executed inclusively, responsibly and appropriately, together with all those who seek the holistic development of Africa towards one common destiny.

  12. The emergence of community strategic planning in New South Wales, Australia: Influences, challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Prior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the emergence of community strategic planning in the New South Wales (NSW local government sector, against the backdrop of a series of broad influences ranging from increased interest in participatory democracy through to sustainable infrastructure provision. It provides an understanding of how community strategic planning has evolved over the past few decades to embody these influences. The paper concludes with reflections on some common challenges and opportunities experienced by local councils in NSW that have undertaken voluntary community strategic planning or are in the process of developing community strategic plans. Given underlying similarities in the emergence of participatory long-term strategic planning in local government around the world, many of the experiences associated with the preparation of community strategic plans in the NSW context are likely to be of relevance to those undertaking similar processes in other jurisdictions.

  13. Communication and Information About “Safer Sex:” Intervention Issues Within Communities of African Migrants Living in Poorer Neighbourhoods in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Gaspar, Tania; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Reis, Marta; Ramiro, Lúcia

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the influence of migrant status on sexual behavior and communication about “safer sex” and to identify ethnic-specific prevention issues. Data were obtained from a special administration of the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey in a special sample of Portuguese schools located in low-income Lisbon neighborhoods with large proportions of African migrants. Survey participants included 919 6th, 8th and 10th graders (52.3% female), of whom 19.2% were migrant foreigners from African Portuguese-speaking countries, including Cape Verde (60.8%), Mozambique (1.6%), Angola (16.8%), S. Tomé (8%), and Guinea-Bissau (14.8%). Subsequently, four focus groups were held with adolescent who had participated in the survey (n = 45), three focus group with health and education professionals (n = 25), and one focus group with parents (n = 6). Compared with Portuguese adolescents, African migrant teens reported initial sexual intercourse at earlier ages, less frequent condom use, and less frequent and less comfortable communications with parents about sexual issues. Implications for selective prevention of STD are discussed and recommendations are made. PMID:19081810

  14. How does community context influence coalitions in the formation stage? a multiple case study based on the Community Coalition Action Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honeycutt Sally

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community coalitions are rooted in complex and dynamic community systems. Despite recognition that environmental factors affect coalition behavior, few studies have examined how community context impacts coalition formation. Using the Community Coalition Action theory as an organizing framework, the current study employs multiple case study methodology to examine how five domains of community context affect coalitions in the formation stage of coalition development. Domains are history of collaboration, geography, community demographics and economic conditions, community politics and history, and community norms and values. Methods Data were from 8 sites that participated in an evaluation of a healthy cities and communities initiative in California. Twenty-three focus groups were conducted with coalition members, and 76 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local coordinators and coalition leaders. Cross-site analyses were conducted to identify the ways contextual domains influenced selection of the lead agency, coalition membership, staffing and leadership, and coalition processes and structures. Results History of collaboration influenced all four coalition factors examined, from lead agency selection to coalition structure. Geography influenced coalition formation largely through membership and staffing, whereas the demographic and economic makeup of the community had an impact on coalition membership, staffing, and infrastructure for coalition processes. The influence of community politics, history, norms and values was most noticeable on coalition membership. Conclusions Findings contribute to an ecologic and theory-based understanding of the range of ways community context influences coalitions in their formative stage.

  15. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  16. Foundation species influence trait-based community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöb, Christian; Butterfield, Bradley J; Pugnaire, Francisco I

    2012-11-01

    Here, we incorporate facilitation into trait-based community assembly theory by testing two mutually compatible facilitative mechanisms: changes in the environmental filter, causing either an increase in the range of trait values (i.e. a range expansion effect) and/or a shift in trait distributions (i.e. a range shift effect); and changes in trait spacing, suggesting an effect on niche differentiation. We analyzed the distribution of three functional traits - leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area and lateral spread - of plant communities dominated by a cushion-forming foundation species at four sites differing in elevation and aspect. We found support for environmental filtering and niche differentiation mechanisms by cushions, with filtering effects (in particular range shifts) increasing with environmental severity at higher elevation. The effect size of cushions on trait distribution was similar to that of environmental gradients caused by elevation and aspect. The consideration of intraspecific trait variability improved the detection of cushion effects on trait distributions. Our results highlight the importance of facilitation in the modification of taxonomic and functional diversity of ecological communities, and indicate that facilitation can occur through combined effects on environmental filtering and niche differentiation, with strong environmental context dependence of each mechanism.

  17. "Making History Go" at a Local Community Center: Popular Media and the Construction of Historical Knowledge among African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Looks at how young people use historical knowledge, gained from media sources, to deal with current situations. A group of young African Americans draw on behavioral examples from the film, "Panther," instead of school-based learning, to give them ways to deal with the Ku Klux Klan in their neighborhood. (DAJ)

  18. The Transnationalization of the Akan Religion: Religion and Identity among the U.S. African American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Guedj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1965, Gus Dinizulu, an African American percussionist, traveled to Ghana with the dance company he was leading. There, he took the trip as an opportunity to explore his African roots and met Nana Oparebea, the Ghanaian chief-priestess of the Akonedi Shrine, one of the most famous shrine houses north of Accra. At the Akonedi Shrine, Nana Oparebea performed for Dinizulu a divination, during which she explained that his enslaved ancestors were parts of the Akan people of Ghana and gave him the mission to search for other African Americans who, like him, were of Ghanaian ancestries. She also offered him a set of altars, containing the spiritual forces of the deities revered in the Akonedi Shrine and asked him to import in the United States what was then labelled the Akan religion. Based on research led both in Ghana and in the United States, the aim of this paper will be to describe the process of diffusion, importation, transnationalization and indigenization of the Akan religion between West Africa and the East Coast of the United States. Focusing on ethnographic data, we will argue that this process can only be understood if it is placed in the context of African American identity formations. Therefore, we will show how in the context of globalization, religion and identity constructions are walking hand-in-hand, creating new discourses on hybridity and authenticity.

  19. Impact of attitudes and beliefs regarding African American sexual behavior on STD prevention and control in African American communities: unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jo A

    2008-12-01

    Compared to whites, blacks experience significant health disparities for sexually transmitted diseases, particularly in the rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. To develop more effective interventions to control and prevent STDs, public health practitioners should better understand and respond to factors that facilitate sexual risk-taking behaviors and impede access to STD health care and make use of factors that promote sexual health. Legacies of slavery, racism, and economic or class discrimination leave many blacks suspicious of interventions aimed at improving the welfare of their communities. Sexual behavior, in particular, has been used to justify social oppression of blacks in the United States. Although efforts to engage affected black communities in improving STD health care delivery have been undertaken, bias, prejudice, and stereotyping continue to contribute to negative experiences for many blacks across health care settings, including those involving STD care. Implementing more effective interventions to reduce the disparate burden of bacterial STDs in black communities requires accessible and acceptable STD health care. Understanding and addressing the potential impact of both provider and patient attitudes can improve these service delivery outcomes.

  20. Homocysteine influences blood clot properties alone and in combination with total fibrinogen but not with fibrinogen γ' in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; de Lange, Zelda; Pieters, Marlien

    2015-06-01

    Simultaneously increased fibrinogen and homocysteine (Hcy) in blood are believed to elevate the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved are unknown. We sought to determine whether Hcy or its genetic determinants influence blood clot properties alone or in combination with fibrinogen. In addition, we investigated, for the first time, the gamma prime (γ') isoform of fibrinogen with Hcy in relation to clot architecture and lysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms, Hcy and hemostatic variables, including clot lysis, determined with a global fibrinolytic assay [giving lag time, slope, maximum absorbance and clot lysis time (CLT)], were measured in 1867 healthy black South Africans and cross-sectionally analyzed. Increasing Hcy did not affect fiber cross-sectional area (maximum absorbance). However, it decreased the time needed to initiate the coagulation cascade and for fibrin fibers to grow (lag time), it increased the tempo of lateral aggregation (slope) and reduced CLT. None of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms measured had effects on clot properties. Combined effects were observed between Hcy and total fibrinogen in predicting CLT. Fibrinogen γ', which affected markers of the fibrinolytic assay, did not have conjoint effects with Hcy. We believe that there is value in recognizing the combined effects of Hcy and fibrinogen, but not its γ' isoform in relation to clot structure and lysis. The enhanced fibrinolysis rate observed in patients with low fibrinogen and high Hcy may have adverse consequences for health if it disturbs hemostasis and results in a bleeding tendency.

  1. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  2. African diversity from the HLA point of view: influence of genetic drift, geography, linguistics, and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2001-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of different evolutionary factors on the patterns of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic diversity within sub-Saharan Africa, and between Africa, Europe, and East Asia. This is done by comparing the significance of several statistics computed on equivalent population data sets tested for two HLA class II loci, DRB1 and DPB1, which strongly differ from each other by the shape of their allelic distributions. Similar results are found for the two loci concerning highly significant correlations between geographic and genetic distances at the world scale, high levels of genetic diversity within sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia, and low within Europe, and low genetic differentiations among the three broad continental areas, with no special divergence of Africa. On the other hand, DPB1 behaves as a neutral polymorphism, although a significant excess of heterozygotes is often observed for DRB1. Whereas the pattern observed for DPB1 is explained by geographic differentiations and genetic drift in isolated populations, balancing selection is likely to have prevented genetic differentiations among populations at the DRB1 locus. However, this selective effect did not disrupt the high correlation found between DRB1 and geography at the world scale, nor between DRB1 and linguistic differentiations at the African level.

  3. Influence of education and neighborhood poverty on pressor responses to phenylephrine in African-Americans and Caucasian-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, KaMala S; Nelesen, Richard A; Ziegler, Michael G; Natarajan, Loki; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2009-09-01

    Although neighborhood disadvantage has been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism through which living in impoverished neighborhoods is associated with poor cardiovascular health is not well understood. Additionally, it is not clear whether individual socioeconomic status (SES) interacts with neighborhood factors to influence cardiovascular outcomes. Using multilevel modeling, we examined the interaction between neighborhood poverty and individual SES on pressor responses to an alpha agonist, phenylephrine (PE), in an adult sample of 105 African-Americans and 106 Caucasian-Americans. Neighborhood poverty was assessed using census block data gathered from the Census Bureau. Education and occupation were used to assess individual SES. Pressor responsiveness was calculated as the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) response to a 100-microg PE bolus administered intravenously. There was a significant interaction between education and neighborhood poverty on pressor responses. Higher education was associated with smaller BP responses to PE; but only in individuals who lived in neighborhoods in which less than 5% of the residents lived below the poverty line. Occupation was unrelated to pressor responses to PE. These results suggest that neighborhood characteristics play an important role in cardiovascular functioning.

  4. Bloggers’ Community Characteristics and Influence within Greek Political Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Vagianos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the properties of central or core political blogs. They can be located as clusters of blogs whose members have many incoming links. Other blogs form clouds around them in the sense that they link the core blogs. A case study records Greek political blogs and their incoming links reported through their blogrolls. The adjacency matrix from the blogs’ social network is analyzed and clusters are located. Three of them, those with the larger numbers of incoming links, may be considered to be central. Next, four measures of influence are used to test the influence of the central blogs. The findings suggest that there are many kinds of central blogs, influential and non-influential, and high influence does not always involve high hyperlinking.

  5. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  6. Influence of Panax ginseng Continuous Cropping on Metabolic Function of Soil Microbial Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Yi-xin; DING Wan-long; ZHOU Ying-qun; LI Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of Panax ginseng continuous cropping on the carbon substrate metabolic activity of microbes in soils sampled from Dafang,Huangni,and Wulidi in Jilin Province,China.Methods Soil metabolisms of soil communities were characterized by community level physiological profiles using BIOLOGTM EcoPlate.Results Soils sampled from the three sites were analyzed and their metabolic activities were compared.Principal component analysis explored the significant variance in metabolic function of microbial communities in soils,though the Shannon index and the evenness index of them were similar.Futhermore,two principal components(PC1 and PC2),which contributed 67.83% and 10.78% of total variance,were extracted respectively.And also,substrates significantly correlated with PC1 and PC2 at the three sampling sites were identified.Conclusion Characteristic of soil is the primary factor influencing microbial communities,and P.ginseng continuous cropping has significant influence on microbial community.Though soil samples show similar microbial metabolic profiles,microbial communities in rhizosphere soil are changed obviously during the cultivation of P.ginseng,which would finally result in the unbalance of microbial community.Phytopathogens would gradually be the predominants in rhizosphere soil and make P.ginseng sick.

  7. Innovative and Community-Guided Evaluation and Dissemination of a Prostate Cancer Education Program for African-American Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dawnyea D; Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Dubose-Morris, Ragan

    2015-12-01

    African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. The aims of this research were to (1) evaluate current education materials being implemented in a community-based prostate cancer education program for AA communities, (2) refine materials based on findings from aim 1, (3) share updated materials with participants from aim 1 for additional improvements, and (4) disseminate and evaluate the improved education program through a statewide videoconference with AA men and women. AA individuals evaluated the current education program through a mail survey (n=32) and community forum (n=38). Participants reported that the existing prostate cancer education program content could be understood by lay persons, but recommendations for improvement were identified. They included the following: defining unknown and/or scientific terminology, increasing readability by increasing font size and enlarging images, and including more recent and relevant statistics. Following refinement of the education materials based on survey and forum feedback, a statewide videoconference was implemented. Following the videoconference, participants (25 men; 3 women) reported that they would encourage others to learn more about prostate cancer, talk to their doctor about whether or not to get screened for prostate cancer, and recommend the conference to others. There is great potential for using this type of iterative approach to education program development with community and clinical partners for others conducting similar work.

  8. Arctic microbial community dynamics influenced by elevated CO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schulz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean ecosystem is particular vulnerable for ocean acidification (OA related alterations due to the relatively high CO2 solubility and low carbonate saturation states of its cold surface waters. Thus far, however, there is only little known about the consequences of OA on the base of the food web. In a mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (overall CO2 levels ranged from ∼180 to 1100 μatm in the Kongsfjord off Svalbard, we studied the consequences of OA on a natural pelagic microbial community. The most prominent finding of our study is the profound effect of OA on the composition and growth of the Arctic phytoplankton community, i.e. the picoeukaryotic photoautotrophs and to a lesser extent the nanophytoplankton prospered. A shift towards the smallest phytoplankton as a result of OA will have direct consequences for the structure and functioning of the pelagic food web and thus for the biogeochemical cycles. Furthermore, the dominant pico- and nanophytoplankton groups were found prone to viral lysis, thereby shunting the carbon accumulation in living organisms into the dissolved pools of organic carbon and subsequently affecting the efficiency of the biological pump in these Arctic waters.

  9. Preliminary assessment of factors influencing riverine fish communities in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Brandt, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (MDCR), Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MDEP), and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game (MDFG), conducted a preliminary investigation of fish communities in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this investigation was to determine relations between fish-community characteristics and anthropogenic alteration, including flow alteration and impervious cover, relative to the effect of physical basin and land-cover (environmental) characteristics. Fish data were obtained for 756 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select a set of fish metrics responsive to flow alteration. Fish metrics tested include two fish-community metrics (fluvial-fish relative abundance and fluvial-fish species richness), and five indicator species metrics (relative abundance of brook trout, blacknose dace, fallfish, white sucker, and redfin pickerel). Streamflows were simulated for each fish-sampling site using the Sustainable Yield Estimator application (SYE). Daily streamflows and the SYE water-use database were used to determine a set of indicators of flow alteration, including percent alteration of August median flow, water-use intensity, and withdrawal and return-flow fraction. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine a set of environmental characteristics, including elevation, basin slope, percent sand and gravel, percent wetland, and percent open water, and a set of anthropogenic-alteration variables, including impervious cover and dam density. Two analytical techniques, quantile regression and generalized linear modeling, were applied to determine the association between fish-response variables and the selected environmental and

  10. Environmental influences on African migration to Canada: focus group findings from Ottawa-Gatineau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronis, Luisa; McLeman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    There is limited empirical evidence of how environmental conditions in the Global South may influence long-distance international migration to the Global North. This research note reports findings from seven focus groups held in Ottawa-Gatineau, Canada, with recent migrants from the Horn of Africa and francophone sub-Saharan Africa, where the role of environment in migration decision-making was discussed. Participants stated that those most affected by environmental challenges in their home countries lack the financial wherewithal to migrate to Canada. Participants also suggested that internal rural-urban migration patterns generated by environmental challenges in their home countries underlay socioeconomic factors that contributed to their own migration. In other words, environment is a second- or third-order contributor in a complex chain of interactions in the migrant source country that may lead to long-distance international migration by skilled and educated urbanites. These findings have informed the scope and detail of a larger, ongoing empirical study of environmental influences on immigration to Canada.

  11. How national context, project design, and local community characteristics influence success in community-based conservation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeremy S; Waylen, Kerry A; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2012-12-26

    Community-based conservation (CBC) promotes the idea that conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for, local communities. However, CBC projects are neither consistently successful nor free of controversy. Innovative recent studies evaluating the factors associated with success and failure typically examine only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic) and explore synergies and trade-offs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context, project design, and local community characteristics affect these measures of success. Using bivariate analyses and multivariate proportional odds logistic regressions within a multilevel analysis and model-fitting framework, we show that project design, particularly capacity-building in local communities, is associated with success across all outcomes. In addition, some characteristics of the local community in which projects are conducted, such as tenure regimes and supportive cultural beliefs and institutions, are important for project success. Surprisingly, there is little evidence that national context systematically influences project outcomes. We also find evidence of synergies between pairs of outcomes, particularly between ecological and economic success. We suggest that well-designed and implemented projects can overcome many of the obstacles imposed by local and national conditions to succeed in multiple domains.

  12. Litter quality indirectly influences community composition, reproductive mode and trophic structure of oribatid mite communities: a microcosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergócs, Veronika; Rétháti, Gabriella; Hufnagel, Levente

    2015-11-01

    Our knowledge of the assembly processes of species-rich oribatid mite communities is fairly limited. Also, very little information is available on the effects of habitat factors on these processes. In this paper, the role of litter quality in pattern formation was investigated in a microcosm experiment using the "home-field advantage" approach. Native (home) and foreign (away) types of microarthropod assemblages were extracted from three types of litter samples (Turkey oak, Scots pine and black locust tree), and transferred alive into 'home' and 'away' samples, which have been defaunated and reinoculated with microorganisms to form microcosms. Microarthropods were extracted from the microcosms after incubation for 3-12 months. In addition to species identification and abundance records, some chemical properties of the litter were measured. We hypothesized that oribatid mite communities deteriorate, the proportion of parthenogenetic individuals decreases and the proportion of omnivorous individuals increases in 'away' microcosms in contrast to 'home' systems. Pine and oak litter were favourable for all the three types of oribatid communities since their community traits in these types of litter were found to be similar to 'home' litter. Black locust litter was favourable only for its native oribatid community in the long run. The proportion of parthenogenetic individuals partly supported our hypothesis, mainly in black locust litter. The relative abundance of omnivorous individuals did not differ significantly between treatments. Litter quality is likely to influence oribatid mite assemblages only indirectly.

  13. Book citations: influence of epidemiologic thought in the academic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porta Miquel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Whilst their 'death' has often been certified, books remain highly important to most professions and academic disciplines. Analyses of citations received by epidemiologic texts may complement other views on epidemiology. The objective was to assess the number of citations received by some books of epidemiology and public health, as a first step towards studying the influence of epidemiological thought and thinking in academia. For this purpose, Institute for Scientific Information/ Thomson Scientific - Web of Science/ Web of Knowledgedatabase was consulted, in May 2006. The book by Rothman & Greenland appeared to have received the highest number of citations overall (over 8,000 and per year. The books by Kleinbaum et al, and by Breslow & Day received around 5,000 citations. In terms of citations per year the book by Sackett et al ranks 3rd, and the one by Rose, 4th of those included in this preliminary study. Other books which were influential in the classrooms collected comparatively less citations. Results offer a rich picture of the academic influences and trends of epidemiologic methods and reasoning on public health, clinical medicine and the other health, life and social sciences. They may contribute to assess epidemiologists' efforts to demarcate epidemiology and to assert epistemic authority, and to analyze some historical influences of economic, social and political forces on epidemiological research.

  14. Factors that contribute to social media influence within an Internal Medicine Twitter learning community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tejas; Patwardhan, Manish; Coore, Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Medical societies, faculty, and trainees use Twitter to learn from and educate other social media users. These social media communities bring together individuals with various levels of experience. It is not known if experienced individuals are also the most influential members. We hypothesize that participants with the greatest experience would be the most influential members of a Twitter community. We analyzed the 2013 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine Twitter community. We measured the number of tweets authored by each participant and the number of amplified tweets (re-tweets). We developed a multivariate linear regression model to identify any relationship to social media influence, measured by the PageRank. Faculty (from academic institutions) comprised 19% of the 132 participants in the learning community (p influence amongst all participants (mean 1.99, p influence (β = 0.068, p = 0.6). The only factors that predicted influence (higher PageRank) were the number of tweets authored (p influence. Any participant who was able to author the greatest number of tweets or have more of his/her tweets amplified could wield a greater influence on the participants, regardless of his/her authority.

  15. The influence of world view on African-American college students' decisions to study science: An interpretive investigation of four cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Bradford F.

    In the United States, African Americans are underrepresented among employed Ph.D. holding scientists; they comprise less than 2% of the scientific population and 12% of the United States population. Educational theorists, focusing on the career choices of African Americans as the cause of underrepresentation, have identified many factors that are associated with the underrepresentation of African Americans in science. Some of these factors are: lack of interest in science, poor academic preparation, high interest in social-oriented careers, poor educational and career planning, unfavorable images of scientists, impoverished family backgrounds, and lack of confidence in ability. This plethora of factors indicates that there is yet equivocation in literature as to the cause of underrepresentation. The objective of this study is to deepen current understanding, by providing explanations for the career decisions of African American students. Adopting a theoretical framework which maintains that human behavior is directed by world view and that world view is shaped by environment, the present study seeks to analyze the world view contents of three African American college students: two science majors and one non-science major. The aim of this study is to analyze the world view contents of the students to identify the salient world view images and assumptions that influence their career decisions. The research employs interpretive methodology and a case study design. Primary methods of data collection are interview and interview analysis. The dissertation reports the results of interviews, which include explanations for each respondent's career decisions; and the influence of three factors (expectation of monetary gain, the impact of role models, and respondents' level of self-confidence in ability) on the respondents' career decisions. Findings indicate that the science major has a greater capacity, than the non-science majors, to accommodate world view images and

  16. An Examination of Users' Influence in Online HIV/AIDS Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Shi, Jingyuan; Chen, Liang; Peng, Tai-Quan

    2016-05-01

    A network perspective was adopted in this study to identify influential users in an online HIV community in China. Specifically, the indegree centrality, outdegree centrality, betweenness centrality, eigenvector centrality, and clustering coefficient of individuals were evaluated to measure the user influence in such a community. Moreover, this study examined how the digital divide, which is presently one of the major social equity issues in the information society, is associated with an individual's influence within the community. Two networks were formed on the basis of the behavioral data retrieved from the HIV community: the follower-followee network and the post-reply network. In the follower-followee network, members from areas with well-developed technologies demonstrated more connections, received more attention, and secured more critical positions in the network than their counterparts. However, such differences were insignificant in the post-reply network.

  17. Rumen microbial communities influence metabolic phenotypes in lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgavi, Diego P.; Rahahao-Paris, Estelle; Popova, Milka

    2015-01-01

    and the metabolic phenotype of lambs for identifying host-microbe associations and potential biomarkers of digestive functions. Twin lambs, separated in two groups after birth were exposed to practices (isolation and gavage with rumen fluid with protozoa or protozoa-depleted) that differentially restricted...... the acquisition of microbes. Rumen microbiota, fermentation parameters, digestibility and growth were monitored for up to 31 weeks of age. Microbiota assembled in isolation from other ruminants lacked protozoa and had low bacterial and archaeal diversity whereas digestibility was not affected. Exposure to adult...... sheep microbiota increased bacterial and archaeal diversity independently of protozoa presence. For archaea, Methanomassiliicoccales displaced Methanosphaera. Notwithstanding, protozoa induced differences in functional traits such as digestibility and significantly shaped bacterial community structure...

  18. Management strategies in apple orchards influence earwig community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnoux, Laure; Marliac, Gaëlle; Simon, Sylvaine; Rault, Magali; Capowiez, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess whether different apple orchard management strategies (low-input, organic, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)) would have an effect on earwigs, which are important natural enemies of apple pests. These commercial orchards were as well compared to abandoned orchards. The density of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens was studied for three years in 74 orchards around Avignon. The pesticide usage, some orchard characteristics and two small-scale landscape parameters were characterized. Pesticide use was significantly different between low-input, organic and IPM orchards with particularly significant differences in the number of insecticide applications (2.2, 4.9 and 9.2 respectively). Pesticide use had a much stronger impact on earwig community than other characteristics. F. auricularia density was significantly lower in IPM orchards (0.47 individuals per tree) compared to organic, low-input and abandoned orchards (3.1, 4.5 and 1.6 individuals per tree, respectively). F. pubescens was almost absent from IPM orchards and its abundance was higher in abandoned or low-input orchards compared to organic orchards (1.5 and 2.8 vs 0.8 individuals per tree). The percentage of F. pubescens in the earwig community decreased from abandoned (52%) to low-input (40%), organic (15%) and IPM orchards (0.5%). These results were confirmed by LD50 assays showing that for the two pesticides causing mortality close to normal application rates (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and acetamiprid), F. pubescens was significantly more sensitive than F. auricularia. Since earwigs are also easy to capture and identify, they may be useful to estimate the effects of management strategies and their modification in pome fruit orchards.

  19. Psychometric properties of the child PTSD checklist in a community sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Boyes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed the basic psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Checklist and examined the structure of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in a large sample of South African youth. METHODOLOGY: The checklist was completed by 1025 (540 male; 485 female South African youth (aged between 10 and 19 years. The factor structure of the scale was assessed with a combination of confirmatory and exploratory techniques. Internal consistencies for the full scale and all subscales were evaluated with Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Validity was assessed by comparing PTSD scores obtained by children who had and had not experienced a traumatic event, and by examining associations between total PTSD scores and known correlates of PTSD. RESULTS: Scores on the Child PTSD Checklist clearly discriminated between youth who had experienced a traumatic event and those who had not. Internal consistencies for the full scale (and all subscales were acceptable to good and hypothesized correlations between PTSD, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and age were observed. Two of the reported fit statistics for the tripartite DSM-IV-TR model of PTSD did not meet traditional criteria and further exploratory analyses revealed a four-factor structure (broadly consistent with Simms and colleagues' Dysphoria Model of PTSD symptoms which provided a better fit to the observed data. CONCLUSION: Given the continued use of the Child PTSD Checklist in South Africa, findings offer an important first step in establishing the reliability and validity of the checklist for use with South African youth. However, further evaluation of the checklist in South African samples is clearly required before conclusions regarding its use as diagnostic tool in this context can be made.

  20. Community influences on adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onya Hans

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol represents a major public health challenge in South Africa, however little is known about the correlates of alcohol use among rural adolescents. This article examines community influences on adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol in a rural region of South Africa. Method A total of 1600 high school adolescents between 11 and 16 years of age participated in this study. Seven hundred and forty (46.3% were female and 795 (49.7% were male. Data on gender were missing for 65 students (4.0% of the sample. The age range was 11–29 years (mean age 16.4 years; Standard deviation = 2.79. A survey questionnaire on adolescent risk behavior that examined adolescents’ use of alcohol and various potential community influences on alcohol use was administered. Factor analysis was used to group community-level variables into factors. Multiple logistic regression techniques were then used to examine associations between these community factors and adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol. Results The factor analysis yielded five community-level factors that accounted for almost two-thirds of the variance in home-brewed alcohol use. These factors related to subjective adult norms around substance use in the community, negative opinions about one’s neighborhood, perceived levels of adult antisocial behavior in the community, community affirmations of adolescents, and perceived levels of crime and violence in the community (derelict neighborhood. In the logistic regression model, community affirmation was negatively associated with the use of home-brew, whereas higher scores on “derelict neighborhood” and “adult antisocial behavior” were associated with greater odds of drinking home-brew. Conclusion Findings highlight community influences on alcohol use among rural adolescents in South Africa. Feeling affirmed and valued by the broader community appears to protect adolescents against early alcohol use. In

  1. The Influence of Neighborhood Aesthetics, Safety, and Social Cohesion on Perceived Stress in Disadvantaged Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Heather; Child, Stephanie; Moore, Spencer; Moore, Justin B; Kaczynski, Andrew T

    2016-09-01

    Limited research has explored how specific elements of physical and social environments influence mental health indicators such as perceived stress, or whether such associations are moderated by gender. This study examined the relationship between selected neighborhood characteristics and perceived stress levels within a primarily low-income, older, African-American population in a mid-sized city in the Southeastern U.S. Residents (n = 394; mean age=55.3 years, 70.9% female, 89.3% African American) from eight historically disadvantaged neighborhoods completed surveys measuring perceptions of neighborhood safety, social cohesion, aesthetics, and stress. Multivariate linear regression models examined the association between each of the three neighborhood characteristics and perceived stress. Greater perceived safety, improved neighborhood aesthetics, and social cohesion were significantly associated with lower perceived stress. These associations were not moderated by gender. These findings suggest that improving social attributes of neighborhoods may have positive impacts on stress and related benefits for population health. Future research should examine how neighborhood characteristics influence stress over time.

  2. Community Psychology in South Africa: Origins, Developments, and Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, Mohamed; Lazarus, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    This article represents a South African contribution to the growing international body of knowledge on histories of community psychology. We trace the early antecedents of social-community psychology interventions and describe the social forces and academic influences that provided the impetus for the emergence and development of community…

  3. Differences between African-American and Caucasian students on enrollment influences and barriers in kinesiology-based allied health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J P; Cobler, D C; Lam, Eddie T C; Zhang, James; Chitiyo, George

    2012-06-01

    Kinesiology departments have recently started to offer allied health education programs to attract additional students to teacher education units (9). Although allied health professions offer increased work opportunities, insufficient enrollment and training of minority students in these academic fields contribute to underrepresentation in the workforce (3). To improve workforce diversity, kinesiology departments must understand how enrollment influences and barriers differ by race among prospective students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify differences in allied health education enrollment influences and enrollment barriers between minority and Caucasian students. Participants (n = 601) consisted of students enrolled in kinesiology-based allied health education programs. Multivariate ANOVA was used to compare group differences in enrollment decision making. "Personal influence," "career opportunity," and "physical self-efficacy" were all significantly stronger enrollment influences among African-American students than among Caucasian students, and "social influence," "experiential opportunity," "academic preparation," and "physical self-efficacy" were all perceived as significantly greater barriers compared with Caucasian students. Findings support the need to recruit African-American students through sport and physical education settings and to market program-based experiential opportunities.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E; Frew, Paula M; Haley, Danielle F

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n = 1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), partner age >35 years (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR = 0.63, 95 % CI 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  6. Translating an Evidence-Based Diabetes Education Approach Into Rural African-American Communities: The “Wisdom, Power, Control” Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luohua; Ory, Marcia G.; Hollingsworth, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this exploratory study was to assess the efficacy of the “Wisdom, Power, Control” diabetes self-management education (DSME) program with regard to diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, self-care, distress level, and A1C in an African-American population. Methods. A prospective, quasi-experimental, repeated-measure design was employed to measure these outcomes. Study participants were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks post-intervention, and at a 3-month A1C follow-up. Results. A total of 103 participants were recruited from the intervention counties, and 14 were identified from the control counties. At the post-test, participants in the intervention group reported a significantly higher level of diabetes knowledge (Δ = 9.2%, P <0.0001), higher self-efficacy (Δ = 0.60, P <0.0001), more self-care behaviors (Δ = 0.48, P <0.0001), lower distress level (Δ = –0.15, P = 0.05), and higher health status (Δ = 0.49, P = <0.0001). About 56% of the intervention group completed all six classes, and 25% attended five classes. Conclusions. Findings from this study demonstrate the initial success of translating a culturally adapted DSME program into rural African-American communities. The study highlights important lessons learned in the process of implementing this type of program in a real-world setting with a minority population. PMID:25987809

  7. Persistence of African American Men in Science: Exploring the Influence of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Breonte Stephan

    The scant literature on persistence of African American males in science typically takes a deficits-based approach to encapsulate the myriad reasons this population is so often underrepresented. Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate have, individually, been found to be related to the persistence of African American students. However, the unified impact of these three variables on the persistence of African American students with science interests has not been evaluated, and the relationship between the variables, the students' gender, and markers of academic achievement have not been previously investigated. The current study takes a strengths-based approach to evaluating the relationship between Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus climate with a population of African American students with science interests who were studying at six Minority Serving Institutions and Predominantly White Institutions in the Southern United States. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the impact of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate on Intention to Persist of African American males. The results indicate that Scientist Identity predicts Intention to Persist, and that gender, academic performance, and institution type moderate the relationship between Scientist Identity and Intention to Persist. These results lend credence to the emerging notion that, for African American men studying science, generating a greater depth and breadth of understanding of the factors that lead to persistence will aid in the development of best practices for supporting persistence among this perpetually underrepresented population.

  8. African American parents' HPV vaccination intent and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R

    2012-02-01

    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. The influence of life history and sexual dimorphism on entheseal changes in modern humans and African great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Milella

    Full Text Available Entheseal changes have been widely studied with regard to their correlation to biomechanical stress and their usefulness for biocultural reconstructions. However, anthropological and medical studies have demonstrated the marked influence of both age and sex on the development of these features. Studies of entheseal changes are mostly aimed in testing functional hypotheses and are mostly focused on modern humans, with few data available for non-human primates. The lack of comparative studies on the effect of age and sex on entheseal changes represent a gap in our understanding of the evolutionary basis of both development and degeneration of the human musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present work is to compare age trajectories and patterns of sexual dimorphism in entheseal changes between modern humans and African great apes. To this end we analyzed 23 postcranial entheses in a human contemporary identified skeletal collection (N = 484 and compared the results with those obtained from the analysis of Pan (N = 50 and Gorilla (N = 47 skeletal specimens. Results highlight taxon-specific age trajectories possibly linked to differences in life history schedules and phyletic relationships. Robusticity trajectories separate Pan and modern humans from Gorilla, whereas enthesopathic patterns are unique in modern humans and possibly linked to their extended potential lifespan. Comparisons between sexes evidence a decreasing dimorphism in robusticity from Gorilla, to modern humans to Pan, which is likely linked to the role played by size, lifespan and physical activity on robusticity development. The present study confirms previous hypotheses on the possible relevance of EC in the study of life history, pointing moreover to their usefulness in evolutionary studies.

  10. Above–belowground herbivore interactions in mixed plant communities are influenced by altered precipitation patterns

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Root- and shoot-feeding herbivores have the capacity to influence one another by modifying the chemistry of the shared host plant. This can alter rates of nutrient mineralisation and uptake by neighbouring plants and influence plant–plant competition, particularly in mixtures combining grasses and legumes. Root herbivory-induced exudation of nitrogen (N) from legume roots, for example, may increase N acquisition by co-occurring grasses, with knock-on effects on grassland community compositi...

  11. Book Review ~ African Youth on the Information Highway: Participation and Leadership in Community Development. Editors: O. Ogbu and P. Mihyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sciacewena

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, most African countries have been experiencing serious socio-economic problems. These include the general underdevelopment of rural areas with its attendant economic gap between urban and rural centres; high poverty levels, (both urban and rural; high population growth rates that inevitably exert excessive pressure on the education and health systems; inadequate education and health services, intolerably high illiteracy rates, and high incidence of disease. Other problems include youth unemployment attributable to, among other factors, declining employment opportunities for young people and, more recently, the HIV/ AIDS pandemic.

  12. Effects of a community intervention on HIV prevention behaviors among men who experienced childhood sexual or physical abuse in four African settings: findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Daniels

    Full Text Available There is increased focus on HIV prevention with African men who report experiencing childhood sexual (CSA or physical abuse (CPA.To better understand the effects of a community-based intervention (Project Accept HPTN 043 on HIV prevention behaviors among men who report CSA or CPA experiences.Project Accept compared a community-based voluntary mobile counseling and testing (CBVCT intervention with standard VCT. The intervention employed individual HIV risk reduction planning with motivational interviewing in 34 African communities (16 communities at 2 sites in South Africa, 10 in Tanzania, and 8 in Zimbabwe. Communities were randomized unblinded in matched pairs to CBVCT or SVCT, delivered over 36 months. The post-intervention assessment was conducted using a single, cross-sectional random survey of 18-32 year-old community members (total N = 43,292. We analyzed the effect of the intervention on men with reported CSA or CPA across the African sites. Men were identified with a survey question asking about having experienced CSA or CPA across the lifespan. The effect of intervention on considered outcomes of the preventive behavior was statistically evaluated using the logistic regression models.Across the sites, the rates of CSA or CPA among men indicated that African men reflected the global prevalence (20% with a range of 13-24%. The statistically significant effect of the intervention among these men was seen in their increased effort to receive their HIV test results (OR 2.71; CI: (1.08, 6.82; P: 0.034. The intervention effect on the other designated HIV prevention behaviors was less pronounced.The effect of the intervention on these men showed increased motivation to receive their HIV test results. However, more research is needed to understand the effects of community-based interventions on this group, and such interventions need to integrate other keys predictors of HIV including trauma, coping strategies, and intimate partner violence.

  13. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Snyman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order to garner their support. Although the results of these policies were mixed, it is clear that the future success of conservation and, consequently, ecotourism in many areas will depend on the attitudes and behaviour of communities living in or adjacent to protected areas. Managing and understanding community expectations and attitudes under varying socio-economic circumstances will lead to more efficient, equitable and sustainable community-based conservation and ecotourism models. This study was based on 1400 community interview schedules conducted in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, allowing for an accurate comparison of attitudes across countries, protected areas and communities. The results highlighted important demographic and socio-economic factors to consider in terms of understanding the attitudes of those living in and around protected areas. Suggestions were put forward for managing community relationships and garnering long-term support for protected areas and ecotourism. Conservation implications: It was observed that, in general, community members living in or adjacent to conservation areas in southern Africa have an understanding and appreciation of the importance of conservation. Formal education was found to positively impact attitudes and human–wildlife conflict negatively impacted attitudes, highlighting important policy focus areas.

  14. Measuring the Accountability of CTE Programs: Factors that Influence Postcollege Earnings among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kenneth J.; Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos; Friedel, Janice N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study specific factors were examined to determine their ability to influence fifth-year earnings of community college students in the Manufacturing/Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) career cluster and the Arts/Audiovisual/Technology/ Communication career cluster. State and national data sets from Iowa's Management…

  15. Neighborhood Community Risk Influences on Preschool Children's Development and School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Marci J.; Miller, Angela D.; Diamond, Karen; Odom, Samuel; Lieber, Joan; Butera, Gretchen; Horn, Eva; Palmer, Susan; Fleming, Kandace

    2011-01-01

    The effects of economic hardship and language isolation in children's neighborhood communities were examined to determine their influence on young children's developmental outcomes on measures of academic and social skills above and beyond child and family characteristics that included home language, disability, gender, and mother's education…

  16. A Case Study of How Professional Learning Communities Influence Morale and Rigor in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Jessica S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how professional learning communities influence teacher morale and rigor in the classroom. Participants of the study consisted of six to eight core subject teachers from two 4-A high school campuses in southeast Texas. Two focus group interviews were conducted, one at each school, and…

  17. A Narrative Inquiry into the Influence of Coaching Methodology on Three Specific Teacher Knowledge Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindell, Peter Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This narrative inquiry studied the influences of coaching methodology, critical incidents, and critical relationships on three specific teacher knowledge communities--the Portfolio Group, the Houston ISD literacy coach network, and the Imperial ISD Secondary English Language Arts helping teacher workgroup. This inquiry is situated within the…

  18. Evaluating Iowa Community College Student Demographics, Characteristics, Enrollment Factors, and Educational Goals Influence on Retention Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchley-McAvoy, Joan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence that previously researched and affirmed persistence and early withdrawal factors such as student demographics, enrollment status factors, student characteristics, and student educational goals had on Iowa community college retention rates for the 2005, 2007, and 2009 academic years. It is the researcher's…

  19. Examining the Factors Influencing Participants' Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Virtual Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Irene Y. L.; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk

    2009-01-01

    Increasing organizations and educational institutions have implemented virtual learning communities to encourage knowledge sharing. However, this task can not be accomplished simply by grouping people together and telling them "sharing your knowledge will make you learn better". This research attempts to examine the factors influencing knowledge…

  20. Biological support media influence the bacterial biofouling community in reverse osmosis water reclamation demonstration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Taberna, Elisenda; Sanz, Joan; Sánchez, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of the bacterial community developed in different stages of two reverse osmosis (RO) water reclamation demonstration plants designed in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tarragona (Spain) was characterized by applying 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The plants were fed by secondary treated effluent to a conventional pretreatment train prior to the two-pass RO system. Plants differed in the material used in the filtration process, which was sand in one demonstration plant and Scandinavian schists in the second plant. The results showed the presence of a highly diverse and complex community in the biofilms, mainly composed of members of the Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in all stages, with the presence of some typical wastewater bacteria, suggesting a feed water origin. Community similarities analyses revealed that samples clustered according to filter type, highlighting the critical influence of the biological supporting medium in biofilm community structure.

  1. Dissemination Matters: Influences of Dissemination Activities on User Types in an Online Educational Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emerging online educational communities provide spaces for teachers to find resources, create instructional activities, and share these activities with others. Within these online communities, individual users’ activities may vary widely, and thus different user types can be identified. In addition, users’ patterns of activities in online communities are dynamic, and further can be affected by dissemination activities. Through analyzing usage analytics in an online teacher community called the Instructional Architect, this study explores the influences of dissemination activities on the usage patterns of different user types. Results show that dissemination activities can play an important role in encouraging users’ active participation, while the absence of dissemination activities can further increase participation inequality.

  2. Social integration of Latin-American immigrants in Spain: the influence of the community context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, Asur; Herrero, Juan

    2012-11-01

    The main goal of this study is to analyze the degree to which several community elements such as insecurity, discrimination and informal community support might have an influence on the social integration of Latin-American immigrants, a group at risk of social exclusion in Spain. Multivariate linear regression analyses results showed that informal community support is positively related to social integration whereas insecurity is negatively related. The statistical relationship between discrimination and social integration disappears once levels of informal community support are taken into account. A better understanding of the factors that either promote or inhibit the social integration progress of immigrant population is important to orientate public policies and intervention programs that contribute to the adaptation of this population to the host society.

  3. Reducing Low Birth Weight among African Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Saint Onge, Jarron M

    2017-02-04

    Low birth weight (LBW) rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas). The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups (n = 9) were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs) inform strategic health care (media) advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health.

  4. Reducing Low Birth Weight among African Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Y. Lumpkins

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups (n = 9 were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs inform strategic health care (media advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health.

  5. Reducing Low Birth Weight among African Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas). The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups (n = 9) were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs) inform strategic health care (media) advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health. PMID:28165368

  6. Plant and bird presence strongly influences the microbial communities in soils of Admiralty Bay, Maritime Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia C R S Teixeira

    Full Text Available Understanding the environmental factors that shape microbial communities is crucial, especially in extreme environments, like Antarctica. Two main forces were reported to influence Antarctic soil microbes: birds and plants. Both birds and plants are currently undergoing relatively large changes in their distribution and abundance due to global warming. However, we need to clearly understand the relationship between plants, birds and soil microorganisms. We therefore collected rhizosphere and bulk soils from six different sampling sites subjected to different levels of bird influence and colonized by Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctic. Microarray and qPCR assays targeting 16S rRNA genes of specific taxa were used to assess microbial community structure, composition and abundance and analyzed with a range of soil physico-chemical parameters. The results indicated significant rhizosphere effects in four out of the six sites, including areas with different levels of bird influence. Acidobacteria were significantly more abundant in soils with little bird influence (low nitrogen and in bulk soil. In contrast, Actinobacteria were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere of both plant species. At two of the sampling sites under strong bird influence (penguin colonies, Firmicutes were significantly more abundant in D. antarctica rhizosphere but not in C. quitensis rhizosphere. The Firmicutes were also positively and significantly correlated to the nitrogen concentrations in the soil. We conclude that the microbial communities in Antarctic soils are driven both by bird and plants, and that the effect is taxa-specific.

  7. Assessing the influence of geographic distance in parasite communities of an exotic lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Castiele Holanda; Pinheiro, Luan Tavares; de Melo, Gabriela Cavalcante; Zanchi-Silva, Djan; Queiroz, Murilo de Souza; dos Anjos, Luciano Alves; Harris, David James; Borges-Nojosa, Diva Maria

    2016-01-01

    The decay of similarity between biological communities with increasing geographical distance is a well-established pattern in ecology, but there are more complex factors acting on host population connections that influence this association for parasite communities, such as parasites' colonization ability and degree of connectivity between host populations. Here we aim to determine the helminth communities associated with different populations of the host lizard Hemidactylus mabouia, testing if the similarity of parasite communities decreases as the distance between them increases. For this, we collected samples of lizard populations in seven sites from Northeastern coast of Brazil and identified parasite species of helminths and pentastomids in each host, calculated the Sørensen indices of presence/absence and abundance of each pair of communities and related them to the geographical distance. We did not find a relationship of decaying similarity with increasing distance between the parasite communities of the host populations. This can be explained by factors such as the characteristics of the contact between the host populations, and by modes of transmission of most parasite species. Furthermore, it may be related to the exotic nature of the host in Brazil so that parasite communities have not reached equilibrium.

  8. Factors that influence the beta-diversity of spider communities in northwestern Argentinean Grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Artigas, Sandra M; Ballester, Rodrigo; Corronca, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Beta-diversity, defined as spatial replacement in species composition, is crucial to the understanding of how local communities assemble. These changes can be driven by environmental or geographic factors (such as geographic distance), or a combination of the two. Spiders have been shown to be good indicators of environmental quality. Accordingly, spiders are used in this work as model taxa to establish whether there is a decrease in community similarity that corresponds to geographic distance in the grasslands of the Campos & Malezales ecoregion (Corrientes). Furthermore, the influence of climactic factors and local vegetation heterogeneity (environmental factors) on assemblage composition was evaluated. Finally, this study evaluated whether the differential dispersal capacity of spider families is a factor that influences their community structure at a regional scale. Spiders were collected with a G-Vac from vegetation in six grassland sites in the Campos & Malezales ecoregion that were separated by a minimum of 13 km. With this data, the impact of alpha-diversity and different environmental variables on the beta-diversity of spider communities was analysed. Likewise, the importance of species replacement and nesting on beta-diversity and their contribution to the regional diversity of spider families with different dispersion capacities was evaluated. The regional and site-specific inventories obtained were complete. The similarity between spider communities declined as the geographic distance between sites increased. Environmental variables also influenced community composition; stochastic events and abiotic forces were the principal intervening factors in assembly structure. The differential dispersal capacity of spider groups also influenced community structure at a regional scale. The regional beta-diversity, as well as species replacement, was greater in high and intermediate vagility spiders; while nesting was greater in spiders with low dispersion

  9. 'We are doing our best': African and African-Caribbean fatherhood, health and preventive primary care services, in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Stewart, Mel; Liles, Clive; Wildman, Stuart

    2012-03-01

    Recent policy pronouncements emphasise the importance of engaging fathers with preventive primary care services. However, in England, there is a paucity of literature which examines African and African-Caribbean fathers' experiences of service provision. This paper reports a study that investigated African and African-Caribbean fathers' beliefs about fatherhood, health and preventive primary care services, with the aim of addressing the deficit in the literature. Nine focus groups involving 46 African and African-Caribbean fathers, recruited using purposive sampling, were undertaken between October 2008-January 2009. Fatherhood was seen as a core aspect of the participants' identities. The fathers enacted these identities in a number of ways, such as caring for and protecting children, which were influenced by spirituality, relationships with women, paid work and racism. The fathers had concerns about their bodies, medical conditions, physical activity and forms of consumption. However, their primary focus was on maintaining and improving the well-being of their children. This resulted in them neglecting their own health needs as they had to meet the obligations of family life and paid work. The fathers reported limited contact with preventive primary care services and were unaware of their purpose, function and availability. They identified ethnicity as a positive asset, and felt their families and communities had particular strengths. However they acknowledged that structural constraints, including racism, influenced their perceptions of and access to local health services. The engagement of African and African-Caribbean fathers needs to be addressed more specifically in policy as part of a broader programme of action to tackle health inequalities. In addition, child health services could build on fathers' commitment to children's well-being through practice that addresses fathers' as well as mothers' needs in families.

  10. Factors that contribute to social media influence within an Internal Medicine Twitter learning community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tejas; Patwardhan, Manish; Coore, Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Medical societies, faculty, and trainees use Twitter to learn from and educate other social media users. These social media communities bring together individuals with various levels of experience. It is not known if experienced individuals are also the most influential members. We hypothesize that participants with the greatest experience would be the most influential members of a Twitter community. We analyzed the 2013 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine Twitter community. We measured the number of tweets authored by each participant and the number of amplified tweets (re-tweets). We developed a multivariate linear regression model to identify any relationship to social media influence, measured by the PageRank. Faculty (from academic institutions) comprised 19% of the 132 participants in the learning community (p < 0.0001). Faculty authored 49% of all 867 tweets (p < 0.0001). Their tweets were the most likely to be amplified (52%, p < 0.01). Faculty had the greatest influence amongst all participants (mean 1.99, p < 0.0001). Being a faculty member had no predictive effect on influence (β = 0.068, p = 0.6). The only factors that predicted influence (higher PageRank) were the number of tweets authored (p < 0.0001) and number of tweets amplified (p < 0.0001) The status of “faculty member” did not confer a greater influence. Any participant who was able to author the greatest number of tweets or have more of his/her tweets amplified could wield a greater influence on the participants, regardless of his/her authority. PMID:25110581

  11. Generating Social Capital at the Workplace: A South African Case of Inside-Out Social Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Ken; Onyx, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    A case study of a South African workplace illustrated how workplace learning and experience of team culture influenced changes in workers' family life and community participation. Results showed how social capital is generated from within for the benefit of civil society. (Contains 35 references.) (SK)

  12. Fear of Crime among African-American Males in Two American Cities: A Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Keith D.; Wright, Earl II; Wingren, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Examines the distribution of fear of crime and the influence of selected predictors of fear of crime among African American males from two large U.S. cities. Survey data indicated that about three-quarters of the respondents did not view fear of crime as problematic in their communities. Results supported a relationship between fear of crime, age,…

  13. African Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Recek, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  14. Aboveground and belowground arthropods experience different relative influences of stochastic versus deterministic community assembly processes following disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ferrenberg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces. Methods Using a disturbance gradient along a 5-year chronosequence of insect-induced tree mortality in a subalpine forest of the southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA, we examined changes in community structure and relative influences of deterministic and stochastic processes in the assembly of aboveground (surface and litter-active species and belowground (species active in organic and mineral soil layers arthropod communities. Arthropods were sampled for all years of the chronosequence via pitfall traps (aboveground community and modified Winkler funnels (belowground community and sorted to morphospecies. Community structure of both communities were assessed via comparisons of morphospecies abundance, diversity, and composition. Assembly processes were inferred from a mixture of linear models and matrix correlations testing for community associations with environmental properties, and from null-deviation models comparing observed vs. expected levels of species turnover (Beta diversity among samples. Results Tree mortality altered community structure in both aboveground and belowground arthropod communities, but null models suggested that aboveground communities experienced greater relative influences of deterministic processes, while the relative influence of stochastic processes increased for belowground communities. Additionally, Mantel tests and linear regression models revealed significant associations between the

  15. Aboveground and belowground arthropods experience different relative influences of stochastic versus deterministic community assembly processes following disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alexander S.; Faist, Akasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces. Methods Using a disturbance gradient along a 5-year chronosequence of insect-induced tree mortality in a subalpine forest of the southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA, we examined changes in community structure and relative influences of deterministic and stochastic processes in the assembly of aboveground (surface and litter-active species) and belowground (species active in organic and mineral soil layers) arthropod communities. Arthropods were sampled for all years of the chronosequence via pitfall traps (aboveground community) and modified Winkler funnels (belowground community) and sorted to morphospecies. Community structure of both communities were assessed via comparisons of morphospecies abundance, diversity, and composition. Assembly processes were inferred from a mixture of linear models and matrix correlations testing for community associations with environmental properties, and from null-deviation models comparing observed vs. expected levels of species turnover (Beta diversity) among samples. Results Tree mortality altered community structure in both aboveground and belowground arthropod communities, but null models suggested that aboveground communities experienced greater relative influences of deterministic processes, while the relative influence of stochastic processes increased for belowground communities. Additionally, Mantel tests and linear regression models revealed significant associations between the aboveground arthropod

  16. Factors Influencing Local Communities' Satisfaction Levels with Different Forest Management Approaches of Kakamega Forest, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthiga, Paul M.; Mburu, John; Holm-Mueller, Karin

    2008-05-01

    Satisfaction of communities living close to forests with forest management authorities is essential for ensuring continued support for conservation efforts. However, more often than not, community satisfaction is not systematically elicited, analyzed, and incorporated in conservation decisions. This study attempts to elicit levels of community satisfaction with three management approaches of Kakamega forest in Kenya and analyze factors influencing them. Three distinct management approaches are applied by three different authorities: an incentive-based approach of the Forest Department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), and a quasi-private incentive-based approach of Quakers Church Mission (QCM). Data was obtained from a random sample of about 360 households living within a 10-km radius around the forest margin. The protectionist approach was ranked highest overall for its performance in forest management. Results indicate that households are influenced by different factors in their ranking of management approaches. Educated households and those located far from market centers are likely to be dissatisfied with all the three management approaches. The location of the households from the forest margin influences negatively the satisfaction with the protectionist approach, whereas land size, a proxy for durable assets, has a similar effect on the private incentive based approach of the QCM. In conclusion, this article indicates a number of policy implications that can enable the different authorities and their management approaches to gain approval of the local communities.

  17. Influence of environmental variables on the Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata community in a neotropical stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Rossi Gorni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the organisms of the benthic community, oligochaetes play a key role in the energy flow and recycling of organic matter in aquatic ecosystems, where their distribution is mainly influenced by local hydrological patterns. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the influence of environmental variables on the community of limnic oligochaetes in a neotropical lotic system. Galharada stream is located within the Campos do Jordão State Park (PECJ, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 1,600 m above sea level; 192 samples were collected from 4 sites selected according to their hierarchical order within the river basin (first to fourth order. To correlate the environmental variables to the oligochaete fauna, the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was performed. We identified 16 species divided into 4 families (Enchytraeidae, Naididae, Pristinidae, and Tubificidae. The results of CCA revealed that the physical characteristics of stretches, such as stream depth and width, flow speed, and flow rate were the factors that most influenced on the structure of the aquatic Oligochaeta community in Campos do Jordão. The species Aulodrilus limnobius and Nais communis were considered along with the variables electrical conductivity and turbidity, indicating a possible association with environments enriched with organic matter. The occurrence of Enchytraeidae, Pristina rosea, Chaetogaster diastrophus, Pristina proboscidea, and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri was seemingly uncorrelated to the environmental variables analyzed in this study. Our findings reinforce using the Oligochaeta community as bioindicators, by participating in the environmental assessment of continental aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  19. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  20. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M.; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1(act)) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1(act) and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, fu

  1. Argumentation and Indigenous Knowledge: Socio-Historical Influences in Contextualizing an Argumentation Model in South African Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard Martinez, Alejandro J.

    2011-01-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and…

  2. The Influence of Africentric Values and Neighborhood Satisfaction on the Academic Self-Efficacy of African American Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Richard Q.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships between Africentric values, racial/ethnic identity, neighborhood satisfaction, and academic self-efficacy beliefs among 88 African American elementary school children. Results indicated that Africentric values and neighborhood satisfaction were both predictive of academic self-efficacy beliefs.…

  3. African American Male Adolescents' Preferences in Responding to Racial Discrimination: Effects of Ethnic Identity and Situational Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, William D.; Hudley, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated male African American adolescents' thinking about responses to racial discrimination. Participants (N = 67) were recruited from an urban public high school in southern California. Students completed paper and pencil measures assessing their ethnic identity status and their preferred responses to racial discrimination.…

  4. Pervasive influence of large-scale climate in the dynamics of a terrestrial vertebrate community

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    Forchhammer Mads C

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale climatic variability has been implicated in the population dynamics of many vertebrates throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but has not been demonstrated to directly influence dynamics at multiple trophic levels of any single system. Using data from Isle Royale, USA, comprising time series on the long-term dynamics at three trophic levels (wolves, moose, and balsam fir, we analyzed the relative contributions of density dependence, inter-specific interactions, and climate to the dynamics of each level of the community. Results Despite differences in dynamic complexity among the predator, herbivore, and vegetation levels, large-scale climatic variability influenced dynamics directly at all three levels. The strength of the climatic influence on dynamics was, however, strongest at the top and bottom trophic levels, where density dependence was weakest. Conclusions Because of the conflicting influences of environmental variability and intrinsic processes on population stability, a direct influence of climate on the dynamics at all three levels suggests that climate change may alter stability of this community. Theoretical considerations suggest that if it does, such alteration is most likely to result from changes in stability at the top or bottom trophic levels, where the influence of climate was strongest.

  5. Nitrogen forms influence microcystin concentration and composition via changes in cyanobacterial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Monchamp

    Full Text Available The eutrophication of freshwaters is a global health concern as lakes with excess nutrients are often subject to toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Although phosphorus is considered the main element regulating cyanobacterial biomass, nitrogen (N concentration and more specifically the availability of different N forms may influence the overall toxicity of blooms. In this study of three eutrophic lakes prone to cyanobacterial blooms, we examined the effects of nitrogen species and concentrations and other environmental factors in influencing cyanobacterial community structure, microcystin (MC concentrations and MC congener composition. The identification of specific MC congeners was of particular interest as they vary widely in toxicity. Different nitrogen forms appeared to influence cyanobacterial community structure leading to corresponding effects on MC concentrations and composition. Total MC concentrations across the lakes were largely explained by a combination of abiotic factors: dissolved organic nitrogen, water temperature and ammonium, but Microcystis spp. biomass was overall the best predictor of MC concentrations. Environmental factors did not appear to affect MC congener composition directly but there were significant associations between specific MC congeners and particular species. Based on redundancy analyses (RDA, the relative biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa was associated with MC-RR, M. wesenbergii with MC-LA and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae with MC-YR. The latter two species are not generally considered capable of MC production. Total nitrogen, water temperature, ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen influenced the cyanobacterial community structure, which in turn resulted in differences in the dominant MC congener and the overall toxicity.

  6. The potential influence of Asian and African mineral dust on ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiacek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This modelling study explores the availability of mineral dust particles as ice nuclei for interactions with ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds, also tracking the particles' history of cloud-processing. We performed 61 320 one-week forward trajectory calculations originating near the surface of major dust emitting regions in Africa and Asia using high-resolution meteorological analysis fields for the year 2007. Dust-bearing trajectories were assumed to be those coinciding with known dust emission seasons, without explicitly modelling dust emission and deposition processes. We found that dust emissions from Asian deserts lead to a higher potential for interactions with high ice clouds, despite being the climatologically much smaller dust emission source. This is due to Asian regions experiencing significantly more ascent than African regions, with strongest ascent in the Asian Taklimakan desert at ~25%, ~40% and 10% of trajectories ascending to 300 hPa in spring, summer and fall, respectively. The specific humidity at each trajectory's starting point was transported in a Lagrangian manner and relative humidities with respect to water and ice were calculated in 6-h steps downstream, allowing us to estimate the formation of liquid, mixed-phase and ice clouds. Downstream of the investigated dust sources, practically none of the simulated air parcels reached conditions of homogeneous ice nucleation (T≲−40 °C along trajectories that have not experienced water saturation first. By far the largest fraction of cloud forming trajectories entered conditions of mixed-phase clouds, where mineral dust will potentially exert the biggest influence. The majority of trajectories also passed through atmospheric regions supersaturated with respect to ice but subsaturated with respect to water, where so-called "warm ice clouds" (T≳−40 °C theoretically may form prior to supercooled water or mixed-phase clouds. The importance of "warm ice

  7. Comparisons of the composition and biogeographic distribution of the bacterial communities occupying South African thermal springs with those inhabiting deep subsurface fracture water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara eMagnabosco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has numerous thermal springs that represent topographically driven meteoric water migrating along major fracture zones. The temperature (40-70°C and pH (8-9 of the thermal springs in the Limpopo Province are very similar to those of the low salinity fracture water encountered in the South African mines at depths ranging from 1.0 to 3.1 km. The major cation and anion composition of these thermal springs are very similar to that of the deep fracture water with the exception of the dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved O2, both of which are typically higher in the springs than in the deep fracture water. The in situ biological relatedness of such thermal springs and the subsurface fracture fluids that feed them has not previously been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the microbial diversity of six thermal spring and six subsurface sites in South Africa using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions. Proteobacteria were identified as the dominant phylum within both subsurface and thermal spring environments, but only one genera, Rheinheimera, was identified among all samples. Using Morisita similarity indices as a metric for pairwise comparisons between sites, we found that the communities of thermal springs are highly distinct from subsurface datasets. Although the Limpopo thermal springs do not appear to provide a new window for viewing subsurface bacterial communities, we report that the taxonomic compositions of the subsurface sites studied are more similar than previous results would indicate and provide evidence that the microbial communities sampled at depth are more correlated to subsurface conditions than geographical distance.

  8. Socio-demographic characteristics of parents and emotional burden on discovery of disabilities of their children in a South African community

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    U. Useh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated the socio-demographic characteristicsof parents of children with disabilities in a South African community. Also studiedwere their emotional responses. Design and methodology: A social survey research and focus group designs wereemployed in this study to explore and describe parental emotions Participants: 174 parents of children with disabilities were randomly selected andinterviewed by this author and four research assistants at different locations in theVenda area of Limpopo Province of South Africa. Results: Out of the 174 parents interviewed 95 (54.6% were parents of children with physical impairment (PCWPI,51 (29.3% parents of children with hearing impairment (PCWHI and 28 (16.1% were parents of children with visual impairment (PCWVI.  Only 16 (9.2% of the parents interviewed had tertiary education with a majority (121 (or 69.5% of them unemployed. These unemployed parents solely relied on the monthly, government disabilitygrant of R620 (or US$89. Responses to grief, anger, shame were highest amongst PCWVI, while PCWPI were most worried (64.2% and demonstrated the highest percentage emotions of fear (22.1% and guilt (221.1%. The following percentage of emotions were expresses by parents with formal tertiary education, anger (44%, shame (37.5%, disbelief (25%, guilt (6.3%, worry (50% and fear (25%. While participants with the highest income (over R1800or about US$257, expressed the following percentage of emotions: grief (70.6%, and disbelief (47.1%. Conclusion: Physiotherapist working with the disabled and their carers in the community within the concept of community based rehabilitation and social model of care would need to understand the characteristics and their emotional burden prior to assisting in creating an enabling environment and holistic empowering activities that wouldassist all.

  9. How important are community characteristics in influencing children׳s nutritional status? Evidence from Malawi population-based household and community surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhungu, Lana Clara; Madise, Nyovani Janet; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2014-11-01

    Using the 2004 data from the Malawi Integrated Household Survey and the Malawi Community Survey, this study investigates the influence of community characteristics on stunting among children under five years of age in a rural context. Multilevel logistic regression modelling on 4284 children with stunting as the dependent variable shows that availability of daily markets and lineage defined in terms of patrilineal or matrilineal communities were significant community determinants of childhood stunting in Malawi. There were significant differences in socio-economic status between household heads from matrilineal and patrilineal communities. Implementation of strategies that empower communities and households economically such as supporting the establishment of community daily markets and promoting household income generating opportunities can effectively reduce the burden of childhood stunting in Malawi.

  10. Eutrophication influence on phytoplankton community composition in three bays on the eastern Adriatic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Bužančić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Šibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kaštela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kaštela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Šibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kaštela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kaštela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Šibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.

  11. Biochar influences the microbial community structure during tomato stalk composting with chicken manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liu; Shutao, Wang; Jin, Zhang; Tong, Xu

    2014-02-01

    A batch composting study was performed to evaluate effects of biochar addition on dynamics of microbial community and changes of key physic-chemical properties during composting of tomato stalk and chicken manure. As a comparison, two amendments of peat bog and zeolite were selected. The results indicated that biochar addition for composting showed a shorter time to enter thermophilic phase (3 d) and a higher temperature (56°C) and longer duration of thermophilic phase compared to that of peat bog addition, zeolite addition and raw composts. The highest C/N ratio and volatile fatty acids' concentration with biochar addition were obtained. Biochar addition also showed more influence on bacterial community changes than that of peat bog and zeolite. Thus, biochar addition could significantly affect physic-chemical process and microbial community diversity on tomato stalk and chicken manure composting. This study provides valuable information for improving composting and a better understanding of biodegradation processes.

  12. Immunoepidemiology of Wuchereria bancrofti infection: parasite transmission intensity, filaria-specific antibodies, and host immunity in two East African communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoko, Walter G; Michael, Edwin; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Estambale, Benson B A; Malecela, Mwele N; Simonsen, Paul E

    2007-12-01

    We compared the age profiles of infection and specific antibody intensities in two communities with different transmission levels in East Africa to examine the contribution of humoral responses to human immunity to the vector-borne helminth Wuchereria bancrofti. The worm intensities were higher and exhibited a nonlinear age pattern in a high-transmission community, Masaika, in contrast to the low but linearly increasing age infection profile observed for a low-transmission community, Kingwede. The mean levels of specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2, IgG4, and IgE were also higher in Masaika, but intriguingly, the IgG3 response was higher in Kingwede. The age-antibody patterns differed in the two communities but in a manner apparently contrary to a role in acquired immunity when the data were assessed using simple correlation methods. By contrast, multivariate analyses showed that the antibody response to infection may be classified into three types and that two of these types, a IgG3-type response and a response measuring a trade-off in host production of IgG4 and IgG3 versus production of IgG1, IgG2, and IgE, had a negative effect on Wuchereria circulating antigen levels in a manner that supported a role for these responses in the generation of acquired immunity to infection. Mathematical modeling supported the conclusions drawn from empirical data analyses that variations in both transmission and worm intensity can explain community differences in the age profiles and impacts of these antibody response types. This study showed that parasite-specific antibody responses may be associated with the generation of acquired immunity to human filarial infection but in a form which is dependent on worm transmission intensity and interactions between immune components.

  13. Influencing consumer engagement in online customer communities: The role of interactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Mpinganjira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article was to investigate consumer engagement in online customer communities and the influence of interactivity on it. A conceptual model linking different dimensions of interactivity and consumer engagement was proposed and tested.Rationale: The ability of managers to ensure high levels of consumer engagement depends on them gaining a good understanding of the concept, its manifestations in their context, as well as factors that influence it. This article aims at contributing to this understanding in the context of online customer communities.Methodology: The article followed a quantitative research approach. Data were collected from 303 members of online customer communities based in Gauteng, South Africa. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses proposed in the article.Findings and implications: The results showed that system-related dimensions of interactivity and human interactivity are positively associated with consumer psychological engagement. Psychological engagement was in turn found to be positively associated with behavioural engagement. The findings point to the need for managers to pay attention to system and human related interactivity if they are to influence consumer engagement levels on their sites.Originality and value of research: Little research exists on consumer engagement, resulting in limited understanding of the concept as well as its antecedents. Focusing on online customer communities, this article contributes to addressing this gap in literature. Managers of online customer communities can use the findings to monitor levels of consumer engagement on their sites and find ways of enhancing it.

  14. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of nurse case manager and community health worker team interventions in urban African-Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Tiffany L; Batts-Turner, Marian; Bone, Lee R; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Levine, David M; Powe, Neil R; Hill, Martha N; Saudek, Christopher; McGuire, Maura; Brancati, Frederick L

    2004-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of primary care and community-oriented interventions in managing HbA1c, blood pressure, and lipids, and reducing hospitalizations and emergency room visits over 2 years. We describe an ongoing, randomized controlled trial of 542 urban African-Americans with type 2 diabetes ages 25 years and older who are members of a university-affiliated managed-care organization in Baltimore, MD. The participants are 74% female, have a mean age of 58 years, and 35% have yearly incomes greater than 7500 US dollars. Participants were randomized to one of two intervention groups for a period of 2 years: (1) usual medical care plus minimal telephone intervention implemented by a trained lay health educator (control group) or (2) usual medical care plus intensive intervention implemented by a nurse case manager (NCM)/community health worker (CHW) team. The intensive NCM/CHW team executes individual plans of care using evidence-based algorithms that focus on traditional diabetes self-management, screening and management of diabetes-related complications, and social issues surrounding diabetes care. Face-to-face NCM visits are conducted in the clinic once per year and CHW visits are conducted in the participant's home one to three times per year, both with additional follow-up contacts as needed. Written and verbal feedback (when necessary) is provided to the participant's primary care physician. All participants are expected to attend a 24-month follow-up visit where data are collected by interviewers blinded to intervention assignment. As of May 1, 2003, recruitment is complete, interventions are being fully implemented, and 24-month follow-up visits are beginning. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics, health-care utilization, health behaviors, and clinical characteristics of the study population are reported. This study is designed to test the hypothesis that a primary-care-based NCM plus CHW

  15. Tuberculosis control in South African gold mines: mathematical modeling of a trial of community-wide isoniazid preventive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Sumner, Tom; Fielding, Katherine L; Lewis, James J; Cox, Andrew P; Hayes, Richard J; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Churchyard, Gavin J; Grant, Alison D; White, Richard G

    2015-04-15

    A recent major cluster randomized trial of screening, active disease treatment, and mass isoniazid preventive therapy for 9 months during 2006-2011 among South African gold miners showed reduced individual-level tuberculosis incidence but no detectable population-level impact. We fitted a dynamic mathematical model to trial data and explored 1) factors contributing to the lack of population-level impact, 2) the best-achievable impact if all implementation characteristics were increased to the highest level achieved during the trial ("optimized intervention"), and 3) how tuberculosis might be better controlled with additional interventions (improving diagnostics, reducing treatment delay, providing isoniazid preventive therapy continuously to human immunodeficiency virus-positive people, or scaling up antiretroviral treatment coverage) individually and in combination. We found the following: 1) The model suggests that a small proportion of latent infections among human immunodeficiency virus-positive people were cured, which could have been a key factor explaining the lack of detectable population-level impact. 2) The optimized implementation increased impact by only 10%. 3) Implementing additional interventions individually and in combination led to up to 30% and 75% reductions, respectively, in tuberculosis incidence after 10 years. Tuberculosis control requires a combination prevention approach, including health systems strengthening to minimize treatment delay, improving diagnostics, increased antiretroviral treatment coverage, and effective preventive treatment regimens.

  16. "They don't want our blood": social inclusion and blood donation among African migrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, Michael Jay; Brijnath, Bianca; Renzaho, André M N

    2011-07-01

    The current study examines how feelings of social inclusion influence migrant communities' predisposition to donate blood, focusing specifically on Sub-Saharan African communities in Australia. We begin by explicating the theoretical links between social inclusion, citizenship and blood donation before discussing local and international perspectives of blood donation among African migrant communities. Using qualitative methods comprising nine focus group discussions, held between March and April 2010, we argue that blood donation intentions are mediated by whether or not individuals feel included in their new host society. Real and perceived discrimination experienced by African migrants in their everyday social interactions or in institutional settings can act as a barrier to blood donation. We conclude that removing such barriers, thereby increasing rates of donation in migrant communities, will help to build social capital and inclusion. Strategies for how this can be achieved are outlined.

  17. Petroleum-influenced beach sediments of the campeche bank, Mexico: Diversity and bacterial community structure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosano-Hernandez, M. C.; Ramirez-Saad, H.; Fernandez-Linares, L.; Xoconostle, B.

    2009-07-01

    In Mexican, either spilled or seeped out petroleum impacts nearly 300 km of the beach between Dos Bocas (Tabasco State) to Champoton town (Campeche State), where between 9 to exceptionally 9 to exceptionally 300 tonnes of oil as tar balls have been measured. This study was focused to explore, for the first time, the bacterial diversity and community structure ({alpha}-diversity)- in a kilometric scale on petroleum influenced sediments of 100 km of sandy beach. (Author)

  18. The influence of synthetic sheep urine on ammonia oxidizing bacterial communities in grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Shahid; Prosser, James I

    2006-06-01

    In grazed, grassland soils, sheep urine generates heterogeneity in ammonia concentrations, with potential impact on ammonia oxidizer community structure and soil N cycling. The influence of different levels of synthetic sheep urine on ammonia oxidizers was studied in grassland soil microcosms. 'Total' and active ammonia oxidizers were distinguished by comparing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles following PCR and RT-PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments, targeting DNA and RNA, respectively. The RNA-based approach indicated earlier, more reproducible and finer scale qualitative shifts in ammonia oxidizing communities than DNA-based analysis, but led to amplification of a small number of nonammonia oxidizer sequences. Qualitative changes in RNA-derived DGGE profiles were related to changes in nitrate accumulation. Sequence analysis of excised DGGE bands revealed that ammonia oxidizing communities in synthetic sheep urine-treated soils consisted mainly of Nitrosospira clusters 2, 3 and 4. Nitrosospira cluster 2 increased in relative abundance in microcosms treated with all levels of synthetic sheep urine. Low levels additionally led to increased relative abundance of Nitrosospira cluster 4 and medium and high levels increased relative abundance of cluster 3. Synthetic sheep urine is therefore likely to influence the spatial distribution and composition of ammonia oxidizer communities, with consequent effects on nitrate accumulation.

  19. Forest management type influences diversity and community composition of soil fungi across temperate forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezia eGoldmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive towards shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L., with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L. or spruce (Picea abies Karst. which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure.We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal OTU richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera.This study extends our knowledge

  20. Planning Office and Community Influence on Land-Use Decisions Intended to Benefit the Low-Income: Welcome to Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dominic Searcy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores urban planning office and community influence on land-use decision making in two poverty-stricken but redeveloping neighborhood areas in Chicago. The Department of Planning and Development in this study had marginal impact on land-use decisions due to administrative limitations. Community influence is moderated by the degree to which low-income housing advocates can act directly as developers and produce housing units. The research findings indicate that land-use decisions intended to benefit the low-income resulted not from community-based political conflict but more so from community organization cooperation with political actors.

  1. Organisational aspects and benchmarking of e-learning initiatives: a case study with South African community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisach, Ulrike; Weilemann, Mitja

    2016-06-01

    South Africa desperately needs a comprehensive approach to fight HIV/AIDS. Education is crucial to reach this goal and Internet and e-learning could offer huge opportunities to broaden and deepen the knowledge basis. But due to the huge societal and digital divide between rich and poor areas, e-learning is difficult to realize in the townships. Community health workers often act as mediators and coaches for people seeking medical and personal help. They could give good advice regarding hygiene, nutrition, protection of family members in case of HIV/AIDS and finding legal ways to earn one's living if they were trained to do so. Therefore they need to have a broader general knowledge. Since learning opportunities in the townships are scarce, a system for e-learning has to be created in order to overcome the lack of experience with computers or the Internet and to enable them to implement a network of expertise. The article describes how the best international resources on basic medical knowledge, HIV/AIDS as well as on basic economic and entrepreneurial skills were benchmarked to be integrated into an e-learning system. After tests with community health workers, researchers developed recommendations on building a self-sustaining system for learning, including a network of expertise and best practice sharing. The article explains the opportunities and challenges for community health workers, which could provide information for other parts of the world with similar preconditions of rural poverty.

  2. From rhetoric to reality? Putting HIV and AIDS rights talk into practice in a South African rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Nair, Yugi

    2014-01-01

    Whilst international rhetoric on HIV and AIDS frequently invokes discourses of human rights to inspire and guide action, translating universal rights talk into practice in specific settings remains a challenge. Community mobilisation is often strategy of choice. We present a case study of the Entabeni Project in South Africa--in which a foreign-funded NGO sought to work with female health volunteers in a deep rural community to increase their access to two HIV-relevant rights: women's rights (especially gender equality) and rights to health (especially access to HIV- and AIDS-related services). Whilst the project had short-term health-related successes, it was less successful in implementing a gender empowerment agenda. The concept of women's rights had no purchase with women who had little interest in directly challenging male power, foregrounding the fight against poverty as their main preoccupation. The area's traditional chief and gatekeeper insisted the project should remain 'apolitical'. Project funders prioritised 'numbers reached' over a gender empowerment orientation. In the absence of (1) a marginalised group who are willing to assert their rights; and (2) a context where powerful people are willing to support these claims, 'rights' may be a blunt tool for HIV-related work with women in deeply oppressive and remote rural communities beyond the reach of international treaties and urban-based activist movements.

  3. Influence of earthworm activity on microbial communities related with the degradation of persistent pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Lee, Iwa; Verweij, Rudo A; Morais, Paula V; Van Velzen, Martin J M; Sousa, José Paulo; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2012-04-01

    Earthworms may promote the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, but the mechanism through which they exert such influence is still unknown. To determine if the stimulation of PAH degradation by earthworms is related to changes in microbial communities, a microcosm experiment was conducted consisting of columns with natural uncontaminated soil covered with PAH-contaminated dredge sediment. Columns without and with low and high Eisenia andrei densities were prepared. Organic matter and PAH content, microbial biomass, and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were measured in soil and sediment over time. Biolog Ecoplate™ and polymerase chain reaction using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were used to evaluate changes in metabolic and structural diversity of the microbial community, respectively. Earthworm activity promoted PAH degradation in soil, which was significant for biphenyl, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[e]pyrene. Microbial biomass and DHA activity generally did not change over the experiment. Earthworm activity did change microbial community structure, but this did not affect its functioning in terms of carbon substrate consumption. Results suggest no relationship between changes in the microbial community by earthworm activity and increased PAH disappearance. The role of shifts in soil microbial community structure induced by earthworms in PAH removal needs further investigation.

  4. Factors influencing the utilization of the public Internet terminal system in two rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coleman

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the factors that influence the use of the public Internet terminal (PIT system in the Taung and Ganyesa communities. The PIT system is placed in many post offices in these communities but the service is not adequately used by these rural community members. The overall objective of this study was to investigate, develop and recommend a solution for providing the rural communities of Taung and Gyanesa with a simple and effective way to access and utilize the PIT service and the information on it. A case study approach was used for the purpose of this study which gathered a number of findings, including lack of awareness of PIT services, lack of computer skills and confidence, and fear of technology. Other findings were the overloading of information on the PIT, use of language (not the mother tongue, and the slow response of the PIT system. The findings from this study led to some recommendations and a model for PIT use in rural communities.

  5. Outcome of community-acquired pneumonia: influence of age, residence status and antimicrobial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, H; Bauer, T; Marre, R; Suttorp, N; Welte, T; Dalhoff, K

    2008-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of mortality in developed countries. There is much discrepancy in the literature regarding factors influencing the outcome in the elderly population. Data were derived from a multicentre prospective study initiated by the German Competence Network for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (n = 2,647; 1,298 aged or = 65 yrs) were evaluated, of whom 72.3% were hospitalised and 27.7% treated in the community. Clinical history, residence status, course of disease and antimicrobial treatment were prospectively documented. Microbiological investigations included cultures and PCR of respiratory samples and blood cultures. Factors related to mortality were included in multivariate analyses. The overall 30-day mortality was 6.3%. Elderly patients exhibited a significantly higher mortality rate that was independently associated with the following: age; residence status; confusion, urea, respiratory frequency and blood pressure (CURB) score; comorbid conditions; and failure of initial therapy. Increasing age remained predictive of death in the elderly. Nursing home residents showed a four-fold increased mortality rate and an increased rate of gram-negative bacillary infections compared with patients dwelling in the community. The CURB score and cerebrovascular disease were confirmed as independent predictors of death in this subgroup. Age and residence status are independent risk factors for mortality after controlling for comorbid conditions and disease severity. Failure of initial therapy was the only modifiable prognostic factor.

  6. Predicting the Effects of Woody Encroachment on Mammal Communities, Grazing Biomass and Fire Frequency in African Savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Izak P J; Prins, Herbert H T

    2015-01-01

    With grasslands and savannas covering 20% of the world's land surface, accounting for 30-35% of worldwide Net Primary Productivity and supporting hundreds of millions of people, predicting changes in tree/grass systems is priority. Inappropriate land management and rising atmospheric CO2 levels result in increased woody cover in savannas. Although woody encroachment occurs world-wide, Africa's tourism and livestock grazing industries may be particularly vulnerable. Forecasts of responses of African wildlife and available grazing biomass to increases in woody cover are thus urgently needed. These predictions are hard to make due to non-linear responses and poorly understood feedback mechanisms between woody cover and other ecological responders, problems further amplified by the lack of long-term and large-scale datasets. We propose that a space-for-time analysis along an existing woody cover gradient overcomes some of these forecasting problems. Here we show, using an existing woody cover gradient (0-65%) across the Kruger National Park, South Africa, that increased woody cover is associated with (i) changed herbivore assemblage composition, (ii) reduced grass biomass, and (iii) reduced fire frequency. Furthermore, although increased woody cover is associated with reduced livestock production, we found indigenous herbivore biomass (excluding elephants) remains unchanged between 20-65% woody cover. This is due to a significant reorganization in the herbivore assemblage composition, mostly as a result of meso-grazers being substituted by browsers at increasing woody cover. Our results suggest that woody encroachment will have cascading consequences for Africa's grazing systems, fire regimes and iconic wildlife. These effects will pose challenges and require adaptation of livelihoods and industries dependent on conditions currently prevailing.

  7. Predicting the Effects of Woody Encroachment on Mammal Communities, Grazing Biomass and Fire Frequency in African Savannas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak P J Smit

    Full Text Available With grasslands and savannas covering 20% of the world's land surface, accounting for 30-35% of worldwide Net Primary Productivity and supporting hundreds of millions of people, predicting changes in tree/grass systems is priority. Inappropriate land management and rising atmospheric CO2 levels result in increased woody cover in savannas. Although woody encroachment occurs world-wide, Africa's tourism and livestock grazing industries may be particularly vulnerable. Forecasts of responses of African wildlife and available grazing biomass to increases in woody cover are thus urgently needed. These predictions are hard to make due to non-linear responses and poorly understood feedback mechanisms between woody cover and other ecological responders, problems further amplified by the lack of long-term and large-scale datasets. We propose that a space-for-time analysis along an existing woody cover gradient overcomes some of these forecasting problems. Here we show, using an existing woody cover gradient (0-65% across the Kruger National Park, South Africa, that increased woody cover is associated with (i changed herbivore assemblage composition, (ii reduced grass biomass, and (iii reduced fire frequency. Furthermore, although increased woody cover is associated with reduced livestock production, we found indigenous herbivore biomass (excluding elephants remains unchanged between 20-65% woody cover. This is due to a significant reorganization in the herbivore assemblage composition, mostly as a result of meso-grazers being substituted by browsers at increasing woody cover. Our results suggest that woody encroachment will have cascading consequences for Africa's grazing systems, fire regimes and iconic wildlife. These effects will pose challenges and require adaptation of livelihoods and industries dependent on conditions currently prevailing.

  8. The use of low density lipoprotein receptor activity of lymphocytes to determine the prevalence of familial hypercholesterolaemia in a rural South African community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, K; Weight, M J; Dando, B R; Christopher, K J; Rossouw, J E

    1989-01-01

    The diagnosis of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in three rural South African communities in which hypercholesterolaemia is very prevalent could be confirmed by the measurement of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity in circulating lymphocytes. A nominal cut off point could be proposed which separated the LDL receptor activity of 24 clinically diagnosed heterozygous FH patients and 31 healthy people. LDL receptor activity was measured as total degradation of 125I-LDL and expressed as ng LDL/mg cell protein/6 hours. The cut off point was set at 970 ng/mg protein/6 hours. This proposed cut off point was tested by assaying the LDL receptor of three homozygous FH patients and seven of their obligate heterozygous FH first degree relatives. The three homozygous FH patients showed no receptor activity and the activity of the seven obligate heterozygous first degree relatives fell below the proposed cut off point. To determine the prevalence of FH in the study population, all persons aged 15 to 24 years whose total cholesterol levels fell above the 80th centile for their age and sex, as well as their families, were approached (n = 114). The LDL receptor activity in lymphocytes of 77 of these persons aged 15 to 24 years was determined after applying the exclusion criteria. Ten of the 77 participants had LDL receptor activity below 970 ng LDL/mg protein/6 hours and were therefore diagnosed as being heterozygous FH patients. The calculation of the prevalence (corrected for exclusions) revealed that one in 71 of the 15 to 24 year old permanent residents in the predominantly Afrikaans speaking community suffered from heterozygous FH. This is higher than any FH prevalence previously reported for any group. PMID:2918524

  9. Influence of groundwater depth on species composition and community structure in the transition zone of Cele oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank; M.; THOMAS

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the hypothesis that the distribution of dominant plant species and characteristics of plant communities are related to groundwater depth. The results showed that variations of groundwater depth impacted distributions and characteristics of dominant plant communities. However, besides groundwater depth, the community composition and species diversity were also influenced by physiognomy of the habitat. Based on the similarity coefficient, the differences between dominant plant communities were significant at different groundwater depths. Compared with other results relating to desert vegetation and groundwater depth, variations of community distribution were similar at the large spatial scale. However, in this extremely arid region, there were significant differences in community type and community succession when compared with other arid regions, especially in relationship to deep groundwater depth. With groundwater depth from deep to shallow, communities transformed with the sequence of Alhagi communities, Tamarix spp. communities, Populus communities, Phragmites communities, and Sophora communities. At groundwater depth of less than 6.0 m, the community type and composition changed, and the species diversity increased. Among these dominant species, Tamarix exhibited the biggest efficiency in resource utilization according to niche breadth, which means it possessed the best adaptability to environmental conditions at the oasis margins.

  10. Influence of groundwater depth on species composition and community structure in the transition zone of Cele oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangYi LI; LiSha LIN; Qiang ZHAO; XiMing ZHANG; Frank M.THOMAS

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the hypothesis that the distribution of dominant plant species and characteristics of plant communities are related to groundwater depth.The results showed that variations of groundwater depth impacted distributions and characteristics of dominant plant communities.However,besides groundwater depth,the community composition and species diversity were also influenced by physiognomy of the habitat.Based on the similarity coefficient,the differences between dominant plant communities were significant at different groundwater depths.Compared with other results relating to desert vegetation and groundwater depth,variations of community distribution were similar at the large spatial scale.However,in this extremely arid region,there were significant differences in community type and community succession when compared with other arid regions,especially in relationship to deep groundwater depth.With groundwater depth from deep to shallow,communities transformed with the sequence of Alhagi communities,Tamarix spp.communities,Populus communities,Phragmites communities,and Sophora communities.At groundwater depth of less than 6.0m,the community type and composition changed,and the species diversity increased.Among these dominant species,Tamarix exhibited the biggest efficiency in resource utilization according to niche breadth,which means it possessed the best adaptability to environmental conditions at the oasis margins.

  11. Factors Influencing Health Facility Delivery in Predominantly Rural Communities across the Three Ecological Zones in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeetey Akpe Kwesi Enuameh

    Full Text Available Maternal and neonatal mortality indicators remain high in Ghana and other sub-Saharan African countries. Both maternal and neonatal health outcomes improve when skilled personnel provide delivery services within health facilities. Determinants of delivery location are crucial to promoting health facility deliveries, but little research has been done on this issue in Ghana. This study explored factors influencing delivery location in predominantly rural communities in Ghana.Data were collected from 1,500 women aged 15-49 years with live or stillbirths that occurred between January 2011 and April 2013. This was done within the three sites operating Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems, i.e., the Dodowa (Greater Accra Region, Kintampo (Brong Ahafo Region, and Navrongo (Upper-East Region Health Research Centers in Ghana. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of delivery location, controlling for covariates that were statistically significant in univariable regression models.Of 1,497 women included in the analysis, 75.6% of them selected health facilities as their delivery location. After adjusting for confounders, the following factors were associated with health facility delivery across all three sites: healthcare provider's influence on deciding health facility delivery, (AOR = 13.47; 95% CI 5.96-30.48, place of residence (AOR = 4.49; 95% CI 1.14-17.68, possession of a valid health insurance card (AOR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.29-2.81, and socio-economic status measured by wealth quintiles (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI 1.43-5.60.In addition to known factors such as place of residence, socio-economic status, and possession of valid health insurance, this study identified one more factor associated with health facility delivery: healthcare provider's influence. Ensuring care provider's counseling of clients could improve the uptake of health facility delivery in rural communities in Ghana.

  12. The Effect of Marriage on Weight Gain and Propensity to become Obese in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2010-01-01

    Does marriage have a causal impact on weight and the likelihood of becoming obese? Marriage is thought to have a protective influence on both men's and women's health, although via different mechanisms. Evidence in regard to marriage affecting body mass index (BMI) and the propensity to become obese, however, is mixed and often based on limited…

  13. Perceived racial discrimination as a barrier to college enrollment for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Gerrard, Meg; Simons, Ronald L

    2012-01-01

    African Americans trail European Americans in terms of academic achievement, even when accounting for differences in socioeconomic status. One cause of this gap may be racial discrimination. In the current article the authors hypothesized that early perceived racial discrimination (by 5th grade) would predict college enrollment, mediated by changes from 7th grade to 10th grade in academic orientation, college aspirations and expectations, and deviance tolerance. Participants were 750 African Americans from the Family and Community Health Study. A structural equation model that controlled for socioeconomic status and earlier academic performance supported the hypothesis, with the exception that discrimination did not influence aspirations. The effect of discrimination on expectations, however, was moderated: Participants with high future orientation maintained high expectations in spite of discrimination. These results suggest that discrimination discourages some African Americans from pursuing higher education and that increasing future orientation may promote African Americans' college enrollment.

  14. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  15. Influence of a trout farm on macrozoobenthos communities of the Trešnjica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trout farming poses an increasing threat to quality of the water of clean highland streams. Research of this problem has focused primarily on changes in physico-chemical composition of the water and structure of the river bottom, and less on the effects on living organisms. In the present work, we investigated influence of the farm with the highest trout production in Serbia, the 'Riboteks' Trout Farm on the Trešnjica River, on its macrozoobenthos communities. Our investigations showed that the 'Riboteks' Trout Farm wastewaters caused a clear and statistically significant change of moderate intensity in all measured parameters describing the composition and structure of macrozoobenthos communities. These changes were most pronounced in the part of the watercourse closest to the influx of waste water (locality III but remained statistically significant even 500 m downstream (locality IV and were lost only about 3.5 km away from the influx of the farm's wastewater (locality V. The most pronounced were changes in the participation in total abundance of the Baetidae, Chironomidae, and Plecoptera. Additionally, results of the present work confirmed that the mass of fish on the trout farm is a parameter that adequately defines the strength of its action, above all the intensity of its influence on structure of the macrozoobenthos community.

  16. Pyrosequencing reveals the influence of organic and conventional farming systems on bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Khafipour, Ehsan; Krause, Denis O; Entz, Martin H; de Kievit, Teresa R; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2012-01-01

    It has been debated how different farming systems influence the composition of soil bacterial communities, which are crucial for maintaining soil health. In this research, we applied high-throughput pyrosequencing of V1 to V3 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to gain further insight into how organic and conventional farming systems and crop rotation influence bulk soil bacterial communities. A 2×2 factorial experiment consisted of two agriculture management systems (organic versus conventional) and two crop rotations (flax-oat-fababean-wheat versus flax-alfalfa-alfalfa-wheat) was conducted at the Glenlea Long-Term Crop Rotation and Management Station, which is Canada's oldest organic-conventional management study field. Results revealed that there is a significant difference in the composition of bacterial genera between organic and conventional management systems but crop rotation was not a discriminator factor. Organic farming was associated with higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria, while Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were more abundant in conventional farming. The dominant genera including Blastococcus, Microlunatus, Pseudonocardia, Solirubrobacter, Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas exhibited significant variation between the organic and conventional farming systems. The relative abundance of bacterial communities at the phylum and class level was correlated to soil pH rather than other edaphic properties. In addition, it was found that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were more sensitive to pH variation.

  17. Pyrosequencing reveals the influence of organic and conventional farming systems on bacterial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Li

    Full Text Available It has been debated how different farming systems influence the composition of soil bacterial communities, which are crucial for maintaining soil health. In this research, we applied high-throughput pyrosequencing of V1 to V3 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to gain further insight into how organic and conventional farming systems and crop rotation influence bulk soil bacterial communities. A 2×2 factorial experiment consisted of two agriculture management systems (organic versus conventional and two crop rotations (flax-oat-fababean-wheat versus flax-alfalfa-alfalfa-wheat was conducted at the Glenlea Long-Term Crop Rotation and Management Station, which is Canada's oldest organic-conventional management study field. Results revealed that there is a significant difference in the composition of bacterial genera between organic and conventional management systems but crop rotation was not a discriminator factor. Organic farming was associated with higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria, while Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were more abundant in conventional farming. The dominant genera including Blastococcus, Microlunatus, Pseudonocardia, Solirubrobacter, Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas exhibited significant variation between the organic and conventional farming systems. The relative abundance of bacterial communities at the phylum and class level was correlated to soil pH rather than other edaphic properties. In addition, it was found that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were more sensitive to pH variation.

  18. Diatoms of the microphytobenthic community in a tropical intertidal sand flat influenced by monsoons: Spatial and temporal variations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mitbavkar, S.; Anil, A.C.

    Seasonal variations in the microphytobenthic diatom community were investigated in an intertidal sand flat of a tropical marine environment influenced by monsoons. Cores of sediments were collected along the beach gradient: low tide, mid tide...

  19. ADAPTATION OF AQUIFER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES TO THE BIODEGRADATION OF XENOBIOTIC COMPOUNDS: INFLUENCE OF SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION AND PREEXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to examine the adaptation response of aquifer microbial communities to xenobiotic compounds and the influence of chemical preexposure in the laboratory and in situ on adaptation. Adaptation and biodegradation were assessed as mineralization and cellular inc...

  20. Headwater streams and forest management: does ecoregional context influence logging effects on benthic communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, R. Bruce; Wipfli, Mark S.; Binckley, Chris; Polivka, Karl; Hessburg, Paul F.; Salter, R. Brion

    2010-01-01

    Effects of forest management on stream communities have been widely documented, but the role that climate plays in the disturbance outcomes is not understood. In order to determine whether the effect of disturbance from forest management on headwater stream communities varies by climate, we evaluated benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 24 headwater streams that differed in forest management (logged-roaded vs. unlogged-unroaded, hereafter logged and unlogged) within two ecological sub-regions (wet versus dry) within the eastern Cascade Range, Washington, USA. In both ecoregions, total macroinvertebrate density was highest at logged sites (P = 0.001) with gathering-collectors and shredders dominating. Total taxonomic richness and diversity did not differ between ecoregions or forest management types. Shredder densities were positively correlated with total deciduous and Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) riparian cover. Further, differences in shredder density between logged and unlogged sites were greater in the wet ecoregion (logging × ecoregion interaction; P = 0.006) suggesting that differences in post-logging forest succession between ecoregions were responsible for differences in shredder abundance. Headwater stream benthic community structure was influenced by logging and regional differences in climate. Future development of ecoregional classification models at the subbasin scale, and use of functional metrics in addition to structural metrics, may allow for more accurate assessments of anthropogenic disturbances in mountainous regions where mosaics of localized differences in climate are common.

  1. Influence of uranium on bacterial communities: a comparison of natural uranium-rich soils with controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Mondani

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of uranium on the indigenous bacterial community structure in natural soils with high uranium content. Radioactive soil samples exhibiting 0.26% - 25.5% U in mass were analyzed and compared with nearby control soils containing trace uranium. EXAFS and XRD analyses of soils revealed the presence of U(VI and uranium-phosphate mineral phases, identified as sabugalite and meta-autunite. A comparative analysis of bacterial community fingerprints using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealed the presence of a complex population in both control and uranium-rich samples. However, bacterial communities inhabiting uraniferous soils exhibited specific fingerprints that were remarkably stable over time, in contrast to populations from nearby control samples. Representatives of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and seven others phyla were detected in DGGE bands specific to uraniferous samples. In particular, sequences related to iron-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter and Geothrix were identified concomitantly with iron-oxidizing species such as Gallionella and Sideroxydans. All together, our results demonstrate that uranium exerts a permanent high pressure on soil bacterial communities and suggest the existence of a uranium redox cycle mediated by bacteria in the soil.

  2. Carcass mass has little influence on the structure of gravesoil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sophie; Carter, David O; Metcalf, Jessica L; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how variables, such as carcass mass, affect the succession pattern of microbes in soils during decomposition. To investigate the effects of carcass mass on the soil microbial community, soils associated with swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses of four different masses were sampled until the 15th day of decomposition during the month of June in a pasture near Lincoln, Nebraska. Soils underneath swine of 1, 20, 40, and 50 kg masses were investigated in triplicate, as well as control sites not associated with a carcass. Soil microbial communities were characterized by sequencing the archaeal, bacterial (16S), and eukaryotic (18S) rRNA genes in soil samples. We conclude that time of decomposition was a significant influence on the microbial community, but carcass mass was not. The gravesoil associated with 1 kg mass carcasses differs most compared to the gravesoil associated with other carcass masses. We also identify the 15 most abundant bacterial and eukaryotic taxa, and discuss changes in their abundance as carcass decomposition progressed. Finally, we show significant decreases in alpha diversity for carcasses of differing mass in pre-carcass rupture (days 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 postmortem) versus post-carcass rupture (days 9 and 15 postmortem) microbial communities.

  3. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathryn M; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Jansson, Stefan; Albrectsen, Benedicte R

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  4. [Influence of Submerged Plants on Microbial Community Structure in Sediment of Hongze Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-yu; Zhang, Ting-xi; Dong, Dan-ping; Li, De-fang; Wang, Guo-xiang

    2016-05-15

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) method was applied to analyze the influence of submerged plants on sediment microbial community structure, in order to investigate the changes of sediment microbial community structure for different kinds of the submerged plants in different growth periods. Particularly, Potamogeton crispus L., Potamogeton pectinatus L and the mixed group were chosen as the typical submerged plants in Hongze Lake for investigation in this paper. The results indicated that the change of total PLFAs in different periods was significant, on the contrary, the PLFA change for different groups in the same period was insignificant. The values of G⁺ PLFA/G⁻ PLFA in the submerged plant group were also highly related to the different growth periods, which demonstrated that the root function of the submerged plant had a severe impact on the microbial community in sediment. Furthermore, some environmental factors, such as Temperature, pH, TOC and DO, were correlated to characteristic phospholipid of PLFAs in sediment, which means the environmental factors could also affect the microbial community structure.

  5. Does the edge effect influence plant community structure in a tropical dry forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Gallo Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Edge effects are considered a key factor in regulating the structure of plant communities in different ecosystems. However, regardless to few studies, edge influence does not seem to be decisive in semiarid regions such as the Brazilian tropical dry forest known as Caatinga but this issue remains inconclusive. The present study tests the null hypothesis that the plant community of shrubs and trees does not change in its structure due to edge effects. Twenty-four plots (20 x 20 m were set up in a fragment of Caatinga, in which 12 plots were in the forest edges and 12 plots were inside the fragment. Tree richness, abundance and species composition did not differ between edge and interior plots. The results of this study are in agreement with the pattern previously found for semiarid environments and contrasts with previous results obtained in different environments such as Rainforests, Savanna and Forest of Araucaria, which indicate abrupt differences between the border and interior of the plant communities in these ecosystems, and suggest that the community of woody plants of the Caatinga is not ecologically affected by the presence of edges.

  6. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Robinson

    Full Text Available We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  7. Identifying community risk factors for HIV among South African adolescents with mental health problems: a qualitative study of parental perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Donenberg, Geri; Davids, Alicia; Vermaak, Redwaan; Simbayi, Leickness; Ward, Catherine; Naidoo, Pamela; Mthembu, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    High risk sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems combine to yield high levels of HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents with mental health problems. In South Africa, little research has been conducted on parental perspectives of HIV-risk among this population. We conducted a series of focus group discussions with 28 mothers of adolescents receiving services at two mental health clinics in South Africa to identify, from their perspectives, the key community problems facing their children. Participants indicated that HIV remained a serious threat to their adolescent children's well-being, in addition to substance abuse, early sexual debut, and teenage pregnancy. These social problems were mentioned as external to their household dynamics, and thus seemingly beyond the purview of the parent-adolescent relationship. These data have implications for the design of family-based interventions to ameliorate the factors associated with HIV-risk among youth receiving mental health services.

  8. H.U.B city steps: methods and early findings from a community-based participatory research trial to reduce blood pressure among african americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molaison Elaine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94% females (85% with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1 years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84% participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1 to 120.3 (SD = 17.9 mmHg; p Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies the community's active participation in the development and execution of this study. Reach

  9. Petroleum-influenced beach sediments of the Campeche Bank, Mexico: diversity and bacterial community structure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano-Hernández, María C; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo; Fernández-Linares, Luis

    2012-03-01

    The bacterial diversity and community structure were surveyed in intertidal petroleum-influenced sediments of ≈ 100 km of a beach, in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The beach was divided in twenty sampling sites according to high, moderate and low petroleum influence. Densities of cultured heterotrophic (HAB) and hydrocarbon degrading bacteria (HDB) were highly variable in sediments, with little morphological assortment in colonies. PCR-RISA banding patterns differentiated distinct communities along the beach, and the bacterial diversity changed inversely to the degree of petroleum hydrocarbon influence: the higher TPH concentration, the lower genotype diversity. Seven DNA sequences (Genbank EF191394 -EF191396 and EF191398 -EF191401) were affiliated to uncultured members of Gemmatimonas, Acidobacterium, Desulfobacteraceae, Rubrobacterales, Actinobacterium and the Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria group; all the above taxa are known for having members with active roles in biogeochemical transformations. The remaining sequences (EF191388 - EF191393 and EF191397) affiliated to Pseudoalteromonas, and to oil-degrading genera such as Pseudomonas, Vibrio and Marinobacter, being the last one an obligate oil-degrading bacterium. An exchange of bacteria between the beach and the oil seep environment, and the potential cleaning-up role of bacteria at the southern Gulf of Mexico are discussed.

  10. Diagnosed but Not Defeated: The Experiences of African-American Males with Past Histories of Enrollment in Special Education Who Successfully Attend Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland-Dixon, Kennedi

    2013-01-01

    African-American males are disappearing at alarming rates before our eyes through racially driven practices that secure their position in the penal system and special education. Though many scholars in the field of education have highlighted alarming rates of incarceration and overrepresentation in special education for African-American males,…

  11. "In the Interest of the Colored Boys": Christopher J. Atkinson, William T. Coleman, and the Extension of Boys' Clubs Services to African-American Communities, 1906-1931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Carter Julian

    2011-01-01

    This paper details how African-American boys' club workers, their Clubs as well as their service to African-American youth, gained legitimacy within the Boys' Club Federation, now Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA). Specifically, it illustrates what facilitated a predominantly urban, northeastern organization to begin opening Clubs for…

  12. Organic content influences sediment microbial fuel cell performance and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Li, Ruying; Ji, Min; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-11-01

    This study constructed sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with different organic loadings without the amendment of external substrates, and it investigated how such variation affects electricity generation and microbial community structure. Results found sediment characteristics significantly influenced SMFC performance and appropriate organic content is important to maintain stable power outputs. SMFCs with loss of ignition (LOI) of 5% showed the most reliable performance in this study, while high organic content (LOI 10-16%) led to higher but very unstable voltage output because of biogas accumulation and worm activities. SMFCs with low organic content (1-3%) showed low power output. Different bacterial communities were found in SMFCs shown various power generation performance even those with similar organic contents. Thermodesulfovibrionaceae was found closely related to the system startup and Desulfobulbaceae showed great abundance in SMFCs with high power production.

  13. A Node Influence Based Label Propagation Algorithm for Community Detection in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Label propagation algorithm (LPA is an extremely fast community detection method and is widely used in large scale networks. In spite of the advantages of LPA, the issue of its poor stability has not yet been well addressed. We propose a novel node influence based label propagation algorithm for community detection (NIBLPA, which improves the performance of LPA by improving the node orders of label updating and the mechanism of label choosing when more than one label is contained by the maximum number of nodes. NIBLPA can get more stable results than LPA since it avoids the complete randomness of LPA. The experimental results on both synthetic and real networks demonstrate that NIBLPA maintains the efficiency of the traditional LPA algorithm, and, at the same time, it has a superior performance to some representative methods.

  14. PXR and CAR single nucleotide polymorphisms influence plasma efavirenz levels in South African HIV/AIDS patients

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    Swart Marelize

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated variation in NR1I2 and NR1I3 and its effect on plasma efavirenz levels in HIV/AIDS patients. Variability in plasma drug levels has largely led research on identifying causative variants in drug metabolising enzyme (DME genes, with little focus on the nuclear receptor genes NR1I2 and NR1I3, coding for PXR and CAR, respectively, that are involved in regulating DMEs. Methods 464 Bantu-speaking South Africans comprising of HIV/AIDS patients on efavirenz-based treatment (n=301 and 163 healthy subjects were genotyped for 6 SNPs in NR1I2 and NR1I3. 32 of the 301 patients had their DNA binding domains (DBDs in NR1I2 and NR1I3 sequenced. Results Significantly decreased efavirenz plasma concentrations were observed in patients carrying the NR1I3 rs3003596C/C and T/C genotypes (P=0.015 and P=0.010, respectively. Sequencing resulted in the discovery of a further 13 SNPs, 3 of which are novel variants in the DBD of NR1I2. There were significant differences in the distribution of NR1I2 and NR1I3 SNPs between South Africans when compared to Caucasian, Asian and Yoruba population groups. Conclusion For the realisation of personalised medicine, PXR and CAR genetic variation should be taken into consideration because of their involvement in the regulation of DMEs.

  15. Dissolved Organic Carbon Influences Microbial Community Composition and Diversity in Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, D.

    2012-07-13

    This study explores microbial community structure in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems across both laboratory and field scales. Two field sites, the Taif River (Taif, Saudi Arabia) and South Platte River (Colorado), were selected as geographically distinct MAR systems. Samples derived from unsaturated riverbed, saturated-shallow-infiltration (depth, 1 to 2 cm), and intermediate-infiltration (depth, 10 to 50 cm) zones were collected. Complementary laboratory-scale sediment columns representing low (0.6 mg/liter) and moderate (5 mg/liter) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used to further query the influence of DOC and depth on microbial assemblages. Microbial density was positively correlated with the DOC concentration, while diversity was negatively correlated at both the laboratory and field scales. Microbial communities derived from analogous sampling zones in each river were not phylogenetically significantly different on phylum, class, genus, and species levels, as determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, suggesting that geography and season exerted less sway than aqueous geochemical properties. When field-scale communities derived from the Taif and South Platte River sediments were grouped together, principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clusters with regard to the three sample zones (unsaturated, shallow, and intermediate saturated) and, further, with respect to DOC concentration. An analogous trend as a function of depth and corresponding DOC loss was observed in column studies. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that microbial classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria are positively correlated with DOC concentration. Our combined analyses at both the laboratory and field scales suggest that DOC may exert a strong influence on microbial community composition and diversity in MAR saturated zones.

  16. Influence of plankton community structure on the sinking velocity of marine aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, L. T.; Boxhammer, T.; Larsen, A.; Hildebrandt, N.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.

    2016-08-01

    About 50 Gt of carbon is fixed photosynthetically by surface ocean phytoplankton communities every year. Part of this organic matter is reprocessed within the plankton community to form aggregates which eventually sink and export carbon into the deep ocean. The fraction of organic matter leaving the surface ocean is partly dependent on aggregate sinking velocity which accelerates with increasing aggregate size and density, where the latter is controlled by ballast load and aggregate porosity. In May 2011, we moored nine 25 m deep mesocosms in a Norwegian fjord to assess on a daily basis how plankton community structure affects material properties and sinking velocities of aggregates (Ø 80-400 µm) collected in the mesocosms' sediment traps. We noted that sinking velocity was not necessarily accelerated by opal ballast during diatom blooms, which could be due to relatively high porosity of these rather fresh aggregates. Furthermore, estimated aggregate porosity (Pestimated) decreased as the picoautotroph (0.2-2 µm) fraction of the phytoplankton biomass increased. Thus, picoautotroph-dominated communities may be indicative for food webs promoting a high degree of aggregate repackaging with potential for accelerated sinking. Blooms of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi revealed that cell concentrations of 1500 cells/mL accelerate sinking by about 35-40%, which we estimate (by one-dimensional modeling) to elevate organic matter transfer efficiency through the mesopelagic from 14 to 24%. Our results indicate that sinking velocities are influenced by the complex interplay between the availability of ballast minerals and aggregate packaging; both of which are controlled by plankton community structure.

  17. Influence of hexavalent chromium on lactate-enriched Hanford groundwater microbial communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somenahally, Anil C [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yuan, Tong [University of Oklahoma; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Hazen, Terry C [ORNL; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction and immobilization of chromate (Cr(VI)) is a plausible bioremediation strategy. However, higher Cr(VI) concentrations may impose stress on native Cr-reducing communities. We sought to determine if Cr(VI) would influence the lactate enriched native microbial community structure and function in groundwater from the Cr contaminated site at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were amended with lactate and Cr(VI) (0.0, 0.1 and 3.0 mg/L). Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI) concentrations, 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition in bioreactors were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and some differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI) was reduced in the bioreactors. With lactate enrichment, the native communities did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. Native bacterial communities were diverse, whereas after lactate enrichment, Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., were the most predominant groups in all bioreactors. Similarly, the Archaea diversity significantly decreased from Methanosaeta (35%), Methanosarcina (17%), Halobacteriales (12%), Methanoregula (8%) and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%) after lactate enrichment. Composition of several key functional genes was distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant probes (chrA), Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, and as a result the 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) did not appear to give chromate reducing strains a competitive advantage for proliferation or for increasing Cr-reduction.

  18. The response of farmland bird communities to agricultural intensity as influenced by its spatial aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Teillard

    Full Text Available The shape of the relationship between biodiversity and agricultural intensity determines the range of intensities that should be targeted by conservation policies to obtain the greatest environmental benefits. Although preliminary evidence of this relationship exists, the influence of the spatial arrangement of intensity on biodiversity remains untested. We conducted a nationwide study linking agricultural intensity and its spatial arrangement to a farmland bird community of 22 species. Intensity was described with a continuous indicator based on Input Cost per hectare, which was relevant for both livestock and crop production. We used the French Breeding Bird Survey to compute several descriptors of the farmland bird community along the intensity gradient and tested for the significance of an interaction effect between intensity and its spatial aggregation on these descriptors. We found that the bird community was comprised of both winner and loser species with regard to intensity. The community composition descriptors (trophic level, specialisation, and specialisation for grassland indices displayed non-linear relationships to intensity, with steeper slopes in the lower intensity range. We found a significant interaction effect between intensity and its spatial aggregation on the grassland specialisation index of the bird community; the effect of agricultural intensity was strengthened by its spatial aggregation. We suggest that an opportunity to improve the effectiveness of conservation policies exists by targeting measures in areas where intensity is moderate to low and aggregated. The effect of the aggregation of agricultural intensity on biodiversity should be considered in other scales and taxa when developing optimal policy targeting and intensity allocation strategies.

  19. An ecological approach to physical activity in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A

    2001-12-01

    Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.

  20. Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade between Zimbabwe and its Trading Partners in the Southern African Development Community Region (1990-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafirenyika Sunde

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main objective of this study was to establish the determinants of intra industry trade between Zimbabwe and its trading partners in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region. The study was mainly motivated by the need to establish the type of goods that Zimbabwe trades with its trading partners. Approach: The study also wanted to prove the hypothesis that similarity in per capita income is not the main determinant of intra-industry trade between Zimbabwe its SADC trading partners; and also that intra industry trade does not necessarily take place among countries with similar economic structures and level of development. The study used the Modified Standard Gravity Equation which has Intra-Industry Trade Index as its dependant variable. The model was regressed using Ordinary Least Squares in excel. Results: The results of the study show that per capita income, trade intensity, distance, exchange rate and gross domestic product explain Intra-Industry Trade (IIT between Zimbabwe and its SADC trading partners. The study also established that most countries in SADC trade in more or less the same goods and this can be explained by the type of development that these countries were subjected to during the colonial era which resulted in the establishment of similar economic structures and per capita incomes that were more or less the same. As result, these countries produce and trade similar products. Both hypotheses above were proved wrong. Conclusion: We therefore concluded that Zimbabwe needs to get into more bilateral trade agreements with its trading partners in order to enhance trade between itself and its trading partners. We also concluded that Zimbabwe has to give incentives to its producers and also mend its relationship with the Breton Woods Institutions (International Monetary Fund and the World Bank if it wants to reach its full trade potential.

  1. Climate influences thermal balance and water use in African and Asian elephants: physiology can predict drivers of elephant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, Robin C; Wilson, Dinah; Way, Nicolas; Johnson, Kari; Williams, Terrie M

    2013-08-01

    Elephant movement patterns in relation to surface water demonstrate that they are a water-dependent species. Thus, there has been interest in using surface water management to mitigate problems associated with localized elephant overabundance. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the elephant's water dependence remain unclear. Although thermoregulation is likely an important driver, the relationship between thermoregulation, water use and climate has not been quantified. We measured skin surface temperature of and cutaneous water loss from 13 elephants (seven African, 3768±642 kg; six Asian, 3834±498 kg) and determined the contribution of evaporative cooling to their thermal and water budgets across a range of air temperatures (8-33°C). We also measured respiratory evaporative water loss and resting metabolic heat production on a subset of elephants (N=7). The rate of cutaneous evaporative water loss ranged between 0.31 and 8.9 g min(-1) m(-2) for Asian elephants and 0.26 and 6.5 g min(-1) m(-2) for African elephants. Simulated thermal and water budgets using climate data from Port Elizabeth, South Africa, and Okaukuejo, Namibia, suggested that the 24-h evaporative cooling water debt incurred in warm climates can be more than 4.5 times that incurred in mesic climates. This study confirms elephants are obligate evaporative coolers but suggests that classification of elephants as water dependent is insufficient given the importance of climate in determining the magnitude of this dependence. These data highlight the potential for a physiological modeling approach to predicting the utility of surface water management for specific populations.

  2. The influence of socioeconomic factors on the densities of high-value cross-border species, the African elephant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotow, Rob; Di Minin, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Unprecedented poaching levels triggered by demand for ivory in Far East Asia are threatening the persistence of African elephant Loxodonta africana. Southern African countries make an important contribution to elephant conservation and could soon become the last stronghold of elephant conservation in Africa. While the ecological factors affecting elephant distribution and densities have extensively been accounted for, there is a need to understand which socioeconomic factors affect elephant numbers in order to prevent conflict over limited space and resources with humans. We used elephant count data from aerial surveys for seven years in a generalized linear model, which accounted for temporal correlation, to investigate the effect of six socioeconomic and ecological variables on the number of elephant at the country level in the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area (GMTFCA). Important factors in predicting elephant numbers were the proportion of total land surface under cultivation, human population density and the number of tourists visiting the country. Specifically, elephant numbers were higher where the proportion of total land surface under cultivation was the lowest; where population density was the lowest and where tourist numbers had increased over the years. Our results confirm that human disturbance is affecting elephant numbers, but highlight that the benefits provided by ecotourism could help enhance elephant conservation. While future studies should include larger areas and more detailed data at the site level, we stress that the development of coordinated legislation and policies to improve land-use planning are needed to reduce the impact of increasing human populations and agriculture on elephant. PMID:27812404

  3. The influence of socioeconomic factors on the densities of high-value cross-border species, the African elephant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah-Anne Jeanetta Selier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented poaching levels triggered by demand for ivory in Far East Asia are threatening the persistence of African elephant Loxodonta africana. Southern African countries make an important contribution to elephant conservation and could soon become the last stronghold of elephant conservation in Africa. While the ecological factors affecting elephant distribution and densities have extensively been accounted for, there is a need to understand which socioeconomic factors affect elephant numbers in order to prevent conflict over limited space and resources with humans. We used elephant count data from aerial surveys for seven years in a generalized linear model, which accounted for temporal correlation, to investigate the effect of six socioeconomic and ecological variables on the number of elephant at the country level in the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area (GMTFCA. Important factors in predicting elephant numbers were the proportion of total land surface under cultivation, human population density and the number of tourists visiting the country. Specifically, elephant numbers were higher where the proportion of total land surface under cultivation was the lowest; where population density was the lowest and where tourist numbers had increased over the years. Our results confirm that human disturbance is affecting elephant numbers, but highlight that the benefits provided by ecotourism could help enhance elephant conservation. While future studies should include larger areas and more detailed data at the site level, we stress that the development of coordinated legislation and policies to improve land-use planning are needed to reduce the impact of increasing human populations and agriculture on elephant.

  4. The Need and Its Influence Factors for Community-based Rehabilitation Services for Disabled Persons in One District in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG DAI; HUI XUE; ZONG-JIE YIN; ZHONG-XIN XIAO

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To explore the needs for basic community-based rehabilitation services for disabled persons in Xuanwu District, Beijing, China, and to identify factors which influence disabled persons to accept rehabilitation services. Method One hundred and eight disabled persons were selected by systematic sampling and simple random sampling to assess their needs for community-based rehabilitation services. Results Of the interviewees, 57.4% needed the community-based rehabilitation services, but only 13.9% took advantage of it. The main factors influencing the interviewees to accept these services were cost (P<0.05), knowledge about rehabilitation medicine (P<0.05); and the belief in the therapeutic benefit of the community-based rehabilitation service (P<0.05). Conclusion A considerable gap exists between the supply of community-based rehabilitation services in Beijing and the needs for these services by disabled residents underscoring the need for improved availability, and for additional research.

  5. Follower-Centric Influences on Sexual Decision Making in a Pentecostal Church Faith Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Mpofu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized participatory action research approaches to construct a follower-centric framework for measuring influences on sexual decision making by youth members of a church organization. Participants were Batswana Pentecostal church members self-reporting on their engagement in pre-marital sex (n = 68, females = 62%; age range 15–23 years; median age = 20.3 years from eight of 26 randomly selected congregations. They completed a multi-stage concept mapping process that included free listing of statements of potential influences on their sexual decisions. They then sorted the statements into groupings similar in meaning to them, and rated the same statements for relative importance to their sexual decisions. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis of the data yielded a five cluster solution in which church teachings emerged as most salient to the teenagers’ sexual decision making followed by future orientation, community norms, knowledge about HIV/AIDS and prevention education. While the youth believed to be influenced by religion teachings on primary sexual abstinence, they self-reported with pre-marital sex. This suggests a need for secondary abstinence education with them to reduce their risk for STIs/HIV and unwanted pregnancies. Concept mapping is serviceable to construct frameworks and to identify content of follower-centric influences on sexual decision making by church youth members.

  6. Soil Influences Colonization of Root-Associated Fungal Endophyte Communities of Maize, Wheat, and Their Progenitors

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    Deepak Bokati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungal endophytes are vital component of root microbiome as some mitigate their host’s abiotic and biotic stress. We characterized root-associated fungal endophytes in cereal grains and their progenitors grown on two different soil-types. We aimed at determining how clay and desert soil affects the colonization of root fungal community. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were employed to identify endophytes that successfully colonized greenhouse-grown host plants. The Internal Transcriber Spacer region of fungal ribosomal DNA was utilized for identification purposes. This study revealed soil as a prominent factor influencing the composition of microfungal communities inhabiting the roots of maize (Zea mays subsp. mays and its conspecific progenitor, teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis. Similar results were found in wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp. aestivum and its progenitor (Triticum monococcum subsp. monococcum. The multidimensional comparisons of Morisita-Horn similarity values of fungal colonists of various host plant taxa indicated that soil plays a primary role in shaping the root fungal community; a secondary effect was plant host identity, even when the plant host is a conspecific. Future studies focused on characterizing root endophytes in other cereal grains, and studying the effect of edaphic factors on fungal colonization, can ultimately contribute to crop productivity.

  7. Image divide in destination marketing: an exploration of the chain of influence in South African tourism marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Cronje, Paul; Kokkranikal, Jithendran

    2008-01-01

    Tourism marketers including Destination Marketing Organisations (DMOs) and international tour operators play a pivotal role in the creation of induced images of destinations. These images, apparent in tourist brochures, are designed to influence tourist decision-making. This paper propose the concept of a Chain of Influence in induced imaging, suggesting that the content of marketing material is influenced by the priorities of those who design these materials. \\ud \\ud A content analysis of 2,...

  8. Influence of phosphorus availability on the community structure and physiology of cultured biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangshuang; Wang, Chun; Qin, Hongjie; Li, Yinxia; Zheng, Jiaoli; Peng, Chengrong; Li, Dunhai

    2016-04-01

    Biofilms have important effects on nutrient cycling in aquatic ecosystems. However, publications about the community structure and functions under laboratory conditions are rare. This study focused on the developmental and physiological properties of cultured biofilms under various phosphorus concentrations performed in a closely controlled continuous flow incubator. The results showed that the biomass (Chl a) and photosynthesis of algae were inhibited under P-limitation conditions, while the phosphatase activity and P assimilation rate were promoted. The algal community structure of biofilms was more likely related to the colonization stage than with the phosphorus availability. Cyanobacteria were more competitive than other algae in biofilms, particularly when cultured under low P levels. A dominance shift occurred from non-filamentous algae in the early stage to filamentous algae in the mid and late stages under P concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 0.6 mg/L. However, the total N content, dry weight biomass and bacterial community structure of biofilms were unaffected by phosphorus availability. This may be attributed to the low respiration rate, high accumulation of extracellular polymeric substances and high alkaline phosphatase activity in biofilms when phosphorus availability was low. The bacterial community structure differed over time, while there was little difference between the four treatments, which indicated that it was mainly affected by the colonization stage of the biofilms rather than the phosphorus availability. Altogether, these results suggested that the development of biofilms was influenced by the phosphorus availability and/or the colonization stage and hence determined the role that biofilms play in the overlying water.

  9. Community and team member factors that influence the early phase functioning of community prevention teams: the PROSPER project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Meyer-Chilenski, Sarah; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve

    2007-11-01

    This research examines the early development of community teams in a specific university-community partnership project called PROSPER (Spoth et al., Prev Sci 5:31-39, 2004). PROSPER supports local community teams in rural areas and small towns to implement evidence-based programs intended to support positive youth development and reduce early substance use. The study evaluated 14 community teams and included longitudinal data from 108 team members. Specifically, it examined how community demographics and team member characteristics, perceptions, and attitudes at initial team formation were related to local team functioning 6 months later, when teams were planning for prevention program implementation. Findings indicate that community demographics (poverty), perceived community readiness, characteristics of local team members (previous collaborative experience) and attitudes toward prevention played a substantial role in predicting the quality of community team functioning 6 months later. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors identify barriers to successful long-term implementation of prevention programs and add to a small, but important, longitudinal research knowledge base related to community coalitions.

  10. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1 Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2 Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3 Are there gender differences? (4 Is there an effect of age? (5 Are there differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand? Method A total of 528 children (264 classified as having symptoms of ADHD and 264 matched comparisons of both genders and from seven different South African ethnic groups participated in the study. They were assessed with three simple, easy to administer instruments which measure various functions of motor speed and eye-hand coordination: The Grooved Pegboard, the Maze Coordination Task, and the Finger Tapping Test. The results were analysed as a function of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance. Results The findings indicate that children with symptoms of ADHD performed significantly poorer on the Grooved Pegboard and Motor Coordination Task, but not on the Finger Tapping Test than their comparisons without ADHD symptoms. The impairment was most severe for the subtype with symptoms of ADHD-C (combined and less severe for the subtypes with symptoms of ADHD-PI (predominantly inattentive and ADHD-HI (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive. With few exceptions, both genders were equally affected while there were only slight differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand. The deficiencies in motor control were mainly confined to the younger age group (6 – 9 yr. Conclusion An association between the symptoms of ADHD and motor problems was demonstrated in terms of accuracy and speed in fairly complex tasks, but not in simple motor tests of speed. This deficiency is found

  11. Exploring the Influence of Environmental Factors on Bacterial Communities within the Rhizosphere of the Cu-tolerant plant, Elsholtzia splendens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Longfei; Song, Mengke; Yang, Li; Zhang, Dayi; Sun, Yingtao; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial communities of rhizospheric soils play an important role in the tolerance and uptake of metal-tolerant/hyperaccumulating plants to metals, e.g. the Cu-tolerant Elsholtzia splendens native to China. In this work, pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was firstly applied to investigate the rhizospheric bacterial community of E. splendens grown at Cu contaminated sites. The 47 phyla including 11 dominant phyla (>1%) in E. splendens rhizosphere were presented. The effects of Cu and other environmental factors (total organic carbon, total nitrogen and pH) on the rhizospheric bacterial community were studied comprehensively. The phyla abundances were affected by the environmental factors to different extent, and we found pH, instead of Cu concentration, influenced UniFrac distance significantly and was identified as the most important environmental factor affecting bacterial community. In addition, the influence of environmental factors on gene profiles was explored according to the predicted metagenomes obtained by PICRUSt (phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states). Our study illustrates a view about Cu-tolerant E. splendens rhizospheric bacterial communities (composition, diversity and gene profiles) and their influencing factors, giving a hand for the understanding on bacterial community is formed and affected in rhizosphere.

  12. Influence of Sea Ice on Arctic Marine Sulfur Biogeochemistry in the Community Climate System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, Clara [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AL (United States); Jin, Meibing [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AL (United States)

    2013-06-30

    Global climate models (GCMs) have not effectively considered how responses of arctic marine ecosystems to a warming climate will influence the global climate system. A key response of arctic marine ecosystems that may substantially influence energy exchange in the Arctic is a change in dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions, because DMS emissions influence cloud albedo. This response is closely tied to sea ice through its impacts on marine ecosystem carbon and sulfur cycling, and the ice-albedo feedback implicated in accelerated arctic warming. To reduce the uncertainty in predictions from coupled climate simulations, important model components of the climate system, such as feedbacks between arctic marine biogeochemistry and climate, need to be reasonably and realistically modeled. This research first involved model development to improve the representation of marine sulfur biogeochemistry simulations to understand/diagnose the control of sea-ice-related processes on the variability of DMS dynamics. This study will help build GCM predictions that quantify the relative current and possible future influences of arctic marine ecosystems on the global climate system. Our overall research objective was to improve arctic marine biogeochemistry in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, now CESM). Working closely with the Climate Ocean Sea Ice Model (COSIM) team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), we added 1 sea-ice algae and arctic DMS production and related biogeochemistry to the global Parallel Ocean Program model (POP) coupled to the LANL sea ice model (CICE). Both CICE and POP are core components of CESM. Our specific research objectives were: 1) Develop a state-of-the-art ice-ocean DMS model for application in climate models, using observations to constrain the most crucial parameters; 2) Improve the global marine sulfur model used in CESM by including DMS biogeochemistry in the Arctic; and 3) Assess how sea ice influences DMS dynamics in the arctic marine

  13. The influence of biomass burning and transport on tropospheric composition over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and Equatorial Africa during the West African monsoon in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Williams

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning (BB in southern Africa is the largest emission source of CO and O3 precursors within Africa during the West African Monsoon (WAM between June and August. The long range transport and chemical processing of such emissions thus has the potential to exert a dominant influence on the composition of the tropical troposphere over Equatorial Africa (EA and the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (TAO. We have performed simulations using a three-dimensional global chemistry-transport model (CTM to quantify the effect that continental transport of such BB plumes has on the EA region. BB emissions from southern Africa were found to exert a significant influence over the TAO and EA between 10° S–20° N. The maximum concentrations in CO and O3 occur between 0–5° S near the position of the African Easterly Jet – South as placed by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF meteorological analysis data. By comparing co-located model output with in-situ measurements we show that the CTM fails to capture the tropospheric profile of CO in southern Africa near the main source region of the BB emissions, as well as the "extreme" concentrations of both CO and O3 seen between 600–700 hPa over EA around 6° N. For more northerly locations the model exhibits high background concentrations in both CO and O3 related to BB emissions from southern Africa. By altering both the temporal resolution and the vertical distribution of BB emissions in the model we show that changes in temporal resolution have the largest influence on the transport of trace gases near the source regions, EA, and in the outflow towards the west of Central Africa. Using a set of trajectory calculations we show that the performance of the CTM is heavily constrained by the ECMWF meteorological fields used to drive the CTM, which transport biomass burning plumes from southern Africa into the lower troposphere of the TAO rather

  14. Gender matters, too: the influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-05-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development.

  15. Influence of prey dispersion on territory and group size of African lions: a test of the resource dispersion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeix, Marion; Loveridge, Andrew J; MacDonald, David W

    2012-11-01

    Empirical tests of the resource dispersion hypothesis (RDH), a theory to explain group living based on resource heterogeneity, have been complicated by the fact that resource patch dispersion and richness have proved difficult to define and measure in natural systems. Here, we studied the ecology of African lions Panthera leo in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, where waterholes are prey hotspots, and where dispersion of water sources and abundance of prey at these water sources are quantifiable. We combined a 10-year data set from GPS-collared lions for which information of group composition was available concurrently with data for herbivore abundance at waterholes. The distance between two neighboring waterholes was a strong determinant of lion home range size, which provides strong support for the RDH prediction that territory size increases as resource patches are more dispersed in the landscape. The mean number of herbivore herds using a waterhole, a good proxy of patch richness, determined the maximum lion group biomass an area can support. This finding suggests that patch richness sets a maximum ceiling on lion group size. This study demonstrates that landscape ecology is a major driver of ranging behavior and suggests that aspects of resource dispersion limit group sizes.

  16. Influence of environmental humidity and dietary protein on pyramidal growth of carapaces in African spurred tortoises (Geochelone sulcata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, C S; Iben, C

    2003-02-01

    The carapaces of captive-raised tortoises (terrestrial chelonians of the zoological family Testudinidae, often develop pyramidal-shaped osseous growth centrally within the horny plates. With very few exceptions (e.g. Geochelone elegans, Psammobates sp.), this conical growth pattern is considered to be pathologic. This very common defect is believed to be an important indicator of the quality of captive tortoise management. This study was designed to examine the effect of dietary protein level and environmental humidity on the degree of pyramidal growth in the carapaces. Fifty recently hatched African spurred tortoises (G. sulcata) were raised for 5 months under artificial conditions of varying environmental humidity and dietary protein content (14% vs. 19% vs. 30% crude protein in dry matter). Humps of the carapaces that developed and blood values of calcium, phosphorus and haematocrit were measured and compared among groups. Dry environmental conditions (24.3-57.8% and 30.6-74.8% relative humidity) produced taller humps than humid conditions (45-99% relative humidity). Hump formation differed significantly (p < or = 0.001) between these three groups kept under different humidity conditions. Variable dietary protein had a minor, positive impact on this pathological formation of humps (pyramidal growth syndrome, PGS). Analysis of blood (calcium, phosphorus and haematocrit) offered no further explanation as to the development of the humps.

  17. A Reevaluation of African Education: Woodson Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the ideas of C. G. Woodson (1875-1950) about the inappropriate education received by African Americans. Although Woodson's book, "The Mis-Education of the Negro," was written in 1933, his diagnosis of the state of the African-American community appears to hold up well today. (SLD)

  18. Patterns and processes influencing helminth parasites of Arctic coastal communities during climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaktionov, K V

    2017-03-22

    This review analyses the scarce available data on biodiversity and transmission of helminths in Arctic coastal ecosystems and the potential impact of climate changes on them. The focus is on the helminths of seabirds, dominant parasites in coastal ecosystems. Their fauna in the Arctic is depauperate because of the lack of suitable intermediate hosts and unfavourable conditions for species with free-living larvae. An increasing proportion of crustaceans in the diet of Arctic seabirds would result in a higher infection intensity of cestodes and acanthocephalans, and may also promote the infection of seabirds with non-specific helminths. In this way, the latter may find favourable conditions for colonization of new hosts. Climate changes may alter the composition of the helminth fauna, their infection levels in hosts and ways of transmission in coastal communities. Immigration of boreal invertebrates and fish into Arctic seas may allow the circulation of helminths using them as intermediate hosts. Changing migratory routes of animals would alter the distribution of their parasites, facilitating, in particular, their trans-Arctic transfer. Prolongation of the seasonal 'transmission window' may increase the parasitic load on host populations. Changes in Arctic marine food webs would have an overriding influence on the helminths' circulation. This process may be influenced by the predicted decreased of salinity in Arctic seas, increased storm activity, coastal erosion, ocean acidification, decline of Arctic ice, etc. Greater parasitological research efforts are needed to assess the influence of factors related to Arctic climate change on the transmission of helminths.

  19. The Influence of Garden Size and Floral Cover on Pollen Deposition in Urban Community Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Matteson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cucurbits, such as cucumbers, squashes and pumpkins, depend on pollinating bees in order to set fruit. However, fruit yield and progeny vigor in these plants generally decreases as heterospecific pollen deposition increases. We studied how the spatial area dedicated to cucumbers (Cucumis sativis, versus other flowering plants, influenced the deposition of conspecific and heterospecific pollen on cucumber plants in New York City community gardens. We also examined the effect of garden size on conspecific and heterospecific pollen deposition on cucumber plants. Female flowers were collected from potted cucumber plants that had been experimentally placed into the gardens, specifically for this study, or that were established in raised beds by members of the community garden. In the laboratory, pollen grains were isolated from the flower by acetolysis, and the number of heterospecific and conspecific cucumber pollen grains were quantified. Conspecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly associated with the size of a community garden, as well as with the area of each garden dedicated to non-cucumber, flowering plants (i.e. floral cover and the area of each garden dedicated to cucumber plants (i.e. cucumber cover. Although floral cover explained a greater proportion of the variance, cucumber cover had the strongest effect on conspecific pollen deposition. Heterospecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly related to garden area. However, no significant relationship was found between heterospecific pollen deposition and floral cover, or cucumber cover. Based upon these results, we hypothesize that floral cover positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition by attracting a greater number of pollinators into an urban garden, and that total cucumber area positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition when pollinators are locally foraging within a garden. We suggest that the arrangement of plants within a garden can

  20. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrquin, Anna F.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  1. The relative influence of the community and the health system on work performance: a case study of community health workers in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S A; Larsen, D E

    1990-01-01

    A central component of the primary health care approach in developing countries has been the development and utilization of community-based health workers (CHWs) within the national health system. While the use of these front line workers has the potential to positively influence health behavior and health status in rural communities, there continues to be challenges to effective implementation of CHW programs. Reports of high turnover rates, absenteeism, poor quality of work, and low morale among CHWs have often been associated with weak organizational and managerial capacity of government health systems. However, no systematic research has examined the contribution of work-related factors to CHW job performance. The research reported in this paper examines the relative influence of reward and feedback factors associated with the community compared to those associated with the health system on the performance of CHWs. The data are drawn from a broader study of health promoters (CHWs) conducted in two departments (provinces) in Colombia in 1986. The research was based on a theoretical model of worker performance that focuses on job related sources of rewards and feedback. A survey research design was employed to obtain information from a random sample of rural health promoters (N = 179) and their auxiliary nurse supervisors about CHW performance and contributing factors. The findings indicate that feedback and rewards from the community have a greater influence on work performance (defined as degree of perceived goal attainment on job tasks) than do those stemming from the health system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Antagonism influences assembly of a Bacillus guild in a local community and is depicted as a food-chain network

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Rocío-Anaís; López-Ramírez, Varinia; Islas, África; Alcaraz, Luis David; Hernández-González, Ismael; Olivera, Beatriz Carely Luna; Santillán, Moisés; Luis E Eguiarte; Souza, Valeria; Travisano, Michael; Olmedo-Alvarez, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the principles that govern community assemblages is a central goal of ecology. There is limited experimental evidence in natural settings showing that microbial assembly in communities are influenced by antagonistic interactions. We, therefore, analyzed antagonism among bacterial isolates from a taxonomically related bacterial guild obtained from five sites in sediments from a fresh water system. We hypothesized that if antagonistic interactions acted as a shaping force of the c...

  3. Community reintegration of ex-prisoners: type and degree of change in variables influencing successful reintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkfield, Alison J; Graffam, Joseph

    2009-02-01

    Community reintegration of ex-prisoners is an important issue in efforts to reduce recidivism. The present study examined the multiple, complex, and dynamic nature of variables influencing successful reintegration by assessing the type and degree of change in reintegration variables over time. Participants were 79 adult prisoners (54 male, 25 female) who completed a prerelease questionnaire 1 month before their release, which focused on prison-related variables, participant background, and anticipated conditions upon release. A postrelease questionnaire was administered to the same participants at 1-4 weeks and 3-4 months postrelease, focusing on the quality of life conditions experienced following release. Results indicate that current health ratings and several indicators of drug use were significantly different over the three measurement phases. Ratings of employment and housing stability, finance, and social support were unchanged over the postrelease period. Theoretical implications of the present investigation for reintegration theory are discussed, together with practical applications.

  4. Mapping Point-of-Purchase Influencers of Food Choice in Australian Remote Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Henryks

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Closing the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians relies, in part, on addressing the poor levels of nutrition in remote Indigenous communities (RIC. This article identifies and maps key influencers of food choice at the point-of-purchase (POP in Australian RIC and identifies gaps in our knowledge. It is based on a narrative review of the literature pertaining to food in RIC from a range of disciplinary perspectives including nutrition, ethnography, public health, anthropology, and remote health to map POP drivers of food choice. In particular, the role of habit is identified as a key factor that has previously not been discussed in the literature. The conceptual framework can be used as a basis for future POP research in RIC and provides guidance for social marketers, public health, nutrition, and policy workers operating in this field.

  5. Niche distribution and influence of environmental parameters in marine microbial communities: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe H. Coutinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Associations between microorganisms occur extensively throughout Earth’s oceans. Understanding how microbial communities are assembled and how the presence or absence of species is related to that of others are central goals of microbial ecology. Here, we investigate co-occurrence associations between marine prokaryotes by combining 180 new and publicly available metagenomic datasets from different oceans in a large-scale meta-analysis. A co-occurrence network was created by calculating correlation scores between the abundances of microorganisms in metagenomes. A total of 1,906 correlations amongst 297 organisms were detected, segregating them into 11 major groups that occupy distinct ecological niches. Additionally, by analyzing the oceanographic parameters measured for a selected number of sampling sites, we characterized the influence of environmental variables over each of these 11 groups. Clustering organisms into groups of taxa that have similar ecology, allowed the detection of several significant correlations that could not be observed for the taxa individually.

  6. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés A Aguilera

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S, the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape.

  7. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Valdivia, Nelson; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2015-01-01

    There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S), the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape.

  8. Plant community diversity influences allocation to direct chemical defence in Plantago lanceolata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mraja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forecasting the consequences of accelerating rates of changes in biodiversity for ecosystem functioning requires a mechanistic understanding of the relationships between the structure of biological communities and variation in plant functional characteristics. So far, experimental data of how plant species diversity influences the investment of individual plants in direct chemical defences against herbivores and pathogens is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Plantago lanceolata as a model species in experimental grasslands differing in species richness and composition (Jena Experiment to investigate foliar concentrations of the iridoid glycosides (IG, catalpol and its biosynthetic precursor aucubin. Total IG and aucubin concentrations decreased, while catalpol concentrations increased with increasing plant diversity in terms of species or functional group richness. Negative plant diversity effects on total IG and aucubin concentrations correlated with increasing specific leaf area of P. lanceolata, suggesting that greater allocation to light acquisition reduced the investment into these carbon-based defence components. In contrast, increasing leaf nitrogen concentrations best explained increasing concentrations of the biosynthetically more advanced IG, catalpol. Observed levels of leaf damage explained a significant proportion of variation in total IG and aucubin concentrations, but did not account for variance in catalpol concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results clearly show that plants growing in communities of varying species richness and composition differ in their defensive chemistry, which may modulate plant susceptibility to enemy attack and consequently their interactions with higher trophic level organisms.

  9. Influence of oxytetracycline on the structure and activity of microbial community in wheat rhizosphere soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qingxiang; ZHANG Jing; ZHU Kongfang; ZHANG Hao

    2009-01-01

    The microbial community composition in wheat rhizosphere was analyzed by detecting colony forming units (CFUs) in agar plates. The total CFUs in rhizosphere were 1.04×109/g soil with 9.0×108/g bacteria, 1.37×108/g actinomyces and 3.6×106/g fungi. The 10 dominant bacteria were isolated from wheat rhizosphere and were grouped into genus Bacillus according to their full length 16S rRNA gene sequences. Although belonging to the same genus, the isolated strains exhibited different sensitivities to oxytetracycline. When a series of the rhizosphere soil was exposed under various concentrations of oxytetracycline, the microbial community structure was highly affected with significant decline of CFUs of bacteria and actinomyces (22.2% and 31.7% at 10 mg/kg antibiotic, respectively). This inhibition was clearly enhanced with the increase exposure dosage of antibiotic and could not be eliminated during 30 d incubation. There was no obvious influence of this treatment on fungi population. Among the four soil enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, acidic phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease), only alkaline phosphatase was sensitive to oxytetracycline exposure with 41.3% decline of the enzyme activity at 10 mg/kg antibiotic and further decrease of 64.3%-80.8% when the dosage over 30 mg/kg.

  10. Influence of Wastewater Discharge on the Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in River Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2015-09-24

    To reveal the variation of microbial community functions during water filtration process in river sediments, which has been utilized widely in natural water treatment systems, this study investigates the influence of municipal wastewater discharge to streams on the phylotype and metabolic potential of the microbiome in upstream and particularly various depths of downstream river sediments. Cluster analyses based on both microbial phylogenetic and functional data collectively revealed that shallow upstream sediments grouped with those from deeper subsurface downstream regions. These sediment samples were distinct from those found in shallow downstream sediments. Functional genes associated with carbohydrate, xenobiotic, and certain amino acid metabolisms were overrepresented in upstream and deep downstream samples. In contrast, the more immediate contact with wastewater discharge in shallow downstream samples resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen, sulfur, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, as well as restriction–modification systems. More diverse bacterial phyla were associated with upstream and deep downstream sediments, mainly including Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, in shallow downstream sediments, genera affiliated with Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were enriched with putative functions that included ammonia and sulfur oxidation, polyphosphate accumulation, and methylotrophic bacteria. Collectively, these results highlight the enhanced capabilities of microbial communities residing in deeper stream sediments for the transformation of water contaminants and thus provide a foundation for better design of natural water treatment systems to further improve the removal of contaminants. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  11. Influence of Wastewater Discharge on the Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in River Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Sharp, Jonathan O; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the variation of microbial community functions during water filtration process in river sediments, which has been utilized widely in natural water treatment systems, this study investigates the influence of municipal wastewater discharge to streams on the phylotype and metabolic potential of the microbiome in upstream and particularly various depths of downstream river sediments. Cluster analyses based on both microbial phylogenetic and functional data collectively revealed that shallow upstream sediments grouped with those from deeper subsurface downstream regions. These sediment samples were distinct from those found in shallow downstream sediments. Functional genes associated with carbohydrate, xenobiotic, and certain amino acid metabolisms were overrepresented in upstream and deep downstream samples. In contrast, the more immediate contact with wastewater discharge in shallow downstream samples resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen, sulfur, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, as well as restriction-modification systems. More diverse bacterial phyla were associated with upstream and deep downstream sediments, mainly including Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, in shallow downstream sediments, genera affiliated with Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were enriched with putative functions that included ammonia and sulfur oxidation, polyphosphate accumulation, and methylotrophic bacteria. Collectively, these results highlight the enhanced capabilities of microbial communities residing in deeper stream sediments for the transformation of water contaminants and thus provide a foundation for better design of natural water treatment systems to further improve the removal of contaminants.

  12. Removal of Escherichia coli and faecal coliforms from surface water and groundwater by household water treatment devices/systems: a sustainable solution for improving water quality in rural communities of the Southern African development community region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabi, Jocelyne K; Mamba, Bhekie B; Momba, Maggy N B

    2012-01-01

    There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS) are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S); biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z); bucket filter (BF); ceramic candle filter (CCF); and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP)] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S), 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z), 2 to 11 NTU (BF), and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF) and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log(10) (99% to 100%) of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9%) of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log(10), 100%) was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p sustainable HWTS for the Southern African Development Community (SADC) rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain.

  13. Removal of Escherichia coli and Faecal Coliforms from Surface Water and Groundwater by Household Water Treatment Devices/Systems: A Sustainable Solution for Improving Water Quality in Rural Communities of the Southern African Development Community Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne K. Mwabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S; biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z; bucket filter (BF; ceramic candle filter (CCF; and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S, 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z, 2 to 11 NTU (BF, and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log10 (99% to 100% of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9% of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log10, 100% was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p < 0.05. The findings of this study indicate that the SIPP can be an effective and sustainable HWTS for the Southern African Development Community (SADC rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain.

  14. Race, health, and the African Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  15. The degree of community engagement: empirical research in Baltimore City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung PARK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate influential factors that affect the levels of community engagement. Factors include community-level characteristics as well as demographic features of individuals in the community of Baltimore City. The study examines various community factors that affect the level of community engagement in the urban area, such as the level of homeownership, socioeconomic factors such as income and education, and demographic factors such as race, age, and sex. Findings from the study indicate that various factors from the social-cum-ethnic stratification influence the degree of community engagement in this urban area. Specifically, communities with high income levels and high levels of homeownership are more likely to induce residents to participate in their community. With regard to demographic factors, African-Americans and persons over the age of 65 years old are more willing to engage in community activities.

  16. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  17. Above–belowground herbivore interactions in mixed plant communities are influenced by altered precipitation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael William Ryalls

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Root- and shoot-feeding herbivores have the capacity to influence one another by modifying the chemistry of the shared host plant. This can alter rates of nutrient mineralisation and uptake by neighbouring plants and influence plant–plant competition, particularly in mixtures combining grasses and legumes. Root herbivory-induced exudation of nitrogen (N from legume roots, for example, may increase N acquisition by co-occurring grasses, with knock-on effects on grassland community composition. Little is known about how climate change may affect these interactions, but an important and timely question is how will grass–legume mixtures respond in a future with an increasing reliance on legume N mineralisation in terrestrial ecosystems. Using a model grass–legume mixture, this study investigated how simultaneous attack on lucerne (Medicago sativa by belowground weevils (Sitona discoideus and aboveground aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum affected a neighbouring grass (Phalaris aquatica when subjected to drought, ambient and elevated precipitation. Feeding on rhizobial nodules by weevil larvae enhanced soil water retention under ambient and elevated precipitation, but only when aphids were absent. While drought decreased nodulation and root N content in lucerne, grass root and shoot chemistry were unaffected by changes in precipitation. However, plant communities containing weevils but not aphids showed increased grass height and N concentrations, most likely associated with the transfer of N from weevil-attacked lucerne plants containing more nodules and higher root N concentrations compared with insect-free plants. Drought decreased aphid abundance by 54% but increased total and some specific amino acid concentrations (glycine, lysine, methionine, tyrosine, cysteine, histidine, arginine, aspartate and glutamate, suggesting that aphid declines were being driven by other facets of drought (e.g. reduced phloem hydraulics. The presence of weevil larvae

  18. Developing programs for african families, by african families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halliday, Jennifer A; Green, Julie; Mellor, David

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...

  19. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  20. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing......The African Union (AU) is a young international organisation, founded in 2002, which is still in the process of setting up its various institutions, while constantly having to face up to new challenges, such as civil wars breaking out and military coups being undertaken in its member states......, just as they have very different strengths. Hence, any account of the AU and the RECs can only provide a ‘snapshot’ of the organisation at any given time, one which may soon become outdated. In contrast with regional and sub-regional organisations in the North, those in Africa are facing an additional...

  1. Enabling and sustaining the activities of lay health influencers: lessons from a community-based tobacco cessation intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Muramoto, Myra

    2010-07-01

    The authors present findings from a community-based tobacco cessation project that trained lay health influencers to conduct brief interventions. They outline four major lessons regarding sustainability. First, participants were concerned about the impact that promoting cessation might have on social relationships. "Social risk" must be addressed during training to ensure long-term sustainability. Second, formal training provided participants with an increased sense of self-efficacy, allowed them to embrace a health influencer identity, and aided in further reducing social risk. Third, material resources functioned to mediate social tensions during health intervention conversations. A variety of resources should be made available to health influencers to accommodate type of relationship, timing, and location of the interaction. Finally, project design must be attentive to the creation of a "community of practice" among health influencers as an integral part of project sustainability. These lessons have broad implications for successful health promotion beyond tobacco cessation.

  2. Influence of aesthetic appreciation of wildlife species on attitudes towards their conservation in Kenyan agropastoralist communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pinho, Joana Roque; Grilo, Clara; Boone, Randall B; Galvin, Kathleen A; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G

    2014-01-01

    The influence of human aesthetic appreciation of animal species on public attitudes towards their conservation and related decision-making has been studied in industrialized countries but remains underexplored in developing countries. Working in three agropastoralist communities around Amboseli National Park, southern Kenya, we investigated the relative strength of human aesthetic appreciation on local attitudes towards the conservation of wildlife species. Using semi-structured interviewing and free listing (n = 191) as part of a mixed methods approach, we first characterized local aesthetic judgments of wildlife species. With a Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) approach, we then determined the influence of perceiving four species as beautiful on local support for their protection ("rescuing them"), and of perceiving four other species as ugly on support for their removal from the area, while controlling for informant personal and household socioeconomic attributes. Perceiving giraffe, gazelles and eland as beautiful is the strongest variable explaining support for rescuing them. Ugliness is the strongest variable influencing support for the removal of buffalo, hyena, and elephant (but not lion). Both our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that perceptions of ugly species could become more positive through direct exposure to those species. We propose that protected areas in developing countries facilitate visitation by local residents to increase their familiarity with species they rarely see or most frequently see in conflict with human interests. Since valuing a species for its beauty requires seeing it, protected areas in developing countries should connect the people who live around them with the animals they protect. Our results also show that aesthetic appreciation of biodiversity is not restricted to the industrialized world.

  3. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  4. Local residents trained as 'influence agents' most effective in persuading African couples on HIV counseling and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambdin, Barrot Hopkins; Kanweka, William; Inambao, Mubiana; Mwananyanda, Lawrence; Shah, Heena Dinesh; Linton, Sabriya; Wong, Frank; Luisi, Nicole; Tichacek, Amanda; Kalowa, James; Chomba, Elwyn; Allen, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Couples in sub-Saharan Africa are the largest group in the world at risk for HIV infection. Couples counseling and testing programs have been shown to reduce HIV transmission, but such programs remain rare in Africa. Before couples counseling and testing can become the norm, it is essential to increase demand for the services. We evaluated the effectiveness of several promotional strategies during a two-year program in Kitwe and Ndola, Zambia. The program attracted more than 7,600 couples through the use of radio broadcasts, billboards, and other strategies. The most effective recruiting technique was the use of local residents trained as "influence agents" to reach out to friends, neighbors, and others in their sphere of influence.

  5. Tracing ancestor rice of Suriname Maroons back to its African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde R; Meyer, Rachel S; Aflitos, Saulo A; Carney, Judith A; Veltman, Margaretha A; Copetti, Dario; Flowers, Jonathan M; Havinga, Reinout M; Maat, Harro; Purugganan, Michael D; Wing, Rod A; Schranz, M Eric

    2016-10-03

    African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and African cultivation practices are said to have influenced emerging colonial plantation economies in the Americas(1,2). However, the level of impact of African rice practices is difficult to establish because of limited written or botanical records(2,3). Recent findings of O. glaberrima in rice fields of Suriname Maroons bear evidence of the high level of knowledge about rice among African slaves and their descendants, who consecrate it in ancestor rituals(4,5). Here we establish the strong similarity, and hence likely origin, of the first extant New World landrace of O. glaberrima to landraces from the Upper Guinean forests in West Africa. We collected African rice from a Maroon market in Paramaribo, Suriname, propagated it, sequenced its genome(6) and compared it with genomes of 109 accessions representing O. glaberrima diversity across West Africa. By analysing 1,649,769 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in clustering analyses, the Suriname sample appears sister to an Ivory Coast landrace, and shows no evidence of introgression from Asian rice. Whereas the Dutch took most slaves from Ghana, Benin and Central Africa(7), the diaries of slave ship captains record the purchase of food for provisions when sailing along the West African Coast(8), offering one possible explanation for the patterns of genetic similarity. This study demonstrates the utility of genomics in understanding the largely unwritten histories of crop cultures of diaspora communities.

  6. Increasing community health worker productivity and effectiveness: a review of the influence of the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaskiewicz Wanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community health workers (CHWs are increasingly recognized as a critical link in improving access to services and achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals. Given the financial and human resources constraints in developing countries, CHWs are expected to do more without necessarily receiving the needed support to do their jobs well. How much can be expected of CHWs before work overload and reduced organizational support negatively affect their productivity, the quality of services, and in turn the effectiveness of the community-based programmes that rely on them? This article presents policy-makers and programme managers with key considerations for a model to improve the work environment as an important approach to increase CHW productivity and, ultimately, the effectiveness of community-based strategies. Methods A desk review of selective published and unpublished articles and reports on CHW programs in developing countries was conducted to analyse and organize findings on the elements that influence CHW productivity. The search was not exhaustive but rather was meant to gather information on general themes that run through the various documents to generate perspectives on the issue and provide evidence on which to formulate ideas. After an initial search for key terminology related to CHW productivity, a snowball technique was used where a reference in one article led to the discovery of additional documents and reports. Results CHW productivity is determined in large part by the conditions under which they work. Attention to the provision of an enabling work environment for CHWs is essential for achieving high levels of productivity. We present a model in which the work environment encompasses four essential elements—workload, supportive supervision, supplies and equipment, and respect from the community and the health system—that affect the productivity of CHWs. We propose that when CHWs have a

  7. Human Rights That Influence The Mentally Ill Patient In South African Medical Law: A Discussion of Sections 9; 27; 30 and 31 of the Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Swanepoel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The personalised nature of mental illness obscures from general view the intolerable burden of private and public distress that people with serious mental illness carry. Invariably the mentally ill person encounters rejection and humiliation that are in some way tantamount to a "second illness." The combination either disrupts or puts beyond reach the usual personal and social life stages of marriage, family life, raising children, sexual relationships, the choice of treatment, affordable housing, transportation, education and gainful employment. As a result of their lack of financial and social support and their experience of rejection from society, persons with mental illness tend to neglect themselves and their diet, and frequently delay seeking treatment. Against this background, this contribution critically focuses on the human rights that influence the mentally ill patient in South African medical law. Specific attention is paid to the relevance and meaning of sections 9 (the equality clause, 27 (access to health care services, 30 and 31 (language, culture and religion of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996.

  8. Environment and Spatial Influences on Aquatic Insect Communities in Cerrado Streams: the Relative Importance of Conductivity, Altitude, and Conservation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Queiroz, L L; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2017-04-01

    The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.

  9. When do plant radiations influence community assembly? The importance of historical contingency in the race for niche space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Brandt, Angela J; Smissen, Rob D; Heenan, Peter B; Fukami, Tadashi; Lee, William G

    2015-07-01

    Plant radiations are widespread but their influence on community assembly has rarely been investigated. Theory and some evidence suggest that radiations can allow lineages to monopolize niche space when founding species arrive early into new bioclimatic regions and exploit ecological opportunities. These early radiations may subsequently reduce niche availability and dampen diversification of later arrivals. We tested this hypothesis of time-dependent lineage diversification and community dominance using the alpine flora of New Zealand. We estimated ages of 16 genera from published phylogenies and determined their relative occurrence across climatic and physical gradients in the alpine zone. We used these data to reconstruct occupancy of environmental space through time, integrating palaeoclimatic and palaeogeological changes. Our analysis suggested that earlier-colonizing lineages encountered a greater availability of environmental space, which promoted greater species diversity and occupancy of niche space. Genera that occupied broader niches were subsequently more dominant in local communities. An earlier time of arrival also contributed to greater diversity independently of its influence in accessing niche space. We suggest that plant radiations influence community assembly when they arise early in the occupancy of environmental space, allowing them to exclude later-arriving colonists from ecological communities by niche preemption.

  10. Not of African Descent: Dental Modification among Indigenous Caribbean People from Canímar Abajo, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Alarie, Kaitlynn; Rodríguez Suárez, Roberto; Huebner, Erwin; Roksandic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Dental modifications in the Caribbean are considered to be an African practice introduced to the Caribbean archipelago by the influx of enslaved Africans during colonial times. Skeletal remains which exhibited dental modifications are by default considered to be Africans, African descendants, or post-contact indigenous people influenced by an African practice. Individual E-105 from the site of Canímar Abajo (Cuba), with a direct 14C AMS date of 990-800 cal BC, provides the first unequivocal evidence of dental modifications in the Antilles prior to contact with Europeans in AD 1492. Central incisors showing evidence of significant crown reduction (loss of crown volume regardless of its etiology) were examined macroscopically and with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine if the observed alterations were due to deliberate modification or other (unintentional) factors considered: postmortem breakage, violent accidental breakage, non-dietary use of teeth, and wear caused by habitual or repeated actions. The pattern of crown reduction is consistent with deliberate dental modification of the type commonly encountered among African and African descendent communities in post-contact Caribbean archaeological assemblages. Six additional individuals show similar pattern of crown reduction of maxillary incisors with no analogous wear in corresponding mandibular dentition.

  11. Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M.; Coresh, Josef; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and African Americans disproportionately experience more cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The literature documents a complex relationship between marital status and health, which varies by gender. We prospectively examine…

  12. The Impact of Mother-Daughter and Father-Daughter Relationships on Drug Refusal Self-Efficacy among African American Adolescent Girls in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Kimberly; Ashcraft, Amie; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2006-01-01

    This study yielded interesting findings on the effect of mother-daughter and father-daughter relationships on drug refusal self-efficacy for urban African American girls between the ages of 11 and 14. The questionnaire consisted of assessments on the quality of the girls mother and father relationships and their perceived ability to refuse drugs.…

  13. School Characteristics and Experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American Youth in Rural Communities: Relation to Educational Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Reed, Karla S.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in the school characteristics and experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American youth in rural high schools as well as their relation to educational aspirations. We also investigated the characteristics and experiences of students and their families given that…

  14. Clay minerals and metal oxides strongly influence the structure of alkane-degrading microbial communities during soil maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Annelie; Schulz, Stefanie; Giebler, Julia; Schulz, Stephan; Pronk, Geertje J; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y; Schloter, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Clay minerals, charcoal and metal oxides are essential parts of the soil matrix and strongly influence the formation of biogeochemical interfaces in soil. We investigated the role of these parental materials for the development of functional microbial guilds using the example of alkane-degrading bacteria harbouring the alkane monooxygenase gene (alkB) in artificial mixtures composed of different minerals and charcoal, sterile manure and a microbial inoculum extracted from an agricultural soil. We followed changes in abundance and community structure of alkane-degrading microbial communities after 3 and 12 months of soil maturation and in response to a subsequent 2-week plant litter addition. During maturation we observed an overall increasing divergence in community composition. The impact of metal oxides on alkane-degrading community structure increased during soil maturation, whereas the charcoal impact decreased from 3 to 12 months. Among the clay minerals illite influenced the community structure of alkB-harbouring bacteria significantly, but not montmorillonite. The litter application induced strong community shifts in soils, maturated for 12 months, towards functional guilds typical for younger maturation stages pointing to a resilience of the alkane-degradation function potentially fostered by an extant 'seed bank'.

  15. An Exploration of Teachers' Perception of the Influence of Professional Learning Communities on Their Professional Practices and on Teacher Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tekeisha Ford

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' perceptions of the influence of professional learning communities on teachers' professional practices. Research shows that the adjustment from college student to the teaching environment for new teachers has increased through involvement on committees, collaboration with peers, and hands-on…

  16. An evaluation of the influence of environment and biogeography on community structure: the case of Holarctic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J.; Hortal, Joaquín; Nieto, M.

    2006-01-01

    to Bailey's ecoregions (used as a surrogate of regional climate), and the positions of the communities in the dimensions of the CA are compared in relation to ecoregion and realm. Partial regression was used to test for the relative influence of ecoregion and realm over each dimension and to evaluate...

  17. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and salinity on the community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Schelde estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, A.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the community structure of ammoniaoxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in the Schelde estuary. Simultaneously with the increase of oxygen and salinity, a shift of the dominant AOB was observed. Molecular analysis based on 16S rRNA genes showed that the

  18. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and salinity on the community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Schelde estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, A.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in the Schelde estuary. Simultaneously with the increase of oxygen and salinity, a shift of the dominant AOB was observed. Molecular analysis based on 16S rRNA genes showed that the

  19. The value of trophic interactions for ecosystem function: dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Hannah M; Bardgett, Richard D; Louzada, Julio; Barlow, Jos

    2016-12-14

    Anthropogenic activities are causing species extinctions, raising concerns about the consequences of changing biological communities for ecosystem functioning. To address this, we investigated how dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in the Brazilian Amazon. First, we conducted a burial and retrieval experiment using seed mimics. We found that dung beetle biomass had a stronger positive effect on the burial of large than small beads, suggesting that anthropogenic reductions in large-bodied beetles will have the greatest effect on the secondary dispersal of large-seeded plant species. Second, we established mesocosm experiments in which dung beetle communities buried Myrciaria dubia seeds to examine plant emergence and survival. Contrary to expectations, we found that beetle diversity and biomass negatively influenced seedling emergence, but positively affected the survival of seedlings that emerged. Finally, we conducted germination trials to establish the optimum burial depth of experimental seeds, revealing a negative relationship between burial depth and seedling emergence success. Our results provide novel evidence that seed burial by dung beetles may be detrimental for the emergence of some seed species. However, we also detected positive impacts of beetle activity on seedling recruitment, which are probably because of their influence on soil properties. Overall, this study provides new evidence that anthropogenic impacts on dung beetle communities could influence the structure of tropical forests; in particular, their capacity to regenerate and continue to provide valuable functions and services.

  20. Factors Influencing Administration of Hepatitis B Vaccine to Community-Dwelling Teenagers Aged 12-18 with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to determine hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates among community-dwelling teenagers with an intellectual disability in Taiwan and to identify the possible influencing factors of their vaccination. The present paper was part of the results of the "2007 National Survey on Healthy Behaviors and Preventive Health Utilizations of…

  1. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, Daryl; Carbone, Chris; Clauss, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs' successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and competitors for similar-sized individuals of sympatric species. Models of population abundances across different-sized species of dinosaurs and mammals, based on simulated ecological life tables, are employed to investigate how differences in predation and competition pressure influenced dinosaur communities. Higher small- to medium-sized prey availability leads to a normal body mass-species richness (M-S) distribution of carnivorous dinosaurs (as found in the theropod fossil record), in contrast to the right-skewed M-S distribution of carnivorous mammals (as found living members of the order Carnivora). Higher levels of interspecific competition leads to a left-skewed M-S distribution in herbivorous dinosaurs (as found in sauropods and ornithopods), in contrast to the normal M-S distribution of large herbivorous mammals. Thus, our models suggest that differences in reproductive strategy, and consequently ontogeny, explain observed differences in community structure between dinosaur and mammal faunas. Models also show that the largest dinosaurian predators could have subsisted on similar-sized prey by including younger life stages of the largest herbivore species, but that large predators likely avoided prey much smaller than themselves because, despite predicted higher abundances of smaller than larger-bodied prey, contributions of small prey to biomass intake would be insufficient to satisfy meat requirements. A lack of large carnivores feeding on small prey exists in mammals

  2. African America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Brown, Gloria

    1994-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of quality materials by and about African Americans in the areas of poetry, music, folklore, women, picture books, history/collective biography, authors, and professional materials. Activities are suggested in each area for Black History Month. (LRW)

  3. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Ying

    Full Text Available Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random.

  4. Influence of environmental variables on the structure and composition of soil bacterial communities in natural and constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Paula; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Ansola, Gemma

    2015-02-15

    Bacteria are key players in wetland ecosystems, however many essential aspects regarding the ecology of wetland bacterial communities remain unknown. The present study characterizes soil bacterial communities from natural and constructed wetlands through the pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA genes in order to evaluate the influence of wetland variables on bacterial community composition and structure. The results show that the composition of soil bacterial communities was significantly associated with the wetland type (natural or constructed wetland), the type of environment (lagoon, Typha or Salix) and three continuous parameters (SOM, COD and TKN). However, no clear associations were observed with soil pH. Bacterial diversity values were significantly lower in the constructed wetland with the highest inlet nutrient concentrations. The abundances of particular metabolic groups were also related to wetland characteristics.

  5. Exploring uncertainty in advance care planning in African Americans: does low health literacy influence decision making preference at end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhado, Lolita; Bushy, Angeline

    2011-11-01

    African Americans over 65 represent 3.5 of the 35.6 million Americans. Morbidity and mortality rates are highest among this group; associated with lack of resources and awareness of health problems. But health needs are the same at end of life, yet care is less than optimal. African Americans are less likely to have advance directives nonetheless desire communication, information, respect, and a trusting doctor-patient relationship. Low health literacy may contribute to this disparity. This scholarly review examines the health literacy in advance care planning and refines concepts of uncertainty in illness theory deriving a model for advance care planning in African Americans.

  6. The influence of participation, gender and organizational sense of community on psychological empowerment: the moderating effects of income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Paul W; Peterson, N Andrew; Armstead, Theresa L; Allen, Christopher T

    2013-03-01

    This study explored the influence of participation, gender and organizational sense of community (SOC) on both the intrapersonal and interactional components of psychological empowerment (PE). Participants were residents (n = 562) involved in community organizing efforts in five U.S. communities. Measures of participation and SOC were tailored to community organization contexts. SOC assessed three dimensions: (1) connection of members to the organization; (2) perceptions about the organization as a bridge to other groups and organizations in the broader community; and (3) bond or attachment to the community at large. Income (low, middle and high-income) was tested as a moderator of these relationships. Results showed significant moderating effects of income on the relationship between participation, gender and SOC on both components of PE. Participation was positively related with intrapersonal empowerment across income levels, but positively related with interactional empowerment only for low-income individuals. Gender was only associated with intrapersonal empowerment, and only for low-income individuals. SOC, as expressed through bridging to the broader community, was positively related with interactional PE for all income levels, but with intrapersonal PE for only low and middle-income individuals. In contrast, member connection to the organization was not related to interactional empowerment and significantly related to intrapersonal empowerment only for individuals with higher income. The importance of participation, gender and SOC for different types of empowerment and the impact of income on the SOC-empowerment relationship are discussed.

  7. How do different types of community commitment influence brand commitment? The mediation of brand attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Zhi-min; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management.

  8. Determinants of the risk of dying of HIV/AIDS in a rural South African community over the period of the decentralised roll-out of antiretroviral therapy: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART has significantly reduced HIV mortality in South Africa. The benefits have not been experienced by all groups. Here we investigate the factors associated with these inequities. Design: This study was located in a rural South African setting and used data collected from 2007 to 2010, the period when decentralised ART became available. Approximately one-third of the population were of Mozambican origin. There was a pattern of repeated circular migration between urban areas and this community. Survival analysis models were developed to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and spatial risk factors for HIV mortality. Results: Among the study population of 105,149 individuals, there were 2,890 deaths. The HIV/TB mortality rate decreased by 27% between 2007–2008 and 2009–2010. For other causes of death, the reduction was 10%. Bivariate analysis found that the HIV/TB mortality risk was lower for: those living within 5 km of the Bhubezi Community Health Centre; women; young adults; in-migrants with a longer period of residence; permanent residents; and members of households owning motorised transport, holding higher socioeconomic positions, and with higher levels of education. Multivariate modelling showed, in addition, that those with South Africa as their country of origin had an increased risk of HIV/TB mortality compared to those with Mozambican origins. For males, those of South African origin, and recent in-migrants, the risk of death associated with HIV/TB was significantly greater than that due to other causes. Conclusions: In this community, a combination of factors was associated with an increased risk of dying of HIV/TB over the period of the roll-out of ART. There is evidence for the presence of barriers to successful treatment for particular sub-groups in the population, which must be addressed if the recent improvements in population-level mortality are to be maintained.

  9. Community-acquired pneumonia in older patients: does age influence systemic cytokine levels in community-acquired pneumonia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Emer

    2009-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of death in the elderly. The age-related increase in comorbid illnesses plays a part but the effect of aging on the immune response may be equally important. We aimed to evaluate patients with CAP for evidence of a muted response to infection in elderly patients admitted to hospital compared with a younger patient group.

  10. The African diaspora: history, adaptation and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotimi, Charles N; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Baker, Jennifer L; Shriner, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The trans-Atlantic slave trade brought millions of Africans to the New World. Advances in genomics are providing novel insights into the history and health of Africans and the diasporan populations. Recent examples reviewed here include the unraveling of substantial hunter-gatherer and 'Eurasian' admixtures across sub-Saharan Africa, expanding our understanding of ancestral African genetics; the global ubiquity of mixed ancestry; the revealing of African ancestry in Latin Americans that likely derived from the slave trade; and understanding of the ancestral backgrounds of APOL1 and LPL found to influence kidney disease and lipid levels, respectively, providing specific insights into disease etiology and health disparities.

  11. Factors influencing mental health providers' intention to use telepsychotherapy in First Nations communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthuy-Blanc, Johana; Bouchard, Stéphane; Maïano, Christophe; Séguin, Monique

    2013-04-01

    Telemental health is the use of information and communications technologies and broadband networks to deliver mental health services and support wellness. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the efficiency and utility of telemental health, certain barriers may impede its implementation, including the attitudes of mental health service providers. The current study draws on the technology acceptance model (TAM) to understand the role of mental health service providers' attitudes and perceptions of telemental health (psychotherapy delivered via videoconferencing) on their intention to use this technology with their patients. A sample of 205 broadly defined mental health service providers working on 32 First Nations reserves in the province of Quebec completed the questionnaire adapted to assess TAM for telepsychotherapy. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling provided evidence for the factor validity and reliability of the TAM in this sample. The key predictor of the intention to use telepsychotherapy was not mental health providers' attitude toward telepsychotherapy, nor how much they expected this service to be complicated to use, but essentially how useful they expect it to be for their First Nations patients. If telemental health via videoconferencing is to be implemented in First Nations communities, it is essential to thoroughly demonstrate its utility to mental health providers. Perceived usefulness will have a positive impact on attitudes toward this technology, and perceived ease of use will positively influence perceived usefulness. Cultural issues specific to the populations receiving telemental health services may be more efficiently addressed from the angle of perceived usefulness.

  12. Influence of coarse woody debris on the soricid community in southeastern Coastal Plain pine stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, C.; Castleberry, Steven, B.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2010-07-01

    Shrew abundance has been linked to the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD), especially downed logs, in many regions in the United States. We investigated the importance of CWD to shrew communities in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain. Using a randomized complete block design, 1 of the following treatments was assigned to twelve 9.3-ha plots: removal (n 5 3; all downed CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed), downed (n 5 3; 5-fold increase in volume of downed CWD), snag (n 5 3; 10-fold increase in volume of standing dead CWD), and control (n 5 3; unmanipulated). Shrews (Blarina carolinensis, Sorex longirostris, and Cryptotis parva) were captured over 7 seasons from January 2007 to August 2008 using drift-fence pitfall trapping arrays within treatment plots. Topographic variables were measured and included as treatment covariates. More captures of B. carolinensis were made in the downed treatment compared to removal, and captures of S. longirostris were greater in downed and snag compared to removal. Captures of C. parva did not differ among treatments. Captures of S. longirostris were positively correlated with slope. Our results suggest that abundance of 2 of the 3 common shrew species of the southeastern Coastal Plain examined in our study is influenced by the presence of CWD.

  13. Influence of agricultural environment on the plant mite community in forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PR. Demite

    Full Text Available The mite community has been surveyed in Seasonal Semideciduous Forest with three types of surrounding agricultural environments to test the hypothesis that abundance and richness of mites in forest fragments are influenced by the type of agricultural environment. The survey has been carried out in six fragments, divided into sets of two fragments, each one neighboring one sort of agricultural environment: sugarcane crop (FS, orange crop (FO and pasture (FP. In each fragment, ten individuals of Actinostemon communis (Euphorbiaceae were selected, five at the edge and five within each fragment. Iphiseiodes zuluagai, often registered in orange crops, was more abundant in the fragments neighboring such crop, as well as some species of Tarsonemidae. In this study, the Phytoseiidae were more abundant in the fragments neighboring pasture, while sugarcane crops probably favored occurrence of phytophagous mites in the neighboring fragments. Tetranychidae were less abundant in FO, which can be explained by periodical use of pesticides in the orange crops. Forest fragments are important for colonies of predators in the neighboring crops, mainly for annual crops such as sugarcane, where the close perennial environment is very important for colonization of the crop. Maintenance of those areas, besides favoring preservation of wild species of mite, is very important to increase diversity of the neighboring agricultural ecosystems.

  14. The influence of local enhancement on choice performances in African Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and jackdaws (Corvus monedula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Sandra; Kotrschal, Kurt; Schloegl, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Being attentive to the behavior of others may be advantageous to gain important information, for example, on the location of food. Often, this is achieved through simple local enhancement. However, this is not always beneficial, as it may override cognitive abilities, with negative consequences. Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and ravens have already succeeded in exclusion tasks, but carrion crows do so only when controlling for local enhancement, and jackdaws (Corvus monedula) fail entirely. Presently, we tested whether jackdaws would still be influenced by local enhancement in a simple choice-task. We compared their performance with those of Grey parrots. Since these birds did not respond to enhancement in the exclusion task, we expected them also to be less susceptible to enhancement here. In our tasks, two pieces of food were visibly hidden under two cups. Then one cup was lifted, the reward was shown to the bird and was either laid back underneath the cup or was removed. Alternatively, both manipulations were combined with the first reward being shown to the bird and the second one being removed or vice versa. Surprisingly, both species had a preference for the last handled cup, irrespective of whether it contained food or not. However, if the birds had to wait for 10 seconds after the presentation, the jackdaws performed better than the Grey parrots. Additionally, the delay improved the performance of both species in conditions in which the reward was removed last and deteriorated their performance in conditions in which the item was shown last.

  15. Variation in HNF1B and Obesity May Influence Prostate Cancer Risk in African American Men: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Chornokur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer (PCa racial disparity is multifactorial, involving biological, sociocultural, and lifestyle determinants. We investigated the association between selected potentially functional polymorphisms (SNPs and prostate cancer (PCa risk in Black (AAM and White (EAM men. We further explored if these associations varied by the body mass index (BMI and height. Methods. Age-matched DNA samples from 259 AAM and 269 EAM were genotyped for 10 candidate SNPs in 7 genes using the TaqMan allelic differentiation analysis. The dominant, recessive, and additive age-adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were fitted. Results. Three SNPs showed statistically significant associations with PCa risk: in AAM, HNF1B rs7501939 (OR=2.42, P=0.0046 and rs4430796 (OR=0.57, P=0.0383; in EAM, CTBP2 rs4962416 (OR=1.52, P=0.0384. In addition, high BMI in AAM (OR=1.06, P=0.022 and height in EAM (OR=0.92, P=0.0434 showed significant associations. Interestingly, HNF1B rs7501939 was associated with PCa exclusively in obese AAM (OR=2.14, P=0.0103. Conclusion. Our results suggest that variation in the HNF1B may influence PCa risk in obese AAM.

  16. Influence of plant community structure on vulnerability to drought of semiarid pine woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Cherubini, Paolo; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Querejeta, José Ignacio

    2010-05-01

    correlations between mean chronologies and total annual precipitation (Pearson's r = 0.52 in ow; r = 0.51 in as), total monthly precipitation in March (r = 0.40 in ow; r= 0.40 in as) and in May (r = 0.39 in ow; r= 0.31 in as), precipitation in the current summer (r= 0.30 in ow; r = 0.36 in as) and the total amount of precipitation from October of the previous year to April of current year (r= 0.61 in ow; r= 0.63 in as). Precipitation seems to be the driving factor influencing growth of pines in this semiarid environment. When comparing the standardized mean chronologies of both communities we observe greater growth of pines in the open pine woodland than in the afforestated stand. However, in rainy years, pines in the afforested stand experienced relatively greater increment in growth. Inter-tree competition for soil water seems to limit tree radial growth in semiarid pine plantations, but the beneficial effect of more mesic microclimatic conditions appear to prevail in more favourable years. Defoliating insect outbreaks in the dense pine plantation could also be partly responsible for reduced radial growth of trees. Measurement of carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition of latewood cellulose could provide insight into the physiological responses of trees to changes in water stress.

  17. African-American Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  18. Variation partitioning of diatom species data matrices: Understanding the influence of multiple factors on benthic diatom communities in tropical streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bere, Taurai, E-mail: tbere2015@gmail.com; Mangadze, Tinotenda; Mwedzi, Tongai

    2016-10-01

    Elucidating the confounding influence of multiple environmental factors on benthic diatom communities is important in developing water quality predictive models for better guidance of stream management efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relative impact of metal pollution and hydromorphological alterations in, addition to nutrient enrichment and organic pollution, on diatom taxonomic composition with the view to improve stream diatom-based water quality inference models. Samples were collected twice at 20 sampling stations in the tropical Manyame Catchment, Zimbabwe. Diatom, macroinvertebrate communities and environmental factors were sampled and analysed. The variations in diatom community composition explained by different categories of environmental factors were analysed using canonical correspondence analysis using variance partitioning (partial CCA). The following variations were explained by the different predictor matrices: nutrient levels and organic pollution - 10.4%, metal pollution - 8.3% and hydromorphological factors - 7.9%. Thus, factors other than nutrient levels and organic pollution explain additional significant variation in these diatom communities. Development of diatom-based stream water quality inference models that incorporate metal pollution and hydromorphological alterations, where these are key issues, is thus deemed necessary. - Highlights: • Confounding influences of multiple environmental factors on diatom communities are elucidated. • Variation explained: nutrients + organic pollution - 10.4%, metals - 8.3% and hydromorphological factors - 7.9%. • Calibration of existing or development of new indices may be necessary.

  19. Genetic variation in a tropical tree species influences the associated epiphytic plant and invertebrate communities in a complex forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytynska, Sharon E; Fay, Michael F; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F

    2011-05-12

    Genetic differences among tree species, their hybrids and within tree species are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited species diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single tree species, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single tree species on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-species genetic variation in the tree Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of trees and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the tree, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the tree, and the invertebrates found on the tree trunk. This means that the more genetically similar trees are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance species diversity of other plants and animals.

  20. Environmental and Community Factors Influencing the Distribution of Pennisetum setaceum in California

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Non-native African fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum) has been increasing in California over the last century; however, its potential distribution and impacts have not been determined. Coarse-scale species distribution models trained using data from the native range of P. setaceum indicated broad areas of suitability for P. setaceum in southern and coastal California. MaxEnt models produced using native range information showed a broader potentially suitable area than models based on the ...

  1. The influence of an online virtual situated environment on a Chinese learning community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-En Chang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used an online virtual environment to create and develop a Chinese learning community. The purposes of research were (1 to enhance the Chinese learners’ oral Chinese communication skills and (2 to change the community members’ Chinese speaking and teaching behavior. This is an action research. The research tried to create a community in a virtual environment. The research results showed that (1 a virtual community can enhance learner’s Chinese competence, and (2 future Chinese teachers’ instructional and leading skills can be developed in a virtual community situation.

  2. Admixture Mapping Scans Identify a Locus Affecting Retinal Vascular Caliber in Hypertensive African Americans: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Yu Cheng; David Reich; Wong, Tien Y.; Ronald Klein; Klein, Barbara E K; Nick Patterson; Arti Tandon; Man Li; Eric Boerwinkle; A Richey Sharrett; W H Linda Kao

    2010-01-01

    Retinal vascular caliber provides information about the structure and health of the microvascular system and is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Compared to European Americans, African Americans tend to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, even after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors. This has suggested the hypothesis that differences in genetic background may contribute to racial/ethnic differences in retinal vascular caliber. Using 1,365 a...

  3. Free afterschool program for at-risk African American children: findings and lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Linda; Froeber, Deanna; Clinton, Barbara; Ruchman, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    A promising afterschool intervention to increase health knowledge and influence choices to reduce risks related to type II diabetes in school-aged, low-income, African American youth is described. Researchers used a community-based program called CASTLES (Communities and Students Together for Learning Enhanced Service). Repeated measures were used to test the effect of the afterschool program on exercise and nutrition. Forty-six children participated in this free program. Significant results demonstrated decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and screen time and increased exercise and health knowledge. Communities interested in influencing behaviors related to childhood obesity should develop strong community-based programs, such as the CASTLES model, incorporating nutrition information and structured physical activity.

  4. Influence of the shoot density of Halodule wrightii Ascherson from rocky and sandy habitats on associated macroalgal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kcrishna Vilanova de Souza Barros; Caroline Feijão Ximenes; Pedro Bastos Macedo Carneiro; Cristina de Almeida Rocha-Barreira; Karine Matos Magalhães

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the shoot density of the shoal grass Halodule wrightii on the composition of the associated algal community, in rocky and sandy habitats on the coast of Ceará in northeastern Brazil. The phycological community included 18 species in 10 families, members of Rodophyta (72.2%), Chlorophyta (22.2%) and Phaeophyceae (5.5%). The largest proportion were epilithic (50%), followed by epiphytes on H. wrightii (38.4%), epipsammics (8%), and epiphytes on other algae ...

  5. African Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Histol. 1977;375:53- 70. 42. Poltera AA, Owor R, Cox JN. Pathological aspects of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Uganda. A post - mortem survey of...nodular lesions , including anthrax or tick bite associated with Rickettsia conorii infection. The chancre is followed by a hemolymphatic stage, dur- ing...electrocardiograph- ic changes and, at times, terminal cardiac insufficiency.41 Pulmonary lesions specifically related to trypanosomiasis are not

  6. Community perceptions and factors influencing utilization of health services in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galea Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare utilization has particular relevance as a public health and development issue. Unlike material and human capital, there is little empirical evidence on the utility of social resources in overcoming barriers to healthcare utilization in a developing country context. We sought to assess the relevance of social resources in overcoming barriers to healthcare utilization. Study Objective To explore community perceptions among three different wealth categories on factors influencing healthcare utilization in Eastern Uganda. Methods We used a qualitative study design using Focus Group Discussions (FGD to conduct the study. Community meetings were initially held to identify FGD participants in the different wealth categories, ('least poor', 'medium' and 'poorest' using poverty ranking based on ownership of assets and income sources. Nine FGDs from three homogenous wealth categories were conducted. Data from the FGDs was analyzed using content analysis revealing common barriers as well as facilitating factors for healthcare service utilization by wealth categories. The Health Access Livelihood Framework was used to examine and interpret the findings. Results Barriers to healthcare utilization exist for all the wealth categories along three different axes including: the health seeking process; health services delivery; and the ownership of livelihood assets. Income source, transport ownership, and health literacy were reported as centrally useful in overcoming some barriers to healthcare utilization for the 'least poor' and 'poor' wealth categories. The 'poorest' wealth category was keen to utilize free public health services. Conversely, there are perceptions that public health facilities were perceived to offer low quality care with chronic gaps such as shortages of essential supplies. In addition to individual material resources and the availability of free public healthcare services, social resources are perceived as

  7. Species and rotation frequency influence soil nitrogen in simplified tropical plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewel, John J

    2006-04-01

    Among the many factors that potentially influence the rate at which nitrogen (N) becomes available to plants in terrestrial ecosystems are the identity and diversity of species composition, frequency of disturbance or stand turnover, and time. Replicated suites of investigator-designed communities afforded an opportunity to examine the effects of those factors on net N mineralization over a 12-year period. The communities consisted of large-stature perennial plants, comprising three tree species (Hyeronima alchorneoides, Cedrela odorata, and Cordia alliodora), a palm (Euterpe oleracea), and a large, perennial herb (Heliconia imbricata). Trees were grown in monoculture and in combination with the other two life-forms; tree monocultures were subjected to rotations of one or four years, or like the three-life-form systems, left uncut. The work was conducted on fertile soil in the humid lowlands of Costa Rica, a site with few abiotic constraints to plant growth. Rates of net N mineralization and nitrification were high, typically in the range of 0.2-0.8 microg x g(1) x d(-1), with net nitrification slightly higher than net mineralization, indicating preferential uptake of ammonium (NH4+) by plants and microbes. Net rates of N mineralization were about 30% lower in stands of one of the three tree species, Hyeronima, than in stands of the other two. Contrary to expectations, short-rotation management (one or four years) resulted in higher net rates of N mineralization than in uncut stands, whether the latter were composed of a single tree species or a combination of life-forms. Neither additional species richness nor replenishment of leached N augmented mineralization rates. The net rate at which N was supplied tended to be lowest in stands where demand for N was highest. Careful choice of species, coupled with low frequency of disturbance, can lead to maintenance of N within biomass and steady rates of within-system circulation, whereas pulses, whether caused by cutting

  8. Trichotillomania symptoms in African American women: are they related to anxiety and culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal-Barnett, Angela; Statom, Deborah; Stadulis, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is a little understood disorder that has been underresearched in the African American community. Furthermore, the incorporation of cultural factors into TTM research has virtually been ignored. Existing data from an African American college student population suggest TTM is associated with high levels of anxiety. In this study, we explored anxiety symptoms and cultural hair messages in an African American female community sample with TTM symptoms. We predicted high levels of TTM severity and impairment would be associated with high level of anxiety symptoms. We also predicted that cultural messages about hair will influence both TTM and anxiety symptoms. In this telephone study, 41 African American females participated in interviews about their TTM. TTM impairment and severity was positively correlated with general anxiety symptoms as measured on the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL 90-R(®) ). Severity was also positively correlated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Given the significance of hair for African American women, we also explored the childhood cultural messages receive about hair. Over half the sample received at least one cultural message about hair. Although many women received the same message, the value they placed on the message differed. Messages received about hair were not associated with TTM severity or impairment. The association among obsessive-compulsive symptoms and hair messages approached significance. Results highlight the importance of assessing anxiety comorbidity and culture with African American TTM samples. Little is known about TTM in African American samples. Existing research indicates this population seeks TTM help from their hairdressers. Among college students, a significant correlation has been found for anxiety as measured on the Beck Anxiety Inventory and TTM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to examine cultural messages about hair in an African American sample. In addition

  9. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  10. Flowering phenology in subalpine meadows: does climate variation influence community co-flowering patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Jessica; Inouye, David W; Thomson, James D

    2010-02-01

    Climate change is expected to alter patterns of species co-occurrence, in both space and time. Species-specific shifts in reproductive phenology may alter the assemblages of plant species in flower at any given time during the growing season. Temporal overlap in the flowering periods (co-flowering) of animal-pollinated species may influence reproductive success if competitive or facilitative interactions between plant species affect pollinator services. We used a 33-year data set on flowering phenology in subalpine meadows in Colorado, USA, to determine whether interannual variation in snowmelt date, which marks the start of the growing season, affected co-flowering patterns. For two of four species considered, we found a significant relationship between snowmelt timing and composition of the assemblage of co-flowering plants. In years of early snowmelt, Lathyrus lanszwertii var. leucanthus (Fabaceae), the species we investigated in most detail, tended to overlap with earlier-flowering species and with fewer species overall. In particular, overlap with the flowering period of Lupinus polyphyllus var. prunophilus, with which Lathyrus leucanthus shares pollinators, was significantly reduced in early-snowmelt years. The observed association between timing of snowmelt and patterns of flowering overlap could not have been predicted simply by examining temporal trends in the dates of peak flowering of the dominant species in the community, as peak flowering dates have largely shifted in parallel with respect to snowmelt date. However, subtle interspecific differences in responsiveness of flowering time, duration, and intensity to interannual climate variation have likely contributed to the observed relationship. Although much of the year-to-year variation in flowering overlap remains unexplained by snowmelt date, our finding of a measurable signal of climate variation suggests that future climate change may lead to altered competitive environments for these wildflower

  11. Prevalence of and factors influencing postnatal depression in a rural community in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge about postnatal depression (PND and associated risk factors whichin fluence the development of PND is vital for early detection, intervention and prevention.Setting: The study was conducted in primary health care clinics (PHC in the Witzenberg subdistrict, a rural community in South Africa.Objectives: Objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PND and to identify the contributing risk factors associated with PND.Methods: A descriptive cross sectional research design with a quantitative approach was applied. The target population was mothers, 18 years and older. A convenience sampling method was used to select a sample of 159 (10% from a population of 1605 live births. Th eEdinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, two validated self-rating questionnaires, including a questionnaire based on demographical, psychosocial and obstetrical data, were applied. The data was analysed using various statistical tests to determine statistical associations between variables using a 95% confidence interval.Results: PND was a serious health problem with 50.3% of the mothers who suffered from PND. A BDI analysis showed that of the participants who had PND, 28.8% was severe, 48.8% moderate and 22.5% mild. Factors influencing the development of PND included most participants (63.5% were unmarried, 61.3% were unemployed and the majority (53.8% had a history of a psychiatric illness. Significant associations between PND and unplanned and unwelcome babies (p < 0.01; partner relationship (p < 0.01; were identified.Conclusion: Prevention, early detection, appropriate referral and treatment of PND are critical in managing maternal, child and family well-being.

  12. Waste Sorting Habits by the Community of Kaunas University of Technology, Reasons and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Adomavičiūtė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the waste management system at Kaunas University of Technology, surveys the waste sorting habits of its community, both students and employees, and analyses the reasons and factors influencing waste sorting and non-sorting. The introduction of a separate paper waste collection system has made it possible to reduce the amount of mixed waste by 25% during the first three months of its functioning. 58% of employees and 45% of students sort some of their waste partly, 23% of employees and 11% of students sort all their waste. 8% of employees and 19% of students sort their waste sometimes. 8% of employees and 24% of students do not sort waste at all. 77% of employees and 66% of students think that the main problem caused by waste generation is pollution of the environment. Therefore willingness to reduce an impact on it is the main reason for sorting, while a lack of conditions to keep separated recyclable refuse and a lack of nearby containers are main factors that are distracting people from source-sorting. Growth of environmental awareness and formation of sorting habits that are transmitted to family members are identified as the strengths. Lack of conditions for sorting (e.g. no place to keep sorted waste at home, insufficiently developed waste collection infrastructure, mistrust in a sorted waste collection system (e.g. belief that sorted waste goes to a landfill, and lack of information are the weaknesses. The opportunities comprise development of a convenient waste collection infrastructure, introduction of economic incentives and rise of further awareness. Identified threats for sorting at the source that discourage source sorting are the following: a developed infrastructure will not satisfy real needs; sorting will not become financially rewarding; improper decisions about a waste management system and waste treatment practices made at the state level, no real use of sorting.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.62.4.2954

  13. Influence of mesoscale eddies on spatial structuring of top predators’ communities in the Mozambique Channel

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    Tew Kai, Emilie; Marsac, Francis

    2010-07-01

    Mesoscale physical features as fronts and eddies appear to play a key role in the dynamics of marine communities. In the Indian Ocean, the Mozambique Channel (MC) is a natural laboratory to investigate mesoscale eddies (100-300 km in diameter); indeed, four to seven eddies per year are know to transit through the Channel, from North to South. We studied the structuring role of the mesoscale eddies on spatial dynamics and foraging strategy of top predators using seabirds and tuna as examples. Emphasis was on the central part of the MC (16-24°S) where eddy activity is most developed. We integrated three main categories of information: (i) satellite altimetry for sea-level anomaly (SLA) and geostrophic current, remotely-sensed surface temperature (SST) and SeaWiFS data for chlorophyll concentration (CC); (ii) individual tracking of Great Frigatebirds ( Fregata minor) to characterize foraging areas; and (iii) detailed catch statistics from purse-seine fisheries to describe distribution of tuna schools. Generalized Additive Models were applied to quantify the relative influence of mesoscale descriptors, SST and CC on foraging behaviour of Great Frigatebirds and location of purse-seine sets. Our results show that seabirds are more closely tied to mesoscale eddies compared to tuna. We underline the role of eddy boundaries on the response of frigatebirds and tuna. Good foraging conditions are promoted along the edge of eddies as a result of the interplay of the maturation process from cyclonic eddies and the concentration process by eddy interactions. A decrease in the number or intensity of eddies in the MC, as observed during strong El Niño events, could potentially affect the eddy-related ecosystem with putative negative repercussions on central-place foragers such as Great Frigatebirds. We discuss the importance of a better understanding of the “eddy system”, in marine conservation and tuna fisheries management in the Mozambique Channel.

  14. Influence of Precollege Experience on Self-Concept among Community College Students in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering

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    Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos

    Female and minority students have historically been underrepresented in the field of science, mathematics, and engineering at colleges and universities. Although a plethora of research has focused on students enrolled in 4-year colleges or universities, limited research addresses the factors that influence gender differences in community college students in science, mathematics, and engineering. Using a target population of 1,599 aspirants in science, mathematics, and engineering majors in public community colleges, this study investigates the determinants of self-concept by examining a hypothetical structural model. The findings suggest that background characteristics, high school academic performance, and attitude toward science have unique contributions to the development of self-concept among female community college students. The results add to the literature by providing new theoretical constructs and the variables that predict students' self-concept.

  15. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist’s Views on Competencies for Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently—or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education.

  16. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

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    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to bacteria community in the natural environment. According to the rarefaction curve analysis, richness of bacteria diversity in feces decreased as time progressed. Some pathogens such as Campylobacter were detected only at the beginning, meaning they substantially decayed during the course of our study. Overall, this study indicated: (1) sunlight can influence the community structure and (2) after excretion the fecal bacteria diversity can be significantly changed over time. Future studies should therefore use not only the microbial signature of fresh but also moderately aged fecal samples to develop more

  17. Academic attainment and the high school science experiences among high-achieving African American males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice, Rodney Nathaniel

    This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major

  18. Antagonism influences assembly of a Bacillus guild in a local community and is depicted as a food-chain network.

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    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Rocío-Anaís; López-Ramírez, Varinia; Islas, África; Alcaraz, Luis David; Hernández-González, Ismael; Olivera, Beatriz Carely Luna; Santillán, Moisés; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria; Travisano, Michael; Olmedo-Alvarez, Gabriela

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the principles that govern community assemblages is a central goal of ecology. There is limited experimental evidence in natural settings showing that microbial assembly in communities are influenced by antagonistic interactions. We, therefore, analyzed antagonism among bacterial isolates from a taxonomically related bacterial guild obtained from five sites in sediments from a fresh water system. We hypothesized that if antagonistic interactions acted as a shaping force of the community assembly, then the frequency of resistance to antagonism among bacterial isolates originating from a given site would be higher than the resistance to conspecifics originating from a different assemblage. Antagonism assays were conducted between 78 thermoresistant isolates, of which 72 were Bacillus spp. Sensitive, resistant and antagonistic isolates co-occurred at each site, but the within-site frequency of resistance observed was higher than that observed when assessed across-sites. We found that antagonism results from bacteriocin-like substances aimed at the exclusion of conspecifics. More than 6000 interactions were scored and described by a directed network with hierarchical structure that exhibited properties that resembled a food chain, where the different Bacillus taxonomic groups occupied specific positions. For some tested interacting pairs, the unidirectional interaction could be explained by competition that inhibited growth or completely excluded one of the pair members. This is the first report on the prevalence and specificity of Bacillus interactions in a natural setting and provides evidence for the influence of bacterial antagonist interactions in the assemblage of a taxonomically related guild in local communities.

  19. Geographic clustering of underage drinking and the influence of community characteristics.

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    Reboussin, Beth A; Preisser, John S; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which underage drinking clusters geographically in a sample of communities, and to investigate the manner in which community-level contexts are related to this process. We used data from a randomized community trial of underage drinking to provide the first quantitative estimates of the magnitude of the geographic clustering of underage drinking based upon pairwise odds ratios (PWORs). The Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial provided data from repeated cross-sectional samples of youth aged 14-20 from 68 communities surveyed in 2004, 2006, and 2007 (n=18,730). Past 30-day drinking, binge drinking, getting drunk, experiencing non-violent consequences as a result of drinking and making a purchase attempt all significantly clustered within-communities with PWORs ranging from 1.05 to 1.21. After adjustment for individual-level characteristics, results remained relatively unchanged. However, there was evidence that the magnitude of the clustering varied as a function of neighborhood disadvantage, neighborhood disorder, and family structure. Clustering of drunkenness and experiencing non-violent consequences as a result of drinking was greatest in the least economically disadvantaged and least disordered communities with the greatest percentage of married-couple families. The clustering of making a purchase attempt, however, was greatest in more disordered communities, specifically the largest communities with the highest degree of residential mobility and housing density. These findings that clustering of underage drinking behaviors varies by community context has the potential for identifying the types of communities to target for underage drinking behavior-specific preventive interventions.

  20. A community-integrated home based depression intervention for older African Americans: descripton of the Beat the Blues randomized trial and intervention costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitlin Laura N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care is the principle setting for depression treatment; yet many older African Americans in the United States fail to report depressive symptoms or receive the recommended standard of care. Older African Americans are at high risk for depression due to elevated rates of chronic illness, disability and socioeconomic distress. There is an urgent need to develop and test new depression treatments that resonate with minority populations that are hard-to-reach and underserved and to evaluate their cost and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design Beat the Blues (BTB is a single-blind parallel randomized trial to assess efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention to reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in 208 African Americans 55+ years old. It involves a collaboration with a senior center whose care management staff screen for depressive symptoms (telephone or in-person using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Individuals screened positive (PHQ-9 ≥ 5 on two separate occasions over 2 weeks are referred to local mental health resources and BTB. Interested and eligible participants who consent receive a baseline home interview and then are randomly assigned to receive BTB immediately or 4 months later (wait-list control. All participants are interviewed at 4 (main study endpoint and 8 months at home by assessors masked to study assignment. Licensed senior center social workers trained in BTB meet with participants at home for up to 10 sessions over 4 months to assess care needs, make referrals/linkages, provide depression education, instruct in stress reduction techniques, and use behavioral activation to identify goals and steps to achieve them. Key outcomes include reduced depressive symptoms (primary, reduced anxiety and functional disability, improved quality of life, and enhanced depression knowledge and behavioral activation (secondary. Fidelity is enhanced through procedure manuals and staff