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Sample records for african community influenced

  1. Community Influences on Married Men's Uptake of HIV Testing in Eight African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Rob; Elfstrom, K. Miriam; Winter, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to increase HIV testing in the African region, the proportion of men who report ever having been tested for HIV remains low. Research has focused on individual level determinants of women's testing however little is known about factors associated with men's testing behavior. This analysis investigates community influences on HIV testing among men ages 15–54, using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe...

  2. Within guild co-infections influence parasite community membership: a longitudinal study in African Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Brian; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Troskie, Milana; Gorsich, Erin; Gondhalekar, Carmen; Beechler, Brianna R; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2016-07-01

    Experimental studies in laboratory settings have demonstrated a critical role of parasite interactions in shaping parasite communities. The sum of these interactions can produce diverse effects on individual hosts as well as influence disease emergence and persistence at the population level. A predictive framework for the effects of parasite interactions in the wild remains elusive, largely because of limited longitudinal or experimental data on parasite communities of free-ranging hosts. This 4-year study followed a community of haemoparasites in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We detected infection by 11 haemoparasite species using PCR-based diagnostic techniques, and analyzed drivers of infection patterns using generalized linear mixed models to understand the role of host characteristics and season on infection likelihood. We tested for (i) effects of co-infection by other haemoparasites (within guild) and (ii) effects of parasites infecting different tissue types (across guild). We found that within guild co-infections were the strongest predictors of haemoparasite infections in the buffalo; but that seasonal and host characteristics also had important effects. In contrast, the evidence for across-guild effects of parasites utilizing different tissue on haemoparasite infection was weak. These results provide a nuanced view of the role of co-infections in determining haemoparasite infection patterns in free living mammalian hosts. Our findings suggest a role for interactions among parasites infecting a single tissue type in determining infection patterns. PMID:27084785

  3. HIV prevention interventions to reduce sexual risk for African Americans: the influence of community-level stigma and psychological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E; Dovidio, John F; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T

    2014-02-01

    Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans' condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma-Whites' attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites' attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites' attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites' attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites' attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants' values and needs, which may reduce African Americans' mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites' attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities

  4. The influence of nondisclosure on the mental health of urban African-American adolescents exposed to community violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E; McIntosh, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and internalizing symptoms, but there has been little investigation of moderating processes that might attenuate or exacerbate this association. The current study examined nondisclosure as a possible moderator of the association between community violence and internalizing symptoms with a sample of 152 low-income urban African-American early adolescents using hierarchical regression analyses. Results revealed that nondisclosure for relationship reasons (e.g., adults could not be trusted to provide needed support) moderated the association between exposure to community violence and internalizing symptoms. Unexpectedly, however, results of simple effects analyses revealed a stronger association between exposure to violence and internalizing symptoms for youth who disclosed more to adults. Although unexpected, this pattern builds upon prior research indicating that adult-child relationships are compromised within the context of urban poverty and that protective factors may lose their power under conditions of extreme stress.

  5. In black south africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. de Lange (Zelda); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman); T. Hoekstra (Tiny); K.R. Conradie (Karin); J.C. Jerling (Johann); M. Pieters (Marlien)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractData on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysi

  6. Jumping through Hoops: College Choice Experiences of African American Male Community College Club Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…

  7. PUBLISHING SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOLARSHIP IN THE GLOBAL ACADEMIC COMMUNITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Elizabeth

    2015-09-20

    South Africa's academic publishing history has been profoundly influenced by its colonial heritage. This is reflected in the publication of Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society (later, the Royal Society of South Africa) from 1878. Although the Society and journal sought to promote original research about South Africa, it was modelled after the Royal Society in London and formed part of an imperial scientific community. As the local higher education institutions grew more independent and research-focused, local scholarly publishing developed as well, with university presses playing an increasingly important role. The University of South Africa (Unisa) Press started publishing departmental journals in the 1950s, with a focus on journals that 'speak to the student', and it is today the only South African university press with an active journals publishing programme. As external funding declined and the country became intellectually isolated in the high apartheid period, the Press managed to attract journals that could no longer be subsidized by learned societies and other universities. More recently, new co-publishing arrangements have brought South African journals back into an international intellectual community. Although some argue that this constitutes a re-colonization of South African knowledge production, it is also an innovative strategy for positioning local research in a global context.

  8. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelda de Lange

    Full Text Available Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT. We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009 but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%. Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  9. Media and Cultural Influences in African-American Girls' Eating Disorder Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American female...

  10. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  11. A therapeutic community as a relevant and efficient ecclesial model in African Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsobane Manala

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article sets forth the argument that Christian ministry in Africa must become socially and culturally informed and constructed or else it will not touch the African soul and thus remain superficial. Black African people aspire above everything else to experience fullness of life and wellbeing here and now, as demonstrated by their greetings that are actually an enquiry into each other’s health and an expression of the wish for the other’s good health and wellbeing. The mainline churches that operate in Africa should embrace the scripturally sound Christian healing ministry in obedience to Christ’s commission to preach the gospel and heal the sick, if they are to prosper. Hence, this article discusses the following eight points, namely, (1 good health and healing as Africans’ important aspiration, (2 healing as the work of God and thus of the church, (3 the imperative of serious consideration of and respect for the African worldview, (4 membership decline and mainline churches’ loss of influence, (5 rethinking church in African Christianity, (6 the need for the black African church to adopt a therapeutic or healing community ecclesial model in order to position itself strategically to cater for the holistic needs of African (South African church members and surrounding communities, (7 the rationale of the healing ministry in today’s Reformed Church in Africa and (8 the recommended healing ministry. The article closes with a few concluding statements and advice

  12. Promoting HIV Vaccine Research in African American Communities: Does the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Potential Outcomes of Involvement?

    OpenAIRE

    Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration o...

  13. Assessment of religious and spiritual capital in African American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Williams, Beverly; Clark, Eddie M; Wang, Min Qi; Southward, Penny L

    2012-12-01

    African American faith communities are an important source of social capital. The present study adapted a theory-based social capital instrument to result in religious (e.g., from organized worship) and spiritual (e.g., from relationship with higher power) capital measures. Data from a national sample of 803 African Americans suggest the instruments have high internal reliability and are distinct from general religiosity. Measurement models confirmed factor structures. Religious capital was positively associated with self-rated health status. Religious and spiritual capital were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, but these associations largely became nonsignificant in multivariate models that controlled for demographic characteristics. An exception is for spiritual capital in the form of community participation, which retained a negative association with depressive symptoms. These instruments may have applied value for health promotion research and practice in African American communities.

  14. Barriers to Conducting a Community Mobilization Intervention among Youth in a Rural South African Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…

  15. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability to...

  16. African American families on autism diagnosis and treatment: the influence of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2015-10-01

    Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD professionals. Cultural caring meant families protected their child from harm including potential or actual distrustful encounters, and took action for their child and community to optimize their child's health and address the knowledge deficits of ASD within their community. Families and professionals believed cultural influences delayed families' receiving and seeking appropriate health care for the African American child with ASD affecting timely autism diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Promoting HIV Vaccine Research in African American Communities: Does the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Potential Outcomes of Involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration of community engagement outcomes including future attendance, community mobilization, and study participation. Within the context of HIV vaccine outreach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in early 2007 with 175 African-American adults (>/= 18 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed and the findings support the potential of the model in understanding behavioral intentions toward HIV vaccine research.

  18. Developing a guide for community-based groups to reduce alcohol-related harm among African migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Alison; Brown, Tony; Norman, Catherine; Hata, Kiri; Toohey, Mark; Vasiljevic, Dubravka; Rowe, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Alcohol-related harm is an issue of concern for African migrant communities living in Australia. However, there has been little information available to guide workers in developing culturally sensitive health promotion strategies. Methods A three-step approach, comprising a literature review, community consultations and an external review, was undertaken to develop a guide to assist organisations and health promotion groups working with African migrant communities to address alcohol-related harms. Discussion There was a high level of agreement between the three steps. Addressing alcohol harms with African migrant communities requires approaches that are sensitive to the needs, structures and experiences of communities. The process should incorporate targeted approaches that enable communities to achieve their resettlement goals as well as strengthening mainstream health promotion efforts. Conclusions The resource produced guides alcohol harm prevention coalitions and workers from the first steps of understanding the influences of acculturation and resettlement on alcohol consumption, through to planning, developing and evaluating an intervention in partnership with communities. So what? This paper advances knowledge by providing a precise summary of Australian African migrant focused alcohol and other drug research to date. It also describes a three-step approach that aimed to incorporate a diversity of community views in the creation of a health promotion and community capacity-building resource. PMID:26726816

  19. Effects of Community African Drumming on Generalised Anxiety in Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    David Akombo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of community music projects (CMPs), such as after-school African drumming circles, on academic performance and generalised anxiety in adolescents. Adolescents from a Junior High (7th, 8th, and 9th graders, age range from 12-14) in the State of Utah (USA) participated in the study. A one-sample t-test found a significant difference in reading scores (df(4) p=.004). A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the maths trait...

  20. Cultural knowledge and local vulnerability in African American communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.

  1. Early Life Predictors of Adult Depression in a Community Cohort of Urban African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Kerry M.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Banda, Deliya R.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Depression among African Americans residing in urban communities is a complex, major public health problem; however, few studies identify early life risk factors for depression among urban African American men and women. To better inform prevention programming, this study uses data from the Woodlawn Study, a well-defined community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 years, to determine depression prevalence through midlife and identify childhood and adolescent risk fac...

  2. African American and Latina(o) Community College Students' Social Capital and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby

    2014-01-01

    Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students'…

  3. The biggest fish in the sea? Dynamic Kenyan labour migration in the East African community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong'ayo, A.O.O.; Oucho, J.O.; Oucho, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the Kenyan policy and institutional framework concerning South–South labour migration with particular focus on the East African Community (EAC) countries. It focuses mainly on one particular policy instrument, the East African Community Common Market framework. The research furth

  4. African-American lesbian identity management and identity development in the context of family and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shannon J

    2011-01-01

    Don't Ask, Don't Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they defined and navigated Don't Ask, Don't Tell. They encountered challenges and successes in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning African-American lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and communities.

  5. Calling Out the Elephant: An Examination of African American Male Achievement in Community Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Bush

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This mixed method study examines the effects of community college institutional factors on the academic achievement of African American males and their perceptions of their college experience. We found that African American men in comparison to other ethnic and gender sub-groups (for both the California community college system and at Inland Community College are disproportionately underachieving in all segments of the academic outcomes measured. African American men throughout California’s community college system (including Inland Community College are the lowest performing subgroup when one considers: percentage of degrees earned, persistence rates, and average cumulative grade point average. The analysis of African American men’s perceptions of their college experience suggest that African American men have greater amounts of dissatisfaction and do not engage with the various segments of the college when compared to the other subgroups in the study. African American males were more likely not to meet with faculty members or have contact with them outside of the classroom. More importantly, faculty interaction predicted if African American male students persisted, transferred, and maintained a higher grade point average at the case study institution. The variables associated with campus climate predicted if African American male students transferred, had higher grade point averages, and graduated at higher rates from the case institution.

  6. Effects of Community African Drumming on Generalised Anxiety in Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Akombo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the effects of community music projects (CMPs, such as after-school African drumming circles, on academic performance and generalised anxiety in adolescents. Adolescents from a Junior High (7th, 8th, and 9th graders, age range from 12-14 in the State of Utah (USA participated in the study. A one-sample t-test found a significant difference in reading scores (df(4 p=.004. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the maths trait anxiety score pre-intervention and the total state anxiety score pre-test (df(4 p=.033. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the reading trait anxiety score post-intervention and the total state anxiety score post-test (df(4 p=.030. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of community music such as drumming for reducing anxiety and also for improving academic performance in adolescents. CMPs are recommended as a non-invasive intervention modality for adolescents.

  7. The Four Cs of HIV Prevention with African Americans: Crisis, Condoms, Culture, and Community

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, JK; Wyatt, GE; Wingood, G

    2010-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to be a devastating epidemic with African American communities carrying the brunt of the impact. Despite extensive biobehavioral research, current strategies have not resulted in significantly decreasing HIV/AIDS cases among African Americans. The next generation of HIV prevention and risk reduction interventions must move beyond basic sex education and condom use and availability. Successful interventions targeting African Americans must optimize strategies that integrate ...

  8. The Mercantile Business Coalition: A Narrative Analysis of a Learning Organization in an African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Alma S.

    2013-01-01

    "A race that is solely dependent upon another for its economic existences sooner or later dies," this quote by Marcus Garvey highlighted the need for African American communities to think about the importance of economic development. This message was also heard by African Americans as early as the 1700s. Not only was the message about…

  9. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…

  10. African American Adolescents Living and Coping with Community Violence on Chicago's Southside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…

  11. Social and Cultural Factors Influence African American Men's Medical Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…

  12. AFRICAN LITERATURE REFLECTS TWO MAJOR INFLUENCES; TRADITIONAL CULTURE AND COLONIAL EXPERIENCE.

    OpenAIRE

    T. S. Deokule

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to study that African literature reflects two major influences: traditional culture and colonial experience. It also focuses on how the African literature epitomizes the encounter between Africa and Europe, the racial relations between whites and the blacks but Negritude Movement writers contribute significantly to the process of the emergence of ‘Africa for the Africans’. The central concern of African literature is the conflict between the African communal val...

  13. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  14. Behavioral adjustments of African herbivores to predation risk by lions: spatiotemporal variations influence habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeix, M; Loveridge, A J; Chamaillé-Jammes, S; Davidson, Z; Murindagomo, F; Fritz, H; Macdonald, D W

    2009-01-01

    Predators may influence their prey populations not only through direct lethal effects, but also through indirect behavioral changes. Here, we combined spatiotemporal fine-scale data from GPS radio collars on lions with habitat use information on 11 African herbivores in Hwange National Park (Zimbabwe) to test whether the risk of predation by lions influenced the distribution of herbivores in the landscape. Effects of long-term risk of predation (likelihood of lion presence calculated over four months) and short-term risk of predation (actual presence of lions in the vicinity in the preceding 24 hours) were contrasted. The long-term risk of predation by lions appeared to influence the distributions of all browsers across the landscape, but not of grazers. This result strongly suggests that browsers and grazers, which face different ecological constraints, are influenced at different spatial and temporal scales in the variation of the risk of predation by lions. The results also show that all herbivores tend to use more open habitats preferentially when lions are in their vicinity, probably an effective anti-predator behavior against such an ambush predator. Behaviorally induced effects of lions may therefore contribute significantly to structuring African herbivore communities, and hence possibly their effects on savanna ecosystems.

  15. Children's exposure to community and war violence and mental health in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-12-01

    In this article we review the mental health consequences of children's exposure to community and war violence (ETV) in four African countries: South Africa, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Rwanda. A focus on Africa is particularly pressing because of children's high levels of community and war ETV in countries therein. Regions of Africa present important macro-contexts for understanding children's various types of violence exposure amidst war and economic disadvantage. Findings of the review across 20 quantitative studies from 2004 to 2015 indicate consistent associations between exposure to war and community violence and children's symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and aggression. School climate and family support mitigate these ETV influences upon children: however, more research is needed on the buffering effects of such resources. The effects of war violence are mediated by perceived discrimination in communities post-conflict. We integrate findings across studies to synthesize knowledge on children's ETV in Africa around a model of its correlates, mediators, and moderators in relation to mental health. Emerging research points to avenues for prevention and future inquiry.

  16. Connecting in Mobile Communities : an African case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.

    2014-01-01

    African geographical mobilities should be understood in terms of their increasingly global development over the last two decades, and as an interplay of scales of mobility between continents and between African regions or nations. The relationship between these various times and scales of mobility s

  17. Faith-Based Adult Learning Initiatives for Diabetes Education in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…

  18. Influencing Community Involvement in School: A School Community Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research was to explore the role a School Community Council (SCC) played in encouraging community involvement in a kindergarten to grade 12 school. Via 35 interviews, thematic data reflected that the SCC's influence was limited. As analyzed through social capital theory, SCC members shared thin levels of trust,…

  19. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Blanks, Starla Hairston; Treadwell, Henrie; Bazzell, Anya; Graves, Whitney; Osaji, Olivia; Dean, Juanita; James T. McLawhorn; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health educat...

  20. Parental Influence, School Readiness and Early Academic Achievement of African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Emanique M.; Davis, James Earl

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental influence and the school readiness of African American boys, using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: ECLS-K, Parents' influence, via their academic beliefs and behaviors, was associated with the cognitive performance of African American boys during kindergarten. While previous…

  1. Mobile banking services in the East African community (EAC): challenges to the existing legislative and regulatory frameworks in the EAC

    OpenAIRE

    Nyaga, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Principal research question: What are the effective legislative and regulatory responses to mobile banking services in the East African Community (EAC)? Keywords: Convergence, legislation, regulation, Mobile banking services, East African Community. Hypothesis: There is a lack of effective and robust legislative and regulatory framework in the EAC that addresses the mobile banking services. Purpose – This paper addresses issues affecting mobile money in the East African Community (EA...

  2. South Africa's New African Language Dictionaries and their Use for the African Speech Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Klein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: During the last 15 years, the lexicographic scene in South Africa changed drastically as many new dictionaries for the African languages were compiled. The different dictionary types and publication modes discussed in this article are: general dictionaries, restricted dictionaries, printed dictionaries, electronic dictionaries, online and cell phone dictionaries. Although there are different dictionary types, they all have three major uses for the speech communities. Dictionaries are useful tools for language documentation and standardization, as they try to cover and document the general vocabulary (general dictionaries or the spe-cialized vocabulary (technical dictionaries. They empower the language users because they help to improve communication by providing users with the necessary vocabulary they need. In addition, dictionaries have a high symbolic value for a language. Having dictionaries, and especially technical, online or cell phone dic-tionaries, is the visible proof that a language is standardized and modern, and can be used in all domains of life.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, GENERAL DICTIONARIES, RESTRICTED DICTIONARIES, ONLINE DICTIONARIES, CELL PHONE DICTIONARIES, LANGUAGE DOCUMENTATION, LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION, EMPOWERMENT, COMMUNICATION, PSYCHOLOGI-CAL FACTOR, SOCIOLINGUISTICS, LANGUAGE PLANNING

    Opsomming: Suid-Afrika se nuwe Afrikataalwoordeboeke en hul gebruik vir die Afrikataalgemeenskappe. Gedurende die afgelope 15 jaar het die leksikografiese toneel in Suid-Afrika ingrypend verander deurdat baie nuwe woordeboeke vir die Afrikatale saamgestel is. Die verskillende woordeboeksoorte en publikasievorme wat in hierdie artikel bespreek word, is: algemene woordeboeke, beperkte woordeboeke, gedrukte woordeboeke, aan-lyn- en selfoonwoordeboeke. Alhoewel daar verskillende woordeboeksoorte is, het hulle almal drie hoofgebruike vir die taalgemeenskappe. Woordeboeke is nuttige werktuie vir taaldokumentasie en

  3. Diversity and Community: Finding and Forming a South African Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Oosthuizen

    2006-01-01

    How does music therapy engage diversity? My participation within three different South African communities offers possibilities, questions and thoughts to music therapists as we form our profession in this country and perhaps also globally. In a diverse, transient community, music is able to draw people together and may help to reconcile our many differences, but can also highlight the fragmentation of this community if all individuals and groups are not considered. As I introduce music thera...

  4. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  5. Exploring Artistic Practice in Global Communities of the African Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Auburn E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012 an African Centered single case study was conducted in the United States. The problem is as follows: K-12 practitioners in urban areas are faced with unique circumstances while serving marginalized students in urban areas. As a response to this issue, the purpose of this study was to identify and describe curricula used in three African…

  6. Childhood lead exposure in an enslaved African community in Barbados

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Shuler, Kristrina; Chenery, Simon

    2013-01-01

    a clear association between low (i.e., below 1 ppm) enamel lead concentrations and higher enamel 87Sr/86Sr ratios which have previously been interpreted as being indicative of African birth, suggesting that individuals with low enamel lead levels were indeed born in Africa as opposed to the New World...

  7. Community, Self and Identity: Participatory Action Research and the Creation of a Virtual Community across Two South African Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, Paul; Swartz, Leslie; Bozalek, Vivienne; Carolissen, Ronelle; Leibowitz, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Fourth year students in psychology and social work from two South African universities worked together across boundaries of race and class in a course which required them to engage in a personal reflexive way with issues of community and identity. A combination of face-to-face workshops and online tutorial groups was used. The course was demanding…

  8. Disordered eating among African American and African Caribbean women: The influence of intimate partner violence, depression, and PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Lucea, Marguerite B.; Francis, Lucine; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Doris W. Campbell

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV), depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on disordered eating patterns (DE) among women of African descent through a comparative case-control study (N=790) in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands from 2009–2011. IPV, depression and PTSD were independent risk factors in the full sample. The relationship between IPV and DE was partially mediated by depression. The influence of risk for lethality f...

  9. Decadal coral community reassembly on an African fringing reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in the cover of the dominant hard coral taxa were studied on seven Kenyan back reefs over 20 yr. All factors of time, taxa, site, and their interactions were statistically significant and the 1998 temperature anomaly caused the greatest community changes. The 1998 disturbance changes reflected a classic coral succession, which included partial or little mortality and persistence of stress tolerant (massive and submassive growth forms) and early colonization by weedy taxa (pocilloporids). Nevertheless, competitive taxa had high and full mortality and the expected dominance of acroporids was inhibited even ~13 yr after the disturbance. So, while total hard coral cover displayed the expected logistic recovery where maximum cover was reached coral cover. A number of stress-resistant and weedy taxa (poritids, agaricidae, faviids, and pocilloporids) are expected to dominate the composition of these reefs in the future. Nevertheless, three submassive faviids and branching Porites began to decline toward the end of the time series, indicating further stress after 1998. Increased algal cover and other unstudied factors, including milder warming, may explain these changes. The patterns of change on this continental fringing reef differ from recovery of more remote, offshore islands. This probably reflects low acroporid dominance and recruitment limitations associated with greater anthropogenic influences of high sea urchin grazing and terrestrial runoff.

  10. Community initiative projects of the East African Whale Shark Trust.

    OpenAIRE

    Njonjo, N.

    2007-01-01

    The East African Whale Shark Trust (EAWST) in Kenya was established to increase awareness and conservation of the whale shark. This is to be achieved by various research and education campaigns, with the education initiatives being designed specifically to target different stakeholders. Programs aimed at fishermen will focus on alternative fishing techniques, ecotourism and socio-economic aspects, while school children, people recently completing high school and tourists will be exposed to re...

  11. North African influences and potential bias in case-control association studies in the Spanish population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pino-Yanes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the limited genetic heterogeneity of Spanish populations, substantial evidences support that historical African influences have not affected them uniformly. Accounting for such population differences might be essential to reduce spurious results in association studies of genetic factors with disease. Using ancestry informative markers (AIMs, we aimed to measure the African influences in Spanish populations and to explore whether these might introduce statistical bias in population-based association studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 93 AIMs in Spanish (from the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africans, and conducted population and individual-based clustering analyses along with reference data from the HapMap, HGDP-CEPH, and other sources. We found significant differences for the Northwest African influence among Spanish populations from as low as ≈ 5% in Spanish from the Iberian Peninsula to as much as ≈ 17% in Canary Islanders, whereas the sub-Saharan African influence was negligible. Strikingly, the Northwest African ancestry showed a wide inter-individual variation in Canary Islanders ranging from 0% to 96%, reflecting the violent way the Islands were conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the XV century. As a consequence, a comparison of allele frequencies between Spanish samples from the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands evidenced an excess of markers with significant differences. However, the inflation of p-values for the differences was adequately controlled by correcting for genetic ancestry estimates derived from a reduced number of AIMs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the African influences estimated might be biased due to marker ascertainment, these results confirm that Northwest African genetic footprints are recognizable nowadays in the Spanish populations, particularly in Canary Islanders, and that the uneven African influences existing in these

  12. Using community-based participatory mixed methods research to understand preconception health in African American communities of Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Khaleel S; Hamm, Eric; Means, Toni

    2013-12-01

    The article discusses Arizona's strategic implementation and evaluation of the first time motherhood initiative grant (FTMI) to understand preconception health among African American men and women in Arizona. Longitudinal focus groups assessed whether African American men and women in the targeted areas comprehended and recalled the messages related to preconception health. Matched pre and posttests assessed community members' knowledge of preconception as well as physicians' perceptions on preconception health and care. Focus-group data were transcribed and coded by independent coders to conduct content analyses. Inter-rater reliability and agreement among coders, bivariate and multivariate statistics were conducted for quantitative matched pre and posttests data using SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The social marketing campaign had limited impact in recall and comprehension of the preconception health message among African American men and women. Data from focus groups revealed that African American men and women perceived preconception health to be vital. And results from the pretest and posttests of community-based presentations, further supported this finding. Evidence from Grand Round presentations indicated that practitioners and health care providers had diverging views on preconception health. Use of community-based participatory mixed methods research can facilitate better understanding of the efficacy of strategic interventions such as FTMI and can provide valuable information on preconception health. Cost limitations often prohibit extensive evaluation of social marketing campaigns, hence, evaluators and researchers should assess the feasibility of conducting an efficacy study versus an effectiveness study in evaluating social marketing campaigns. PMID:23229170

  13. The communities of African descent of Nor Yungas, Bolivia: an approach to its anthropogenetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Iudica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an anthropogenetic study of African descent populations in the region of Nor Yungas, Bolivia. Emphasis is placed on the socio-historical frame, the methodology that was built with communities and participants, and the importance of returning results to the community. Our proposal was to bring a scientific tool that would be a contribution to the historical-cultural reconstruction of ancestral roots undertaken by the Afro-Bolivian communities for the last two decades, in pursuit of a greater visibility as a nation in the Plurinational State of Bolivia. Uniparental inheritance of genetic markers (mtDNA and Y chromosome STRs were determined in order to estimate the geographic origin of the population. The results show that communities studied have a strong African descent, with a minoritary process of interbreeding with Native American and European.

  14. African-American Children and the Case for Community: Eleanora Tate's South Carolina Trilogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Carole Brown

    1998-01-01

    Three books by Eleanora Tate, "The Secret of Gumbo Grove" (1988), "Thank You, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.!" (1992), and "A Blessing in Disguise" (1995) are discussed with respect to their portrayal of African-American children and their responsibility to both themselves and their community. (MAK)

  15. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…

  16. Education by Any Means Necessary: Peoples of African Descent and Community-Based Pedagogical Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ty-Ron Michael; Peck, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how and why peoples of African descent access and utilize community-based pedagogical spaces that exist outside schools. Employing a theoretical framework that fuses historical methodology and border-crossing theory, the researchers review existing scholarship and primary documents to present an historical examination of how…

  17. Underserved, Underrepresented, Unprepared: Experiences of African American Females in Community College with Barriers to Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, LaWanda D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women are enrolling and returning to college in large numbers across many community college campuses, especially those women who would be characterized as nontraditional students. This qualitative study examined and analyzed the experiences, stresses, and coping mechanisms of first generation, nontraditional, single parent,…

  18. Sex Education Targeting African Communities in the United Kingdom: Is It Fit for Purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E.; Olomo, F.; Corcoran, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of the sexual needs of ethnic minority groups in the UK. Using focus group discussions with health service users and third-sector providers, it explores the perception of sex education by Black African communities living in a culturally diverse area in East London, focusing specifically on participants' understanding…

  19. Developing Self-Expression and Community among South African Women with Persona Doll Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Dorothy Yumi

    2014-01-01

    Township-dwelling Black South African women must cope with an array of traumatizing stressors that stunt individual voice and diminish the creation of supportive female communities. At issue was the capacity of women under these conditions to thrive as individuals and contributing members of society, thus the rationale for this project study. The…

  20. African American Women Leaders in the Community College: Where They Get Their Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Florine

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes a study that interviewed 14 female upper-level African American community college administrators to identify commonalities in their experience. Most participants showed early signs of leadership, had strong spiritual beliefs, were caring and self-reliant, had close relationships with their mothers, valued their aloneness and their…

  1. Family, peer, and neighborhood influences on academic achievement among African-American adolescents: one-year prospective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, N A; Cauce, A M; Friedman, R J; Mason, C A

    1996-06-01

    Using a 1-year prospective design, this study examined the influence of family status variables (family income, parental education, family structure), parenting variables (maternal support and restrictive control), peer support, and neighborhood risk on the school performance of 120 African American junior high school students. In addition to main effects of these variables, neighborhood risk was examined as a moderator of the effects of parenting and peer support. Family status variables were not predictive of adolescent school performance as indexed by self-reported grade point average. Maternal support at Time 1 was prospectively related to adolescent grades at Time 2. Neighborhood risk was related to lower grades, while peer support predicted better grades in the prospective analyses. Neighborhood risk also moderated the effects of maternal restrictive control and peer support on adolescent grades in prospective analyses. These findings highlight the importance of an ecological approach to the problem of academic underachievement within the African American Community. PMID:8864209

  2. TESTING NONLINEAR INFLATION CONVERGENCE FOR THE CENTRAL AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anoruo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses nonlinear unit root testing procedures to examine the issue of inflation convergence for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC member states including Cameron, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The results from nonlinear STAR unit root tests suggest that inflation differentials for the sample countries are nonlinear and mean reverting processes. These results provide evidence of inflation convergence among countries within CEMAC. The finding of inflation convergence indicates the feasibility of a common monetary policy and/or inflation targeting regime within CEMAC.

  3. Culicoides species composition and environmental factors influencing African horse sickness distribution at three sites in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, Danica; Piketh, Stuart; Labuschagne, Karien; Venter, Gert; Greyling, Telane; Mienie, Charlotte; de Waal, Tania; van Hamburg, Huib

    2016-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is one of the most lethal infectious, non-contagious, vector-borne disease of equids. The causative agent, African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is transmitted via Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). AHS is endemic to Namibia but detailed studies of Culicoides communities and influencing environmental parameters are limited. This study aims to determine the Culicoides species composition at three different sites and to assess environmental parameters influencing the geographical distribution of AHS in Namibia. Weekly collections of Culicoides were made during the AHS peak season from January to May for 2013 and 2014 using the Onderstepoort 220V UV-light trap. Out of 397 collections made, 124 collections (3287 Culicoides) were analysed for AHSV presence with RT-qPCR. A total of 295 collections were analysed for total Culicoides (all collected Culicoides individuals) and in 75% of these collections the Culicoides were identified to species level. C. imicola was the dominant species with proportional representation of 29.9%. C. subschultzei, C. exspectator and C. ravus each contribute more than 10% to the species composition. The lowest number of Culicoides was collected at Aus 9980, a total of 21819 at Windhoek and the highest number at Okahandja 47343. AHSV was present at all three sites during 2013 but only in Windhoek and Okahandja during 2014. Multivariate analyses of data from the two year survey indicate the environmental parameters in order of importance for the distribution of AHS in Namibia as precipitation>temperature>clay>relative humidity>NDVI. The implication of these findings is that any precipitation event increases Culicoides numbers significantly. Together with these results the high number of species found of which little is known regarding their vector competence, add to the complexity of the distribution of AHS in Namibia. PMID:27491343

  4. A community-based collaborative approach to improve breast cancer screening in underserved African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Rachel; Fitzpatrick, Dawn C; Leonard, Dawn J; Weber, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Although African American women in the United States have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared with white women, those younger than 40 years actually have a higher incidence rate; additionally, African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer at every age compared with white women. Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality rates are especially significant in Maryland, which ranks fifth in the nation for breast cancer mortality, and in Baltimore City, which has the second highest annual death rate for African American women in Maryland. To address this disparity in care, Med-IQ, an accredited provider of CME, collaborated with Sisters Network Baltimore Metropolitan, Affiliate Chapter of Sisters Network® Inc., the only national African American breast cancer survivorship organization, to sponsor their community-based educational outreach initiative. The collaborative mission was to engage at-risk African American women, their families, local organizations, healthcare professionals, and clinics, with the goals of increasing awareness, addressing fears that affect timely care and diagnosis, and encouraging women to obtain regular mammograms. Intervention strategies included (1) a "Survivor Stories" video, (2) patient outreach consisting of neighborhood walks and an educational luncheon, and (3) a community outreach utilizing direct mailings to local businesses, community groups, and healthcare professionals. Trusted and well-known community resources were presented as mediums to promote the initiative, yielding achievement of broader and more effective outcomes. As a result of this patient-friendly initiative, two (2) of the women who sought screening were diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent treatment. PMID:24446167

  5. The Structure of Witnessed Community Violence amongst Urban African American Mothers: Latent Class Analysis of a Community Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ronzio, Cynthia R.; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Jichuan Wang

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of witnessed community violence (WCV) amongst urban populations in the USA is striking. WCV can be harmful to one's psychological health, and for mothers, the consequences may be more far-reaching as their mental health affects parenting and child development. This study used telephone interviews (n = 209) to explore the patterns and covariates of WCV amongst a sample of urban, African American mothers of infants. Mothers reported whether they had witnessed 11 different forms o...

  6. African Dust Influence on Atlantic Hurricane Activity and the Peculiar Behaviour of Category 5 Hurricanes

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Victor M Velasco; H., Graciela Velasco; Gonzalez, Laura Luna

    2010-01-01

    We study the specific influence of African dust on each one of the categories of Atlantic hurricanes. By applying wavelet analysis, we find a strong decadal modulation of African dust on Category 5 hurricanes and an annual modulation on all other categories of hurricanes. We identify the formation of Category 5 hurricanes occurring mainly around the decadal minimum variation of African dust and in deep water areas of the Atlantic Ocean, where hurricane eyes have the lowest pressure. According to our results, future tropical cyclones will not evolve to Category 5 until the next decadal minimum that is, by the year 2015 +/- 2.

  7. Community Violence, Interpartner Conflict, Parenting, and Social Support as Predictors of the Social Competence of African American Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravecz, Linda M.; Koblinsky, Sally A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Adopting an ecological framework, this study examines the role of community violence exposure, interpartner conflict, positive parenting, and informal social support in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. Participants were 184 African American mothers and female caregivers of Head Start…

  8. The Effect of Education plus Access on Perceived Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Rural African American Community Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnidge, E. K.; Baker, E. A.; Schootman, M.; Motton, F.; Sawicki, M.; Rose, F.

    2015-01-01

    African Americans have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease partly due to low fruit and vegetable consumption. This article reports the results of an intervention to provide nutrition education and access to fruits and vegetables through community gardens to change dietary behaviors among African Americans in rural Missouri. Cross-sectional…

  9. South African Deaf Education and the Deaf Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Claudine, Ed.; Martin, David, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    In a special section of the "American Annals of the Deaf", Deaf education and the Deaf community in South Africa are discussed. The special section is organized into 7 segments: a historical overview to establish context, the educational context, educators and learners, postgraduate education and employment, perspectives of Deaf children and their…

  10. Barriers to prostate cancer prevention and community recommended health education strategies in an urban African American community in Jackson, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi. PMID:23805806

  11. What Motivational Factors Influence African American Males to Enter a Doctorial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the motivational factors that influence African American men to enter a doctoral program by identifying the motivational factors that influenced them to enter a doctorial program. The findings were compared to Dr. Gloria J. Hill's dissertation study (2005), "What Motivational Factors Influence…

  12. Parental Factors that Influence the Career Development of College-Bound African American High School Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Shenice S.

    2010-01-01

    Parents have been identified as being the most influential factor upon their children career development. There are various factors that influence the career development of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to identify parental factors that influence the career development of college-bound African American…

  13. Diabetes and Other Disorders of Glycemia in a Rural South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Gouws, Eleanor; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycemia (IFG), and associated risk factors in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test using the 1998 World Health Organization criteria for disorders of glycemia. RESULTS—Of 1,300 subjects...

  14. Community perceptions of mining : the rural South African experience / Muntingh J.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Muntingh, Johannes Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Globally private companies and multi–nationals, including mining companies, have recently, in the current and post financial crises environment, seen their public image badly scarred, fermenting a negative image towards business in general, but also specifically towards the mining industry. This negative perception can also be seen in the South African mining industry, as reflected in various media reports on high profile, and often violent, community protests and labour dis...

  15. Governance and Development of the East African Community : The Ethical Sustainability Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kanakulya, Dickson

    2015-01-01

    The pursuit of sustainability of governance and development has become a major challenge in contemporary times because of increasing realization that: various ecological and social systems are interconnected; and the complexity of our natural and constructed environs requires holistic approaches to avoid catastrophic fissures in the systems on which humans depend. As regional governments such as the East African Community (EAC) become important in Africa (and other regions), they present oppo...

  16. Sentinel site community surveillance of mortality and nutritional status in southwestern Central African Republic, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Caleo Grazia M; Sy Aly; Balandine Serge; Polonsky Jonathan; Palma Pedro; Grais Rebecca; Checchi Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background During 2010, a community-based, sentinel site prospective surveillance system measured mortality, acute malnutrition prevalence, and the coverage of a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) intervention in four sous-préfectures of Lobaye prefecture in southwestern Central African Republic. We describe this surveillance system and its evaluation. Methods Within 24 randomly selected sentinel sites, home visitors performed a census, weekly demographic surveillance of births, deaths, ...

  17. The influence of urban literature on African-American adolescent girls' sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-07-01

    Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.

  18. Factors that influence rural African American males' aspirations to attend college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Alesia K.

    This study was conducted to research factors which influence rural African American males in their college attendance decision. The study was an attempt to discover specific influences in the higher education pursuit from aspiration to enrollment. As African American males and low income students represent lower enrollment figures in higher education, this study attempts to provide research which may improve these numbers. The literature which provides the theoretical frame is related to Hossler (et al., 1999) and his research entitled Going to College. Hossler's study recommended additional research to study African American males. Hossler concluded this participant segment was influenced by different factors than the majority of study participants. This qualitative study includes student interviews. Three high schools in three counties in the Black Belt of rural Alabama were the sites selected for participants. Thirty African American male seniors' responses were transcribed and coded to identify themes related to influences stated by the participants. The students' voices provided insight into their college enrollment pursuit. The findings indicate rural students lack the resources and academic preparation significant for higher education admission. African American males in rural Alabama tend to be first generation students and lack information important to college enrollment. The rural high schools lack the personnel, college and career guidance to ensure participants are aware and prepared to traverse the process of college enrollment. This study identifies policy development needs to address inadequacies that African American males attending rural schools encounter during secondary enrollment. Research participants state college aspirations. Problems arise as participants move from the aspiration stage toward enrollment. Several factors will limit higher education opportunities for the participants. Inadequate knowledge on ACT scores, college cost financial

  19. Influence Strategies in South African Wine Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Ewert

    2015-11-01

    Drawing on a number of detailed case studies, in this paper we investigate this conclusion in more depth. By doing so, we try to explain which paths South African producer cellars have or have not chosen, and why. As global value chain theory posits that the governance structure of value chains are of crucial importance, we will pay particular interest to the design of the chains as a success factor.

  20. Lifestyle risk factors in an urban South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCD Wright

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The research question addressed in the study was to determine the prevalence of the following lifestyle risk factors: obesity, waist-hip ratio, physical inactivity, high blood glucose, and hypertension in an urban community. The research objective for the study was to determine the prevalence of specific risk factors in an urban community. Based on the results, a health intervention could be planned and implemented to reduce the prevalence of the risk factors and the possibility of chronic noncommunicable diseases in later life. The design was a quantitative survey using physical measurement and a structured questionnaire. The target population of the study was black urban adults (n=218. The sampling method was convenient and purposive. The results of the study indicated that the prevalence of hypertension and obesity were higher than the national prevalence for South Africa. The waist-hip ratio revealed that 20% of the men and 49.7% of the women were at risk for cardiovascular disease. High blood glucose levels were demonstrated for 21.6% of the group. Physical activity was also shown to be inadequate. In conclusion, the potential for cardiovascular and metabolic health problems in future is high. It is recommended that an intervention, based on the results of the study, should and must be developed and implemented. The more challenging question is to know what to do and how to do it. A framework is suggested to guide the development of an intervention.

  1. STEM Outreach to the African Canadian Community - The Imhotep Legacy Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Like the African American community in the US, the African Canadian community is underrepresented in the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields. To serve these communities two outreach organizations emerged in Canadian cities where there is a critical mass of learners of African Descent - Toronto and Halifax. I will describe the Imhotep's Legacy Academy, which began in the Physics labs of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia and has grown to a province-wide program serving three-quarters of the school boards in the province with an annual budget that has grown to 400,000 in 2011-12. It follows the learner from the time they enter grade 7 to the time they graduate from university, through three programs: (a) Weekly After-School science enrichment for junior high learners, (b) Virtual High school tutoring program and (c) Summer student internships and research scholarships for post-secondary students. This year, the program was the beneficiary of funding from TD Bank to establish scholarships for program participants to enter Dalhousie university. Modeled on the Meyerhoff scholarships the program participants are identified at an early stage and are promised a subset of funding as they meet selected criteria during participation in the program. The program enjoys support from the Department of Education and the highest levels of government. A tri-mentoring system exists where faculty of African descent train mentors, who are science students of African descent at associated universities, to deliver hands-on enrichment activities to learners of African Descent. Evidence supporting the success of the program will be highlighted. Project outcomes measured include (i) recruitment; (ii) attendance; (iii) stakeholder relationships; (iv) programming; (v) staff training; (vi) perception of ILASP's value; (vii) academic performance. The end results are new lessons and best practices that are incorporated into a strategic plan for the new project

  2. The Influence of Self-Esteem on the Mate Selection Process of African American Females: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Bilton, Joya

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study examined the influence of African American females' level of self-esteem on the mate-selection process. Secondly, this study was concerned with the influence of the level of self-esteem of African American females on valuing the mate-selection characteristics of interpersonal skills,…

  3. No Safe Havens: Protective Parenting Strategies for African American Youth Living in Violent Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter; Berringer, Kathryn; Takahashi, Lois; Burr, Sean; Kuhnen, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Africans American youth experience disproportionately high rates of exposure to community violence. Such exposures are associated with a myriad of physical and mental health challenges. However, few qualitative studies have examined the ways in which parental figures have attempted to manage youth exposure to violence. This study recruited 4 focus groups composed of the parents of African American youth (n = 54). Participants reported that (a) there were no safe places immune from community violence, (b) there were no populations or subgroups protected from community violence, and (c) strategies to manage exposure to violence were often defined by the gender of the child. Although common protective parental strategies included mixed benefits, they ranged from "sheltering" (keeping children off the streets), "chauffeuring" (transporting or accompanying children to and from places), "removal" (enrolling children in schools outside of the neighborhood), and attempting "to rebuild the village." However, several of these strategies had constraints including money, time, and child maturation. Based on these findings, we offer research, policy, and practice implications in response to community violence exposure among this population.

  4. No Safe Havens: Protective Parenting Strategies for African American Youth Living in Violent Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter; Berringer, Kathryn; Takahashi, Lois; Burr, Sean; Kuhnen, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Africans American youth experience disproportionately high rates of exposure to community violence. Such exposures are associated with a myriad of physical and mental health challenges. However, few qualitative studies have examined the ways in which parental figures have attempted to manage youth exposure to violence. This study recruited 4 focus groups composed of the parents of African American youth (n = 54). Participants reported that (a) there were no safe places immune from community violence, (b) there were no populations or subgroups protected from community violence, and (c) strategies to manage exposure to violence were often defined by the gender of the child. Although common protective parental strategies included mixed benefits, they ranged from "sheltering" (keeping children off the streets), "chauffeuring" (transporting or accompanying children to and from places), "removal" (enrolling children in schools outside of the neighborhood), and attempting "to rebuild the village." However, several of these strategies had constraints including money, time, and child maturation. Based on these findings, we offer research, policy, and practice implications in response to community violence exposure among this population. PMID:27075420

  5. Conceptualizing community mobilization for HIV prevention: implications for HIV prevention programming in the African context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri A Lippman

    Full Text Available Community mobilizing strategies are essential to health promotion and uptake of HIV prevention. However, there has been little conceptual work conducted to establish the core components of community mobilization, which are needed to guide HIV prevention programming and evaluation.We aimed to identify the key domains of community mobilization (CM essential to change health outcomes or behaviors, and to determine whether these hypothesized CM domains were relevant to a rural South African setting.We studied social movements and community capacity, empowerment and development literatures, assessing common elements needed to operationalize HIV programs at a community level. After synthesizing these elements into six essential CM domains, we explored the salience of these CM domains qualitatively, through analysis of 10 key informant in-depth-interviews and seven focus groups in three villages in Bushbuckridge.CM DOMAINS INCLUDE: 1 shared concerns, 2 critical consciousness, 3 organizational structures/networks, 4 leadership (individual and/or institutional, 5 collective activities/actions, and 6 social cohesion. Qualitative data indicated that the proposed domains tapped into theoretically consistent constructs comprising aspects of CM processes. Some domains, extracted from largely Western theory, required little adaptation for the South African context; others translated less effortlessly. For example, critical consciousness to collectively question and resolve community challenges functioned as expected. However, organizations/networks, while essential, operated differently than originally hypothesized - not through formal organizations, but through diffuse family networks.To date, few community mobilizing efforts in HIV prevention have clearly defined the meaning and domains of CM prior to intervention design. We distilled six CM domains from the literature; all were pertinent to mobilization in rural South Africa. While some adaptation of

  6. Influence of Perceived Contextual Stress on Self-Esteem and Academic Outcomes in African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael; Hurley, Megan; Foney, Dana; Hayes, DeMarquis

    2002-01-01

    Studied factors that influence academic success among 84 high-achieving African American students exposed to many stressful life events often associated with life in urban neighborhoods. Results show that adolescent-perceived hassles were indications of parental monitoring, and parental monitoring was positively related to self-esteem. Discusses…

  7. How Religious, Social, and Cultural Capital Factors Influence Educational Aspirations of African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fadhli, Hussain M.; Kersen, Thomas Michael

    2010-01-01

    Data from 2008 Monitoring the Future were used to test how well religious, family, and cultural social capital influenced 8th and 10th grade student aspirations, future plans, and prior academic experience. This study focused only on a sample of 4,273 African American students. Results indicated a strong association between family social capital…

  8. Innovation in South African Science Education (Part 2): Factors Influencing the Introduction of Instructional Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M. Allyson; Rogan, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Described are some of the factors that have influenced the introduction of instructional change into Black South African classrooms. The Science Education Project of the 1980s, teacher uncertainty, pupil expectations, the epistemology of science education, resources, and the image of innovation are discussed. (CW)

  9. African American Career Aspirations: Examining the Relative Influence of Internalized Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danice L.; Segrist, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relative influence of aspects of internalized racism on the career aspirations of a sample of African American adults. Participants (N = 315), ranging in age from 18 to 62 years, completed measures of internalized racism and career aspirations online. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to…

  10. Diversity and Community: Finding and Forming a South African Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Oosthuizen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available How does music therapy engage diversity? My participation within three different South African communities offers possibilities, questions and thoughts to music therapists as we form our profession in this country and perhaps also globally. In a diverse, transient community, music is able to draw people together and may help to reconcile our many differences, but can also highlight the fragmentation of this community if all individuals and groups are not considered. As I introduce music therapy to an affluent school community, I find the cultural understandings I share with community members a helpful advantage, and yet I need to consider that by working only in wealthy, resourced communities similar to my own community, I may be highlighting the divide between wealth and poverty. In this way, I compound our countries' struggle with social inequality. As I initiate a short term music therapy group in a community very different to my own, I struggle with questions of whether music therapy has any relevance here, and find myself adapting my thinking, and working closely with the community to form a music therapy practice that has value in this context. These diverse work experiences challenge music therapists to increase our awareness of pertinent national and global issues and the possibilities our profession holds for addressing these issues. We need to explore new communities whilst continually reflecting and questioning all that we do and sharing our different work experiences with one another. Otherwise, whilst our work may hold much value within a particular community, we may find ourselves addressing or compounding national or global issues and may be growing or inhibiting our profession.

  11. HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands: Manifestations, consequences and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutterheim, S.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Shiripinda, I.; Bruin, M. de; Pryor, J.B.; Schaalma, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities in the Netherlands was investigated. Interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative community members demonstrated that HIV-related stigma manifests as social distance, physical distance, words and silence. The psychological conseq

  12. HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands: manifestations, consequences and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Stutterheim; A.E.R. Bos; I. Shiripinda; M. de Bruin; J.B. Pryor; H.P. Schaalma

    2012-01-01

    HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities in the Netherlands was investigated. Interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative community members demonstrated that HIV-related stigma manifests as social distance, physical distance, words and silence. The psychological conseq

  13. Collective Memory: The African Presence in Latin America. A Study Guide on the Maroon Community of Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, Allen; And Others

    In this brief study guide, the focus is on the "maroons," those Africans who bravely threw off the chains of slavery and established independent communities within colonial Latin America. The specific study is of the history and culture of Esmeraldas, a province in northwestern Ecuador and home to one of the most interesting maroon communities,…

  14. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems. PMID:23878338

  15. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems.

  16. The influence of African air pollution on regional and global tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aghedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of African biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions on the tropospheric ozone over Africa and globally using a coupled global chemistry climate model. Our model studies indicate that surface ozone concentration may rise by up to 50 ppbv in the burning region during the biomass burning seasons. Biogenic emissions yield between 5–30 ppbv increase in the near surface ozone concentration over tropical Africa. The impact of lightning on surface ozone is negligible, while anthropogenic emissions yield a maximum of 7 ppbv increase in the annual-mean surface ozone concentration over Nigeria, South Africa and Egypt. Our results show that biogenic emissions are the most important African emission source affecting total tropospheric ozone. The influence of each of the African emissions on the global tropospheric ozone burden (TOB of 384 Tg yields about 9.5 Tg, 19.6 Tg, 9.0 Tg and 4.7 Tg for biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions emitted in Africa respectively. The impact of each of these emission categories on African TOB of 33 Tg is 2.5 Tg, 4.1 Tg, 1.75 Tg and 0.89 Tg respectively, which together represents about 28% of the total TOB calculated over Africa. Our model calculations also suggest that more than 70% of the tropospheric ozone produced by each of the African emissions is found outside the continent, thus exerting a noticeable influence on a large part of the tropical troposphere. Apart from the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, Latin America experiences the largest impact of African emissions, followed by Oceania, the Middle East, Southeast and south-central Asia, northern North America (i.e. the United States and Canada, Europe and north-central Asia, for all the emission categories.

  17. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starla Hairston Blanks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW. Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW- led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW.

  18. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzell, Anya; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T.; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  19. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, Starla Hairston; Treadwell, Henrie; Bazzell, Anya; Graves, Whitney; Osaji, Olivia; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  20. Physical Health Screenings Among African-American Church and Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin W; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y; Berman, Marcie; Burleson, Christine; Judah, Abigail

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to identify characteristics, including religiosity, related to having received health screenings among persons who attend African-American churches or receive church-based community outreach services. A sample of 602 was recruited during two phases as part of a larger project. Blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose screenings were the most frequently reported screenings ever and in the last 12 months. Although religiosity was significantly related to several of the health screenings in bivariate analysis, it is not a predictor of health screenings in multivariate analyses. Innovative strategies are needed to promote screenings such as church-based health fairs. PMID:27272330

  1. Perspectives on Efforts to Address HIV/AIDS of Religious Clergy Serving African American and Hispanic Communities in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Alder, Stephen C.; Simonsen, Sara Ellis; Duncan, Megan; Shaver, John; DeWitt, Jan; Crookston, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The HIV/AIDS epidemic in America is rapidly progressing in certain subpopulations, including African-American and Hispanic communities. Churches may provide a means for reaching high-risk minority populations with effective HIV/AIDS prevention. We report on a series of focus group interviews conducted with Utah clergy who primarily serve African American and Hispanic congregations. Methods A total of three focus groups (two with Catholic clergy serving Hispanic congregations and ...

  2. Direct and indirect effects of caregiver social support on adolescent psychological outcomes in two South African AIDS-affected communities

    OpenAIRE

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2,477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or olde...

  3. Within and without: images of community and implications for South African psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, A; Seedat, M

    1990-01-01

    This paper critically analyses the historical embeddedness and ideological functions of the concept of community as it is used in South Africa by representatives of the state and its opponents. The analysis shows that 'community' is a key concept in the ideology of separatism through which an apartheid psychology and society is reproduced. This has implications for progressive psychologists who aim to empower oppressed ordinary people through interventions based upon theoretical models of community. Some of these are explored by examining the interplay between political and theoretical images of community and ordinary people's ideas about social ills. This suggests that whilst community psychology can revitalise a sense of community amongst the oppressed, it may also reinforce existing social inequalities by deflecting experts and ordinary people from the reconstruction of individual agency upon which liberating social transformation depends. It is concluded that a central task for South African psychologists is to engage in critical self-reflection with the aim of identifying and eliminating oppressive forms of social and psychological discourse, thereby empowering themselves and contributing to the construction of a coherent counterideology. PMID:2274799

  4. How do Urban African Americans and Latinos View the Influence of Diet on Hypertension?

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Carol R.; Tuzzio, Leah; Rojas, Mary; Monteith, Sharifa A.; Sisk, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled hypertension and its complications continue to be major health problems that disproportionately affect poor minority communities. Although dietary modification is an effective treatment for hypertension, it is not clear how hypertensive minority patients view diet as part of their treatment, and what barriers affect their abilities to eat healthy diets. We conducted nine focus groups with 88 African American and Latino patients treated for hypertension to assess their knowledge, ...

  5. Benefits of community-based education to the community in South African health science facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Diab; Penny Flack

    2013-01-01

    Background: Community-based education (CBE) is utilised by health science facultiesworldwide to provide a relevant primary care experience for students and a service tounderserved communities and, hopefully, to affect student career choices. The benefits totraining institutions and students are well documented, but it may well be that communities,too, will be able to benefit from a more balanced partnership, where they are consulted in theplanning of such training programmes.Method: An explo...

  6. The influence of life history milestones and association networks on crop-raiding behavior in male African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyo, Patrick I; Moss, Cynthia J; Alberts, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    Factors that influence learning and the spread of behavior in wild animal populations are important for understanding species responses to changing environments and for species conservation. In populations of wildlife species that come into conflict with humans by raiding cultivated crops, simple models of exposure of individual animals to crops do not entirely explain the prevalence of crop raiding behavior. We investigated the influence of life history milestones using age and association patterns on the probability of being a crop raider among wild free ranging male African elephants; we focused on males because female elephants are not known to raid crops in our study population. We examined several features of an elephant association network; network density, community structure and association based on age similarity since they are known to influence the spread of behaviors in a population. We found that older males were more likely to be raiders than younger males, that males were more likely to be raiders when their closest associates were also raiders, and that males were more likely to be raiders when their second closest associates were raiders older than them. The male association network had sparse associations, a tendency for individuals similar in age and raiding status to associate, and a strong community structure. However, raiders were randomly distributed between communities. These features of the elephant association network may limit the spread of raiding behavior and likely determine the prevalence of raiding behavior in elephant populations. Our results suggest that social learning has a major influence on the acquisition of raiding behavior in younger males whereas life history factors are important drivers of raiding behavior in older males. Further, both life-history and network patterns may influence the acquisition and spread of complex behaviors in animal populations and provide insight on managing human-wildlife conflict. PMID:22347468

  7. The influence of life history milestones and association networks on crop-raiding behavior in male African elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick I Chiyo

    Full Text Available Factors that influence learning and the spread of behavior in wild animal populations are important for understanding species responses to changing environments and for species conservation. In populations of wildlife species that come into conflict with humans by raiding cultivated crops, simple models of exposure of individual animals to crops do not entirely explain the prevalence of crop raiding behavior. We investigated the influence of life history milestones using age and association patterns on the probability of being a crop raider among wild free ranging male African elephants; we focused on males because female elephants are not known to raid crops in our study population. We examined several features of an elephant association network; network density, community structure and association based on age similarity since they are known to influence the spread of behaviors in a population. We found that older males were more likely to be raiders than younger males, that males were more likely to be raiders when their closest associates were also raiders, and that males were more likely to be raiders when their second closest associates were raiders older than them. The male association network had sparse associations, a tendency for individuals similar in age and raiding status to associate, and a strong community structure. However, raiders were randomly distributed between communities. These features of the elephant association network may limit the spread of raiding behavior and likely determine the prevalence of raiding behavior in elephant populations. Our results suggest that social learning has a major influence on the acquisition of raiding behavior in younger males whereas life history factors are important drivers of raiding behavior in older males. Further, both life-history and network patterns may influence the acquisition and spread of complex behaviors in animal populations and provide insight on managing human

  8. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  9. Spirituality in Leadership: How Male African American Leaders in Higher Education Perceive the Influence of Spirituality in Their Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Dale S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how male African American leaders in higher education perceive the influence of spirituality on their leadership decision making. This phenomenological study provided the opportunity for seven male African American leaders in higher education to explain in their own words how they perceive the…

  10. Collaborative Work: Negotiations between Music Therapists and Community Musicians in the Development of a South African Community Music Therapy Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Oosthuizen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy in South Africa is slowly negotiating a practice that takes into account our continent's musical vibrancy, as well as contextual understandings of "health" and "illness." Although music therapy in the (so-called developed world is situated within the paradigms of medicine, education, psychology and research - in the formal and often scientific sense - in South Africa, this practice needs to be re-defined to make it relevant to the contexts in which we work. The Music Therapy Community Clinic (MTCC is a non-profit organisation whose aim is to provide music therapy services to previously disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Socio-political problems such as poverty, unemployment, gang violence and HIV and Aids have lead to the fragmentation and disintegration of many of these communities. The MTCC's Music for Life project emerged out of a need to provide after-school music activities and to reach a wider group of children than those seen for clinical music therapy sessions. As the project has developed and expanded, the music therapists have drawn in community musicians to offer an increasing range of musical activities to children. The collaboration between music therapists and community musicians has led to many questions about the roles and identities of each. This article is based on a presentation given by the MTCC at a Symposium for South African Arts Therapists held in Cape Town in June 2007. The article discusses the merits and challenges of the Music for Life Project and offers reflections from both community musicians and music therapists pertaining to our negotiated and changing roles as we continue to develop the project together.

  11. Community Influence on Adolescent Obesity: Race/Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, K. A. Thulitha; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 20,000 adolescents (Add Health data), this study examined the influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity. Multilevel analyses revealed strong evidence for the unique influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity net of family characteristics. The prevalence of obesity is…

  12. Factors influencing customer retention, satisfaction and loyalty in the South African banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Craucamp, Frederik Willem

    2012-01-01

    Customer retention, loyalty and satisfaction are extremely important elements in any company’s strategy, especially in the highly competitive South African banking industry. Understanding the various factors that could influence these constructs is therefore critical to organizational success. Several studies showed the impact of these measures on profitability and shareholder value, but there has been little effort to access the factors that might lead to higher levels of retention, loyal...

  13. Internet’s influence on the marketing activities of South African companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsty-Lee Sharp; Ayesha Lian Bevan-Dye; Natasha De Klerk

    2013-01-01

    Although research studies regarding the Internet’s impact on marketing conducted in the past in different countries and at different times produced quite similar trends in responses, advances in Internet technologies and the increased Internet usage necessitated reinvestigating marketers’ perceptions as to the changes in marketing practices brought about by the Internet. This study sought to determine the South African marketing practitioners’ perceptions of the Internet’s influence on the pr...

  14. Mobilizing a low-income African-American community around tobacco control: a force field analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, G A; Reed, D F; Scheider, H

    1995-11-01

    A statewide tobacco control campaign in California has been highly successful in reducing public exposure to the health hazards of secondhand smoke. Over 250 cities and counties in California have enacted local ordinances to regulate smoking in public places and workplaces. Although low-income people of color are disproportionately affected by the use of tobacco, the issue of regulating secondhand smoke tends to be a lower priority in communities that are confronted by other, more immediately pressing social justice issues, such as high rates of violence and lack of economic opportunity. This article describes the process undertaken by a county health department to mobilize a low-income African American community in a San Francisco Bay Area city to support a local ordinance mandating 100% smoke-free workplaces and restaurants. These efforts are more likely to succeed if health advocates (1) reframe issues in a context that acknowledges the political, economic, and social justice realities and strengths of the community; (2) organize within existing local networks and foster the integration of tobacco issues into the group's existing work; and (3) can defer their own agendas during times of community grieving and healing. PMID:8550369

  15. Unequal burden of disease, unequal participation in clinical trials: solutions from African American and Latino community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Marvella E; Siminoff, Laura A; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G; Smith, Daniel W; Diaz, Vanessa A; Soderstrom, Lea H; Jefferson, Melanie S; Tilley, Barbara C

    2013-02-01

    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's Unequal Treatment conceptual framework was used. Six racially/ ethnically homogenous focus groups were conducted at five sites in three counties. Themes within groups and cross-cutting themes were identified. The NVIVO program was used for data classification. The data were reviewed for final coding and consensus. Shared solutions included addressing costs, recruiting in community contexts, conducting community and individualized patient education, and sharing patient safety information. Participants were unanimously in favor of clinical trials navigation recruitment interventions. Solutions specific to African Americans included diversifying research teams, recognizing past research abuses, and increasing community trust. Solutions specific to Latinos included providing low-literacy materials, providing Spanish-speaking clinicians and advocates, and clarifying that immigration status would neither be documented nor prevent participation. Solutions from African Americans and Latinos reflect their cultural backgrounds and historical experiences. The results suggest the importance of developing a tailored, barriers-focused navigation intervention to improve participation among diverse racial and ethnic populations. PMID:23539894

  16. African - American Influence on American Government‘s Foreign Trade, Investment and Aid Policies toward Africa: Continuing Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    James OKORO; Richard INGWE; Uno IJIM-AGBOR

    2012-01-01

    This paper is timely because it critically examines the influence of African-Americans on U.S. trade, foreign direct investment and aid toward the Sub-Saharan African Countries in the late 1970s, a dimension that has been largely overlooked in foreign policy analysis, despite its critical significance. In fact, African-American influence in U.S. trade, foreign direct investment and aid policy toward Africa is an aspect that has so far received scanty attention regarding their ancestral homela...

  17. Shared Illness and Social Support Within Two HIV-Affected African American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E; Stevens, Patricia E; Brouwer, Amanda M; Wendorf, Angela R

    2016-09-01

    A key source of resiliency within HIV-affected African American communities is informal social support. Data from dyadic conversations and focus groups were used to address the following research question: What are HIV-positive African Americans' social support experiences within their informal social networks in response to HIV-related problems? Circumstances that exacerbated HIV-related problems included others' fear of contagion, reticence to be involved, judgment and rejection, and disregard for privacy Support from HIV-negative others buffered the impact of problems when others communicate interest, take the initiative to help, or make a long-term investment in their success. Support from other HIV-positive persons was helpful given the shared connection because of HIV, the opportunity to commiserate about what is mutually understood, and the fight for mutual survival Based on these findings, we offer suggestions for future research and social network interventions aimed at bolstering connections between HIV-positive peers, reducing stigma, and improving family support. PMID:26515921

  18. Conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and HIV risk in five East African communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duby, Zoe; Colvin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual anal sex is underresearched and little understood, particularly in the African context. Existing prevalence data indicate that heterosexual anal sex is a widespread practice, yet little is known about the way in which it is conceptualized and understood. Describing findings from qualitative research conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, we shed light on conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and its relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These findings suggest that penile-anal sex is practiced by men and women in Africa for a range of reasons, including virginity maintenance, contraception, fulfillment of male pleasure, relationship security, menstruation, in the presence of vaginal complications, financial gain, fidelity, and prestige. Despite anal sex being the most efficient way to transmit HIV sexually, there is widespread lack of knowledge about its risks. These findings describe the ways in which anal sex is conceptualized in five East African communities, highlighting how penile-anal intercourse is often not considered "sex" and how the omission of anal sex in safe-sex messaging is interpreted as meaning that anal sex is safe. In light of its frequency and risks, greater attention must be paid to heterosexual anal sex in Africa to ensure a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.

  19. Accentuating River Border Conflicts and Water Privatization:The Southern African Development Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Essawi, Mohammed H. K.; Ntuli, Elijah M.

    The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an international organization that has been in existence since 1980. Previously known as the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), its primary aim was to coordinate development projects in order to lessen economic dependence on the then apartheid South Africa. Over the years, the coordination of such developmental projects has increasingly demanded a collective utilization of resources, such as energy, health and water sectors, among others. However, national boarders have also been pivotal in not only conflict management aspects, but also as protocolly agreed-upon component defining SADC`s contemporary international relations and legal regime. In the context of the accessibility and insufficiency of resources, our findings show that water as a resource has not only sparked inter-boarder issues, but also internal resistance from non-governmental organizations and major labor organizations in the SADC region. Policy formulation and implementation (under the international law umbrella) remain a greatest challenge in addressing the pressing issues of water privatization through political means.

  20. Exposure to Community Violence and Protective and Risky Contexts among Low Income Urban African American Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…

  1. Turning the Tide: Creating Professional Learning Communities (PLC) to Improve Teaching Practice and Learning in South African Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Poor learner performance in South African schools raises concerns related to lack of commitment and accountability from school leaders and teachers with no common vision to promote a culture of high learner performance. This paper provides a literature overview of research available on the impact of professional learning communities (PLC) on…

  2. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Debra J.; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Riley, Natasha E.; Behar, Alma I.; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was…

  3. Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Approach to Developing an HIV prevention Intervention in Rural African American Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Akers, Aletha; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Wynn, Mysha; Muhammad, Melvin; Stith, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Southeastern states are among the hardest hit by the HIV epidemic in this country, and racial disparities in HIV rates are high in this region. This is particularly true in our communities of interest in rural eastern North Carolina. Although most recent efforts to prevent HIV attempt to address multiple contributing factors, we have found few multilevel HIV interventions that have been developed, tailored or tested in rural communities for African Americans. We describe how Project GRACE int...

  4. Male ancestry structure and interethnic admixture in African-descent communities from the Amazon as revealed by Y-chromosome Strs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palha, Teresinha de Jesus Brabo Ferreira; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea; Guerreiro, João Farias; de Moura, Luciene Soraya Souza; Santos, Sidney

    2011-03-01

    Some genetic markers on both the Y chromosome and mtDNA are highly polymorphic and population-specific in humans, representing useful tools for reconstructing the past history of populations with poor historical records. Such lack of information is usually true in the case of recent African-descent populations of the New World founded by fugitive slaves throughout the slavery period in the Americas, particularly in Brazil, where those communities are known as quilombos. Aiming to recover male-derived ethnic structure of nine quilombos from the Brazilian Amazon, a total of 300 individuals, belonging to Mazagão Velho (N = 24), Curiaú (N = 48), Mazagão (N = 36), Trombetas (N = 20), Itacoã (N = 22), Saracura (N = 46), Marajó (N = 58), Pitimandeua (N = 26), and Pontal (N = 20), were investigated for nine Y-STRs (DYS393, DYS19, DYS390, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS392, DYS391, DYS385 I/II). From the 169 distinct haplotypes obtained, 120 were singletons. The results suggest the West African coast as the main origin of slaves brought to Brazil (54% of male contribution); the European contribution was high (41%), while the Amerindian's was low (5%). Those results contrast with previous mtDNA data that showed high Amerindian female contribution (46.6%) in African-descent populations. AMOVA suggests that the genetic differentiation among the quilombos is mainly influenced by admixture with European. However, when restricting AMOVA to African-specific haplotypes, low differentiation was detected, suggesting great genetic homogeneity of the African founding populations and/or a later homogenization by intense slave trade inside Brazil. PMID:21302273

  5. Addressing Human Rights in the Court of Justice of the Andean Community and the Tribunal of the Southern African Development Community

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Kingah; Giovanni Molano-Cruz

    2014-01-01

    The article compares how the regional tribunals of the Andean Community (CAN) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) have dealt with human rights issues in order to explore options for South-South judicial cooperation through adjudicative cross-fertilization, while taking into account specificities that characterize both regions. In doing so, focus is placed on four elements: a) the scope of human rights covered by each of the regional tribunals; b) the locus standi of individu...

  6. Family health advocacy: an empowerment model for pregnant and parenting African American women in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffour, Tiffany D; Jones, Maurine A; Contreras, Linda K

    2006-01-01

    The model of family health advocacy built firmly upon principles of empowerment theory seeks to help individuals, families, and communities to improve their circumstances by incorporating multiple levels of intervention. The goal of family health advocacy is to improve the well-being of pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 2 years by providing social support and health education about risk factors related to infant mortality and prematurity. This program primarily targets rural African American women, a group at high risk. Advocacy and referral for needed medical and social services are provided. This article presents a comprehensive model of health advocacy, including social marketing strategies, recruitment efforts, and curriculum development. PMID:16775472

  7. Beliefs about causes of schizophrenia among urban African American community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Beth; Goulding, Sandra M; Talley, Colin L; Compton, Michael T

    2010-12-01

    The public's causal attributions of schizophrenia have far-reaching effects on the community and affected individuals. This study investigated causal beliefs within a community of predominantly Protestant, low-income, urban, African Americans in the southeastern United States. Two hundred eighty-two patrons of an inner-city food court/farmers' market participated in a self-administered survey assessing causal beliefs through a 30-item survey and self-reported causal opinions. Associations were assessed between causal attributions of schizophrenia and sociodemographic characteristics and exposure/familiarity variables. Certain sociodemographic variables, as well as key exposure/familiarity variables, predicted the nature of one's causal beliefs. The most common causal opinions reported included substance abuse, negative life events, and "mental illness." Findings from a subsample administered an exploratory multiple-choice question investigating understanding of causation revealed that the public may not fully understand the nature of causation. Although this study suggests potential determinants of causal beliefs held by community members, further research examining the public's conception of causation would enhance interpretation of studies on such beliefs. PMID:20623254

  8. Father participation in a community-doula home-visiting intervention with young, African American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, Matthew J; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Korfmacher, Jon; Humphries, Marisha L; Bellamy, Jennifer; Henson, Linda; Hans, Sydney

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the extent and nature of father participation in a perinatal, community-based doula home-visiting intervention that served young, African American mothers from low-income backgrounds and their infants. Home-visitor service records were used to assess the quantity, setting, and content of father-attended visits. Correlates of fathers' participation and thematic insights from mothers' and home-visitors' perspectives on how fathers perceived and interacted with the home-visiting program were analyzed to further characterize the nature of father participation. Although the community-doula home-visiting model does not include special outreach to increase father participation, almost half of the mothers had a doula visit at which their baby's father was present, many of which took place in medical settings. Mothers and doulas reported that fathers were generally positive about the doula, but expressed that fathers viewed the doula as a substitute provider of support that fathers seemed reticent to provide themselves. These results suggest that community doulas who visit pre- and postpartum in multiple settings have unique opportunities to have contact with fathers that traditional home visitors or early childhood specialists may not have.

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward breast cancer screening in a rural South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and breast cancer screening practices amongst women aged 30–65 years residing in a rural South African community.Method: A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design was used and a systematic sampling technique was employed to select 150 participants. The questionnaire was pretested for validity and consistency. Ethical considerations were adhered to in protecting the rights of participants. Thereafter, data were collected and analysed descriptively using the Predictive Analytics Software program.Results: Findings revealed that the level of knowledge about breast cancer of women in Makwarani Community was relatively low. The attitude toward breast cancer was negative whereas the majority of women had never performed breast cancer diagnostic methods.Conclusion: Health education on breast cancer screening practices is lacking and the knowledge deficit can contribute negatively to early detection of breast cancer and compound late detection. Based on the findings, community-based intervention was recommended in order to bridge the knowledge gap

  10. Factors influencing the preparation, support and training of South African expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Vogel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine if the independent variables; location of an international assignment, the age of an expatriate, the duration of an assignment and the management level of an expatriate, influence the preparation, support and training that they require for an international assignment. Design/Methodology/Approach: This formal, empirical study was undertaken using an electronic questionnaire that was distributed to expatriates who were on an international assignment. Expatriates who were on an international assignment were thought to be in the best position to respond to their preparation, support and training needs. Findings: The research found that the preparation, support and training required by South African expatriates are not influenced by the location of an international assignment, the age of the expatriate, the duration of an international assignment or the management level of the expatriate. Implications: The findings highlight the fact that human resource managers of South African multinational enterprises should provide all their expatriates with the same preparation, support and training, as well as identifies five requirements that should be included in all South African expatriate policies.

  11. Treatment of Diarrhoea in Rural African Communities: An Overview of Measures to Maximise the Medicinal Potentials of Indigenous Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rural communities in Africa, particularly in children under the age of five. This calls for the development of cost effective alternative strategies such as the use of herbal drugs in the treatment of diarrhoea in these communities. Expenses associated with the use of orthodox medicines have generated renewed interest and reliance on indigenous medicinal plants in the treatment and management of diarrhoeal infections in rural communities. The properties of many phenolic constituents of medicinal plants such as their ability to inhibit enteropooling and delay gastrointestinal transit are very useful in the control of diarrhoea, but problems such as scarcity of valuable medicinal plants, lack of standardization of methods of preparation, poor storage conditions and incertitude in some traditional health practitioners are issues that affect the efficacy and the practice of traditional medicine in rural African communities. This review appraises the current strategies used in the treatment of diarrhoea according to the Western orthodox and indigenous African health-care systems and points out major areas that could be targeted by health-promotion efforts as a means to improve management and alleviate suffering associated with diarrhoea in rural areas of the developing world. Community education and research with indigenous knowledge holders on ways to maximise the medicinal potentials in indigenous plants could improve diarrhoea management in African rural communities.

  12. How the demographic makeup of our community influences speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    Speech perception is known to be influenced by listeners' expectations of the speaker. This paper tests whether the demographic makeup of individuals' communities can influence their perception of foreign sounds by influencing their expectations of the language. Using online experiments with participants from all across the U.S. and matched census data on the proportion of Spanish and other foreign language speakers in participants' communities, this paper shows that the demographic makeup of individuals' communities influences their expectations of foreign languages to have an alveolar trill versus a tap (Experiment 1), as well as their consequent perception of these sounds (Experiment 2). Thus, the paper shows that while individuals' expectations of foreign language to have a trill occasionally lead them to misperceive a tap in a foreign language as a trill, a higher proportion of non-trill language speakers in one's community decreases this likelihood. These results show that individuals' environment can influence their perception by shaping their linguistic expectations.

  13. The influences and experiences of African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockus, Linda Helen

    The purpose of this study is to describe and explore some of the social and academic experiences of successful African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities with the expectation of conceptualizing emerging patterns for future study. The study surveyed 80 upperclass African Americans at 11 public research universities about their perceptions of the influences that affect their educational experiences and career interests in science. The mailed survey included the Persistence/ voluntary Dropout Decision Scale, the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale. A variety of potential influences were considered including family background, career goals, psychosocial development, academic and social connections with the university, faculty relationships, environmental fit, retention factors, validation, participation in mentored research projects and other experiences. The students' sources of influences, opportunities for connection, and cultural values were considered in the context of a research university environment and investigated for emerging themes and direction for future research. Results indicate that performance in coursework appears to be the most salient factor in African American students' experience as science majors. The mean college gpa was 3.01 for students in this study. Challenging content, time demands, study habits and concern with poor grades all serve to discourage students; however, for most of the students in this study, it has not dissuaded them from their educational and career plans. Positive course performance provided encouragement. Science faculty provide less influence than family members, and more students find faculty members discouraging than supportive. Measures of faculty relations were not associated with academic success. No evidence was provided to confirm the disadvantages of being female in a scientific discipline. Students were concerned with lack of minority role models

  14. A new focus on assessing and treating asthma control in the African-American community: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Michael; McGill, Cheryl Lynn Walker; Graham, Leroy M; Foggs, Michael; Robinson, Sandra; Crim, Courtney; Stempel, David A

    2008-09-01

    Asthma continues to be a highly prevalent disease characterized by significant morbidity, unnecessary mortality, and substantial cost to the health care system. After decades of increasing prevalence, the number of current asthmatics in recent years has plateaued at approximately 22 million people in the United States. An additional 10 million Americans have a past history of asthma that is not active. The burden of asthma is higher among African Americans than in any other racial or ethnic group in America. The African-American community continues to experience a disproportional increase in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality. The educational initiatives stemming from the newly revised National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) guidelines provide the opportunity to address the increased burden of asthma in the African American community. These new guidelines, released in August 2007, focus on asthma control as the primary goal of therapy, routine monitoring of asthma control, and use of asthma control assessments to direct treatment. The present review discusses the following: I. The impact of health disparities on outcomes of African Americans with asthma, II. The barriers that prevent asthmatic patients from achieving optimal control, III. The unique factors that challenge practitioners and patients in achieving optimal asthma control in the African American Community, IV. The impact of good asthma control and the need for patients and clinicians to assess asthma control in with a standardized assessment tool, and V. Strategic initiatives and the role of the End The Attacks NOW program in improving outcomes for African American patients with asthma. PMID:18924317

  15. Change and Variation in Family Religious Language Policy in a West African Muslim Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Leslie C.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines variation in family religious language policy in a Muslim community in West Africa. Taking an ethnographically grounded case study approach, I situate families' choices with regards to their children's religious (language) education within the larger linguistic, social, and cultural context, focusing on new influences on…

  16. Stable isotope evidence for trophic niche partitioning in a South African savanna rodent community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacqueline CODRON; Kevin J DUFFY; Nico L AVENANT; Matt SPONHEIMER; Jennifer LEICHLITER; Oliver PAINE; Paul SANDBERG; Daryl CODRON

    2015-01-01

    Species’ partitioning of resources remains one of the most integral components for understanding community assem-bly. Analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in animal tissues has the potential to help resolve patterns of partitioning be-cause these proxies represent the individual’s diet and trophic niche, respectively. Using free-ranging rodents in a southern Afri-can savanna as a model community, we find that syntopic species within habitats occupy distinct isotope niches. Moreover, spe-cies with strongly overlapping isotope niches did not overlap in their spatial distribution patterns, suggesting an underlying effect of competitive exclusion. Niche conservatism appears to characterize the behaviour of most species in our sample – with little or no observed changes across habitats – with the exception of one species,Mastomys coucha. This species displayed a generalist distribution, being found in similar abundances across a variety of habitats. This spatial pattern was coupled with a generalist isotope niche that shifted across habitats, likely in response to changes in species composition over the same spatial gradient. The case forM. coucha supports contentions that past competition effects played a significant evolutionary role in shaping community structures of today, including the absence of strong interspecific niche overlaps within particular habitats. Our study highlights the value of stable isotope approaches to help resolve key questions in community ecology, and moreover introduces novel ana-lytical approaches to quantifying isotope niche breadths and niche overlaps that are easily comparable with traditional metrices [Current Zoology 61 (3): 397–441, 2015].

  17. Factors influencing citizen participation in community management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.

  18. When "Prof" Speaks, Who Listens? The African Elite and the Use of African Languages for Education and Development in African Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudell, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The role of African languages in formal and nonformal learning is the subject of increasing local, national and international interests. Cognitive and pedagogical reasons abound for using the language best understood by the learner. However, many nonpedagogical factors related to politics, economics, language attitudes and colonial history are…

  19. Influence of the Bologna Process on African higher education: Ethiopian higher education in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftu Hindeya Gebremeskel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking the Ethiopian public higher education as a case in point, this paper examined the influence of the Bologna Process on African higher education. It showed how the goals of the Process have been reflected on the current reforms undergoing in Ethiopian higher education. In doing so, relevant policy documents and national guidelines were reviewed taking the Bologna elements as a framework for discussion. Developments of partnership between the African and European Unions in higher education were also examined to see the influence of the Process at continental level in the foreseeable future. Though the process might have influence in other aspects of Ethiopian higher education, emphasis was given in this paper to elements reflected in academic curricula and teaching learning process. In this regard, elements such as modularization, European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS, Competence Based Education (CBE, flexibility of learning and recognition of prior learning were identified. Opportunities and challenges of implementing the spillover effects of the Process were also discussed.

  20. The Structure of Witnessed Community Violence amongst Urban African American Mothers: Latent Class Analysis of a Community Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia R. Ronzio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of witnessed community violence (WCV amongst urban populations in the USA is striking. WCV can be harmful to one's psychological health, and for mothers, the consequences may be more far-reaching as their mental health affects parenting and child development. This study used telephone interviews (n = 209 to explore the patterns and covariates of WCV amongst a sample of urban, African American mothers of infants. Mothers reported whether they had witnessed 11 different forms of violence in their current neighborhoods. A latent class analysis revealed two distinct groups of mothers, those with higher versus lower-exposure to WCV. Mothers in the higher-exposure group were more likely to be low-income, to have a high school education or less, and to have higher anxiety scores than those in the lower-exposure group. Depression was not associated with higher exposure to WCV. Distinguishing between higher- and lower-exposure samples can inform the development of targeted prevention and intervention strategies for metropolitan areas.

  1. Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases: report of the First International African Vaccinology Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    One means of improving healthcare workers' knowledge of and attitudes to vaccines is through running vaccine conferences which are accessible, affordable, and relevant to their everyday work. Various vaccinology conferences are held each year worldwide. These meetings focus heavily on basic science with much discussion about new developments in vaccines, and relatively little coverage of policy, advocacy, and communication issues. A negligible proportion of delegates at these conferences come from Africa, home to almost 40% of the global burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no major vaccinology conference has ever been held on the African continent apart from World Health Organization (WHO) meetings. The content of the first International African Vaccinology Conference was planned to be different; to focus on the science, with a major part of discussions being on clinical, programmatic, policy, and advocacy issues. The conference was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 8 to 11 November 2012. The theme of the conference was "Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases". There were more than 550 registered participants from 55 countries (including 37 African countries). There were nine pre-conference workshops, ten plenary sessions, and 150 oral and poster presentations. The conference discussed the challenges to universal immunisation in Africa as well as the promotion of dialogue and communication on immunisation among all stakeholders. There was general acknowledgment that giant strides have been made in Africa since the global launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in 1974. For example, there has been significant progress in introducing new and under-utilised vaccines; including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, meningococcal A conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines. In May 2012, African countries

  2. Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases: report of the First International African Vaccinology Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    One means of improving healthcare workers' knowledge of and attitudes to vaccines is through running vaccine conferences which are accessible, affordable, and relevant to their everyday work. Various vaccinology conferences are held each year worldwide. These meetings focus heavily on basic science with much discussion about new developments in vaccines, and relatively little coverage of policy, advocacy, and communication issues. A negligible proportion of delegates at these conferences come from Africa, home to almost 40% of the global burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no major vaccinology conference has ever been held on the African continent apart from World Health Organization (WHO) meetings. The content of the first International African Vaccinology Conference was planned to be different; to focus on the science, with a major part of discussions being on clinical, programmatic, policy, and advocacy issues. The conference was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 8 to 11 November 2012. The theme of the conference was "Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases". There were more than 550 registered participants from 55 countries (including 37 African countries). There were nine pre-conference workshops, ten plenary sessions, and 150 oral and poster presentations. The conference discussed the challenges to universal immunisation in Africa as well as the promotion of dialogue and communication on immunisation among all stakeholders. There was general acknowledgment that giant strides have been made in Africa since the global launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in 1974. For example, there has been significant progress in introducing new and under-utilised vaccines; including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, meningococcal A conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines. In May 2012, African countries

  3. Black African and Caribbean British Communities' Perceptions of Memory Problems: "We Don't Do Dementia.".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharne Berwald

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify and explore the barriers to help-seeking for memory problems, specifically within UK Black African and Caribbean communities.We purposively recruited participants from community groups and subsequent snowball sampling, to achieve a maximum variation sample and employed thematic analysis. Our qualitative semi-structured interviews used a vignette portraying a person with symptoms of dementia, and we asked what they or their family should do. We stopped recruiting when no new themes were arising.We recruited 50 people from a range of age groups, country of origin, time in the UK, religion and socio-economic background. Some of the barriers to presentation with dementia have been reported before, but others were specific to this group and newly identified. Many people recognised forgetfulness but neither that it could be indicative of dementia, nor the concept of dementia as applying to them. Dementia was viewed as a white person's illness. Participants felt there was little point in consulting a doctor for forgetfulness. Many thought that seeing a GP was only for severe problems. Some said that their culture was secretive and highly valued privacy of personal affairs and therefore did not want to discuss what they regarded as a private and stigmatising problem with a GP. Participants did not appreciate their GP could refer to memory services who have more time and expertise. They were concerned about harm from medication and compulsory institutionalisation. Care should be from the family. Any intervention should emphasise the legitimacy of seeing a doctor early for memory concerns, that dementia is a physical illness which also occurs in the Black community, that help and time are available from memory services whose role is to prolong independence and support families in caring.

  4. "Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

    2009-01-01

    This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…

  5. Central African Economic and Monetary Community; Staff Report on Common Policies of Member Countries; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the common policies adopted by the members of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). The macroeconomic performance was good in 2011 with improved fiscal balances, public investment programs, and higher reserves. However, CEMAC is facing challenges from deep-seated structural problems, including uncoordinated fiscal policy, financial sector weaknesses, and obstacles to growth and competitiveness. The Executive Board recommends monetary policies for fi...

  6. Influences on Women’s Choices of Careers in Construction: A South African Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolosa Madikizela

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available  This paper analyses the factors influencing the choices of careers in construction by South African women. The literature on challenges which influence women‟s choices of careers in construction was reviewed and questionnaires were conducted with multiple samples, including construction organisations, construction students and professional women working in construction. The study found that women have a role to play in the construction industry and that they can build successful careers within the sector. However, it was not easy given the various barriers to entry such as gender-based discrimination against them, the harsh work environment of the construction site, the lack of sufficient knowledge about the industry itself and the shortage of successful women in construction as role models. There was evidence of discrimination and sexual harassment. All these factors impacted negatively on the choices of careers in construction by South African women. This study makes a contribution to our understanding of the factors that have marginalised women in a male dominated industry and provides some indication of approaches to attract more women into the sector. It is hoped that it will stimulate debate about how the low representation of women in construction can be addressed and how construction careers for women can be promoted and encouraged and that the resource pool will be enlarged given the prevalent acute skills shortage in the industry.  

  7. Influences on Women’s Choices of Careers in Construction: A South African Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Haupt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  This paper analyses the factors influencing the choices of careers in construction by South African women. The literature on challenges which influence women‟s choices of careers in construction was reviewed and questionnaires were conducted with multiple samples, including construction organisations, construction students and professional women working in construction. The study found that women have a role to play in the construction industry and that they can build successful careers within the sector. However, it was not easy given the various barriers to entry such as gender-based discrimination against them, the harsh work environment of the construction site, the lack of sufficient knowledge about the industry itself and the shortage of successful women in construction as role models. There was evidence of discrimination and sexual harassment. All these factors impacted negatively on the choices of careers in construction by South African women. This study makes a contribution to our understanding of the factors that have marginalised women in a male dominated industry and provides some indication of approaches to attract more women into the sector. It is hoped that it will stimulate debate about how the low representation of women in construction can be addressed and how construction careers for women can be promoted and encouraged and that the resource pool will be enlarged given the prevalent acute skills shortage in the industry.

  8. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.

  9. Community Detection using a Measure of Global Influence

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Rumi

    2008-01-01

    The growing popularity of online social networks has provided researchers with access to large amount of social network data. This, coupled with the ever increasing computation speed, storage capacity and data mining capabilities, led to the renewal of interest in automatic community detection methods. Surprisingly, there is no universally accepted definition of the community. One frequently used definition states that ``communities, that have more and/or better-connected `internal edges' connecting members of the set than `cut edges' connecting the set to the rest of the world''[Leskovec et al. 20008]. This definition inspired the modularity-maximization class of community detection algorithms, which look for regions of the network that have higher than expected density of edges within them. We introduce an alternative definition which states that a community is composed of individuals who have more influence on others within the community than on those outside of it. We present a mathematical formulation of...

  10. Comparative study of potential transfer of natural and anthropogenic cadmium to plankton communities in the North-West African upwelling

    OpenAIRE

    Auger, Pierre Amaël; Machu, Eric; Gorgues, T.; Grima, N.; Waeles, M.

    2014-01-01

    A Lagrangian approach based on a physical-biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the North-West African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the Nor...

  11. SECURITY CO-OPERATION IN THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY: INSIGHTS FROM THE NEW INSTITUTIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoni Van Nieuwkerk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the institutional dimensions of security cooperationas it manifests in the Southern African Development Community(SADC. As the quotations above suggest, security co-operation, as part of a biggerproject of regional integration, is not obvious. Indeed, should southern Africansbelieve their politicians when the latter claim that SADC is ‘forging ahead’ on theroad to formal integration? Slabbert is not convinced. Not only academics, but civilsociety increasingly question its raison d’ etre. For many, it is unclear whether orhow SADC provides human security to the people of the region. Instead, SADCmembers’ positions on the key regional challenges (trade, growth and development,security and stability are driven by national interest rather than regional interest – asrealists argue, national interests (a must-have are hard and measurable; regional cooperation(often a nice-to-have is hard to measure. Or should we accept a regionalconsciousness shaped by a shared historical experience – a problematic assumption?

  12. Addressing Human Rights in the Court of Justice of the Andean Community and the Tribunal of the Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Kingah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article compares how the regional tribunals of the Andean Community (CAN and the Southern African Development Community (SADC have dealt with human rights issues in order to explore options for South-South judicial cooperation through adjudicative cross-fertilization, while taking into account specificities that characterize both regions. In doing so, focus is placed on four elements: a the scope of human rights covered by each of the regional tribunals; b the locus standi of individuals before the tribunals; c the added value of the regional tribunals; and d the restrictive role of politics in the functioning of the tribunals.

  13. Investigating the influence of African American and African Caribbean race on primary care doctors' decision making about depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries

  14. Investigating the influence of African American and African Caribbean race on primary care doctors' decision making about depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries

  15. A Campus-Community Partnership to Disseminate Health Internet Technology Resources among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…

  16. Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better: a community-based health awareness program for African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Leslie; Brown, Zaneta G; Gill, Jennifer E

    2008-12-01

    Statistics indicate that African-American women have the highest rate of obesity among all racial groups. In response, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) developed "Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better," a national program that encourages African-American women to maintain a healthy weight by becoming more physically active and by eating healthier foods. "Sisters Together" programs are run locally by individuals or community groups in locations such as churches and health departments. The NIDDK offers culturally relevant materials and technical assistance to program leaders, including a recently updated program guide. The guide walks leaders through program planning, promotion, implementation, and evaluation. It is based on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity research; evidence-based programs for African-American women; and proven health communication strategies. The guide is consumer friendly, using clear language and real-life examples. "Sisters Together" programs encourage African-American women and their families to improve their eating habits and their physical activity habits. PMID:19397055

  17. How the demographic makeup of our community influences speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    Speech perception is known to be influenced by listeners' expectations of the speaker. This paper tests whether the demographic makeup of individuals' communities can influence their perception of foreign sounds by influencing their expectations of the language. Using online experiments with participants from all across the U.S. and matched census data on the proportion of Spanish and other foreign language speakers in participants' communities, this paper shows that the demographic makeup of individuals' communities influences their expectations of foreign languages to have an alveolar trill versus a tap (Experiment 1), as well as their consequent perception of these sounds (Experiment 2). Thus, the paper shows that while individuals' expectations of foreign language to have a trill occasionally lead them to misperceive a tap in a foreign language as a trill, a higher proportion of non-trill language speakers in one's community decreases this likelihood. These results show that individuals' environment can influence their perception by shaping their linguistic expectations. PMID:27369129

  18. Land Use and Hydrogeological Characteristics Influence Groundwater Invertebrate Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tione, María Laura; Bedano, José Camilo; Blarasin, Mónica

    2016-08-01

    We examine the influence of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the abundance, composition and structure of groundwater invertebrate communities in a loessic aquifer from Argentina. Seven wells, selected according to surrounding land use and hydrogeological characteristics, were sampled twice. Groundwater was characterized as sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate sulfate or sulfate type. NO3(-) was detected in all samples. Land use in the area surrounding the well, unsaturated zone thickness and geochemical characteristics of groundwater influenced the abundance, composition and community structure of groundwater invertebrates. Copepoda, Oligochaeta, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Amphipoda were highly influenced by land use, particularly by point pollution sources that produced higher abundance and changes in taxonomic composition. The lowest invertebrate abundance was observed at the wells situated in areas with the thickest unsaturated zone. Groundwater salinity and geochemical type influenced the presence of certain species, particularly Stygonitocrella sp. PMID:27456146

  19. A Qualitative Examination of Health Barriers and Facilitators Among African American Mothers in a Subsidized Housing Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W; Hamilton, Natia S; Kelly, Nichole R; Harney, Megan B; Greene, LaShaun; White, Kelly A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2016-09-01

    Although African American families are at particular risk for obesity and its associated health comorbidities, few interventions have directly targeted low-income members of this group living in subsidized public housing. Using a consensual qualitative research approach, we conducted 11 interviews with African American mothers living in two public housing communities to enhance understanding of their perceived barriers and facilitators to health. Five primary domains emerged, including barriers (access, financial, personal, and neighborhood concerns), resources (personal and community), current behaviors (diet, physical activity, and program participation), definition of health (mental well-being, physical well-being, and health behaviors), and needs/interests in programming (health behavior-specific programs, non-health-related programs, child-focused programming, and qualities of programs and their leaders). Results demonstrate the complex interaction among social, environmental, and personal factors on health behaviors for this priority population, and highlight the need for community members' involvement in the development of community-based obesity prevention programming. PMID:27091605

  20. A Qualitative Examination of Health Barriers and Facilitators Among African American Mothers in a Subsidized Housing Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W; Hamilton, Natia S; Kelly, Nichole R; Harney, Megan B; Greene, LaShaun; White, Kelly A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2016-09-01

    Although African American families are at particular risk for obesity and its associated health comorbidities, few interventions have directly targeted low-income members of this group living in subsidized public housing. Using a consensual qualitative research approach, we conducted 11 interviews with African American mothers living in two public housing communities to enhance understanding of their perceived barriers and facilitators to health. Five primary domains emerged, including barriers (access, financial, personal, and neighborhood concerns), resources (personal and community), current behaviors (diet, physical activity, and program participation), definition of health (mental well-being, physical well-being, and health behaviors), and needs/interests in programming (health behavior-specific programs, non-health-related programs, child-focused programming, and qualities of programs and their leaders). Results demonstrate the complex interaction among social, environmental, and personal factors on health behaviors for this priority population, and highlight the need for community members' involvement in the development of community-based obesity prevention programming.

  1. The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

  2. Sentinel site community surveillance of mortality and nutritional status in southwestern Central African Republic, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleo Grazia M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During 2010, a community-based, sentinel site prospective surveillance system measured mortality, acute malnutrition prevalence, and the coverage of a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF intervention in four sous-préfectures of Lobaye prefecture in southwestern Central African Republic. We describe this surveillance system and its evaluation. Methods Within 24 randomly selected sentinel sites, home visitors performed a census, weekly demographic surveillance of births, deaths, and in- or out-migration, and weekly anthropometry on a sample of children. We evaluated the system through various methods including capture-recapture analysis and repeat census. Results The system included 18,081 people at baseline. Over 32 weeks, the crude death rate was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-1.2 deaths per 10,000 person-days (35 deaths per 1,000 person-years, with higher values during the rainy season. The under-5 death rate was approximately double. The prevalence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM was 3.0% (95% CI: 2.3-4.0, almost half featuring kwashiorkor signs. The coverage of SAM treatment was 29.1%. The system detected >90% of deaths, and >90% of death reports appeared valid. However, demographic surveillance yielded discrepancies with the census and an implausible rate of population growth, while the predictive value of SAM classification was around 60%. Discussion We found evidence of a chronic health crisis in this remote region. MSF's intervention coverage improved progressively. Mortality data appeared valid, but inaccuracies in population denominators and anthropometric measurements were noted. Similar systems could be implemented in other remote settings and acute emergencies, but with certain technical improvements.

  3. Community-based fortified dietary intervention improved health outcomes among low-income African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Adegoke, Korede K; Das, Rachita; Wilson, Ronee E; Mazza, Jessica; Okoh, Jennifer O; Naik, Eknath; Berry, Estrellita Lo

    2016-08-01

    Poor dietary exposure disproportionately affects African-Americans and contributes to the persistence of disparities in health outcomes. In this study, we hypothesized that fortified dietary intervention (FDI) will improve measured dietary and related health outcomes and will be acceptable among low-income African-American women living in Tampa, FL. These objectives were tested using a prospective experimental study using pretest and posttest design with a control group, using a community-based participatory research approach. The intervention (FDI) was designed by the community through structural modification of a preexisting, diet-based program by the addition of a physical and mental health component. Paired sample t tests were used to examine preintervention and postintervention changes in study outcomes. A total of 49 women participated in the study, 26 in the FDI group and 23 controls. Two weeks postintervention, there were significant improvements in waist circumference and health-related quality of life related to physical health (PFDI group. Among overweight/obese women, improvement in health-related quality of life related to physical health, a significant decrease in depressive score, and a reduction in waist circumference were noted. In the control group, a decrease in waist circumference was observed. Implementation of the FDI through a community-based participatory research approach is feasible and effective among low-income African-American women in general and overweight/obese women in particular. Social reengineering of a nutritional intervention coupled with community-based approach will enhance health outcomes of low-income women.

  4. Collective emotions online and their influence on community life

    CERN Document Server

    Chmiel, Anna; Thelwall, Mike; Paltoglou, Georgios; Buckley, Kevan; Kappas, Arvid; Hołyst, Janusz A

    2011-01-01

    E-communities, social groups interacting online, have recently become an object of interdisciplinary research. As with face-to-face meetings, Internet exchanges may not only include factual information but also emotional information - how participants feel about the subject discussed or other group members. Emotions are known to be important in affecting interaction partners in offline communication in many ways. Could emotions in Internet exchanges affect others and systematically influence quantitative and qualitative aspects of the trajectory of e-communities? The development of automatic sentiment analysis has made large scale emotion detection and analysis possible using text messages collected from the web. It is not clear if emotions in e-communities primarily derive from individual group members' personalities or if they result from intra-group interactions, and whether they influence group activities. We show the collective character of affective phenomena on a large scale as observed in 4 million po...

  5. Detecting Communities and Surveying the Most Influence of Online Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Ho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social network is a virtual environment that provides services for connecting users with the same interests, points of view, gender, space and time. Beside connection, information exchange, communication, entertainment and so on. Social network is also an environment for users who work in online business, advertisement or politics, criminal investigation. How to know what users discuss topics via exchanged contents and communities which users join in? In this paper, we propose a model by using topic model combined with K-means to detect communities of online users. Each user in social network is represented by a vector in which the components are the distribution probabilities of interested topics of that user. Based on the components of this vector, we discover the interested topics of online users to detect communities and survey users who are the most influence in communities to recommend for spreading information on social network.

  6. The Process of Adaptation of a Community-Level, Evidence-Based Intervention for HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…

  7. Influence of culture and discrimination on care-seeking behavior of elderly African Americans: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shadi S; Trask, Jacqueline; Peterson, Tina; Martin, Bryan C; Baldwin, Josh; Knapp, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the influence of culture and discrimination on care-seeking behavior of elderly African Americans was explored. This was a qualitative phenomenological study that involved in-depth interviews with 15 African American men and women aged 60 and older in Alabama. The sample size of 15 was adequate for the phenomenological method of this study. While this was a small exploratory study and was not intended for any generalizations, it did provide a unique opportunity to hear the voices, the concerns, and the stories of elderly African Americans, which have often been overlooked in the literature. The following themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) perception of health as ability to be active, (2) reluctance toward prescription medicine use, (3) lack of trust in doctors, (4) avoidance of bad news, (5) race of doctors, (6) use of home remedies, and (7) importance of God and spirituality on health, illness, and healing.

  8. Community-based fortified dietary intervention improved health outcomes among low-income African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Adegoke, Korede K; Das, Rachita; Wilson, Ronee E; Mazza, Jessica; Okoh, Jennifer O; Naik, Eknath; Berry, Estrellita Lo

    2016-08-01

    Poor dietary exposure disproportionately affects African-Americans and contributes to the persistence of disparities in health outcomes. In this study, we hypothesized that fortified dietary intervention (FDI) will improve measured dietary and related health outcomes and will be acceptable among low-income African-American women living in Tampa, FL. These objectives were tested using a prospective experimental study using pretest and posttest design with a control group, using a community-based participatory research approach. The intervention (FDI) was designed by the community through structural modification of a preexisting, diet-based program by the addition of a physical and mental health component. Paired sample t tests were used to examine preintervention and postintervention changes in study outcomes. A total of 49 women participated in the study, 26 in the FDI group and 23 controls. Two weeks postintervention, there were significant improvements in waist circumference and health-related quality of life related to physical health (Preengineering of a nutritional intervention coupled with community-based approach will enhance health outcomes of low-income women. PMID:27440531

  9. The church as an ethical community : a paradigm for Christian ethics in an African context / Saul Fred Mateyu

    OpenAIRE

    Mateyu, Saul Fred

    2014-01-01

    That the centre of Christianity is rapidly shifting from the global North to the global South, particularly to Sub-Saharan Africa, is undoubtedly a great cause of celebration. But the impact of this shift on ethical life remains to be seen among many African believers both at individual and community levels. One main factor for this is that moral life for most believers continues to be guided by a traditional ethical framework which derives its foundational moral values and norms from the con...

  10. The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

  11. Effects of controlled fire and livestock grazing on bird communities in East African savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Nathan C; Sensenig, Ryan L; Wilcove, David S

    2010-12-01

    In East Africa fire and grazing by wild and domestic ungulates maintain savannas, and pastoralists historically set fires and herded livestock through the use of temporary corrals called bomas. In recent decades traditional pastoral practices have declined, and this may be affecting biodiversity. We investigated the effects of prescribed fires and bomas on savanna bird communities in East Africa during the first and second dry seasons of the year (respectively before and after the rains that mark the onset of breeding for most birds). We compared abundance, richness, and community composition on 9-ha burned plots, recently abandoned bomas, and control plots in the undisturbed matrix habitat over a 3-year period. Generally, recently burned areas and abandoned bomas attracted greater densities of birds and had different community assemblages than the surrounding matrix. The effects of disturbances were influenced by interactions between primary productivity, represented by the normalized difference vegetation index, and time. Bird densities were highest and a greater proportion of species was observed on burned plots in the months following the fires. Drought conditions equalized bird densities across treatments within 1 year, and individuals from a greater proportion of species were more commonly observed on abandoned bomas. Yearly fluctuations in abundance were less pronounced on bomas than on burns, which indicate that although fire may benefit birds in the short term, bomas may have a more-lasting positive effect and provide resources during droughts. Several Palearctic migrants were attracted to burned plots regardless of rainfall, which indicates continued fire suppression may threaten their already-declining populations. Most notably, the paucity of birds observed on the controls suggests that the current structure of the matrix developed as a result of fire suppression. Traditional pastoralism appears critical to the maintenance of avian diversity in these

  12. Navigating Racialized Contexts: The Influence of School and Family Socialization on African American Students' Racial and Educational Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Shuntay Z.

    2013-01-01

    Within the United States, African American students experience school socialization that exposes them to racial segregation, economic stratification, and route learning masked as education. Consequently African American families are compelled to engage in socialization practices that buffer against the adverse influences of racism, oppression, and…

  13. Associating with Occupational Depictions: How African American College Women Are Influenced by the Portrayals of Women in Professional Careers on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…

  14. Individual- and area-level unemployment influence smoking cessation among African Americans participating in a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Cao, Yumei; Ji, Lingyun; Costello, Tracy J; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Businelle, Michael S; Li, Yisheng; Castro, Yessenia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2012-05-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative

  15. Collective emotions online and their influence on community life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chmiel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: E-communities, social groups interacting online, have recently become an object of interdisciplinary research. As with face-to-face meetings, Internet exchanges may not only include factual information but also emotional information--how participants feel about the subject discussed or other group members. Emotions in turn are known to be important in affecting interaction partners in offline communication in many ways. Could emotions in Internet exchanges affect others and systematically influence quantitative and qualitative aspects of the trajectory of e-communities? The development of automatic sentiment analysis has made large scale emotion detection and analysis possible using text messages collected from the web. However, it is not clear if emotions in e-communities primarily derive from individual group members' personalities or if they result from intra-group interactions, and whether they influence group activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, for the first time, we show the collective character of affective phenomena on a large scale as observed in four million posts downloaded from Blogs, Digg and BBC forums. To test whether the emotions of a community member may influence the emotions of others, posts were grouped into clusters of messages with similar emotional valences. The frequency of long clusters was much higher than it would be if emotions occurred at random. Distributions for cluster lengths can be explained by preferential processes because conditional probabilities for consecutive messages grow as a power law with cluster length. For BBC forum threads, average discussion lengths were higher for larger values of absolute average emotional valence in the first ten comments and the average amount of emotion in messages fell during discussions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our results prove that collective emotional states can be created and modulated via Internet communication and that emotional

  16. Community structure influences species' abundance along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloranta, Antti P; Helland, Ingeborg P; Sandlund, Odd T; Hesthagen, Trygve; Ugedal, Ola; Finstad, Anders G

    2016-01-01

    Species' response to abiotic environmental variation can be influenced by local community structure and interspecific interactions, particularly in restricted habitats such as islands and lakes. In temperate lakes, future increase in water temperature and run-off of terrestrial (allochthonous) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are predicted to alter community composition and the overall ecosystem productivity. However, little is known about how the present community structure and abiotic environmental variation interact to affect the abundance of native fish populations. We used a space-for-time approach to study how local community structure interact with lake morphometric and climatic characteristics (i.e. temperature and catchment productivity) to affect brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) yield in 283 Norwegian lakes located in different biogeographical regions. Brown trout yield (based on data from standardized survey gill net fishing; g 100 m(-2) gill net night(-1)) was generally lower in lakes where other fish species were present than in lakes with brown trout only. The yield showed an overall negative relationship with increasing temperature and a positive relationship with lake shoreline complexity. Brown trout yield was also negatively correlated with DOC load (measured using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index as a proxy) and lake size and depth (measured using terrain slope as a proxy), but only in lakes where other fish species were present. The observed negative response of brown trout yield to increasing DOC load and proportion of the pelagic open-water area is likely due to restricted (littoral) niche availability and competitive dominance of more pelagic fishes such as Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)). Our study highlights that, through competitive interactions, the local community structure can influence the response of a species' abundance to variation in abiotic conditions. Changes in biomass and niche use of top predators (such as the brown

  17. Comparative study of potential transfer of natural and anthropogenic cadmium to plankton communities in the North-West African upwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, P.A., E-mail: pierreamael.auger@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Machu, E.; Gorgues, T.; Grima, N. [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Waeles, M. [Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO), Laboratoire de l' Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR-CNRS 6539/IRD/UBO, place N. Copernic, 29280 Plouzané (France)

    2015-02-01

    A Lagrangian approach based on a physical–biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the North-West African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the North-West African upwelling is the result of an interplay between the Cd dispersion (by advection processes) and the simulated biological productivity. In the Moroccan waters, advection processes limit the residence time of water masses resulting in a low natural Cd-uptake by plankton communities while anthropogenic Cd-uptake is high. As expected, the situation is reversed in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling where natural Cd-uptake is higher than anthropogenic Cd-uptake. Based upon an estimate of Cd sources, our modeling study shows, unexpectedly, that the anthropogenic signal of potential Cd-bioaccumulation in the Moroccan upwelling is of the same order of magnitude as the natural signal mainly present in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region. A comparison with observed Cd levels in mollusk and fishes, which shows overall agreement with our simulations, is confirming our estimates. - Highlights: • We model the physical–biogeochemical dynamics in the North-West African upwelling. • We model the transport of cadmium from natural and anthropogenic sources. • We derive proxies of potential cadmium absorption and bioaccumulation in the plankton food chain. • The anthropogenic signal off Morocco at least equals the natural upwelling signal off Mauritania. • We compare our results with observed cadmium levels in mollusks and fishes.

  18. HUB city steps: a 6-month lifestyle intervention improves blood pressure among a primarily African-American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B; Thomson, Jessica L; Landry, Alicia S; Fontenot Molaison, Elaine; Blakely Reed, Vickie; Yadrick, Kathleen

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts to address the disproportionate burden of hypertension among African Americans remains largely untested. The objective of this 6-month, noncontrolled, pre-/post-experimental intervention was to examine the effectiveness of a CBPR intervention in achieving improvements in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, biological measures, and diet. Conducted in 2010, this multicomponent lifestyle intervention included motivational enhancement, social support provided by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, and monthly nutrition and physical activity education sessions. Of 269 enrolled participants, 94% were African American and 85% were female. Statistical analysis included generalized linear mixed models using maximum likelihood estimation. From baseline to 6 months, blood pressure decreased significantly: mean (± standard deviation) systolic blood pressure decreased from 126.0 ± 19.1 to 119.6 ± 15.8 mm Hg, P=0.0002; mean diastolic blood pressure decreased from 83.2 ± 12.3 to 78.6 ± 11.1 mm Hg, P<0.0001). Sugar intake also decreased significantly as compared with baseline (by approximately 3 tsp; P<0.0001). Time differences were not apparent for any other measures. Results from this study suggest that CBPR efforts are a viable and effective strategy for implementing nonpharmacologic, multicomponent, lifestyle interventions that can help address the persistent racial and ethnic disparities in hypertension treatment and control. Outcome findings help fill gaps in the literature for effectively translating lifestyle interventions to reach and engage African-American communities to reduce the burden of hypertension. PMID:24534602

  19. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  20. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  1. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  2. The Influence of Social Capital Factors on African-American and Hispanic High School Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacqueline L.

    2009-01-01

    The underachievement of African American and Hispanic students has been an ongoing problem for schools in the United States. The purpose of this investigation was to add to the existing body of knowledge concerning social capital of African American and Hispanic high school students' academic achievement. Using a nationally representative sample…

  3. African Americans and Mathematics Outcomes on National Assessment of Educational Progress: Parental and Individual Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…

  4. Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosley Thomas M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny of the most abundant haplogroup (preHV1 (R0a was constructed based on 13 whole mtDNA genomes. Results The Saudi Arabian group showed greatest similarity to other Arabian Peninsula populations (Bedouin from the Negev desert and Yemeni and to Levantine populations. Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs had only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component (7%, similar to the specific North-African contribution (5%. In addition, a small Indian influence (3% was also detected. Conclusion The majority of the Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85% have a western Asia provenance. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia.

  5. The South African Woman and the Immigrant Lover: Myths and Dynamics of Cross-Border Love Relationships in a Post-Apartheid South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Tafira, Chimusoro Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Love relationships between black South African women and immigrant men have not been given adequate attention by researchers of migration, refugee studies, and those concerned with anti-immigrant attitudes and violence. In this paper, based on ethnographicr esearch conducted in the Alexandra township of Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2009, I argue that cross-border love relationships provoke sexual and racial jealousies between the two sets of manhood: South African and black African immigran...

  6. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. PMID:24021354

  7. Factors influencing South African optometry students in choosing their career and institution of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thechoice of an appropriate career, occupation or profession is one of the most important decisions hat one makes in life and there are many factors which may influence such a decision. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors which influenced students currently studying optometry in South African institutions in deciding on the course of study and choice of institution. Data was collected with a questionnaire on demographics of the students and the factors that might have influenced their choice of optometry as a career and their institution of learning. Data was analysed with descriptive and cross-tabulation statistics. Three hundred and eighty seven students responded to the questionnaire (80.1% response rate. Their ages ranged from 17 to 40 years with a mean of 20.73 ± 2.46 years and included 30.5% males and 69.5% females. They were from the University of Free State 25.1%, University of Johannesburg (29.5%, University of KwaZulu-Natal (29.7% and the University of Limpopo(15.7%. There were 38% Whites, 36.7% Blacks, 22.2% Indians and 3.1% Coloureds. The highest rated factors which influenced their choice of optometry were the desire to help other people (92.8%, job availability after graduation (92%, subjects passed and points obtained in the matric year (91.2% and the potential to earn a good salary (88.6%, respectively. Few rated news and other media (20.9% as an important factor in their decision to choose their current institution of learning while 29.5% reported that failure to gain admission to study other degrees was an important factor. These results may be useful to institutions offering optometry degrees to formulate effective recruitment strategies to attract quality students. Also, they may be useful to career counsellors in counselling prospective students on their career choice and institution of learning. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(1 21-28

  8. Profiles of Community Violence Exposure Among African American Youth: An Examination of Desensitization to Violence Using Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; Dickson, Daniel; Pierre, Cynthia

    2016-07-01

    The current study employed latent class analysis (LCA) to identify distinct profiles of community violence exposure and their associations to desensitization outcomes in 241 African American early adolescents (M age = 12.86, SD = 1.28) in the sixth through eighth grade from under-resourced urban communities. Participants self-reported on their exposure to community violence, as well as on depressive and anxiety symptoms. The LCA revealed three distinct classes: a class exposed to low levels of violence (low exposure class), a class exposed to moderately high levels of victimization (victimization class), and a class exposed to high levels of all types of violence (high exposure class). Consistent with predictions, the high exposure class showed the lowest levels of depressive symptoms, suggesting a desensitization outcome. Gender and age were also examined in relation to the classes, and age was significantly associated with an increased risk of being a member of the high exposure class relative to the low exposure class. Using person-based analyses to examine desensitization outcomes provides useful information for prevention and intervention efforts, as it helps to identify a specific subgroup of youth that may be more likely to show desensitization outcomes in the context of community violence. PMID:25716195

  9. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Debra J; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Riley, Natasha E; Behar, Alma I; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-08-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was chosen for adaptation because it was perceived to fit the CORRECT model of innovation (credible, observable, relevant, relatively advantageous, easy to understand, compatible, and testable) and because of the potential to customize any components not identified as core, allowing them to be revised for cultural and linguistic alignment in New York City. Most of the 143 community participants (76.2%) were female; most (54.6%) were older than 59 years. More than half (78.3%) preferred to speak English or were bilingual in English and Spanish. A large proportion (41.3%) had not completed high school. Knowledge and perceived benefits and barriers regarding CCT showed small, though statistically significant, increases. There were no statistically significant group differences for changes in mean knowledge, perceived benefits, or perceived barriers when examined by ethnicity, education level, language, or other included sociodemographic variables. However, a small, but statistically significant difference in perceived barriers was observed when examined by country of origin, with the foreign born score worsening 0.08 points (SD = 0.47, p = .007) on the 5-point Likert-type scale administered posteducation compared to preeducation. Participants' open-ended comments demonstrated the acceptability of the topic and intervention. This adaptation resulted in an intervention with the potential to educate African American and Latina/o general community members in a new geographic region about the purpose, methods, and benefits of CCTs. PMID:26493870

  10. Promoting Breast Cancer Screening in Rural, African American Communities: The "Science and Art" of Community Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, Mary; Earp, Jo Anne L.; Shopler, Janice H.

    1998-01-01

    Social ecological theory, social-work community organization models, and health-promotion models are brought together to address ways to generate change at the individual and policy levels, and to provide guidance for community health-promotion programs. An eight-year cancer-prevention project is presented as a case study. (EMK)

  11. INDIRECT INFLUENCE OF COMMUNITY LAW OVER NATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of influence of Community law over national criminal law is difficult to be solved even now, because criminal law is very closely related to state sovereignty. However, at European level it is a series of unifying trends in the field of criminal law. This includes: the Corpus Juris Project to develop a number of guiding principles on the protection through criminal law of financial interests of EU, within the European judiciary space; the project of founding a European Prosecutor , which would have extended jurisdiction over the entire European judicial area; at the doctrinaire level the project called ”The Criminal Code of the European Union ” result of encoding the provisions relevant for the Community criminal law and published likewise. Romanian criminal law could not remain outside these trends and this paper reveal some internal acts that reflect the trends observed at European level. Some of this acts have a direct influence, and some of them an indirect influence. An example is represented by art. 3022 of the Romanian Penal Code, which, in the basic variant, besides any operations regarding the import of wastes and residue of any kind or other dangerous goods for public health and environment, incriminates the placing or transit operations on the country without observing the laws. In this text, the phrase "without observing the laws" must be reported to both national regulations and international legal instruments.

  12. The political context of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge in a South African township community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Brian; Vandormael, Alain; Kershaw, Trace; Grobbelaar, Janis

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the presentation of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge within the political context of the South African government's response to the AIDS epidemic. It was during the 2000 - 2004 period that key government officials publicly challenged the orthodox views of HIV/AIDS, with the South African president, Thabo Mbeki, actively positing the primary role of poverty and other socio-economic stressors in the progression of the AIDS epidemic. This discursive position had real-time effects for AIDS policy-making and ultimately delayed the implementation of a national antiretroviral (ARV) rollout programme. Consequently this position was criticised by commentators in the media and elsewhere for contributing to an already widespread climate of AIDS stigmatization and misinformation. To shed more light on these claims we conducted a survey in 2005 in Atteridgeville, a South African township, and compared results with those of a similar survey conducted shortly after ARV medications became available in 2004. Results indicated a reduction in AIDS stigma levels across the 1-year period, and that those participants who endorsed contentious political views (such as those expressed by key government officials) were more likely to have a higher level of AIDS-related stigma than those who disagreed. Nevertheless, this study cautions against drawing a causal relationship between the South African government's position and IDS-stigmatizing attitudes, and suggests that further political and social factors be accounted for in an attempt to gain a fuller understanding of this seemingly complex relationship. PMID:18709210

  13. African American Undergraduate Students' Experiences in Residential Learning Communities at a Predominantly White Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Best, Julia Y.

    2006-01-01

    There is a nationwide decline in enrollment, retention and degree completion for African American students in predominantly White institutions (PWIs) in the United States. Colleges and Universities establish diversity initiatives to address these concerns, yet educational disparities persist. Institutions of higher learning also address ways to enhance the educational development of undergraduate students. One such initiative involves a paradigm shift to extend the curriculum into residential...

  14. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvert Melanie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  15. Analysis of Body Composition Methods in a Community Sample of African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Ygnacio; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Ledoux, Tracey A.; Rebecca E. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the authors in this study were: (1) to determine whether published body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations agreed with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry body fat percentage measures and (2) to estimate new body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations in a sample of African American women. Linear regression was used to determine how well 10 body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations reflected dual energy x-ray absorpti...

  16. The reintegration of the South African economy into the global economy and its influence on (un)employment in the post-apartheid era

    OpenAIRE

    De Smet, Koen

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis examines the trade structure of South Africa as well as the impact of this structure on (un)employment. The starting point of this work is a descriptive analysis of the South African trade structure. Besides a general discussion, the thesis elaborates on structural differences with respect to the European Union, China and the Southern African Development Community. The insights of this analysis are used to develop a three-dimensional trade model. However, this model doe...

  17. Diabetes, gender, and left ventricular structure in African-Americans: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebson Philip R

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes may be partially attributed to left ventricular structural abnormalities. However, the relations between left ventricular structure and diabetes have not been extensively studied in African-Americans. Methods We studied 514 male and 965 female African-Americans 51 to 70 years old, in whom echocardiographic left ventricular mass measurements were collected for the ARIC Study. In these, we investigated the independent association of diabetes with left ventricular structural abnormalities. Results Diabetes, hypertension and obesity prevalences were 22%, 57% and 45%, respectively. Unindexed left ventricular mass was higher with diabetes in both men (238.3 ± 79.4 g vs. 213.7 ± 58.6 g; p Conclusion In African-Americans, diabetes is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and, with different patterns of left ventricular structural abnormalities between genders. Attenuation seen in adjusted associations suggests that the higher frequency of structural abnormalities seen in diabetes may be due to factors other than hyperglycemia.

  18. Acttention – Influencing Communities of Practice with Persuasive Learning Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sandra Burri Gram; Ryberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Based on the preliminary results of implementing and testing a persuasive learning initiative in the Danish Military, this paper discusses and develops the notion of persuasive learning designs. It is suggested that the acquirement of new knowledge is fundamental to persuasion, and that persuasiv...... design within this more established field of research and development. Rather than focus on improving learning technologies or motivating the interest in a subject, persuasive designs may be more efficient when used to influence the communities of practice in educational institutions....

  19. Media influence on pre-middle school African Americans' perceptions toward science, mathematics, and technology courses and careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sharon Campbell

    2005-07-01

    A variety of previous studies have suggested that inaccurate, stereotypical or missing media depictions of science, engineering, and technology (SET) workers and fields have contributed to a growing shortage of youth interested in pursuing careers within the scientific endeavor. However, studies on the perceptions of African American youth have not usually been the focus of such research. In this exploratory study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 fifth grade African American students to determine the relative influence television and film portrayals of SET workers had on these children's perceptions of roles in SET fields and careers and school coursework related to them. Framed within the theoretical perspectives of cultivation analysis and the construction of social reality, results indicated the majority of participants perceived scientists as ambiguous, possessing either mythic characteristics of the fantastic persona or they saw them as altruistically inclined figures that saved the world from disease, destruction, and decay. Television and film portrayals of SET workers were found in varying degrees and ways to shape these African American children's perceptions toward SET careers. While children exhibited self-concepts about SET workers that were sometimes idealistic, distorted, or unrealistic, most had favorable perceptions toward math and science courses in school. However, it was the absence of television and film portrayals of African Americans in SET roles that was problematic for the majority of students. Recommendations for media producers, educators, scientific research foundations, and parents were suggested to dispel some of these commonly found media stereotypes of SET workers and African Americans in these roles and their effects.

  20. A qualitative exploration of the influence of heavy metal music on South African

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Bianca Simone

    2015-01-01

    This mini-dissertation presents a discussion of the qualitative study exploring how South African youth, between the ages of 18 and 35, who are active listeners of Heavy Metal music experience this genre of music. The sample in the present study consists of 26 South African youths, living in various parts of the country, who listen to Heavy Metal music. Participants were recruited from attendees of the Heavy Metal music festival, Witchfest, which took place in Newtown, Johannesburg during 3-5...

  1. Black Economic Empowerment Disclosures by South African Listed Corporations: The Influence of Ownership and Board Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ntim, Collins G.; Soobaroyen, Teerooven

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which South African listed corporations voluntarily disclose information on black economic empowerment (BEE) in their annual and sustainability reports using a sample of 75 listed corporations from 2003 to 2009. BEE is a form of socio-economic affirmative action championed by the African National Congress (ANC)-led government to address historical imbalances in business participation and ownership in South Africa. We find that block ownership and institut...

  2. Regional initiatives to scale-up energy access for economic and human development: Lessons learned from the East African community and the economic community of West African States. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter presents the experience of two African Regional Economic Commissions (RECs) - East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - who, with assistance from the UNDP, have moved towards developing and implementing regional strategies to increase access to modern energy services (UNDP, 2006a). The Johannesburg consensus: access to energy underpins development and poverty reduction The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) includes an emerging international consensus on the role of energy in sustainable development: 1) Energy services are an essential input to economic development and social progress, notably to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Energy services are necessary for successful implementation of almost all sectoral development programmes, notably revenue generating activities, health, education, water, food security, agricultural development, etc. Increased access to energy fuels economic growth and poverty reduction. 'The lack of modern fuels and electricity in most developing countries entrenches poverty, constrains the delivery of social services, limits opportunities for women, and erodes environmental sustainability' (UN-Energy, 2005). 2) Under current economic conditions, provision of energy services to poor populations in many developing countries is not attractive to market actors. Experience in the decades before and after Johannesburg had amply demonstrated the positive and negative aspects of a purely market based approach to the provision of energy services. On the positive side, in the power sector for instance, privatization and deregulation had in many cases reduced expenditure of public funds in support of money losing public utilities. However, on the negative side, these attempts only rarely achieved improvement in the quality or reliability of service in urban areas (see Chapter 3). In almost no cases had they achieved improvement in the rates of access to electricity in rural

  3. THE QUEST FOR A SUPRANATIONAL ENTITY IN WEST AFRICA: CAN THE ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES ATTAIN THE STATUS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadesola O Lokulo-Sodipe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To reflect the growing trends in the international scene and in furtherance of the objective of its Revised 1993 Treaty, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS summit in December 2006 revolutionised the structure of ECOWAS by re-designating the Executive Secretariat into a quasi-independent commission headed by a President with a Vice President and seven commissioners. The rationale behind the revision was to make ECOWAS a supranational entity. This article considers whether or not a supranational system is essential for the attainment of ECOWAS' objectives. It asks if the conditions for an effective supranational system are in place in the West African sub-region which could provide a solid foundation for its success and why the quest for a supranational system has not yielded any fruitful result in West Africa. It argues that a retreat from the quest for supranationalism and a return to an inter-governmental system would be a retreat rather than the way forward, and expresses the need for the course of action to be sustained courageously till the impact of integration begins to emerge, and the disguised, patriotic impulse of states to protect their national sovereignty gives way to the full manifestation of ECOWAS as a supranational entity.

  4. Plant volatiles influence the African weaver ant-cashew tree mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjiku, Caroline; Khamis, Fathiya M; Teal, Peter E A; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-12-01

    Plant volatiles influence virtually all forms of ant-plant symbioses. However, little is known about their role in the mutualistic relationship between the African weaver ant and the cashew tree. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that cashew tree volatiles from plant parts most vulnerable to herbivory viz. inflorescence, leaves, and fruits, are attractive to weaver ants. Using behavioral assays, we show that these volatiles attract weaver ants but without significant difference in preference for any of the odors. These same plant parts are associated with extra floral nectaries (EFNs') and therefore we evaluated the possibility that the ants associate the volatiles with food rewards. We found that perception of the odors was followed by a searching response that led the ants to non-volatile sugar rewards. More importantly, we observed that weaver ants spent significantly more time around the odor when it was paired to a reward. Chemical analysis of volatiles showed that the plant parts shared similarities in chemical composition, dominated by monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Additionally, we evaluated the attractiveness of a synthetic blend of three ocimene isomers ((E)-β-ocimene, (Z)-β-ocimene and allo-ocimene) identified in cashew leaf odor and shown to constitute a candidate kairomone for the cashew pest Pseudotheraptus wayi. We found that the attractiveness of the blend was dose dependent, and the response of the ants was not significantly different to that established with the crude volatiles from plant tissues. These results present new and interesting possibilities for improving weaver ant performance in cashew pest management. PMID:25355634

  5. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  6. Self-Determination and Goal Aspirations: African American and Latino Males' Perceptions of Their Persistence in Community College Basic and Transfer-Level Writing Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, María de Lourdes; García, Hugo A.

    2016-01-01

    This Grounded Theory study utilized Self-determination Theory to analyze the interview results of 18 community college African American and Latino males. The goal was to learn what helped participants to succeed and persist in developmental and transfer-level writing courses despite the obstacles that they faced. Three major themes emerged: (a)…

  7. Examining the Role of Culture-Specific Coping as a Predictor of Resilient Outcomes in African Americans from High-Risk Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Bolden, Mark A.; Lanier, Yzette; Williams, Otis, III

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined the role of culture-specific coping in relation to resilient outcomes in African Americans from high-risk urban communities. Participants (N = 385) were administered a survey questionnaire packet containing measures of culture-specific coping, traditional resilience factors (cognitive ability, social support, and…

  8. The Relationship of Career Decision Self-Efficacy and Perceived Barriers to Academic Preparedness for Community College Students of African Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Joshua Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of career decision self-efficacy and perception of barriers to the outcome variables perception of academic reality (i.e., a construct for student perceived college readiness) and college GPA. The sample consisted of students of African descent (n = 85) attending a northeastern community college located in an…

  9. ‘Dissemination as intervention’: building local AIDS competence through the report-back of research findings to a South African rural community

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Catherine; Nair, Yugi; Maimane, Sbongile; Sibiya, Zweni

    2010-01-01

    There is much debate about researchers’ ethical obligations to their informants, especially when they study marginalised communities in serious distress. Some say researchers should contribute to interventions to ameliorate the problems they investigate. Within this context, we report on a ‘dissemination as intervention’ exercise developed to report back research findings to a South African rural community -- using a dialogical approach which sought to strengthen participants’ confidence and ...

  10. Do Neighborhood Physical Activity Resources and Land Use Influence Physical Activity among African American Public Housing Residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Nathan H; O'Connor, Daniel P; Kao, Dennis T; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined neighborhood influences on physical activity (PA) among low-income African Americans living in public housing. This study measured the associations of PA resources and land use with PA among 216 African Americans living in 12 low-income housing developments in Houston, Texas. Neighborhood measures included both detailed information from in-person audits and geographic information systems (GIS) data. Hierarchical linear regression models tested the associations of neighborhood PA resource availability and quality and land use density and diversity with individual-level, self-reported PA. Land use diversity was positively associated with walking among men after controlling for other neighborhood characteristics. Policies that promote land use diversity or improve the pedestrian environment in areas with diverse destinations may encourage PA among public housing residents. PMID:27524771

  11. Commercial agrochemical applications in vineyards do not influence ant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chee Seng; Hoffmann, Ary A; Thomson, Linda J

    2007-12-01

    Ants have been widely used as bioindicators for various terrestrial monitoring and assessment programs but are seldom considered in evaluation of nontarget pesticide effect. Much chemical assessment has been biased toward laboratory and bioassay testing for control of specific pest ant species. Several field studies that did explore the nontarget impacts of pesticides on ants have reported contradictory findings. To address the impact of chemical applications on ants, we tested the response of epigeal ant assemblages and community structure to three pesticide gradients (cumulative International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control toxicity rating, chlorpyrifos use rate, and sulfur use rate) in 19 vineyards. Ordination analyses using nonmetric multidimensional scaling detected community structures at species and genus levels, but the structures were not explained by any pesticide variables. There was no consistent pattern in species and genus percentage complementarities and ant assemblages along pesticide gradients. In contrast, ant community structure was influenced by the presence of shelterbelts near the sampling area. Reasons for the resilience of ants to pesticides are given and assessment at the colony level instead of workers abundance is suggested. The presence of Linepithema humile (Mayr) is emphasized. PMID:18284765

  12. The complexity of rural contexts experienced by community disability workers in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Booyens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of rural communities is fundamental to effective community-based rehabilitation work with persons with disabilities. By removing barriers to community participation, persons with disabilities are enabled to satisfy their fundamental human needs. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the challenges that rural community disability workers (CDWs face in trying to realise these objectives. This qualitative interpretive study, involving in-depth interviews with 16 community disability workers in Botswana, Malawi and South Africa, revealed the complex ways in which poverty, inappropriately used power and negative attitudes of service providers and communities combine to create formidable barriers to the inclusion of persons with disabilities in families and rural communities. The paper highlights the importance of understanding and working with the concept of ‘disability’ from a social justice and development perspective. It stresses that by targeting attitudes, actions and relationships, community disability workers can bring about social change in the lives of persons with disabilities and the communities in which they live.

  13. The role and influence of wine awards as perceived by the South African wine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Herbst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether, in the mind of the consumer, wine awards do indeed play a significant role in influencing consumer choices. Initially, a literature review was conducted to establish the role of wine awards in wine marketing. Problem investigated: The increasing number of wine competitions appears to dilute the value of wine awards as a marketing tool. The local wine consumers are currently bombarded by a variety of wine choices and need to use cues to assist them in making buying decisions. Consumers are also sceptical about the honesty of producers in marketing their awards. The question arises, whether, in the minds of South Africa's wine consumers, awards play a strong enough role in influencing their choice when buying wine. Research design: A convenience sample was drawn among South African wine consumers by using an online survey questionnaire. A sample of 285 was realised and the data analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings and implications: Wine awards are indeed recognised by the consumer as a cue that shapes their choices / selection criteria, but their importance is relatively low compared to other cues such as variety, vintage, producer, production method, packaging, place of origin and price. Yet, having established that decision-making is a complex set of interactions, wine awards do nevertheless play a role in supporting a decision in certain circumstances and for certain customer segments. Generally speaking, it was found that the more sophisticated a consumer (connoisseur is the less regard exists for wine awards. Not only do wine awards have lesser power in shaping decisions, but also attitudes towards the concept of wine awards are more negative. Lesser informed consumers tend to take more guidance from, and are less opinionated about the concept of wine awards. An independent monitoring authority is seen as a solution to raise the profile of wine

  14. "It's In My Veins": Exploring the Role of an Afrocentric, Popular Education-Based Training Program in the Empowerment of African American and African Community Health Workers in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman-Bunyoli, Arika; Mitchell, S Renee; Bin Abdullah, AbdulʼHafeedh M; Schwoeffermann, Ty; Phoenix, Toliver; Goughnour, Cat; Hines-Norwood, Richard; Wiggins, Noelle

    2015-01-01

    The role racism and other social determinants of health play in the creation of health inequities in African American communities in the United States is increasingly understood. In this article, we explore the effectiveness of an Afrocentric, popular education-based community health worker (CHW) training program in creating positive change among CHW participants and their communities in Portland, Oregon. Findings suggest that CHW participants experienced 4 types of awakening, in addition to changes in their interaction with their family members and increased community involvement. The CHWs identified group bond, Afrocentrism, public health knowledge, popular education, facilitators, and time management as important elements of an effective training program for this community. Psychological empowerment, self-reported health status, and health behavior among participants generally increased over time, but changes were not statistically significant. PMID:26353023

  15. African-American culture and AIDS prevention. From barrier to ally.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowser, B P

    1992-01-01

    African Americans make up an increasing proportion of persons with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). I identify and describe cultural elements such as oral traditions, multiple naming, a collective identity, extended families, and sexuality influenced by myth and exaggeration that condition African Americans' reactions to AIDS prevention. I also offer suggestions on how these cultural elements can be used for effective AIDS prevention efforts in African-American communities.

  16. Community History as a Male-Constructed Space: Challenging Gendered Memories among South African Muslim Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Doria

    2009-01-01

    The post-Apartheid community history is a male-constructed space, narrated into present-day consciousness by male community leaders and history writers. The patriarchal worldview disparages women's contributions and activisms. This article reports on how Muslim women from a small fishing village in South Africa in the early 1900s strategized to…

  17. An assessment of seabird influence on Arctic coastal benthic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Balazy, Piotr; Kuklinski, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    It is well recognized that seabirds, particularly those nesting in coastal colonies, can provide significant nutrient enrichment to Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about the fate of bird-derived nutrients that return to the marine environment and potentially concentrate below the colonies. To attempt to assess the influence of this potential nutrient enrichment of the coastal benthic community, samples of macroalgae, sea urchins (mainly algivores), and hermit crabs (scavengers) were collected at two Arctic localities (Spitsbergen), (1) below a mixed colony of guillemots and kittiwakes, and (2) in an adjacent geomorphologically similar location not influenced by the seabird colony. A much higher nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) and total nitrogen content were found in terrestrial plants sampled below the colony than away from it. In benthic macroalgae, however, there were no δ15N differences. This might result from the timing of an intensive growth period in macroalgae in late winter/early spring, when there is little or no runoff from the land, and/or ornithogenic nutrients being directly incorporated by phytoplankton. Sea urchins showed higher δ15N and total N in the control site comparing to the colony-influenced area, suggesting differential food sources in their diet and a role of scavenging/carnivory on higher trophic levels there. Opportunistically feeding hermit crabs showed δ15N and total N enrichment below the seabird colony, suggesting dependence on detritus derived from food chains originating from pelagic producers. Our results indicate that seabirds in the Arctic may fertilize coastal benthic communities through pelagic-benthic coupling, while having no direct impact on bottom primary production.

  18. Sociocultural Influences on Weight-Related Behaviors in African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Nutrena H; Davis, Jean E; Yarandi, Hossein N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociocultural factors related to weight behaviors in African American adolescents utilizing a social ecological approach. A descriptive correlational design included a sample of 145 African American adolescents. Perceived familial socialization, ethnic identity, physical activity, and eating behavior patterns were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and multiple regression equations. Perceived maternal socialization was significantly related to adolescent eating behaviors and physical activity whereas perceived paternal socialization was significantly related only to their physical activity. The adolescents' ethnic identity was not significantly related to their eating behaviors or physical activity. Health care providers who work with adolescents and their families can use the initial findings from this study to encourage healthy weight-related behaviors while reducing the obesity epidemic within the African American adolescent population in a developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive manner.

  19. Pro-drinking messages and message environments for young adults: the case of alcohol industry advertising in African American, Latino, and Native American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, M L; Wilkes, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines targeted alcohol advertising in three ethnic communities: African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans in the U.S. We focus on the appropriation of cultural systems and the reinvention of them as commodities to consumers. We outline the specific strategies used in each ethnic community. For African Americans, there is an emphasis on selling malt liquor to young adults through the use of "power" and gang-related images. For Latinos, there is an appropriation of historical and cultural symbols such as the national flags and maps of Mexico and Central America. Native Americans have coalesced to keep the image of a chief and warrior, Crazy Horse, from being used to market malt liquor. Each of the ethnic groups is engaged in action to prevent alcohol-related problems in their communities. Generating and implementing solutions is a universal social responsibility. PMID:9922620

  20. Mass media influence spreading in social networks with community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2008-07-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across a society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considering inhomogeneous mass media fields, we study the conditions for successful message spreading and find a novel phase diagram in the multidimensional parameter space. These findings show that social modularity effects are of paramount importance for designing successful, cost-effective advertising campaigns.

  1. Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…

  2. Faith Wellness Collaboration: A Community-Based Approach to Address Type II Diabetes Disparities in an African-American Community

    OpenAIRE

    AUSTIN, SANDRA A.; CLAIBORNE, NANCY

    2011-01-01

    Community-based participatory action research was utilized to form a collaboration that developed a Health Ministry program in four Northeastern urban Black Churches, in which they designed and implemented a culturally competent Type II Diabetes self management education program. Minister sponsorship and a program coordinator synchronized the four Health Ministries’ development and diabetes program planning. A case study design, and participant observations and a focus group methodology were ...

  3. Impact of Self-Preference Community Fitness Interventions in High-Risk African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanek, Lisa R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Kral, Brian G; Kalyani, Rita R; Moy, Taryn F; Stewart, Kerry J; Becker, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have a high prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity, but few interventions have been successful in the long term. We describe a 1-year intervention program to increase physical activity and reduce cardiometabolic risk. Interventions incorporated the premise that self-selection into flexible venues and varying exercise modalities would result in improvement in fitness and risk factors. Results of this single-group pretest/posttest observational study show 1-year overall group reductions in body weight and body mass index and cardiometabolic factors including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and increases in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived absolute and percent lean mass and lean-fat ratio, and decreased fat mass. PMID:27536930

  4. Intrapersonal and community factors associated with prostate cancer screening among African-American males in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickey SL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sabrina L Dickey,1 Eileen Cormier,1 James Whyte IV,1 Penny A Ralston2 1College of Nursing, 2Center on Better Health and Life for Underserved Populations, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA Purpose: The purpose of this research was to examine intrapersonal and community factors associated with prostate cancer screening (PCS among African-American (AA males of ≥40 years from a nationally representative data set in the US. The theory of planned behavior was utilized as the theoretical framework. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional secondary analysis employed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. The sample consisted of 377 AA males. The primary outcome variables were two PCS tests, the digital rectal exam (DRE and the prostate-specific antigen test. Logistic regression models were developed to test for associations between the PCS tests and the factors of interest. Results: The factors of age, education, and access to a health care facility were associated with AA males receiving the DRE. The age group of 40–49 years was least likely to receive the DRE when compared to the age group of ≥70 years. Similarly AA males without a college degree were also least likely to receive the DRE when compared to AA males with a college degree. AA males with access to health care were more likely than those without access to receive the DRE. Age <70 years along with church attendance was associated with AA males receiving the prostate-specific antigen test. Conclusion: Differences were present for significant associations among intrapersonal and community variables and the two PCS exams. A culturally sensitive approach is necessary for understanding factors associated with PCS among AA males, which is central to designing and appropriately targeting public health interventions to decrease the health disparity of prostate cancer among this high-risk population. Keywords: prostate cancer screening

  5. Myths or theories? Alternative beliefs about HIV and AIDS in South African working class communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David

    2013-09-01

    Despite three decades of public health promotion based on the scientific explanation of HIV/AIDS, alternative explanations of the disease continue to circulate. While these are seen as counter-productive to health education efforts, what is rarely analysed is their plurality and their tenacity. This article analyses the 'AIDS myths' collected by African HIV/AIDS workplace peer educators during an action research project. These beliefs about HIV/AIDS are organised, in this article, around core ideas that form the basis of 'folk' and 'lay theories' of HIV/AIDS. These constitute non-scientific explanations of HIV/AIDS, with folk theories drawing on bodies of knowledge that are independent of HIV/AIDS while lay theories are generated in response to the disease. A categorisation of alternative beliefs about HIV/AIDS is presented which comprises three folk theories - African traditional beliefs, Christian theology, and racial conspiracy - and three lay theories, all focused on avoiding HIV infection. Using this schema, the article describes how the plausibility of these alternative theories of HIV/AIDS lies not in their scientific validity, but in the robustness of the core idea at the heart of each folk or lay theory. Folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS are also often highly palatable in that they provide hope and comfort in terms of prevention, cure, and the allocation of blame. This study argue that there is coherence and value to these alternative HIV/AIDS beliefs which should not be dismissed as ignorance, idle speculation or simple misunderstandings. A serious engagement with folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS helps explain the continued circulation of alternative beliefs of HIV/AIDS and the slow uptake of behavioural change messages around the disease.

  6. Local and regional factors influencing bacterial community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Eva S; Langenheder, Silke

    2012-02-01

    The classical view states that microbial biogeography is not affected by dispersal barriers or historical events, but only influenced by the local contemporary habitat conditions (species sorting). This has been challenged during recent years by studies suggesting that also regional factors such as mass effect, dispersal limitation and neutral assembly are important for the composition of local bacterial communities. Here we summarize results from biogeography studies in different environments, i.e. in marine, freshwater and soil as well in human hosts. Species sorting appears to be the most important mechanism. However, this result might be biased since this is the mechanism that is easiest to measure, detect and interpret. Hence, the importance of regional factors may have been underestimated. Moreover, our survey indicates that different assembly mechanisms might be important for different parts of the total community, differing, for example, between generalists and specialists, and between taxa of different dispersal ability and motility. We conclude that there is a clear need for experimental studies, first, to clearly separate regional and local factors in order to study their relative importance, and second, to test whether there are differences in assembly mechanisms depending on different taxonomic or functional groups.

  7. Friendships Influence Hispanic Students' Implicit Attitudes toward White Non-Hispanics Relative to African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberson, Christopher L.; Porter, Michael K.; Gaffney, Amber M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of Hispanic students' friendships with White non-Hispanics (n-Hs) and African Americans (AAs) in predicting implicit and explicit prejudices toward these groups. Participants (N = 73) completed implicit and explicit attitude measures and a friendship questionnaire. Friendships were associated with implicit attitudes…

  8. Predicting the Influence of Social Resources on African American Wife and Daughter Caregivers' Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozario, Philip A.; Chadiha, Letha A.; Proctor, Enola K.; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This study--on 100 African American wife and 258 daughter primary caregivers--uses a contextual approach in its examination of the relationship between social resources and caregiver depressive symptoms. At the bivariate level, significant differences in certain key characteristics of primary caregivers and care receivers underscore the…

  9. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women's Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use.

  10. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women's Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use. PMID:27142231

  11. African American Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Competence at School: The Influence of Teachers and Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Strickland, Jennifer; Keenan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Children learn social and emotional competence through socialization. Research has focused on the role of parents, however teachers also play an important part. This study examined the social and emotional competence of preschool African American children and the role teachers and mothers played in supporting these competencies. Teachers who…

  12. The Downside of Social Closure: Brokerage, Parental Influence, and Delinquency among African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangino, William

    2009-01-01

    Building on the literature that stresses the social capital advantages of open and diffuse social networks, this article shows that African American boys who are a social bridge across two or more large but cohesive peer groups are less delinquent than are their counterparts who are members of a single peer group. Statistical interaction terms…

  13. Evolutionary and Political Economic Influences on Biological Diversity in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fatimah Linda Collier

    1993-01-01

    Examines existing data on biological diversity among Americans of African descent within the contexts of their evolutionary backgrounds and political and economic realities. Explores the origins of the diversity, and provides an evolutionary and political economy synthesis for evaluating the biological distinctions apparent among African…

  14. Influence of Family Perceptions of Acting White on Acculturative Stress in African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…

  15. A Case Study of Community Involvement Influence on Policy Decisions: Victories of a Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith M. Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Buffalo Lupus Project was a community-university partnership that investigated associations between exposure to a local waste site and high rates of lupus and other autoimmune diseases. The partnership’s major accomplishment was successful advocacy for containment and clean-up of the site. As a result of community education, the remediation plan suggested by the community was adopted. Additionally, when a local childhood lead poisoning testing program was canceled, community members signed a letter to legislators urging them to replace the funding, which was restored within one week. This demonstrated how coordinated community-based capacity-building efforts can influence health policy.

  16. The Influence of Coping With Perceived Racism and Stress on Lipid Levels in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendwa, Denee T.; Sims, Regina C.; Madhere, Serge; Thomas, Joneis; Keen, Larry D.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lipid dysregulation is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and is attributed to numerous biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Psychological stress has been examined as a predictor of lipid dysregulation; however, the role of coping with perceived racism, a stressor unique to the African American experience, has not been addressed. The current study sought to determine the impact of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism and perceived daily stress on lipid levels in African Americans. Methods The sample consisted of 122 African American participants who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Data were collected as part of an ongoing study entitled Stress and Psychoneuroimmunological Factors in Renal Health and Disease at Howard University Hospital. Results Through canonical analysis, distinct profiles of African American lipid function emerged with body mass index, age, and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism being associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively. Results from linear regression analyses showed that greater endorsement of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism items predicted higher levels of LDL (β = .24, p < .05). This relationship was not mediated by pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the stress response system such as cortisol, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and IL-6. Conclusion The relationship between elevated levels of LDL and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism suggests that African Americans may be at increased risk for CVD due to the unique stress encountered by racism in our culture. Behavioral pathways used to counteract the negative effects of perceived discrimination may better explain this relationship. Further research is necessary to determine other biobehavioral and pathophysiological mechanisms that explain this relationship. PMID

  17. Exploring factors influencing voluntary turnover intent of Generation X public servants: A South African case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Nienaber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report on the factors perceived to influence the turnover intent of Generation X public servants. The problem: The researcher investigated the factors that Generation X public servants in South Africa perceive as influencing their turnover intent. Design: The problem was studied by way of a case study. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. A total of eight purposively selected Generation X public servants participated in this study. Findings: The findings of the study show that the factors influencing the turnover intent of the Generation X public servants correspond to some of those proposed in the literature, including the nature of the job, traditional attitudes, and organisational context, both on the macro- and the micro-levels. Furthermore, these factors are also congruent with the drivers of engagement as set out in the literature, specifically content, coping, compensation, community and career. One of the implications of the findings of this study is that although the value of employees to organisations were established as long ago as the Renaissance, organisations still do not capitalise on their most important asset. It is in particular the direct (line manager that plays a crucial role in optimising the value-add of employees. Value: This study is original as it was the first to investigate the turnover intentions of Generation X public servants. Generation X employees are important as they are deemed to be the knowledge repositories of organisations and they are next in line to support the organisation when the Baby Boomers retire. The perceived turnover intentions correspond to some of the components of the generic turnover model proposed by Holtom et al. (2008. The question that arises is whether the turnover intentions of Generation X are any different from other generations. Conclusions: Given their unique characteristics, Generation X is a turnover risk, which

  18. Models of and approaches to the station management of six African community radio broadcasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linje Manyozo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a political economy critique that contributes to current scholarship on community radio and development by examining the question of the management of six networks from Mali, Mozambique and Uganda. This discussion argues that understanding the models and functions of management committees will go a long way towards contributing to conversations on how community radios could achieve social, institutional, financial and ideological sustainability. The article also examines how management committees approach their work in the age of new Information Communication Technologies (especially mobile phones, computers and the Internet, and whether there is a gender digital divide within such committees. At the centre of thecurrent discussion, therefore, is an attempt to understand the flow and contestation of power within community radio management committees.

  19. Actor interfaces and practices of power in a community health worker programme: a South African study of unintended policy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Uta; Gilson, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    This paper makes a contribution to a much-neglected aspect of policy analysis: the practice of power in implementation. Practices of power are at the heart of every policy process, yet are rarely explicitly explored in the health policy literature. This paper provides a detailed study of micro-practices of power by those at the frontline of service delivery in the implementation of a national community health worker policy in one rural South African sub-district. The paper is based on a small-scale qualitative study which collected data through observations, interviews and focus group discussions with health services and facility managers, community health workers and community members. Practices of power were analysed using VeneKlasen and Miller's categorization of multiple dimensions of power, as power over, power with, power to and power within. Furthermore, the concept of 'actor interface analysis' allowed exploration of different actors' experience, interests and their specific location in the landscape of local health system governance. The study revealed that almost all policy actors exercised some form of power, from authoritative power, derived from hierarchy and budget control, to the discretionary power of those working at lower levels to withhold labour or organize in-service training. Each of these practices of power had their rationale in different actors' efforts to make the intervention 'fit' their understandings of local reality. While each had a limited impact on policy outcomes, their cumulative effect produced a significant thinning down of the policy's intent. However, discretionary power was not always used to undermine policy. One manager's use of discretionary power in fact led to a partial reconstruction of the original policy intent. The paper concludes that understanding and being responsive to the complexity of local realities, interests and contexts and the multi-layered practices of power may allow managers to adopt more appropriate

  20. Risks associated with communication delays in infants from underserved South African communities

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannie van der Linde; De Wet Swanepoel; Glascoe, Frances P.; Louw, E.M.; Jannie F.M. Hugo; Bart Vinck

    2015-01-01

    Background For optimal development young children need warm, responsive, enriched and communicative environments for learning social, language, and other skills. Infants and toddlers exposed to psychosocial risk lack enriched environments and may present with communication delays. Aim To investigate the relationship between psychosocial risks and communication delays in infants from underserved communities in South Africa. Setting Primary healthcare facilities in Tshwane district, South Afric...

  1. Rural communities in the Central African context : the Nkoya of Central Western Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Nkoya is an ethnic and linguistic label applying to about 50,000 people inhabiting the wooded plateau of Central Western Zambia. The author discusses the valley as the effective rural community and the villages as the main constituent social units within the valley and finally indicates the place of

  2. Feasibility and acceptability of ACT for the community case management of malaria in urban settings in five African sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traoré Abdoulaye

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The community case management of malaria (CCMm is now an established route for distribution of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT in rural areas, but the feasibility and acceptability of the approach through community medicine distributors (CMD in urban areas has not been explored. It is estimated that in 15 years time 50% of the African population will live in urban areas and transmission of the malaria parasite occurs in these densely populated areas. Methods Pre- and post-implementation studies were conducted in five African cities: Ghana, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Malawi. CMDs were trained to educate caregivers, diagnose and treat malaria cases in Results Qualitative findings: In all sites, interviews revealed that caregivers' knowledge of malaria signs and symptoms improved after the intervention. Preference for CMDs as preferred providers for malaria increased in all sites. Quantitative findings: 9001 children with an episode of fever were treated by 199 CMDs in the five study sites. Results from the CHWs registers show that of these, 6974 were treated with an ACT and 6933 (99% were prescribed the correct dose for their age. Fifty-four percent of the 3,025 children for which information about the promptness of treatment was available were treated within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. From the household survey 3700 children were identified who had an episode of fever during the preceding two weeks. 1480 (40% of them sought treatment from a CMD and 1213 of them (82% had received an ACT. Of these, 1123 (92.6% were administered the ACT for the correct number of doses and days; 773 of the 1118 (69.1% children for which information about the promptness of treatment was available were treated within 24 hours from onset of symptoms, and 768 (68.7% were treated promptly and correctly. Conclusions The concept of CCMm in an urban environment was positive, and caregivers were generally satisfied with the services

  3. Assessing social vulnerability in African urban context. The challenge to cope with climate change induced hazards by communities and households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Sigrun; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Social vulnerability assessment remains central in discourses on global climatic change and takes a more pertinent meaning considering that natural disasters in African countries continue to deeply affect human settlements and destroys human livelihoods. In recent years, in particular large territories and growing cities have experienced severe weather events. Among them are river and flash floods, affecting the social and economic assets of local populations. The impact of the damage related to floods is not only perceptible during seasonal events but also during unexpected larger disasters which place a particular burden on local population and institutions to adapt effectively to increasing climatic pressures. Important features for social vulnerability assessment are the increasing severity of the physical damages, the shortcoming of social and technical infrastructure, the complexity of land management/market, the limited capacity of local institutions and last but not least the restricted capacities of local population to resist these events. Understanding vulnerability implies highlighting and interlinking relevant indicators and/or perceptions encompassed in four main dimensions: social, institutional, physical and attitudinal vulnerability. Case studies in Dar es Salaam, Ouagadougou and Addis Ababa were carried out to obtain insights into the context-related conditions, behavior routines and survival networks in urban areas in west and east Africa. Using a combination of tools (e.g. focus group discussions, transect walks, interviews) we investigated in close cooperation with African partners how households and communities are being prepared to cope with, as well as to recover from floods. A comprehensive process of dealing with floods can be described based on sequential attributes concerning i) Anticipation before a flood occurs, ii) Resistance and coping activities during a flood event and, iii) Recovery and reconstruction afterwards. A participatory

  4. Uncovering cryptic species diversity of a termite community in a West African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Barbara; Kimpel, Dorothea; van Neer, Abbo; Korb, Judith

    2011-12-01

    To uncover the termite species diversity of a natural African savanna ecosystem, we combined morphological analyses and sequencing of three gene fragments (cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome oxidase II and 28SrDNA, total length about 2450 bp) to infer putative species from phylogenetic trees. We identified 18 putative species clusters with high support values and which we retrieved consistently. Samples from two genera (Ancistrotermes and Microcerotermes) were excluded from the mitochondrial phylogenetic analyses as they might represent nuclear mitochondrial sequences (NUMTs). In total, our data suggest a species richness of at least 20 species, all but one belonging to the Termitidae (higher termites), and among them the fungus-growing Macrotermitinae were most prevalent with at least nine putative species. Within the fungus-growers the most species-rich genus was Microtermes and its four putative species were all cryptic species. Their abundance in the samples suggests that they play an important ecological role which is completely unstudied also due to the lack of reliable identification means. Our study shows that morphological traits are unreliable means of species identification for several termite taxa. Yet reliable and consistent identification is necessary for studying the functional role of termites in ecosystem and global processes.

  5. Utilizing findings from a gender-based analysis to address chronic disease prevention and management among African-American women in a Michigan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women. PMID:25542367

  6. "Just Piles of Rocks to Developers but Places of Worship to Native Americans" - Exploring the Significance of Earth Jurisprudence for South African Cultural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matome M Ratiba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the years cultural communities across the world have borne witness to many unending attempts at the destruction of their places of worship. This endemic problem has arisen in a number of places, such as in the USA and in most of the world's former colonies. Having been colonised, South African cultural communities have experienced the same threats to their various sacred sites. This article seeks to argue and demonstrate that cultural communities in South Africa stand to benefit from the properly construed and rich earth jurisprudence arising out of the courtroom experiences of some of the cultural communities identified elsewhere in the world. It also proposes several arguments peculiar to South Africa which could be advanced by cultural communities seeking to protect their sacred lands.

  7. Utilizing findings from a gender-based analysis to address chronic disease prevention and management among African-American women in a Michigan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women.

  8. Reproduction of Varroa destructor in South African honey bees: does cell space influence Varroa male survivorship?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Stephen; Kryger, Per

    2002-01-01

    International audience The ability of Varroa destructor to reproduce in the African honey bee Apis mellifera scutellata was studied. In addition, the effects of space within the brood cell and short brood developmental time on mite reproduction, was investigated using A. m. scutellata cells parasitised by a A. m. capensis worker pseudo-clone. In A. m. scutellata worker cells Varroa produced 0.9 fertilised females per mother mite which is the same as found in susceptible European honey bees...

  9. Neighborhood Factors Influence Physical Activity among African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V; Ho, Angela; Adamus, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements, such as traffic lights and crossing aids, and physical activity (PA) adoption and maintenance in African American and Hispanic or Latina women. Women (N=309) participated in a 6-month intervention and completed baseline and post-intervention assessments of PA. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants’ neighborhoods. Adjusted linear regression models found attracti...

  10. Factors influencing editorial work within the sectors of the South African editing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Ann Law

    2014-01-01

    South African editors currently work in a highly diversified industry that comprises a number of different sectors. As a result of this, the role of the editor remains contentious, with varied definitions and demarcations of editorial tasks and skills. This article sets out the argument that editorial work in South Africa is characterised by specific factors which determine the importance (or otherwise) of certain editorial tasks and skills in each sector. To demonstrate this, this article re...

  11. Influences of Family Environment and Meditation Efficacy on Hemodynamic Function among African American Adolescents*

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Gregoski, Mathew J.; Tingen, Martha S.; Treiber, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of breathing awareness meditation (BAM) compared to health education (HE) and lifeskills training (LS) upon resting systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) within the context of potential moderating factors of family environment and expectancy of benefit. 186 African American adolescents (mean age: 15.1±0.7 yrs) were randomly assigned by school to three-month BAM, LS, or HE interventions. Laboratory resting blood pressur...

  12. The influence of ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on African American adolescents' school and socioemotional adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carol A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Sameroff, Arnold

    2003-12-01

    Do experiences with racial discrimination at school predict changes in African American adolescents' academic and psychological functioning? Does African American ethnic identity buffer these relations? This paper addresses these two questions using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of African American adolescents living in and near a major East Coast metropolis. The data were collected at the beginning of the 7th grade and after the completion of the 8th grade. As expected, experiences of racial discrimination at school from one's teachers and peers predicts declines in grades, academic ability self-concepts, academic task values, mental health (increases in depression and anger, decreases in self-esteem and psychological resiliency), and increases in the proportion of one's friends who are not interested in school and who have problem behaviors. A strong, positive connection to one's ethnic group (our measure of ethnic identity) reduced the magnitude of the association of racial discrimination experiences with declines in academic self-concepts, school achievement, and perception of friends' positive characteristics, as well as the association of the racial discrimination experiences with increases in problem behaviors.

  13. The influence of ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on African American adolescents' school and socioemotional adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carol A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Sameroff, Arnold

    2003-12-01

    Do experiences with racial discrimination at school predict changes in African American adolescents' academic and psychological functioning? Does African American ethnic identity buffer these relations? This paper addresses these two questions using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of African American adolescents living in and near a major East Coast metropolis. The data were collected at the beginning of the 7th grade and after the completion of the 8th grade. As expected, experiences of racial discrimination at school from one's teachers and peers predicts declines in grades, academic ability self-concepts, academic task values, mental health (increases in depression and anger, decreases in self-esteem and psychological resiliency), and increases in the proportion of one's friends who are not interested in school and who have problem behaviors. A strong, positive connection to one's ethnic group (our measure of ethnic identity) reduced the magnitude of the association of racial discrimination experiences with declines in academic self-concepts, school achievement, and perception of friends' positive characteristics, as well as the association of the racial discrimination experiences with increases in problem behaviors. PMID:14633063

  14. A critical assessment of the social impacts of tourism in selected South African communities / Marco Scholtz

    OpenAIRE

    Scholtz, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the social impacts of tourism is important as it enables tourism managers and developers to manage the impacts toward fostering vital community support for the industry. More so the distinction between the tangible and intangible social impacts can refine tourism management, development and marketing processes. The measurement and management of these impacts are fairly straight forward in developed countries. However in developing countries, such as South Africa, ...

  15. Wellbeing of African villagers within their community empowered by sustainable new energy services

    OpenAIRE

    Saarinen, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    One percent of a world population earns over 20 000 USD per year, while the other 99 percent struggle to survive. Although acknowledging the valuable development work which several non-governmental organizations have accomplished, this licentiate thesis demonstrates how to bridge these two separate worlds and build a sustainable flourishing learning Village Community. The face-to-face interview study, literature review, and reference studies highlight the needs of villagers and the role of su...

  16. Central African Economic and Monetary Community; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes: FATF Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    The report provides a summary of the level of compliance at the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) regional level and provides recommendations to improve compliance. The assessment focuses on the regional Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML-CLT) framework and its conformity with international standard. The paper reviews the institutional framework, laws, regulations, guidelines, and other requirements, and the regulatory and other systems i...

  17. Post-graduate students' reflections on relational qualities that may enhance relational well-being in South African school communities / Valda Benade

    OpenAIRE

    Benade, Valda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe post-graduate students‟ reflections on relational qualities that may enhance relational well-being in South African school communities. The research formed part of a broader research project, entitled “Relational well-being in school communities”. The researcher applied the Gestalt paradigm and the theories of existential dialogue and the field theory to this study. A qualitative, interpretive, descriptive design was followed. Non-probabil...

  18. A first generation African community grappling with urbanisation: the views of Platfontein’s San on water and sanitation service delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Tempelhoff, J W N

    2014-01-01

    Since their relocation in 2004 to Platfontein near Kimberley in South Africa’s Northern Cape Province, members of the !Xun and Khwe San, originally from the northern parts of Namibia and southern Angola, became a first generation African community grappling with urbanisation in a rapidly modernising South Africa. The Platfontein area, a number of farms with a settlement housing complex accommodating about 7 000 people, is currently an emergent urban area in which residents have...

  19. Genesee County REACH Windshield Tours: enhancing health professionals understanding of community conditions that influence infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; French-Turner, Tonya; Brownlee, Shannon

    2013-06-01

    The Genesee County Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) program is a community-based program designed to reduce African American infant mortality rates in Flint, Michigan. Genesee County REACH activities address three core themes: fostering community mobilization, reducing racism, and enhancing the maternal-infant health care system. The REACH Community Action Plan was generated using a community-based participatory approach, and is based on a socio-ecological model with interventions focused at the individual, organizational, health system, and community levels. Genesee County REACH's Community Windshield Tours were developed to raise awareness of social and environmental barriers to health promotion among health care system staff in Flint, Michigan. These tours provide a close-up examination of the community's environmental conditions and the experiences of mothers, children, and families at risk for poor birth outcomes. In this article, we report our findings from pre-/post-tour surveys, as well as long-term follow-up surveys, to assess the impact of this REACH activity on participants' knowledge and beliefs about Genesee County residents, and to determine any resultant individual, policy, system, or environmental changes. We used t tests to compare participants' responses before and after the tours. We found that several individual- and systems-level changes have resulted from these tours, reflecting greater cultural sensitivity and increased understanding of patients' circumstances. African American infant mortality rates in Genesee County declined to a historic low in 2005, and they remain lower than in previous years. Although REACH coalition partners recognize that this reduction cannot be attributed to a single intervention or activity, REACH activities such as the Community Windshield Tours addressing multiple levels of the socio-ecological model may have had a synergistic effect. PMID:23605377

  20. Validity of the SF-12 for Use in a Low-Income African American Community-Based Research Initiative (REACH 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia O. Larson, PhD

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe objective of our study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Medical Outcomes Study’s 12-Item Short Form Survey Instrument (SF-12 for use in a low-income African American community. The SF-12, a commonly used functional health status assessment, was developed based on responses of an ethnically homogeneous sample of whites. Our assessment addressed the appropriateness of the instrument for establishing baseline indicators for mental and physical health status as part of Nashville, Tennessee’s, Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH 2010 initiative, a community-based participatory research study.MethodsA cross-sectional random residential sample of 1721 African Americans responded to a telephone survey that included the SF-12 survey items and other indicators of mental and physical health status. The SF-12 was assessed by examining item-level characteristics, estimates of scale reliability (internal consistency, and construct validity.ResultsConstruct validity assessed by the method of extreme groups determined that SF-12 summary scores varied for individuals who differed in self-reported medical conditions. Convergent and discriminate validity assessed by multitrait analysis yielded satisfactory coefficients. Concurrent validity was also shown to be satisfactory, assessed by correlating SF-12 summary scores with independent measures of physical and mental health status.ConclusionThe SF-12 appears to be a valid measure for assessing health status of low-income African Americans.

  1. Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

    2011-09-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model

  2. Biofilm diatom community structure: Influence of temporal and substratum variability

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, J.S.; Anil, A.C.

    Diatoms, which are early autotrophic colonisers, are an important constituent of the biofouling community in the marine environment. The effects of substratum and temporal variations on the fouling diatom community structure in a monsooninfluenced...

  3. Community Attitudes towards Culture-Influenced Mental Illness: Scrupulosity vs. Nonreligious OCD among Orthodox Jews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirutinsky, Steven; Rosmarin, David H.; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Culture may particularly influence community attitudes towards mental illness, when the illness itself is shaped by a cultural context. To explore the influence of culture-specific, religious symptoms on Orthodox Jewish community attitudes, the authors compared the attitudes of 169 Orthodox Jews, who randomly viewed one of two vignettes describing…

  4. Longitudinal predictors of child sexual abuse in a large community based sample of South African youth

    OpenAIRE

    Meinck, F; Cluver, LD; Boyes, ME

    2015-01-01

    Sexual abuse has severe negative impacts on children's lives, but little is known about risk factors for sexual abuse victimization in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined prospective predictors of contact sexual abuse in a random community-based sample of children aged 10 to 17 years (N = 3,515, 56.6% female) in South Africa. Self-report questionnaires using validated scales were completed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (96.8% retention rate). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associa...

  5. The influence of interspecific competition and host preference on the phylogeography of two African ixodid tick species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nídia Cangi

    Full Text Available A comparative phylogeographic study on two economically important African tick species, Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma rufipes was performed to test the influence of host specificity and host movement on dispersion. Pairwise AMOVA analyses of 277 mtDNA COI sequences supported significant population differentiation among the majority of sampling sites. The geographic mitochondrial structure was not supported by nuclear ITS-2 sequencing, probably attributed to a recent divergence. The three-host generalist, A. hebraeum, showed less mtDNA geographic structure, and a lower level of genetic diversity, while the more host-specific H. rufipes displayed higher levels of population differentiation and two distinct mtDNA assemblages (one predominantly confined to South Africa/Namibia and the other to Mozambique and East Africa. A zone of overlap is present in southern Mozambique. A mechanistic climate model suggests that climate alone cannot be responsible for the disruption in female gene flow. Our findings furthermore suggest that female gene dispersal of ticks is more dependent on the presence of juvenile hosts in the environment than on the ability of adult hosts to disperse across the landscape. Documented interspecific competition between the juvenile stages of H. rufipes and H. truncatum is implicated as a contributing factor towards disrupting gene flow between the two southern African H. rufipes genetic assemblages.

  6. The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale: confirmatory factor structure and relationship with body dissatisfaction among African American and Anglo American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen

    2009-06-01

    The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale (MMIS; Cusumano & Thompson, 2001). Media influence and body image in 8-11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on the multidimensional media influence scale. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 37-44) is a child-appropriate, 3-factor scale designed to assess perceived media influence on body image. It has been used in studies exploring the relationship between the entire scale as well as its subscales (awareness, internalization, and pressure) and variables related to body image. However, the 3-factor structure of the scale has never been confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), nor has the scale been evaluated with a racially diverse sample of children. This paper reports the results of CFAs establishing the multidimensionality of the scale and the unidimensionality of its subscales among a sample of 661 girls and boys aged 7-12 years, primarily African American and Anglo American. The pressure factor of the MMIS predicted the idealization of a thinner current (child) and future (adult) body both cross-sectionally and one year later for girls and for Anglo American children. PMID:19447694

  7. Learning Communities in Undergraduate STEM Education: A Quantitative Analysis of how Sense of Community Influences Retention of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archie, T.; Newman, P.

    2012-12-01

    community students showed a weak correlation between sense of community and intent to persist in their major, indicating that these students' departure decisions were based on factors other than sense of community. These finding were consistent with previous research of sense of community which has supported this construct as a needs based hierarchical theory. For example, if students' sense of community needs are met, then they can focus on higher level needs, such as academic success. Conversely, if students' sense of community needs are not being fully met, then this factor remains salient in terms of influencing their departure decision. Our results suggest that learning communities fulfill students' sense of community needs, thus this factor has less influence on learning community participants' decision to leave the institution than their counterparts who do not participate in a learning community. Our results suggest that learning communities are effective in fulfilling students' sense of community needs, thus allowing them to focus their energies on higher order needs such as academic success.

  8. High dermatophyte contamination levels in hairdressing salons of a West African suburban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, O; Thera, M A; Piarroux, R; Doumbo, O K; Ranque, S

    2015-02-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of scalp is commonly spread by currently infected patients, asymptomatic carriers or by fomites, such as hairdressing tools. However, studies on the risk factors of Tinea capitis remain scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermatophytes contamination level of the hairdressing tools to which hairdressing salon customers are exposed in Sirakoro-Méguétana, a suburb of Bamako, the capital city of Mali. A total of 41 hairdressing tools were sampled in five hairdressing salons. Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Microsporum audouinii (53.3%) and Trichophyton soudanense (46.7%), were cultured from 30 (73.2%) samples. This first study, addressing hairdressing salons dermatophyte contamination, revealed a strikingly high contamination of hairdressing tools with dermatophyte propagules, which exposes hairdressing salons customers to an important dermatophytosis risk. The sterilisation of hairdressing tools is central to preventing dermatophytoses spreading. Appropriate community information and hairdressers training should be implemented in this view.

  9. Social Media and eBusiness: Cultural Impacts on the Influence Process in Consumer Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Hong; Xu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Social media has been used as an important tool by firms to influence consumers’ attitude and behavior. Influence occurs in consumer communities in social media because community members have the control of discovering, producing, sharing, and distributing information and because the spread out of their experiences and opinions in the format of electronic word-of-mouth forms emerging conformance. Prior research has explored how the influence occurring in online social media communities impacts consumers’ attitude and behavior (e.g., product attitude and purchase decision, effectual thinking and behavior, brand trust and brand loyalty). But because social media has the ability of global reach, cross-border factors should not be neglected in studying the influence process. As such, this paper adopts national cultural dimensions identified by Hofstede (1984), individualism/collectivism and power distance particularly, the index of cultural distance, and the social influence theory to explore how culture impacts the influence occurring in consumer communities in social media.

  10. What influences community positions towards nearby mining projects : eight cases from Brazil and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks at the influences and dynamics of community positions towards nearby mining projects in Brazil and Chile from an affected communities perspective. This subject is important because even after many initiatives and guidance aimed at helping companies to obtain good community relations, also known as a social license to operate (SLO), conflict in many mining community contexts is still prevalent today. In considering this, the thesis draws from Stakeholder, Resou...

  11. The influence of climate on phytoplankton communities in the upper San Francisco estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Lehman, Peggy W

    1997-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The 1977 climate shift was characterized by low chlorophyll a concentrations and a shift in phytoplankton community composition throughout the upper San Francisco Bay estuary. ... For climate to be a driving force in phytoplankton communities, it must affect mechanisms that control biomass and community composition. The influence of climate on environmental conditions and phytoplankton community composition among water-year types was examined using 19 ...

  12. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  13. Vegetation factors influencing density and distribution of wild large herbivores in a southern African savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing large herbivore densities and distribution in terrestrial ecosystems is a fundamental goal of ecology. This study examined environmental factors influencing the density and distribution of wild large herbivores in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Vegetation and s

  14. Rumen microbial communities influence metabolic phenotypes in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgavi, Diego P; Rathahao-Paris, Estelle; Popova, Milka; Boccard, Julien; Nielsen, Kristian F; Boudra, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The rumen microbiota is an essential part of ruminants shaping their nutrition and health. Despite its importance, it is not fully understood how various groups of rumen microbes affect host-microbe relationships and functions. The aim of the study was to simultaneously explore the rumen microbiota and the metabolic phenotype of lambs for identifying host-microbe associations and potential biomarkers of digestive functions. Twin lambs, separated in two groups after birth were exposed to practices (isolation and gavage with rumen fluid with protozoa or protozoa-depleted) that differentially restricted the acquisition of microbes. Rumen microbiota, fermentation parameters, digestibility and growth were monitored for up to 31 weeks of age. Microbiota assembled in isolation from other ruminants lacked protozoa and had low bacterial and archaeal diversity whereas digestibility was not affected. Exposure to adult sheep microbiota increased bacterial and archaeal diversity independently of protozoa presence. For archaea, Methanomassiliicoccales displaced Methanosphaera. Notwithstanding, protozoa induced differences in functional traits such as digestibility and significantly shaped bacterial community structure, notably Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae lower up to 6 folds, Prevotellaceae lower by ~40%, and Clostridiaceae and Veillonellaceae higher up to 10 folds compared to microbiota without protozoa. An orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis of urinary metabolome matched differences in microbiota structure. Discriminant metabolites were mainly involved in amino acids and protein metabolic pathways while a negative interaction was observed between methylotrophic methanogens Methanomassiliicoccales and trimethylamine N-oxide. These results stress the influence of gut microbes on animal phenotype and show the potential of metabolomics for monitoring rumen microbial functions. PMID:26528248

  15. Rumen microbial communities influence metabolic phenotypes in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego P. Morgavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiota is an essential part of ruminants forging their nutrition and health. Despite its importance, it is not fully understood how various groups of rumen microbes affect host-microbe relationships and functions. The aim of the study was to simultaneously explore the rumen microbiota and the metabolic phenotype of lambs for identifying host-microbe associations and potential biomarkers of digestive functions. Twin lambs, separated in two groups after birth were exposed to practices (isolation and gavage with rumen fluid with protozoa or protozoa-depleted that differentially restricted the acquisition of microbes. Rumen microbiota, fermentation parameters, digestibility and growth were monitored for up to 31 weeks of age. Microbiota assembled in isolation from other ruminants lacked protozoa and had low bacterial and archaeal diversity whereas digestibility was not affected. Exposure to adult sheep microbiota increased bacterial and archaeal diversity independently of protozoa presence. For archaea, Methanomassiliicoccales displaced Methanosphaera. Notwithstanding, protozoa induced differences in functional traits such as digestibility and significantly shaped bacterial community structure, notably Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae lower up to 6 folds, Prevotellaceae lower by ~40%, and Clostridiaceae and Veillonellaceae higher up to 10 folds compared to microbiota without protozoa. An orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis of urinary metabolome matched differences in microbiota structure. Discriminant metabolites were mainly involved in amino acids and protein metabolic pathways while a negative interaction was observed between methylotrophic methanogens Methanomassiliicoccales and trimethylamine N-oxide. These results stress the influence of gut microbes on animal phenotype and show the potential of metabolomics for monitoring rumen microbial functions.

  16. On The Role Of Normative Influences In Commercial Virtual Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Wiertz, C.; de Ruyter, J.C.; Streukens, A.C.P.

    2003-01-01

    The potential to reconcile economic benefits to the firm with the social needs of customers has made commercial virtual communities a popular tool for companies to support their core products/service with a value-added service option. An important key to the success of such a virtual community is the behavior of its members. In this paper, we develop a framework of pro-social behavior (i.e., community citizenship behavior and contribution intentions) for understanding and explaining the motiv...

  17. Population education and ILO: African programmes of population and social community welfare education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon-castaneda, P; Pour, H; Simbeye, A

    1985-06-01

    The information and population education and social and community welfare program drawn up by the International Labor Organization (ILO) aims at the improvement of the living conditions of workers through relating their incomes and needs to the basic needs of the family. The integration of voluntary associations in project activities can increase the effectiveness of messages; the multiplicity of information channels enlarges the scope and strenthens credibility insofar as these channels are accepted by the target groups. When it comes to determining the contents intended for groups such as trade unions, village committees, or cooperatives, a study of the area is undertaken to know their specific situation and the aspects concerning their population and social welfare problems. Population education provided by ILO deals with 2 primordial factors: 1) the improvement of working methods which will make it possible for individuals to improve of their health and living conditions while earning better incomes, and 2) the sharing all knowledge between men and women to encourage men to assume better responsibilities. The level of education of persons affected by projects is very different; they represent a complete range from the literate and semi-literate to the illiterate. Different units of production of educational equipment are being organized to meet material demand. In conclusion, educational and social welfare programs conform to the recommendations of the conference and will continue to draw on the World Population Action Plan to improve standards of living and quality of life for all people.

  18. Risks associated with communication delays in infants from underserved South African communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie van der Linde

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: For optimal development young children need warm, responsive, enriched and communicative environments for learning social, language, and other skills. Infants and toddlers exposed to psychosocial risk lack enriched environments and may present with communication delays.Aim: To investigate the relationship between psychosocial risks and communication delays in infants from underserved communities in South Africa.Setting: Primary healthcare facilities in Tshwane district, South Africa.Methods: A parent interview and Rossetti Infant Toddler Language Scales were used to collect data from caregivers of 201 infants aged 6–12 months, selected through convenience sampling. Associations between communication delays and risks were determined (Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. A log-linear model analysis was used to model the simultaneous effect of significant risks on the probability of having communication delays.Results: Communication delays were present in 13% of infants. Infants with two or more siblings, born from mothers aged 18–29 years who own their house, had a 39% chance of presenting with communication delays.Conclusion: Developmental screening and early intervention is important in primary healthcare contexts in South Africa, as a clear relationship has been established between three risk factors and communication delays in infants.

  19. Searching for Sustainability: How Niger's CASEVAC Success Is Leading the African Continent and Educating the GHE/IHS Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatau, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Against all odds and despite significant challenges and scarce resources, Niger's Armed Forces (FAN) continues to lead a successful casualty evacuation (CASEVAC) program. This program and the Special Operations Command Africa (SOCAFR) model that influenced it has become a template for the Global Health Engagement (GHE)/International Health Specialist (IHS) community. This article provides a summary of the overall CASEVAC mission, outlines the final phase sustainable execution of this program, and provides the reader with critical lessons learned for best practice GHE approaches. PMID:27450614

  20. Does moonlighting influence South African nurses’ intention to leave their primary jobs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia C. Rispel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staff retention and turnover have risen in prominence in the global discourse on the health workforce. Moonlighting, having a second job in addition to a primary job, has not featured in debates on turnover. Objective: This paper examines whether moonlighting is a determinant of South African nurses’ intention to leave their primary jobs. Design: During 2010, a one-stage cluster random sample of 80 hospitals was selected in four South African provinces. On the survey day, all nurses working in critical care, theatre, emergency, maternity, and general medical and surgical wards completed a self-administered questionnaire after giving informed consent. In addition to demographic information and information on moonlighting, the questionnaire obtained information on the participants’ intention to leave their primary jobs in the 12 months following the survey. A weighted analysis of the survey data was done using STATA® 13. Results: Survey participants (n=3,784 were predominantly middle-aged with a mean age of 41.5 (SD±10.4 years. Almost one-third of survey participants (30.9% indicated that they planned to leave their jobs within 12 months. Intention to leave was higher among the moonlighters (39.5% compared to non-moonlighters (27.9%; p<0.001. Predictors of intention to leave in a multiple logistic regression were moonlighting in the preceding year, nursing category, sector of primary employment, period working at the primary job, and number of children. The odds of intention to leave was 1.40 (95% CI: 1.16–1.69 times higher for moonlighters than for non-moonlighters. The odds ratio of intention to leave was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.42–0.66 for nursing assistants compared to professional nurses and 2.09 (95% CI: 1.49–2.94 for nurses working for a commercial nursing agency compared to those working in the public sector. Conclusions: Moonlighting is a predictor of intention to leave. Both individual and organisational strategies are

  1. Social capital, narratives of fragmentation, and schizophrenia: an ethnographic exploration of factors shaping African-Caribbeans' social capital and mental health in a North London community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliacin, Johanne

    2013-09-01

    Recent research studies have proposed the concept of social capital-broadly defined as social networks, community cohesion, and participation-as a social risk factor for health disparities and the high rates of schizophrenia among individuals of Caribbean heritage in England. However, many of the existing studies lack sociohistorical contexts and do not capture the experiential dimensions of individuals' social capital. This paper adds to the debate by examining the mechanisms and sociocultural processes that shape the understandings and experiences of social capital in a sample of British African-Caribbeans. Drawing on ethnographic and survey data collected over 2 years in a North London community, the paper focuses on participants' every day experiences and the stories they tell about their community and social fragmentation. These stories suggest that social changes and historical forces interact to affect the social capital and emotional well-being of local African-Caribbean residents. I argue that my participants' collective narratives about their social environment contribute to the emotional tone of the community, and create added stressors that may impact their mental health.

  2. Contextual Influences: Building Brand Community in Large and Small Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlexander, J. Harry; Koenig, Harold F.

    2010-01-01

    This research extends recent efforts that have introduced and empirically tested a conceptual model of brand community in the context of higher education. This emerging literature has indicated that brand community provides a framework that can inform and guide marketing investments in ways that lead to affinity and stronger loyalty to the brand…

  3. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny A Becker

    Full Text Available The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1 test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2 model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively. Only one of the six (16.7% breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed.

  4. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could

  5. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  6. Does employee perceptions of fit to job, fit to organisation and fit to community influence job performance? The case of Zimbabwe’s manufacturing sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chinomona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The influence of the fit components of job embeddedness (fit to job, fit to organization and fit to community on job performance has not been extensively researched and the relationship is largely unknown.Research purpose: This study investigated the influence of the fit components of job embeddedness (employee fit to job, fit to organization and fit to community on employees’ job performance.Motivation for the study: There is a dearth of studies on the fit components of job embeddedness and the relationship with job performance in developing countries especially in Southern Africa.Research design, approach and method: This cross-sectional study made use of a quantitative survey design. The target population comprised employees working in Zimbabwe’s manufacturing sector (n = 452.Main findings: The results revealed that employee fit to job, fit to organization and fit to community positively influences employees’ job performance.Practical/managerial implications: The findings have implications for human resource managers in Zimbabwe’s manufacturing sector, who are encouraged to consider the three fit factors of job embeddedness during the job applicants interviewing process as they have a significant potential to influence job performance.Contribution/value-addition: The research is one of the primary research papers to investigate the direct effects of the fit components of job embeddedness on employee job performance within the Zimbabwean context. It provides a rich platform for further studies and replication in other industry sectors especially within the African context.

  7. Source and Influence: A Comparative Approach to African Religion and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanneh, Lamin

    The importance of studying the primary context of the relationship between "source" and "influence" in a comparative science of religion and culture is emphasized throughout this article. Focusing primarily on the situation in Muslim and Christian Africa, the article distinguishes between in-coming "sources" and indigenous "influences." Although…

  8. Understanding African American Men’s Perceptions of Racism, Male Gender Socialization, and Social Capital Through Photovoice

    OpenAIRE

    Ornelas, India J.; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N.; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach—photovoice—to collect information about African American men’s perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the “Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health” project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and di...

  9. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married Women in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-03-01

    Short birth spacing continues to be a problem in Uganda and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda and Zimbabwe, using Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011 (Uganda) and 2010-2011 (Zimbabwe). Women living in communities with higher mean maternal age, mean age at marriage, and mean parity were significantly more likely to have longer birth spacing. Women living in communities with higher levels of contraceptive use and low levels of unmet contraceptive need were more likely to have short birth spacing. The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level interventions in order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing.

  10. Literacy Practices in the Homes of African American Families and the Perceived Affects on the Language and Literacy Development of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Delilah A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tenacities, practices, and discourse of family-based literacy practices and their connection in African American families. It scrutinized the influence of the practices of African American families on the multiple contexts of literacy practices in their passageway across the school-community periphery.…

  11. Influences of Family Environment and Meditation Efficacy on Hemodynamic Function among African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Vernon A; Gregoski, Mathew J; Tingen, Martha S; Treiber, Frank A

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the impact of breathing awareness meditation (BAM) compared to health education (HE) and lifeskills training (LS) upon resting systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) within the context of potential moderating factors of family environment and expectancy of benefit. 186 African American adolescents (mean age: 15.1±0.7 yrs) were randomly assigned by school to three-month BAM, LS, or HE interventions. Laboratory resting blood pressure (BP), Family Relations Index (FRI) and expectancy of benefit evaluations were conducted at pre- and post-intervention. Higher expectancy of benefit from any of the three interventions resulted in greater reductions in SBP. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM group subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited greater decreases in SBP. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM and LS subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited greater DBP decreases. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited a greater HR decrease (all p<.05). Expectancy of intervention benefits beneficially impacted success of behavioral interventions aimed at reducing SBP. Positive family environments in combination with either BAM or LS appear to have a beneficial impact upon hemodynamic function in AA adolescents.

  12. Influence of watershed activities on the water quality and fish assemblages of a tropical African reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-09-01

    Agricultural and fisheries activities around the watershed of an African tropical reservoir (Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria) were found to contribute significantly to water quality deterioration of the dam axis of the reservoir, leading to eutrophication of that part of the reservoir. This is evident from the high amount of nitrate (6.4 mg/l), phosphate (2.2 mg/l) and sulphate (16.9 mg/l) in the water body which was higher than most other reservoirs in Nigeria. These nutrients originate in fertilizer run-offs from nearby farmlands and were found in higher concentrations in the rainy season which is usually the peak of agricultural activities in the locality. The eutrophication was more pronounced on the dam axis because it is the point of greatest human contact where pressure and run-off of sediments were high. The eutrophication altered the food web cycle which consequently affected the fish species composition and abundance with the dominance of cichlids (planktivorous group) and decline of some species in the fish population. Best management practices (BMP) to control and reduce the eutrophication and improve water quality and fish assemblages should be adopted and adapted to suit the situation in the reservoir.

  13. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Fordyce, James A.;

    2012-01-01

    of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution......There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species...... pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use...

  14. Floral traits influence pollen vectors’ choices in higher elevation communities in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yan-Hui; Ren, Zong-Xin; Lázaro, Amparo; Wang, Hong; Bernhardt, Peter; Li, Hai-Dong; Li, De-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Background How floral traits and community composition influence plant specialization is poorly understood and the existing evidence is restricted to regions where plant diversity is low. Here, we assessed whether plant specialization varied among four species-rich subalpine/alpine communities on the Yulong Mountain, SW China (elevation from 2725 to 3910 m). We analyzed two factors (floral traits and pollen vector community composition: richness and density) to determine the degree of plant s...

  15. INFLUENCE OF PHOSPHORUS AND ZINC APPLICATION ON SOIL NEMATODE COMMUNITY IN HOT PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Brmež; Ivana Varga; Teuta Benković-Lačić; Zdenko Lončarić

    2014-01-01

    This research studied nematode communities in the soil during hot pepper cultivation and under influence of Zn and P fertilizer application. The aim of this study was to determine changes in soil nematode communities during the cultivation of hot pepper under the influence of P, Zn and their combination (P+Zn) application. The study included the examination of changes in nematodes structure in soil, their total abundance, the total number of genera and analysis of trophic groups. Changes in n...

  16. Consulting, Mediating, Conducting, and Supporting: How Community-Based Organizations Engage with Research to Influence Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Evans, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in critical policy theories and democratic conceptions of research, case studies of three community-based organizations, one in Canada and two in the U.S., were analyzed to determine if and how the groups engaged with research in their efforts to influence education policy. The findings demonstrate that the community-based organizations…

  17. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  18. Influence of organic matter on collembolan communities in reedbed habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uteseny, K.; Drapela, T.; Frouz, J.

    2009-04-01

    The combination of the organic matter, micro-climatic environments and plant cover belongs to important factors for the distribution of soil meso-fauna, especially Collembola. There are no studies attending to these factors on collembolan communities in reedbed vegetation. The main goals of our investigation were therefore to compare diversity of Collembola in redbed habitats of Lake Neudsiedl, eastern Austria, and to assess particularly the role of organic matter with regard to the collembolan community structure. Soil samples were taken from April 1997 to October 1997 at fifteen study sites covered with Phragmatis australis of different age. Changes in the structure and composition of the assemblages of Collembola were examined.

  19. Factors that influence the acceptance of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, A. S.; Tschanz, J. F.; Mosena, D.; Erley, D.; Gil, E.; Slovak, P.; Lenth, C. S.

    1977-01-01

    This report is part of a series of studies designed to analyze the commercialization potential of various concepts of community-scale energy systems that have been termed Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). The study reported here concerns ways that affected individuals and organizations will respond to proposed ICES development projects. The intent is an initial examination of several institutional sectors that will: (1) anticipate responses that could impede ICES proposals and (2) provide an information base from which strategies to address adverse responses can be formulated.

  20. It Takes a Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth in the Context of Racism

    OpenAIRE

    Berkel, Cady; Murry, Velma McBride; Hurt, Tera R.; Chen, Yi-fu; Gene H. Brody; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates negative consequences of racism, however, little is known about community, parenting, and intrapersonal mechanisms that protect youth. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study illuminated linkages between positive and negative contextual influences on rural African American adolescent outcomes. Quantitative results provide support for Structural Ecosystems Theory, in that the influence of discrimination and collective socialization on adolescent outcomes was medi...

  1. The Long Arm of Community: The Influence of Childhood Community Contexts across the Early Life Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Noh, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the longitudinal effects of childhood community contexts on young adult outcomes. The study uses a sample of 14,000 adolescents (52% female) derived from the 1990 US Census and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Addhealth). The study examines whether community and family environments exert separate and/or…

  2. Influences of plant type on bacterial and archaeal communities in constructed wetland treating polluted river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Yi, Hao; Chen, Sili; Zhang, Zhengke; Cui, Kai; Bing, Yongxin; Zhuo, Qiongfang; Li, Bingxin; Xie, Shuguang; Guo, Qingwei

    2016-10-01

    Both bacteria and archaeal communities can play important roles in biogeochemical processes in constructed wetland (CW) system. However, the influence of plant type on microbial community in surface water CW remains unclear. The present study investigated bacterial and archaeal communities in five surface water CW systems with different plant species. The abundance, richness, and diversity of both bacterial and archaeal communities considerably differed in these five CW systems. Compared with the other three CW systems, the CW systems planted with Vetiveria zizanioides or Juncus effusus L. showed much higher bacterial abundance but lower archaeal abundance. Bacteria outnumbered archaea in each CW system. Moreover, the CW systems planted with V. zizanioides or J. effusus L. had relatively lower archaeal but higher bacterial richness and diversity. In each CW system, bacterial community displayed much higher richness and diversity than archaeal community. In addition, a remarkable difference of both bacterial and archaeal community structures was observed in the five studied CW systems. Proteobacteria was the most abundant bacterial group (accounting for 33-60 %). Thaumarchaeota organisms (57 %) predominated in archaeal communities in CW systems planted with V. zizanioides or J. effusus L., while Woesearchaeota (23 or 24 %) and Euryarchaeota (23 or 15 %) were the major archaeal groups in CW systems planted with Cyperus papyrus or Canna indica L. Archaeal community in CW planted with Typha orientalis Presl was mainly composed of unclassified archaea. Therefore, plant type exerted a considerable influence on microbial community in surface water CW system. PMID:27392623

  3. U.S. Community College Professional Staff Seek South African Doctoral Degrees: An Analysis of an International Doctoral Program Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Margaret Vail

    2011-01-01

    Prominent challenges facing contemporary community colleges are enhancing leadership capacity and serving their diverse student populations. While doctoral education constitutes a mainstay strategy for developing community college leaders, community college professionals face constraints accessing doctoral programs. The innovation of an…

  4. Minimal Processing: Its Context and Influence in the Archival Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzalski, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Since its publication in 2005, Mark A. Greene and Dennis Meissner's "More Product, Less Process: Revamping Traditional Archival Processing" has led to much discussion and self-examination within the archival community about working through backlogs. This article discusses the impact of Greene and Meissner's work and considers the questions and…

  5. Empowered to Differ : Stakeholders' Influences in Community-Based Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkenflugel, H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Since the advent of Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in 1976, many developing countries have conducted CBR projects. CBR has been presented as a relevant and costeffective way to provide rehabilitation services to people with disabilities. Twenty-five years later it was concluded that, despite

  6. Community College Mission Influence on Culture: An Organizational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, E. Gerome

    2013-01-01

    Strong agreement of mission and culture has been found in more effective colleges (Fjortoft & Smart, 1994). For leaders, the culture of an organization provides the context for which decisions about organizational change processes can be made (Malm, 2008). The purpose of this study was to explore the culture present within a community college…

  7. Unjust waters. Climate change, flooding and the protection of poor urban communities. Experiences from six African cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    Floods are natural phenomena, but damage and losses from floods are the consequence of human action. The increasing climatic variability, storminess and more frequent flooding driven by climate change will affect poor urban communities far more than other people living in towns and cities. Although driven by human activities ranging from modernisation and development to land degradation by poor farmers and grazing flocks, climate change in Africa has uneven impacts, affecting the poor severely. Flooding in urban areas is not just related to heavy rainfall and extreme climatic events; it is also related to changes in the built-up areas themselves. Urbanisation aggravates flooding by restricting where floods waters can go, by covering large parts of the ground with roofs, roads and pavements, by obstructing sections of natural channels, and by building drains that ensure that water moves to rivers more rapidly than it did under natural conditions. As people crowd into African cities, these human impacts on urban land surfaces and drainage intensify. The proportions of small stream and river catchment areas that are urbanised will increase. As a result, even quite moderate storms now produce quite high flows in rivers because much more of the catchment area supplies direct surface runoff from its hard surfaces and drains. Where streams flow through a series of culverts and concrete channels, they cannot adjust to changes in the frequency of heavy rain as natural streams do. They often get obstructed by silt and urban debris, particularly when houses are built close to the channels. Such situations frequently arise where poor people build their shelters on low-lying flood plains, over swamps or above the tidewater on the coast. The effects of climate change are superimposed on these people-driven local land surface modifications. The links between changes in land use and in heavy rainfall patterns, the frequency and depth of flooding and the problems of the urban poor

  8. Unjust waters. Climate change, flooding and the protection of poor urban communities. Experiences from six African cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floods are natural phenomena, but damage and losses from floods are the consequence of human action. The increasing climatic variability, storminess and more frequent flooding driven by climate change will affect poor urban communities far more than other people living in towns and cities. Although driven by human activities ranging from modernisation and development to land degradation by poor farmers and grazing flocks, climate change in Africa has uneven impacts, affecting the poor severely. Flooding in urban areas is not just related to heavy rainfall and extreme climatic events; it is also related to changes in the built-up areas themselves. Urbanisation aggravates flooding by restricting where floods waters can go, by covering large parts of the ground with roofs, roads and pavements, by obstructing sections of natural channels, and by building drains that ensure that water moves to rivers more rapidly than it did under natural conditions. As people crowd into African cities, these human impacts on urban land surfaces and drainage intensify. The proportions of small stream and river catchment areas that are urbanised will increase. As a result, even quite moderate storms now produce quite high flows in rivers because much more of the catchment area supplies direct surface runoff from its hard surfaces and drains. Where streams flow through a series of culverts and concrete channels, they cannot adjust to changes in the frequency of heavy rain as natural streams do. They often get obstructed by silt and urban debris, particularly when houses are built close to the channels. Such situations frequently arise where poor people build their shelters on low-lying flood plains, over swamps or above the tidewater on the coast. The effects of climate change are superimposed on these people-driven local land surface modifications. The links between changes in land use and in heavy rainfall patterns, the frequency and depth of flooding and the problems of the urban poor

  9. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  10. The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Parent and Peer Influences upon Drug Use among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Abell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and…

  11. Psychosocial Influences on Suboptimal Adjuvant Breast Cancer Treatment Adherence among African American Women: Implications for Education and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magai, Carol; Consedine, Nathan S.; Adjei, Brenda A.; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Despite lower incidence, African American women are at increased risk of dying from breast cancer relative to their European American counterparts. Although there are key differences in both screening behavior and tumor characteristics, an additional part of this mortality difference may lie in the fact that African American women receive…

  12. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409

  13. The role and influence of wine awards as perceived by the South African wine consumers

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Herbst; Christiane Von Arnim

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether, in the mind of the consumer, wine awards do indeed play a significant role in influencing consumer choices. Initially, a literature review was conducted to establish the role of wine awards in wine marketing. Problem investigated: The increasing number of wine competitions appears to dilute the value of wine awards as a marketing tool. The local wine consumers are currently bombarded by a variety of wine choices and need to use ...

  14. Key information sources influencing prospective students' university choice: a South African perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbe, I.; Petzer, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Universities are facing increasingly complex trends and challenges in attracting and retaining the best students. This has coaxed university marketers to embrace marketing practices and ideas in order to acquire and retain these students. The aim of this study was to understand potential students’ decision-making with respect to what and who influences them when choosing a university. The research design is descriptive and self-administered questionnaires were fielded to first-...

  15. Detecting Communities and Surveying the Most Influence of Online Users

    OpenAIRE

    Thanh Ho; Thanh Tran; phuc Do

    2015-01-01

    Social network is a virtual environment that provides services for connecting users with the same interests, points of view, gender, space and time. Beside connection, information exchange, communication, entertainment and so on. Social network is also an environment for users who work in online business, advertisement or politics, criminal investigation. How to know what users discuss topics via exchanged contents and communities which users join in? In this paper, we propose a model by usin...

  16. African diversity from the HLA point of view: influence of genetic drift, geography, linguistics, and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2001-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of different evolutionary factors on the patterns of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic diversity within sub-Saharan Africa, and between Africa, Europe, and East Asia. This is done by comparing the significance of several statistics computed on equivalent population data sets tested for two HLA class II loci, DRB1 and DPB1, which strongly differ from each other by the shape of their allelic distributions. Similar results are found for the two loci concerning highly significant correlations between geographic and genetic distances at the world scale, high levels of genetic diversity within sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia, and low within Europe, and low genetic differentiations among the three broad continental areas, with no special divergence of Africa. On the other hand, DPB1 behaves as a neutral polymorphism, although a significant excess of heterozygotes is often observed for DRB1. Whereas the pattern observed for DPB1 is explained by geographic differentiations and genetic drift in isolated populations, balancing selection is likely to have prevented genetic differentiations among populations at the DRB1 locus. However, this selective effect did not disrupt the high correlation found between DRB1 and geography at the world scale, nor between DRB1 and linguistic differentiations at the African level.

  17. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  18. Community response to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi delivered through the expanded programme of immunization in five African settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slutsker Lawrence

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IPTi delivered through EPI has been shown to reduce the incidence of clinical malaria by 20–59%. However, new health interventions can only be effective if they are also socially and culturally acceptable. It is also crucial to ensure that attitudes to IPTi do not negatively influence attitudes to and uptake of immunization, or that people do not misunderstand IPTi as immunization against malaria and neglect other preventive measures or delay treatment seeking. Methods These issues were studied in five African countries in the context of clinical trials and implementation studies of IPTi. Mixed methods were used, including structured questionnaires (1,296, semi-structured interviews (168, in-depth interviews (748 and focus group discussions (95 with mothers, fathers, health workers, community members, opinion leaders, and traditional healers. Participant observation was also carried out in the clinics. Results IPTi was widely acceptable because it resonated with existing traditional preventive practices and a general concern about infant health and good motherhood. It also fit neatly within already widely accepted routine vaccination. Acceptance and adherence were further facilitated by the hierarchical relationship between health staff and mothers and by the fact that clinic attendance had a social function for women beyond acquiring health care. Type of drug and regimen were important, with newer drugs being seen as more effective, but potentially also more dangerous. Single dose infant formulations delivered in the clinic seem to be the most likely to be both acceptable and adhered to. There was little evidence that IPTi per se had a negative impact on attitudes to EPI or that it had any affect on EPI adherence. There was also little evidence of IPTi having a negative impact on health seeking for infants with febrile illness or existing preventive practices. Conclusion IPTi is generally acceptable across a wide range of

  19. Influences of the Agulhas Current on South African terrestrial climate as inferred from speleothem stable isotope records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, K.; Bar-Matthews, M.; Ayalon, A.; Marean, C.; Herries, A. I. R.; Zahn, R.; Matthews, A.

    2012-04-01

    South African (SA) climate is strongly influenced by the circulation systems surrounding the subcontinent. The warm tropical Agulhas Current provides large amounts of moisture, transported onshore by south-easterly trade winds during summer. As the trade wind shifts north during winter, the south-western tip of SA is especially affected by temperate westerlies. High amounts of rainfall from the Benguela region off the west coast then only affect the very south-west of the country. This seasonal pattern creates a highly variable terrestrial climate, characterized by strong E-W gradients in the seasonal distribution and amount of rainfall. As summer and winter rain is derived from sources with different properties (density, salinity, temperature), the rainfall also displays seasonal isotopic compositional variations, as for example the present mean δ18O of rainfall in Mossel Bay located in the transition region varies from ~0.13‰ in January to -6.05‰ in July. Vegetation type (C3 vs C4) also follows the rainfall regime with C4 vegetation dominating in the summer rainfall region. As part of the GATEWAYS project, speleothems are used as an excellent, high resolution, precisely dated archive of terrestrial paleoenvironmental conditions[1]. This study focuses on a speleothem record from Crevice Cave on the South African south coast (near Mossel Bay), covering the interval between ~111 and ~53 ka[1,2]. At present, the area is influenced by both summer and winter rainfall, and has mostly C3 type vegetation. Variations in the past show more positive δ18O and δ13C values in the interval corresponding to the glacial MIS 4 and indicate increased summer rainfall and C4 vegetation. This contradicts the common assumption that MIS 4 was characterized by a northward shift of the climatic belts over SA and an increase of winter rainfall and C3 vegetation in the cave area[3]. Comparison of the record to marine sediment cores from the Agulhas Retroflection area[4] and the Cape

  20. Bloggers’ Community Characteristics and Influence within Greek Political Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Vagianos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the properties of central or core political blogs. They can be located as clusters of blogs whose members have many incoming links. Other blogs form clouds around them in the sense that they link the core blogs. A case study records Greek political blogs and their incoming links reported through their blogrolls. The adjacency matrix from the blogs’ social network is analyzed and clusters are located. Three of them, those with the larger numbers of incoming links, may be considered to be central. Next, four measures of influence are used to test the influence of the central blogs. The findings suggest that there are many kinds of central blogs, influential and non-influential, and high influence does not always involve high hyperlinking.

  1. Communication and Information About “Safer Sex:” Intervention Issues Within Communities of African Migrants Living in Poorer Neighbourhoods in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Gaspar, Tania; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Reis, Marta; Ramiro, Lúcia

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the influence of migrant status on sexual behavior and communication about “safer sex” and to identify ethnic-specific prevention issues. Data were obtained from a special administration of the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey in a special sample of Portuguese schools located in low-income Lisbon neighborhoods with large proportions of African migrants. Survey participants included 919 6th, 8th and 10th graders (52.3% female), of whom 19.2% were migrant foreigners from African Portuguese-speaking countries, including Cape Verde (60.8%), Mozambique (1.6%), Angola (16.8%), S. Tomé (8%), and Guinea-Bissau (14.8%). Subsequently, four focus groups were held with adolescent who had participated in the survey (n = 45), three focus group with health and education professionals (n = 25), and one focus group with parents (n = 6). Compared with Portuguese adolescents, African migrant teens reported initial sexual intercourse at earlier ages, less frequent condom use, and less frequent and less comfortable communications with parents about sexual issues. Implications for selective prevention of STD are discussed and recommendations are made. PMID:19081810

  2. Pre- and postnatal dietary protein deficiency influences anxiety, memory and social behaviour in the African striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Neville; Rimbach, Rebecca; Rymer, Tasmin

    2016-07-01

    Dietary protein deficiency influences the behavioural phenotypes of mammals. We studied whether protein deficiency during gestation and/or post-weaning heightened anxiety, reduced memory recall and influenced competitive ability in the African striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae. Mice were subjected to five protein diet treatments, which they received continuously, or were raised on one diet to weaning and switched to an alternate diet post-weaning (Day 16): 1) HP-HP: high protein (24%); first letter pair indicates maternal diet and the second pair indicates offspring diet post-weaning; 2) BP-BP: baseline protein (19%); 3) LP-LP: low protein (10%); 4) HP-LP: switched from high to low protein diet; and 5) LP-HP: switched from low protein to high protein diet. From Day 70, when mice were sexually mature, 20 individuals (10 males, 10 females) per treatment were subjected to three successive experiments, in which we tested their anxiety responses in: 1) an open field arena (time spent in the centre of the open field); 2) novel object recognition (time spent exploring a novel object); and 3) social interactions (excluding BP-BP) in age-matched same-sex dyadic encounters (aggressive, amicable and avoidance behaviours). LP-LP and LP-HP treatment mice spent the least amount of time in the centre of the open field, did not demonstrate object preference compared to the other treatments, and were the most aggressive in dyadic encounters. Our study shows that the systemic effects of protein-deficient diets during early life shapes the behavioural phenotype in R. d. chakae, possibly through early organisation of neuro-biological pathways or competition among littermates. PMID:27080079

  3. Virtual Black Spaces: An Anthropological Exploration of African American Online Communities' Racial and Political Agency amid Virtual Universalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Kamela S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the strategic practice of virtual racial embodiment, as a case study of African Americans attempting to complicate current constructions of race and social justice in new media. I suggest that dominant racial constructions online teeter between racial stereotypes and the absence of race. Virtual racial classification and…

  4. The Transnationalization of the Akan Religion: Religion and Identity among the U.S. African American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Guedj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1965, Gus Dinizulu, an African American percussionist, traveled to Ghana with the dance company he was leading. There, he took the trip as an opportunity to explore his African roots and met Nana Oparebea, the Ghanaian chief-priestess of the Akonedi Shrine, one of the most famous shrine houses north of Accra. At the Akonedi Shrine, Nana Oparebea performed for Dinizulu a divination, during which she explained that his enslaved ancestors were parts of the Akan people of Ghana and gave him the mission to search for other African Americans who, like him, were of Ghanaian ancestries. She also offered him a set of altars, containing the spiritual forces of the deities revered in the Akonedi Shrine and asked him to import in the United States what was then labelled the Akan religion. Based on research led both in Ghana and in the United States, the aim of this paper will be to describe the process of diffusion, importation, transnationalization and indigenization of the Akan religion between West Africa and the East Coast of the United States. Focusing on ethnographic data, we will argue that this process can only be understood if it is placed in the context of African American identity formations. Therefore, we will show how in the context of globalization, religion and identity constructions are walking hand-in-hand, creating new discourses on hybridity and authenticity.

  5. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  6. Impact of attitudes and beliefs regarding African American sexual behavior on STD prevention and control in African American communities: unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jo A

    2008-12-01

    Compared to whites, blacks experience significant health disparities for sexually transmitted diseases, particularly in the rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. To develop more effective interventions to control and prevent STDs, public health practitioners should better understand and respond to factors that facilitate sexual risk-taking behaviors and impede access to STD health care and make use of factors that promote sexual health. Legacies of slavery, racism, and economic or class discrimination leave many blacks suspicious of interventions aimed at improving the welfare of their communities. Sexual behavior, in particular, has been used to justify social oppression of blacks in the United States. Although efforts to engage affected black communities in improving STD health care delivery have been undertaken, bias, prejudice, and stereotyping continue to contribute to negative experiences for many blacks across health care settings, including those involving STD care. Implementing more effective interventions to reduce the disparate burden of bacterial STDs in black communities requires accessible and acceptable STD health care. Understanding and addressing the potential impact of both provider and patient attitudes can improve these service delivery outcomes.

  7. Arctic microbial community dynamics influenced by elevated CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussaard, C. P. D.; Noordeloos, A. A. M.; Witte, H.; Collenteur, M. C. J.; Schulz, K.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-02-01

    The Arctic Ocean ecosystem is particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA) related alterations due to the relatively high CO2 solubility and low carbonate saturation states of its cold surface waters. Thus far, however, there is only little known about the consequences of OA on the base of the food web. In a mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (overall CO2 levels ranged from ~ 180 to 1100 μatm) in Kongsfjorden off Svalbard, we studied the consequences of OA on a natural pelagic microbial community. OA distinctly affected the composition and growth of the Arctic phytoplankton community, i.e. the picoeukaryotic photoautotrophs and to a lesser extent the nanophytoplankton thrived. A shift towards the smallest phytoplankton as a result of OA will have direct consequences for the structure and functioning of the pelagic food web and thus for the biogeochemical cycles. Besides being grazed, the dominant pico- and nanophytoplankton groups were found prone to viral lysis, thereby shunting the carbon accumulation in living organisms into the dissolved pools of organic carbon and subsequently affecting the efficiency of the biological pump in these Arctic waters.

  8. Arctic microbial community dynamics influenced by elevated CO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schulz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean ecosystem is particular vulnerable for ocean acidification (OA related alterations due to the relatively high CO2 solubility and low carbonate saturation states of its cold surface waters. Thus far, however, there is only little known about the consequences of OA on the base of the food web. In a mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (overall CO2 levels ranged from ∼180 to 1100 μatm in the Kongsfjord off Svalbard, we studied the consequences of OA on a natural pelagic microbial community. The most prominent finding of our study is the profound effect of OA on the composition and growth of the Arctic phytoplankton community, i.e. the picoeukaryotic photoautotrophs and to a lesser extent the nanophytoplankton prospered. A shift towards the smallest phytoplankton as a result of OA will have direct consequences for the structure and functioning of the pelagic food web and thus for the biogeochemical cycles. Furthermore, the dominant pico- and nanophytoplankton groups were found prone to viral lysis, thereby shunting the carbon accumulation in living organisms into the dissolved pools of organic carbon and subsequently affecting the efficiency of the biological pump in these Arctic waters.

  9. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  10. Book citations: influence of epidemiologic thought in the academic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porta Miquel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Whilst their 'death' has often been certified, books remain highly important to most professions and academic disciplines. Analyses of citations received by epidemiologic texts may complement other views on epidemiology. The objective was to assess the number of citations received by some books of epidemiology and public health, as a first step towards studying the influence of epidemiological thought and thinking in academia. For this purpose, Institute for Scientific Information/ Thomson Scientific - Web of Science/ Web of Knowledgedatabase was consulted, in May 2006. The book by Rothman & Greenland appeared to have received the highest number of citations overall (over 8,000 and per year. The books by Kleinbaum et al, and by Breslow & Day received around 5,000 citations. In terms of citations per year the book by Sackett et al ranks 3rd, and the one by Rose, 4th of those included in this preliminary study. Other books which were influential in the classrooms collected comparatively less citations. Results offer a rich picture of the academic influences and trends of epidemiologic methods and reasoning on public health, clinical medicine and the other health, life and social sciences. They may contribute to assess epidemiologists' efforts to demarcate epidemiology and to assert epistemic authority, and to analyze some historical influences of economic, social and political forces on epidemiological research.

  11. Innovative and Community-Guided Evaluation and Dissemination of a Prostate Cancer Education Program for African-American Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dawnyea D; Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Dubose-Morris, Ragan

    2015-12-01

    African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. The aims of this research were to (1) evaluate current education materials being implemented in a community-based prostate cancer education program for AA communities, (2) refine materials based on findings from aim 1, (3) share updated materials with participants from aim 1 for additional improvements, and (4) disseminate and evaluate the improved education program through a statewide videoconference with AA men and women. AA individuals evaluated the current education program through a mail survey (n=32) and community forum (n=38). Participants reported that the existing prostate cancer education program content could be understood by lay persons, but recommendations for improvement were identified. They included the following: defining unknown and/or scientific terminology, increasing readability by increasing font size and enlarging images, and including more recent and relevant statistics. Following refinement of the education materials based on survey and forum feedback, a statewide videoconference was implemented. Following the videoconference, participants (25 men; 3 women) reported that they would encourage others to learn more about prostate cancer, talk to their doctor about whether or not to get screened for prostate cancer, and recommend the conference to others. There is great potential for using this type of iterative approach to education program development with community and clinical partners for others conducting similar work.

  12. Rumen microbial communities influence metabolic phenotypes in lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgavi, Diego P.; Rahahao-Paris, Estelle; Popova, Milka;

    2015-01-01

    and the metabolic phenotype of lambs for identifying host-microbe associations and potential biomarkers of digestive functions. Twin lambs, separated in two groups after birth were exposed to practices (isolation and gavage with rumen fluid with protozoa or protozoa-depleted) that differentially restricted...... the acquisition of microbes. Rumen microbiota, fermentation parameters, digestibility and growth were monitored for up to 31 weeks of age. Microbiota assembled in isolation from other ruminants lacked protozoa and had low bacterial and archaeal diversity whereas digestibility was not affected. Exposure to adult...... sheep microbiota increased bacterial and archaeal diversity independently of protozoa presence. For archaea, Methanomassiliicoccales displaced Methanosphaera. Notwithstanding, protozoa induced differences in functional traits such as digestibility and significantly shaped bacterial community structure...

  13. An Examination of Users' Influence in Online HIV/AIDS Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Shi, Jingyuan; Chen, Liang; Peng, Tai-Quan

    2016-05-01

    A network perspective was adopted in this study to identify influential users in an online HIV community in China. Specifically, the indegree centrality, outdegree centrality, betweenness centrality, eigenvector centrality, and clustering coefficient of individuals were evaluated to measure the user influence in such a community. Moreover, this study examined how the digital divide, which is presently one of the major social equity issues in the information society, is associated with an individual's influence within the community. Two networks were formed on the basis of the behavioral data retrieved from the HIV community: the follower-followee network and the post-reply network. In the follower-followee network, members from areas with well-developed technologies demonstrated more connections, received more attention, and secured more critical positions in the network than their counterparts. However, such differences were insignificant in the post-reply network. PMID:27186897

  14. Strategies to Build Trust and Recruit African American and Latino Community Residents for Health Research: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaré, IC; Bross, R; Brown, AF; del Pino, HE; Jones, LF; Morris, DM; C. Porter; Lucas-Wright, A; Vargas, R.; Forge, N; Norris, KC; Kahn, KL

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Background: This study used Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) to address low participation of racial and ethnic minorities in medical research and the lack of trust between underrepresented communities and researchers. Methods: Using a community and academic partnership in July 2012, residents of a South Los Angeles neighborhood were exposed to research recruitment strategies: referral by word-of-mouth, community agencies, direct marketing, and e...

  15. The Attitudes of African American Middle School Girls Toward Computer Science: Influences of Home, School, and Technology Use

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Ashley Renee

    2015-01-01

    The number of women in computing is significantly low compared to the number of men in the discipline, with African American women making up an even smaller segment of this population. Related literature accredits this phenomenon to multiple sources, including background, stereotypes, discrimination, self-confidence, and a lack of self-efficacy or belief in one's capabilities. However, a majority of the literature fails to represent African American females in research studies. This r...

  16. Differences between African-American and Caucasian students on enrollment influences and barriers in kinesiology-based allied health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J P; Cobler, D C; Lam, Eddie T C; Zhang, James; Chitiyo, George

    2012-06-01

    Kinesiology departments have recently started to offer allied health education programs to attract additional students to teacher education units (9). Although allied health professions offer increased work opportunities, insufficient enrollment and training of minority students in these academic fields contribute to underrepresentation in the workforce (3). To improve workforce diversity, kinesiology departments must understand how enrollment influences and barriers differ by race among prospective students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify differences in allied health education enrollment influences and enrollment barriers between minority and Caucasian students. Participants (n = 601) consisted of students enrolled in kinesiology-based allied health education programs. Multivariate ANOVA was used to compare group differences in enrollment decision making. "Personal influence," "career opportunity," and "physical self-efficacy" were all significantly stronger enrollment influences among African-American students than among Caucasian students, and "social influence," "experiential opportunity," "academic preparation," and "physical self-efficacy" were all perceived as significantly greater barriers compared with Caucasian students. Findings support the need to recruit African-American students through sport and physical education settings and to market program-based experiential opportunities.

  17. Persistence of African American Men in Science: Exploring the Influence of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Breonte Stephan

    The scant literature on persistence of African American males in science typically takes a deficits-based approach to encapsulate the myriad reasons this population is so often underrepresented. Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate have, individually, been found to be related to the persistence of African American students. However, the unified impact of these three variables on the persistence of African American students with science interests has not been evaluated, and the relationship between the variables, the students' gender, and markers of academic achievement have not been previously investigated. The current study takes a strengths-based approach to evaluating the relationship between Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus climate with a population of African American students with science interests who were studying at six Minority Serving Institutions and Predominantly White Institutions in the Southern United States. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the impact of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate on Intention to Persist of African American males. The results indicate that Scientist Identity predicts Intention to Persist, and that gender, academic performance, and institution type moderate the relationship between Scientist Identity and Intention to Persist. These results lend credence to the emerging notion that, for African American men studying science, generating a greater depth and breadth of understanding of the factors that lead to persistence will aid in the development of best practices for supporting persistence among this perpetually underrepresented population.

  18. Psychometric properties of the child PTSD checklist in a community sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Boyes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed the basic psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Checklist and examined the structure of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in a large sample of South African youth. METHODOLOGY: The checklist was completed by 1025 (540 male; 485 female South African youth (aged between 10 and 19 years. The factor structure of the scale was assessed with a combination of confirmatory and exploratory techniques. Internal consistencies for the full scale and all subscales were evaluated with Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Validity was assessed by comparing PTSD scores obtained by children who had and had not experienced a traumatic event, and by examining associations between total PTSD scores and known correlates of PTSD. RESULTS: Scores on the Child PTSD Checklist clearly discriminated between youth who had experienced a traumatic event and those who had not. Internal consistencies for the full scale (and all subscales were acceptable to good and hypothesized correlations between PTSD, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and age were observed. Two of the reported fit statistics for the tripartite DSM-IV-TR model of PTSD did not meet traditional criteria and further exploratory analyses revealed a four-factor structure (broadly consistent with Simms and colleagues' Dysphoria Model of PTSD symptoms which provided a better fit to the observed data. CONCLUSION: Given the continued use of the Child PTSD Checklist in South Africa, findings offer an important first step in establishing the reliability and validity of the checklist for use with South African youth. However, further evaluation of the checklist in South African samples is clearly required before conclusions regarding its use as diagnostic tool in this context can be made.

  19. Perceptions that influence the maintenance of scientific integrity in community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and unique concerns. Understanding the perceptions that promote or discourage scientific integrity in CBPR as identified by professional and community investigators is essential to promoting the value of CBPR. This analysis explores the perceptions that facilitate scientific integrity in CBPR as well as the barriers among a sample of 74 professional and community CBPR investigators from 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. There were variations in perceptions associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Perceptions identified to promote and discourage scientific integrity in CBPR by professional and community investigators were external pressures, community participation, funding, quality control and supervision, communication, training, and character and trust. Some perceptions such as communication and training promoted scientific integrity whereas other perceptions, such as a lack of funds and lack of trust could discourage scientific integrity. These results demonstrate that one of the most important perceptions in maintaining scientific integrity in CBPR is active community participation, which enables a co-responsibility by scientists and community members to provide oversight for scientific integrity. Credible CBPR science is crucial to empower the vulnerable communities to be heard by those in positions of power and policy making.

  20. Community Psychology in South Africa: Origins, Developments, and Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, Mohamed; Lazarus, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    This article represents a South African contribution to the growing international body of knowledge on histories of community psychology. We trace the early antecedents of social-community psychology interventions and describe the social forces and academic influences that provided the impetus for the emergence and development of community…

  1. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  2. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  3. Supranational courts as engines for regional integration? A comparative study of the Southern African Development Community Tribunal, the European Union Court of Justice, and the Andean Court of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Fanenbruck, Christina; Meißner, Lenya

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of regional supranational courts in advancing integration within regional organizations by analyzing three courts. Over the course of the last decades the design of the European Court of Justice has been emulated by several other supranational courts, two of which are studied in this paper. The court of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the SADC Tribunal (SADCT), as well as the court of the Andean Community (CAN), the Andean Court of Justice (...

  4. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Snyman

    2014-01-01

    In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order ...

  5. An evaluation of the influence of environment and biogeography on community structure: the case of Holarctic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J.; Hortal, Joaquín; Nieto, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the influence of environment and biogeographical region, as a proxy for historical influence, on the ecological structure of Holarctic communities from similar environments. It is assumed that similarities among communities from similar environments in different realms are the res......Aim To evaluate the influence of environment and biogeographical region, as a proxy for historical influence, on the ecological structure of Holarctic communities from similar environments. It is assumed that similarities among communities from similar environments in different realms...... climates differ in ecological structure irrespective of their biogeographical location. On the other hand, the structures of Nearctic and Palearctic communities from regions of similar climate radically differ in some features. Thus, although present climatic conditions influence community structure...

  6. Frail bodies, courageous voices: older people influencing community care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Marian; Bennett, Gaynor

    1998-03-01

    Involving frail older users of health and social care services in decision making presents particular challenges for those committed to hearing the voices of service users. Age Concern Scotland initiated a project in Fife, the User Panels project, intended to enable older people who were unable to leave their homes without assistance to meet together to develop a collective voice expressing the needs and experiences of older service users. This paper reports on an evaluation of that project. It considers methodological questions posed by the evaluation of projects which aim to empower users, as well as discussing key findings from the evaluation. Older people were recruited through contacts in service agencies and other local organizations. The largest group was aged between 86 and 90 years and all were experiencing difficulties relating to poor health, physical frailty or disability. The project was based on a belief in the value of meeting together as a means through which people could develop the confidence to express their views. Those who became members of the panels valued this experience and reported intrinsic benefits related to the social contact, opportunities for learning and development of self-esteem. Evidence concerning enhanced capacity to exercise control over key aspects of their lives was less convincing. The work of the panels was generally well received by local social work and health agencies and had influenced local action in some areas. Responses to some issues raised by the panels generated a less positive response and the article considers reasons for this. The model is considered to demonstrate benefits both for the older people who become involved and for officials seeking to improve the sensitivity of services to the needs of older people. PMID:11560582

  7. Forest age influences oak insect herbivore community structure, richness, and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, June M; Marquis, Robert J; Forkner, Rebecca E

    2006-06-01

    Plant succession is one of many factors that may affect the composition and structure of herbivorous insect communities. However, few studies have examined the effect of forest age on the diversity and abundance of insect communities. If forest age influences insect diversity, then the schedule of timber harvest rotation may have consequent effects on biodiversity. The insect herbivore community on Quercus alba (white oak) in the Missouri Ozarks was sampled in a chronoseries, from recently harvested (2 yr) to old-growth (approximately 313 yr) forests. A total of nine sites and 39 stands within those sites were sampled in May and August 2003. Unique communities of plants and insects were found in the oldest forests (122-313 yr). Density and species richness of herbivores were positively correlated with increasing forest age in August but not in May. August insect density was negatively correlated with heat load index; in addition, insect density and richness increased over the chronoseries, but not on the sunniest slopes. Forest structural diversity (number of size classes) was positively correlated with forest age, but woody plant species richness was not. In sum, richness, density, and community structure of white oak insect herbivores are influenced by variation in forest age, forest structure, relative abundance of plant species, and abiotic conditions. These results suggest that time between harvests of large, long-lived, tree species such as white oak should be longer than current practice in order to maintain insect community diversity. PMID:16826990

  8. Book Review ~ African Youth on the Information Highway: Participation and Leadership in Community Development. Editors: O. Ogbu and P. Mihyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sciacewena

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, most African countries have been experiencing serious socio-economic problems. These include the general underdevelopment of rural areas with its attendant economic gap between urban and rural centres; high poverty levels, (both urban and rural; high population growth rates that inevitably exert excessive pressure on the education and health systems; inadequate education and health services, intolerably high illiteracy rates, and high incidence of disease. Other problems include youth unemployment attributable to, among other factors, declining employment opportunities for young people and, more recently, the HIV/ AIDS pandemic.

  9. Neighborhood Community Risk Influences on Preschool Children's Development and School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Marci J.; Miller, Angela D.; Diamond, Karen; Odom, Samuel; Lieber, Joan; Butera, Gretchen; Horn, Eva; Palmer, Susan; Fleming, Kandace

    2011-01-01

    The effects of economic hardship and language isolation in children's neighborhood communities were examined to determine their influence on young children's developmental outcomes on measures of academic and social skills above and beyond child and family characteristics that included home language, disability, gender, and mother's education…

  10. Measuring the Accountability of CTE Programs: Factors that Influence Postcollege Earnings among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kenneth J.; Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos; Friedel, Janice N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study specific factors were examined to determine their ability to influence fifth-year earnings of community college students in the Manufacturing/Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) career cluster and the Arts/Audiovisual/Technology/ Communication career cluster. State and national data sets from Iowa's Management…

  11. Perceptions That Influence the Maintenance of Scientific Integrity in Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and…

  12. Evaluating Iowa Community College Student Demographics, Characteristics, Enrollment Factors, and Educational Goals Influence on Retention Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchley-McAvoy, Joan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence that previously researched and affirmed persistence and early withdrawal factors such as student demographics, enrollment status factors, student characteristics, and student educational goals had on Iowa community college retention rates for the 2005, 2007, and 2009 academic years. It is the researcher's…

  13. Effects of a community intervention on HIV prevention behaviors among men who experienced childhood sexual or physical abuse in four African settings: findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Daniels

    Full Text Available There is increased focus on HIV prevention with African men who report experiencing childhood sexual (CSA or physical abuse (CPA.To better understand the effects of a community-based intervention (Project Accept HPTN 043 on HIV prevention behaviors among men who report CSA or CPA experiences.Project Accept compared a community-based voluntary mobile counseling and testing (CBVCT intervention with standard VCT. The intervention employed individual HIV risk reduction planning with motivational interviewing in 34 African communities (16 communities at 2 sites in South Africa, 10 in Tanzania, and 8 in Zimbabwe. Communities were randomized unblinded in matched pairs to CBVCT or SVCT, delivered over 36 months. The post-intervention assessment was conducted using a single, cross-sectional random survey of 18-32 year-old community members (total N = 43,292. We analyzed the effect of the intervention on men with reported CSA or CPA across the African sites. Men were identified with a survey question asking about having experienced CSA or CPA across the lifespan. The effect of intervention on considered outcomes of the preventive behavior was statistically evaluated using the logistic regression models.Across the sites, the rates of CSA or CPA among men indicated that African men reflected the global prevalence (20% with a range of 13-24%. The statistically significant effect of the intervention among these men was seen in their increased effort to receive their HIV test results (OR 2.71; CI: (1.08, 6.82; P: 0.034. The intervention effect on the other designated HIV prevention behaviors was less pronounced.The effect of the intervention on these men showed increased motivation to receive their HIV test results. However, more research is needed to understand the effects of community-based interventions on this group, and such interventions need to integrate other keys predictors of HIV including trauma, coping strategies, and intimate partner violence.

  14. Beyond the cathedral: building trust to engage the African American community in health promotion and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Angela F; Reddick, Karen; Browne, Mario C; Robins, Anthony; Thomas, Stephen B; Crouse Quinn, Sandra

    2009-10-01

    Effective efforts to eliminate health disparities must be grounded in strong community partnerships and trusting relationships between academic institutions and minority communities. However, there are often barriers to such efforts, including the frequent need to rely on time-limited funding mechanisms that take categorical approaches. This article provides an overview of health promotion and disease prevention projects implemented through the Community Outreach and Information Dissemination Core (COID) of the Center for Minority Health, within the Graduate School of Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh. The COID is one of five Cores that comprised the University of Pittsburgh's NIH Excellence in Partnerships for Community Outreach, and Research on Disparities in Health and Training (EXPORT Health) funded from 2002 to 2007 by the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Based in large part on the success of the community engagement activities, in 2007, the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health, designated the CMH as a Research Center of Excellence on Minority Health Disparities. COID major initiatives included the Community Research Advisory Board, Health Disparity Working Groups, Health Advocates in Reach, Healthy Class of 2010, and the Healthy Black Family Project. Lessons learned may provide guidance to other academic institutions, community-based organizations, and health departments who seek to engage minority communities in changing social norms to support health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:19809000

  15. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Snyman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order to garner their support. Although the results of these policies were mixed, it is clear that the future success of conservation and, consequently, ecotourism in many areas will depend on the attitudes and behaviour of communities living in or adjacent to protected areas. Managing and understanding community expectations and attitudes under varying socio-economic circumstances will lead to more efficient, equitable and sustainable community-based conservation and ecotourism models. This study was based on 1400 community interview schedules conducted in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, allowing for an accurate comparison of attitudes across countries, protected areas and communities. The results highlighted important demographic and socio-economic factors to consider in terms of understanding the attitudes of those living in and around protected areas. Suggestions were put forward for managing community relationships and garnering long-term support for protected areas and ecotourism. Conservation implications: It was observed that, in general, community members living in or adjacent to conservation areas in southern Africa have an understanding and appreciation of the importance of conservation. Formal education was found to positively impact attitudes and human–wildlife conflict negatively impacted attitudes, highlighting important policy focus areas.

  16. Dissemination Matters: Influences of Dissemination Activities on User Types in an Online Educational Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emerging online educational communities provide spaces for teachers to find resources, create instructional activities, and share these activities with others. Within these online communities, individual users’ activities may vary widely, and thus different user types can be identified. In addition, users’ patterns of activities in online communities are dynamic, and further can be affected by dissemination activities. Through analyzing usage analytics in an online teacher community called the Instructional Architect, this study explores the influences of dissemination activities on the usage patterns of different user types. Results show that dissemination activities can play an important role in encouraging users’ active participation, while the absence of dissemination activities can further increase participation inequality.

  17. Biological support media influence the bacterial biofouling community in reverse osmosis water reclamation demonstration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Taberna, Elisenda; Sanz, Joan; Sánchez, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of the bacterial community developed in different stages of two reverse osmosis (RO) water reclamation demonstration plants designed in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tarragona (Spain) was characterized by applying 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The plants were fed by secondary treated effluent to a conventional pretreatment train prior to the two-pass RO system. Plants differed in the material used in the filtration process, which was sand in one demonstration plant and Scandinavian schists in the second plant. The results showed the presence of a highly diverse and complex community in the biofilms, mainly composed of members of the Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in all stages, with the presence of some typical wastewater bacteria, suggesting a feed water origin. Community similarities analyses revealed that samples clustered according to filter type, highlighting the critical influence of the biological supporting medium in biofilm community structure.

  18. Social integration of Latin-American immigrants in Spain: the influence of the community context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, Asur; Herrero, Juan

    2012-11-01

    The main goal of this study is to analyze the degree to which several community elements such as insecurity, discrimination and informal community support might have an influence on the social integration of Latin-American immigrants, a group at risk of social exclusion in Spain. Multivariate linear regression analyses results showed that informal community support is positively related to social integration whereas insecurity is negatively related. The statistical relationship between discrimination and social integration disappears once levels of informal community support are taken into account. A better understanding of the factors that either promote or inhibit the social integration progress of immigrant population is important to orientate public policies and intervention programs that contribute to the adaptation of this population to the host society. PMID:23156925

  19. Breaking the Silence: The Influence of Class,Culture and Colonisation on African Women's Fight for Emancipation and Equality in Tsitsi Dangarembga's Nervous Conditions and Chimamanda Adichie's Purple Hibiscus

    OpenAIRE

    Corneliussen, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This thesis will examine how colonisation has influenced the African women’s fight for emancipation and equality as depicted in Nervous Conditions (1988) by Tsitsi Dangarembga and Purple Hibiscus (2003) by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. Dangarembga and Adichie individually are contemporary African post-colonial writers who have drawn worldwide attention with their novels about young women’s fight to be heard and seen in their respective societies. Their stories independently depict problems such a...

  20. Environmental context and magnitude of disturbance influence trait-mediated community responses to wastewater in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Francis J; Reyes, Marta; Alder, Alfredo C; Joss, Adriano; Ort, Christoph; Räsänen, Katja; Jokela, Jukka; Eggen, Rik I L; Stamm, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Human land uses and population growth represent major global threats to biodiversity and ecosystem services. Understanding how biological communities respond to multiple drivers of human-induced environmental change is fundamental for conserving ecosystems and remediating degraded habitats. Here, we used a replicated 'real-world experiment' to study the responses of invertebrate communities to wastewater perturbations across a land-use intensity gradient in 12 Swiss streams. We used different taxonomy and trait-based community descriptors to establish the most sensitive indicators detecting impacts and to help elucidate potential causal mechanisms of change. First, we predicted that streams in catchments adversely impacted by human land-uses would be less impaired by wastewater inputs because their invertebrate communities should be dominated by pollution-tolerant taxa ('environmental context'). Second, we predicted that the negative effects of wastewater on stream invertebrate communities should be larger in streams that receive proportionally more wastewater ('magnitude of disturbance'). In support of the 'environmental context' hypothesis, we found that change in the Saprobic Index (a trait-based indicator of tolerance to organic pollution) was associated with upstream community composition; communities in catchments with intensive agricultural land uses (e.g., arable cropping and pasture) were generally more resistant to eutrophication associated with wastewater inputs. We also found support for the 'magnitude of disturbance' hypothesis. The SPEAR Index (a trait-based indicator of sensitivity to pesticides) was more sensitive to the relative input of effluent, suggesting that toxic influences of wastewater scale with dilution. Whilst freshwater pollution continues to be a major environmental problem, our findings highlight that the same anthropogenic pressure (i.e., inputs of wastewater) may induce different ecological responses depending on the environmental

  1. Factors that influence the beta-diversity of spider communities in northwestern Argentinean Grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Artigas, Sandra M; Ballester, Rodrigo; Corronca, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Beta-diversity, defined as spatial replacement in species composition, is crucial to the understanding of how local communities assemble. These changes can be driven by environmental or geographic factors (such as geographic distance), or a combination of the two. Spiders have been shown to be good indicators of environmental quality. Accordingly, spiders are used in this work as model taxa to establish whether there is a decrease in community similarity that corresponds to geographic distance in the grasslands of the Campos & Malezales ecoregion (Corrientes). Furthermore, the influence of climactic factors and local vegetation heterogeneity (environmental factors) on assemblage composition was evaluated. Finally, this study evaluated whether the differential dispersal capacity of spider families is a factor that influences their community structure at a regional scale. Spiders were collected with a G-Vac from vegetation in six grassland sites in the Campos & Malezales ecoregion that were separated by a minimum of 13 km. With this data, the impact of alpha-diversity and different environmental variables on the beta-diversity of spider communities was analysed. Likewise, the importance of species replacement and nesting on beta-diversity and their contribution to the regional diversity of spider families with different dispersion capacities was evaluated. The regional and site-specific inventories obtained were complete. The similarity between spider communities declined as the geographic distance between sites increased. Environmental variables also influenced community composition; stochastic events and abiotic forces were the principal intervening factors in assembly structure. The differential dispersal capacity of spider groups also influenced community structure at a regional scale. The regional beta-diversity, as well as species replacement, was greater in high and intermediate vagility spiders; while nesting was greater in spiders with low dispersion

  2. Factors that influence the beta-diversity of spider communities in northwestern Argentinean Grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Artigas, Sandra M; Ballester, Rodrigo; Corronca, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Beta-diversity, defined as spatial replacement in species composition, is crucial to the understanding of how local communities assemble. These changes can be driven by environmental or geographic factors (such as geographic distance), or a combination of the two. Spiders have been shown to be good indicators of environmental quality. Accordingly, spiders are used in this work as model taxa to establish whether there is a decrease in community similarity that corresponds to geographic distance in the grasslands of the Campos & Malezales ecoregion (Corrientes). Furthermore, the influence of climactic factors and local vegetation heterogeneity (environmental factors) on assemblage composition was evaluated. Finally, this study evaluated whether the differential dispersal capacity of spider families is a factor that influences their community structure at a regional scale. Spiders were collected with a G-Vac from vegetation in six grassland sites in the Campos & Malezales ecoregion that were separated by a minimum of 13 km. With this data, the impact of alpha-diversity and different environmental variables on the beta-diversity of spider communities was analysed. Likewise, the importance of species replacement and nesting on beta-diversity and their contribution to the regional diversity of spider families with different dispersion capacities was evaluated. The regional and site-specific inventories obtained were complete. The similarity between spider communities declined as the geographic distance between sites increased. Environmental variables also influenced community composition; stochastic events and abiotic forces were the principal intervening factors in assembly structure. The differential dispersal capacity of spider groups also influenced community structure at a regional scale. The regional beta-diversity, as well as species replacement, was greater in high and intermediate vagility spiders; while nesting was greater in spiders with low dispersion

  3. Factors that influence the beta-diversity of spider communities in northwestern Argentinean Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Artigas, Sandra M.; Ballester, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Beta-diversity, defined as spatial replacement in species composition, is crucial to the understanding of how local communities assemble. These changes can be driven by environmental or geographic factors (such as geographic distance), or a combination of the two. Spiders have been shown to be good indicators of environmental quality. Accordingly, spiders are used in this work as model taxa to establish whether there is a decrease in community similarity that corresponds to geographic distance in the grasslands of the Campos & Malezales ecoregion (Corrientes). Furthermore, the influence of climactic factors and local vegetation heterogeneity (environmental factors) on assemblage composition was evaluated. Finally, this study evaluated whether the differential dispersal capacity of spider families is a factor that influences their community structure at a regional scale. Spiders were collected with a G-Vac from vegetation in six grassland sites in the Campos & Malezales ecoregion that were separated by a minimum of 13 km. With this data, the impact of alpha-diversity and different environmental variables on the beta-diversity of spider communities was analysed. Likewise, the importance of species replacement and nesting on beta-diversity and their contribution to the regional diversity of spider families with different dispersion capacities was evaluated. The regional and site-specific inventories obtained were complete. The similarity between spider communities declined as the geographic distance between sites increased. Environmental variables also influenced community composition; stochastic events and abiotic forces were the principal intervening factors in assembly structure. The differential dispersal capacity of spider groups also influenced community structure at a regional scale. The regional beta-diversity, as well as species replacement, was greater in high and intermediate vagility spiders; while nesting was greater in spiders with low dispersion

  4. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M.; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1(act)) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1(act) and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, fu

  5. How Homes Influence Schools: Early Parenting Predicts African American Children's Classroom Social-Emotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control,…

  6. Argumentation and Indigenous Knowledge: Socio-Historical Influences in Contextualizing an Argumentation Model in South African Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard Martinez, Alejandro J.

    2011-01-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and…

  7. Aboveground and belowground arthropods experience different relative influences of stochastic versus deterministic community assembly processes following disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alexander S.; Faist, Akasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces. Methods Using a disturbance gradient along a 5-year chronosequence of insect-induced tree mortality in a subalpine forest of the southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA, we examined changes in community structure and relative influences of deterministic and stochastic processes in the assembly of aboveground (surface and litter-active species) and belowground (species active in organic and mineral soil layers) arthropod communities. Arthropods were sampled for all years of the chronosequence via pitfall traps (aboveground community) and modified Winkler funnels (belowground community) and sorted to morphospecies. Community structure of both communities were assessed via comparisons of morphospecies abundance, diversity, and composition. Assembly processes were inferred from a mixture of linear models and matrix correlations testing for community associations with environmental properties, and from null-deviation models comparing observed vs. expected levels of species turnover (Beta diversity) among samples. Results Tree mortality altered community structure in both aboveground and belowground arthropod communities, but null models suggested that aboveground communities experienced greater relative influences of deterministic processes, while the relative influence of stochastic processes increased for belowground communities. Additionally, Mantel tests and linear regression models revealed significant associations between the aboveground arthropod

  8. Eliciting community knowledge about uses of trees through participatory rural appraisal methods: Examples from Cameroon and the Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Vabi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, development-oriented scientists have focused attention on improving methodological approaches for generating information from the village communities with whom they work. Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) and

  9. Factors Influencing Local Communities' Satisfaction Levels with Different Forest Management Approaches of Kakamega Forest, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthiga, Paul M.; Mburu, John; Holm-Mueller, Karin

    2008-05-01

    Satisfaction of communities living close to forests with forest management authorities is essential for ensuring continued support for conservation efforts. However, more often than not, community satisfaction is not systematically elicited, analyzed, and incorporated in conservation decisions. This study attempts to elicit levels of community satisfaction with three management approaches of Kakamega forest in Kenya and analyze factors influencing them. Three distinct management approaches are applied by three different authorities: an incentive-based approach of the Forest Department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), and a quasi-private incentive-based approach of Quakers Church Mission (QCM). Data was obtained from a random sample of about 360 households living within a 10-km radius around the forest margin. The protectionist approach was ranked highest overall for its performance in forest management. Results indicate that households are influenced by different factors in their ranking of management approaches. Educated households and those located far from market centers are likely to be dissatisfied with all the three management approaches. The location of the households from the forest margin influences negatively the satisfaction with the protectionist approach, whereas land size, a proxy for durable assets, has a similar effect on the private incentive based approach of the QCM. In conclusion, this article indicates a number of policy implications that can enable the different authorities and their management approaches to gain approval of the local communities.

  10. Influence of environmental variables on the Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata community in a neotropical stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Rossi Gorni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the organisms of the benthic community, oligochaetes play a key role in the energy flow and recycling of organic matter in aquatic ecosystems, where their distribution is mainly influenced by local hydrological patterns. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the influence of environmental variables on the community of limnic oligochaetes in a neotropical lotic system. Galharada stream is located within the Campos do Jordão State Park (PECJ, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 1,600 m above sea level; 192 samples were collected from 4 sites selected according to their hierarchical order within the river basin (first to fourth order. To correlate the environmental variables to the oligochaete fauna, the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was performed. We identified 16 species divided into 4 families (Enchytraeidae, Naididae, Pristinidae, and Tubificidae. The results of CCA revealed that the physical characteristics of stretches, such as stream depth and width, flow speed, and flow rate were the factors that most influenced on the structure of the aquatic Oligochaeta community in Campos do Jordão. The species Aulodrilus limnobius and Nais communis were considered along with the variables electrical conductivity and turbidity, indicating a possible association with environments enriched with organic matter. The occurrence of Enchytraeidae, Pristina rosea, Chaetogaster diastrophus, Pristina proboscidea, and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri was seemingly uncorrelated to the environmental variables analyzed in this study. Our findings reinforce using the Oligochaeta community as bioindicators, by participating in the environmental assessment of continental aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Generating Social Capital at the Workplace: A South African Case of Inside-Out Social Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Ken; Onyx, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    A case study of a South African workplace illustrated how workplace learning and experience of team culture influenced changes in workers' family life and community participation. Results showed how social capital is generated from within for the benefit of civil society. (Contains 35 references.) (SK)

  12. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  13. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  14. The potential influence of Asian and African mineral dust on ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiacek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This modelling study explores the availability of mineral dust particles as ice nuclei for interactions with ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds, also tracking the particles' history of cloud-processing. We performed 61 320 one-week forward trajectory calculations originating near the surface of major dust emitting regions in Africa and Asia using high-resolution meteorological analysis fields for the year 2007. Dust-bearing trajectories were assumed to be those coinciding with known dust emission seasons, without explicitly modelling dust emission and deposition processes. We found that dust emissions from Asian deserts lead to a higher potential for interactions with high ice clouds, despite being the climatologically much smaller dust emission source. This is due to Asian regions experiencing significantly more ascent than African regions, with strongest ascent in the Asian Taklimakan desert at ~25%, ~40% and 10% of trajectories ascending to 300 hPa in spring, summer and fall, respectively. The specific humidity at each trajectory's starting point was transported in a Lagrangian manner and relative humidities with respect to water and ice were calculated in 6-h steps downstream, allowing us to estimate the formation of liquid, mixed-phase and ice clouds. Downstream of the investigated dust sources, practically none of the simulated air parcels reached conditions of homogeneous ice nucleation (T≲−40 °C along trajectories that have not experienced water saturation first. By far the largest fraction of cloud forming trajectories entered conditions of mixed-phase clouds, where mineral dust will potentially exert the biggest influence. The majority of trajectories also passed through atmospheric regions supersaturated with respect to ice but subsaturated with respect to water, where so-called "warm ice clouds" (T≳−40 °C theoretically may form prior to supercooled water or mixed-phase clouds. The importance of "warm ice

  15. The Influence of African Dust on Air Quality in the Caribbean Basin: An Integrated Analysis of Satellite Retrievals, Ground Observations, and Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Prospero, J. M.; Chin, M.; Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term surface measurements in several locations extending from northeastern coast of South America to Miami in Florida have shown that African dust arrives in the Greater Caribbean Basin throughout a year. This long-range transported dust frequently elevates the level of particulate matter (PM) above the WHO guideline for PM10, which raises a concern of possible adverse impact of African dust on human health in the region. There is also concern about how future climate change might affect dust transport and its influence on regional air quality. In this presentation we provide a comprehensive characterization of the influence of African dust on air quality in the Caribbean Basin via integrating the ground observations with satellite retrievals and model simulations. The ground observations are used to validate and evaluate satellite retrievals and model simulations of dust, while satellite measurements and model simulations are used to extend spatial coverage of the ground observations. An analysis of CALIPSO lidar measurements of three-dimensional distribution of aerosols over 2007-2014 yields altitude-resolved dust mass flux into the region. On a basis of 8-year average and integration over the latitude zone of 0°-30°N, a total of 76 Tg dust is imported to the air above the Greater Caribbean Basin, of which 34 Tg (or 45%) is within the lowest 1 km layer and most relevant to air quality concern. The seasonal and interannual variations of the dust import are well correlated with ground observations of dust in Cayenne, Barbados, Puerto Rico, and Miami. We will also show comparisons of the size-resolved dust amount from both NASA GEOS-5 aerosol simulation and MERRA-2 aerosol reanalysis (i.e., column aerosol loading being constrained by satellite measurements of radiance at the top of atmosphere) with the ground observations and satellite measurement.

  16. Influences on the structure of suburban ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) communities and the abundance of Tapinoma sessile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toennisson, T A; Sanders, N J; Klingeman, W E; Vail, K M

    2011-12-01

    Urbanization can alter the organization of ant communities and affect populations of urban pest ants. In this study, we sampled ant communities in urban and suburban yards to understand the habitat factors that shape these communities and influence the abundance of a common pest species, Tapinoma sessile (Say). We used pitfall traps to sample ant communities and a combination of pitfall traps and baiting to collect T. sessile at 24 sites in Knoxville, TN. In total, we collected 46 ant species. Ant species richness ranged from seven to 24 species per yard. Ant species richness tended to be lowest near houses, whereas T. sessile abundance was highest near houses. The best predictors of ant species richness in yards were canopy cover and presence of leaf litter: ant species richness peaked at mid-levels of canopy cover and was negatively correlated with the presence of leaf litter. Tapinoma sessile abundance increased with presence of logs, boards, or landscaping timbers and leaf litter in yards. Our results indicate that ant communities and the abundance of particular pest species in these urban and suburban landscapes are shaped by many of the same factors that structure ant communities in less anthropogenically disturbed environments. PMID:22217754

  17. Leadership in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masango

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In addition, many brilliant minds left the continent in search of greener pastures. A review of these three eras will help us understand how leadership shifted from African values into Western concepts. The role of missionaries lead African people to live with both an African and a Western concept of life. In spite of the above problems, our past leaders did their best in addressing the difficulties they faced during the three eras. African concepts of leadership were often regarded as barbaric and uncultured. Structures were evaluated by Western standards. Due to globalisation, African leaders, through programmes like NEPAD, are going back to basics, drawing on African concepts of unity among its leadership. Effectiveness or life-giving leadership is emerging and empowering villagers/communities in the continent. This type of leadership is innovative and has brought new hope for the continent.

  18. Comparisons of the composition and biogeographic distribution of the bacterial communities occupying South African thermal springs with those inhabiting deep subsurface fracture water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara eMagnabosco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has numerous thermal springs that represent topographically driven meteoric water migrating along major fracture zones. The temperature (40-70°C and pH (8-9 of the thermal springs in the Limpopo Province are very similar to those of the low salinity fracture water encountered in the South African mines at depths ranging from 1.0 to 3.1 km. The major cation and anion composition of these thermal springs are very similar to that of the deep fracture water with the exception of the dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved O2, both of which are typically higher in the springs than in the deep fracture water. The in situ biological relatedness of such thermal springs and the subsurface fracture fluids that feed them has not previously been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the microbial diversity of six thermal spring and six subsurface sites in South Africa using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions. Proteobacteria were identified as the dominant phylum within both subsurface and thermal spring environments, but only one genera, Rheinheimera, was identified among all samples. Using Morisita similarity indices as a metric for pairwise comparisons between sites, we found that the communities of thermal springs are highly distinct from subsurface datasets. Although the Limpopo thermal springs do not appear to provide a new window for viewing subsurface bacterial communities, we report that the taxonomic compositions of the subsurface sites studied are more similar than previous results would indicate and provide evidence that the microbial communities sampled at depth are more correlated to subsurface conditions than geographical distance.

  19. Comparisons of the composition and biogeographic distribution of the bacterial communities occupying South African thermal springs with those inhabiting deep subsurface fracture water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco, Cara; Tekere, Memory; Lau, Maggie C Y; Linage, Borja; Kuloyo, Olukayode; Erasmus, Mariana; Cason, Errol; van Heerden, Esta; Borgonie, Gaetan; Kieft, Thomas L; Olivier, Jana; Onstott, Tullis C

    2014-01-01

    South Africa has numerous thermal springs that represent topographically driven meteoric water migrating along major fracture zones. The temperature (40-70°C) and pH (8-9) of the thermal springs in the Limpopo Province are very similar to those of the low salinity fracture water encountered in the South African mines at depths ranging from 1.0 to 3.1 km. The major cation and anion composition of these thermal springs are very similar to that of the deep fracture water with the exception of the dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved O2, both of which are typically higher in the springs than in the deep fracture water. The in situ biological relatedness of such thermal springs and the subsurface fracture fluids that feed them has not previously been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the microbial diversity of six thermal spring and six subsurface sites in South Africa using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions. Proteobacteria were identified as the dominant phylum within both subsurface and thermal spring environments, but only one genera, Rheinheimera, was identified among all samples. Using Morisita similarity indices as a metric for pairwise comparisons between sites, we found that the communities of thermal springs are highly distinct from subsurface datasets. Although the Limpopo thermal springs do not appear to provide a new window for viewing subsurface bacterial communities, we report that the taxonomic compositions of the subsurface sites studied are more similar than previous results would indicate and provide evidence that the microbial communities sampled at depth are more correlated to subsurface conditions than geographical distance. PMID:25566203

  20. Influencing consumer engagement in online customer communities: The role of interactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Mpinganjira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article was to investigate consumer engagement in online customer communities and the influence of interactivity on it. A conceptual model linking different dimensions of interactivity and consumer engagement was proposed and tested.Rationale: The ability of managers to ensure high levels of consumer engagement depends on them gaining a good understanding of the concept, its manifestations in their context, as well as factors that influence it. This article aims at contributing to this understanding in the context of online customer communities.Methodology: The article followed a quantitative research approach. Data were collected from 303 members of online customer communities based in Gauteng, South Africa. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses proposed in the article.Findings and implications: The results showed that system-related dimensions of interactivity and human interactivity are positively associated with consumer psychological engagement. Psychological engagement was in turn found to be positively associated with behavioural engagement. The findings point to the need for managers to pay attention to system and human related interactivity if they are to influence consumer engagement levels on their sites.Originality and value of research: Little research exists on consumer engagement, resulting in limited understanding of the concept as well as its antecedents. Focusing on online customer communities, this article contributes to addressing this gap in literature. Managers of online customer communities can use the findings to monitor levels of consumer engagement on their sites and find ways of enhancing it.

  1. Dust exposure and pneumoconiosis in a South African pottery. 2. Pneumoconiosis and factors influencing reading of radiological opacities.

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, D; Steinberg, M; P. J. Becker; Solomon, A

    1992-01-01

    A cross sectional radiological survey of workers exposed to pottery dust during the manufacture of wall tiles and bathroom fittings was conducted in a South African factory. Roughly one third of workers with 15 or more years of service in high dust sections of the factory had pneumoconiosis. Previously undiagnosed advanced cases, including two with progressive massive fibrosis, were working in dusty occupations. A firm diagnosis of potters' pneumoconiosis was made in 11 of the 358 workers rad...

  2. Influence of reward preferences in attracting, retaining, and motivating knowledge workers in South African information technology companies

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Bussin; Wernardt C. Toerien

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The world of work is evolving and the nature of relationships between knowledge workers and their employers has changed distinctly, leading to a change in the type of rewards they prefer. The nature of these preferences in the South African, industry-specific context is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to deepen understanding of the reward preferences of Information technology (IT) knowledge workers in South Africa, specifically as these relate to the attraction, rete...

  3. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer Anneke; Sagvolden Terje

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1) Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2) Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3) Are there gender differences? (4) Is there an effect of age? (5) Are the...

  4. Petroleum-influenced beach sediments of the campeche bank, Mexico: Diversity and bacterial community structure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mexican, either spilled or seeped out petroleum impacts nearly 300 km of the beach between Dos Bocas (Tabasco State) to Champoton town (Campeche State), where between 9 to exceptionally 9 to exceptionally 300 tonnes of oil as tar balls have been measured. This study was focused to explore, for the first time, the bacterial diversity and community structure (α-diversity)- in a kilometric scale on petroleum influenced sediments of 100 km of sandy beach. (Author)

  5. Multiple Levels of Influence on Older Adults’ Attendance and Adherence to Community Exercise Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley-Hague, Helen; Horne, Maria; Campbell, Malcolm; Demack, Sean; Skelton, Dawn A; Todd, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of individual participant, instructor, and group factors on participants’ attendance and adherence to community exercise classes for older adults. Design and Methods: Longitudinal data from 16 instructors, 26 classes, and 193 older participants within those classes (aged 60–100 years) were examined. Data were collected using questionnaires on individual participants’ demographics, attitudes, health perceptions and conditions, and group cohesion. Instructors’ ...

  6. Waste Sorting Habits by the Community of Kaunas University of Technology, Reasons and Influencing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Toma Adomavičiūtė; Jolita Kruopienė; Visvaldas Varžinskas; Inga Gurauskienė

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the waste management system at Kaunas University of Technology, surveys the waste sorting habits of its community, both students and employees, and analyses the reasons and factors influencing waste sorting and non-sorting. The introduction of a separate paper waste collection system has made it possible to reduce the amount of mixed waste by 25% during the first three months of its functioning. 58% of employees and 45% of students sort some of their waste partly, 23% of ...

  7. Sanitation, fish handling and artisanal fish processing within fishing communities: socio-cultural influences

    OpenAIRE

    Odongkara, K.O.; Kyangwa, I.

    2005-01-01

    postive transformation of the fisheries sector in Uganda has of recent been scatted by failure to mountain fish quality and safety,akey prerequiste for retaining and gaining fish markets. The social cultural study established the extent to which social cutural practices had affected the levels and the use of sanitation facilities,fish handling facilities and artisanal fish processing techniques and the factors that influenced these practices in the fishing communities of lake victoria. ...

  8. Biofield and Fungicide Seed Treatment Influences on Soybean Productivity,Seed Quality and Weed Community

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Soybean production in Iowa USA is among the most productive for raínfed regions in the world. Despite generally having excellent soils, growing season temperatures and rainfall, soybean yields are decreased by weed interference and inadequate available soil water at key stages of crop development. A field study was conducted at two locations in lowa in 2012 to determine if seed-applied fungicide or biofield treatments influenced weed community, soil volumetric water concentration and s...

  9. Petroleum-influenced beach sediments of the campeche bank, Mexico: Diversity and bacterial community structure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosano-Hernandez, M. C.; Ramirez-Saad, H.; Fernandez-Linares, L.; Xoconostle, B.

    2009-07-01

    In Mexican, either spilled or seeped out petroleum impacts nearly 300 km of the beach between Dos Bocas (Tabasco State) to Champoton town (Campeche State), where between 9 to exceptionally 9 to exceptionally 300 tonnes of oil as tar balls have been measured. This study was focused to explore, for the first time, the bacterial diversity and community structure ({alpha}-diversity)- in a kilometric scale on petroleum influenced sediments of 100 km of sandy beach. (Author)

  10. Influence of microbial community structure of seed sludge on the properties of aerobic nitrifying granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiwei; Li, Ting; Wang, Qiuxu; Pan, Yu; Li, Lixin

    2015-09-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of microbial community structure of seed sludge on the properties of aerobic nitrifying granules, these granules were cultivated with different seed sludge, and the variation of microbial community and dominant bacterial groups that impact the nitrogen removal efficiency of the aerobic nitrifying granules were analyzed and identified using 16s rDNA sequence and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles. The results presented here demonstrated that the influence of the community structure of seed sludge on the properties of aerobic nitrifying granules was remarkable, and the granules cultivated by activated sludge from a beer wastewater treatment plant showed better performance, with a stable sludge volume index (SVI) value of 20mL/g, high extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content of 183.3mg/L, high NH4(+)-N removal rate of 89.42% and abundant microbial population with 10 dominant bacterial groups. This indicated that activated sludge with abundant communities is suitable for use as seed sludge in culturing aerobic nitrifying granules. PMID:26354703

  11. Influent wastewater microbiota and temperature influence anaerobic membrane bioreactor microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, M D; Berg, K J; Zitomer, D H

    2016-09-01

    Sustainable municipal wastewater recovery scenarios highlight benefits of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs). However, influences of continuous seeding by influent wastewater and temperature on attached-growth AnMBRs are not well understood. In this study, four bench-scale AnMBR operated at 10 and 25°C were fed synthetic (SPE) and then real (PE) primary effluent municipal wastewater. Illumina sequencing revealed different bacterial communities in each AnMBR in response to temperature and bioreactor configuration, whereas differences were not observed in archaeal communities. Activity assays revealed hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant methanogenic pathway at 10°C. The significant relative abundance of Methanosaeta at 10°C concomitant with low acetoclastic methanogenic activity may indicate possible Methanosaeta-Geobacter direct interspecies electron transfer. When AnMBR feed was changed to PE, continual seeding with wastewater microbiota caused AnMBR microbial communities to shift, becoming more similar to PE microbiota. Therefore, influent wastewater microbiota, temperature and reactor configuration influenced the AnMBR microbial community. PMID:27262719

  12. Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Approach to Developing an HIV Prevention Intervention in Rural African American Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Akers, Aletha; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Wynn, Mysha; Muhammad, Melvin; Stith, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Southeastern states are among the hardest hit by the HIV epidemic in this country, and racial disparities in HIV rates are high in this region. This is particularly true in our communities of interest in rural eastern North Carolina. Although most recent efforts to prevent HIV attempt to address multiple contributing factors, we have found few…

  13. Forest management type influences diversity and community composition of soil fungi across temperate forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezia eGoldmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive towards shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L., with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L. or spruce (Picea abies Karst. which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure.We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal OTU richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera.This study extends our knowledge

  14. Forest Management Type Influences Diversity and Community Composition of Soil Fungi across Temperate Forest Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schöning, Ingo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive toward shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or spruce (Picea abies Karst.) which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure. We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal operational taxonomic units richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera. This study extends our

  15. Social distance and stigma toward individuals with schizophrenia: findings in an urban, African-American community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Beth; Goulding, Sandra M; Talley, Colin L; Compton, Michael T

    2012-11-01

    Because schizophrenia is arguably among the most stigmatized health conditions, research assessing correlates of stigma is essential. This study examined factors associated with stigma in predominantly Protestant, low-income, urban African Americans in the Southeastern United States. A survey was distributed to 282 patrons of an inner-city food court/farmers' market. Associations were assessed between two measures of stigma--an adapted version of the Social Distance Scale (SDS) and a Semantic Differential Measure (SDM) of attributes such as dangerousness, dirtiness, and worthlessness--and several key variables addressing sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to/familiarity with mental illnesses. Independent predictors of scores on the two measures were identified using linear regression modeling. Higher stigma (as measured by the SDM) was predicted by a family history of psychiatric treatment, whereas lower stigma (as indicated by the SDS) was predicted by personal psychiatric treatment history and higher annual income. The results suggest special considerations when working with disenfranchised populations, especially family members of individuals with mental illnesses, in treatment settings. PMID:23124176

  16. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  17. Influence of elevated ozone concentration on methanotrophic bacterial communities in soil under field condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. Z.; Zhong, M.

    2015-05-01

    The open top chamber (OTC) method was used in combination with real-time quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) techniques in the wheat field to study the influence of different levels of O3 concentrations (ambient air filtered by activated carbons, 40 ppb, 80 ppb and 120 ppb) on the quantity and community structure of methanotrophic bacteria. O3 stress can influence the potential methane oxidation rate (PMOR) and potential methane production rate (PMPR) in the farmland soil. O3 treatment of 40 ppb improved significantly the 16S rRNA gene copy number in the total methanotrophic bacteria pmoA, and type I and type II methanotrophic bacteria in the soil depth of 0-20 cm. When the O3 concentration reached 120 ppb, the 16S rRNA gene copy number in the total methanotrophic bacteria pmoA and type I methanotrophic bacteria decreased significantly as compared to the control treatment in 10-20 cm layer. The 16s rRNA gene copy number of total methanotrophic bacteria pmoA and type I and type II methanotrophic bacteria were influenced by different O3 concentration and soil depth. The T-RFLP analysis indicated that O3 stress influenced significantly the community structure of the methanotrophic bacteria in soil, causing potential threat to the diversity of methanotrophic bacteria. It seems to imply that the rise of O3 concentration could produce an impact on the carbon cycling and the methane emission of the wheat field soil by changing the community structure and diversity of methanotrophic bacteria, which then influences the global climate change.

  18. Planning Office and Community Influence on Land-Use Decisions Intended to Benefit the Low-Income: Welcome to Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dominic Searcy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores urban planning office and community influence on land-use decision making in two poverty-stricken but redeveloping neighborhood areas in Chicago. The Department of Planning and Development in this study had marginal impact on land-use decisions due to administrative limitations. Community influence is moderated by the degree to which low-income housing advocates can act directly as developers and produce housing units. The research findings indicate that land-use decisions intended to benefit the low-income resulted not from community-based political conflict but more so from community organization cooperation with political actors.

  19. Factors influencing the utilization of the public Internet terminal system in two rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coleman

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the factors that influence the use of the public Internet terminal (PIT system in the Taung and Ganyesa communities. The PIT system is placed in many post offices in these communities but the service is not adequately used by these rural community members. The overall objective of this study was to investigate, develop and recommend a solution for providing the rural communities of Taung and Gyanesa with a simple and effective way to access and utilize the PIT service and the information on it. A case study approach was used for the purpose of this study which gathered a number of findings, including lack of awareness of PIT services, lack of computer skills and confidence, and fear of technology. Other findings were the overloading of information on the PIT, use of language (not the mother tongue, and the slow response of the PIT system. The findings from this study led to some recommendations and a model for PIT use in rural communities.

  20. An institutional model for collaborative disaster risk management in the Southern African Development Community / Mmaphaka Ephraim Tau

    OpenAIRE

    Tau, Mmaphaka Ephraim

    2014-01-01

    The view of the world constituting distinct countries with fixed political boundaries to safeguard their territorial integrity and to prevent encroachment is gradually diminishing. This is particularly the case regarding the development policy and trajectories of nations and communities. As a concern for sustainable development, the disaster risk management and reduction discipline is no exception to this reality. Since the late 1980s, global collective measures were instituted...

  1. Organisational aspects and benchmarking of e-learning initiatives: a case study with South African community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisach, Ulrike; Weilemann, Mitja

    2016-06-01

    South Africa desperately needs a comprehensive approach to fight HIV/AIDS. Education is crucial to reach this goal and Internet and e-learning could offer huge opportunities to broaden and deepen the knowledge basis. But due to the huge societal and digital divide between rich and poor areas, e-learning is difficult to realize in the townships. Community health workers often act as mediators and coaches for people seeking medical and personal help. They could give good advice regarding hygiene, nutrition, protection of family members in case of HIV/AIDS and finding legal ways to earn one's living if they were trained to do so. Therefore they need to have a broader general knowledge. Since learning opportunities in the townships are scarce, a system for e-learning has to be created in order to overcome the lack of experience with computers or the Internet and to enable them to implement a network of expertise. The article describes how the best international resources on basic medical knowledge, HIV/AIDS as well as on basic economic and entrepreneurial skills were benchmarked to be integrated into an e-learning system. After tests with community health workers, researchers developed recommendations on building a self-sustaining system for learning, including a network of expertise and best practice sharing. The article explains the opportunities and challenges for community health workers, which could provide information for other parts of the world with similar preconditions of rural poverty.

  2. Organisational aspects and benchmarking of e-learning initiatives: a case study with South African community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisach, Ulrike; Weilemann, Mitja

    2016-06-01

    South Africa desperately needs a comprehensive approach to fight HIV/AIDS. Education is crucial to reach this goal and Internet and e-learning could offer huge opportunities to broaden and deepen the knowledge basis. But due to the huge societal and digital divide between rich and poor areas, e-learning is difficult to realize in the townships. Community health workers often act as mediators and coaches for people seeking medical and personal help. They could give good advice regarding hygiene, nutrition, protection of family members in case of HIV/AIDS and finding legal ways to earn one's living if they were trained to do so. Therefore they need to have a broader general knowledge. Since learning opportunities in the townships are scarce, a system for e-learning has to be created in order to overcome the lack of experience with computers or the Internet and to enable them to implement a network of expertise. The article describes how the best international resources on basic medical knowledge, HIV/AIDS as well as on basic economic and entrepreneurial skills were benchmarked to be integrated into an e-learning system. After tests with community health workers, researchers developed recommendations on building a self-sustaining system for learning, including a network of expertise and best practice sharing. The article explains the opportunities and challenges for community health workers, which could provide information for other parts of the world with similar preconditions of rural poverty. PMID:25733133

  3. From rhetoric to reality? Putting HIV and AIDS rights talk into practice in a South African rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Nair, Yugi

    2014-01-01

    Whilst international rhetoric on HIV and AIDS frequently invokes discourses of human rights to inspire and guide action, translating universal rights talk into practice in specific settings remains a challenge. Community mobilisation is often strategy of choice. We present a case study of the Entabeni Project in South Africa--in which a foreign-funded NGO sought to work with female health volunteers in a deep rural community to increase their access to two HIV-relevant rights: women's rights (especially gender equality) and rights to health (especially access to HIV- and AIDS-related services). Whilst the project had short-term health-related successes, it was less successful in implementing a gender empowerment agenda. The concept of women's rights had no purchase with women who had little interest in directly challenging male power, foregrounding the fight against poverty as their main preoccupation. The area's traditional chief and gatekeeper insisted the project should remain 'apolitical'. Project funders prioritised 'numbers reached' over a gender empowerment orientation. In the absence of (1) a marginalised group who are willing to assert their rights; and (2) a context where powerful people are willing to support these claims, 'rights' may be a blunt tool for HIV-related work with women in deeply oppressive and remote rural communities beyond the reach of international treaties and urban-based activist movements. PMID:25005486

  4. Regulatory convergence of information and communication technology (ICT) sectors in the East African Community (EAC): challenges for the current legislative and regulatory frameworks and lessons from the European Union experience

    OpenAIRE

    Nyaga, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The East African Community (EAC)’s Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector has been confronted with the convergence phenomenon. This is a concept that describes the trend of blurring boundaries between the traditionally distinct ICT sectors, namely: Information Technology (IT), broadcasting and telecommunications. This is significant for the EAC since the driving force behind this convergence phenomenon is that of efficiency. It necessitates the need to rethink the cur...

  5. Convergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors in the East African Community (EAC): Challenges for the current legislative and regulatory frameworks and lessons from the European Union experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kariuki Nyaga, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The East African Community (EAC)'s Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector has been confronted with the convergence phenomenon. This is a concept that describes the trend of blurring boundaries between the traditionally distinct ICT sectors, namely: Information Technology (IT), broadcasting and telecommunications. This is significant for the EAC since the driving force behind this convergence phenomenon is that of efficiency. It necessitates the need to rethink the current legis...

  6. Predicting the Effects of Woody Encroachment on Mammal Communities, Grazing Biomass and Fire Frequency in African Savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Izak P J; Prins, Herbert H T

    2015-01-01

    With grasslands and savannas covering 20% of the world's land surface, accounting for 30-35% of worldwide Net Primary Productivity and supporting hundreds of millions of people, predicting changes in tree/grass systems is priority. Inappropriate land management and rising atmospheric CO2 levels result in increased woody cover in savannas. Although woody encroachment occurs world-wide, Africa's tourism and livestock grazing industries may be particularly vulnerable. Forecasts of responses of African wildlife and available grazing biomass to increases in woody cover are thus urgently needed. These predictions are hard to make due to non-linear responses and poorly understood feedback mechanisms between woody cover and other ecological responders, problems further amplified by the lack of long-term and large-scale datasets. We propose that a space-for-time analysis along an existing woody cover gradient overcomes some of these forecasting problems. Here we show, using an existing woody cover gradient (0-65%) across the Kruger National Park, South Africa, that increased woody cover is associated with (i) changed herbivore assemblage composition, (ii) reduced grass biomass, and (iii) reduced fire frequency. Furthermore, although increased woody cover is associated with reduced livestock production, we found indigenous herbivore biomass (excluding elephants) remains unchanged between 20-65% woody cover. This is due to a significant reorganization in the herbivore assemblage composition, mostly as a result of meso-grazers being substituted by browsers at increasing woody cover. Our results suggest that woody encroachment will have cascading consequences for Africa's grazing systems, fire regimes and iconic wildlife. These effects will pose challenges and require adaptation of livelihoods and industries dependent on conditions currently prevailing.

  7. Predicting the Effects of Woody Encroachment on Mammal Communities, Grazing Biomass and Fire Frequency in African Savannas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak P J Smit

    Full Text Available With grasslands and savannas covering 20% of the world's land surface, accounting for 30-35% of worldwide Net Primary Productivity and supporting hundreds of millions of people, predicting changes in tree/grass systems is priority. Inappropriate land management and rising atmospheric CO2 levels result in increased woody cover in savannas. Although woody encroachment occurs world-wide, Africa's tourism and livestock grazing industries may be particularly vulnerable. Forecasts of responses of African wildlife and available grazing biomass to increases in woody cover are thus urgently needed. These predictions are hard to make due to non-linear responses and poorly understood feedback mechanisms between woody cover and other ecological responders, problems further amplified by the lack of long-term and large-scale datasets. We propose that a space-for-time analysis along an existing woody cover gradient overcomes some of these forecasting problems. Here we show, using an existing woody cover gradient (0-65% across the Kruger National Park, South Africa, that increased woody cover is associated with (i changed herbivore assemblage composition, (ii reduced grass biomass, and (iii reduced fire frequency. Furthermore, although increased woody cover is associated with reduced livestock production, we found indigenous herbivore biomass (excluding elephants remains unchanged between 20-65% woody cover. This is due to a significant reorganization in the herbivore assemblage composition, mostly as a result of meso-grazers being substituted by browsers at increasing woody cover. Our results suggest that woody encroachment will have cascading consequences for Africa's grazing systems, fire regimes and iconic wildlife. These effects will pose challenges and require adaptation of livelihoods and industries dependent on conditions currently prevailing.

  8. The transmission of African culture to children

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Tanon Lora

    2014-01-01

    African ancient traditions suffered a major historical change as a result of colonization. Several decades after decolonization and access to independence, what is the situation and place of the African culture in Africa and outside Africa? Does African culture perpetuate effectively today? What are the obstacles to the transmission of African culture to our children? What are the beliefs or elements that have influenced the transmission of our culture after the period of independence? Roughl...

  9. Influence of groundwater depth on species composition and community structure in the transition zone of Cele oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank; M.; THOMAS

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the hypothesis that the distribution of dominant plant species and characteristics of plant communities are related to groundwater depth. The results showed that variations of groundwater depth impacted distributions and characteristics of dominant plant communities. However, besides groundwater depth, the community composition and species diversity were also influenced by physiognomy of the habitat. Based on the similarity coefficient, the differences between dominant plant communities were significant at different groundwater depths. Compared with other results relating to desert vegetation and groundwater depth, variations of community distribution were similar at the large spatial scale. However, in this extremely arid region, there were significant differences in community type and community succession when compared with other arid regions, especially in relationship to deep groundwater depth. With groundwater depth from deep to shallow, communities transformed with the sequence of Alhagi communities, Tamarix spp. communities, Populus communities, Phragmites communities, and Sophora communities. At groundwater depth of less than 6.0 m, the community type and composition changed, and the species diversity increased. Among these dominant species, Tamarix exhibited the biggest efficiency in resource utilization according to niche breadth, which means it possessed the best adaptability to environmental conditions at the oasis margins.

  10. The use of low density lipoprotein receptor activity of lymphocytes to determine the prevalence of familial hypercholesterolaemia in a rural South African community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, K; Weight, M J; Dando, B R; Christopher, K J; Rossouw, J E

    1989-01-01

    The diagnosis of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in three rural South African communities in which hypercholesterolaemia is very prevalent could be confirmed by the measurement of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity in circulating lymphocytes. A nominal cut off point could be proposed which separated the LDL receptor activity of 24 clinically diagnosed heterozygous FH patients and 31 healthy people. LDL receptor activity was measured as total degradation of 125I-LDL and expressed as ng LDL/mg cell protein/6 hours. The cut off point was set at 970 ng/mg protein/6 hours. This proposed cut off point was tested by assaying the LDL receptor of three homozygous FH patients and seven of their obligate heterozygous FH first degree relatives. The three homozygous FH patients showed no receptor activity and the activity of the seven obligate heterozygous first degree relatives fell below the proposed cut off point. To determine the prevalence of FH in the study population, all persons aged 15 to 24 years whose total cholesterol levels fell above the 80th centile for their age and sex, as well as their families, were approached (n = 114). The LDL receptor activity in lymphocytes of 77 of these persons aged 15 to 24 years was determined after applying the exclusion criteria. Ten of the 77 participants had LDL receptor activity below 970 ng LDL/mg protein/6 hours and were therefore diagnosed as being heterozygous FH patients. The calculation of the prevalence (corrected for exclusions) revealed that one in 71 of the 15 to 24 year old permanent residents in the predominantly Afrikaans speaking community suffered from heterozygous FH. This is higher than any FH prevalence previously reported for any group. PMID:2918524

  11. The African American Wellness Village in Portland, Ore

    OpenAIRE

    McKeever, Corliss; Koroloff, Nancy; Faddis, Collaine

    2006-01-01

    More than 80% of African Americans in Oregon reside in the Portland metropolitan area; African Americans comprise 1.7% of the state's population. Although relatively small, the African American population in the state experiences substantial health disparities. The African American Health Coalition, Inc was developed to implement initiatives that would reduce these disparities and to promote increased communication and trust between the African American community and local institutions and or...

  12. The Effect of Marriage on Weight Gain and Propensity to become Obese in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2010-01-01

    Does marriage have a causal impact on weight and the likelihood of becoming obese? Marriage is thought to have a protective influence on both men's and women's health, although via different mechanisms. Evidence in regard to marriage affecting body mass index (BMI) and the propensity to become obese, however, is mixed and often based on limited…

  13. Community and Team Member Factors that Influence the Early Phase Functioning of Community Prevention Teams: The PROSPER Project

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Mark T.; Feinberg, Mark E; Meyer-Chilenski, Sarah; Spoth, Richard L.; Redmond, Cleve

    2007-01-01

    This research examines the early development of community teams in a specific university-community partnership project called PROSPER (Spoth et al., Prev Sci 5:31-39, 2004). PROSPER supports local community teams in rural areas and small towns to implement evidence-based programs intended to support positive youth development and reduce early substance use. The study evaluated 14 community teams and included longitudinal data from 108 team members. Specifically, it examined how community demo...

  14. Influence of a trout farm on macrozoobenthos communities of the Trešnjica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trout farming poses an increasing threat to quality of the water of clean highland streams. Research of this problem has focused primarily on changes in physico-chemical composition of the water and structure of the river bottom, and less on the effects on living organisms. In the present work, we investigated influence of the farm with the highest trout production in Serbia, the 'Riboteks' Trout Farm on the Trešnjica River, on its macrozoobenthos communities. Our investigations showed that the 'Riboteks' Trout Farm wastewaters caused a clear and statistically significant change of moderate intensity in all measured parameters describing the composition and structure of macrozoobenthos communities. These changes were most pronounced in the part of the watercourse closest to the influx of waste water (locality III but remained statistically significant even 500 m downstream (locality IV and were lost only about 3.5 km away from the influx of the farm's wastewater (locality V. The most pronounced were changes in the participation in total abundance of the Baetidae, Chironomidae, and Plecoptera. Additionally, results of the present work confirmed that the mass of fish on the trout farm is a parameter that adequately defines the strength of its action, above all the intensity of its influence on structure of the macrozoobenthos community.

  15. Pyrosequencing reveals the influence of organic and conventional farming systems on bacterial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Li

    Full Text Available It has been debated how different farming systems influence the composition of soil bacterial communities, which are crucial for maintaining soil health. In this research, we applied high-throughput pyrosequencing of V1 to V3 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to gain further insight into how organic and conventional farming systems and crop rotation influence bulk soil bacterial communities. A 2×2 factorial experiment consisted of two agriculture management systems (organic versus conventional and two crop rotations (flax-oat-fababean-wheat versus flax-alfalfa-alfalfa-wheat was conducted at the Glenlea Long-Term Crop Rotation and Management Station, which is Canada's oldest organic-conventional management study field. Results revealed that there is a significant difference in the composition of bacterial genera between organic and conventional management systems but crop rotation was not a discriminator factor. Organic farming was associated with higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria, while Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were more abundant in conventional farming. The dominant genera including Blastococcus, Microlunatus, Pseudonocardia, Solirubrobacter, Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas exhibited significant variation between the organic and conventional farming systems. The relative abundance of bacterial communities at the phylum and class level was correlated to soil pH rather than other edaphic properties. In addition, it was found that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were more sensitive to pH variation.

  16. Diatom community dynamics in a tropical, monsoon-influenced environment: West coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Priya M.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2010-07-01

    Diatom communities are influenced by environmental perturbations, such as the monsoon system that impact the niche opportunities of species. To discern the influence of the monsoon system on diatom community structure, we sampled during two consecutive post-monsoons (2001 and 2002) and the intervening pre-monsoon at Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru ports along the central west coast of India. Characteristic temporal shifts in diatom community structure were observed across the sampling periods; these were mainly driven by temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen saturation. The nutrient-poor pre-monsoon period supported low abundance yet high species richness and diversity of diatoms. Coscinodiscus, Cyclotella, Thalassiosira, Triceratium, Pleurosigma, Skeletonema and Surirella were the most dominant genera. Both the post-monsoon periods, following dissimilar monsoon events, were dominated by Skeletonema costatum, but differed in some of the residual species . Thalassiosira and Thalassionema spp. dominated mostly during post-monsoon I whereas Triceratium and Pleurosigma spp. dominated during post-monsoon II. To understand the underlying ecological mechanisms involved in such dynamics, we focus on the dominant diatom species in post-monsoon periods, S. costatum, that contributes up to 60% to total diatom cell numbers. This research is relevant in light of the fluctuating monsoon regimes over the Asian continent, the confounding effects of anthropogenic eutrophication and the resulting cascading effects on trophic web dynamics.

  17. ADAPTATION OF AQUIFER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES TO THE BIODEGRADATION OF XENOBIOTIC COMPOUNDS: INFLUENCE OF SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION AND PREEXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to examine the adaptation response of aquifer microbial communities to xenobiotic compounds and the influence of chemical preexposure in the laboratory and in situ on adaptation. Adaptation and biodegradation were assessed as mineralization and cellular inc...

  18. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  19. Science Identity's Influence on Community College Students' Engagement, Persistence, and Performance in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitelli, Melinda

    In the United States (U.S.), student engagement, persistence, and academic performance levels in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs have been unsatisfactory over the last decade. Low student engagement, persistence, and academic performance in STEM disciplines have been identified as major obstacles to U.S. economic goals and U.S. science education objectives. The central and salient science identity a college student claims can influence his engagement, persistence, and academic achievement in college science. While science identity studies have been conducted on four-year college populations there is a gap in the literature concerning community college students' science identity and science performance. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between community college students claimed science identities and engagement, persistence, and academic performance. A census sample of 264 community college students enrolled in biology during the summer of 2015 was used to study this relationship. Science identity and engagement levels were calculated using the Science Identity Centrality Scale and the Biology Motivation Questionnaire II, respectively. Persistence and final grade data were collected from institutional and instructor records. Engagement significantly correlated to, r =.534, p = .01, and varied by science identity, p college level. It is suggested, based on the findings, that community college curriculum workers in biology consider student's science identity in terms of improving engagement and final grade, but not persistence. Additionally, as results were mixed, it is recommended that this study be repeated to examine these relationships further.

  20. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathryn M; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Jansson, Stefan; Albrectsen, Benedicte R

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  1. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Robinson

    Full Text Available We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  2. [Influence of Submerged Plants on Microbial Community Structure in Sediment of Hongze Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-yu; Zhang, Ting-xi; Dong, Dan-ping; Li, De-fang; Wang, Guo-xiang

    2016-05-15

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) method was applied to analyze the influence of submerged plants on sediment microbial community structure, in order to investigate the changes of sediment microbial community structure for different kinds of the submerged plants in different growth periods. Particularly, Potamogeton crispus L., Potamogeton pectinatus L and the mixed group were chosen as the typical submerged plants in Hongze Lake for investigation in this paper. The results indicated that the change of total PLFAs in different periods was significant, on the contrary, the PLFA change for different groups in the same period was insignificant. The values of G⁺ PLFA/G⁻ PLFA in the submerged plant group were also highly related to the different growth periods, which demonstrated that the root function of the submerged plant had a severe impact on the microbial community in sediment. Furthermore, some environmental factors, such as Temperature, pH, TOC and DO, were correlated to characteristic phospholipid of PLFAs in sediment, which means the environmental factors could also affect the microbial community structure.

  3. Carcass mass has little influence on the structure of gravesoil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sophie; Carter, David O; Metcalf, Jessica L; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how variables, such as carcass mass, affect the succession pattern of microbes in soils during decomposition. To investigate the effects of carcass mass on the soil microbial community, soils associated with swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses of four different masses were sampled until the 15th day of decomposition during the month of June in a pasture near Lincoln, Nebraska. Soils underneath swine of 1, 20, 40, and 50 kg masses were investigated in triplicate, as well as control sites not associated with a carcass. Soil microbial communities were characterized by sequencing the archaeal, bacterial (16S), and eukaryotic (18S) rRNA genes in soil samples. We conclude that time of decomposition was a significant influence on the microbial community, but carcass mass was not. The gravesoil associated with 1 kg mass carcasses differs most compared to the gravesoil associated with other carcass masses. We also identify the 15 most abundant bacterial and eukaryotic taxa, and discuss changes in their abundance as carcass decomposition progressed. Finally, we show significant decreases in alpha diversity for carcasses of differing mass in pre-carcass rupture (days 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 postmortem) versus post-carcass rupture (days 9 and 15 postmortem) microbial communities.

  4. Does the edge effect influence plant community structure in a tropical dry forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Gallo Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Edge effects are considered a key factor in regulating the structure of plant communities in different ecosystems. However, regardless to few studies, edge influence does not seem to be decisive in semiarid regions such as the Brazilian tropical dry forest known as Caatinga but this issue remains inconclusive. The present study tests the null hypothesis that the plant community of shrubs and trees does not change in its structure due to edge effects. Twenty-four plots (20 x 20 m were set up in a fragment of Caatinga, in which 12 plots were in the forest edges and 12 plots were inside the fragment. Tree richness, abundance and species composition did not differ between edge and interior plots. The results of this study are in agreement with the pattern previously found for semiarid environments and contrasts with previous results obtained in different environments such as Rainforests, Savanna and Forest of Araucaria, which indicate abrupt differences between the border and interior of the plant communities in these ecosystems, and suggest that the community of woody plants of the Caatinga is not ecologically affected by the presence of edges.

  5. Headwater streams and forest management: does ecoregional context influence logging effects on benthic communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, R. Bruce; Wipfli, Mark S.; Binckley, Chris; Polivka, Karl; Hessburg, Paul F.; Salter, R. Brion

    2010-01-01

    Effects of forest management on stream communities have been widely documented, but the role that climate plays in the disturbance outcomes is not understood. In order to determine whether the effect of disturbance from forest management on headwater stream communities varies by climate, we evaluated benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 24 headwater streams that differed in forest management (logged-roaded vs. unlogged-unroaded, hereafter logged and unlogged) within two ecological sub-regions (wet versus dry) within the eastern Cascade Range, Washington, USA. In both ecoregions, total macroinvertebrate density was highest at logged sites (P = 0.001) with gathering-collectors and shredders dominating. Total taxonomic richness and diversity did not differ between ecoregions or forest management types. Shredder densities were positively correlated with total deciduous and Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) riparian cover. Further, differences in shredder density between logged and unlogged sites were greater in the wet ecoregion (logging × ecoregion interaction; P = 0.006) suggesting that differences in post-logging forest succession between ecoregions were responsible for differences in shredder abundance. Headwater stream benthic community structure was influenced by logging and regional differences in climate. Future development of ecoregional classification models at the subbasin scale, and use of functional metrics in addition to structural metrics, may allow for more accurate assessments of anthropogenic disturbances in mountainous regions where mosaics of localized differences in climate are common.

  6. Influence of uranium on bacterial communities: a comparison of natural uranium-rich soils with controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Mondani

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of uranium on the indigenous bacterial community structure in natural soils with high uranium content. Radioactive soil samples exhibiting 0.26% - 25.5% U in mass were analyzed and compared with nearby control soils containing trace uranium. EXAFS and XRD analyses of soils revealed the presence of U(VI and uranium-phosphate mineral phases, identified as sabugalite and meta-autunite. A comparative analysis of bacterial community fingerprints using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealed the presence of a complex population in both control and uranium-rich samples. However, bacterial communities inhabiting uraniferous soils exhibited specific fingerprints that were remarkably stable over time, in contrast to populations from nearby control samples. Representatives of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and seven others phyla were detected in DGGE bands specific to uraniferous samples. In particular, sequences related to iron-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter and Geothrix were identified concomitantly with iron-oxidizing species such as Gallionella and Sideroxydans. All together, our results demonstrate that uranium exerts a permanent high pressure on soil bacterial communities and suggest the existence of a uranium redox cycle mediated by bacteria in the soil.

  7. Influence of face-to-face meetings on virtual community activity: the case of Learning Network for Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Hummel, Hans; Tattersall, Colin; Brouns, Francis; Kurvers, Hub; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Burgos, D., Hummel, H., Tattersall, C., Brouns, F., Kurvers, H., & Koper, R. (2006). Influence of face-to-face meetings on virtual community activity: the case of Learning Network for Learning Design. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Web Based Communities 2006. February, 16-18,2006, San

  8. Influence of habitat modification on the intestinal helminth community ecology of cottontail rabbit populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, J F; McMurry, S T; Leslie, D M; Engle, D M; Lochmiller, R L

    1990-04-01

    The influence of five brush management treatments using the herbicides tebuthiuron and triclopyr, with or without prescribed burning, on the intestinal helminth community of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied in 1987 on the Cross Timbers Experimental Range in Payne County, Oklahoma (USA). Six helminth species were found (Dermatoxys veligera, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Passalurus nonanulatus, Wellcomia longejector, Taenia pisiformis cystercercus, and Mosgovoyia pectinata americana) in 102 rabbits (88 adult and 14 juveniles) collected over two seasons (winter and summer). Prevalence of M. pectinata americana in cottontail rabbits was significantly greater in untreated control pastures than herbicide treated pastures in winter, while prevalence of T. pisiformis was significantly greater in burned than unburned pastures. Abundances of helminth species in the intestinal tract of cottontail rabbits were unaffected by brush treatments. Mosgovoyia pectinata americana abundance demonstrated a highly significant increase from winter to summer; conversely, abundance of all oxyurid pinworms combined (D. veligera, P. nonanulatus, W. longejector) was significantly higher in winter than summer. Helminth community dynamics were significantly influenced by season, but were unaffected by brush treatments. Habitat modification could have influenced cestode transmission by altering the ecology of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. PMID:2338720

  9. A Node Influence Based Label Propagation Algorithm for Community Detection in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Label propagation algorithm (LPA is an extremely fast community detection method and is widely used in large scale networks. In spite of the advantages of LPA, the issue of its poor stability has not yet been well addressed. We propose a novel node influence based label propagation algorithm for community detection (NIBLPA, which improves the performance of LPA by improving the node orders of label updating and the mechanism of label choosing when more than one label is contained by the maximum number of nodes. NIBLPA can get more stable results than LPA since it avoids the complete randomness of LPA. The experimental results on both synthetic and real networks demonstrate that NIBLPA maintains the efficiency of the traditional LPA algorithm, and, at the same time, it has a superior performance to some representative methods.

  10. Changes in the structure of the microbial community under the influence of oil and radioactive pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, A. L.; Tsvetnova, O. B.; Panikov, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    Different variants of combined radioactive and oil pollution were simulated in a series of model experiments with soils contaminated with radioactive materials. In the soils with a 137Cs pollution density of 5395.5 kBq, the number of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, and Rhodococcus representatives decreased, and the number of mycobacteria and fungi increased. The pollution of the soils with diesel fuel with up to 5 mL/100 g soil is accompanied by raising the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms; it eliminates to some extent the negative influence of the radionuclides on the soil microbial community approaching the soil to its initial or background state. The high soil pollution with diesel fuel (30 mL/100 g) leads to a decrease in the population of the microbial community and the biological activity. In the growing of plants, the negative effect of the combined radioactive and oil pollution on the biological activity manifests itself less contrastingly.

  11. Dissolved Organic Carbon Influences Microbial Community Composition and Diversity in Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, D.

    2012-07-13

    This study explores microbial community structure in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems across both laboratory and field scales. Two field sites, the Taif River (Taif, Saudi Arabia) and South Platte River (Colorado), were selected as geographically distinct MAR systems. Samples derived from unsaturated riverbed, saturated-shallow-infiltration (depth, 1 to 2 cm), and intermediate-infiltration (depth, 10 to 50 cm) zones were collected. Complementary laboratory-scale sediment columns representing low (0.6 mg/liter) and moderate (5 mg/liter) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used to further query the influence of DOC and depth on microbial assemblages. Microbial density was positively correlated with the DOC concentration, while diversity was negatively correlated at both the laboratory and field scales. Microbial communities derived from analogous sampling zones in each river were not phylogenetically significantly different on phylum, class, genus, and species levels, as determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, suggesting that geography and season exerted less sway than aqueous geochemical properties. When field-scale communities derived from the Taif and South Platte River sediments were grouped together, principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clusters with regard to the three sample zones (unsaturated, shallow, and intermediate saturated) and, further, with respect to DOC concentration. An analogous trend as a function of depth and corresponding DOC loss was observed in column studies. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that microbial classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria are positively correlated with DOC concentration. Our combined analyses at both the laboratory and field scales suggest that DOC may exert a strong influence on microbial community composition and diversity in MAR saturated zones.

  12. Managing Noncommunicable Diseases in an African Community: Effects, Compliance, and Barriers to Participation in a 4-Week Exercise Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onagbiye, Sunday O; Moss, Sarah J; Cameron, Melainie

    2016-04-01

    To determine the compliance, barriers, and effects of participation in a 4-week exercise intervention aimed at reducing risk factors for noncommunicable diseases among community-dwelling adults from a low-resourced area of South Africa. An exercise program and associated pre-posttest were performed by 76 participants (men, n = 26 and women, n = 50) aged 35 to 65 years. Baseline and end tests included height, weight, hip and waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, quality of life, and cardiorespiratory fitness measurements. The intervention consisted of 3 days/week combined aerobic and resistance exercise at an intensity of 70% heart rate reserved as determined at baseline. Compliance and barriers to participation were determined post-intervention by means of attendance registers and interviews. ANCOVA with adjustment for pretest was performed for all repeated variables. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for exercise benefits were 0.81 and for barriers 0.84. Of the 26 men (40.8 ± 5.45 years) and 50 women (43.6 ± 7.8 years) recruited, 54 completed the intervention (71% compliance). The 4-week aerobic exercise intervention significantly reduced body mass, rate of perceived exertion, and mental components summary in men, and body mass, body mass index, VO2max, rate of perceived exertion, glucose, physical components summary, and mental components summary in women. Participants reported that the exercise milieu as a major barrier to exercise compliance while the interviews reported lack of time. A 1-month exercise intervention elucidated positive changes in risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in a low-resource community. A drop-out rate of 29% in this study is consistent with other exercise intervention trials. Exploration of the reported barriers may be useful for planning to increase compliance with future programs. PMID:27154904

  13. H.U.B city steps: methods and early findings from a community-based participatory research trial to reduce blood pressure among african americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molaison Elaine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94% females (85% with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1 years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84% participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1 to 120.3 (SD = 17.9 mmHg; p Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies the community's active participation in the development and execution of this study. Reach

  14. The Growing Influence of Al-Qaeda on the African Continent Der wachsende Einfluss von Al-Qaida auf dem afrikanischen Kontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Krech

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Qaeda’s influence in Africa is growing. From 2009 to 2011, activity by Al-Qaeda was noted in 19 African nations and regions. Four regional Al-Qaeda organizations operate on the continent, which in turn often have several sub-organizations: the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (with its suborganizations Al-Qaeda in Mali, Al-Qaeda in Mauritania, Al-Qaeda in Morocco and Al-Qaeda in Sudan and Al-Shabab in Somalia. Since Osama bin Laden’s death on 2 May 2011, the influence of African leaders within Al-Qaeda has increased significantly. All three presumed members of the strategic command level originate from Africa. The revolutions of the Arab Spring have not harmed Al-Qaeda. This contribution highlights the potential for further expansion by Al-Qaeda on the African continent, and how this needs to be responded to.Der Einfluss von Al-Qaida in Afrika wächst. In den Jahren 2009 bis 2011 wurden Al-Qaida-Aktivitäten in 19 afrikanischen Staaten und Gebieten registriert. In Afrika gibt es vier Al-Qaida-Regionalorganisationen, die wiederum oft mehrere Unterorganisationen haben: Ägyptischer Islamischer Jihad (EIJ, Libysch-Islamische Kampfgruppe (LIFG, Al-Qaida im Islamischen Maghreb (AQIM, mit den Unterorganisationen Al-Qaida im Sudan, Al-Qaida in Mali, Al-Qaida in Marokko, Al-Qaida in Mauretanien sowie die Al-Shabab in Somalia. Nach dem Tod von Osama bin Laden am 2. Mai 2011 ist der Einfluss von afrikanischen Führern in der Al-Qaida deutlich angewachsen. Alle drei mutmaßlichen Mitglieder der strategischen Führungsebene kommen aus Afrika. Die Revolutionen des “Arabischen Frühlings” haben Al-Qaida nicht geschadet. Diese Entwicklungen könnten zu einer weiteren Ausbreitung von Al-Qaida auf dem Afrikanischen Kontinent beitragen.

  15. Diagnosed but Not Defeated: The Experiences of African-American Males with Past Histories of Enrollment in Special Education Who Successfully Attend Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland-Dixon, Kennedi

    2013-01-01

    African-American males are disappearing at alarming rates before our eyes through racially driven practices that secure their position in the penal system and special education. Though many scholars in the field of education have highlighted alarming rates of incarceration and overrepresentation in special education for African-American males,…

  16. "In the Interest of the Colored Boys": Christopher J. Atkinson, William T. Coleman, and the Extension of Boys' Clubs Services to African-American Communities, 1906-1931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Carter Julian

    2011-01-01

    This paper details how African-American boys' club workers, their Clubs as well as their service to African-American youth, gained legitimacy within the Boys' Club Federation, now Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA). Specifically, it illustrates what facilitated a predominantly urban, northeastern organization to begin opening Clubs for…

  17. Rain chemistry and cloud composition and microphysics in a Caribbean tropical montane cloud forest under the influence of African dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Delgado, Elvis; Valle-Diaz, Carlos J.; Baumgardner, Darrel; McDowell, William H.; González, Grizelle; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2015-04-01

    It is known that huge amounts of mineral dust travels thousands of kilometers from the Sahara and Sahel regions in Africa over the Atlantic Ocean reaching the Caribbean, northern South America and southern North America; however, not much is understood about how the aging process that takes place during transport changes dust properties, and how the presence of this dust affects cloud's composition and microphysics. This African dust reaches the Caribbean region mostly in the summer time. In order to improve our understanding of the role of long-range transported African dust (LRTAD) in cloud formation processes in a tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) in the Caribbean region we had field campaigns measuring dust physical and chemical properties in summer 2013, as part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Cloud Study (PRADACS), and in summer 2014, as a part of the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) and in collaboration with the Saharan Aerosol Long-Range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE). Measurements were performed at the TMCF of Pico del Este (PE, 1051 masl) and at the nature reserve of Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ, 60 masl). In both stations we monitored meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, wind direction). At CSJ, we measured light absorption and scattering at three wavelengths (467, 528 and 652 nm). At PE we collected cloud and rainwater and monitored cloud microphysical properties (e.g., liquid water content, droplet size distribution, droplet number concentration, effective diameter and median volume diameter). Data from aerosol models, satellites, and back-trajectories were used together with CSJ measurements to classify air masses and samples collected at PE in the presence or absence of dust. Soluble ions, insoluble trace metals, pH and conductivity were measured for cloud and rainwater. Preliminary results for summer 2013 showed that in the presence of LRTAD (1) the average conductivity of cloud water

  18. Influence of hexavalent chromium on lactate-enriched Hanford groundwater microbial communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somenahally, Anil C [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yuan, Tong [University of Oklahoma; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Hazen, Terry C [ORNL; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction and immobilization of chromate (Cr(VI)) is a plausible bioremediation strategy. However, higher Cr(VI) concentrations may impose stress on native Cr-reducing communities. We sought to determine if Cr(VI) would influence the lactate enriched native microbial community structure and function in groundwater from the Cr contaminated site at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were amended with lactate and Cr(VI) (0.0, 0.1 and 3.0 mg/L). Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI) concentrations, 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition in bioreactors were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and some differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI) was reduced in the bioreactors. With lactate enrichment, the native communities did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. Native bacterial communities were diverse, whereas after lactate enrichment, Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., were the most predominant groups in all bioreactors. Similarly, the Archaea diversity significantly decreased from Methanosaeta (35%), Methanosarcina (17%), Halobacteriales (12%), Methanoregula (8%) and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%) after lactate enrichment. Composition of several key functional genes was distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant probes (chrA), Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, and as a result the 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) did not appear to give chromate reducing strains a competitive advantage for proliferation or for increasing Cr-reduction.

  19. Influence of chemosynthetic ecosystems on nematode community structure and biomass in the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampadariou, N.; Kalogeropoulou, V.; Sevastou, K.; Keklikoglou, K.; Sarrazin, J.

    2013-08-01

    Mud volcanoes are a~special type of cold seeps where life is based on chemoautotrophic processes. They are considered to be extreme environments and are characterized by unique megafaunal and macrofaunal communities. However, very few studies on mud volcanoes taking into account the smaller meiobenthic communities have been carried out. Two mud volcanoes were explored during the MEDECO (MEditerranean Deep-sea ECOsystems) cruise (2007) with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Victor-6000: Amsterdam, located south of Turkey between 1700 and 2000 m depth (Anaximander mud field); and Napoli, south of Crete, located along the Mediterranean Ridge at about 2000 m depth (Olimpi mud field). The major aim of this study was to describe distributional patterns of meiofaunal communities and nematode assemblages from different seep microhabitats. Meiofaunal taxa and nematode assemblages at both mud volcanoes differed significantly from other Mediterranean sites in terms of standing stocks, dominance and species diversity. Density and biomass values were significantly higher at the seep sites, particularly at Amsterdam. Patterns of nematode diversity, the dominant meiofaunal taxon, varied, displaying both very high or very low species richness and dominance, depending on the microhabitat studied. The periphery of the Lamellibrachia and bivalve shell microhabitats of Napoli exhibited the highest species richness, while the reduced sediments of Amsterdam yielded a species-poor nematode community dominated by two successful species, one belonging to the genus Aponema and the other to the genus Sabatieria. Analysis of β-diversity showed that microhabitat heterogeneity of mud volcanoes contributed substantially to the total nematode species richness in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. These observations indicate a strong influence of mud volcanoes and cold-seep ecosystems on the meiofaunal communities and nematode assemblages.

  20. Influence of chemosynthetic ecosystems on nematode community structure and biomass in the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampadariou, N.; Kalogeropoulou, V.; Sevastou, K.; Keklikoglou, K.; Sarrazin, J.

    2012-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are a special type of cold seeps where life is based on chemoautotrophic processes. They are considered as extreme environments and are characterised by unique megafaunal and macrofaunal communities. However, very few studies on mud volcanoes taking into account the smaller meiobenthic communities have been carried out. Two mud volcanoes were explored during the MEDECO cruise (2007) with the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Victor-6000; Amsterdam, located south of Turkey between 1700 and 2000 m depth (Anaximander mud field) and Napoli, south of Crete, located along the Mediterranean Ridge at about 2000 m depth (Olimpi mud field). The major aim of this study was to describe distributional patterns of meiofaunal communities and nematode assemblages from different seep microhabitats. Meiofaunal taxa and nematode assemblages at both mud volcanoes differed significantly from other Mediterranean sites in terms of standing stocks, dominance and species diversity. Density and biomass values were significantly higher at the seep sites, particularly at Amsterdam. Nematodes, the dominant meiofaunal taxon, displayed deeper penetration vertically into the sediment at the seep areas, indicating that biological rather than physicochemical factors are responsible for their vertical distribution. Patterns of nematode diversity varied, displaying both very high or very low species richness and dominance, depending on the habitat studied. The Lamellibrachia periphery and mussel bed of Napoli exhibited the highest species richness while the reduced sediments of Amsterdam yielded a species-poor nematode community, dominated by two successful species; one belonging to the genus Aponema and the other to the genus Sabatieria. Analysis of β-diversity showed that habitat heterogeneity of mud volcanoes contributed substantially to the total nematode species richness in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. These observations indicate a strong influence of mud volcanoes and cold

  1. Racial Socialization, Racial Identity, and Academic Attitudes Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Influence of Parent-Adolescent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sandra; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Hallman, Samantha K

    2016-06-01

    A significant gap remains in our understanding of the conditions under which parents' racial socialization has consequences for adolescents' functioning. The present study used longitudinal data to examine whether the frequency of communication between African American parents and adolescents (N = 504; 49 % female) moderates the association between parent reports of racial socialization (i.e., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) at 8th grade and adolescent reports of racial identity (perceived structural discrimination, negative public regard, success-oriented centrality) at 11th grade, and in turn, academic attitudes and perceptions. Parents' racial socialization practices were significant predictors of multiple aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with high levels of communication, but they did not predict any aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with low levels of communication. Results highlight the importance of including family processes when examining the relations between parents' racial socialization and adolescents' racial identity and academic attitudes and perceptions. PMID:26369349

  2. African-American sexuality and HIV/AIDS: recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E; Williams, John K; Myers, Hector F

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to create a significant health crisis in African-American communities and health disparities within the United States. Understanding African-American sexuality within a culturally congruent and ethnocentric approach is critical to decreasing the HIV infection and transmission rates for African Americans. This brief discusses two major factors: 1) confusion about race-based stereotypes; and 2) historical health disparities and mistrust, which have influenced our understanding of African-American sexuality despite that fact that very little research has been conducted in this area. This paper discusses the limitations of what is known and makes recommendations for research surrounding sexuality and HIV/AIDS. Research trainings for new and established investigators and collaborations among health, community, religious, political organizations, and historically black colleges and universities are needed to disseminate relevant HIV prevention messages. Conducting research to better understand African-American sexuality will facilitate the development of behavioral interventions that address health, HIV and mental health risk reduction within the context of African-American life. PMID:18277807

  3. An ecological approach to physical activity in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A

    2001-12-01

    Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.

  4. Follower-Centric Influences on Sexual Decision Making in a Pentecostal Church Faith Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Mpofu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized participatory action research approaches to construct a follower-centric framework for measuring influences on sexual decision making by youth members of a church organization. Participants were Batswana Pentecostal church members self-reporting on their engagement in pre-marital sex (n = 68, females = 62%; age range 15–23 years; median age = 20.3 years from eight of 26 randomly selected congregations. They completed a multi-stage concept mapping process that included free listing of statements of potential influences on their sexual decisions. They then sorted the statements into groupings similar in meaning to them, and rated the same statements for relative importance to their sexual decisions. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis of the data yielded a five cluster solution in which church teachings emerged as most salient to the teenagers’ sexual decision making followed by future orientation, community norms, knowledge about HIV/AIDS and prevention education. While the youth believed to be influenced by religion teachings on primary sexual abstinence, they self-reported with pre-marital sex. This suggests a need for secondary abstinence education with them to reduce their risk for STIs/HIV and unwanted pregnancies. Concept mapping is serviceable to construct frameworks and to identify content of follower-centric influences on sexual decision making by church youth members.

  5. The Need and Its Influence Factors for Community-based Rehabilitation Services for Disabled Persons in One District in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG DAI; HUI XUE; ZONG-JIE YIN; ZHONG-XIN XIAO

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To explore the needs for basic community-based rehabilitation services for disabled persons in Xuanwu District, Beijing, China, and to identify factors which influence disabled persons to accept rehabilitation services. Method One hundred and eight disabled persons were selected by systematic sampling and simple random sampling to assess their needs for community-based rehabilitation services. Results Of the interviewees, 57.4% needed the community-based rehabilitation services, but only 13.9% took advantage of it. The main factors influencing the interviewees to accept these services were cost (P<0.05), knowledge about rehabilitation medicine (P<0.05); and the belief in the therapeutic benefit of the community-based rehabilitation service (P<0.05). Conclusion A considerable gap exists between the supply of community-based rehabilitation services in Beijing and the needs for these services by disabled residents underscoring the need for improved availability, and for additional research.

  6. Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade between Zimbabwe and its Trading Partners in the Southern African Development Community Region (1990-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafirenyika Sunde

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main objective of this study was to establish the determinants of intra industry trade between Zimbabwe and its trading partners in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region. The study was mainly motivated by the need to establish the type of goods that Zimbabwe trades with its trading partners. Approach: The study also wanted to prove the hypothesis that similarity in per capita income is not the main determinant of intra-industry trade between Zimbabwe its SADC trading partners; and also that intra industry trade does not necessarily take place among countries with similar economic structures and level of development. The study used the Modified Standard Gravity Equation which has Intra-Industry Trade Index as its dependant variable. The model was regressed using Ordinary Least Squares in excel. Results: The results of the study show that per capita income, trade intensity, distance, exchange rate and gross domestic product explain Intra-Industry Trade (IIT between Zimbabwe and its SADC trading partners. The study also established that most countries in SADC trade in more or less the same goods and this can be explained by the type of development that these countries were subjected to during the colonial era which resulted in the establishment of similar economic structures and per capita incomes that were more or less the same. As result, these countries produce and trade similar products. Both hypotheses above were proved wrong. Conclusion: We therefore concluded that Zimbabwe needs to get into more bilateral trade agreements with its trading partners in order to enhance trade between itself and its trading partners. We also concluded that Zimbabwe has to give incentives to its producers and also mend its relationship with the Breton Woods Institutions (International Monetary Fund and the World Bank if it wants to reach its full trade potential.

  7. Soil Influences Colonization of Root-Associated Fungal Endophyte Communities of Maize, Wheat, and Their Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bokati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungal endophytes are vital component of root microbiome as some mitigate their host’s abiotic and biotic stress. We characterized root-associated fungal endophytes in cereal grains and their progenitors grown on two different soil-types. We aimed at determining how clay and desert soil affects the colonization of root fungal community. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were employed to identify endophytes that successfully colonized greenhouse-grown host plants. The Internal Transcriber Spacer region of fungal ribosomal DNA was utilized for identification purposes. This study revealed soil as a prominent factor influencing the composition of microfungal communities inhabiting the roots of maize (Zea mays subsp. mays and its conspecific progenitor, teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis. Similar results were found in wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp. aestivum and its progenitor (Triticum monococcum subsp. monococcum. The multidimensional comparisons of Morisita-Horn similarity values of fungal colonists of various host plant taxa indicated that soil plays a primary role in shaping the root fungal community; a secondary effect was plant host identity, even when the plant host is a conspecific. Future studies focused on characterizing root endophytes in other cereal grains, and studying the effect of edaphic factors on fungal colonization, can ultimately contribute to crop productivity.

  8. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1 Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2 Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3 Are there gender differences? (4 Is there an effect of age? (5 Are there differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand? Method A total of 528 children (264 classified as having symptoms of ADHD and 264 matched comparisons of both genders and from seven different South African ethnic groups participated in the study. They were assessed with three simple, easy to administer instruments which measure various functions of motor speed and eye-hand coordination: The Grooved Pegboard, the Maze Coordination Task, and the Finger Tapping Test. The results were analysed as a function of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance. Results The findings indicate that children with symptoms of ADHD performed significantly poorer on the Grooved Pegboard and Motor Coordination Task, but not on the Finger Tapping Test than their comparisons without ADHD symptoms. The impairment was most severe for the subtype with symptoms of ADHD-C (combined and less severe for the subtypes with symptoms of ADHD-PI (predominantly inattentive and ADHD-HI (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive. With few exceptions, both genders were equally affected while there were only slight differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand. The deficiencies in motor control were mainly confined to the younger age group (6 – 9 yr. Conclusion An association between the symptoms of ADHD and motor problems was demonstrated in terms of accuracy and speed in fairly complex tasks, but not in simple motor tests of speed. This deficiency is found

  9. Supervision of Central African Economic and Monetary Community medical market%浅谈中非经济与货币共同体的医药市场监管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉迪; 蒋倩; 平其能

    2009-01-01

    目的:为走近中国与中非药品市场交流和中非经济与货币共同体(CEMAC)创建药品共同监管市场提供参考.方法:主要通过文献分析的研究手段,分析中非经济与货币共同体药品市场的现状、目前的形势,并提出了CEMAC在医药市场监管中存在的问题,通过分析提出了完善医药市场的方法.结论:要实现中非药品市场的共同监管,应立足中非各国国情,建立中非共同市场以实现共同监管,同时提供中国关心中非药品市场交流的企业和专家参考文件的目的.%Objective To provide references for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community to set up common medical market.Methods Current situation and problems existing in the Centrat African Economic and Monetary Community were analyzed by literature analysis.Methods of improving the medical market were proposed.Conclusion Central African national conditions should be based on to achieve the common supervision of CEMAC.We should set up the Central African Common Market in order to achieve the purpose of co-regulation.

  10. An Analysis on Autonomous Development of African Oil Economy and Its Main Influence%非洲石油经济发展的自主性及其主流影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昌兵; 张台秋

    2011-01-01

    In the continuous unstable situation of mid-east area, the African oil is becoming outstanding in importance because of its special advantage. With the rising up of the African native oil companies, the reinforced cooperation between the African oil-producing countries, the strengthened control of the oil-producing country over oil and gas resources, the forging of the integrated oil industrial train, and etc., the autonomous development of the African oil is growing strongly. It has been a main stream gradually that oil economy causes positive influence on social and economic development of African oil-producing countries.%在中东地区持续动荡的背景下,非洲石油因其独特的优势而使其重要性日益凸显。随着非洲本土石油公司的崛起,非洲石油经济的自主发展势头强劲。石油经济对非洲产油国经济社会发展的积极影响渐成主流。

  11. The influence of biomass burning and transport on tropospheric composition over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and Equatorial Africa during the West African monsoon in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Williams

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning (BB in southern Africa is the largest emission source of CO and O3 precursors within Africa during the West African Monsoon (WAM between June and August. The long range transport and chemical processing of such emissions thus has the potential to exert a dominant influence on the composition of the tropical troposphere over Equatorial Africa (EA and the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (TAO. We have performed simulations using a three-dimensional global chemistry-transport model (CTM to quantify the effect that continental transport of such BB plumes has on the EA region. BB emissions from southern Africa were found to exert a significant influence over the TAO and EA between 10° S–20° N. The maximum concentrations in CO and O3 occur between 0–5° S near the position of the African Easterly Jet – South as placed by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF meteorological analysis data. By comparing co-located model output with in-situ measurements we show that the CTM fails to capture the tropospheric profile of CO in southern Africa near the main source region of the BB emissions, as well as the "extreme" concentrations of both CO and O3 seen between 600–700 hPa over EA around 6° N. For more northerly locations the model exhibits high background concentrations in both CO and O3 related to BB emissions from southern Africa. By altering both the temporal resolution and the vertical distribution of BB emissions in the model we show that changes in temporal resolution have the largest influence on the transport of trace gases near the source regions, EA, and in the outflow towards the west of Central Africa. Using a set of trajectory calculations we show that the performance of the CTM is heavily constrained by the ECMWF meteorological fields used to drive the CTM, which transport biomass burning plumes from southern Africa into the lower troposphere of the TAO rather

  12. Influence of Sea Ice on Arctic Marine Sulfur Biogeochemistry in the Community Climate System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, Clara [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AL (United States); Jin, Meibing [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AL (United States)

    2013-06-30

    Global climate models (GCMs) have not effectively considered how responses of arctic marine ecosystems to a warming climate will influence the global climate system. A key response of arctic marine ecosystems that may substantially influence energy exchange in the Arctic is a change in dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions, because DMS emissions influence cloud albedo. This response is closely tied to sea ice through its impacts on marine ecosystem carbon and sulfur cycling, and the ice-albedo feedback implicated in accelerated arctic warming. To reduce the uncertainty in predictions from coupled climate simulations, important model components of the climate system, such as feedbacks between arctic marine biogeochemistry and climate, need to be reasonably and realistically modeled. This research first involved model development to improve the representation of marine sulfur biogeochemistry simulations to understand/diagnose the control of sea-ice-related processes on the variability of DMS dynamics. This study will help build GCM predictions that quantify the relative current and possible future influences of arctic marine ecosystems on the global climate system. Our overall research objective was to improve arctic marine biogeochemistry in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, now CESM). Working closely with the Climate Ocean Sea Ice Model (COSIM) team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), we added 1 sea-ice algae and arctic DMS production and related biogeochemistry to the global Parallel Ocean Program model (POP) coupled to the LANL sea ice model (CICE). Both CICE and POP are core components of CESM. Our specific research objectives were: 1) Develop a state-of-the-art ice-ocean DMS model for application in climate models, using observations to constrain the most crucial parameters; 2) Improve the global marine sulfur model used in CESM by including DMS biogeochemistry in the Arctic; and 3) Assess how sea ice influences DMS dynamics in the arctic marine

  13. Dust exposure and pneumoconiosis in a South African pottery. 2. Pneumoconiosis and factors influencing reading of radiological opacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, D; Steinberg, M; Becker, P J; Solomon, A

    1992-07-01

    A cross sectional radiological survey of workers exposed to pottery dust during the manufacture of wall tiles and bathroom fittings was conducted in a South African factory. Roughly one third of workers with 15 or more years of service in high dust sections of the factory had pneumoconiosis. Previously undiagnosed advanced cases, including two with progressive massive fibrosis, were working in dusty occupations. A firm diagnosis of potters' pneumoconiosis was made in 11 of the 358 workers radiographed; all had served more than 10 years suggesting that radiography of workers with more than 10 years service would be a successful case finding strategy in South Africa. A combination of rounded and irregular opacities was the most common radiological finding in the workers with pneumoconiosis (55%). Three readers reported on the chest radiographs, and all found an association between small radiological opacities, which were usually irregular or a combination of irregular and rounded, and exposure to pottery dust. The occurrence of irregular radiological opacities in workers exposed to pottery dust deserves further study. The least experienced reader significantly associated age with small opacities when duration of service (years) was used to measure exposure to dust. Sex was not an important predictor of radiological changes consistent with pneumoconiosis. Breast shadows were not an important cause of false positive readings and participating women did not develop pneumoconiosis after less exposure than men. PMID:1637706

  14. Influence of prey dispersion on territory and group size of African lions: a test of the resource dispersion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeix, Marion; Loveridge, Andrew J; MacDonald, David W

    2012-11-01

    Empirical tests of the resource dispersion hypothesis (RDH), a theory to explain group living based on resource heterogeneity, have been complicated by the fact that resource patch dispersion and richness have proved difficult to define and measure in natural systems. Here, we studied the ecology of African lions Panthera leo in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, where waterholes are prey hotspots, and where dispersion of water sources and abundance of prey at these water sources are quantifiable. We combined a 10-year data set from GPS-collared lions for which information of group composition was available concurrently with data for herbivore abundance at waterholes. The distance between two neighboring waterholes was a strong determinant of lion home range size, which provides strong support for the RDH prediction that territory size increases as resource patches are more dispersed in the landscape. The mean number of herbivore herds using a waterhole, a good proxy of patch richness, determined the maximum lion group biomass an area can support. This finding suggests that patch richness sets a maximum ceiling on lion group size. This study demonstrates that landscape ecology is a major driver of ranging behavior and suggests that aspects of resource dispersion limit group sizes.

  15. Influence of reward preferences in attracting, retaining, and motivating knowledge workers in South African information technology companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bussin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The world of work is evolving and the nature of relationships between knowledge workers and their employers has changed distinctly, leading to a change in the type of rewards they prefer. The nature of these preferences in the South African, industry-specific context is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to deepen understanding of the reward preferences of Information technology (IT knowledge workers in South Africa, specifically as these relate to the attraction, retention and motivation of knowledge workers.Design: The research design included a quantitative, empirical and descriptive study of reward preferences, measured with a self-administered survey and analysed using non-parametric tests for variance between dependent and independent groups and non-parametric analysis of variance.Findings: This study found that there are specific reward preferences in knowledge workers in the IT sector in South Africa and that these preferences apply differently when related to the attraction, retention and motivation of employees. It identified the most important reward components in the competition for knowledge workers and also demonstrated that demographic characteristics play a statistically significant role in determining reward preferences.Practical implications: The study’s findings show that a holistic approach to total rewards is required, failing which, companies will find themselves facing increased turnover and jobhopping. Importantly, the study also highlights that different rewards need to form part of knowledge workers’ relationship with their employer in three different scenarios: attraction, retention and motivation.

  16. Parent & Family Influences on Adopting Healthy Weight-Related Behaviors: Views and Perceptions of Obese African-American Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; McRitchie, Susan; Collier, David N; Lutes, Lesley D; Sumner, Susan

    2015-06-01

    RTI International is acknowledged for supporting the time of Susan McRitchie, Keeley Pratt and Susan Sumner to participate in the design, execution, or analysis of this study. East Carolina University would like to acknowledge Brittney France for being a triangulated investigator for the qualitative analysis and to the Pitt Memorial Hospital Foundation for financial support of the healthy lifestyles camp. Our purpose was to evaluate the views of obese African-American (AA) female adolescents concerning parent and family factors relating to obesity and a healthy lifestyle. Obese AA female adolescents enrolled in a residential healthy lifestyle program completed inventories measuring family functioning and perceptions of parenting styles, and participated in focus groups to identify themes regarding parent and family involvement in healthy lifestyle change. The majority of participants' mothers were scored as "inductive/authoritative" and fathers were "indulgent". Mothers reportedly were seen as more likely to encourage dieting to control weight than fathers. Common themes of the focus groups included a desire for family involvement, identification of family behaviors that were supportive as well as those which were perceived as unhelpful. Though generalizability of these results is limited by a homogenous small sample size, our results suggest that obese adolescents seeking weight loss treatment desire significant family involvement in their efforts. PMID:27269493

  17. Gender matters, too: the influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-05-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development.

  18. The Influence of Life History Milestones and Association Networks on Crop-Raiding Behavior in Male African Elephants

    OpenAIRE

    Chiyo, Patrick I.; Moss, Cynthia J; Alberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Factors that influence learning and the spread of behavior in wild animal populations are important for understanding species responses to changing environments and for species conservation. In populations of wildlife species that come into conflict with humans by raiding cultivated crops, simple models of exposure of individual animals to crops do not entirely explain the prevalence of crop raiding behavior. We investigated the influence of life history milestones using age and association p...

  19. TB treatment initiation and adherence in a South African community influenced more by perceptions than by knowledge of tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); H.J. Finkenflügel (Harry); V. Møller (Valerie); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health concern. Inadequate case finding and case holding has been cited as major barrier to the control of TB. The TB literature is written almost entirely from a biomedical perspective, while recent studies show that it is imperative to understa

  20. The Influence of Garden Size and Floral Cover on Pollen Deposition in Urban Community Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Matteson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cucurbits, such as cucumbers, squashes and pumpkins, depend on pollinating bees in order to set fruit. However, fruit yield and progeny vigor in these plants generally decreases as heterospecific pollen deposition increases. We studied how the spatial area dedicated to cucumbers (Cucumis sativis, versus other flowering plants, influenced the deposition of conspecific and heterospecific pollen on cucumber plants in New York City community gardens. We also examined the effect of garden size on conspecific and heterospecific pollen deposition on cucumber plants. Female flowers were collected from potted cucumber plants that had been experimentally placed into the gardens, specifically for this study, or that were established in raised beds by members of the community garden. In the laboratory, pollen grains were isolated from the flower by acetolysis, and the number of heterospecific and conspecific cucumber pollen grains were quantified. Conspecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly associated with the size of a community garden, as well as with the area of each garden dedicated to non-cucumber, flowering plants (i.e. floral cover and the area of each garden dedicated to cucumber plants (i.e. cucumber cover. Although floral cover explained a greater proportion of the variance, cucumber cover had the strongest effect on conspecific pollen deposition. Heterospecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly related to garden area. However, no significant relationship was found between heterospecific pollen deposition and floral cover, or cucumber cover. Based upon these results, we hypothesize that floral cover positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition by attracting a greater number of pollinators into an urban garden, and that total cucumber area positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition when pollinators are locally foraging within a garden. We suggest that the arrangement of plants within a garden can

  1. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrquin, Anna F.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  2. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  3. Niche distribution and influence of environmental parameters in marine microbial communities: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe H. Coutinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Associations between microorganisms occur extensively throughout Earth’s oceans. Understanding how microbial communities are assembled and how the presence or absence of species is related to that of others are central goals of microbial ecology. Here, we investigate co-occurrence associations between marine prokaryotes by combining 180 new and publicly available metagenomic datasets from different oceans in a large-scale meta-analysis. A co-occurrence network was created by calculating correlation scores between the abundances of microorganisms in metagenomes. A total of 1,906 correlations amongst 297 organisms were detected, segregating them into 11 major groups that occupy distinct ecological niches. Additionally, by analyzing the oceanographic parameters measured for a selected number of sampling sites, we characterized the influence of environmental variables over each of these 11 groups. Clustering organisms into groups of taxa that have similar ecology, allowed the detection of several significant correlations that could not be observed for the taxa individually.

  4. Community reintegration of ex-prisoners: type and degree of change in variables influencing successful reintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkfield, Alison J; Graffam, Joseph

    2009-02-01

    Community reintegration of ex-prisoners is an important issue in efforts to reduce recidivism. The present study examined the multiple, complex, and dynamic nature of variables influencing successful reintegration by assessing the type and degree of change in reintegration variables over time. Participants were 79 adult prisoners (54 male, 25 female) who completed a prerelease questionnaire 1 month before their release, which focused on prison-related variables, participant background, and anticipated conditions upon release. A postrelease questionnaire was administered to the same participants at 1-4 weeks and 3-4 months postrelease, focusing on the quality of life conditions experienced following release. Results indicate that current health ratings and several indicators of drug use were significantly different over the three measurement phases. Ratings of employment and housing stability, finance, and social support were unchanged over the postrelease period. Theoretical implications of the present investigation for reintegration theory are discussed, together with practical applications.

  5. Environmental, policy, and cultural factors related to physical activity in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Donna L; Wilcox, Sara; Greaney, Mary L; Henderson, Karla A; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2002-01-01

    Six focus groups were conducted in South Carolina with African American women (n = 42) aged 19-51 years to identify factors that influence physical activity. Transcripts were analyzed using NUD*IST. Cultural influences were seen as more important in determining the type of physical activity than its level. Barriers to and enablers of physical activity were identified in the social and physical environments, as were policy issues affecting physical activity in the community and at the work site. Potential community and work site interventions were suggested. Child care and monetary costs were frequently cited as barriers to physical activity. PMID:12487143

  6. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Valdivia, Nelson; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2015-01-01

    There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S), the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape. PMID:26360294

  7. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés A Aguilera

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S, the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape.

  8. Influence of oxytetracycline on the structure and activity of microbial community in wheat rhizosphere soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qingxiang; ZHANG Jing; ZHU Kongfang; ZHANG Hao

    2009-01-01

    The microbial community composition in wheat rhizosphere was analyzed by detecting colony forming units (CFUs) in agar plates. The total CFUs in rhizosphere were 1.04×109/g soil with 9.0×108/g bacteria, 1.37×108/g actinomyces and 3.6×106/g fungi. The 10 dominant bacteria were isolated from wheat rhizosphere and were grouped into genus Bacillus according to their full length 16S rRNA gene sequences. Although belonging to the same genus, the isolated strains exhibited different sensitivities to oxytetracycline. When a series of the rhizosphere soil was exposed under various concentrations of oxytetracycline, the microbial community structure was highly affected with significant decline of CFUs of bacteria and actinomyces (22.2% and 31.7% at 10 mg/kg antibiotic, respectively). This inhibition was clearly enhanced with the increase exposure dosage of antibiotic and could not be eliminated during 30 d incubation. There was no obvious influence of this treatment on fungi population. Among the four soil enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, acidic phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease), only alkaline phosphatase was sensitive to oxytetracycline exposure with 41.3% decline of the enzyme activity at 10 mg/kg antibiotic and further decrease of 64.3%-80.8% when the dosage over 30 mg/kg.

  9. The influence of allochthonous macroalgae on the fish communities of tropical sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrades, Ryan; Gomes, Marcelo P.; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H.; Souza-Filho, Jesser F.; Albuquerque, Cristiano Q.; Martins, Agnaldo S.

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates the hypothesis that detached macroalgae (drift algae) influence the structure of fish communities in the surf-zones of two tropical sandy beaches from the central coast of Brazil. Surf-zone seine hauls were conducted weekly during three consecutive 6-week periods according to the occurrence of drift algae - in pre-drift, drift and post-drift periods. Drift algae comprised 33 macroalgae species and likely came from offshore rhodolith beds. Fish biomass, density and species richness increased from pre-drift to drift periods, and species composition differed significantly between periods, particularly in the more sheltered of the sampled beaches. The density of young-of-the-year (YOY) fishes also increased significantly from the pre-drift to drift periods, suggesting the importance of drift algae to early fish stages. The gut contents of the two most abundant species during the drift algae period, Trachinotus falcatus and Trachinotus goodei, demonstrated the importance of macrophyte-associated amphipods in their diets, suggesting that the drift algae may be used as feeding habitats for these species. Our results showed that the influx of allochthonous drift algae may structure fish communities of tropical sandy beaches and that it may also represent an important alternative resource for YOY fish by providing shelter and food during autumn and winter.

  10. Plant community diversity influences allocation to direct chemical defence in Plantago lanceolata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mraja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forecasting the consequences of accelerating rates of changes in biodiversity for ecosystem functioning requires a mechanistic understanding of the relationships between the structure of biological communities and variation in plant functional characteristics. So far, experimental data of how plant species diversity influences the investment of individual plants in direct chemical defences against herbivores and pathogens is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Plantago lanceolata as a model species in experimental grasslands differing in species richness and composition (Jena Experiment to investigate foliar concentrations of the iridoid glycosides (IG, catalpol and its biosynthetic precursor aucubin. Total IG and aucubin concentrations decreased, while catalpol concentrations increased with increasing plant diversity in terms of species or functional group richness. Negative plant diversity effects on total IG and aucubin concentrations correlated with increasing specific leaf area of P. lanceolata, suggesting that greater allocation to light acquisition reduced the investment into these carbon-based defence components. In contrast, increasing leaf nitrogen concentrations best explained increasing concentrations of the biosynthetically more advanced IG, catalpol. Observed levels of leaf damage explained a significant proportion of variation in total IG and aucubin concentrations, but did not account for variance in catalpol concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results clearly show that plants growing in communities of varying species richness and composition differ in their defensive chemistry, which may modulate plant susceptibility to enemy attack and consequently their interactions with higher trophic level organisms.

  11. Influence of Wastewater Discharge on the Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in River Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2015-09-24

    To reveal the variation of microbial community functions during water filtration process in river sediments, which has been utilized widely in natural water treatment systems, this study investigates the influence of municipal wastewater discharge to streams on the phylotype and metabolic potential of the microbiome in upstream and particularly various depths of downstream river sediments. Cluster analyses based on both microbial phylogenetic and functional data collectively revealed that shallow upstream sediments grouped with those from deeper subsurface downstream regions. These sediment samples were distinct from those found in shallow downstream sediments. Functional genes associated with carbohydrate, xenobiotic, and certain amino acid metabolisms were overrepresented in upstream and deep downstream samples. In contrast, the more immediate contact with wastewater discharge in shallow downstream samples resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen, sulfur, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, as well as restriction–modification systems. More diverse bacterial phyla were associated with upstream and deep downstream sediments, mainly including Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, in shallow downstream sediments, genera affiliated with Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were enriched with putative functions that included ammonia and sulfur oxidation, polyphosphate accumulation, and methylotrophic bacteria. Collectively, these results highlight the enhanced capabilities of microbial communities residing in deeper stream sediments for the transformation of water contaminants and thus provide a foundation for better design of natural water treatment systems to further improve the removal of contaminants. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  12. Influence of Wastewater Discharge on the Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in River Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Sharp, Jonathan O; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the variation of microbial community functions during water filtration process in river sediments, which has been utilized widely in natural water treatment systems, this study investigates the influence of municipal wastewater discharge to streams on the phylotype and metabolic potential of the microbiome in upstream and particularly various depths of downstream river sediments. Cluster analyses based on both microbial phylogenetic and functional data collectively revealed that shallow upstream sediments grouped with those from deeper subsurface downstream regions. These sediment samples were distinct from those found in shallow downstream sediments. Functional genes associated with carbohydrate, xenobiotic, and certain amino acid metabolisms were overrepresented in upstream and deep downstream samples. In contrast, the more immediate contact with wastewater discharge in shallow downstream samples resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen, sulfur, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, as well as restriction-modification systems. More diverse bacterial phyla were associated with upstream and deep downstream sediments, mainly including Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, in shallow downstream sediments, genera affiliated with Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were enriched with putative functions that included ammonia and sulfur oxidation, polyphosphate accumulation, and methylotrophic bacteria. Collectively, these results highlight the enhanced capabilities of microbial communities residing in deeper stream sediments for the transformation of water contaminants and thus provide a foundation for better design of natural water treatment systems to further improve the removal of contaminants.

  13. Microbially influenced corrosion communities associated with fuel-grade ethanol environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Charles H D; Jain, Luke A; Mishra, Brajendra; Olson, David L; Spear, John R

    2015-08-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is a costly problem that impacts hydrocarbon production and processing equipment, water distribution systems, ships, railcars, and other types of metallic infrastructure. In particular, MIC is known to cause considerable damage to hydrocarbon fuel infrastructure including production, transportation, and storage systems, often times with catastrophic environmental contamination results. As the production and use of alternative fuels such as fuel-grade ethanol (FGE) increase, it is important to consider MIC of engineered materials exposed to these "newer fuels" as they enter existing infrastructure. Reports of suspected MIC in systems handling FGE and water prompted an investigation of the microbial diversity associated with these environments. Small subunit ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing surveys indicate that acetic-acid-producing bacteria (Acetobacter spp. and Gluconacetobacter spp.) are prevalent in environments exposed to FGE and water. Other microbes previously implicated in corrosion, such as sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens, were also identified. In addition, acetic-acid-producing microbes and sulfate-reducing microbes were cultivated from sampled environments containing FGE and water. Results indicate that complex microbial communities form in these FGE environments and could cause significant MIC-related damage that may be difficult to control. How to better manage these microbial communities will be a defining aspect of improving mitigation of global infrastructure corrosion. PMID:26092755

  14. The Influence of Summer Climate on Avian Community Composition in the Eastern Boreal Forest of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie-Louise LeBlanc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relative influence of environmental variables, especially climate, in driving variation in species diversity is becoming increasingly important for the conservation of biodiversity. The objective of this study was to determine to what extent climate can explain the structure and diversity of forest bird communities by sampling bird abundance in homogenous mature spruce stands in the boreal forest of the Québec-Labrador peninsula using variance partitioning techniques. We also quantified the relationship among two climatic gradients, summer temperature and precipitation, and bird species richness, migratory strategy, and spring arrival phenology. For the bird community, climate factors appear to be most important in explaining species distribution and abundance because nearly 15% of the variation in the distribution of the 44 breeding birds selected for the analysis can be explained by climate. The vegetation variables we selected were responsible for a much smaller amount of the explained variation (4%. Breeding season temperature seems to be more important than precipitation in driving variation in bird species diversity at the scale of our analysis. Partial correlation analysis indicated that bird species richness distribution was determined by the temperature gradient, because the number of species increased with increasing breeding season temperature. Similar results were observed between breeding season temperature and the number of residents, short-distance and long-distance migrants, and early and late spring migrants. Our results suggest that the northern and southern range boundaries of species are not equally sensitive to the temperature gradient across the region.

  15. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, A. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5–6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae—all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the

  16. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  17. A Case Study: How Do Social and Academic Experiences of African American Nontraditional Female Students on HBCU Campuses Influence Their Motivation to Graduate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Golden, Cheryl D.

    2013-01-01

    Through a qualitative collective case study research design, the study captured the social and academic experiences of 13 African American nontraditional undergraduate female students enrolled in a historically Black college campus (HBCU) located in the southern United States. Experiences of 13 African American nontraditional undergraduate female…

  18. Removal of Escherichia coli and Faecal Coliforms from Surface Water and Groundwater by Household Water Treatment Devices/Systems: A Sustainable Solution for Improving Water Quality in Rural Communities of the Southern African Development Community Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne K. Mwabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S; biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z; bucket filter (BF; ceramic candle filter (CCF; and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S, 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z, 2 to 11 NTU (BF, and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log10 (99% to 100% of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9% of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log10, 100% was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p < 0.05. The findings of this study indicate that the SIPP can be an effective and sustainable HWTS for the Southern African Development Community (SADC rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain.

  19. Local residents trained as 'influence agents' most effective in persuading African couples on HIV counseling and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambdin, Barrot Hopkins; Kanweka, William; Inambao, Mubiana; Mwananyanda, Lawrence; Shah, Heena Dinesh; Linton, Sabriya; Wong, Frank; Luisi, Nicole; Tichacek, Amanda; Kalowa, James; Chomba, Elwyn; Allen, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Couples in sub-Saharan Africa are the largest group in the world at risk for HIV infection. Couples counseling and testing programs have been shown to reduce HIV transmission, but such programs remain rare in Africa. Before couples counseling and testing can become the norm, it is essential to increase demand for the services. We evaluated the effectiveness of several promotional strategies during a two-year program in Kitwe and Ndola, Zambia. The program attracted more than 7,600 couples through the use of radio broadcasts, billboards, and other strategies. The most effective recruiting technique was the use of local residents trained as "influence agents" to reach out to friends, neighbors, and others in their sphere of influence.

  20. The influence of public procurement policies on the implementation of procurement best practices in South African universities

    OpenAIRE

    Winnie Dlamini; Intaher M. Ambe

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between public procurement policies and procurement best practices (PBPs) in higher education institutions is inevitable. Higher education institutions (HEIs) in South Africa play a crucial role in contributing to the economic, social and environmental development of the country. Hence the implementation of PBPs has a key role in creating a competitive advantage for higher education. The purpose of this article is to determine the influence of public procurement policies on t...

  1. Human Rights That Influence The Mentally Ill Patient In South African Medical Law: A Discussion of Sections 9; 27; 30 and 31 of the Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Swanepoel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The personalised nature of mental illness obscures from general view the intolerable burden of private and public distress that people with serious mental illness carry. Invariably the mentally ill person encounters rejection and humiliation that are in some way tantamount to a "second illness." The combination either disrupts or puts beyond reach the usual personal and social life stages of marriage, family life, raising children, sexual relationships, the choice of treatment, affordable housing, transportation, education and gainful employment. As a result of their lack of financial and social support and their experience of rejection from society, persons with mental illness tend to neglect themselves and their diet, and frequently delay seeking treatment. Against this background, this contribution critically focuses on the human rights that influence the mentally ill patient in South African medical law. Specific attention is paid to the relevance and meaning of sections 9 (the equality clause, 27 (access to health care services, 30 and 31 (language, culture and religion of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996.

  2. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  3. The degree of community engagement: empirical research in Baltimore City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung PARK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate influential factors that affect the levels of community engagement. Factors include community-level characteristics as well as demographic features of individuals in the community of Baltimore City. The study examines various community factors that affect the level of community engagement in the urban area, such as the level of homeownership, socioeconomic factors such as income and education, and demographic factors such as race, age, and sex. Findings from the study indicate that various factors from the social-cum-ethnic stratification influence the degree of community engagement in this urban area. Specifically, communities with high income levels and high levels of homeownership are more likely to induce residents to participate in their community. With regard to demographic factors, African-Americans and persons over the age of 65 years old are more willing to engage in community activities.

  4. Influence of aesthetic appreciation of wildlife species on attitudes towards their conservation in Kenyan agropastoralist communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Roque de Pinho

    Full Text Available The influence of human aesthetic appreciation of animal species on public attitudes towards their conservation and related decision-making has been studied in industrialized countries but remains underexplored in developing countries. Working in three agropastoralist communities around Amboseli National Park, southern Kenya, we investigated the relative strength of human aesthetic appreciation on local attitudes towards the conservation of wildlife species. Using semi-structured interviewing and free listing (n = 191 as part of a mixed methods approach, we first characterized local aesthetic judgments of wildlife species. With a Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM approach, we then determined the influence of perceiving four species as beautiful on local support for their protection ("rescuing them", and of perceiving four other species as ugly on support for their removal from the area, while controlling for informant personal and household socioeconomic attributes. Perceiving giraffe, gazelles and eland as beautiful is the strongest variable explaining support for rescuing them. Ugliness is the strongest variable influencing support for the removal of buffalo, hyena, and elephant (but not lion. Both our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that perceptions of ugly species could become more positive through direct exposure to those species. We propose that protected areas in developing countries facilitate visitation by local residents to increase their familiarity with species they rarely see or most frequently see in conflict with human interests. Since valuing a species for its beauty requires seeing it, protected areas in developing countries should connect the people who live around them with the animals they protect. Our results also show that aesthetic appreciation of biodiversity is not restricted to the industrialized world.

  5. Community Structure and Distribution Pattern of Intertidal Invertebrate Macrofauna at Some Anthropogenically Influenced Coasts of Kathiawar Peninsula (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Poonam Bhadja; Paresh Poriya; Rahul Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Present communication reports the community structure and distribution pattern of intertidal invertebrate macrofauna at four shores of the Kathiawar peninsular coastline off the Arabian Sea (India). The selected shores have different levels of human activities. Present report tests three hypotheses; that is, (i) distribution of invertebrate macrofauna in these shores is influenced by space and time, (ii) abiotic factors have a profound influence on the distribution pattern of intertidal macro...

  6. When do plant radiations influence community assembly? The importance of historical contingency in the race for niche space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Brandt, Angela J; Smissen, Rob D; Heenan, Peter B; Fukami, Tadashi; Lee, William G

    2015-07-01

    Plant radiations are widespread but their influence on community assembly has rarely been investigated. Theory and some evidence suggest that radiations can allow lineages to monopolize niche space when founding species arrive early into new bioclimatic regions and exploit ecological opportunities. These early radiations may subsequently reduce niche availability and dampen diversification of later arrivals. We tested this hypothesis of time-dependent lineage diversification and community dominance using the alpine flora of New Zealand. We estimated ages of 16 genera from published phylogenies and determined their relative occurrence across climatic and physical gradients in the alpine zone. We used these data to reconstruct occupancy of environmental space through time, integrating palaeoclimatic and palaeogeological changes. Our analysis suggested that earlier-colonizing lineages encountered a greater availability of environmental space, which promoted greater species diversity and occupancy of niche space. Genera that occupied broader niches were subsequently more dominant in local communities. An earlier time of arrival also contributed to greater diversity independently of its influence in accessing niche space. We suggest that plant radiations influence community assembly when they arise early in the occupancy of environmental space, allowing them to exclude later-arriving colonists from ecological communities by niche preemption.

  7. When do plant radiations influence community assembly? The importance of historical contingency in the race for niche space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Brandt, Angela J; Smissen, Rob D; Heenan, Peter B; Fukami, Tadashi; Lee, William G

    2015-07-01

    Plant radiations are widespread but their influence on community assembly has rarely been investigated. Theory and some evidence suggest that radiations can allow lineages to monopolize niche space when founding species arrive early into new bioclimatic regions and exploit ecological opportunities. These early radiations may subsequently reduce niche availability and dampen diversification of later arrivals. We tested this hypothesis of time-dependent lineage diversification and community dominance using the alpine flora of New Zealand. We estimated ages of 16 genera from published phylogenies and determined their relative occurrence across climatic and physical gradients in the alpine zone. We used these data to reconstruct occupancy of environmental space through time, integrating palaeoclimatic and palaeogeological changes. Our analysis suggested that earlier-colonizing lineages encountered a greater availability of environmental space, which promoted greater species diversity and occupancy of niche space. Genera that occupied broader niches were subsequently more dominant in local communities. An earlier time of arrival also contributed to greater diversity independently of its influence in accessing niche space. We suggest that plant radiations influence community assembly when they arise early in the occupancy of environmental space, allowing them to exclude later-arriving colonists from ecological communities by niche preemption. PMID:25771829

  8. Clay minerals and metal oxides strongly influence the structure of alkane-degrading microbial communities during soil maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Annelie; Schulz, Stefanie; Giebler, Julia; Schulz, Stephan; Pronk, Geertje J; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y; Schloter, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Clay minerals, charcoal and metal oxides are essential parts of the soil matrix and strongly influence the formation of biogeochemical interfaces in soil. We investigated the role of these parental materials for the development of functional microbial guilds using the example of alkane-degrading bacteria harbouring the alkane monooxygenase gene (alkB) in artificial mixtures composed of different minerals and charcoal, sterile manure and a microbial inoculum extracted from an agricultural soil. We followed changes in abundance and community structure of alkane-degrading microbial communities after 3 and 12 months of soil maturation and in response to a subsequent 2-week plant litter addition. During maturation we observed an overall increasing divergence in community composition. The impact of metal oxides on alkane-degrading community structure increased during soil maturation, whereas the charcoal impact decreased from 3 to 12 months. Among the clay minerals illite influenced the community structure of alkB-harbouring bacteria significantly, but not montmorillonite. The litter application induced strong community shifts in soils, maturated for 12 months, towards functional guilds typical for younger maturation stages pointing to a resilience of the alkane-degradation function potentially fostered by an extant 'seed bank'.

  9. Not of African Descent: Dental Modification among Indigenous Caribbean People from Canímar Abajo, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Alarie, Kaitlynn; Rodríguez Suárez, Roberto; Huebner, Erwin; Roksandic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Dental modifications in the Caribbean are considered to be an African practice introduced to the Caribbean archipelago by the influx of enslaved Africans during colonial times. Skeletal remains which exhibited dental modifications are by default considered to be Africans, African descendants, or post-contact indigenous people influenced by an African practice. Individual E-105 from the site of Canímar Abajo (Cuba), with a direct 14C AMS date of 990-800 cal BC, provides the first unequivocal evidence of dental modifications in the Antilles prior to contact with Europeans in AD 1492. Central incisors showing evidence of significant crown reduction (loss of crown volume regardless of its etiology) were examined macroscopically and with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine if the observed alterations were due to deliberate modification or other (unintentional) factors considered: postmortem breakage, violent accidental breakage, non-dietary use of teeth, and wear caused by habitual or repeated actions. The pattern of crown reduction is consistent with deliberate dental modification of the type commonly encountered among African and African descendent communities in post-contact Caribbean archaeological assemblages. Six additional individuals show similar pattern of crown reduction of maxillary incisors with no analogous wear in corresponding mandibular dentition.

  10. Factors Influencing Administration of Hepatitis B Vaccine to Community-Dwelling Teenagers Aged 12-18 with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to determine hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates among community-dwelling teenagers with an intellectual disability in Taiwan and to identify the possible influencing factors of their vaccination. The present paper was part of the results of the "2007 National Survey on Healthy Behaviors and Preventive Health Utilizations of…

  11. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, Daryl; Carbone, Chris; Clauss, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs' successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and competitors for similar-sized individuals of sympatric species. Models of population abundances across different-sized species of dinosaurs and mammals, based on simulated ecological life tables, are employed to investigate how differences in predation and competition pressure influenced dinosaur communities. Higher small- to medium-sized prey availability leads to a normal body mass-species richness (M-S) distribution of carnivorous dinosaurs (as found in the theropod fossil record), in contrast to the right-skewed M-S distribution of carnivorous mammals (as found living members of the order Carnivora). Higher levels of interspecific competition leads to a left-skewed M-S distribution in herbivorous dinosaurs (as found in sauropods and ornithopods), in contrast to the normal M-S distribution of large herbivorous mammals. Thus, our models suggest that differences in reproductive strategy, and consequently ontogeny, explain observed differences in community structure between dinosaur and mammal faunas. Models also show that the largest dinosaurian predators could have subsisted on similar-sized prey by including younger life stages of the largest herbivore species, but that large predators likely avoided prey much smaller than themselves because, despite predicted higher abundances of smaller than larger-bodied prey, contributions of small prey to biomass intake would be insufficient to satisfy meat requirements. A lack of large carnivores feeding on small prey exists in mammals

  12. Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Marisa Piceno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaska North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (24-27°C, Kuparuk (47-70°C, Sag River (80°C, and Ivishak (80-83°C reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined δD and δ13C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited. Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences.

  13. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, Daryl; Carbone, Chris; Clauss, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs' successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and competitors for similar-sized individuals of sympatric species. Models of population abundances across different-sized species of dinosaurs and mammals, based on simulated ecological life tables, are employed to investigate how differences in predation and competition pressure influenced dinosaur communities. Higher small- to medium-sized prey availability leads to a normal body mass-species richness (M-S) distribution of carnivorous dinosaurs (as found in the theropod fossil record), in contrast to the right-skewed M-S distribution of carnivorous mammals (as found living members of the order Carnivora). Higher levels of interspecific competition leads to a left-skewed M-S distribution in herbivorous dinosaurs (as found in sauropods and ornithopods), in contrast to the normal M-S distribution of large herbivorous mammals. Thus, our models suggest that differences in reproductive strategy, and consequently ontogeny, explain observed differences in community structure between dinosaur and mammal faunas. Models also show that the largest dinosaurian predators could have subsisted on similar-sized prey by including younger life stages of the largest herbivore species, but that large predators likely avoided prey much smaller than themselves because, despite predicted higher abundances of smaller than larger-bodied prey, contributions of small prey to biomass intake would be insufficient to satisfy meat requirements. A lack of large carnivores feeding on small prey exists in mammals

  14. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Codron

    Full Text Available Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs' successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and competitors for similar-sized individuals of sympatric species. Models of population abundances across different-sized species of dinosaurs and mammals, based on simulated ecological life tables, are employed to investigate how differences in predation and competition pressure influenced dinosaur communities. Higher small- to medium-sized prey availability leads to a normal body mass-species richness (M-S distribution of carnivorous dinosaurs (as found in the theropod fossil record, in contrast to the right-skewed M-S distribution of carnivorous mammals (as found living members of the order Carnivora. Higher levels of interspecific competition leads to a left-skewed M-S distribution in herbivorous dinosaurs (as found in sauropods and ornithopods, in contrast to the normal M-S distribution of large herbivorous mammals. Thus, our models suggest that differences in reproductive strategy, and consequently ontogeny, explain observed differences in community structure between dinosaur and mammal faunas. Models also show that the largest dinosaurian predators could have subsisted on similar-sized prey by including younger life stages of the largest herbivore species, but that large predators likely avoided prey much smaller than themselves because, despite predicted higher abundances of smaller than larger-bodied prey, contributions of small prey to biomass intake would be insufficient to satisfy meat requirements. A lack of large carnivores feeding on small prey

  15. Soil moisture and chemistry influence diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associating with willow along an hydrologic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Sonya R; Savage, Jessica A; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine M; Peay, Kabir G

    2016-01-01

    Influences of soil environment and willow host species on ectomycorrhizal fungi communities was studied across an hydrologic gradient in temperate North America. Soil moisture, organic matter and pH strongly predicted changes in fungal community composition. In contrast, increased fungal richness strongly correlated with higher plant-available phosphorus. The 93 willow trees sampled for ectomycorrhizal fungi included seven willow species. Host identity did not influence fungal richness or community composition, nor was there strong evidence of willow host preference for fungal species. Network analysis suggests that these mutualist interaction networks are not significantly nested or modular. Across a strong environmental gradient, fungal abiotic niche determined the fungal species available to associate with host plants within a habitat. PMID:26622067

  16. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  17. "African Connection."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  18. Exploring uncertainty in advance care planning in African Americans: does low health literacy influence decision making preference at end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhado, Lolita; Bushy, Angeline

    2011-11-01

    African Americans over 65 represent 3.5 of the 35.6 million Americans. Morbidity and mortality rates are highest among this group; associated with lack of resources and awareness of health problems. But health needs are the same at end of life, yet care is less than optimal. African Americans are less likely to have advance directives nonetheless desire communication, information, respect, and a trusting doctor-patient relationship. Low health literacy may contribute to this disparity. This scholarly review examines the health literacy in advance care planning and refines concepts of uncertainty in illness theory deriving a model for advance care planning in African Americans.

  19. School Characteristics and Experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American Youth in Rural Communities: Relation to Educational Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Reed, Karla S.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in the school characteristics and experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American youth in rural high schools as well as their relation to educational aspirations. We also investigated the characteristics and experiences of students and their families given that…

  20. Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M.; Coresh, Josef; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and African Americans disproportionately experience more cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The literature documents a complex relationship between marital status and health, which varies by gender. We prospectively examine…