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Sample records for afr storage

  1. Studies and research concerning BNFP: life of project operating expenses for away-from-reactor (AFR) spent fuel storage facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life of Project operating expenses for a licensed Away-From-Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Storage Facility are developed in this report. A comprehensive business management structure is established and the functions and responsibilities for the facility organization are described. Contractual provisions for spent fuel storage services are evaluated

  2. Criticality safety assessment of a cask for IRT-2000 spent fuel interim storage at Kozloduy NPP AFR basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of providing conditions for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel from the research reactor IRT-2000, Sofia at the Away-from-reactor (AFR) basin of the NPP Kozloduy is presented in this paper. The aim of the work is to find a technical solution of the problem and to ground this solution from the nuclear safety point of view. The technical possibility for using the WWER-440 spent fuel transport cask including basket with 19 tight panels for interim storage of all spent fuel assemblies from IRT-2000 Sofia is analysed. For criticality safety analysis two world well-known and used program systems (MCNP4B H SCALE4.4) have been applied. The results obtained show that for all analysed configurations the values of Keff are less than 0.34, which is in compliance with the nuclear safety requirements. Also the economical assessment of the proposed variant is given. (author)

  3. Licensing of away-from-reactor (AFR) installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of spent fuel at Away-From-Reactor (AFR) installations will allow reactors to continue to operate until reprocessing or other fuel disposal means are available. AFR installations must be licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Although wide experience in licensing reactors exists, the licensing of an AFR installation is a relatively new activity. Only one has been licensed to date. This paper delineates the requirements for licensing an AFR installation and projects a licensing schedule. Because the NRC is developing specific AFR requirements, this schedule is based primarily on draft NRC documents. The major documents needed for an AFR license application are similar to those for a reactor. They include: a Safety Analysis Report (SAR), and Environmental Report (ER), safeguards and security plans, decommissioning plans, proposed technical specifications, and others. However, the licensing effort has one major difference in that for AFR installations it will be a one-step effort, with follow-up, rather than the two-step process used for reactors. The projected licensing schedule shows that the elapsed time between filing an application and issuance of a license will be about 32 months, assuming intervention. The legal procedural steps will determine the time schedule and will override considerations of technical complexity. A license could be issued in about 14 months in the absence of intervention

  4. Studies and research concerning BNFP: converting reprocessing plant's fuel receiving and storage area to an away-from-reactor (AFR) storage facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converting a reprocessing plant's fuel receiving and storage station into an Away-From-Reactor storage facility is evaluated in this report. An engineering analysis is developed which includes (1) equipment modifications to the facility including the physical protection system, (2) planning schedules for licensing-related activities, and (3) cost estimates for implementing such a facility conversion. Storage capacities are evaluated using the presently available pools of the existing Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant-Fuel Receiving and Storage Station (BNFP-FRSS) as a model

  5. The AFR. An approved network of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, Gabriele [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Betriebs- und Sicherheitsfragen an Forschungsreaktoren (AFR)

    2012-10-15

    AFR (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Betriebs- und Sicherheitsfragen an Forschungsreaktoren) is the German acronym for 'Association for Research Reactor Operation and Safety Issues' which was founded in 1959. Reactor managers of European research reactors mainly from the German linguistic area meet regularly for their mutual benefit to exchange experience and knowledge in all areas of operating, managing and utilization of research reactors. In the last 2 years joint meetings were held together with the French association of research reactors CER (Club d'Exploitants des Reacteurs). In this contribution the AFR, its members, work and aims as well as the French partner CER are presented. (orig.)

  6. Away-from-reactor storage concepts and their implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Away-from-Reactor Storage Concepts and their Implementation held in Vienna from 15 to 18 March 1993, gathered representatives of most of the countries operating nuclear power plants. The away-from-reactor (AFR) storage is spent fuel storage outside a reactor site boundary, normally involving receipt and interim storage of irradiated fuel from several nuclear power plants. In particular this might include casks, vaults or modular dry storage facilities at the site of a nuclear power plant, or also the storage pools constructed at a reprocessing plant. The TCM considered four current issues related to AFR: Current status of AFR; AFR technology evaluation and selection criteria; anticipated future developments; possible international activities in the area of AFR storage of spent fuel and initiatives of the IAEA on this subject. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Publications of AFR-members on the subject of Applied radionuclide technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation prepared for the first time in this form and containing publications announced by the AFR office on the subject of 'Applied radionuclide technology' does neither claim completeness nor is it clearly visible that all contributions relate to the year 1980. None the less, this compilation of reports of results, together with the 'General Program on the Advancement of the Radionuclide Technology' (AFR report No. 001) and the AFR subject list, constitute an important reference to the documentation of results achieved within the preceding period of time. It is thus possible to compare, at least in partial areas of the application spectrum of radionuclide technology, scientific problems with solutions realized. (orig./HP)

  8. Elementary analysis of airborne dust (preliminary findings of the AFR Coordinated Airborne Dust Programme (LVPr))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1981 the systematic measuring of 15 elements of airborne dust was started in the Coordinated Airborne Dust Program (LVPr) by the Association for the Promotion of Radionuclide Technology (AFR). The sampling was done under comparable conditions at five selected places within the Federal Republic of Germany by using especially developed large-filter High Volume Samplers. The aim of this research is to establish the foundation for further investigations on the effects of the current given element concentrations on human life. When the results of the first half-year (summer period) were in hand, these element concentrations, which had been analysed using different methods, were presented to a group of experts, also with the experience gained with the analytical methods, in order to critically assess procedure and philosophy of this study. This evaluation was done on the occasion of a colloquium on Jun 29th, 1982 at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre. The presented AFR-Report contains the papers and the discussions of this meeting as well as the average element data with respect to the sampling time between 15th and 40th week of the year 1981. The discussion contributions presented here correspond to the essential statements that have been given and recorded. A total classification of all data relating to the whole sampling time of the LVPr will be given in AFR-Report No. 007. (orig.)

  9. Contributions to LWR spent fuel storage and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers included in this document describe the aspects of spent LWR fuel storage and transport-behaviour of spent fuel during storage; use of compact storage packs; safety of storage; design of storage facilities AR and AFR; description of transport casks and transport procedures

  10. AFR spent fuel storage program. Technical progress report, January 1981-March 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on this project is focused on developing design and licensing information for the model facility. Deliverables were submitted to DOE for facility modification, security design, and licensing documentation. Work is essentially complete on the high-density rack design with deliverable planned for April 30, 1981. A continuing program for completion of design and licensing information development was initiated by AGNS in February 1981. Progress to date is satisfactory

  11. Advanced Fast Reactor - 100 (AFR-100) Report for the Technical Review Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kim, Taek K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Middleton, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-06-04

    This report is written to provide an overview of the Advanced Fast Reactor-100 in the requested format for a DOE technical review panel. This report was prepared with information that is responsive to the DOE Request for Information, DE-SOL-0003674 Advanced Reactor Concepts, dated February 27, 2012 from DOE’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Office of Nuclear Reactor Technologies. The document consists of two main sections. The first section is a summary of the AFR-100 design including the innovations that are incorporated into the design. The second section contains a series of tables that respond to the various questions requested of the reactor design team from the subject DOE RFI.

  12. Feasibility Study on AFR-100 Fuel Conversion from Uranium-based Fuel to Thorium-based Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility study of converting a fast reactor from uranium-based fuel to thorium-based fuel was studied using the 100 MWe Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR-100). Several fuel conversion scenarios were envisioned in this study. The first scenario is a progressive fuel conversion without fissile support. It consists of progressively replacing the burnt uranium-based fuel with pure thorium-based fuel without fissile material addition. This was found to be impractical because the low excess reactivity of the uranium-fuelled AFR-100 core, resulting in an extremely short cycle length even when only a few assemblies are replaced. A second scenario consists in operating the reference LEU fuelled AFR-100 core for 24 years and then replacing one fuel batch out of four every 7.04 years with thorium-based fuel mixed with transuranics. The transuranics weight fraction required during the transition period is identical to that required at equilibrium and is equal to 18.6%. The original uranium-based fuel is discharged with an average burnup of 120 GWd/t and the Th-TRU fuel with an average burnup of 101 GWd/t. The thermal-hydraulic and passive safety performances of this core are similar to those of the reference AFR-100 design. However, Th-TRU fuel fabrication and performance needs to be demonstrated and TRU separation from the LWR used nuclear fuel is necessary. The third scenario proposed consists of replacing the whole AFR-100 core with fuel assemblies made of several thorium and 20% enriched LEU layers. The mode of operation is similar to that of the reference AFR-100 core with the exception of the cycle length which needs to be reduced from 30 to 18 years. The average LEU and thorium discharge burnups are 79 GWd/t and 23 GWd/t, respectively. The major benefit of this approach is the improved inherent safety of the reactor due to the reduced coolant void worth. (author)

  13. Mechanical Properties of T650-35/AFR-PE-4 at Elevated Temperatures for Lightweight Aeroshell Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Karen S.; Collins, TImothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been underway to develop multidisciplinary technologies for aeroshell structures that will significantly increase the allowable working temperature for the aeroshell components, and enable the system to operate at higher temperatures while sustaining performance and durability. As part of these efforts, high temperature polymer matrix composites and fabrication technologies are being developed for the primary load bearing structure (heat shield) of the spacecraft. New high-temperature resins and composite material manufacturing techniques are available that have the potential to significantly improve current aeroshell design. In order to qualify a polymer matrix composite (PMC) material as a candidate aeroshell structural material, its performance must be evaluated under realistic environments. Thus, verification testing of lightweight PMC's at aeroshell entry temperatures is needed to ensure that they will perform successfully in high-temperature environments. Towards this end, a test program was developed to characterize the mechanical properties of two candidate material systems, T650-35/AFR-PE-4 and T650-35/RP46. The two candidate high-temperature polyimide resins, AFR-PE-4 and RP46, were developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory and NASA Langley Research Center, respectively. This paper presents experimental methods, strength, and stiffness data of the T650-35/AFR-PE-4 material as a function of elevated temperatures. The properties determined during the research test program herein, included tensile strength, tensile stiffness, Poisson s ratio, compressive strength, compressive stiffness, shear modulus, and shear strength. Unidirectional laminates, a cross-ply laminate and two eight-harness satin (8HS)-weave laminates (4-ply and 10-ply) were tested according to ASTM standard methods at room and elevated temperatures (23, 316, and 343 C). All of the relevant test methods and data reduction schemes are outlined along with

  14. Away-from-reactor storage of spent nuclear fuel: factors affecting demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzes factors that affect the magnitude and timing of demand for government AFRs, relative to the demand for other storage options, to assist policymakers in predicting this demand. Past predictions of AFT demand range widely and often appear to conflict. This report helps to explain the apparent conflicts among existing demand predictions by demonstrating their sensitivity to changes in key assumptions. Specifically, the report analyzes factors affecting the demand for government AFR storage facilities; illustrates why demand estimates may vary; and identifies actions that may be undertaken by groups, within and outside the government, to influence the level and timing of demands

  15. Experience from transport casks management in the Swedish AFR-facility CLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the 12 Swedish reactors, all located at the coast, about 250 tonnes of spent fuel are transported to the central intermediate storage facility, CLAB, yearly. The fuel assemblies are transported in TN 17/2 type B(U) casks. The sea transport system consists of the special designed ship M/S SIGYN, 4 terminal vehicles, 12 load carriers, 10 TN 17/2 casks and 2 core component casks TN 17-CC. 26 steel containers, IP-2, for low and intermediate wastes are also part of the system. During a normal year, about 95 casks are transported to and handled at CLAB. Following the ''Green book'' manual, every month 1 cask is going through a preventing maintenance and inspection programme at the maintenance workshop in CLAB. The central intermediate storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB, was taken into active operation in July 1985. Until December 1988, 362 transport casks have been handled at CLAB and 847 tonnes of spent fuel were stored in the water pools. The CLAB facility is designed in such a way that the possibility for surface contamination of the casks is very small. If this should happen there are different systems and facilities for decontamination. So far only 1 cask has been contaminated during the unloading operation in CLAB. The successful management and the experience of handling the transport casks in CLAB, will be described in the paper. (author). 6 figs

  16. Selection of away-from-reactor facilities for spent fuel storage. A guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication aims to provide information on the approaches and criteria that would have to be considered for the selection of away-from-reactor (AFR) type spent fuel storage facilities, needs for which have been growing in an increasing number of Member States producing nuclear power. The AFR facilities can be defined as a storage system functionally independent of the reactor operation providing the role of storage until a further destination such as a disposal) becomes available. Initially developed to provide additional storage space for spent fuel, some AFR storage options are now providing additional spaces for extended storage of spent fuel with a prospect for long term storage, which is becoming a progressive reality in an increasing number of Member States due to the continuing debate on issues associated with the endpoints for spent fuel management and consequent delays in the implementation of final steps, such as disposal. The importance of AFR facilities for storage of spent fuel has been recognized for several decades and addressed in various IAEA publications in the area of spent fuel management. The Guidebook on Spent Fuel Storage (Technical Reports Series No. 240 published in 1984 and revised in 1991) discusses factors to be considered in the evaluation of spent fuel storage options. A technical committee meeting (TCM) on Selection of Dry Spent Fuel Storage Technologies held in Tokyo in 1995 also deliberated on this issue. However, there has not been any stand-alone publication focusing on the topic of selection of AFR storage facilities. The selection of AFR storage facilities is in fact a critical step for the successful implementation of spent fuel management programmes, due to the long operational periods required for storage and fuel handling involved with the additional implication of subsequent penalties in reversing decisions or changing the option mid-stream especially after the construction of the facility. In such a context, the long

  17. Metroplex Optimization Model Expansion and Analysis: The Airline Fleet, Route, and Schedule Optimization Model (AFRS-OM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Hoffman, Karla; Donohue, George; Beradino, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the Airline Fleet, Route, and Schedule Optimization Model (AFRS-OM) that is designed to provide insights into airline decision-making with regards to markets served, schedule of flights on these markets, the type of aircraft assigned to each scheduled flight, load factors, airfares, and airline profits. The main inputs to the model are hedged fuel prices, airport capacity limits, and candidate markets. Embedded in the model are aircraft performance and associated cost factors, and willingness-to-pay (i.e. demand vs. airfare curves). Case studies demonstrate the application of the model for analysis of the effects of increased capacity and changes in operating costs (e.g. fuel prices). Although there are differences between airports (due to differences in the magnitude of travel demand and sensitivity to airfare), the system is more sensitive to changes in fuel prices than capacity. Further, the benefits of modernization in the form of increased capacity could be undermined by increases in hedged fuel prices

  18. Technical and economic assessment of storage systems for spent fuel from commercial LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was to examine the technical and economic aspects of the cask storage system for storing spent fuel in transport/storage casks in Japan, and to compare them with those of the pool storage system. The scenarios for the transport and storage of spent fuel, and the main characteristics of spent fuel, were established as the basic conditions for the present study. On the basis of these conditions, conceptual designs, safety analyses and cost estimations of the spent fuel transport/storage casks and the storage facilities were carried out. Data were prepared for the pool storage system based on the same conditions. The cask storage system was then examined from the technical and economic viewpoint and a comparison made with the pool storage system. It was assumed that the transport/storage casks which had been developed and licensed in Europe and the United States of America would be applicable to Japan. In the present study, conceptual designs of the transport/storage casks were made on the basis of the capacity of the existing cranes at the reactor building. With regard to the safety (in particular, shielding) and economic aspects, conceptual designs of a trench system using truck cranes and an individual shielding type storage system were made for AR storage. For AFR storage, a conceptual design of a simple concrete building was made. The major results of a shielding analysis and seismic safety analyses are given. An economic assessment of the spent fuel management costs for the cask storage system and the pool storage system for AR storage of 500 t U and AFR storage of 3000 t U revealed that the costs for the cask storage system were lower than those for the pool storage system. (author). 3 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Produção de açafrão em função de acessos e do peso de rizomas-semente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Berni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O açafrão-da-terra (Curcuma longa L. é originário do sudeste asiático e subcontinente indiano. É uma herbácea de caule subterrâneo, alaranjado, com vários rizomas secundários aproveitados na indústria alimentícia e farmacêutica devido às características de cor, sabor, odor, produção de óleos essenciais, e corantes. Na escolha do melhor material propagativo deve-se levar em consideração o material genético, o peso, tamanho, idade, capacidade de reserva acumulada, sanidade, dentre outros fatores. O objetivo neste experimento foi avaliar a influencia de diferentes acessos e pesos de rizomas-sementes na produção de açafrão. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições, tendo como tratamento principal os acessos (C-06, C-36 e C-38 e como tratamento secundário as classes de rizomas-sementes (peso: pequeno, médio e grande, ±5, ±10 e ±15 g/rizoma, respectivamente. Após a colheita, os rizomas foram distribuídos sobre tela suspensa para secagem à sombra com ventilação natural, por 20 dias. Posteriormente, para avaliar a produção, os rizomas foram classificados em 4 classes: A (> 15g , B (±10 g, C (±5 g e D(<5g. A interação entre os acessos e o tamanho do rizoma-semente foi significativa para todas as variáveis, com exceção da Classe D. Com o uso de rizoma-semente grande os acessos C-38 e o C-06 apresentaram maior produtividade total, 0,834 e 0,812kg/planta, respectivamente. O descarte gerado foi menor no acesso C-38 do que no C-06, representando 7,8 e 12,8% da produção total, respectivamente. O uso de rizomas-semente maiores aumentou significativamente a produção total. No acesso C-06 a produção passou de 0,481 para 0,812 kg/planta, ou seja, um aumento de 70%. O ganho relativo na produção de rizoma (kg/planta no acesso C-06 para o plantio de rizomas com ±15 g, foi de 28%.

  20. Economics of National Waste Terminal Storage Spent Fuel Pricing Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology for equitably pricing commercial nuclear spent fuel management is developed, and the results of four sample calculations are presented. The spent fuel management program analyzed places encapsulated spent fuel in bedded salt while maintaining long-term retrievability. System design was reasonable but not optimum. When required, privately-owned Away From Reactor (AFR) storage is provided and the spent fuel placed in AFR storage is eventually transported to final storage. Applicable Research and Development and Government Overhead are included. The cost of each component by year was estimated from the most recent applicable data source available. These costs were input to the pricing methodology to establish a one-time charge whose present value exactly recovered the present value of the expenditure flow. The four cases exercised were combinations of a high and a low quantity of spent fuel managed, with a single repository (venture) or a multiple repository (campaign) approach to system financial structure. The price for spent fuel management calculated ranged from 116 to 152 dollars (1978) per kilogram charged initially to the reactor. The effect of spent fuel receiving rate on price is illustrated by the fact that the extremes of price did not coincide with the cases having the extremes of undiscounted cost. These prices for spent fuel management are comparable in magnitude to other fuel cycle costs. The range of variation is small because of compensating effects, i.e., additional costs for high early deliveries (AFR and transportation) versus lower present value of future revenue for later delivery cases. The methodology contains numerous conservative assumptions, provisions for contingencies, and covers the complete set of spent fuel management expenses

  1. Secagem do açafrão (Curcuma longa L. em diferentes cortes geométricos Drying of Curcuma longa L. in different shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Almeida Vilela

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O processo de secagem de açafrão, atualmente utilizado pela grande maioria dos produtores agrícolas, consiste na exposição deste produto ao ar livre sobre uma lona plástica estendida sobre o solo, utilizando a radiação solar como fonte de energia para a secagem, sem nenhum tipo de aparato técnico para proteção contra a ação do tempo ou de animais. Sob estas condições de secagem, em um ambiente onde praticamente não há nenhum tipo de controle de temperatura e umidade, surgem vários problemas durante o processo, dentre os quais pode-se destacar o tempo demasiado longo para atingir o ponto final desejado, e paralelamente a isto o desenvolvimento de microrganismos nocivos à saúde e a alta deterioração do produto. Por estar sendo utilizado um ambiente ao ar livre e sem proteção contra a ação do tempo, fica também difícil a previsão do tempo de secagem. Desta forma, o período de secagem pode chegar a 25 dias, o qual é muito longo do ponto de vista industrial. Este trabalho apresenta um levantamento das curvas de secagem do açafrão para diferentes condições de temperatura, velocidade do ar e cortes do rizoma. Tais curvas apresentam a influência da casca, do tipo de corte, da temperatura e da velocidade do ar nos tempos de secagem, parâmetros importantes ao desenvolvimento de novos equipamentos e processos de secagem.The process currently used by most agricultural producers for drying Curcuma longa L. consists in the exposure of the product to atmospheric conditions, on a plastic film on the ground, using solar radiation as energy source for drying, without the use of any kind of apparatus for protection against the weather or animals. Under these drying conditions, in an ambient with practically no temperature and moisture control, various problems can arise, such as an excessively long time to reach desired moisture content, with the concomitant growth of microorganisms harmful to health and high product

  2. Selection criteria for spent fuel storage technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fissile fuel material contained in cladding or encapsulation material that has been irradiated in a power reactor is considered spent fuel. There are several types of spent fuel, including pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel, boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, Canada Deuterium uranium (CANDU) fuel, other pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) fuels, high temperature reactor (HTR) fuel and advanced gas cooled reactor (AGR) fuel. There are two principal alternatives for managing spent fuel: the direct disposal route: spent fuel, conditioned after a sufficient decay period, is directly disposed of without the separation of fissile components; and the reprocessing route: spent fuel is reprocessed, and high level waste (HLW) containing mostly fission products and a small proportion of the actinides is disposed of after proper conditioning. The initial phase for spent nuclear fuel is storage under wet conditions in reactor pools after discharge from the reactor cores. This cooling phase is necessary for further handling of the spent fuel. After this initial phase sooner or later spent fuel needs to be transferred to another storage facility. This situation occurs for two reasons: first there is not enough capacity in the reactor pool; and second, the reactor has to be decommissioned. Because of these reasons, away from reactor storage (AFR) technology has to be taken into consideration at the beginning. This paper presents the main factors for selection of storage technologies. These factors are important for determination of basic requirements (storage space and storage time). The main factors begin with the spent fuel characteristics. These are: fuel type and dimensions, enrichment ratio, rods, cooling time after discharge, cladding and other materials, fuel integrity and (short and long term) production amounts. Lifetime of the storage facility is another factor to be determined before the design stage. A reasonable lifetime is more than 100

  3. Storage of spent fuel from power reactors in India management and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel management programme in India is based on closing the nuclear fuel cycle with reprocessing option. This will enable the country to enhance energy security through maximizing utilization of available limited uranium resources while pursuing its Three Stage Nuclear Power Programme. Storage of spent fuel in water pools remains as prevailing mode in the near term. In view of inventory build up of spent fuel, an Away-From-Reactor (AFR) On-Site (OS) spent fuel storage facility has been made operational at Tarapur. Dry storage casks also have been developed as 'add on' system for additional storage of spent fuels. The paper describes the status and experience pertaining to spent fuel storage practices in India. (author)

  4. Jónína Einarsdóttir og Þórdís Sigurðardóttir (ritstjórar: Afríka sunnan Sahara í brennidepli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólöf Ýrr Atladóttir

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ánægjulegt hefur verið að fylgjast með því hvernig áhugi Íslendinga á málefnum þróunarlanda virðist hafa aukist á undanförnum árum. Fjölmiðlar hafa og tekið við sér; algengt er að fjallað sé um hin fátækari ríki heims á síðum dagblaða og í ljósvakamiðlum. Þróunarmál eru í deiglunni. Yfirbragð þeirra upplýsinga sem við höfum fengið hefur þó ekki breyst alveg í takti við aukið magn þeirra: Enn ber sú mynd sem dregin er upp af mannlífi í Afríku sunnan Sahara einkum keim af allsleysi og örbirgð, örvinglun og kröm. Enn er okkur innrætt sú hugmynd að í Afríku búi einsleitt fólk án menningarsérkenna og okkur er lítt veitt innsýn í sérkenni mismunandi ríkja í álfunni og ótölulegra þjóðflokka, ríkrar flóru tungumála og nýtingu margbreytilegs náttúrufars. Of oft virðist okkur ætlað að fella þann tæpa milljarð manna sem álfuna byggir undir hatt almennrar staðalmyndar af "Afríku".

  5. Cask operation and maintenance for spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interim storage is an essential platform for any option to be chosen later as an endpoint for spent fuel management. In view of such a circumstance, the most imminent service required for the spent fuel management worldwide is to provide adequate storage for the future spent fuel inventory arising either from the continued operation of nuclear power plants or from the removal of spent fuel in preparation for plant decommissioning. While the bulk of the global inventory of spent fuel are still stored in AR pools, dry storage has become a prominent alternative especially for newly built AFR facilities, with more than 17,000 t HM already stored in dry storage facilities worldwide. Storage in cask under inert conditions has become the preferred option, given the advantages including passive cooling features and modular mode of capacity increase. In terms of economics, dry storage is particularly propitious for long-term storage in that operational costs are minimized by the passive cooling features. The trend toward dry storage, especially in cask type, is likely to continue with an implication that and the supply will closely follow the increasing demand for storage by incremental additions of casks to the effect of minimizing cost penalty of the idle capacities typical of pool facilities. A variety of storage systems have been developed to meet specific requirements of different reactor fuels and a large number of designs based on these generic technologies are now available for the spent fuel containers (horizontal, vertical etc) and storage facilities. Multi-purpose technologies (i.e. a single technology for storage, transportation and disposal) have also been studied. Recent concern on security measures for protection of spent fuel has prompted a consideration on the possibility of placing storage facility underground. The future evolution of requirements and technologies will bring important impacts on cask operation and maintenance for spent fuel storage

  6. Dry cask spent fuel storage at JAPC Tokai No.2 Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dry cask spent fuel storage project at Tokai No.2 power station started with a geological examination of the facility site, and a design of the cask and storage facility in the mid-1990s. Considering economical efficiency and suitability for site conditions, a cask with large capacity is designed. The cask can accommodate 61 BWR fuel assemblies and is used for on-site storage only. 24 casks can be stored in the storage facility, which consists of a concrete facility building, an overhead crane and some monitoring systems. The foundation of the facility building is supported on bedrock with steel piles. Air inlets and outlets for passive natural circulation cooling are installed on the walls. The construction of the facility building and the fabrication of 7 casks began in 1999, and were completed in 2001. 8 casks for the second stage were fabricated in 2004. 2 casks for the third stage are fabricating. And 4 casks for the forth stage are in process of design. The first loaded 4 casks have been stored safely in the facility for three years since December 2001, and followed another 9 dry casks as of the end of 2007. In addition to the above spent fuel storage management at reactor site, a spent fuel storage away from reactor (AFR) is projected to start operation by 2010. We think our experiences on Tokai No.2 power station will be able to apply to the AFR storage project, such as the design of the cask and the facility. Outline of the Tokai No.2 project, experiences on the fuel loading and cask storage conditions including the monitoring data will be reported on this paper. (author)

  7. Dry cask spent fuel storage at JAPC Tokai No.2 power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dry cask spent fuel storage project at Tokai No.2 power station started with a geological examination of the facility site, and a design of the cask and storage facility in the mid-1990s. Considering economical efficiency and suitability for site conditions, a cask with large capacity is designed. The cask can accommodate 61 BWR fuel assemblies and is used for on-site storage only. 24 casks can be stored in the storage facility, which consists of a concrete facility building, an overhead crane and some monitoring systems. The foundation of the facility building is supported on bedrock with steel piles. Air inlets and outlets for passive natural circulation cooling are installed on the walls. The construction of the facility building and the fabrication of 7 casks began in 1999, and were completed in 2001. 8 casks for the second stage were fabricated in 2004. And 6 casks for the third stage are in process of design. The first loaded 4 casks have been stored safely in the facility for three years since December 2001, and followed another 6 dry casks as of the end of 2004. In addition to the above spent fuel storage management at reactor site, a spent fuel storage away from reactor (AFR) is projected to start operation by 2010. We think our experiences on Tokai No.2 power station will be able to apply to the AFR storage project, such as the design of the cask and the facility. Outline of the Tokai No.2 project, experiences on the fuel loading and cask storage conditions including the monitoring data will be reported on this paper. (author)

  8. Dry storage cask - DIORIT - Swiss experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach that uses wet-dry-dry loading technology has been successfully demonstrated, including remote viewing and loading control. The experience gained allowed for comprehensive expeditious licensing, including transport and storage permissions. A measurements campaign of more than two years has been made on the loaded cask, confirming: heat transfer, shielding, leaktightness and fuel behavior; in May 1985 the cask was transported from the reactor DIORIT to a new Away From Reactor-AFR-storage facility in the authors premises, which by the way is the first of its kind in operation licensed. In spite of the rather complex situation with the DIORIT spent fuel and the extreme limitations in the reactor handling and loading facilities, the complete project was achieved in only 22 months; accounting for two years of monitoring and measurements, the whole project took only 3.8 years. This shows the high degree of maturity achieved in spent fuel dry storage in transport cask, and reflects the high degree of technology innovation that has been demonstrated and which can be transferred as required

  9. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  10. BIM (Building Information Modeling) á Íslandi: hver er ávinningur af notkun aðferðafræðinnar í komandi framtíð?

    OpenAIRE

    Benedikt Eggert Pálsson 1981

    2013-01-01

    Til umfjöllunar í þessu verkefni er umhverfi og ferli mannvirkjagerðar á Íslandi. En greinin hefur mátt þola gagnrýni hvað varðar; skipulagningu, mistakakostnað, slakar áætlanir og fleira. Með tilkomu nýrrar aðferðafræði, Building Information Modeling (BIM) sem hefur fengið íslensku þýðinguna „upplýsingalíkan mannvirkja“, stendur greinin á krossgötum. BIM hefur verið að ryðja sér til rúms í heiminum með góðum árangri, en BIM er ætlað að bæta upplýsingaflæði milli aðila, draga úr mistökum og b...

  11. Planning, licensing and operational experience of spent fuel dry storage cask in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and applied development in Spent fuel intermediate storage takes place at EIR since 1979, when studies were conducted on different storage techniques including safety economics, licensing and operational experience etc., in order to assess alternative storage systems to wet storage. A complete project on dry storage was carried out by using the spent fuel of the decommissioned DIORIT reactr at EIR. The studies concluded that transport and storage casks comply with such design targets as: passive operation, inherent safety, proven economics, transport readibility, easy decommissioning and flexibility in use. A new approach that uses wet-dry-dry loading technology has been succesfully applied, including indirect loading control. The safety analysis and experience gained allowed for comprehensive licensing procedure including transport and storage permissions in accordance with actual nuclear regulations. A measurements campaing of more than 2 years has been done on the loaded dry storage cask, confirming such design topics as: heat transfer, shielding, leaktightness and fuel behaviour; in May 1985 the cask was transported from the reactor to an away from reactor -AFR- newly built storage facility in our premmises, which by the way is the first of its kind in operation and duly licensed. (author)

  12. Retardadores de crescimento na produção de plantas floridas envasadas de açafrão-da-cochinchina Growth retardants on production of flowering potted thai tulip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rossini Pinto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de novos produtos na floricultura brasileira é importante para o crescimento do setor. O açafrão-da-cochinchina (Curcuma alismatifolia possui inflorescência e folhagem altamente decorativas e grande potencial para produção como florífera envasada, com o auxílio de retardadores de crescimento, usados na produção de plantas compactas e atrativas. Avaliou-se o efeito de retardadores de crescimento na produção de açafrão-da-cochinchina `Pink', de 3/12/2004 a 28/4/2005, sob ambiente protegido, em Holambra (SP. Instalou-se experimento em blocos casualizados com três repetições e onze tratamentos: controle, paclobutrazol (20; 25; 30 e 35 mg i.a./vaso, via substrato, duas, três e cinco pulverizações de daminozide na concentração de 2,125 g L-1 e duas, três e cinco pulverizações de solução de daminozide (1,275 g L-1 mais chlormequat (0,2 g L-1. O propágulo foi plantado em vaso plástico (1,0 L com substrato comercial e fertirrigado diariamente. Paclobutrazol (35 mg i.a./vaso reduziu significativamente a altura da parte aérea e da folhagem e o comprimento da haste floral, sem alterar o comprimento da inflorescência e atrasar o ciclo de produção. Entretanto, as plantas não ficaram suficientemente compactas para atender às exigências de qualidade do mercado. Os demais retardadores estudados não afetaram significativamente a altura da folhagem e o comprimento da haste floral comparado ao controle.The introduction of new products is important for the growth of Brazilian floriculture industry. The thai tulip (Curcuma alismatifolia has a highly attractive inflorescence and foliage, and great prospect as a flowering potted plant with the aid of growth retardants, which are used to produce compact plants. The effect of growth retardants on `Pink' thai tulip production was evaluated under controlled growing conditions at Holambra, SP. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with three replications and

  13. Spent fuel management: Semi-dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To change the temporary underwater storage mode of nuclear spent fuel (NSF) from wet to semi-dry as a means of slowing down or even stopping corrosion of the cladding and thereby to ensure safe storage conditions for further temporary storage, experts of the Atomic Energy Research Institute developed a canning technology and automatic canning equipment. This equipment was commissioned at the AFR pond of the Budapest Research Reactor and the regulatory licence for NSF encapsulation was granted in March 2002. The technology uses a tube-type capsule made of an aluminium alloy with a wall thickness of 3 mm. The capsule is capable of accommodating one EK-lO, one triple VVR type assembly or three single VVR assemblies. Encapsulation utilizes a closed technology in which the capsule undergoes a powerful drying procedure (heated by an eddy current), is back-filled with dry nitrogen gas and then closed by a shrink-fit capsule head and subsequently welded. The program-controlled equipment of the canning machine is housed in a compact steel container. It includes a device for cropping the fuel legs and provides a means of reopening encapsulated NSF, if the need arises. The cycle time of the whole canning procedure is about 120 minutes allowing about 4 to 5 cans to be sealed per working day. The canning has been running since May 2002 and was divided into two phases. In Phase 1 the goal was to encapsulate all NSF assemblies irradiated before reactor upgrading (1986), while Phase 2 is a regular canning operation to deal with fuel that has decayed for about 10 years. Phase 1 was successfully completed in August 2004 by which time 82 EK-10, 228 single and 184 triple VVR fuel assemblies (altogether 342 cans) had been encapsulated. The canning machine and its accessories, including the cropping device, form a compact and mobile technology that ensures an almost completely automatic, safe and reliable encapsulation of spent fuel. (author)

  14. Methods for expanding the capacity of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of 1989 more than 55,000 metric tonnes of heavy metal (MTHM) of spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) fuel had been discharged worldwide from nuclear power plants. Only a small fraction of this fuel has been reprocessed. The majority of the spent fuel assemblies are currently held at-reactor (AR) or away-from-reactor (AFR) in storage awaiting either chemical processing or final disposal depending on the fuel concept chosen by individual countries. Studies made by NEA and IAEA have projected that annual spent fuel arising will reach about 10,000 t HM in the year 2000 and cumulative arising will be more than 200,000 t HM. Taking into account the large quantity of spent fuel discharged from NPP and that the first demonstrations of the direct disposal of spent fuel or HLW are expected only after the year 2020, long-term storage will be the primary option for management of spent fuel until well into the next century. There are several options to expand storage capacity: (1) to construct new away-from-reactor storage facilities, (2) to transport spent fuel from a full at-reactor pool to another site for storage in a pool that has sufficient space to accommodate it, (3) to expand the capacity of existing AR pools by using compact racks, double-tierce, rod consolidation and by increasing the dimensions of existing pools. The purpose of the meeting was: to exchange new information on the international level on the subject connected with the expansion of storage capacities for spent fuel; to elaborate the state-of-the-art of this problem; to define the most important areas for future activity; on the basis of the above information to give recommendations to potential users for selection and application of the most suitable methods for expanding spent fuel facilities taking into account the relevant country's conditions. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  16. Atomic storage

    CERN Multimedia

    Ricadela, A

    2003-01-01

    IBM is supplying CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, with its Storage Tank file system virtualization software, 20 terabytes of storage capacity, and services under a three-year deal to build computer systems that will support the Large Hadron Collider accelerator (1 paragraph).

  17. Systems analysis of spent fuel management in Japan. (1). Projection of material balances and storage needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel accumulation in the future and its appropriate management strategy for Japan is analyzed by 'SFTRACE' (Spent Fuel Storage, TRAnsportation and Cost Evaluation System) is introduced, which consists of 3 sub-models; (1) the economic cost data base for spent fuel storage technologies, (2) the long-range simulation of reactor mix and plutonium (Pu) utilization, and (3) the detailed simulation of spent fuel management strategies. The long-range simulation sub-model presents a macroscopic overview on how much amount of spent fuel stockpile should be addressed nationwide at a certain time point. A preliminary calculation shows that the spent fuel storage needs in Japan to the year 2050 will vary significantly, from a decrease towards zero or a continuous increase up to 20,000 - 25,000 tHM. The sub-model for spent fuel management simulation is the tool to demonstrate nationwide strategies to deal with spent fuel accumulation, either at each power station site or a number of centralized facilities in the given time horizon, with associated needs of transportation. An illustrative analysis shows trade-off relationship among factors involved in spent fuel management strategies, such as between 'away from reactor (AFR)' storage capacity and overall transportation requirements, which vividly demonstrates the usefulness of the integrated analytic tool. (author)

  18. Survey of wet and dry spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel storage is one of the important stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and stands among the most vital challenges for countries operating nuclear power plants. Continuous attention is being given by the IAEA to the collection, analysis and exchange of information on spent fuel management. Its role in this area is to provide a forum for exchanging information and for coordinating and encouraging closer co-operation among Member States. Spent fuel management is recognized as a high priority IAEA activity. In 1997, the annual spent fuel arising from all types of power reactors worldwide amounted to about 10,500 tonnes heavy metal (t HM). The total amount of spent fuel accumulated worldwide at the end of 1997 was about 200,000 t HM of which about 130,000 t HM of spent fuel is presently being stored in at-reactor (AR) or away-from-reactor (AFR) storage facilities awaiting either reprocessing or final disposal and 70,000 t HM has been reprocessed. Projections indicate that the cumulative amount generated by 2010 may surpass 340,000 t HM and by the year 2015 395,000 t HM. Part of the spent fuel will be reprocessed and some countries took the option to dispose their spent fuel in a repository. Most countries with nuclear programmes are using the deferral of a decision approach, a 'wait and see' strategy with interim storage, which provides the ability to monitor the storage continuously and to retrieve the spent fuel later for either direct disposal or reprocessing. Some countries use different approaches for different types of fuel. Today the worldwide reprocessing capacity is only a fraction of the total spent fuel arising and since no final repository has yet been constructed, there will be an increasing demand for interim storage. The present survey contains information on the basic storage technologies and facility types, experience with wet and dry storage of spent fuel and international experience in spent fuel transport. The main aim is to provide spent fuel

  19. Department of Energy report on fee for spent nuclear fuel storage and disposal services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the July 1978 publication of an estimated fee for storage and disposal, several changes have occurred in the parameters which impact the spent fuel fee. DOE has mounted a diversified program of geologic investigations that will include locating and characterizing a number of potential repository sites in a variety of different geologic environments with diverse rock types. As a result, the earliest operation date of a geologic repository is now forecast for 1997. Finally, expanded spent fuel storage capabilities at reactors have reduced the projected quantities of fuel to be stored and disposed of. The current estimates for storage and disposal are presented. This fee has been developed from DOE program information on spent fuel storage requirements, facility availability, facility cost estimates, and research and development programs. The discounted cash flow technique has used the most recent estimates of cost of borrowing by the Federal Government. This estimate has also been used in calculating the Federal charge for uranium enrichment services. A prepayment of a percentage of the storage portion of the fee is assumed to be required 5 years before spent fuel delivery. These funds and the anticipated $300 million in US Treasury borrowing authority should be sufficient to finance the acquisition of storage facilities. Similarly, a prepayment of a percentage of the disposal portion would be collected at the same time and would be used to offset disposal research and development expenditures. The balance of the storage and disposal fees will be collected upon spent fuel delivery. If disposal costs are different from what was estimated, there will be a final adjustment of the disposal portion of the fee when the spent fuel is shipped from the AFR for permanent disposal. Based on current spent fuel storage requirements, at least a 30 percent prepayment of the fee will be required

  20. An Indian perspective for transportation and storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel discharged from the reactors are temporarily stored at the reactor pool. After a certain cooling time, the spent fuel is moved to the storage locations either on or off reactor site depending on the spent fuel management strategy. As India has opted for a closed fuel cycle for its nuclear energy development, reprocessing of the spent fuel, recycling of the reprocessed plutonium and uranium and disposal of the wastes from the reprocessing operations forms the spent fuel management strategy. Since the reprocessing operations are planned to match the nuclear energy programme, storage of the spent fuel in ponds are adopted prior to reprocessing. Transport of the spent fuel to the storage locations are carried out adhering to international and national guide lines. India is having 14 operating power reactors and three research reactors. The spent fuel from the two safeguarded BWRs are stored at-reactor (AR) storage pond. A separate wet storage facility away-from-reactor (AFR) has been designed, constructed and made operational since 1991 for additional fuel storage. Storage facilities are provided in ARs at other reactor locations to cater to 10 reactor-years of operation. A much lower capacity spent fuel storage is provided in reprocessing plants on the same lines of AR fuel storage design. Since the reprocessing operations are carried out on a need basis, to cater to the increased storage needs two new spent fuel storage facilities (SFSF) are being designed and constructed near the existing nuclear plant sites. India has mastered the technology for design, construction and operation of wet spent fuel storage facility meeting all the international standards Wet storage of the spent fuel is the most commonly adopted mode all over the world. Recently an alternate mode viz. dry storage has also been considered. India has designed, constructed and operated lead shielded dry storage casks and is operational at one site. A dry storage cask made of concrete

  1. Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  2. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Spent fuel disassembly: increasing hot-cell storage capacity at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of work performed at AGNS in 1979 related to production-rate fuel disassembly in the existing hot cell spaces of the BNFP. The primary advantage of the developed technique is realized at a reprocessing plant facility where suitable hot cells and connecting storage pools are available. The existing spent fuel pools are also candidates for away-from-reactor (AFR) storage space. Storage estimates based on utilization of the BNFP indicate that a major expansion from 1600 MTU up to 3000 MTU is possible. The report presents data on the results of initial process development and prototype equipment testing. Assessments were made of operational safety, licensing, and economic factors. These studies indicate that the techniques are performable and have economic merit when there is a requirement for a large increment of new storage capacity. A development program plan is presented. This plan delineates the future work required to bring the process to a point where implementation is possible

  3. Oil Storage Facilities - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  4. Dossier: underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dossier reviews the main concepts of storage in geologic formations: shape of artificial cavities; natural reservoirs: natural gas storage in aquifers, heat storage, karsts and caves; artificial reservoirs: salt dissolution cavities, salt mines, enlargement of cavities, storage of metal wastes; reservoirs in mining cavities: hydrocarbons storage (tightness, steel coated cavities), cryogenic storage; use of ancient infrastructures (mines, quarries, galleries): hydrocarbons storage, toxic wastes storage, radioactive wastes disposal, reversible radioactive wastes storage, solar neutrons trapping in underground galleries, storage of film archives etc.. (J.S.)

  5. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  6. The Influence of Arc-Flash and Fire-Resistant Clothing on Thermoregulation during Exercise in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Martin P; Meade, Robert D; McGinn, Ryan; Friesen, Brian J; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of arc-flash and fire-resistant (AFR) clothing ensembles (CE) on whole-body heat dissipation during work in the heat. On 10 occasions, 7 males performed four 15-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C), each separated by 15-min of recovery. Whole-body heat loss and metabolic heat production were measured by direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was calculated as the temporal summation of heat production and heat loss. Responses were compared in a semi-nude state and while wearing two CE styles: (1) single-piece (coveralls) and (2) two-piece (workpant + long-sleeve shirt). For group 1, there was one non-AFR single-piece CE (CE1STD) and three single-piece CE with AFR properties (CE2AFR, CE3AFR, CE4AFR). For group 2, there was one non-AFR two-piece CE (CE5STD) and four two-piece CE with AFR properties (CE6AFR, CE7AFR, CE8AFR, CE9AFR). The workpants for CE6AFR were not AFR-rated, while a cotton undershirt was also worn for conditions CE8AFR and CE9AFR and for all single-piece CE. Heat storage for all conditions (CE1STD: 328 ± 55, CE2AFR: 335 ± 87, CE3AFR: 309 ± 95, CE4AFR: 403 ± 104, CE5STD: 253 ± 78, CE6AFR: 268 ± 89, CE7AFR: 302 ± 70, CE8AFR: 360 ± 36, CE9AFR: 381 ± 99 kJ) was greater than the semi-nude state (160 ± 124 kJ) (all p ≤ 0.05). No differences were measured between single-piece uniforms (p = 0.273). Among the two-piece uniforms, heat storage was greater for CE8AFR and CE9AFR relative to CE5STD and CE6AFR (all p ≤ 0.05), but not CE7AFR (both p > 0.05). Differences between clothing styles were measured such that greater heat storage was observed in both CE1STD and CE2-4AFR relative to CE5STD. Further, heat storage was greater in CE2AFR and CE4AFR relative to CE6AFR, while it was greater in CE4AFR compared to CE7AFR. Body heat storage during work in the heat was not influenced by the use of AFR fabrics in the single- or two-piece uniforms albeit

  7. The underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work are given summaries of the addresses presented at the conference on the underground storage of June 2008. The topics described are: 1)sites and legislation of the underground storage in France (Carole Mercier) 2)oil and gas underground storage in salt cavities (Patrick Renoux) 3) geothermal storages (Herve Lesueur) 4)CO2 geological storage in aquifers and exploited oil deposits (Etienne Brosse). (O.M.)

  8. Massive Storage Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Feng; Hai Jin

    2006-01-01

    To accommodate the explosively increasing amount of data in many areas such as scientific computing and e-Business, physical storage devices and control components have been separated from traditional computing systems to become a scalable, intelligent storage subsystem that, when appropriately designed, should provide transparent storage interface, effective data allocation, flexible and efficient storage management, and other impressive features. The design goals and desirable features of such a storage subsystem include high performance, high scalability, high availability, high reliability and high security. Extensive research has been conducted in this field by researchers all over the world, yet many issues still remain open and challenging. This paper studies five different online massive storage systems and one offline storage system that we have developed with the research grant support from China. The storage pool with multiple network-attached RAIDs avoids expensive store-and-forward data copying between the server and storage system, improving data transfer rate by a factor of 2-3 over a traditional disk array. Two types of high performance distributed storage systems for local-area network storage are introduced in the paper. One of them is the Virtual Interface Storage Architecture (VISA) where VI as a communication protocol replaces the TCP/IP protocol in the system. VISA's performance is shown to achieve better than that of IP SAN by designing and implementing the vSCSI (VI-attached SCSI) protocol to support SCSI commands in the VI network. The other is a fault-tolerant parallel virtual file system that is designed and implemented to provide high I/O performance and high reliability. A global distributed storage system for wide-area network storage is discussed in detail in the paper, where a Storage Service Provider is added to provide storage service and plays the role of user agent for the storage system. Object based Storage Systems not only

  9. Radioactive material storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To make a spent fuel accommodating box movable and accommodate spent fuels at a position farther than the side wall of the storage installation and to draw the spent fuel near to the side wall with the lapse of the storage time, thereby attenuating the radiation effectively and increasing the storage capacity. Constitution: A space (box) accommodating radioactive materials is made movable, and the radiation is effectively shielded by the attenuation of the radioactive materials in storage due to the lapse of the storage time and the shielding of the radiation due to the liquefied shielding material up to the shielding wall of the storage installation, whereby the shielding wall of the storage installation is made thin and the capacity in the installation is enlarged, thus the accommodation capacity, that is, the storage capacity being increased. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. Recent developments in storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat storage in ground, storage by sensible heat and phase change, by means of chemical reactions, in aquifers is considered hydrogeological, geological and thermophysical aspects of aquifers are discussed. Refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  12. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  13. Efeitos dos óleos de amendoim, açafrão e oliva na composição corporal, metabolismo energético, perfil lipídico e ingestão alimentar de indivíduos eutróficos normolipidêmicos The effects of peanut, safflower, and olive oil on body composition, energy metabolism, lipid profile and food intake of eutrophic, normolipidemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Lopes Sales

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O presente trabalho visou avaliar os efeitos do consumo dos óleos de amendoim, açafrão e oliva no perfil lipídico, composição corporal, metabolismo energético e ingestão alimentar em indivíduos eutróficos normolipidêmicos. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 32 indivíduos, divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos, tendo quatro mulheres e quatro homens em cada grupo, com idade entre 18 e 50 anos. Foi oferecido um milk shake aos voluntários no desjejum, veiculando uma quantidade equivalente a 30% da sua energia basal na forma de óleo (amendoim, açafrão ou oliva, por um período de oito semanas, exceto para o grupo-controle, que não recebeu o shake. Foram realizadas avaliações dos valores de colesterol total e frações, triacilgliceróis, composição corporal, taxa de metabolismo basal, termogênese induzida pela dieta e ingestão alimentar dos indivíduos nas semanas basal, 4ª e 8ª. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença significante no perfil lipídico e na saciedade, no entanto, o grupo que recebeu óleo de açafrão apresentou valores de lipídios plasmáticos mais reduzidos. A ingestão dos óleos levou ao aumento do ganho de peso, sendo que o óleo de oliva proporcionou maior circunferência do quadril. CONCLUSÃO: A adição dos óleos na dieta levou ao aumento da deposição de gordura corporal sem provocar alterações no perfil lipídico e ingestão dietética, ao contrário do relatado na literatura. O uso dos óleos em substituição a outros nutrientes energéticos da dieta, o maior número de voluntários e um período maior de intervenção devem ser investigados em estudos futuros.OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of peanut, safflower and olive oils on the lipid profile, body composition and satiety of eutrophic, normolipidemic subjects. METHODS: Thirty-two 18 to 50 year-old subjects were recruited and randomly divided into four groups, each with 4 men and 4 women. One group

  14. Cloud storage for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Linda; Loughlin, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    Understand cloud computing and save your organization time and money! Cloud computing is taking IT by storm, but what is it and what are the benefits to your organization? Hitachi Data Systems' Cloud Storage For Dummies provides all the answers, With this book, you discover a clear explanation of cloud storage, and tips for how to choose the right type of cloud storage for your organization's needs. You also find out how cloud storage can free up valuable IT resources, saving time and money. Cloud Storage For Dummies presents useful information on setting up a

  15. A Review of Energy Storage Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2010-01-01

    ), Battery Energy Storage (BES), Flow Battery Energy Storage (FBES), Flywheel Energy Storage (FES), Supercapacitor Energy Storage (SCES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), Hydrogen Energy Storage System (HESS), Thermal Energy Storage (TES), and Electric Vehicles (EVs). The objective was to...

  16. Location systems analysis of away-from-reactor spent-fuel storage facilities in the eastern United States. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A site selection model to support away-from-reactor (AFR) spent fuel siting decisions has been developed. The model has two unique features. For the first time, decisions on AFR location, reactor-AFR assignments and the routing of spent fuel shipments can be analyzed simultaneously in an optimization framework. The model is also multi-objective, providing an explicit analysis of the tradeoffs between a surrogate for spent fuel shipping costs and a measure of public attitudes toward spent fuel shipments. The current data base for the model is restricted to the United States east of the Mississippi River and to spent fuel transport by highway. Data inputs include distances along arcs in the highway network, populations within a transportation environment zone centered on arcs in the highway network, and spent fuel shipping rates by reactor which were provided by the Department of Energy using DISFUL program. The model can be applied to a variety of policy issues and questions, in addition to AFR location, reactor assignment and spent fuel routing decisions. The model can be used to analyze AFR scheduling, routing policy, the relationship between AFR and repository location decisions and the disposition of spent fuel from foreign sources

  17. Spacecraft Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Wilf; Hanks, James; Spina, Len; Havenhill, Doug; Gisler, Gary; Ginter, Steve; Brault, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Flywheel Energy Storage Systems represent an exciting alternative to traditional battery storage systems used to power satellites during periods of eclipse. The increasing demand for reliable communication and data access is driving explosive growth in the number of satellite systems being developed as well as their performance requirements. Power on orbit is the key to this performance, and batteries are becoming increasingly unattractive as an energy storage media. Flywheel systems offer ve...

  18. A new storage-ring light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  19. Wind-energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  20. HAWAII UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a point coverage of underground storage tanks(UST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more underground storage tanks occur. Each fa...

  1. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  2. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  3. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance

  4. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on "sensible heat" storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  5. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhilippeVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  6. Aflatoxins and safe storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  7. Storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  8. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  9. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  10. Tiered Storage For LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Hanushevsky, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    For more than a year, the ATLAS Western Tier 2 (WT2) at SLAC National Accelerator has been successfully operating a two tiered storage system based on Xrootd's flexible cross-cluster data placement framework, the File Residency Manager. The architecture allows WT2 to provide both, high performance storage at the higher tier to ATLAS analysis jobs, as well as large, low cost disk capacity at the lower tier. Data automatically moves between the two storage tiers based on the needs of analysis jobs and is completely transparent to the jobs.

  11. Monitored retrievable storage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) established a national policy for the safe storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The NWPA requires that DOE... ''submit a proposal to Congress on the need for and feasibility of one or more Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facilities''... In subsequent evaluations of the commercial nuclear waste management system, DOE has identified important advantages in providing an MRS Facility as an integral part of the total system. The integral MRS Facility serves as an independent, centralized spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste handling and packaging facility with a safe temporary storage capacity

  12. Thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Picklesimer, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    The general scope of study on thermal energy storage development includes: (1) survey and review possible concepts for storing thermal energy; (2) evaluate the potentials of the surveyed concepts for practical applications in the low and high temperature ranges for thermal control and storage, with particular emphasis on the low temperature range, and designate the most promising concepts; and (3) determine the nature of further studies required to expeditiously convert the most promising concept(s) to practical applications. Cryogenic temperature control by means of energy storage materials was also included.

  13. Storage-Ring Mass Spectrometry in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaki, Fumi; Yamaguchi, Takayuki

    Atomic masses are a fundamental ground-state property of nuclei, reflecting a wide variety of structures and dynamics among nucleons. High-precision mass values of short-lived, in particular neutron-rich, nuclei are a key issue toward full understanding of astrophysical nucleosynthesis, as well as nuclear shell evolution far from stability. Beyond the precision mass measurements performed at worldwide ion-trap facilities, a new method of storage-ring mass spectrometry is now being developed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory in Japan. Combined with the highest intensities of intermediate-energy radioactive ion beams currently available through in-flight separation of uranium fission products, the present method will enable us to measure the masses of extremely neutron-rich, rare species located on the r-process pathway, with a tiny yield (as low as ~1 counts/day).

  14. Wet storage integrity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables

  15. Storage Gage Precipitation Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A storage gage is a precipitation gage that requires reading and maintenance only monthly or seasonal intervals. This library includes reports from such gages,...

  16. Storage Ring EDM Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semertzidis, Yannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Dedicated storage ring electric dipole moment (EDM) methods show great promise advancing the sensitivity level by a couple orders of magnitude over currently planned hadronic EDM experiments. We describe the present status and recent updates of the field.

  17. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    OpenAIRE

    PhilippeVillers

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are gi...

  18. Aflatoxins and safe storage

    OpenAIRE

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are giv...

  19. Spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To begin with, the author explains the reasons for intermediate storage of fuel elements in nuclear power stations and in a reprocessing plant and gives the temperature and radioactivity curves of LWR fuel elements after removal from the reactor. This is followed by a description of the facilities for fuel element storage in a reprocessing plant and of their functions. Futher topics are criticality and activity control, the problem of cooling time and safety systems. (HR)

  20. Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daoud, Mohammed; Abdel-Khalik, Ayman; Elserogi, Ahmed; Ahmed, Shehab; Massoud, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Flywheels are one of the oldest and most popular energy storage media owing to the simplicity of storing kinetic energy in a rotating mass. Flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs) can be used in different applications, for example, electric utilities and transportation. With the development of new technologies in the field of composite materials and magnetic bearings, higher energy densities are allowed in the design of flywheels. The amount of stored energy in FESS depends on the mass and th...

  1. Cloud Storage Vault

    OpenAIRE

    Haver, Eirik; Melvold, Eivind; Ruud, Pål

    2011-01-01

    Today, major IT-companies, such as Microsoft, Amazon and Google, are offering online storage services to their customers. This is a favourable solution -- as opposed to regular storage -- in terms of low costs, reliability, scalability and capacity. However, important security features such as data privacy and integrity are often absent.To address these issues, a cryptographic architecture is proposed that ensures the confidentiality and integrity of the data stored by users, independent of t...

  2. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for diurnal load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks are being developed. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is also being developed by LASL. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch and 1-to-2-s slow tokamak energy transfer systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of an SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given for a 1-GWh reference design load-leveling unit, for a 30-MJ coil proposed stabilization unit, and for tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are also presented. The common technology base for the systems is discussed

  3. Secure Storage Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological University; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL; Hicks, Susan Elaine [ORNL; Koch, Scott M [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Pogge, James R [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Stephen L [Tennessee Technological University; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Sorrillo, Lawrence [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to clarify the challenges associated with storage for secure enclaves. The major focus areas for the report are: - review of relevant parallel filesystem technologies to identify assets and gaps; - review of filesystem isolation/protection mechanisms, to include native filesystem capabilities and auxiliary/layered techniques; - definition of storage architectures that can be used for customizable compute enclaves (i.e., clarification of use-cases that must be supported for shared storage scenarios); - investigate vendor products related to secure storage. This study provides technical details on the storage and filesystem used for HPC with particular attention on elements that contribute to creating secure storage. We outline the pieces for a a shared storage architecture that balances protection and performance by leveraging the isolation capabilities available in filesystems and virtualization technologies to maintain the integrity of the data. Key Points: There are a few existing and in-progress protection features in Lustre related to secure storage, which are discussed in (Chapter 3.1). These include authentication capabilities like GSSAPI/Kerberos and the in-progress work for GSSAPI/Host-keys. The GPFS filesystem provides native support for encryption, which is not directly available in Lustre. Additionally, GPFS includes authentication/authorization mechanisms for inter-cluster sharing of filesystems (Chapter 3.2). The limitations of key importance for secure storage/filesystems are: (i) restricting sub-tree mounts for parallel filesystem (which is not directly supported in Lustre or GPFS), and (ii) segregation of hosts on the storage network and practical complications with dynamic additions to the storage network, e.g., LNET. A challenge for VM based use cases will be to provide efficient IO forwarding of the parallel filessytem from the host to the guest (VM). There are promising options like para-virtualized filesystems to

  4. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  5. Neutrino Signals in Electron-Capture Storage-Ring Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Gal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrino signals in electron-capture decays of hydrogen-like parent ions P in storage-ring experiments at GSI are reconsidered, with special emphasis placed on the storage-ring quasi-circular motion of the daughter ions D in two-body decays P → D + ν e . It is argued that, to the extent that daughter ions are detected, these detection rates might exhibit modulations with periods of order seconds, similar to those reported in the GSI storage-ring experiments for two-body decay rates. New dedicated experiments in storage rings, or using traps, could explore these modulations.

  6. Short term thermal energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Abhat, A.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper reviews the problem of short term thermal energy storage for low temperature solar heating applications. The techniques of sensible and latent heat storage are discussed, with particular emphasis on the latter. Requirements for hot water storage subsystems are provided and the importance of stratification in hot water storage tanks is described. Concerning latent heat storage, both material and heat exchanger aspects are considered in detail. The example of a passively opera...

  7. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  8. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  9. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  10. WWER spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs

  11. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  12. Retractable storage lug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspecting and refueling a nuclear reactor requires the removal and storage of various reactor components until the job is completed. In particular, current practice calls for an indexing fixture to be stored separately from a previously withdrawn plenum assembly. In the present invention the indexing fixture may be stacked directly upon the plenum assembly, thereby resulting in a savings in both floor storage space and downtime. The indexing fixture is equipped with a plurality of rotatable and retractable storage lugs, each equipped with a rotatable and slidable weight-cylinder assembly in coaxial relationship with a pivoted support beam. The weight-cylinder assembly and support beam are connected together by a lockable channel, groove and pin arrangement. Provision is allowed for remote activation of the lug

  13. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  14. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Electrochemical energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical storage of energy has become essential in assisting the development of electrical transport and use of renewable energies. French researchers have played a key role in this domain but Asia is currently the market leader. Not wanting to see history repeat itself, France created the research network on electrochemical energy storage (RS2E) in 2011. This book discusses the launch of RS2E, its stakeholders, objectives, and integrated structure that assures a continuum between basic research, technological research and industries. Here, the authors will cover the technological

  16. Neptunium storage at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decision must be made regarding whether the United State's stockpile of neptunium should be discarded into the waste stream or kept for the production of Pu-238. Although the cost of long term storage is not inconsequential, to dispose of the material means the closing of our option to maintain control over our Pu-238 stockpile. Within the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility at Hanford there exists a remotely operated facility that can be converted for neptunium storage. This paper describes the facility and the anticipated handling requirements

  17. REDOX electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Reservoirs of chemical solutions can store electrical energy with high efficiency. Reactant solutions are stored outside conversion section where charging and discharging reactions take place. Conversion unit consists of stacks of cells connected together in parallel hydraulically, and in series electrically. Stacks resemble fuel cell batteries. System is 99% ampere-hour efficient, 75% watt hour efficient, and has long projected lifetime. Applications include storage buffering for remote solar or wind power systems, and industrial load leveling. Cost estimates are $325/kW of power requirement plus $51/kWh storage capacity. Mass production would reduce cost by about factor of two.

  18. Storage of strawberry pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Rafet Aslantaş; Lütfi Pirlak

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine storage ability of strawberry pollen at different temperatures for three different strawberry cultivars 'Aliso', 'Brio', and 'Cruz'. Strawberry pollen was stored at room temperature (22 ±2°C), +4°C, -4°C and -18°C in stabile humidity conditions. Strawberry poIlen was germinated using the hanging drop method in a 20% sucrose solution. Pollen germination rate increased because of low temperature storage. Pollen stored at room temperature and +4°C, -4°C, a...

  19. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus for the storage of fuel in a stainless steel egg crate structure within a storage pool are described. Fuel is initially stored in a checkerboard pattern or in each opening if the fuel is of low enrichment. Additional fuel (or fuel of higher enrichment) is later stored by adding stainless steel angled plates within each opening, thereby forming flux traps between the openings. Still higher enrichment fuel is later stored by adding poison plates either with or without the stainless steel angles. 8 claims

  20. TRIGA spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of spent fuel elements is a step preliminary to final radioactive waste disposal operation. The spent fuel issue will have a common solution for both spent fuel from Cernavoda NPP and research TRIGA reactors currently operated in Romania. For the case of TRIGA reactor spent fuel this will be an alternative solution to the now functioning alternative of 'on site' storing solution adopted so far at INR Pitesti. For the time being the short term storage requirements for TRIGA spent fuel are adequately fulfilled by the pool of a multizonal reactor, the construction of which was definitively stopped. On the other hand the HEU - LEU conversion of the 14 MW TRIGA reactor which will be completed till May 2006, will pose not spent fuel problems as the TRIGA HEU fuel (612 elements) will be transferred in US (not later than May 2009). Consequently, the needs for intermediate storage will be associated only with the LEU spent fuel from TRIGA LEU-SSR and TRIGA LEU-ACPR reactors. In the latter case the maximum number of elements will be 167. For the stationary 14 MW (SSR) reactor but the amount of fuel elements to be stored on a intermediate term will be a function of service span of this reactor as well of the degree of request. Totally, some 1,750 SSR-LEU fuel elements will require intermediate storage. There is a preliminary agreement with 'NUCLEARELECTRICA -S.A.' Company regarding LEU TRIGA spent fuel storage at the intermediate storage facility for spent fuel of Cernavoda NPP.. A safety investigation is underway to determine the impact of LEU spent fuel upon the dry environment containing spent CANDU fuel. To fulfil the requirements imposed by CANDU storage technology the LEU spent fuel will be correspondingly conditioned. Then adequate containers will be used for transportation of fuel to Cernavoda's storage cell. Subcriticality condition in the storage cell loaded with LEU was checked by calculating the multiplication factor for an infinite lattice. The

  1. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  2. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  3. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning

  4. Switchgrass harvest and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feedstock characteristics of the conversion platform will influence the optimal harvest and post harvest management practices for switchgrass. However, many of the harvest management practices are tied to plant phenology and will be similar across platforms. Proper harvest and storage of switchg...

  5. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  6. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2012-01-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to prov...

  7. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  8. Muon storage ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The muon storage ring where the g-2 of the muon is being measured with extremely high accuracy. The ring is 14-m in diameter and has very precise magnetic bending and electric focussing fields so that the muons orbit the ring under well-defined conditions.

  9. Benchmarking personal cloud storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Idilio; Bocchi, Enrico; Mellia, Marco; Slatman, Herman; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Personal cloud storage services are data-intensive applications already producing a significant share of Internet traffic. Several solutions offered by different companies attract more and more people. However, little is known about each service capabilities, architecture and - most of all - perform

  10. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig

    2000-06-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

  11. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  12. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  13. Thermal energy storage application areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The use of thermal energy storage in the areas of building heating and cooling, recovery of industrial process and waste heat, solar power generation, and off-peak energy storage and load management in electric utilities is reviewed. (TFD)

  14. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  15. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  16. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  17. Alternatives for water basin spent fuel storage using pin storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The densest tolerable form for storing spent nuclear fuel is storage of only the fuel rods. This eliminates the space between the fuel rods and frees the hardware to be treated as non-fuel waste. The storage density can be as much as 1.07 MTU/ft2 when racks are used that just satisfy the criticality and thermal limitations. One of the major advantages of pin storage is that it is compatible with existing racks; however, this reduces the storage density to 0.69 MTU/ft2. Even this is a substantial increase over the 0.39 MTU/ft2 that is achievable with current high capacity stainless steel racks which have been selected as the bases for comparison. Disassembly requires extensive operation on the fuel assembly to remove the upper end fitting and to extract the fuel rods from the assembly skeleton. These operations will be performed with the aid of an elevator to raise the assembly where each fuel rod is grappled. Lowering the elevator will free the fuel rod for transfer to the storage canister. A storage savings of $1510 per MTU can be realized if the pin storage concept is incorporated at a new away-from-reactor facility. The storage cost ranges from $3340 to $7820 per MTU of fuel stored with the lower cost applying to storage at an existing away-from-reactor storage facility and the higher cost applying to at-reactor storage

  18. Storage Area Networks and The High Performance Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, H; Graf, O; Fitzgerald, K; Watson, R W

    2002-03-04

    The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a mature Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system that was developed around a network-centered architecture, with client access to storage provided through third-party controls. Because of this design, HPSS is able to leverage today's Storage Area Network (SAN) infrastructures to provide cost effective, large-scale storage systems and high performance global file access for clients. Key attributes of SAN file systems are found in HPSS today, and more complete SAN file system capabilities are being added. This paper traces the HPSS storage network architecture from the original implementation using HIPPI and IPI-3 technology, through today's local area network (LAN) capabilities, and to SAN file system capabilities now in development. At each stage, HPSS capabilities are compared with capabilities generally accepted today as characteristic of storage area networks and SAN file systems.

  19. Natural gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage is an important link in the natural gas supply chain. It is a valuable aid to providing the link between remote sources of production and consumption locations. After a brief recall covering the role of storage this article describes the various options for storing natural gas: saline cavities, aquifers, liquefied gas tanks or artificial cavities. A report follows on the different solutions adopted in Europe and in Switzerland, more particularly that chosen by Gaznat in order to contribute to securing supplies in Western Switzerland. Market deregulation has brought changes to the regulations, which are in turn modifying the rules that were in force until just recently, and new topics are arising, such as strategic reserves and pricing rules for stored natural gas. (author)

  20. Optical information storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase storage capacity and data transfer velocity by about three orders of magnitude compared to CD or magnetic disc it is necessary to work with optical techniques, especially with holography. About 100 TByte can be stored in a waver of an area of 50 cm2 via holograms which corresponds to a density of 2.109 Byte/mm2. Every hologram contains data of 1 MByte, so that parallel-processing is possible for read-out. Using high-speed CCD-arrays a read-out velocity of 1 MByte/μsec can be reached. Further, holographic technics are very important in solid state physics. We will discuss the existence of a space charge field in Sr1-xBaxNb2O6 doped with cerium and the physical properties of metastable states, which are suited for information storage. (author) 19 figs., 9 refs

  1. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre;

    2012-01-01

    Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...

  2. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.;

    1983-01-01

    A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast at tempe......A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast...... at temperatures around 600 K and above, but the reversed reaction showed somewhat slower kinetics around 600 K. At higher temperatures the opposite was found. The enthalpy and entropy change by the hydrogenation, derived from pressure-concentration isotherms, agree fairly well with those reported earlier....

  3. Linear storage projector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of a radiographic apparatus for manipulating a quantity of radioactive material between a stored position and a use position including a capsule of said radioactive material, a storage unit with means defining a passage through it, for storing the capsule in the passage and shielding the surrounding environment from the stored radioactive material, and manipulating means connectible to said storage unit at a first end of said passage for moving said capsule between a stored position within the passage and a use position outside the second end of said passage, the improvement comprising: a shutter mounted on said storage unit for slidng movement transverse to the second end of said passage between first and second limits, said shutter in said first limit blocking said second end, said shutter having a hole through it which registers with said passage when the shutter is in said second limit, shutter-retaining means associated with said passage means adjacent said second end and resilient means cooperating with said retaining means and said storage unit for urging said retaining means to project an end-part toward said shutter, means in said shutter for receiving said end-part when said shutter is in said second limit and thereby retaining said hole in register with said passage, and means coupled to said capsule for pulling said retaining means away from said shutter against the action of said resilient means under control of said manipulating means for withdrawing said end-part from said receiving means and thereby permitting said shutter to move toward said first limit

  4. Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  5. Tuber Storage Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Shewry, Peter R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits act...

  6. Electrostatic Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Conte, Mario

    2012-01-01

    In the trial \\cite{BNL} of measuring the proton electric moment, storage rings with electrostatic lattice have been considered. Here an overview is given about the main parameters regarding such a kind of focusing. Beyond confirming all the issues regarding this subject, a non-null element $M_{31}$ is introduced in all the $3\\times 3$ matrices which deal with the vector $(x,x',\\Delta p/p)$ and its role is discussed.

  7. Holographic content addressable storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  8. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Superconductive magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical and economic aspects of large scale superconductive magnetic energy storage are discussed. This paper is a review of a program which has been under way at the University of Wisconsin since 1970. Early work between 1970 and 1976 was primarily involved in providing economic and technical feasibility of the concept. The present program deals with component development and detailed design ultimately leading to construction of a large superconducting magnet capable of storing 1000 to 10,000 MWh. The magnet is a single-layered segmented solenoid approx. 100 m radius. Energy containment is achieved economically by burying the magnet underground in bedrock tunnels. Magnetic loads are transmitted from the conductor to bedrock through glass fiber reinforced composite struts. The conductor consists of a composite of aluminium and NbTi and is designed for full cryogenic stability in 1.8 K superfluid helium. The dewar-conductor assembly will be rippled in a 1 m radius of curvature to reduce the hoop stress tension. A Graetz bridge is required to convert the d.c. superconducting current into a.c. current in the three-phase power system. Economic analysis indicates that superconductive magnetic energy storage is competitive with alternative large scale storage schemes for units greater than 1000 MWh size. (U.K.)

  10. Radioactive material storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a radioactive material storage vessel having a single sealing boundary in the cylindrical portion and a double sealing boundary in the lid portion, and the outer circumference of the vessel being cooled by air, in which difference is made between the pressure in a radioactive material storage chamber and the pressure in an intermediate chamber present between a primary sealing lid and a secondary sealing lid. A valve is disposed to the primary sealing lid, which breaks the sealing between the radioactive material containing chamber and the intermediate chamber when the difference between the pressure of the containing chamber and that of the intermediate chamber is reduced to lower than a predetermined value, and a sensor for detecting pressure change in the intermediate chamber is disposed to the secondary sealing lid. In addition, a shrinkable member having at least a predetermined length and an extensible length is disposed to the primary sealing lid, and a displacement sensor capable of detecting the change of the length of the shrinkable member is disposed to the secondary sealing lid. Then, when the sealing boundary at the cylinder portion of the radioactive material containing chamber should be broken in the radioactive material storage vessel, it can be detected. (N.H.)

  11. Linear capacity storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linearity of information storage in capacitor storage circuits is discussed. The paper describes two storage circuits whose operation is linear over a wide range of output-signal amplitudes. In one of the circuits the error signal is measured by a differential amplifier and, thanks to the high amplification factor of the amplifier, good linearity is obtained. The second circuit was designed for work in the nanosecond pulse-width range. Input pulses of standard width cut off a pentode, in the anode of which there is a memory capacitor. Since the capacitor is charged from the anode supply through a current generator, the charging current remains almost constant during measurement of the capacitor voltage. The pentode has a large internal resistance so that after the end of the input pulse the magnitude of the current through the pentode is almost equal to its initial value, and the charge stored by the capacitor is remembered. The width of the information memory is limited by the output resistance of the current generator and the internal resistance (Ri) of the pentode. To increase the memory width, a diode may be inserted before the capacitor. (author)

  12. JAERI storage ring JSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study for a next generation 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facility is in progress in Japan, and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) have join forces in this project. A compact electron storage ring JSR has been under construction in the linac building in the Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI to serve for studies of various kind of accelerator technologies, examination of insertion devices and beam monitors, and training of young researchers. This paper describes the lattice design, injection system, magnets, vacuum system, RF system, control system and beam monitors and presents some operation results regarding the electron beam injection and storage. The JSR is presently in good condition concerning it's fundamental functions such as injection, storage at around 150 MeV and 300 MeV, and acceleration from 150 MeV and 300 MeV. Photon induced gas desorption is still large because the vacuum chamber has not been aged heavily by synchrotron radiation. (N.K.)

  13. Maui energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  14. Fuel performance in water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950's prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material

  15. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  16. Dry storage of Magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work, commissioned by the CEGB, studies the feasibility of a combination of short-term pond storage and long-term dry storage of Magnox spent fuel as a cheaper alternative to reprocessing. Storage would be either at the reactor site or a central site. Two designs are considered, based on existing design work done by GEC-ESL and NNC; the capsule design developed by NNC and with storage in passive vaults for up to 100 yrs and the GEC-ESL tube design developed at Wylfa for the interim storage of LWR. For the long-term storage of Magnox spent fuel the GEC-ESL tubed vault all-dry storage method is recommended and specifications for this method are given. (U.K.)

  17. Encapsulation of nuclear spent fuel for semi-dry storage at the Budapest research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to change the temporary underwater storage mode of nuclear spent fuel (NSF) from wet to semi-dry as a means of slowing down or even stopping the corrosion effects of the cladding and thereby ensuring safe storage conditions for further temporary storage, AEKI's experts elaborated a canning technology and canning equipment. Manufacturing of the canning equipment and the installation work at the AFR (away from reactor) pond of the Budapest Research Reactor (BRR) were completed, and the regulatory licence for NSF encapsulation was granted in March 2002. The canning technology uses a tube-type capsule as shown. The capsule is made of aluminium alloy, with a wall thickness of 3 mm. A bottom weight, consisting of an aluminium-clad iron disk is screwed to the bottom of the capsule to ensure sinking of the encapsulated NSF assembly as well as to provide sub-criticality. The capsule is capable of accommodating one EK-10 or one triple VVR type assembly or three single VVR assemblies. The EK- 10 assemblies are packaged 'as they are', apart from a small part of the aluminium leg of a VVR assembly (∼73 mm) being cropped off before canning. The overall dimensions of the canning tube are indicated in the drawing. Encapsulation utilizes a closed technology during which the capsule undergoes a powerful drying procedure (heated by an eddy current) and it is then filled with 2.5 bar nitrogen gas (the over-pressure is needed for leak detection purposes) after which it closed by a capsule head with shrink and welded sealing. Regarding the canning equipment, its operational part is a steal structure canning cask supplied with a revolver head having 5 operating positions and a vertical transfer pipe for sucking up and floating down the capsule. The inner cavity of the cask (operator cylinder) can be closed by vacuum-tight sealing and valves. The canning steps are controlled by a PLC system. The technology includes a cropping machine for cutting the fuel legs and in case of

  18. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  19. SALES, STORAGE AND SALVAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Division SPL, groupe logistique; A. Notar

    2000-01-01

    From 3 January 2000 there will be a security barrier in front of the storage-recycling area in bldg 133, which will be accessible only to authorised staff and contractors.You are reminded that the equipment delivered to this area must be unpolluted and non-radioactive. The cost of recycling the equipment will be debited to the budget code of the Division concerned, with the prior approval of the Group Leader.Reminder relating to equipment salesThe Sales Section is open on Thursdays from 13.30 to 15.00 hours only.SPL DivisionLogistics GroupA. Notari

  20. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  1. Materials for hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Züttel

    2003-09-01

    The goal is to pack hydrogen as close as possible, i.e. to reach the highest volumetric density by using as little additional material as possible. Hydrogen storage implies the reduction of an enormous volume of hydrogen gas. At ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure, 1 kg of the gas has a volume of 11 m3. To increase hydrogen density, work must either be applied to compress the gas, the temperature decreased below the critical temperature, or the repulsion reduced by the interaction of hydrogen with another material.

  2. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  3. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to

  4. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  5. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  6. Costs of Archival Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the cost of archival storage. The study is part of a project conducted by The Danish National Archives, The Royal Library, and The State and University Library to develop a generic cost model for digital preservation (CMDP). The purposes of the study were to...... determine the costs of establishing and maintaining a preservation solution destined for long-term preservation of digital materials and to develop a tool capable of doing this operation. In order to fulfill the purposes, the project employed a combination of own and external experience as well as the OAIS...

  7. Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: concrete storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents design concepts and cost estimates for the Monitored Retrievable Storage facility which uses concrete silos for storage. Two separate scenarios are considered: the first is the storage of spent fuel assemblies and the second is the storage of wastes generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel and does not consider spent fuel storage. Two storage options for each scenario were evaluated. One is for maximum throughput of fuel or waste at 1800 MTU/y and a facility storage capacity of 15,000 MTU. The other option is for a maximum throughput of fuel or waste at 3000 MTU/y and a facility storage capacity of 72,000 MTU. The construction and operating costs, as well as the life-cycle costs for both scenarios and both the 1800 and 3000 MTU/y throughput rates are summarized. Drawings defining the facility and equipment that are unique to the silo storage concept are included. 26 figures, 34 tables

  8. Storage-ring Electron Cooler for Relativistic Ion Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, F; Derbenev, Y. S.; Douglas, D.; Guo, J.; Johnson, R P.; Krafft, G.; Morozov, V. S.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Application of electron cooling at ion energies above a few GeV has been limited due to reduction of electron cooling efficiency with energy and difficulty in producing and accelerating a high-current high-quality electron beam. A high-current storage-ring electron cooler offers a solution to both of these problems by maintaining high cooling beam quality through naturally-occurring synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. However, the range of ion energies where storage-ring elect...

  9. Ion storage dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, V. K.

    2001-09-01

    The availability of a reliable, accurate and cost-effective real-time personnel dosimetry system is fascinating to radiation workers. Electronic dosimeters are contemplated to meet this demand of active dosimetry. The development of direct ion storage (DIS) dosimeters, a member of the electronic dosimeter family, for personnel dosimetry is also an attempt in this direction. DIS dosimeter is a hybrid of the well-established technology of ion chambers and the latest advances in data storage using metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) analog memory device. This dosimeter is capable of monitoring legal occupational radiation doses of gamma, X-rays, beta and neutron radiation. Similar to an ion chamber, the performance of the dosimeter for a particular application can be optimized through the selection of appropriate wall materials. The use of the floating gate of a MOSFET as one of the electrodes of the ion chamber allows the miniaturization of the device to the size of a dosimetry badge and avoids the use of power supplies during dose accumulation. The concept of the device, underlying physics and the design of the DIS dosimeter are discussed. The results of preliminary testing of the device are also provided.

  10. Multipurpose dry storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SGN has gained considerable experience in the design and construction of interim storage facilities for spent fuel and various nuclear waste, and can therefore propose single product and multiproduct facilities capable of accommodating all types of waste in a single structure. The pooling of certain functions (transport cask reception, radiation protection), the choice of optimized technologies to meet the specific needs of the clients (automatic transfer by shielded cask or nuclearized crane) and the use of the same type of well to cool the heat releasing packages (glass canisters, fuel elements) make it possible to propose industrially proven and cost effective solutions. The studies conducted by SGN on behalf of the Dutch company COVRA (Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactif Afval), offer an example of the application of this new concept. This paper first presents the SGN experience through a short description of reference storage facilities for various types of products (MLW, HLW and Spent Fuel). It goes on with a typical application to show how these proven technologies are combined to obtain single product or multiproduct facilities tailored to the client's specific requirements. (author)

  11. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J. [comps.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  12. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  13. Optical information storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woike, T. [Koeln Univ., Inst. fuer Kristallography, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    In order to increase storage capacity and data transfer velocity by about three orders of magnitude compared to CD or magnetic disc it is necessary to work with optical techniques, especially with holography. About 100 TByte can be stored in a waver of an area of 50 cm{sup 2} via holograms which corresponds to a density of 2.10{sup 9} Byte/mm{sup 2}. Every hologram contains data of 1 MByte, so that parallel-processing is possible for read-out. Using high-speed CCD-arrays a read-out velocity of 1 MByte/{mu}sec can be reached. Further, holographic technics are very important in solid state physics. We will discuss the existence of a space charge field in Sr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} doped with cerium and the physical properties of metastable states, which are suited for information storage. (author) 19 figs., 9 refs.

  14. Probe-based data storage

    CERN Document Server

    Koelmans, Wabe W; Abelmann, L

    2015-01-01

    Probe-based data storage attracted many researchers from academia and industry, resulting in unprecendeted high data-density demonstrations. This topical review gives a comprehensive overview of the main contributions that led to the major accomplishments in probe-based data storage. The most investigated technologies are reviewed: topographic, phase-change, magnetic, ferroelectric and atomic and molecular storage. Also, the positioning of probes and recording media, the cantilever arrays and parallel readout of the arrays of cantilevers are discussed. This overview serves two purposes. First, it provides an overview for new researchers entering the field of probe storage, as probe storage seems to be the only way to achieve data storage at atomic densities. Secondly, there is an enormous wealth of invaluable findings that can also be applied to many other fields of nanoscale research such as probe-based nanolithography, 3D nanopatterning, solid-state memory technologies and ultrafast probe microscopy.

  15. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  16. Auditing for Distributed Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Anh; Markopoulou, Athina; Dimakis, Alexandros G.

    2012-01-01

    Distributed storage codes have recently received a lot of attention in the community. Independently, another body of work has proposed integrity checking schemes for cloud storage, none of which, however, is customized for coding-based storage or can efficiently support repair. In this work, we bridge the gap between these two currently disconnected bodies of work. We propose NC-Audit, a novel cryptography-based remote data integrity checking scheme, designed specifically for network coding-b...

  17. Grain Handling and Storage Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural Health and Safety Fact Sheet AHS-02 Grain Handling and Storage Safety Jill Webster Ph.D., S. Christian Mariger, Graduate Assistant Agricultural Systems Technology and Education There are several hazards that should be considered when working with grain. Storage structures, handling equipment, and the grain itself have all caused serious injuries and deaths. Storage structures (bins, silos, and granaries), like all confined spaces, have significant hazards associated with them. Be...

  18. IAEA spent fuel storage glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this glossary is to provide a basis for improved international understanding of terms used in the important area of spent fuel storage technology. The glossary is the product of an IAEA Consultant Group with valuable input from a substantial list of reviewers. The glossary emphasizes fuel storage relevant to power reactors, but is also widely applicable to research reactors. The intention is to define terms from current technologies. Terms are limited to those directly related to spent fuel storage

  19. The Circular RFQ Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features of conventional storage rings and ion traps, and is basically a linear RFQ bent on itself. The advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  20. The circular RFQ storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features used in a conventional storage ring and an ion trap, and is basically a linear RFQ bend on itself. In summary the advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  1. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  2. Article for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  3. Provenance-Aware Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Muniswamy-Reddy, Kiran-Kumar; Holland, David A.; Braun, Uri; Seltzer, Margo I.

    2006-01-01

    A Provenance-Aware Storage System (PASS) is a storage system that automatically collects and maintains provenance or lineage, the complete history or ancestry of an item. We discuss the advantages of treating provenance as meta-data collected and maintained by the storage system, rather than as manual annotations stored in a separately administered database. We present a PASS implementation, discussing the challenges and performance cost, and the new functionality it enables. We show that wit...

  4. Hydrogen storage in nanotubes & nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Froudakis, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several years, a significant share of the scientific community has focused its attention on the hydrogen storage problem. Since 1997, when carbon nanotubes appeared to be a promising storage material, many theoretical and experimental groups have investigated the hydrogen storage capacity of these carbon nanostructures. These efforts were not always successful and consequently, the results obtained were often controversial. In the current review we attempt to summarize some the ...

  5. Aquifer thermal energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Demonstration Program is to stimulate the interest of industry by demonstrating the feasibility of using a geological formation for seasonal thermal energy storage, thereby, reducing crude oil consumption, minimizing thermal pollution, and significantly reducing utility capital investments required to account for peak power requirements. This purpose will be served if several diverse projects can be operated which will demonstrate the technical, economic, environmental, and institutional feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage systems.

  6. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska; Mariusz Kłos; Paweł Antos; Grzegorz Błajszczak

    2012-01-01

    Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy), and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld). Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers an...

  7. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon A Bakken et al.

    2003-02-06

    Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework.

  8. The Petascale Data Storage Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Garth [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Long, Darrell [The Regents of the University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Honeyman, Peter [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Grider, Gary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kramer, William [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shalf, John [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Roth, Philip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felix, Evan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ward, Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Petascale computing infrastructures for scientific discovery make petascale demands on information storage capacity, performance, concurrency, reliability, availability, and manageability.The Petascale Data Storage Institute focuses on the data storage problems found in petascale scientific computing environments, with special attention to community issues such as interoperability, community buy-in, and shared tools.The Petascale Data Storage Institute is a collaboration between researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Michigan, and the University of California at Santa Cruz.

  9. Distributed Storage in the Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, Eitan; Avrachenkov, Konstantin; Goseling, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    We consider storage devices located in the plane according to a general point process and specialize the results for the homogeneous Poisson process. A large data file is stored at the storage devices, which have limited storage capabilities. Hence, they can only store parts of the data. Clients can contact the storage devices to retrieve the data.We compare the expected cost of obtaining the complete data under uncoded as well as coded data allocation strategies. It is shown that for the gen...

  10. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted. PMID:20217798

  11. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times...

  12. Measurements of Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2004-03-01

    The many sensational claims of vast quantities of hydrogen (H) stored in carbon materials reported since 1996 have resulted in the H storage and carbon scientific literature now being cluttered with misinformation and some genuinely bad science. H storage experiments are not trivial, and they are prone to error and misinterpretation. For example, volumetric experiments use equilibrium gas pressures (P) and temperatures (T) measured in calibrated volumes to determine the number of moles of gas, and changes in P without changes in T (or leakage) are then interpreted as sorption. A typical mistake is measuring P vs. time after pressurizing a sample chamber and interpreting a drop in P as sorption. This is difficult to interpret as real absorption because all confounding effects (leaks, T drifts, thermal inhomogeneities, etc.) are nearly impossible to eliminate. Moreover, the basic thermodynamic properties of gas flow systems tell us that high-P gases filling evacuated chambers experience non-negligible rises in T. Another example of misinterpretation arises in gravimetric experiments that use weight (W) measurements corrected for large T-dependent buoyancy effects to determine gas sorption. Here a typical mistake is interpreting the actual sorption of heavy residual impurity gases as H sorption. These and other techniques for measuring H sorption must be performed and interpreted with great care due to difficulties associated with small sample sizes, high gas pressures, very reactive materials, contamination, low signal-to-noise, poor experimental design, and, in some cases, bad science. Good science respects the difference between measurement precision (the number of significant digits of P or W measurements) and experimental accuracy (the degree of certainty that P or W changes really represent H sorption). At General Motors, we endeavor to understand, conduct, and promote reliable H storage measurements on new materials and routinely use both volumetric

  13. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Apart from the hydrogeological conditions, high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. After one year of planning, construction, and the successful drilling of a research well to 495 m b.s.l. the first large scale heat storage test in the Malm aquifer was finished just before Christmas 2014. An enormous technical challenge was the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10-50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. About 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary to achieve the desired water temperatures. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for the analysis of the concentration of the tracers and the cation concentrations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analyzed for major ions and trace elements in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger proved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating

  14. Multi personal computer storage system. The solution of PACS storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: According to the characteristics of digital medicine and demand of digitized management in hospital, the authors establish a storage system which is cheap, highly expansible, and reliable. Methods: The multi personal computer storage system (MPCSS) was constructed by assembling the hardware and software. The image data were archived from major server to storage PC by using NEUSOFT-PACS archiving manage system and backup on storage PC. The authors simulated the situation that the data on storage PC was lost and restored the data. The authors also expanded the storage system to enlarge its capacity. Results: Average transfer rate from MPCSS was 27.7 Mbit/s(1 byte = 8 bit); average cost for this system was 74 RMB/G; six cases in the 187 repeated reading of 100 patients failed. MPCSS can store backup and restore the image data, and can expand the storage size. Conclusion: MPCSS is very cheap compared with other high capacity systems or devices. It is feasible and suitable for digital image storage

  15. Spent fuel storage - dry storage options and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in the number of nuclear energy power generation facilities will require the ability to store the spent nuclear fuel for a long period until the host countries develop reprocessing or disposal options. Plants have storage pools which are closely associated with the operating units. These are excellent for short term storage, but require active maintenance and operations support which are not desirable for the long term. Over the past 25 years, dry storage options have been developed and implemented throughout the world. In recent years, protection against terrorist attack has become an increasing source of design objectives for these facilities, as well as the main nuclear plant. This paper explores the current design options of dry storage cask systems and examines some of the current design issues for above ground , in-ground, or below-ground storage of spent fuel in dry casks. (author)

  16. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, James A.; Wang, Tao; Ebner, Armin D.; Holland, Charles E.

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  17. Superconducting energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the status of energy storage involving superconductors and assesses what impact the recently discovered ceramic superconductors may have on the design of these devices. Our description is intended for R&D managers in government, electric utilities, firms, and national laboratories who wish an overview of what has been done and what remains to be done. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with superconductivity, but not an expert on the topics discussed here. Indeed, it is the author`s aim to enable the reader to better understand the experts who may ask for the reader`s attention, support, or funding. This report may also inform scientists and engineers who, though expert in related areas, wish to have an introduction to our topic.

  18. Spent fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve bandability and weldability and also increasing neutron absorption capacity, thereby greatly improving the density of fuel storage. Constitution: Cells come in three types: cells formed by square cylinders set on the foundation, staggered by each pitch in longitudinal and lateral directions; cells formed among these square cylinders; and cells formed by enclosing with a vertical plate, one of the outermost sides among the square cylinders. Furthermore, between the corners of each cylinder, angles are longitudinally attached by welding where needed. Each cylinder is constituted by assembling four B-10 austenite stainless steel plates into a square form and attaching B-10 austenite stainless steel patches longitudinally at their angles by electron-beam welding and laser welding. For the abovementioned stainless steel plates, patches and angles, austenite stainless steel added with 0.10 - 0.45 % of B-10 is used. (Kawakami, Y.)

  19. Storage envelopes or sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A storage envelope or sleeve particularly for processed X-ray films is described. It consists of front and back panels joined together at a hinge line and connected along the intermediate sides by connecting flaps. An inner pocket is formed from a third flap which is folded to lie against the inner face of the back panel. The panels may have additional score lines parallel to the closed sides of the envelope and the inner pocket so that the envelope and the inner pocket can accommodate bulky contents. The free edge of the pocket is inset from the open side of the envelope, and finger cut-outs may be provided to facilitate access to the contents of the envelope and the pocket. (author)

  20. Spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diffusion-preventive device for the radioactivity of pool water is disposed in a pool chamber for accommodating a spent fuel storage chamber. The diffusion-preventive device comprises an air washer and a recycling blower which discharges air in the air washer to the pool chamber. In this air washer, not-activated pure water, etc. are supplied. The recycling blower is driven to introduce the air in the pool chamber to the air washer, and water is sprayed from a nozzle to moisten the air. In this way, the vapor pressure in the pool chamber can be increased and the amount of vapor generated from the pool can be decreased. The amount of radioactivity transferring from the poor water to the air can thereby be decreased and the amount of radioactivity released to the atmospheric air by means of ventilation air conditioning device can be decreased. (I.N.)

  1. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs

  2. Electrochemistry and Storage Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, J. K.; Halpert, G.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance requirements for electrochemical power storage systems are discussed and some of the approaches towards satisfying these constraints are described. Geosynchronous and low Earth orbit applications, radar type load constraints, and high voltage systems requirements are addressed. In addition, flywheel energy storage is discussed.

  3. Status of US storage efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasks involved in the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act are discussed. The need for speedy action on applications to deal with spent fuel storage problems is stressed. The problems faced by the Virginia Electric and Power Company, where full core discharge capability at the 1600-megawatt Surry power station is expected to be reached in early 1986, are reviewed. It is pointed out that although the Nuclear Waste Policy Act does not apply in this case, the problems illustrate the situation that may be faced after the Act is implemented. Problems involved in intro-utility transhipments and dry cask storage of spent fuel from Surry, including transportation ordinances at state and local levels and approval for the use of dry casks for storage, are reported. The suggestion that dry casks be used for interim storage and eventual transport to monitored retrievable storage facilities or permanent storage sites is considered. It is pointed out that data from a proposed 3-utility demonstration program of dry cask storage of consolidated fuels and the storage of fuels in air should give information applicable to the timely implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

  4. Storage facility for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an underground type storage chamber for horizontally storing storage vessels made of steel having radioactive materials sealed therein and cooling them by spontaneous ventilation, the storage vessels made of steel are stored in multi-layers in vertical direction. In addition, lifts for transferring casks which transfer the storage vessels made of steel from a nuclear power plant are made movable in vertical and horizontal directions in the underground type storage chamber. In addition, the storage chamber is partitioned so that the air for cooling radioactive materials flows in parallel with or perpendicular to the storage vessels made of steel. Since the storage vessels can be stored in multi-layers, the density upon storing the spent fuels and high level radioactive wastes can be increased. In addition, protection against external flying objects such as crush of air crafts can be attained neither increasing the thickness of the walls of a building excessively nor specifying the shape of the construction site. (N.H.)

  5. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

  6. Study of mined storage caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All available information concerning 75 mined storage caverns as well as the investigative techniques utilized to determine the feasibility of a cavern site is presented. Potential new storage caverns may be for products such as high or low vapor pressure petroleum products, other chemical products, aid industrial or nuclear waste

  7. Hydrogen storage: beyond conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalebrook, Andrew F; Gan, Weijia; Grasemann, Martin; Moret, Séverine; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2013-10-01

    The efficient storage of hydrogen is one of three major hurdles towards a potential hydrogen economy. This report begins with conventional storage methods for hydrogen and broadly covers new technology, ranging from physical media involving solid adsorbents, to chemical materials including metal hydrides, ammonia borane and liquid precursors such as alcohols and formic acid. PMID:23964360

  8. HAWAII LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point coverage of leaking underground storage tanks(LUST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more leaking underground storage tank exists. ...

  9. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  10. A review of pumped energy storage schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative advantages and costs of pumped water storage, steam accumulators, storage of boiler feedwater , and compressed air storage in caverns are described. Boiler feedwater storage in caverns and pumped water storage are most economical. All systems are costly enough to justify developing reactors with load following capabilities. (E.C.B.)

  11. Robust holographic storage system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru

    2011-11-21

    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration. PMID:22109441

  12. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1980-08-01

    During FY80 analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include both estimates of the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, promising thermal storage concepts are being identified. A preliminary screening was completed in FY80 and a more in-depth study was initiated. Value studies are being conducted to establish cost goals. A ranking of storage concepts based on value in solar thermal electric plants was conducted for both diurnal and long duration applications. Ground mounted thermal storage concepts for a parabolic dish/Stirling systtem are also being evaluated.

  13. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  14. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  15. Nanotechnology for Data Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarid, Dror; McCarthy, Brendan; Jabbour, Ghassan

    This chapter considers atomic force microscopy (AFM) as an enabling technology for data storage applications, considering already existing technologies such as hard disk drives (HDD), optical disk drives (ODD) and flash memories that currently dominate the nonvolatile data storage market, together with future devices based on magnetoresistive and phase change effects. The issue at hand is the question of whether the novel AFM-based storage, dubbed probe storage, can offer a competing approach to the currently available technologies by playing the role of a disruptive technology. Probe storage will be contrasted to HDD and ODD, which are purely mechanical as they are based on a rotating disk that uses just a single probe to address billions of bits of data, and nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) that has no moving parts yet requires billions of interconnects. In particular, capacity, areal density, transfer rate, form factor and the cost of various data storage devices will be discussed and the unique opportunity offered by probe storage in employing massive parallelism will be outlined. It will be shown that probe storage bridges the gap between HDD, ODD and other nonvolatile RAM, drawing from the strength of each one of these and adding a significant attribute neither of these has; namely, the possibility of addressing a very large number of nanoscale bits of data in parallel. This chapter differs from the other chapters in this book in that it addresses the important issue of whether a given scientific effort, namely, probe storage, is mature enough to evolve into a commercially viable technology. The answer seems to indicate that there is indeed a huge niche in the data storage arena that such a technology is uniquely qualified to fill, which is large enough to justify a major investment in research and development. Indeed, as other chapters indicate, such an effort is developing at a rapid pace, with hopes of having a viable product within a few years.

  16. Storage-ring Electron Cooler for Relativistic Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Fanglei [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Guo, Jiquan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Application of electron cooling at ion energies above a few GeV has been limited due to reduction of electron cooling efficiency with energy and difficulty in producing and accelerating a high-current high-quality electron beam. A high-current storage-ring electron cooler offers a solution to both of these problems by maintaining high cooling beam quality through naturally-occurring synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. However, the range of ion energies where storage-ring electron cooling can be used has been limited by low electron beam damping rates at low ion energies and high equilibrium electron energy spread at high ion energies. This paper reports a development of a storage ring based cooler consisting of two sections with significantly different energies: the cooling and damping sections. The electron energy and other parameters in the cooling section are adjusted for optimum cooling of a stored ion beam. The beam parameters in the damping section are adjusted for optimum damping of the electron beam. The necessary energy difference is provided by an energy recovering SRF structure. A prototype linear optics of such storage-ring cooler is presented.

  17. Hydrogen storage methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at Thost metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m(-3), approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is 70.8 kg.m(-3), and large volumes, where the

  18. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  19. Disk storage at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mascetti, L; Chan, B; Espinal, X; Fiorot, A; Labrador, H Gonz; Iven, J; Lamanna, M; Presti, G Lo; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ; Ponce, S; Rousseau, H; van der Ster, D

    2015-01-01

    CERN IT DSS operates the main storage resources for data taking and physics analysis mainly via three system: AFS, CASTOR and EOS. The total usable space available on disk for users is about 100 PB (with relative ratios 1:20:120). EOS actively uses the two CERN Tier0 centres (Meyrin and Wigner) with 50:50 ratio. IT DSS also provide sizeable on-demand resources for IT services most notably OpenStack and NFS-based clients: this is provided by a Ceph infrastructure (3 PB) and few proprietary servers (NetApp). We will describe our operational experience and recent changes to these systems with special emphasis to the present usages for LHC data taking, the convergence to commodity hardware (nodes with 200-TB each with optional SSD) shared across all services. We also describe our experience in coupling commodity and home-grown solution (e.g. CERNBox integration in EOS, Ceph disk pools for AFS, CASTOR and NFS) and finally the future evolution of these systems for WLCG and beyond.

  20. Liquid metal storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a liquid metal storage tank used for an FBR type reactor plant. It comprises a tank main body disposed in a pit chamber, a sealing tub disposed at an upper outer circumferential surface of the tank main body, a roof portion which closes the opening a the upper end of the pit chamber, a sealing partitioning cylinder suspended from the lower surface of the roof and having its lower end extended to the inside of the tub and a sealing liquid metal filled in the tub. The tank main body is kept at a high temperature by the liquid metal while the roof in the upper portion of the pit chamber is kept at a low temperature. Further, since the tank main body and the inside of the pit chamber are sealed by the sealing partitioning cylinder, no large thermal stresses are caused to the wall of the tank main body. Even if hydrogen gases are generated in the tank main body, since they can be released to the inside of the pit chamber, the integrity of the tank can be maintained, even if abrupt pressure elevation is caused in the tank main body. (I.S.)

  1. Solar Thermal Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun A. Abhyankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy consumption, shrinking resources and rising energy costs will have significant impact on our standard of living for future generations. In this situation, the development of alternative, cost effective sources of energy has to be a priority. This project presents the advanced technology and some of the unique features of a novel solar system that utilizes solar energy for space heating and water heating purpose in residential housing and commercial buildings. The improvements in solar technology offers a significant cost reduction, to a level where the solar system can compete with the energy costs from existing sources. The main goal of the project is to investigate new or advanced solutions for storing heat in systems providing heating. which can be achieved using phase change material(PCM.A phase change material with a melting/solidification temperature of 50ºC to 60ºC is used for solar heat storage. When the PCM undergoes the phase change, it can absorb or release a large amount of energy as latent heat. This heat can be used for further applications like water heating and space heating purposes. Thus solar thermal energy is widely use

  2. Opportunities in independent gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range of business opportunities currently available for the midstream oil and gas business were discussed with particular focus on storage opportunities. Alberta Energy Co. (AEC) Ltd.'s two midstream business units include AEC Pipelines and Gas Processing, and AEC Storage and Hub Services. These two businesses provide the company with good investment returns, stable cash flow, and some significant strategic synergies with their exploration and production businesses. In 1988, the AECO C Hub in southeastern Alberta was created as an outgrowth of AEC's gas production operations on the Suffield block, where they had depleted gas reservoirs with high rock quality suitable for high deliverability storage. With the AECO C Hub, AEC was able to offer firm storage contracts of from 1 to 20 years, and to introduce short term interruptible parking and lending services, title exchange, a spot price index for greater price discovery, and an electronic nomination system. AEC is currently completing construction of their second commercial storage facility, the Wild Goose project, in northern California. Debottlenecking' the Western Canada supply basin should provide additional opportunities for further expansion not only for AEC but also for other midstream service providers. Opportunities are especially available in the areas of new storage facilities to serve location-specific needs, replacement of declining storage capacity, replacement of retiring facilities, technological optimization of existing facilities, more flexible, higher deliverability facilities and commercial optimization of existing facilities. A map of the hubs and market centres of North America are included. 5 figs

  3. Nuclear materials management storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs' Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites

  4. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  5. Hydrogen storage in nanotubes & nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Froudakis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several years, a significant share of the scientific community has focused its attention on the hydrogen storage problem. Since 1997, when carbon nanotubes appeared to be a promising storage material, many theoretical and experimental groups have investigated the hydrogen storage capacity of these carbon nanostructures. These efforts were not always successful and consequently, the results obtained were often controversial. In the current review we attempt to summarize some the highlights of the work on hydrogen storage in various types of nanotube and nanostructure, in a critical way. The nature of the interaction between hydrogen and the host nanomaterials, as revealed through theoretical modeling, helps us understand the basic mechanisms of hydrogen storage. Analysis of the results reveals why high hydrogen storage capacity at ambient conditions, which meets the DOE targets, cannot occur in bare carbon nanotubes. Through our analysis we also propose guidelines to enhance the hydrogen storage capacity of already synthesized materials and recommend advanced materials for this application.

  6. Commercially available blood storage containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, C V; de Korte, D; Hess, J R; van der Meer, P F

    2014-01-01

    Plastic blood bags improve the safety and effectiveness of blood component separation and storage. Progress towards optimal storage systems is driven by medical, scientific, business and environmental concerns and is limited by available materials, consumer acceptance and manufacturing and regulatory concerns. Blood bag manufacturers were invited to submit lists of the bags they manufacture. The lists were combined and sorted by planned use. The lists were analysed by experts to assess the degree to which the products attend to scientific problems. Specific issues addressed included the use of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) as plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood bags, the size, material and thickness of platelet bags, and the fracture resistance of plasma bags. Alternatives to DEHP for red blood cell (RBC) storage exist, but are mostly in a developmental stage. Plastic bags (DEHP-free, PVC-free) for platelet storage with better gas diffusion capabilities are widely available. Alternatives for plasma storage with better fracture resistance at low temperatures exist. Most RBC products are stored in DEHP-plasticized PVC as no fully satisfactory alternative exists that ensures adequate storage with low haemolysis. A variety of alternative platelet storage systems are available, but their significance - other than improved oxygen transport - is poorly understood. The necessity to remove DEHP from blood bags still needs to be determined. PMID:24102543

  7. Nuclear materials management storage study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.W. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs` Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites.

  8. Cooperation and Competition among Energy Storages

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Ocaña, Jesus E.; Ortega-Vazquez, Miguel A.; Zhang, Baosen

    2015-01-01

    We study competition and cooperation among a group of storage units. We show that as the number of storages increases, the profit of storages approaches zero under Nash competition. We propose two ways in which storages can achieve non-zero profit and show that they are optimal in the sense that storages achieve the maximum possible profit. The first is a decentralized approach in which storages are exposed to artificial cost functions that incentivize them to behavior as a coalition. No priv...

  9. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  10. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  11. Troubleshooting vSphere storage

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step example-oriented tutorial aimed at showing the reader how to troubleshoot a variety of vSphere storage problems, and providing the reader with solutions that can be completed with minimal effort and time in order to limit damage to work.If you are a vSphere administrator, this is the book for you. This book will provide you with 'need to know' information about the various storage transports that ESXi utilizes, the tools and techniques we can use to identify problems, and the fundamental knowledge and steps to take to troubleshoot storage-related issues. Prior knowledge

  12. Storage of pork by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the study of storage of pork, irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays, is recommended. The changes of the appearance and the main qualitative indexes of pork, irradiated with 1.5 M rad radiation and after two month's storage, were analysed. The evaluation of storage, transportation and nutritional acceptability of the two kinds of irradiated pork products was made. Systematic toxicological tests of rats and dogs, fed with irradiated pork, were given. The comparison of the economic facilitation of refrigerated pork and irradiated pork was made. (author)

  13. Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

  14. Provenance-Aware Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Seltzer, Margo I.; Muniswamy-Reddy, Kiran-Kumar; Holland, David A.; Braun, Uri; Ledlie, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Provenance is a type of meta-data that describes the history or ancestry of an object. Although provenance is typically manually generated and stored in a stand-alone database, we make the case that it must be managed by the storage system. In this paper, we describe provenance-aware storage systems (PASS), a new class of storage system that automatically tracks provenance. A PASS takes responsibility for recording provenance meta-data for the objects stored on it and maintaining that provena...

  15. Neutron scattering and hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Ramirez-Cuesta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen has been identified as a fuel of choice for providing clean energy for transport and other applications across the world and the development of materials to store hydrogen efficiently and safely is crucial to this endeavour. Hydrogen has the largest scattering interaction with neutrons of all the elements in the periodic table making neutron scattering ideal for studying hydrogen storage materials. Simultaneous characterisation of the structure and dynamics of these materials during hydrogen uptake is straightforward using neutron scattering techniques. These studies will help us to understand the fundamental properties of hydrogen storage in realistic conditions and hence design new hydrogen storage materials.

  16. Energy storage for sustainable microgrid

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, David Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Energy Storage for Sustainable Microgrid addresses the issues related to modelling, operation and control, steady-state and dynamic analysis of microgrids with ESS. This book discusses major electricity storage technologies in depth along with their efficiency, lifetime cycles, environmental benefits and capacity, so that readers can envisage which type of storage technology is best for a particular microgrid application. This book offers solutions to numerous difficulties such as choosing the right ESS for the particular microgrid application, proper sizing of ESS for microgrid, as well as

  17. Carbon storage in forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reviews research on short and long term carbon storage. A Norwegian programme with the objective of increasing knowledge of key processes which govern the carbon storage and loss of CO2 from forest soil in Norway is mentioned. Topics that will be studied are: The production and loss of CO2 from the soil, root ecology, the microorganism ability of degrading organic compounds, transport and loss of organic compounds through the soil to creeks and lakes and the modelling of carbon currents and storage in various forest ecosystems both in the soil and above

  18. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program designed to demonstrate the storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period is described. Factors considered include reduction of peak period demand and electric utility load problems and establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program toward utilization of ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage is emphasized.

  19. Lightweight hydride storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E.; Bauer, W. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The need for lightweight hydrides in vehicular applications has prompted considerable research into the use of magnesium and its alloys. Although this earlier work has provided some improved performance in operating temperature and pressure, substantial improvements are needed before these materials will significantly enhance the performance of an engineered system on a vehicle. We are extending the work of previous investigators on Mg alloys to reduce the operating temperature and hydride heat of formation in light weight materials. Two important results will be discussed in this paper: (1) a promising new alloy hydride was found which has better pressure-temperature characteristics than any previous Mg alloy and, (2) a new fabrication process for existing Mg alloys was developed and demonstrated. The new alloy hydride is composed of magnesium, aluminum and nickel. It has an equilibrium hydrogen overpressure of 1.3 atm. at 200{degrees}C and a storage capacity between 3 and 4 wt.% hydrogen. A hydrogen release rate of approximately 5 x 10{sup -4} moles-H{sub 2}/gm-min was measured at 200{degrees}C. The hydride heat of formation was found to be 13.5 - 14 kcal/mole-H{sub 2}, somewhat lower than Mg{sub 2}Ni. The new fabrication method takes advantage of the high vapor transport of magnesium. It was found that Mg{sub 2}Ni produced by our low temperature process was better than conventional materials because it was single phase (no Mg phase) and could be fabricated with very small particle sizes. Hydride measurements on this material showed faster kinetic response than conventional material. The technique could potentially be applied to in-situ hydride bed fabrication with improved packing density, release kinetics, thermal properties and mechanical stability.

  20. Uso do açafrão (Curcuma longa L. na redução da Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048 em ricota The use of turmeric in the reduction of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048 in ricotta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ribeiro Maia

    2004-04-01

    ethanolic turmeric extract into concentrations that varied from 0.0% to 2.0% into the ricotta. The ricottas were evaluated in 0, 1, 7, 14 and 21 days under refrigerated storage. The ricotta moist percentage was of 73% in average. The average pH observed was of 5,4 and the fat percentage was of 3%. Microbiological results have shown a reduction in the number of Escherichia coli, after 21 days, about two logarithms cycles in treatments which 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% of ethanolic turmeric extract was used. As to Enterobacter aerogenes there was less reduction, at about one logarithm cycle, from 105 UFC/mL to 104 UFC/mL, also in treatments in which 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% of ethanolic turmeric extract was used. Although the results have shown a reduction in the number of the viable cells of the microorganisms evaluated, the ethanolic turmeric extract cannot be the single preservative means, considering a initial contamination of 104 UFC/mL of Escherichia coli and 105 UFC/mL of Enterobacter aerogenes for that would not be according to the current legislation referring to the microbiological cheese requirements.

  1. Autumn study on storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The first two weeks of October have seen storage ring people from accelerator Laboratories throughout the world at CERN to study the fundamental problems of very high energy protonproton colliding beam machines.

  2. Storage facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canisters containing high level radioactive wastes are sealed in overpacks in a receiving building constructed on the ground. A plurality of storage pits are formed in a layered manner vertically in multi-stages in deep underground just beneath the receiving building, for example underground of about 1000m from the ground surface. Each of the storage pits is in communication with a shaft which vertically communicates the receiving building and the storage pits, and is extended plainly in a horizontal direction from the shaft. The storage pit comprises an overpack receiving chamber, a main gallery and a plurality of galleries. A plurality of holes for burying the overpacks are formed on the bottom of the galleries in the longitudinal direction of the galleries. A plurality of overpack-positioning devices which run in the main gallery and the galleries by remote operation are disposed in the main gallery and the galleries. (I.N.)

  3. ALICE bags data storage accolades

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    ComputerWorld has recognized CERN with an award for the 'Best Practices in Storage' for ALICE's data acquisition system, in the category of 'Systems Implementation'. The award was presented to the ALICE DAQ team on 18 April at a ceremony in San Diego, CA. (Top) ALICE physicist Ulrich Fuchs. (Bottom) Three of the five storage racks for the ALICE Data Acquisition system (Photo Antonio Saba). Between 16 and19 April, one thousand people from data storage networks around the world gathered to attend the biannual Storage Networking World Conference. Twenty-five companies and organizations were celebrated as finalists, and five of those were given honorary awards-among them CERN, which tied for first place in the category of Systems Implementation for the success of the ALICE Data Acquisition System. CERN was one of five finalists in this category, which recognizes the winning facility for 'the successful design, implementation and management of an interoperable environment'. 'Successful' could include documentati...

  4. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  5. Multi-dimensional optical storage

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Duanyi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents principles and applications to expand the storage space from 2-D to 3-D and even multi-D, including gray scale, color (light with different wavelength), polarization and coherence of light. These actualize the improvements of density, capacity and data transfer rate for optical data storage. Moreover, the applied implementation technologies to make mass data storage devices are described systematically. Some new mediums, which have linear absorption characteristics for different wavelength and intensity to light with high sensitivity, are introduced for multi-wavelength and multi-level optical storage. This book can serve as a useful reference for researchers, engineers, graduate and undergraduate students in material science, information science and optics. .

  6. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

    2003-03-10

    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  7. Storage of hemopoietic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pamphilon Derwood; Mijovic Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Background: Autologous, and in some cases allogeneic, hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) are stored for varying periods of time prior to infusion. For periods of greater than 48 h, storage requires cryopreservation. It is essential to optimize cell storage and ensure the quality of the product for subsequent reinfusion. Methods: A number of important variables may affect the subsequent quality of infused HSC and therapeutic cells (TC). This review discusses these and also reviews the regulatory ...

  8. Advances in information storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1995-01-01

    The series Advances in Information Storage Systems covers a wide range of interdisciplinary technical areas, related to magnetic or optical storage systems. The following nonexhaustive list is indicative of the scope of the topics: Friction, Adhesion, Wear and Lubrications, Coatings, Solid Mechanics, Air Flow, Contamination, Instrumentation, Dynamics, Shock and Vibration, Controls, Head and Suspension Design, Actuators, Spindle and Actuator Motors and Bearings, Structure of Thin Films, Corrosion, Long-Term Reliability, Materials and Processing, Manufacturing and Automation, Economics.This volu

  9. Energy Storage and Renewable Energy.

    OpenAIRE

    Durmaz, Tunç

    2014-01-01

    I consider an economy with fossil fuel and renewable energy and energy storage, and search for the conditions that lead to welfare improvements when energy is stored. I then solve for the optimal decision rule and analyze the long-run tendencies of the economy-energy variables. The findings are threefold. First, energy storage is fostered by the convexity of the marginal utility (prudence), the marginal cost function for fossil fuel energy, and the degree of intermittency. Second, considering...

  10. Hydrogen Storage In Nanostructured Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storag...

  11. AB Levitator and Electricity Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The author researched this new idea - support of flight by any aerial vehicles at significant altitude solely by the magnetic field of the planet. It is shown that current technology allows humans to create a light propulsion (AB engine) which does not depend on air, water or ground terrain. Simultaniosly, this revolutionary thruster is a device for the storage of electricity which is extracted and is replenished (during braking) from/into the storage with 100 percent efficiency. The relative...

  12. Temporary storage area characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preferred alternative identified in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the Weldon Spring Quarry Bulk Wastes is to remove the wastes from the quarry and transport them by truck to temporary storage facility at the chemical plant site. To support the RI/FS, this report provides data to characterize the temporary storage area (TSA) site and to ensure the suitability of the proposed location. 31 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Towards a community cloud storage

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying; Vlassov, Vladimir; Navarro Moldes, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Community Clouds, usually built upon community networks, operate in a more disperse environment compared to a data center Cloud, with lower capacity and less reliable servers separated by a more heterogeneous and less predictable network interconnection. These differences raise challenges when deploying Cloud applications in a community Cloud. Open Stack Swift is an open source distributed storage system, which provides stand alone highly available and scalable storage from Open Stack Cloud c...

  14. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  15. Storage of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Can

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Storage of human breast milk by freezing or refrigeration of milk has been recommended especially at some social circumstances of most mothers who are regularly separated from their infants because of work. The greatest fear that has hindered the prospects of in - vitro storage of breast milk for any considerable period of time is the possibility of bacterial contamination and growth of infectious pathogens in the stored milk, there by rendering them unsafe for human consumption. The storage container can influence the cell content of milk, as the cells adhere to the walls of a glass container but not to polyethylene or polypropylene containers. Bacteriological examination of refrigerated milks has proven their safety for human consumption for even up to 72 h. For a storage over longer periods up to 1 month, freezing at - 20 0C could be recommended, but the most preferred method, especially for longer storage would be fresh freezing at - 70 0C, if affordable or available. The nutrient value of human milk is essentially unchanged, but the immunological properties are reduced by various storage techniques. Boiling and microwave radiation have not been recommended. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 375-379

  16. Container storage of CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each Ontario Hydro operating plant has bays or water pools large enough to handle about a decade's used fuel. For the long term, however, dry storage is a practical alternative, especially for CANDU fuel with its low decay heat. The economic attractiveness of dry storage has long been recognized. Prospects improve if the same container can be used for transporting the fuel to its final destination without any need for repackaging. There are many engineering, scientific and licensing problems to be dealt with, but Ontario Hydro has made a start with its Dry Storage Demonstration Program. The long term goal of this program is to develop a container that can be used for storage, transportation, and disposal of used fuel. This paper describes the stages in the development of Ontario Hydro's approach to dry storage. Efforts have converged on the concept of a Concrete Integrated Container. This is a self-contained, high-integrity structure designed to be loaded with fuel directly from the station pools, moved to a storage area and eventually transported off-site to a final disposal facility. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  17. Formats and data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    needed to allow for the storage of large covariances, ensuring evolution of the stored data, and for attracting to the field young experts

  18. Modeling Strategic Electricity Storage: The Case of Pumped Hydro Storage in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Wolf-Peter; Kemfert, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    We study the strategic utilization of storage in imperfect electricity markets. We apply a game-theoretic Cournot model to the German power market and analyze different counterfactual and realistic cases of pumped hydro storage. Our main finding is that both storage utilization and storage-related welfare effects depend on storage ownership and the operator's involvement in conventional generation. Strategic operators generally under-utilize owned storage capacity. Strategic storage operation...

  19. Storage-ring Electron Cooler for Relativistic Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, F; Douglas, D; Guo, J; Johnson, R P; Krafft, G; Morozov, V S; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Application of electron cooling at ion energies above a few GeV has been limited due to reduction of electron cooling efficiency with energy and difficulty in producing and accelerating a high-current high-quality electron beam. A high-current storage-ring electron cooler offers a solution to both of these problems by maintaining high cooling beam quality through naturally-occurring synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. However, the range of ion energies where storage-ring electron cooling can be used has been limited by low electron beam damping rates at low ion energies and high equilibrium electron energy spread at high ion energies. This paper reports a development of a storage ring based cooler consisting of two sections with significantly different energies: the cooling and damping sections. The electron energy and other parameters in the cooling section are adjusted for optimum cooling of a stored ion beam. The beam parameters in the damping section are adjusted for optimum damping of the...

  20. 27 CFR 19.353 - Storage inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage inventories. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage Inventories § 19.353 Storage inventories. Each warehouseman shall take a physical inventory of all spirits and wines held in the storage...

  1. Low Oxygen Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer stock peanuts are stored in bulk storage facilities for periods ranging from 30d to 12mo. Studies were conducted in 1/10 scale conventional and monolithic dome storage facilities located in Dawson, GA. Conventional storage was represented by four metal buildings with storage capacity of appro...

  2. Diffraction-limited storage-ring vacuum technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact lattice and small magnet apertures will be the main characteristics of future diffraction-limited storage rings, adding difficulties for the design of the vacuum system of these machines. The use of NEG coatings and distributed absorbers could provide a solution to overcome these challenges. Some of the characteristics of recent ultralow-emittance storage-ring designs and possibly future diffraction-limited storage rings are a compact lattice combined with small magnet apertures. Such requirements present a challenge for the design and performance of the vacuum system. The vacuum system should provide the required vacuum pressure for machine operation and be able to handle the heat load from synchrotron radiation. Small magnet apertures result in the conductance of the chamber being low, and lumped pumps are ineffective. One way to provide the required vacuum level is by distributed pumping, which can be realised by the use of a non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating of the chamber walls. It may not be possible to use crotch absorbers to absorb the heat from the synchrotron radiation because an antechamber is difficult to realise with such a compact lattice. To solve this, the chamber walls can work as distributed absorbers if they are made of a material with good thermal conductivity, and distributed cooling is used at the location where the synchrotron radiation hits the wall. The vacuum system of the 3 GeV storage ring of MAX IV is used as an example of possible solutions for vacuum technologies for diffraction-limited storage rings

  3. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Stiebra, L; Cabulis, U; Knite, M

    2014-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES) have become an important subject of research in recent years. Using PCMs for thermal energy storage provides a solution to increase the efficiency of the storage and use of energy in many domestic and industrial sectors. Phase change TES systems offer a number of advantages over other systems (e.g. chemical storage systems): particularly small temperature distance between the storage and retrieval cycles, small unit sizes and lo...

  4. Seasonal sensible thermal energy storage solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinia Gabriela SOCACIU

    2012-01-01

    The thermal energy storage can be defined as the temporary storage of thermal energy at high or low temperatures. Thermal energy storage is an advances technology for storing thermal energy that can mitigate environmental impacts and facilitate more efficient and clean energy systems. Seasonal thermal energy storage has a longer thermal storage period, generally three or more months. This can contribute significantly to meeting society`s need for heating and cooling. The objectives of thermal...

  5. Changes during storage of freshwater fish

    OpenAIRE

    KAŇKA, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to focus on changes during storage. I reviewed in detail the kinds of storage and fish processing. I compared changes in fish during cooling, freezing, mincing meat, smoking, marinating, and sterilizing in cans. Sparing method of storage is cooling, when are preserve chemical and physical properties of the meat. Storage time is relatively short The meat during storage succumbed sensory changes in color, aroma, consistency. When the cooling is deficient, occurs the ...

  6. Thermal Energy Storage: Fourth Annual Review Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The development of low cost thermal energy storage technologies is discussed in terms of near term oil savings, solar energy applications, and dispersed energy systems for energy conservation policies. Program definition and assessment and research and technology development are considered along with industrial storage, solar thermal power storage, building heating and cooling, and seasonal thermal storage. A bibliography on seasonal thermal energy storage emphasizing aquifer thermal energy is included.

  7. Archival storage solutions for PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunn, Timothy

    1997-05-01

    While they are many, one of the inhibitors to the wide spread diffusion of PACS systems has been robust, cost effective digital archive storage solutions. Moreover, an automated Nearline solution is key to a central, sharable data repository, enabling many applications such as PACS, telemedicine and teleradiology, and information warehousing and data mining for research such as patient outcome analysis. Selecting the right solution depends on a number of factors: capacity requirements, write and retrieval performance requirements, scaleability in capacity and performance, configuration architecture and flexibility, subsystem availability and reliability, security requirements, system cost, achievable benefits and cost savings, investment protection, strategic fit and more.This paper addresses many of these issues. It compares and positions optical disk and magnetic tape technologies, which are the predominant archive mediums today. Price and performance comparisons will be made at different archive capacities, plus the effect of file size on storage system throughput will be analyzed. The concept of automated migration of images from high performance, high cost storage devices to high capacity, low cost storage devices will be introduced as a viable way to minimize overall storage costs for an archive. The concept of access density will also be introduced and applied to the selection of the most cost effective archive solution.

  8. Feasibility of a subsurface storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyses the notion of subsurface storage under the scientifical, technical and legal aspects. This reflection belongs to the studies about long duration storage carried out in the framework of the axis 3 of the December 30, 1991 law. The report comprises 3 parts. The first part is a synthesis of the complete subsurface storage study: definitions, aim of the report, very long duration storage paradigm, description files of concepts, thematic synthesis (legal aspects, safety, monitoring, sites, seismicity, heat transfers, corrosion, concretes, R and works, handling, tailings and dismantlement, economy..), multi-criteria/multi-concept cross-analysis. The second part deals with the technical aspects of the subsurface storage: safety approach (long duration impact, radiation protection, mastery of effluents), monitoring strategy, macroscopic inventory of B-type waste packages, inventory of spent fuels, glasses, hulls and nozzles, geological contexts in the French territory (sites selection and characterization), on-site activities, hydrogeological and geochemical aspects, geo-technical works and infrastructures organization, subsurface seismic effects, cooling modes (ventilation, heat transfer with the geologic environment), heat transfer research programs (convection, poly-phase cooling in porous media), handling constraints, concretes (use, behaviour, durability), corrosion of metallic materials, technical-economical analysis, international context (experience feedback from Sweden (CLAB) and the USA (Yucca Mountain), other European and French facilities). The last part of the report is a graphical appendix with 3-D views and schemes of the different concepts. (J.S.)

  9. Performance Comparison of IP-Networked Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Dapeng; LIU Chuanyi; WANG Dongsheng; LIU Hong; TANG Zhizhong

    2009-01-01

    Dramatically increasing amounts of digital data are placing huge requirements on storage systems.IP-networked storage systems,such as the network file system (NFS)-based network-attached storage (NAS) systems and the iSCSI-storage area network (SAN) systems,have become increasingly common in today's local area network (LAN) environments.The emergence of new storage techniques,such as object-based storage (OBS) and content aware storage (CAS),significantly improves the functionality of storage devices to meet further needs for storage sub-systems.However,these may impact system performance.This paper compares the performance of NFS,iSCSI storage,object-based storage devices (OSDs),and CAS-based storage systems in an environment with no data sharing across host machines.A gigabit ethernet network is used as the storage network.Test results demonstrate that the performances of these systems are comparable with CAS being much better than the others for write operations.The performance bottlenecks in these systems are analyzed to provide insight into how future storage systems may be improved and possible optimization methods.The analysis shows how the I/O interfaces in these systems affect the application performance and that network-based storage systems require optimized I/O latency and reduced network and buffer processing in the servers.

  10. Passive storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absence of a policy for long-term management of either intermediate- or high-level waste has led to increased emphasis by both regulators and waste producers on long-term storage in regimes in which the need for human intervention is minimised. The concepts of 'passivity' of waste and its 'passive storage' have been much discussed, and their attributes defined. However, there has been a tendency to take 'passive' as an absolute, which it simply cannot be. This paper discusses passivity and passive storage, suggests definitions for relevant terms, and makes a case for a semi-quantitative index to measure the level of passivity represented by a given waste inventory. It also suggests that such an index would prove a valuable tool for judging the progress of waste treatment and decommissioning programmes. Further, increasing passivity may well reduce security concerns, and a preliminary discussion of this concept is presented. (author)

  11. GPUs as Storage System Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Kiswany, Samer; Ripeanu, Matei

    2012-01-01

    Massively multicore processors, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), provide, at a comparable price, a one order of magnitude higher peak performance than traditional CPUs. This drop in the cost of computation, as any order-of-magnitude drop in the cost per unit of performance for a class of system components, triggers the opportunity to redesign systems and to explore new ways to engineer them to recalibrate the cost-to-performance relation. This project explores the feasibility of harnessing GPUs' computational power to improve the performance, reliability, or security of distributed storage systems. In this context, we present the design of a storage system prototype that uses GPU offloading to accelerate a number of computationally intensive primitives based on hashing, and introduce techniques to efficiently leverage the processing power of GPUs. We evaluate the performance of this prototype under two configurations: as a content addressable storage system that facilitates online similarity detectio...

  12. Instability investigation for storage mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (AmPS) will be used in storage mode for internal target (IT) physics. It demands the beam lifetime at least at the order of half an hour and the stored beam current of 200 mA. Bunched beam instabilities have been observed in many storage rings. The low-Q broadband impedance drives the single-bunch instability. The single bunch treshold and the equilibrium bunch length as the function of energies, RF voltages, and RF frequencies are investigated. The code ZAP has been used for investigating the stability thresholds for AmPS in storage mode. This note presents the simulation results. They gave useful information for choosing the RF parameters of AmPS. (author). 3 refs.. 6 figs.. 3 tabs

  13. Collinear holographic data storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodi; Lin, Xiao; Wu, Anan

    2013-08-01

    Holographic data storage system is a promising candidate of the next-generation of storage equipment. However, conventional technologies (called 2-axis holography) still have essential issues for commercialization of products. In this paper, we introduce the collinear holography that can produce a small, practical data storage system more easily than conventional 2-axis holography. In this technology the information and reference beams are displayed co-axially by the same SLM. With this unique configuration the optical pickup can be placed on one side of the recording media. The special media structure uses a pre-formatted reflective layer for the focus/tracking servo and for reading address information. It also uses a dichroic mirror interlayer for detecting holographic recording information without interfering with the preformatted information. A 2-dimensional digital page data format is used and the shift-multiplexing method is employed to increase recording density.

  14. Nanoconfined hydrides for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Thomas K.; Besenbacher, Flemming; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-05-01

    The world in the 21st century is facing increasing challenges within the development of more environmentally friendly energy systems, sustainable and `green chemistry' solutions for a variety of chemical and catalytic processes. Nanomaterials science is expected to contribute strongly by the development of new nanotools, e.g. for improving the performance of chemical reactions. Nanoconfinement is of increasing interest and may lead to significantly enhanced kinetics, higher degree of stability and/or more favourable thermodynamic properties. Nanoconfined chemical reactions may have a wide range of important applications in the near future, e.g. within the merging area of chemical storage of renewable energy. This review provides selected examples within nanoconfinement of hydrogen storage materials, which may serve as an inspiration for other research fields as well. Selected nanoporous materials, methods for preparation of nanoconfined systems and their hydrogen storage properties are reviewed.The world in the 21st century is facing increasing challenges within the development of more environmentally friendly energy systems, sustainable and `green chemistry' solutions for a variety of chemical and catalytic processes. Nanomaterials science is expected to contribute strongly by the development of new nanotools, e.g. for improving the performance of chemical reactions. Nanoconfinement is of increasing interest and may lead to significantly enhanced kinetics, higher degree of stability and/or more favourable thermodynamic properties. Nanoconfined chemical reactions may have a wide range of important applications in the near future, e.g. within the merging area of chemical storage of renewable energy. This review provides selected examples within nanoconfinement of hydrogen storage materials, which may serve as an inspiration for other research fields as well. Selected nanoporous materials, methods for preparation of nanoconfined systems and their hydrogen storage

  15. Low energy ion storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While high energy physicists have found it expedient to store ions at increasingly higher energies in devices of greater size and complexity, atomic physicists have generally attempted to store ions at ever lower energies, and often in miniaturized containers. However, many of the techniques used at both high and low energies are analogous or related. Three basic means of ion containment have been used: the dc electrostatic trap, the Penning-type trap with uniform magnetic field and quadrupole dc potential, and the radio-frequency quadrupole trap in either the cylindrically symmetric or storage-ring configurations. Each trapping configuration has characteristic advantages or drawbacks for particular measurements. Each method is described

  16. Catalyzed borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Ming

    2012-02-28

    A hydrogen storage material and process is provided in which alkali borohydride materials are created which contain effective amounts of catalyst(s) which include transition metal oxides, halides, and chlorides of titanium, zirconium, tin, and combinations of the various catalysts. When the catalysts are added to an alkali borodydride such as a lithium borohydride, the initial hydrogen release point of the resulting mixture is substantially lowered. Additionally, the hydrogen storage material may be rehydrided with weight percent values of hydrogen at least about 9 percent.

  17. Hydrogen storage in graphitic nanofibres

    OpenAIRE

    McCaldin, Simon Roger

    2007-01-01

    There is huge need to develop an alternative to hydrocarbons fuel, which does not produce CO2 or contribute to global warming - 'the hydrogen economy' is such an alternative, however the storage of hydrogen is the key technical barrier that must be overcome. The potential of graphitic nanofibres (GNFs) to be used as materials to allow the solid-state storage of hydrogen has thus been investigated. This has been conducted with a view to further developing the understanding of the mechanism(s) ...

  18. Energy storage in evaporated brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R. Ian

    2010-09-15

    We propose storage of electrical energy in brine solutions by using the energy to enhance natural evaporation. Using properties of existing industrial evaporation technologies and estimates of power regeneration from brine by pressure retarded osmosis, efficiency near 100% is calculated. Modelling indicates that systems ranging from 50kW to 50MW output may be practical, with storage capacities of hours to days. The method appears to have potential to be economically competitive with other technologies over a wide range of capacity. It may present a large new application area that could aid the development of salinity-based power generation technology.

  19. Holographic storage of multicolor information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. T.; Clay, B. R.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the merits of the use of holography for storing multicolor information. Holography is shown capable to provide in a compact, easily duplicated, inexpensive, and readily retrievable manner the storage capacity required for the ever growing amounts of alphanumeric, graphic, continuous tone, color, and black-and-white data generated. Following a definition of the holographic concept, the advantages of holography for multicolor information recording, indexing, registration, and reconstruction are reviewed. Special attention is given to display applications including a multicolor moving-map display, a NASA multifunction display, and an automatic-test-equipment information storage system.

  20. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  1. Thermal energy storage flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development of an experimental program to study heat transfer, energy storage, fluid movement, and void location under microgravity. Plans for experimental flight packages containing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) material applicable for advanced solar heat receivers are discussed. Candidate materials for TES include fluoride salts, salt eutectics, silicides, and metals. The development of a three-dimensional computer program to describe TES material behavior undergoing melting and freezing under microgravity is also discussed. The TES experiment concept and plans for ground and flight tests are outlined.

  2. Yield, utilization, storage and ultimate storage of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 80% of the uranium leaving uranium enrichment plants is depleted to a residual content of about 0,25% U 235. Due to the present ineconomical further depletion to the technically possible residual content of 0,1% U 235, the so-called 'tails' are first of all stored. The quantity of stored depleted uranium in the FRG should be about 100.000 t by the year 2000. It represents a strategic reserve for future energy supply regardless of profitableness. The study analysis the conceivable possible uses for the tails quantity considered. These are, besides further depletion whose profitableness is considered, also the use as breeder material in breeder reactors and the use in the non-nuclear field. The main part of the study deals with the various storage possibilities of the depleted uranium in oxidic or fluoride form. A comparison of costs of alternative storage concepts showed a clear advantage for the storage of UF6 in 48 inch containers already in use. The conceivable accidents in storing are analyzed and measures to reduce the consequences are discussed. Finally, the problems of ultimate storage for the remaining waste after further depletion or use are investigated and the costs arising here are also estimated. (RB)

  3. Use Of A Digital Optical Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Common File System (CFS) is a file management and file storage system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's computer network. The CFS is organized as a hierarchical storage system: active files are stored on fast-access storage devices, larger, less active files are stored on slower, less expensive devices, and archival files are stored offline. Files are automatically moved between the various classes of storage by a file migration program that analyzes file activity, file size, and storage device capabilities. This has resulted in a cost-effective system that provides both fast access and large data storage capability (over 9 trillion bits currently stored). A large capacity (1014 bits), reliable Digital Optical Storage System would replace the offline storage as the archival part of the CFS and might also be used for active storage if it had a reasonable file access time.

  4. Advanced research in solar-energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, W.

    1983-01-01

    The Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute is reviewed. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800/sup 0/C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

  5. Floating Lid Constructions for Pit Water Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal storage is necessary if renewable heat sources are to be applied on a large scale. Pit water storage seems to be a cheaper alternative to steel tank storage. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 60% of the total storage cost. Due to the...... large share in price the development of lid constructions is crucial for the development of pit water storage and seasonal storage.The current report gives a survey of the most important established and planned designs from Denmark, Sweden and Germany....

  6. Storage and separation of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various processes such as gas separation, gas storage (H2 or CH4) are known to be inhibited by intrinsic antagonistic material properties (texture, thermal conductivity, permeability). In the following document are gathered the last progress in adsorbent material elaboration and process engineering. (authors)

  7. Materials demands for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a future sustainable energy system based on renewable energy, environmentally harmless energy carriers like hydrogen, will be of crucial importance. One of the major impediments for the transition to a hydrogen-based energy system is the lack of satisfactory hydrogen storage facility. In the last years the possibility to store the hydrogen in various materials was extensively studied. This paper is a preliminary study with the fucus on advanced nanostructured materials such as solids of large surface areas based on carbon structures, metals and different types of metal alloys, other intermetallic compounds, etc, as possibilities for hydrogen storage. The newest materials used for hydrogen storage are light metal alloys. We have so far focus in this review almost extensively on experimental studies. Also there are presented the most important characteristics of these materials such as mechanical strength, porosity and affinity to hydrogen, and also the recent developments in the search for innovative materials with high hydrogen - storage capacity as well as our own contribution to this field. (authors)

  8. Separation and storage of krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krypton-85 collection by cryogenic distillation and storage in pressurized cylinders is considered to be an availale technology, but in need of appropriate demonstration. Cryogenic distillation has been used for many years at large-scale liquid-air plants. Demonstration of a high-efficiency recovery system at a fuel-reprocessing plant would be needed before commercial facilities could be designed. Pressurized storage cylinders have also been used for several decades; the accumulated technology need only be combined with existing techniques for constructing shielded storage facilities. Methods that require further development include (1) 85Kr collection by liquid fluorocarbon absorption and (2) encapsulation in solids. Pilot-plant tests on major portions of a fluorocarbon absorption system indicate a significant reduction in the degree of offgas cleanup required in comparison to that for cryogenic distillation. Laboratory tests on 85Kr encapsulation in zeolites indicate that 85Kr leakage is very slow even at elevated storage temperatures and may amount to only a fraction of a percent over several centuries if the leak rate is assumed to be constant

  9. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  10. Krypton-85 removal and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature survey was made in order to predict the atmospheric Kr-85 concentration in the future and it s effect on the population. As a consequence the need for its treatment and removal as a previous step to gaseous waste disposal is justified. A literature review of possible methods of Kr-85 removal and storage is also included. (Author) 43 refs

  11. PROBLEMS OF LOOSE MATERIALS STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Karanský, Jindřich; Herák, David; GÜRDİL, Gürkan A.K; Yunus PINAR

    2012-01-01

    This article describes basic methods of loose materials storage. There are well known problems induced of mechanical properties of mixtures of loose components while storing. This article is focused on equations describing mechanical behavior of such materials and methods of loose materials mechanical properties testing.

  12. Mathematical Storage-Battery Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.; Aston, M.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical formula represents performance of electrical storage batteries. Formula covers many battery types and includes numerous coefficients adjusted to fit peculiarities of each type. Battery and load parameters taken into account include power density in battery, discharge time, and electrolyte temperature. Applications include electric-vehicle "fuel" gages and powerline load leveling.

  13. Nanoelectrodes: energy conversion and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon G. Wallace

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Materials take on exceptional properties as we enter the nanodomain and Electromaterials: those that transport and/or transfer charge are no exception. As such the ability to impart nanostructure to electrodes is having a dramatic effect on areas such as energy conversion and storage.

  14. Nanoporous polymers for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Jonathan; Fréchet, Jean M J; Svec, Frantisek

    2009-05-01

    The design of hydrogen storage materials is one of the principal challenges that must be met before the development of a hydrogen economy. While hydrogen has a large specific energy, its volumetric energy density is so low as to require development of materials that can store and release it when needed. While much of the research on hydrogen storage focuses on metal hydrides, these materials are currently limited by slow kinetics and energy inefficiency. Nanostructured materials with high surface areas are actively being developed as another option. These materials avoid some of the kinetic and thermodynamic drawbacks of metal hydrides and other reactive methods of storing hydrogen. In this work, progress towards hydrogen storage with nanoporous materials in general and porous organic polymers in particular is critically reviewed. Mechanisms of formation for crosslinked polymers, hypercrosslinked polymers, polymers of intrinsic microporosity, and covalent organic frameworks are discussed. Strategies for controlling hydrogen storage capacity and adsorption enthalpy via manipulation of surface area, pore size, and pore volume are discussed in detail. PMID:19360719

  15. Metal Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Rogut, J.; Ludwik-Pardala, M.; Wiatkowski, M.; Šolcová, Olga

    Prague : JHI, 2008, s. 73-74. [Symposium on Catalysis /40./. Prague (CZ), 03.11.2008-05.11.2008] Grant ostatní: RFCR(XE) CT/2007/00006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : hydrogen storage * redox of metal oxide * transport properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  16. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

    2013-02-12

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  17. Photon Production Within Storage Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Rittmann, P D

    2003-01-01

    This report provides tables and electronic worksheets that list the photon production rate within SrF2 and CsC1 storage capsules, particularly the continuous spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons from the slowing down of the emitted electrons (BREMCALC).

  18. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T.; Li, Yingwel; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  19. French sodium waste storage rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of Superphenix Plant decommissioning, CEA and EDF had to determine the rules to applied for safe sodium waste storage. Even if sodium waste storage has been monitored for some decades (but only during Operational Plant phases), some recent events showed that this item had to be secured before beginning large decommissioning operations. Of course, the best way would be an on-line treatment but operational constraints always imply a delay in this operation. Indeed, a number of sodium wastes will be produced during the period before the end of Superphenix sodium treatment (planned in 2013) and will have to wait for further treatment. The events to be avoided, or at least taken into account, are uncontrolled sodium reaction with air moisture (large hydrogen production, important overheating) and sodium reaction with liquid water (pressure waves, large hydrogen production, important overheating). Careful analysis of all abnormal events in sodium waste storage disposal was performed and led to rule evolution. In 2004, experimental studies were undertaken, in order to know how solid sodium at room temperature reacts with air humidity: the conditions of aqueous sodium hydroxide production (which is the main risk source in sodium waste storage) have been observed. On this basis, new general safe rules for sodium waste storage have been raised: - Waste classifying: pure sodium and soda to be separated, bulk and residues to be separated - Sodium waste containers: tight, dry, easy to refill with gas, protected against overpressure effect, with specific marking and reference - Dedicated rooms: dry, with specific markings, with specific sodium fire extinguishers - Maximum duration: three months before next refill with inert dry gas, in an over-container if more than one year - Dry gas feeling: inert gas except for sodium film residues (dry air) 395 For Superphenix application, packaging and storage conditions of sodium wastes have been defined, in accordance with

  20. Comparison of cask and dry well storage concepts for a stand-alone monitored retrievable storage/interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal storage casks are compared with surface dry wells for storage of spent fuel or solidified high-level wastes. Conceptual designs of monitored retrievable storage/interim storage (MRS/IS) facilities are described and evaluated for both storage concepts. The MRS/IS facilities include systems and storage facilities for transuranic (TRU) waste. The impact of TRU waste on the MRS/IS facility is evaluated. Comparisons of the storage concepts were made for three cases for which different reprocessing and disposal schedules were assumed, thus affecting the size and handling rate of the MRS/IS facility. In all cases, dry wells were more economical than metal storage casks. 6 references, 51 figures, 51 tables

  1. Multifunctional composites for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif I.; Karim, Hasanul; Rajib, Md; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical super-capacitors have become one of the most important topics in both academia and industry as novel energy storage devices because of their high power density, long life cycles, and high charge/discharge efficiency. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the development of multifunctional structural energy storage devices such as structural super-capacitors for applications in aerospace, automobiles and portable electronics. These multifunctional structural super-capacitors provide lighter structures combining energy storage and load bearing functionalities. Due to their superior materials properties, carbon fiber composites have been widely used in structural applications for aerospace and automotive industries. Besides, carbon fiber has good electrical conductivity which will provide lower equivalent series resistance; therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for structural energy storage applications. Hence, this paper is focused on performing a pilot study for using nanowire/carbon fiber hybrids as building materials for structural energy storage materials; aiming at enhancing the charge/discharge rate and energy density. This hybrid material combines the high specific surface area of carbon fiber and pseudo-capacitive effect of metal oxide nanowires which were grown hydrothermally in an aligned fashion on carbon fibers. The aligned nanowire array could provide a higher specific surface area that leads to high electrode-electrolyte contact area and fast ion diffusion rates. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and XRay Diffraction (XRD) measurements were used for the initial characterization of this nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid material system. Electrochemical testing has been performed using a potentio-galvanostat. The results show that gold sputtered nanowire hybrid carbon fiber provides 65.9% better performance than bare carbon fiber cloth as super-capacitor.

  2. Storage of hemopoietic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamphilon Derwood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autologous, and in some cases allogeneic, hemopoietic stem cells (HSC are stored for varying periods of time prior to infusion. For periods of greater than 48 h, storage requires cryopreservation. It is essential to optimize cell storage and ensure the quality of the product for subsequent reinfusion. Methods: A number of important variables may affect the subsequent quality of infused HSC and therapeutic cells (TC. This review discusses these and also reviews the regulatory framework that now aims to ensure the quality of stem cells and TC for transplantation. Results: Important variables included cell concentration, temperature, interval from collection to cryopreservation, manipulations performed. They also included rate of freezing and whether controlled-rate freezing was employed. Parameters studied were type of cryoprotectant utilized [dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO is most commonly used, sometimes in combination with hydroxyethyl starch (HES]; and storage conditions. It is also important to assess the quality of stored stem cells. Measurements employed included the total cell count (TNC, mononuclear cell count (MNC, CD34+ cells and colony-forming units - granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM. Of these, TNC and CD34+ are the most useful. However, the best measure of the quality of stored stem cells is their subsequent engraftment. The quality systems used in stem cell laboratories are described in the guidance of the Joint Accreditation Committee of ISCT (Europe and the EBMT (JACIE and the EU Directive on Tissues and Cells plus its supporting commission directives. Inspections of facilities are carried out by the appropriate national agencies and JACIE. Conclusion: For high-quality storage of HSC and TC, processing facilities should use validated procedures that take into account critical variables. The quality of all products must be assessed before and after storage.

  3. Energy storage: a review of recent literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent literature on the technological and economic status of reversible energy storage has been reviewed. A broad range of research and development activities have been pursued between 1975 and the present. Most of this work has concentrated on improving technical and economic performance of previously known storage technologies. Hydraulic pumped storage with both reservoirs above ground and compressed air storage (1 plant) are the only methods that have been adopted by electric utilities. The need for electrical energy storage in Canada has not been acute because of the large proportion of hydraulic generation which incorporates some storge and, in most cases, can readily be used for load-following. Residential heat storage in ceramic room heaters has been used in Europe for several years. For Canadian climatic and market conditions larger, central heating units would be required. Residential heat storage depends upon utilities offering time-of-use rates and none in Canada do so at present. Most seasonal storage concepts depend upon storage of low-grade heat for district heating. The cost of energy storage is highly dependent upon annual energy throughput and hence favours smaller capacity systems operating on frequent charge/discharge cycles over long-term storage. Capital costs of energy storage methods from the literature, expressed in constant dollars, are compared graphically and tentative investment costs are presented for several storage methods

  4. The construction and operation experience of the interim spent fuel storage facility at the Zaporizhzhya nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six nuclear power units of the Zaporizhzhya NPP (ZNPP), which had been put into operation from 1984 to 1995, have no performance capabilities to extend their at-reactor (AR) spent fuel (SF) pools. Without SF removal [for reprocessing or away-from-reactor (AFR) interim spent fuel storage] SF pools are overburdened with nuclear SF assemblies in 5 (with compact reracking - in 9) years of their operation. In 1993 after triennial blocking of spent fuel removal due to erroneous interpretation of the Russian Radwaste Low the Zaporizhzhya NPP management undertook active measures with respect to the construction of on-site interim spent fuel storage facility (ISFSF). In 1994 the official decision was made to build the ISFSF on the basis of a ventilated storage cask (VSC-24) system, which was developed by US Sierra Nuclear Corporation (SNC) and licensed by US NRC. This year the Zaporizhzhya NPP signed a contract agreement with the engineering company 'Duke Engineering and Services' (DE and S) to perform the design of the storage containers for the WWER-1000 spent fuel, the technology transfer and the service support of the ISFSF construction. The designing of the remaining components was carried out by Kharkov Design Institute 'Energoproject', which performed functions of the general designer for the Zaporizhzhya NPP. The project implementation came across a great number of various difficulties. The most complicated ones arose with some licensing issues of technology. The creation difficulties of the ZNPP's ISFSF can be grouped into five areas: - Occurrence of the most safety-significant issues related to the project quality after weld cracking events in ventilated storage cask systems (VSC-24) at Palisades (March 1995) and Arkansas Nuclear One (December 1996) as well as ignition of hydrogen gas occurred while a worker was welding a closure lid at Palisades (May 1996); - Lack of data on WWER-1000 spent fuel behavior during long-term storage in the dry environment and dry

  5. Synthesis long life storage studies surface storage of vitrified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is realized in the framework of the axis 3 of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. It justifies the choices concerning long time surface storage installation of vitrified wastes, called high activity wastes. The long time of the installation would reach 300 years at the maximum. These wastes represent 1 % at the maximum, of radioactive wastes in France but 95 % of the whole radioactivity. Three main objectives were followed: provide a permanent containment of radionuclides; give the possibility of wastes containers retrieval at all the time; minimize the maintenance and the control. The results allow to conclude that the long time surface storage of high activity wastes is feasible. (A.L.B.)

  6. Seasonal storage of energy in solar heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J. E.; Klein, S. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on several aspects of seasonal storage for space heating using water as the storage medium. The interrelationships between collector area, storage volume, and system performance are investigated using the transient simulation program TRNSYS. The situations for which seasonal storage is most promising are presented. Particular emphasis is placed upon design of seasonal storage systems. A design method is presented which is applicable for storage capacities ranging from a few days to seasonal storage. This design method, coupled with cost information, should be useful in assessing the economic viability of seasonal storage systems. Also investigated are the importance of the load heat exchanger size, tank insulation, collector slope, and year-to-year weather variations in system design.

  7. Concept Evaluation of Pyroprocess Waste Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wastes should be fabricated into stable waste forms considering their radioactivity and decay heat characteristics for the safety management of long-term storage and final disposal. The purpose of this study is to assess the concept of a waste storage canister and facility for securing the design data. The design concepts of the waste form storage canister and facility were developed for the storage of pyroprocess waste. The optimal waste form dimension was determined as Φ350 x 900 mm(H) with a maximum decay heat of 1.9 kW. In addition, the canister concept was proposed with an outer dimension ofΦ 370 x 1320 mm(H). The concept of an integrated storage facility was proposed for a vault storage system. It shows that the thermal integrity of the storage facility was maintained under normal condition. In addition, it was found that the cooling efficiency of the storage facility is superior

  8. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination...... probability. The amount of storage capacity necessary for significant wind power quality improvement in a given period is found to be 20 to 40% of the energy produced in that period. The necessary power is found to be 80 to 100% of the average power of the period....... of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times, but allows for a certain fraction of average power in a given timeframe to be available with high...

  9. Vidicon storage tube electrical input/output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoma, P.

    1972-01-01

    Electrical data storage tube is assembled from standard vidicon tube using conventional amplification and control circuits. Vidicon storage tube is simple, inexpensive and has an erase and preparation time of less than 5 microseconds.

  10. Radiological dose assessment for vault storage concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, R.F.

    1997-02-25

    This radiological dose assessment presents neutron and photon dose rates in support of project W-460. Dose rates are provided for a single 3013 container, the ``infloor`` storage vault concept, and the ``cubicle`` storage vault concept.

  11. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination...... of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times, but allows for a certain fraction of average power in a given timeframe to be available with high...... probability. The amount of storage capacity necessary for significant wind power quality improvement in a given period is found to be 20 to 40% of the energy produced in that period. The necessary power is found to be 80 to 100% of the average power of the period....

  12. LEP superconducting cavities go into storage

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Superconducting radio-frequency cavities from the LEP-2 phase (1996-2000) are put into storage in the tunnel that once housed the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), the world’s first proton collider, located at CERN.

  13. Analysis of steam storage systems using Modelica

    OpenAIRE

    Buschle, Jochen; Steinmann, Wolf-Dieter; Tamme, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    Industrial process heat applications have been identified as a promising new area of application for thermal energy storage systems. Storage systems offer not only the reuse of thermal energy in cyclic processes which facilitates the integration of solar energy due to the availability of storage capacity. The bulk of process heat applications require steam at pressures between 1 and 20. While the application of phase change materials (PCMs) is straightforward for isothermal energy storage, no...

  14. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    The simplest type of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility would be an adiabatic process consisting only of a compressor, a storage and a turbine, compressing air into a container when storing and expanding when producing. This type of CAES would be adiabatic and would if the machines were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making...

  15. Operating characteristics of LNG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukacek, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Although liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks might seem to be the most passive components in the LNG plant or ship, this appearance of quiescence arises only because we too easily imagine LNG storage to be like the storage of water. The contents of an LNG storage tank are in continuous dynamic reaction because of heat leak into the tanks, changes in barometric pressure, and the circumstances surrounding the addition and withdrawal of LNG.

  16. The complexity of reliable distributed storage

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Ron; Guerraoui, Rachid

    2008-01-01

    Distributed storage systems based on commodity hardware have gained in popularity because they are cheaper, can be made more reliable and offer better scalability than centralized storage systems. However, implementing and managing such systems is more complicated due to their distributed nature. This thesis presents efficient and reliable distributed storage that can be read and written by any number of clients. The focus is on atomic storage, which guarantees that from the clients' perspect...

  17. Carbon allocation in underground storage organs

    OpenAIRE

    Turesson, Helle

    2014-01-01

    By increasing knowledge of carbon allocation in underground storage organs and using the knowledge to improve such crops, the competitiveness of these types of storage organs can be strengthened. Starch is the most common storage compound in tubers and roots, but some crops accumulate compounds other than starch. This thesis examined representative underground storage organs accumulating starch, oil and sugars. These were: the oil-accumulating nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus), a half-grass whic...

  18. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes analysis, testing and other activities) for advanced energy storage technologies (batteries and ultra-capacitors).

  19. Ocean carbon uptake and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The ocean contains about 95% of the carbon in the atmosphere, ocean and land biosphere system, and is of fundamental importance in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the 1990s an international research effort involving Australia was established to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic C02 for all major ocean basins. The research showed that about 118 of the 244 + 20 billion tons of the anthropogenic carbon emitted through fossil fuel burning and cement production has been stored in the ocean since preindustrial times, thus helping reduce the rate of increase in atmospheric C02. The research also showed the terrestrial biosphere has been a small net source of C02 (39 ± 28 billion tons carbon) to the atmosphere over the same period. About 60% of the total ocean inventory of the anthropogenic C02 was found in the Southern Hemisphere, with most in the 300S to 500S latitude band. This mid-latitude band is where surface waters are subducted as Mode and Intermediate waters, which is a major pathway controlling ocean C02 uptake. High storage (23% of the total) also occurs in the North Atlantic, associated with deep water formation in that basin. The ocean uptake and storage is expected to increase in the coming decades as atmospheric C02 concentrations rise. However, a number of feedback mechanisms associated with surface warming, changes in circulation, and biological effects are likely to impact on the uptake capacity. The accumulation or storage-of the C02 in the ocean is also the major driver of ocean acidification with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. This talk will describe the current understanding of the ocean C02 uptake and storage and a new international research strategy to detect how the ocean uptake and storage will evolve on interannual through decadal scales. Understanding the ocean response to increasing atmospheric C02 will be a key element in managing future C02 increases and establishing stabilisation

  20. Field data logger with EPROM storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A data logger using electrically programmable read-only memory for data storage is described. The storage capacity is sufficient to record measurements from eight instruments at 30-min intervals for almost ten days. This approach provides a moderately priced alternative to data loggers using magnetic tape or floppy disks when only modest data-storage capacity is needed

  1. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei

    2016-04-12

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  2. Storage of radioactive waste. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the safety requirements for the safe storage of radioactive waste. The guidance provided is applicable to all storage facilities, although there are separate sections for small and large storage facilities. The storage of radioactive waste means the holding of radioactive waste in a facility that provides for its containment, with the intention of retrieval. This Safety Guide applies to the storage of solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes in a wide range of facilities, including those at which waste is generated, treated and conditioned. The storage facility could range from a secure cupboard or closet in a laboratory, through to larger designated areas such as rooms or buildings, up to and including a large site dedicated to the storage of radioactive waste. This Safety Guide provides guidance that is specific to small and to large storage facilities and guidance that is common to both small and large facilities. Sections 2 and 3 address, respectively, the protection of human health and the environment, and roles and responsibilities. Section 4 outlines general safety considerations in the storage of radioactive waste that are common to both small and large storage facilities. Sections 5 and 6 provide guidance on safety in the design and operation of small and large storage facilities, respectively. Information on safety assessment as applied to the storage of radioactive waste is provided in the Appendix

  3. Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation and storage of poultry broiler litter during the winter months is critical to implementing comprehensive nutrient/waste management plans, but acceptable temporary storage near the site of spreading can be difficult to arrange. Alternative, less expensive methods for temporary storage...

  4. Inside Dropbox: Understanding Personal Cloud Storage Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Idilio; Mellia, Marco; Munafò, Maurizio M.; Sperotto, Anna; Sadre, Ramin; Pras, Aiko

    2012-01-01

    Personal cloud storage services are gaining popularity. With a rush of providers to enter the market and an increasing offer of cheap storage space, it is to be expected that cloud storage will soon generate a high amount of Internet traffic. Very little is known about the architecture and the perfo

  5. Storage System Design Scheme in Virtualization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si Zhen-yu

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve resource utilization, it is necessary to integrate storage and data, and the emergence of cloud computing makes it possible. This paper analyzed the study of virtualization and cloud computing, proposed a new scheme based on virtualization, and established a shared storage platform, which made a good complement and perfected the centralized storage platform.

  6. Trends of Chinese RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ . Status of Chinese RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys 1. R εt D of RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys in China AB5 hydrogen storage materials, taking rare earth mischmetals as raw materials, developed rapidly in China in recent years. Today, different countries attach importance to the development and application of the new environmental protection reproducible power sources.

  7. Development of Seasonal Storage in Denmark:Status of Storage Programme 1997-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    National survey on seasonal (thermal, large-scale) storage activities in Denmark. A storage programme under the Danish Energy Agency. Programme background, objectives, activities, projects and results.Technologies presented: Pit water storage, gravel water storage with pipe heat exchangers, lining materials for pit and lid designs.

  8. Apparatus for the storage of transport- and storage-containers containing radioactive fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns an apparatus for the storage of transport and storage containers containing radioactive fuel elements. For each transport or storage container there is a separate silo-type container of steel, concrete, prestressed concrete or suchlike breakproof and fireproof material, to be placed in the open, that can be opened for removal and placing of the transport or storage container respectively. (orig.)

  9. Technological alternatives for plutonium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the problems of large long term storage since stores at fabrication plants may depend on the form of plutonium ultimately chosen for transport. The paper's conclusion includes: MOX can be regarded as more proliferation resistant than PUO2 but no experience of long term storage is available, therefore further R and D is required; co-location of the store with reprocessing plants (and fuel fabrication plant) would appear to have advantages in non-proliferation, safeguards implementation, environmental protection and economic aspects; there are strong non-proliferation and security arguments for not moving plutonium away from the site where it was separated until there is an identifiable and scheduled end use. The design of the store, the form in which plutonium should be stored, particularly as MOX, and the costs and further R and D required are considered. The possible location of stores is also discussed and institutional questions briefly considered

  10. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  11. New approaches to hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of a Hydrogen Economy will require the development of new media capable of safely storing hydrogen in a compact and light weight package. Metal hydrides and complex hydrides, where hydrogen is chemically bonded to the metal atoms in the bulk, offer some hope of overcoming the challenges associated with hydrogen storage. The objective is to find a material with a high volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen density that can also meet the unique demands of a low temperature automotive fuel cell. Currently, there is considerable effort to develop new materials with tunable thermodynamic and kinetic properties. This tutorial review provides an overview of the different types of metal hydrides and complex hydrides being investigated for on-board (reversible) and off-board (non-reversible) hydrogen storage along with a few new approaches to improving the hydrogenation-dehydrogenation properties. PMID:19088966

  12. Hydrogen storage in nanostructured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-02-28

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storage applications, but later on it was found to be unable to store enough amounts of hydrogen under ambient conditions. New arrangements of carbon nanotubes were constructed and hydrogen sorption properties were investigated using state-of-the-art simulation methods. The simulations indicate outstanding total hydrogen uptake (up to 19.0 wt.% at 77 K and 5.52wt.% at 300 K), which makes these materials excellent candidates for storage applications. This reopens the carbon route to superior materials for a hydrogen-based economy. Zeolite imidazolate frameworks are subclass of MOFs with an exceptional chemical and thermal stability. The hydrogen adsorption in ZIFs was investigated as a function of network geometry and organic linker exchange. Ab initio calculations performed at the MP2 level to obtain correct interaction energies between hydrogen molecules and the ZIF framework. Subsequently, GCMC simulations are carried out to obtain the hydrogen uptake of ZIFs at different thermodynamic conditions. The best of these materials (ZIF-8) is found to be able to store up to 5 wt.% at 77 K and high pressure. We expected possible improvement of hydrogen capacity of ZIFs by substituting the metal atom (Zn{sup 2+}) in the structure by lighter elements such as B or Li. Therefore, we investigated the energy landscape of LiB(IM)4 polymorphs in detail and analyzed their hydrogen storage capacities. The structure with the fau topology was shown to be one of the best materials for hydrogen storage. Its

  13. APS storage ring vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) contracts with Management and Operations (M ampersand O) contractors to provide design and support for Monitored Retrievable Storage Facilities (MRS). This paper outlines the steps taken by the M ampersand O contractor in the design and siting process for MRS facilities. These steps include conceptual, preliminary and final MRS design, evaluation and selection of storage technologies, developing a safety analysis report (SAR) and completing the facility license application. After the preliminary work is done, a M ampersand O support group assures licensing, siting, and community outreach. The community outreach or public relations includes information about the MRS in layman's terms so that DOE will get feed back from the community

  15. Storage ring optimization. Ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most existing electron-storage rings have been optimized and constructed for the needs of high-energy physics. Storage rings designed to serve as high-brightness synchrotron light sources, in contrast, require a very different optimization. Particle beams in colliding beam facilities for high-energy physics experiments produce the highest efficiency, called luminosity, when they have a large cross section, while very small cross sections are required for maximum performance of synchrotron radiation sources The optimization of high-brightness synchrotron-radiation sources has been studied at many laboratories around the world and in this chapter it is tried to recount the goals and achievements of these efforts. (author). 26 refs.; 17 figs

  16. Double wall underground storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canaan, E.B. Jr.; Wiegand, J.R.; Bartlow, D.H.

    1993-07-06

    A double wall underground storage tank is described comprising: (a) a cylindrical inner wall, (b) a cylindrical outer wall comprising plastic resin and reinforcement fibers, and (c) a layer of spacer filaments wound around the inner wall, the spacer filaments separating the inner and outer walls, and the spacer filaments being at least partially surrounded by voids to enable liquids to flow along the filaments.

  17. Inducing Safer Electrosurgical Handpiece Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mallett, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Background Improper storage of the electrosurgical handpiece has been identified as an operating room hazard. Objective: To test among representative surgical personnel two different methods of improving safety performance: a demonstration/lecture session, and improved equipment arrangement on the operating field. Methods: A field experiment occurred in the classroom and in the operating room. Subjects were recruited from a surgical department in a single institution. After videotaping baseli...

  18. Two Superconducting Storage Rings: ISABELLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The general features of the design and the status of the ISABELLE storage ring project at the present time are reported. It brings up to date the results reported at the National Particle Accelerator Conference in March 1977. The most significant change since that time has been an upgrading of the energy of the overall facility, and acceptance of the project by the Department of Energy.

  19. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  20. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  1. Minimization of Storage Cost in Distributed Storage Systems with Repair Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Quan; Shum, Kenneth W.; Sung, Chi Wan

    2011-01-01

    In a distributed storage system, the storage costs of different storage nodes, in general, can be different. How to store a file in a given set of storage nodes so as to minimize the total storage cost is investigated. By analyzing the min-cut constraints of the information flow graph, the feasible region of the storage capacities of the nodes can be determined. The storage cost minimization can then be reduced to a linear programming problem, which can be readily solved. Moreover, the tradeo...

  2. Percolation in dense storage arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Scott; Wilcke, Winfried W.; Garner, Robert B.; Huels, Harald

    2002-11-01

    As computers and their accessories become smaller, cheaper, and faster the providers of news, retail sales, and other services we now take for granted on the Internet have met their increasing computing needs by putting more and more computers, hard disks, power supplies, and the data communications linking them to each other and to the rest of the wired world into ever smaller spaces. This has created a new and quite interesting percolation problem. It is no longer desirable to fix computers, storage or switchgear which fail in such a dense array. Attempts to repair things are all too likely to make problems worse. The alternative approach, letting units “fail in place”, be removed from service and routed around, means that a data communications environment will evolve with an underlying regular structure but a very high density of missing pieces. Some of the properties of this kind of network can be described within the existing paradigm of site or bond percolation on lattices, but other important questions have not been explored. I will discuss 3D arrays of hundreds to thousands of storage servers (something which it is quite feasible to build in the next few years), and show that bandwidth, but not percolation fraction or shortest path lengths, is the critical factor affected by the “fail in place” disorder. Redundancy strategies traditionally employed in storage systems may have to be revised. Novel approaches to routing information among the servers have been developed to minimize the impact.

  3. Cluster storage for COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisacka, J., E-mail: pisacka@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Hron, M., E-mail: hron@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Janky, F., E-mail: jankyf@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Panek, R., E-mail: panek@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New data storage system needed for the COMPASS tokamak. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Distributed, fault-tolerant, parallel, scalable, non-proprietary. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GlusterFS selected for testing on a small test bed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aggregated reading throughput reached 300 MiB/s for 6 clients - very good result. - Abstract: The COMPASS tokamak is expected to produce several gigabytes of data per shot in near future. A new storage system is needed to accommodate and access all the data. It should be scalable, fault-tolerant, and parallel. It should not be based on proprietary solutions to maintain independence from hardware and software manufacturers and preferably it should be built on inexpensive commodity hardware. One of the promising distributed parallel fault-tolerant file systems, GlusterFS, was selected for testing. The aim of the work was to make initial tests of a particular small GlusterFS setup to confirm its aptitude for the COMPASS storage system. Aggregated reading throughput from multiple NFS clients was one of the most important figures that were benchmarked, it scaled well with the number of clients, starting just above 60 MiB/s for 1 client and going slightly over 300 MiB/s for 6 clients.

  4. Cluster storage for COMPASS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► New data storage system needed for the COMPASS tokamak. ► Distributed, fault-tolerant, parallel, scalable, non-proprietary. ► GlusterFS selected for testing on a small test bed. ► Aggregated reading throughput reached 300 MiB/s for 6 clients – very good result. - Abstract: The COMPASS tokamak is expected to produce several gigabytes of data per shot in near future. A new storage system is needed to accommodate and access all the data. It should be scalable, fault-tolerant, and parallel. It should not be based on proprietary solutions to maintain independence from hardware and software manufacturers and preferably it should be built on inexpensive commodity hardware. One of the promising distributed parallel fault-tolerant file systems, GlusterFS, was selected for testing. The aim of the work was to make initial tests of a particular small GlusterFS setup to confirm its aptitude for the COMPASS storage system. Aggregated reading throughput from multiple NFS clients was one of the most important figures that were benchmarked, it scaled well with the number of clients, starting just above 60 MiB/s for 1 client and going slightly over 300 MiB/s for 6 clients.

  5. Refrigerator COP with thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the extreme necessity to diversify renewable energy sources, the search for energy recycling methods through the utilization of thermal losses from equipment has become fundamental. Thus, these losses can be used as a new source of energy for water heating and storage in domestic hot water storage tanks (DHWST). For this reason, the construction of an experimental apparatus with a cylindrical thermal storage tank is proposed, in which the objective of the study will be a survey of the coefficient of performance concerning conventional and modified refrigerators, as well as to perform an analysis of hot water, through the thermal stratification technique using a refrigerator with a modified condenser. The collected thermal loss, as per the thermosyphon principle, will be stored as thermal energy. The results showed the full operation of the modified refrigeration system, which did not reveal significant alterations in thermodynamic behavior after the modifications made on the condenser. The dynamic behavior of the thermal distribution was observed through the thermal stratification effect and temperature evolution in terms of time, showing greater variability of the modified refrigerator generating more thermal comfort to users in addition to providing domestic hot water.

  6. Energy Storage Flywheels on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Robert O.; Brown, Gary; Levinthal, Joel; Brodeur, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    With advances in carbon composite material, magnetic bearings, microprocessors, and high-speed power switching devices, work has begun on a space qualifiable Energy Momentum Wheel (EMW). An EMW is a device that can be used on a satellite to store energy, like a chemical battery, and manage angular momentum, like a reaction wheel. These combined functions are achieved by the simultaneous and balanced operation of two or more energy storage flywheels. An energy storage flywheel typically consists of a carbon composite rotor driven by a brushless DC motor/generator. Each rotor has a relatively large angular moment of inertia and is suspended on magnetic bearings to minimize energy loss. The use of flywheel batteries on spacecraft will increase system efficiencies (mass and power), while reducing design-production time and life-cycle cost. This paper will present a discussion of flywheel battery design considerations and a simulation of spacecraft system performance utilizing four flywheel batteries to combine energy storage and momentum management for a typical LEO satellite. A proposed set of control laws and an engineering animation will also be presented. Once flight qualified and demonstrated, space flywheel batteries may alter the architecture of most medium and high-powered spacecraft.

  7. Storage - Nuclear wastes are overflowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article highlights that the dismantling of French nuclear installations will generate huge volumes of radioactive wastes and that France may lack space to store them. The Cigeo project (underground storage) only concerns 0.2 per cent of the nuclear waste volume produced by France in 50 years. If storage solutions exist for less active wastes, they will soon be insufficient, notably because of the quantity of wastes produced by the dismantling of existing reactors and fuel processing plants. Different assessments of these volumes are evoked. In order to store them, the ANDRA made a second call for innovating projects which would enable a reduction of this volume by 20 to 30 per cent. The article also evokes projects selected after the first call for projects. They mainly focus on nuclear waste characterization which will result in a finer management of wastes regarding their storage destination. Cost issues and the opposition of anti-nuclear NGOs are still obstacles to the development of new sites

  8. Storage of surinam cherry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofsky Vieira Alexandre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type of drying and packaging are two essential factors in the study of dehydration and preservation of fruits, respectively. The objective was study the storage of surinam cherry powder produced by foam mat drying and packaged in flexible packing (PET/PP. The powder samples were obtained by pulp dehydration in an oven with circulating air (0.5 m s-1 in the temperature of 70 °C. The surinam cherry powder was wrapped in flexible packing and stored at room temperature and relative humidity for 60 days. During the storage was evaluated the stability of powder through the monitoring every 10 days the moisture content, ascorbic acid, pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugars, non reducing sugars, total sugars and color parameters (brightness, redness and yellowness. Only the non-reducing sugars did not differ significantly with the storage time. The results indicated that the powder has changed in most of the properties, but the ascorbic acid content, moisture content, total acidity and total sugars varied little over the 60 days.

  9. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  10. Spent fuel storage criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety aspects of the spent fuel storage pool of the Egyptian test and research reactor one (ET-R R-1) has to be assessed as part of a general overall safety evaluation to be included in a safety analysis report (SAR) for this reactor. The present work treats the criticality safety of the spent fuel storage pool. Conservative calculations based on using fresh fuel has been performed, as well as less conservative using burned fuel. The calculations include cross library generation for burned and fresh fuel for the ET-R R-1 fuel type. The WIMS-D 4 code has been used in library generation and burn up calculation the critically calculations are performed using the one dimensional transport code (ANISN) and the two dimensional diffusion code (DIXY2). The possibility of increasing the storage efficiency either by insertion of absorber sheets of soluble boron salts or by reduction of fuel rod separation has been studied. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Fiberglass underground petroleum storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) products have been in use for many years in a wide variety of products and markets. The automotive, marine, military, chemical, and petroleum markets have made extensive use of FRP. Today, over 300,000 FRP tanks and over 40,000,000 feet of FRP pipe are in service in petroleum marketing as well as industrial and commercial storage applications. In the early 1960's the American Petroleum Institute invited the FRP industry to design FRP underground tanks to solve their corrosion caused underground leaker problems. The challenge was accepted and in 1965 FRP tanks were introduced to the petroleum storage marketplace. FRP pipe, specifically designed for underground petroleum use, was Underwriter's Laboratories tested and listed and introduced in 1968. These fiberglass tanks and pipe have a 25 year perfect record against both internal and external corrosion. The FRP tank and pipe performance record has been outstanding. Less than 1/2 of 1% have ever been involved in an in-ground failure. When first introduced, FRP tanks carried an initial cost premium of 50 to 100% over unprotected steel. Since all Underground Storage Tank (UST) systems must be corrosion protected, initial FRP costs are now competitive with corrosion protected steel

  12. Influence of Storage on Briquettes Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brožek M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the storage place, placing manner, and storage time on mechanical properties of briquettes made from birch chips were laboratorily tested. A unique methodology developed by the present author enabling a relatively easy assessment of mechanical properties of the briquettes is described. The briquettes properties were evaluated by their density and rupture force determination. From the test results it follows that if the briquettes are stored in a well closed plastic bag, neither the place nor the storage time influence significantly their life time. When stored in a net plastic bag, the briquettes get seriously damaged, namely depending on their storage place and storage time.

  13. Electric energy storage - Overview of technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy storage is a challenging and costly process, as electricity can only be stored by conversion into other forms of energy (e.g. potential, thermal, chemical or magnetic energy). The grids must be precisely balanced in real time and it must be made sure that the cost of electricity is the lowest possible. Storage of electricity has many advantages, in centralized mass storages used for the management of the transmission network, or in decentralized storages of smaller dimensions. This article presents an overview of the storage technologies: mechanical storage in hydroelectric and pumped storage power stations, compressed air energy storage (CAES), flywheels accumulating kinetic energy, electrochemical batteries with various technologies, traditional lead acid batteries, lithium ion, sodium sulfur (NaS) and others, including vehicle to grid, sensible heat thermal storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), super-capacitors, conversion into hydrogen... The different technologies are compared in terms of cost and level of maturity. The development of intermittent renewable energies will result in a growing need for mechanisms to regulate energy flow and innovative energy storage solutions seem well positioned to develop. (author)

  14. CO2 storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study considers options, that could be feasible for Sweden, to transport and geologically store CO2, providing that technology for electricity production with CO2 capture will be available in the future and also acceptable from cost- and reliability point of view. As a starting point, it is assumed that a new 600-1000 MW power plant, fired with coal or natural gas, will be constructed with CO2 capture and localised to the Stockholm, Malmoe or Goeteborg areas. Of vital importance for storage of carbon dioxide in a reservoir is the possibility to monitor its distribution, i.e. its migration within the reservoir. It has been shown in the SACS-project that the distribution of carbon dioxide within the reservoir can be monitored successfully, mainly by seismic methods. Suitable geologic conditions and a large storage potential seems to exist mainly in South West Scania, where additional knowledge on geology/hydrogeology has been obtained since the year 2000 in connection to geothermal energy projects, and in the Eastern part of Denmark, bordering on South West Scania. Storage of carbon dioxide from the Stockholm area should not be excluded, but more studies are needed to clarify the storage options within this area. The possibilities to use CO2 for enhanced oil recovery, EOR, in i.a. the North Sea should be investigated, in order to receive incomes from the CO2 and shared costs for infrastructure, and by this also make the CO2 regarded as a trading commodity, and thereby achieving a more favourable position concerning acceptance, legal issues and regulations. The dimensions of CO2-pipelines should be similar to those for natural natural gas, although regarding some aspects they have different design and construction prerequisites. To obtain cost efficiency, the transport distances should be kept short, and possibilities for co-ordinated networks with short distribution pipelines connected to common main pipelines, should be searched for. Also, synergies with the

  15. The prospects for dry fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry storage of spent nuclear fuels is one method of dealing with radioactive waste. This article reports from a one day seminar on future prospects for dry fuel storage held in November 1993. Dry storage in an inert gas or air environment in vaults or casks, is an alternative to wet storage in water-filled ponds. Both wet and dry storage form part of the Interim Storage option for radioactive waste materials, and form alternatives to reprocessing or direct disposal in a deep repository. It has become clear that a large market for dry fuel storage will exist in the future. It will therefore be necessary to ensure that the various technical, safety, commercial, legislative and political constraints associated with it can be met effectively. (UK)

  16. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  17. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making the CAES process diabatic. The cooling involves exergy losses and thus lowers the efficiency of the...... storage significantly. The efficiency of CAES as an electricity storage may be defined in several ways, we discuss these and find that the exergetic efficiency of compression, storage and production together determine the efficiency of CAES. In the paper we find that the efficiency of the practical CAES...... electricity storage is 25-45% and thus has a quite low efficiency, which is close to the efficiency of the simple diabatic CAES-process. Adiabatic CAES would reach significantly higher storage efficiency about 70-80%....

  18. History of nuclear wastes storage, technologies improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives an historical review of the management, and in particular the storage, of radioactive wastes in France. French storage started with the creation of the Manche surface storage facility which has allowed to define the principal safety rules of packaging, identification, tightness, drainage and water recuperation. The check of the Saint-Priest abandoned mine storage project has led to the creation of the National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). New sites were selected (Aube, Vienne) for the ground storage of short-life radioactive wastes according to new containment rules. Deep geologic repository projects for the storage of long-life or high-level radioactive wastes have encountered a severe controversy from the public opinion and have led to the December 30, 1991 law and to the creation of underground laboratories. This analysis shows the technical, economical, political, and public opinion and communication aspects that influence the choice and the acceptance of a storage site. (J.S.)

  19. Spent fuel storage in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 1. Introduction: Indian Nuclear Power Programme has grown from twin BWR reactors at Tarapur to 12 PHWRs of 220 MW each working at various locations. Additionally six PHWR reactors are in advanced stage of construction. India has gone for closed nuclear fuel cycle option to reprocess the spent fuel for recovery of Uranium and Plutonium to meet ever increasing energy demand. There is a programme to achieve 20,000 MW installed nuclear power capacity by the year 2020. It is planned to construct Spent Fuel Storage Facilities (SFSFs) as the need arises. Wet storage of Spent Fuel has been the main mode of storage in India pending reprocessing. This paper describes various important issues related to design, construction, licensing and operational experience of spent fuel storage facilities at Tarapur and Kalpakkam. 2. Design of Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF): The new SFSFs are located at existing nuclear site to take maximum advantage of existing infrastructure already in place, nearness to reactor and approved site for nuclear facility. Layout: The smooth handling of trailer loaded with shipping cask is ensured by providing two independent airlocks and 7 m wide road with proper turning radius. Location of cask decontamination area, pool water cooling and polishing system and effluent handling system have been suitably decided based on ease of operation and optimum space utilization. The active and in-active services have been suitably located. Seismic design: IAEA TECDOC-250 is followed for seismic design of SFSFs. The independent SFSF are designed for OBE (Operating Basis Earthquake) level of earthquake. The soil-structure interaction has been considered as per ASCE 4-98 standard. The pool structure has been designed for hydrodynamic response during seismic event. The design of various mechanical system and components is carried out as per the respective design codes and standards based on their safety classification and seismic categorization. Fuel Pool

  20. Optimum conditions for adsorptive storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Suresh K; Myers, Alan L

    2006-02-14

    The storage of gases in porous adsorbents, such as activated carbon and carbon nanotubes, is examined here thermodynamically from a systems viewpoint, considering the entire adsorption-desorption cycle. The results provide concrete objective criteria to guide the search for the "Holy Grail" adsorbent, for which the adsorptive delivery is maximized. It is shown that, for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen and delivery between 30 and 1.5 bar pressure, for the optimum adsorbent the adsorption enthalpy change is 15.1 kJ/mol. For carbons, for which the average enthalpy change is typically 5.8 kJ/mol, an optimum operating temperature of about 115 K is predicted. For methane, an optimum enthalpy change of 18.8 kJ/mol is found, with the optimum temperature for carbons being 254 K. It is also demonstrated that for maximum delivery of the gas the optimum adsorbent must be homogeneous, and that introduction of heterogeneity, such as by ball milling, irradiation, and other means, can only provide small increases in physisorption-related delivery for hydrogen. For methane, heterogeneity is always detrimental, at any value of average adsorption enthalpy change. These results are confirmed with the help of experimental data from the literature, as well as extensive Monte Carlo simulations conducted here using slit pore models of activated carbons as well as atomistic models of carbon nanotubes. The simulations also demonstrate that carbon nanotubes offer little or no advantage over activated carbons in terms of enhanced delivery, when used as storage media for either hydrogen or methane. PMID:16460092

  1. High efficiency stationary hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynek, S.; Fuller, W.; Truslow, S. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Stationary storage of hydrogen permits one to make hydrogen now and use it later. With stationary hydrogen storage, one can use excess electrical generation capacity to power an electrolyzer, and store the resultant hydrogen for later use or transshipment. One can also use stationary hydrogen as a buffer at fueling stations to accommodate non-steady fueling demand, thus permitting the hydrogen supply system (e.g., methane reformer or electrolyzer) to be sized to meet the average, rather than the peak, demand. We at ADL designed, built, and tested a stationary hydrogen storage device that thermally couples a high-temperature metal hydride to a phase change material (PCM). The PCM captures and stores the heat of the hydriding reaction as its own heat of fusion (that is, it melts), and subsequently returns that heat of fusion (by freezing) to facilitate the dehydriding reaction. A key component of this stationary hydrogen storage device is the metal hydride itself. We used nickel-coated magnesium powder (NCMP) - magnesium particles coated with a thin layer of nickel by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Magnesium hydride can store a higher weight fraction of hydrogen than any other practical metal hydride, and it is less expensive than any other metal hydride. We designed and constructed an experimental NCM/PCM reactor out of 310 stainless steel in the form of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, with the tube side packed with NCMP and the shell side filled with a eutectic mixture of NaCL, KCl, and MgCl{sub 2}. Our experimental results indicate that with proper attention to limiting thermal losses, our overall efficiency will exceed 90% (DOE goal: >75%) and our overall system cost will be only 33% (DOE goal: <50%) of the value of the delivered hydrogen. It appears that NCMP can be used to purify hydrogen streams and store hydrogen at the same time. These prospects make the NCMP/PCM reactor an attractive component in a reformer-based hydrogen fueling station.

  2. Polyhydride complexes for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Polyhydride metal complexes are being developed for application in hydrogen storage. Efforts have focused on developing complexes with improved available hydrogen weight percentages. We have explored the possibility that complexes containing aromatic hydrocarbon ligands could store hydrogen at both the metal center and in the ligands. We have synthesized novel indenyl hydride complexes and explored their reactivity with hydrogen. The reversible hydrogenation of [IrH{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3})({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 10}H{sub 7})]{sup +} has been achieved. While attempting to prepare {eta}{sup 6}-tetrahydronaphthalene complexes, we discovered that certain polyhydride complexes catalyze both the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of tetrahydronaphthalene.

  3. Nanocarbons for advanced energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Xinliang

    2015-01-01

    This first volume in the series on nanocarbons for advanced applications presents the latest achievements in the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of these materials for electrochemical energy storage. The highly renowned series and volume editor, Xinliang Feng, has put together an internationally acclaimed expert team who covers nanocarbons such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphenes, and porous carbons. The first two parts focus on nanocarbon-based anode and cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, while the third part deals with carbon material-based supercapacit

  4. Astrocytes and lysosomal storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Rao, K V; Kielian, T

    2016-05-26

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) encompass a wide range of disorders characterized by inborn errors of lysosomal function. The majority of LSDs result from genetic defects in lysosomal enzymes, although some arise from mutations in lysosomal proteins that lack known enzymatic activity. Neuropathological abnormalities are a feature of several LSDs and when severe, represent an important determinant in disease outcome. Glial dysfunction, particularly in astrocytes, is also observed in numerous LSDs and has been suggested to impact neurodegeneration. This review will discuss the potential role of astrocytes in LSDs and highlight the possibility of targeting glia as a beneficial strategy to counteract the neuropathology associated with LSDs. PMID:26037807

  5. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  6. TEE-Based Trusted Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier; Bonnet, Philippe

    Today, it is safe to assume that any program or data can be compromised, if they are not protected by hardware within a secure area. Systems based on crypto-processors (e.g., a trusted platform module, a smart card or a hardware security module) rely on the properties of tamper resistant hardware...... mainstream trusted storage for personal data. We believe that this role can be taken over by systems equipped with Trusted Execution Environments (TEE), such as ARM’s TrustZone. Indeed, even if TEEs provide weaker security guarantees than crypto-processors, they already provide a secure area on many personal...

  7. Fuel cells and hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocarsly, Andrew [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Mingos, Michael P. (eds.) [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    2011-07-01

    This book contains the following five contributions: 1. Solid oxide fuel cells (S.C. Singhal and X.-D. Zhou); 2. Electrocatalysis of direct alcohol fuel cells: Quantitative DEMS studies (H. Wang and H.D. Abruna); 3. Mechanical and transport properties of Nafion: Effects of temperature and water activity (J. Benziger, A. Bocarsly, M.J. Cheah, P.Majsztrik, B. Satterfield and Q. Zhao); 4. The use of heteropoly acids in proton exchange fuel cells (S. Sachdeva, J. A. Turner, J.L. Horana and A. M. Herring); 5. perspective on the storage of hydrogen: Past and future (M. T. Kelly).

  8. Security for cloud storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers

  9. Cloud Storage Client Application Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Malik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research proposed in this paper focuses on gathering evidence from devices with UNIX/Linux systems (in particular on Ubuntu 14.04 and Android OS, and Windows 8.1, in order to find artifacts left by cloud storage applications that suggests their use even after the deletion of the applications. The work performed aims to expand upon the prior work done by other researches in the field of cloud forensics and to show an example of analysis. We show where and what type of data remnants can be found using our analysis and how this information can be used as evidence in a digital forensic investigation.

  10. Hydrogen storage in molecular compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Wendy L.; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2004-01-01

    At low temperature (T) and high pressure (P), gas molecules can be held in ice cages to form crystalline molecular compounds that may have application for energy storage. We synthesized a hydrogen clathrate hydrate, H2(H2O)2, that holds 50 g/liter hydrogen by volume or 5.3 wt %. The clathrate, synthesized at 200–300 MPa and 240–249 K, can be preserved to ambient P at 77 K. The stored hydrogen is released when the clathrate is warmed to 140 K at ambient P. Low T also stabilizes other molecular...

  11. Integrated path towards geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among solutions to contribute to CO2 emissions mitigation, sequestration is a promising path that presents the main advantage of being able to cope with the large volume at stake when considering the growing energy demand. Of particular importance, geological storage has widely been seen as an effective solution for large CO2 sources like power plants or refineries. Many R and D projects have been initiated, whereby research institutes, government agencies and end-users achieve an effective collaboration. So far, progress has been made towards reinjection of CO2, in understanding and then predicting the phenomenon and fluid dynamics inside the geological target, while monitoring the expansion of the CO2 bubble in the case of demonstration projects. A question arises however when talking about sequestration, namely the time scale to be taken into account. Time is indeed of the essence, and points out the need to understand leakage as well as trapping mechanisms. It is therefore of prime importance to be able to predict the fate of the injected fluids, in an accurate manner and over a relevant period of time. On the grounds of geology, four items are involved in geological storage reliability: the matrix itself, which is the recipient of the injected fluids; the seal, that is the mechanistic trap preventing the injected fluids to flow upward and escape; the lower part of the concerned structure, usually an aquifer, that can be a migration way for dissolved fluids; and the man- made injecting hole, the well, whose characteristics should be as good as the geological formation itself. These issues call for specific competencies such as reservoir engineering, geology and hydrodynamics, mineral chemistry, geomechanics, and well engineering. These competencies, even if put to use to a large extent in the oil industry, have never been connected with the reliability of geological storage as ultimate goal. This paper aims at providing an introduction to these interactions and

  12. Evaluating Storage Systems for Lustre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, H. Sarp [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Storage systems are complex, including multiple subsystems and components. Sustained operations with top performance require all these subsystems and components working as expected. Having a detailed performance profile helps establishing a baseline. This baseline can be used for easier identification of possible future problems. A systematic bottom-to-top approach, starting with a detailed performance analysis of disks and moving up across layers and subsystems, provides a quantitative breakdown of each component's capabilities and bottlenecks. Coupling these low-level tests with Lustre-level evaluations will present a better understanding of performance expectations under different I/O workloads.

  13. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  14. Cluster storage for COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Písačka, Jan; Hron, Martin; Janky, Filip; Pánek, Radomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 12 (2012), s. 2238-2241. ISSN 0920-3796. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition, and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/8./. San Francisco, 20.06.2011-24.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2470; GA MŠk 7G10072; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : COMPASS * Tokamak * Codac * Cluster * GlusterFS * Storage Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2012.09.006

  15. Advances in information storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1996-01-01

    Advances in Information Storage Systems (AISS) series was initiated by ASME Press. New York with a first issue published in April 1991. ASME Press published a total of five volumes in 1991-93. In 1994, World Scientific Publishing Co. Private Limited took over the highly respected series and published volume number 6 in 1995. This volume number 7 is the second volume published by the World Scientific Publishing. The aim of the series remains to report the latest results from around the world in all the electromechanical, materials science, design, and manufacturing problems of information stora

  16. Spent fuel storage requirements 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical inventories of spent fuel and utility estimates of future discharges from US commercial nuclear reactors are presented through the year 2005. The ultimate needs for additional storage capacity are estimated. These estimtes are based on the maximum capacities within current and planned at-reactor facilities and on any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December, 1986, and projected discharges through the end of reactor life are used in this analysis. The source data was supplied by the utilities to the DOE Energy Information Administration (EIA) through the 1987 RW-859 data survey. 14 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Storage ring proton EDM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    sensitivity of 10^-29 e-cm.  The strength of the method originates from the fact that there are high intensity polarized proton beams available and the fact that the so-called geometric phase systematic error background cancels with clock-wise and counter-clock-wise storage possible in electric rings. The ultimate sensitivity of the method is 10^-30 e-cm. At this level it will either detect a non-zero EDM or it will eliminate electro-weak baryogenesis.

  18. Opportunities for electricity storage in deregulating markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article addresses the value of electricity storage and its ability to take advantage of emerging energy arbitrage opportunities: buying power when it is inexpensive, and reselling it at a higher price. The focus of this article is on electricity markets and the opportunities they present for a merchant storage device, rather than on storage technologies themselves. There are a number of existing and emerging storage technologies: pumped hydro, various batteries, compressed air energy storage (CAES), superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), flywheels--even conventional hydro has storage-like properties. However, all these technologies operated on the same basic principle of exploiting short-term differentials in electricity prices: buy low, sell high (a strategy that is actually meaningful in electricity markets, unlike in financial markets). The object of this article is to develop and demonstrate a means for assessing the potential value of storage in different electricity markets, rather than to attempt to assess the prospects of a particular technology. The approach taken here is to look at price data from a number of actual electricity markets to determine what opportunities they might offer to a generic storage device. A storage technology is described here by its basic performance parameters--charge and generate capacity, energy inventory limits, and efficiency--which are sufficient to assess the basic economic potential of storage in a given market. The authors look primarily at US markets, but also compare and contrast findings with the situation in foreign markets in the U.K., Norway, Canada, and Australia, and discuss how market structure can influence the value of storage. Moreover, the authors use empirically observed relationships between hourly and 5 x 16 blocked prices to infer a rule for adjusting the value of storage assets in regions where only blocked price information is available

  19. Spent nuclear fuel storage building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outer earthquake proof walls of a building are formed in the running direction of a bridge travelling type crane. Inner earthquake proof walls are disposed in the direction perpendicular to the running direction of the crane. An area for constructing an air ventilation tower is formed in the running direction of the crane at the central portion of the building. The area surrounded by the area for constructing air ventilation tower and the earthquake proof inner walls is defined as a cask storage area. Such cask storage areas are disposed symmetrically on both sides of the air ventilation tower. The crane is disposed on the roof of the building, stands on rails which are laid on the outer walls of the building and runs over the air ventilation tower. Since the crane is disposed on the roof of the building, the inner earthquake proof walls of the building can be constructed in the inside of the building, and a high earthquake proofness can be provided to the building itself. (I.N.)

  20. Glycogen storage diseases: New perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasan (O)zen

    2007-01-01

    Glycogen storage diseases (GSD) are inherited metabolic disorders of glycogen metabolism. Different hormones,including insulin, glucagon, and cortisol regulate the relationship of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis. The overall GSD incidence is estimated 1 case per 20 000-43 000 live births. There are over 12 types and they are classified based on the enzyme deficiency and the affected tissue. Disorders of glycogen degradation may affect primarily the liver, the muscle,or both. Type Ⅰ a involves the liver, kidney and intestine (and Ⅰ b also leukocytes), and the clinical manifestations are hepatomegaly, failure to thrive, hypoglycemia,hyperlactatemia, hyperuricemia and hyperlipidemia. Type Ⅲa involves both the liver and muscle, and Ⅲb solely the liver. The liver symptoms generally improve with age.Type Ⅳ usually presents in the first year of life, with hepatomegaly and growth retardation. The disease in general is progressive to cirrhosis. Type Ⅵ and Ⅸ are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by a deficiency of the liver phosphorylase and phosphorylase kinase system. There is no hyperuricemia or hyperlactatemia.Type Ⅺ is characterized by hepatic glycogenosis and renal Fanconi syndrome. Type Ⅱ is a prototype of inborn lysosomal storage diseases and involves many organs but primarily the muscle. Types Ⅴ and Ⅶ involve only the muscle.

  1. Glass packages in interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO2. The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ''source term'' models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs

  2. The Cryogenic Storage Ring CSR

    CERN Document Server

    von Hahn, Robert; Berg, Felix; Blaum, Klaus; Breitenfeldt, Christian; Fadil, Hisham; Fellenberger, Florian; Froese, Michael; George, Sebastian; Göck, Jürgen; Grieser, Manfred; Grussie, Florian; Guerin, Elisabeth A; Heber, Oded; Herwig, Philipp; Karthein, Jonas; Krantz, Claude; Kreckel, Holger; Lange, Michael; Laux, Felix; Lohmann, Svenja; Menk, Sebastian; Meyer, Christian; Mishra, Preeti M; Novotný, Oldřich; Connor, Aodh P O; Orlov, Dmitry A; Rappaport, Michael L; Repnow, Roland; Saurabh, Sunny; Schippers, Stefan; Schröter, Claus Dieter; Schwalm, Dirk; Schweikhard, Lutz; Sieber, Thomas; Shornikov, Andrey; Spruck, Kaija; Kumar, Sudhakaran Sunil; Ullrich, Joachim; Urbain, Xavier; Vogel, Stephen; Wilhelm, Patrick; Wolf, Andreas; Zajfman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 $\\pm$ 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion) and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas den...

  3. The cryogenic storage ring CSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hahn, R; Becker, A; Berg, F; Blaum, K; Breitenfeldt, C; Fadil, H; Fellenberger, F; Froese, M; George, S; Göck, J; Grieser, M; Grussie, F; Guerin, E A; Heber, O; Herwig, P; Karthein, J; Krantz, C; Kreckel, H; Lange, M; Laux, F; Lohmann, S; Menk, S; Meyer, C; Mishra, P M; Novotný, O; O'Connor, A P; Orlov, D A; Rappaport, M L; Repnow, R; Saurabh, S; Schippers, S; Schröter, C D; Schwalm, D; Schweikhard, L; Sieber, T; Shornikov, A; Spruck, K; Sunil Kumar, S; Ullrich, J; Urbain, X; Vogel, S; Wilhelm, P; Wolf, A; Zajfman, D

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm(-3) is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10(-14) mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams. PMID:27370434

  4. The cryogenic storage ring CSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hahn, R.; Becker, A.; Berg, F.; Blaum, K.; Breitenfeldt, C.; Fadil, H.; Fellenberger, F.; Froese, M.; George, S.; Göck, J.; Grieser, M.; Grussie, F.; Guerin, E. A.; Heber, O.; Herwig, P.; Karthein, J.; Krantz, C.; Kreckel, H.; Lange, M.; Laux, F.; Lohmann, S.; Menk, S.; Meyer, C.; Mishra, P. M.; Novotný, O.; O'Connor, A. P.; Orlov, D. A.; Rappaport, M. L.; Repnow, R.; Saurabh, S.; Schippers, S.; Schröter, C. D.; Schwalm, D.; Schweikhard, L.; Sieber, T.; Shornikov, A.; Spruck, K.; Sunil Kumar, S.; Ullrich, J.; Urbain, X.; Vogel, S.; Wilhelm, P.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm-3 is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10-14 mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams.

  5. Hydrogen storage via polyhydride complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Polyhydride metal complexes are being developed for application to hydrogen storage. Complexes have been found which catalyze the reversible hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons. This catalytic reaction could be the basis for a low temperature, hydrogen storage system with a available hydrogen density greater than 7 weight percent. The P-C-P pincer complexes, RhH{sub 2}(C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-2,6-(CH{sub 2}PBu{sup t}{sub 2}){sub 2}) and IrH{sub 2}(C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-2,6-(CH{sub 2}PBu{sup t}{sub 2}){sub 2}) have unprecedented, long term stability at elevated temperatures. The novel iridium complex catalyzes the transfer dehydrogenation of cycloctane to cyclooctene at the rate of 716 turnovers/h which is 2 orders of magnitude greater than that found for previously reported catalytic systems which do not require the sacrificial hydrogenation of a large excess of hydrogen acceptor.

  6. AB Levitator and Electricity Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, A

    2007-01-01

    The author researched this new idea - support of flight by any aerial vehicles at significant altitude solely by the magnetic field of the planet. It is shown that current technology allows humans to create a light propulsion (AB engine) which does not depend on air, water or ground terrain. Simultaniosly, this revolutionary thruster is a device for the storage of electricity which is extracted and is replenished (during braking) from/into the storage with 100 percent efficiency. The relative weight ratio of this engine is 0.01 - 0.1 (from thrust). For some types of AB engine (toroidal form) the thrust easily may be changed in any direction without turning of engine. The author computed many projects using different versions of offered AB engine: small device for levitation-flight of a human (including flight from Earth to Outer Space), fly VTOL car (track), big VTOL aircrat, suspended low altitude stationary satellite, powerful Space Shuttle-like booster for travel to the Moon and Mars without spending energ...

  7. Advances in Macromolecular Data Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-01-01

    We propose to develop a new method of information storage to replace magnetic hard disk drives and other instruments of secondary/backup data storage. The proposed method stores petabytes of user-data in a sugar cube (1 cm3), and can read/write that information at hundreds of megabits/sec. Digital information is recorded and stored in the form of a long macromolecule consisting of at least two bases, A and B. (This would be similar to DNA strands constructed from the four nucleic acids G,C,A,T.) The macromolecules initially enter the system as blank slates. A macromolecule with, say, 10,000 identical bases in the form of AAAAA....AAA may be used to record a kilobyte block of user-data (including modulation and error-correction coding), although, in this blank state, it can only represent the null sequence 00000....000. Suppose this blank string of A's is dragged before an atomically-sharp needle of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). When electric pulses are applied to the needle in accordance with the seq...

  8. Flywheel Energy Storage technology workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Howell, D. [comps.

    1993-12-31

    Advances in recent years of high strength/lightweight materials, high performance magnetic bearings, and power electronics technology has spurred a renewed interest by the transportation, utility, and manufacturing industries in Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) technologies. FES offers several advantages over conventional electro-chemical energy storage, such as high specific energy and specific power, fast charging time, long service life, high turnaround efficiency (energy out/energy in), and no hazardous/toxic materials or chemicals are involved. Potential applications of FES units include power supplies for hybrid and electric vehicles, electric vehicle charging stations, space systems, and pulsed power devices. Also, FES units can be used for utility load leveling, uninterruptable power supplies to protect electronic equipment and electrical machinery, and for intermittent wind or photovoltaic energy sources. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum to highlight technologies that offer a high potential to increase the performance of FES systems and to discuss potential solutions to overcome present FES application barriers. This document consists of viewgraphs from 27 presentations.

  9. Operating Experience in Spent Fuel Storage Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safe storage of spent fuels has been considered as one of the inevitable tasks for TEPCO for the last few decades. In order to increase flexibility for the fuel storage measures, TEPCO has been storing spent fuels in an on-site dry storage facility at Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Since 1995, more than 400 fuel assemblies have been safely store. Integrity of storage casks and fuels were carefully checked by periodical inspections, which were conducted in 2000 and 2005. The next investigation will be held within a few years in order to verify the safety conditions even after a 15-year storage. These series of inspections will give plenty of useful data for the design and operation of the Mutsu facility, which will be the first off-site interim spent fuel storage facility away from any reactor site in Japan. (author)

  10. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  11. Energy storage in Canada - Embassy report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having outlined what is at stake in energy storage in the world (brief presentation of storage methods, overview of world electricity production and its storage challenges), and given an overview of the Canadian energy sector, this report gives an overview of the Canadian key and particularly innovating actors: main organisations, scientific research (in the fields of advanced batteries, of fuel cells, and of thermal storage), industrial sector (leaders in electricity production, in the electric or hybrid automotive sector and in the field of portable electronic devices, in the Li-ion battery sector, and in the hydrogen fuel cell sector, innovating actors in other energy storage methods). The author then discusses the innovation momentum in Canada: examples of energy storage projects by public organisations (CNRC, RNC), industrial projects in energy projects, investment dynamics

  12. Test report : Milspray Scorpion energy storage device.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors have supplied their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and a subset of these systems were selected for performance evaluation at the BCIL. The technologies tested were electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. MILSPRAY Military Technologies has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lead acid batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited assessment of the Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device.

  13. Timely topics on spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selin, I. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1994-10-01

    For those plants in premature or extended shutdown, the NRC finds several strong reasons why the interim, on-site storage of spent fuel should often be shifted from the existing fuel pool to a dry storage system. These reasons include the continuing operational support activities needed to keep a fuel pool operating properly. Water chemistry and cleanliness, surveillance of rack and fuel conditions, and maintenance and surveillance of support systems are all activities that are second nature to an operating plant, but may not always receive adequate attention in a plant permanently shut down. Therefore, the NRC increasingly views dry storage as the preferred method of interim storage of mature spent fuels for plants in permanent shut-down, as well as for supplementary storage in many operating plants. The author discusses regulatory policies and practices concerning the interim storage of spent fuel and the increasing use of dry cask systems in this paper.

  14. Bidding strategy for an energy storage facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies operation decisions of energy storage facilities in perfectly and imperfectly competitive markets. In a perfectly competitive market, the storage facility is operated to maximize the social welfare. However, in a imperfectly competitive market, the storage facility operates to...... maximize its profit, while the market operator aims at maximizing the social welfare. In this case, the storage facility adapts its strategic behavior to take advantage of market conditions. To model the imperfectly competitive market, a bi-level optimization model is implemented to present the...... interactions between the storage facility and the market operator. In an illustrative test system, operation of the storage facility in these two market structures is compared and discussed....

  15. Chemical and physical solutions for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Ulrich; Felderhoff, Michael; Schüth, Ferdi

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier in future energy systems. However, storage of hydrogen is a substantial challenge, especially for applications in vehicles with fuel cells that use proton-exchange membranes (PEMs). Different methods for hydrogen storage are discussed, including high-pressure and cryogenic-liquid storage, adsorptive storage on high-surface-area adsorbents, chemical storage in metal hydrides and complex hydrides, and storage in boranes. For the latter chemical solutions, reversible options and hydrolytic release of hydrogen with off-board regeneration are both possible. Reforming of liquid hydrogen-containing compounds is also a possible means of hydrogen generation. The advantages and disadvantages of the different systems are compared. PMID:19598190

  16. Timely topics on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For those plants in premature or extended shutdown, the NRC finds several strong reasons why the interim, on-site storage of spent fuel should often be shifted from the existing fuel pool to a dry storage system. These reasons include the continuing operational support activities needed to keep a fuel pool operating properly. Water chemistry and cleanliness, surveillance of rack and fuel conditions, and maintenance and surveillance of support systems are all activities that are second nature to an operating plant, but may not always receive adequate attention in a plant permanently shut down. Therefore, the NRC increasingly views dry storage as the preferred method of interim storage of mature spent fuels for plants in permanent shut-down, as well as for supplementary storage in many operating plants. The author discusses regulatory policies and practices concerning the interim storage of spent fuel and the increasing use of dry cask systems in this paper

  17. Temperature behaviour: Comparison for nine storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, Marion; Malbranche, Philippe; Lemaire-Potteau, Elisabeth [GENEC, CEA de Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Willer, B. [ISET, Kassel (Germany); Soria, M.L. [EXIDE Tudor, Azuqueca de Menares (Spain); Jossen, A. [ZSW, Ulm (Germany); Dahlen, M. [Catella-Generics, Jaerfaella (Sweden); Ruddell, A. [CCRLC, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Cyphelly, I. [CMR Alternativas, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Semrau, G. [ZOXY AG, Bretten (Germany); Sauer, D.U. [RWTH-ISEA, Aachen (Germany); Sarre, G. [SAFT, Bordeaux (France)

    2006-03-21

    Within the INVESTIRE Thematic Network, 33 partners worked together in order to compare nine storage technologies for renewable energy applications. For this purpose, storage technology reports were written that presented the state of the art of*lead-acid batteries; *lithium batteries; *double-layer capacitors; *nickel-based batteries; *flywheel; *redox flow battery; *compressed air; *hydrogen-based energy storage; *metal/air systems, e.g. Zn/O{sub 2}. The technology reports include detailed consideration of the technical characteristics, including thermal behaviour. Parallel tasks defined categories of storage requirements and technical criteria in renewable energy applications and conducted a detailed analysis of the economic and environmental aspects. This paper summarises the technology reports to show the differences of behaviour between the storage technologies, with particular focus on the thermal performance according to environmental and other operational conditions. The thermal characteristics of each technology are considered in the context of the storage requirements in various renewable energy applications. (author)

  18. Overview of Probe-based Storage Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Ci Hui; Wen, Jing; Gong, Si Di; Peng, Yuan Xiu

    2016-12-01

    The current world is in the age of big data where the total amount of global digital data is growing up at an incredible rate. This indeed necessitates a drastic enhancement on the capacity of conventional data storage devices that are, however, suffering from their respective physical drawbacks. Under this circumstance, it is essential to aggressively explore and develop alternative promising mass storage devices, leading to the presence of probe-based storage devices. In this paper, the physical principles and the current status of several different probe storage devices, including thermo-mechanical probe memory, magnetic probe memory, ferroelectric probe memory, and phase-change probe memory, are reviewed in details, as well as their respective merits and weakness. This paper provides an overview of the emerging probe memories potentially for next generation storage device so as to motivate the exploration of more innovative technologies to push forward the development of the probe storage devices. PMID:27456500

  19. Seasonal sensible thermal energy storage solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Gabriela SOCACIU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal energy storage can be defined as the temporary storage of thermal energy at high or low temperatures. Thermal energy storage is an advances technology for storing thermal energy that can mitigate environmental impacts and facilitate more efficient and clean energy systems. Seasonal thermal energy storage has a longer thermal storage period, generally three or more months. This can contribute significantly to meeting society`s need for heating and cooling. The objectives of thermal energy storage systems are to store solar heat collected in summer for space heating in winter. This concept is not new; it is been used and developed for centuries because is playing an important role in energy conservation and contribute significantly to improving the energy efficiency and reducing the gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  20. Overview of Probe-based Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Ci Hui; Wen, Jing; Gong, Si Di; Peng, Yuan Xiu

    2016-07-01

    The current world is in the age of big data where the total amount of global digital data is growing up at an incredible rate. This indeed necessitates a drastic enhancement on the capacity of conventional data storage devices that are, however, suffering from their respective physical drawbacks. Under this circumstance, it is essential to aggressively explore and develop alternative promising mass storage devices, leading to the presence of probe-based storage devices. In this paper, the physical principles and the current status of several different probe storage devices, including thermo-mechanical probe memory, magnetic probe memory, ferroelectric probe memory, and phase-change probe memory, are reviewed in details, as well as their respective merits and weakness. This paper provides an overview of the emerging probe memories potentially for next generation storage device so as to motivate the exploration of more innovative technologies to push forward the development of the probe storage devices.

  1. Nanovalved Adsorbents for CH4 Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhuonan; Nambo, Apolo; Tate, Kirby L; Bao, Ainan; Zhu, Minqi; Jasinski, Jacek B; Zhou, Shaojun J; Meyer, Howard S; Carreon, Moises A; Li, Shiguang; Yu, Miao

    2016-05-11

    A novel concept of utilizing nanoporous coatings as effective nanovalves on microporous adsorbents was developed for high capacity natural gas storage at low storage pressure. The work reported here for the first time presents the concept of nanovalved adsorbents capable of sealing high pressure CH4 inside the adsorbents and storing it at low pressure. Traditional natural gas storage tanks are thick and heavy, which makes them expensive to manufacture and highly energy-consuming to carry around. Our design uses unique adsorbent pellets with nanoscale pores surrounded by a coating that functions as a valve to help manage the pressure of the gas and facilitate more efficient storage and transportation. We expect this new concept will result in a lighter, more affordable product with increased storage capacity. The nanovalved adsorbent concept demonstrated here can be potentially extended for the storage of other important gas molecules targeted for diverse relevant functional applications. PMID:27124722

  2. Water Catchment and Storage Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruenig, Michael; Dunbabin, Matt; Moore, Darren

    2010-05-01

    Sensors and Sensor Networks technologies provide the means for comprehensive understanding of natural processes in the environment by radically increasing the availability of empirical data about the natural world. This step change is achieved through a dramatic reduction in the cost of data acquisition and many orders of magnitude increase in the spatial and temporal granularity of measurements. Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is undertaking a strategic research program developing wireless sensor network technology for environmental monitoring. As part of this research initiative, we are engaging with government agencies to densely monitor water catchments and storages, thereby enhancing understanding of the environmental processes that affect water quality. In the Gold Coast hinterland in Queensland, Australia, we are building sensor networks to monitor restoration of rainforest within the catchment, and to monitor methane flux release and water quality in the water storages. This poster will present our ongoing work in this region of eastern Australia. The Springbrook plateau in the Gold Coast hinterland lies within a World Heritage listed area, has uniquely high rainfall, hosts a wide range of environmental gradients, and forms part of the catchment for Gold Coast's water storages. Parts of the plateau are being restored from agricultural grassland to native rainforest vegetation. Since April 2008, we have had a 10-node, multi-hop sensor network deployed there to monitor microclimate variables. This network will be expanded to 50-nodes in February 2010, and to around 200-nodes and 1000 sensors by mid-2011, spread over an area of approximately 0.8 square kilometers. The extremely dense microclimate sensing will enhance knowledge of the environmental factors that enhance or inhibit the regeneration of native rainforest. The final network will also include nodes with acoustic and image sensing capability for

  3. Comparison of cask and drywell storage concepts for a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy, through its Richland Operations Office is evaluating the feasibility, timing, and cost of providing a federal capability for storing the spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes that DOE may be obligated by law to manage until permanent waste disposal facilities are available. Three concepts utilizing a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage (MRS/IS) facility have been developed and analyzed. The first concept, co-location with a reprocessing plant, has been developed by staff of Allied General Nuclear Services. the second concept, a stand-alone facility, has been developed by staff of the General Atomic Company. The third concept, co-location with a deep geologic repository, has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory with the assistance of the Westinghouse Hanford Company and Kaiser Engineers. The objectives of this study are: to develop preconceptual designs for MRS/IS facilities: to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facilities, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such facilities; and to estimate the life-cycle costs of the facilities when operated in response to a set of scenarios that define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, generally spanning the years 1989 to 2037. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life-cycle costs for the MRS/IS facilities. In the first scenario, the reprocessing plant is placed in service in 1989 and HLW canisters are stored until a repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at intervals as needed to meet the demand. In the second scenario, the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule

  4. Comparison of cask and drywell storage concepts for a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    The Department of Energy, through its Richland Operations Office is evaluating the feasibility, timing, and cost of providing a federal capability for storing the spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes that DOE may be obligated by law to manage until permanent waste disposal facilities are available. Three concepts utilizing a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage (MRS/IS) facility have been developed and analyzed. The first concept, co-location with a reprocessing plant, has been developed by staff of Allied General Nuclear Services. the second concept, a stand-alone facility, has been developed by staff of the General Atomic Company. The third concept, co-location with a deep geologic repository, has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory with the assistance of the Westinghouse Hanford Company and Kaiser Engineers. The objectives of this study are: to develop preconceptual designs for MRS/IS facilities: to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facilities, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such facilities; and to estimate the life-cycle costs of the facilities when operated in response to a set of scenarios that define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, generally spanning the years 1989 to 2037. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life-cycle costs for the MRS/IS facilities. In the first scenario, the reprocessing plant is placed in service in 1989 and HLW canisters are stored until a repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at intervals as needed to meet the demand. In the second scenario, the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule.

  5. Swivel base for fuel assembly storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An invention is described the principal object of which is to provide a nuclear fuel assembly storage rack capable of supporting spent fuel assemblies without generating stresses in the fuel assemblies. The storage rack consists of a lower and upper support for supporting and retaining the spent fuel assemblies in their vertical positions. Relief from any stresses in the fuel assembly during storage is obtained by the provision of a swivel base in the lower support. (U.K.)

  6. OPTIMUM HEAT STORAGE DESIGN FOR SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design’s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral...... of the tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the systems is possible. By means of the calculations design rules for the two heat storage types are proposed....

  7. Optimum heat storage design for SDHWsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design's influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water systems, SDHWsystems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHWsystems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built...... analysis of the tank design's influence on the thermal performance of the systems is possible.By means of the calculations design rules for the two heat storage types are proposed....

  8. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  9. Nuclear physics experiments with ion storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinov, Yu. A.; Bishop, S.; Blaum, K.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Chen, L. X.; Dillmann, I.; Egelhof, P.; Geissel, H.; Grisenti, R. E.; Hagmann, S.; Heil, M.; Heinz, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Ma, X. W.; Nilsson, T.; Nolden, F.; Ozawa, A.; Raabe, R.; Reed, M. W.; Reifarth, R.; Sanjari, M. S.; Schneider, D.; Simon, H.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Sun, B. H.; Tu, X. L.; Uesaka, T.; Walker, P. M.; Wakasugi, M.; Weick, H.; Winckler, N.; Woods, P. J.; Xu, H. S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the last two decades a number of nuclear structure and astrophysics experiments were performed at heavy-ion storage rings employing unique experimental conditions offered by such machines. Furthermore, building on the experience gained at the two facilities presently in operation, several new storage ring projects were launched worldwide. This contribution is intended to provide a brief review of the fast growing field of nuclear structure and astrophysics research at storage rings.

  10. Wet spent fuel interim storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Unit, which was designed for the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station situated near Rio de Janeiro. The aim of the article is to present the technical solution of complementary storage. The design deals with different reactor technologies made by Areva and Westinghouse. The article also deals with the technically interesting solution of the storage tank heat removal and its dimensioning. (author)

  11. Advances in information storage systems, v.8

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1998-01-01

    This volume covers friction-induced vibration, the influence of actuator-bearing grease composition, wear measurements for proximity recording heads, characteristics of a suspension assembly, design and analysis of the HDD Servo System, reluctance torque reduction, etc. It is organized into three parts: Mechanics and Tribology for Data Storage Systems; Dynamics and Controls for Data Storage Systems; and Electric Motors for Data Storage Systems.

  12. Design of Micro Flywheel Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flywheel energy storage systems have advantages over other types of energy storage devices in such aspects as unlimited charge/discharge cycles and environmental friendliness. In this paper, we propose a millimeter scale flywheel energy storage device. The flywheel is supported by a pair of passive magnetic bearings and rotated by a toroidally wound electric motor/generator. The geometry of the bearings is optimized for the maximum dynamic performance

  13. Prototype storage cavity for LEP accelerating RF

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The principle of an RF storage cavity was demonstrated with this prototype, working at 500 MHz. Ian Wilso seems to hold it in his hands. The storage cavities had 4 portholes, 1 each for: RF feed; tuning; connection to the accelerating cavity; vacuum pump. The final storage cavities were larger, to suit the lower LEP accelerating frequency of 352.2 MHz. See also 8002294, 8006510X, 8109346, 8407619X, and Annual Report 1980, p.115.

  14. Cooperative Regenerating Codes for Distributed Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shum, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    When there are multiple node failures in a distributed storage system, regenerating the failed storage nodes individually in a one-by-one manner is suboptimal as far as repair-bandwidth minimization is concerned. If data exchange among the newcomers is enabled, we can get a better tradeoff between repair bandwidth and the storage per node. An explicit and optimal construction of cooperative regenerating code is illustrated.

  15. Integration of Energy Storage in Distribution Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Geth, Frederik; Tant, Jeroen; Haesen, Edwin; Driesen, Johan; Belmans, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    Electrical energy storage services can bring benefit to multiple stakeholders in the distribution grid. Energy storage owners maximize their profit on an external energy market. This can cause a conflict with the distribution system operator because a grid is designed in terms of peak power, not energy. The subject of this paper is a optimization method for the siting and sizing of energy storage in distribution grids. The optimization is implemented multi-objective as to visualize the trade-...

  16. FPGA Implementation of NOR Flash Storage Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkuwar Kanase*,; Prof.Shivdas.S.S

    2014-01-01

    Flash storage memory devices are Nand and NOR types which are widely used in data storage application in computers and solid states drives. Flash are nonvolatile and electrically erased and reprogrammed. A flash memory controller (or flash controller) manages the data stored on flash memory and communicates with a computer or electronic device. When the system or device needs to read data from or write data to the flash storage, it will communicate with the flash controller. F...

  17. Personal medicines storage in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Hewson C; Shen CC; Strachan C; Norris P

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Poor storage of medicines can reduce their efficacy, yet little is known about how people store medicines in their homes and elsewhere, why these locations are chosen, and whether the conditions are suitable for medicines storage. AIM: To investigate where medicines are commonly stored in New Zealand households, why, and the typical conditions-temperature and relative humidity-in those places of storage. METHODS: Data from a large qualitative study on the meanings of medicines w...

  18. Storage and the Electricity Forward Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Popova; Stratford Douglas

    2006-01-01

    We develop and test a model describing the influence of natural gas storage on the electricity forward premium. The model is constructed by linking the effect of gas storage on the higher moments of the distribution of electricity prices to an established model of the effect of those moments on the forward premium. The model predicts a (weakly) positive effect of gas storage on the electricity forward premium when loads are light, but a sharply negative effect when demand for electricity is h...

  19. Improving Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kranz; G. Blöcher; Ali Saadat

    2015-01-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage systems play an important role for the future energy supply systems. Such systems can decouple energy availability (e.g. fluctuating renewable energy, waste heat) and energy supply in times of demand. In order to fully contribute to the sustainability of energy supply, the essential requirements of energy storages are high energy efficiency, high reliability, cost effectiveness, as well as operational flexibility. Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems (ATES) me...

  20. Gas Storage Valuation: A Comparative Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Felix, Bastian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the comparative analysis of four natural gas storage valuation approaches. In competitive natural gas markets the optimal valuation and operation of natural gas storages is a key task for natural gas companies operating storages. Within this paper, four spot based valuation approaches are analyzed regarding computational time and accuracy. In particular, explicit and implicit finite differences, multinomial recombining trees, and Least Squares Monte Carlo Simulati...

  1. Signal Processing in Holographic Data Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Chen, Chi-Yun

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview to the processing of retrieved signals in holographic data storage systems. The information to be stored is arranged in a 2-D format as binary or graylevel pixels and recorded by interference patterns called hologram. The fact that multiple holograms can be superimposed at the same location of the recording medium leads to volume storage that provides very high storage capacity. Two important channel defects, misalignments and inter-pixel interferences, are majo...

  2. Syncing Mobile Applications with Cloud Storage Services

    OpenAIRE

    Paul POCATILU; Catalin BOJA; Cristian CIUREA

    2013-01-01

    Cloud data storage is an option available almost on any mobile platform. Nowadays, there are multiple solutions for syncing data in mobile applications. The aim of the paper is to analyze mobile application developers’ possibilities for syncing content using major free cloud storage providers. The paper describes the cloud computing in mobile context and highlights cloud providers APIs. Experimental results are analyzed in order to identify the best cloud storage solution for syncing mobile...

  3. Economical evaluation on spent fuel storage technology away from reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning the spent fuel storage away from reactor, economical comparison was carried out between metal cask and water pool storage technology. The economic index was defined by levelized cost (Unit storage cost) calculated on the assumption that the storage cost is paid at the receipt of the spent fuel at the storage facility. It is found that the cask storage is economical for small and large storage capacity. Unit storage cost of pool storage, however, is getting close to that of cask storage in case of storage capacity of 10,000 ton. Then, the unit storage cost is converted to power generation cost using data of the burn up of the fuel, etc. The cost is obtained as yen 0.09/kWh and yen 0. 15/kWh for cask storage and pool storage, respectively in case of the capacity of 5,000 tonU and the cooling time of 5 years. (author)

  4. Positron injectors for high-luminosity storage-ring colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on high-luminosity B-factories utilizing storage rings operating at unequal energies which require high-energy, low-emittance sources of positrons, and electrons suitable to fill the storage rings. As an example, consider the proposed characteristics of a collider with a luminosity of 1034 cm-2s-1 using the PEP facility at SLAC as studied by LBL (Apiary-III) and summarized. The collider consists of two rings, a large 9-GeV ring (PEP or a modification thereof) plus a 3.1-GeV ring of one-third the circumference, each with a circulating current of 3 A. Ideally, the time to fill the positron ring should be much shorter than the luminosity lifetime (set by the size of the low-energy ring). Since the luminosity lifetime of the collider is not expected to be very high, the PEP-based B-factory should have a powerful, dedicated injector. In the estimate of the characteristics of the injection system the maximum time for a complete fill of the positron ring is taken as ∼100 seconds. In the design of the injection system several choices are possible: injection by linacs at full energy of the rings or use of an intermediate booster synchrotron; accelerating e+ and e- to high energy using conventional linacs or using high-gradient linacs plus gigawatt power RF-sources being developed for linear colliders; and using a conventional (warm magnet) damping ring for cooling the positron beam at an intermediate energy or a full energy ring with a radius equal to that of the low-energy ring

  5. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

  6. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer project will demonstrate the capability to safely and efficiently store, transfer and measure cryogenic propellants,...

  7. Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask Thermal Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most nuclear power plants maintain their spent fuel discharged at a reactor in wet storage pools. However, after several years of use, many pools are filled to capacity. Therefore, finding a sufficient capacity for storage is essential because of the continued delays in obtaining a safe, interim storage facility if nuclear power plants are to be allowed to continue to operate. Dry storage cask will be one solution for solving an interim storage problem. The dry storage cask consists of two separate components: an over-pack, and a canister. The structure strength part of the over-pack is made of carbon steel, and the inner cavity of the structure strength part is filled with concrete, which accomplishes the role as a radiation shield. The outer diameter of the dry storage cask is 3,550 mm and the its overall height is 5,885 mm. It weighs approximately 135 tons. The dry storage cask accommodates 24 PWR spent fuel assemblies with a burn-up of 55,000 MWD/MTU and a cooling time of 7 years. The decay heat from the 24 PWR spent fuel assemblies is 25.2 kW This paper discusses the experimental approach used to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics of the dry storage cask

  8. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  9. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O' Malley, M.

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  10. Pumped storage plants. Status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vennemann, Peter [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany). Dept. for Electrical and Mechanical Engineering; Gruber, Karl Heinz; Kunsch, Andreas [VERBUND Hydro Power AG, Vienna (Austria); Haaheim, Jon Ulrik [Statkraft Energi AS, Oslo (Norway); Sistenich, Hans-Peter; Thoeni, Hans-Rudolf

    2011-07-01

    Pumped storage plants (PSP) enable the storage of energy with rated capacities of order of GW at a single site. Reservoirs allow charging and discharging times of at least hours, sometimes days or even up to several weeks. Short ramp-up times permit the participation in the secondary reserve market as a standing reserve. For bulk energy storage, PSP reach the lowest, specific costs. In the EU27 countries, Norway and Switzerland, a total of 44 GW of pumped storage capacity is installed. The utilisation of PSP strongly correlates with the amount of conventional generation capacity, rather than with topographical options. (orig.)

  11. Storage ring and laser nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage-ring technique is complementary to trapping-ion technique. A storage ring for energetic ions will enable us to study exotic phenomena, such as hydrogenic atoms and enhanced β-decay of 'bare nuclei'. A storage ring for low-energy ions is good for precise laser-nuclear spectroscopy. TARN-II is a kind of the former, and it is suggested that an extremely high magnetic field produced by a highly ionized atom gives us insight into nuclear magnetism if hyperfine anomaly is observed for such an atom. (author)

  12. Storage of Radioactive Waste. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is generated in a broad range of activities involving a wide variety of materials. The wastes arising from these activities have differing physical, chemical and radiological characteristics. This publication gives guidance on the storage of solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes in a wide range of facilities, including those at which waste is generated, treated and conditioned. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. Common safety considerations for waste storage facilities; 5. Design and operation of small storage facilities for radioactive waste; 6. Design and operation of large storage facilities for radioactive waste; Appendix.

  13. Near surface spent fuel storage: environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interim storage of spent fuel appears inevitable because of the lack of reprocessing plants and spent fuel repositories. This paper examines the environmental issues potentially associated with management of spent fuel before disposal or reprocessing in a reference scenario. The radiological impacts of spent fuel storage are limited to low-level releases of noble gases and iodine. Water needed for water basin storage of spent fuel and transportation accidents are considered; the need to minimize the distance travelled is pointed out. Resource commitments for construction of the storage facilities are analyzed

  14. Distributed Database Storage Solution in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Funck, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Car sales companies have in the last couple of years discovered that there is a big market in storing their customer's summer and winter tires for a small fee. For the customers it is very convenient to get rid of the all known storage problem with season tires. Burlin Motor Umeå is one of these companies and they are offering seasonal storage and change of tires in autumn and spring as well as washing of tires.The main problem for this kind of storage is how to make the storage easy to overv...

  15. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  16. Applying Study of Hydrogen Storage Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xin-ming; JIANG Hai; YIN Shao-hui; TIAN Zhi-gang

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important source of energy. The natural resouces of hydrogen is plenty and it gives us lots of heat, and it is clean. One of difficulties of developing hydrogen sources of energy is hydrogen storage. Hydrogen storage tank is either dangous or a little of capacity. Liquid hydrogen occupys small space. Liquefaction temprature of hydrogen is - 253℃and need better heat insulation protection, the volumn and weight of heat insulation layer are equal to hydrogen storage tank. Hydrogen storage utillizing hydrogen storage material is a very safety、 economical and effective method. Hydrogen storage material is either a medium of solid hydrogen storage or is negative pole active material of Ni-H battery,and is the one of key technoloy of fuel and Ni-H battery, it is an important material of new sources of energy too. Nanotechnology is introduced Mg-matrix hydrogen storage alloy and is achieved progress gteatly,but hydrogen storage alloy need be mede further improvment on applying investigation.

  17. Pulsed Energy Storage System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biallis, G.; Cassel, R.L.; Fowler, W.; Livdahl, P.V.; Mills, F.E.; Palmer, M.L.; Reardon, P.J.; Snowden, S.C.; Strauss, B.P.; Teng, L.C.; Winje, R.A.; /Fermilab /Wisconsin U., Madison

    1974-07-01

    A superconductive energy storage magnet which is connected to the three phase power system could be designed, constructed, and placed in operation at Fermilab which would essentially eliminate the large repetitive power pulses now required from the power system. In addition to the power pulses, voltage flicker is also caused due to the reactive power pulsation. Specifically, a one megawatt hour superconductive energy storage magnet and a 2.00 megawatt thyristorized converter can achieve nullification of these power pulses up to 400 GEV synchrotron operation. Above 400 GEV, operation should be possible up to 500 GEV with appreciable less power pulsing requirements from the system than are now considered permissible. Carried to successful completion, this project would serve to advance applied superconductivity to a highly significant degree. The effect would be of world wide importance to both high energy physics and to the electric power industry. The preliminary magnet design is a 1 MWh dipole composed of cryogenically stable composite conductors connected in parallel with aluminum shield windings. The shield windings carry impressed pulsed currents while eliminating pulsed currents from the dc superconductive windings. Without pulsed currents or pulsed magnetic fields there are no ac losses in standard helium. The major radius of the dipole is 8.85 m; the minor radius is 0.69m; there are 188 turns at 80,000 A and each turn is 4 conductors wound in parallel. The 20,000 A TiNb-copper composite conductor is l0x 1.12 cm in cross section similar to but larger than the FNAL bubble chamber conductor. The shield is 188 turns (equal number of turns is a shielding condition) of hollow aluminum conductor cooled via circulated cold helium gas at 40K. The turns are spaced around the minor circumference according to a cosine distribution which produces zero internal field. In use the shield loss converted to room temperature power is about .8MW when 0.1 MWh is used from a 1

  18. Analysis of storage conditions of the spent nuclear fuel on the dry storage platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of temperature measurements of air which cools storage containers of the spent nuclear fuel on the dry storage platform of the Zaporizhska NPP is carried out. Factors which influence a thermal condition of storage containers are defined, and their influence on results of temperature measurements is analyzed. Recommendations about improvement of system of the temperature control of storage containers of spent nuclear fuel are given.

  19. Auction-based allocation of shared electricity storage resources through physical storage rights

    OpenAIRE

    Brijs, Tom; Huppmann, Daniel; Siddiqui, Sauleh; Belmans, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a new electricity storage business model based on multiple simultaneously considered revenue streams, which can be attributed to different market activities and players. These players thus share electricity storage resources and compete to obtain the right to use them in a dynamic allocation mechanism. It is based on the design of anew periodically organized auction to allocate shared storage resources through physical storage rights between different market players and ...

  20. Secure key storage and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Punit

    2015-06-02

    This disclosure describes a distributed, fault-tolerant security system that enables the secure storage and distribution of private keys. In one implementation, the security system includes a plurality of computing resources that independently store private keys provided by publishers and encrypted using a single security system public key. To protect against malicious activity, the security system private key necessary to decrypt the publication private keys is not stored at any of the computing resources. Rather portions, or shares of the security system private key are stored at each of the computing resources within the security system and multiple security systems must communicate and share partial decryptions in order to decrypt the stored private key.

  1. Low-emittance Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Wolski, A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of synchrotron radiation on particle motion in storage rings are discussed. In the absence of radiation, particle motion is symplectic, and the beam emittances are conserved. The inclusion of radiation effects in a classical approximation leads to emittance damping: expressions for the damping times are derived. Then, it is shown that quantum radiation effects lead to excitation of the beam emittances. General expressions for the equilibrium longitudinal and horizontal (natural) emittances are derived. The impact of lattice design on the natural emittance is discussed, with particular attention to the special cases of FODO-, achromat- and theoretical-minimum-emittance-style lattices. Finally, the effects of betatron coupling and vertical dispersion (generated by magnet alignment and lattice tuning errors) on the vertical emittance are considered.

  2. Tape Storage and CRC Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ha, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Over 100 Petabytes of data is stored on several kind of physical support, namely disks and tapes. Data on any physical support or traveling on a data link (network, fibre channel...) can be subject to silent data corruption. A possible improvement is introducing end-to-end data integrity from the filesystem down to the tape layer. For the tape back-end it can be done by using Logical Block Protection, which computes and compares CRC checksum of every single block of data. During my work, I improved on-the-fly CRC calculation for the tape storage system, which was achieved by introducing a multithreaded implementation - a technique applicable to arbitrary CRC algorithm. Finally, I per...

  3. Storage rings for nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a brief tutorial for the physicist who is not an accelerator expert, introducing terminology and concepts useful in understanding the basic properties of beam storage devices and the beam processing that they make possible. It also deals with performance- limiting phenomena: stored beam intensity limits; beam target interactions and their effects on target thickness and beam quality; and the luminosity domains at different energies and for various ion species for applicability of the stored beam technology. Examples are presented from among facilities in operation or under construction to show some of the diversity of this rapidly evolving field. A glossary of terms and abbreviations used in this review is included for the reader's convenience

  4. Thermal energy storage program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimers, E. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored applied research, development, and demonstration of technologies aimed at reducing energy consumption and encouraging replacement of premium fuels (notably oil) with renewable or abundant indigenous fuels. One of the technologies identified as being able to contribute to these goals is thermal energy storage (TES). Based on the potential for TES to contribute to the historic mission of the DOE and to address emerging energy issues related to the environment, a program to develop specific TES technologies for diurnal, industrial, and seasonal applications is underway. Currently, the program is directed toward three major application targets: (1) TES development for efficient off-peak building heating and cooling, (2) development of advanced TES building materials, and (3) TES development to reduce industrial energy consumption.

  5. Autologous blood storage in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, W N; Owen, H G; Collins, M L

    1988-08-01

    Autologous transfusion, storage of one's own blood for subsequent infusion if needed, is safe and effective in a variety of scheduled operative procedures. Obstetric involvement in such programs is very limited, however. Thirty pregnant women with placenta previa or other potential complications underwent 55 phlebotomies in an autologous transfusion program. Phlebotomies were performed at an average gestational age of 32.4 weeks (range 13-40). Changes in mean diastolic blood pressure and pulse were minimal. Electronic fetal monitoring tracings were normal during the 34 procedures in which it was used. The frequency of mild donor reactions (4%) was consistent with that in nonpregnant donors. After entry into this program, 15 patients received a total of 29 U of packed red blood cells (23 autologous; six homologous). Homologous transfusion was avoided in 86.7% of patients receiving blood. Selected pregnant women can participate safely in autologous blood collection programs, minimizing the need, and therefore the risks, of homologous transfusion. PMID:3292974

  6. Hydride development for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E.; Bauer, W.; Yang, N.Y.C. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Sandrock, G. [SunaTech, Inc., Ringwood, NJ (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate improved hydride materials for hydrogen storage. The work currently is organized into four tasks: hydride development, bed fabrication, materials support for engineering systems, and IEA Annex 12 activities. At the present time, hydride development is focused on Mg alloys. These materials generally have higher weight densities for storing hydrogen than rare earth or transition metal alloys, but suffer from high operating temperatures, slow kinetic behavior and material stability. The authors approach is to study bulk alloy additions which increase equilibrium overpressure, in combination with stable surface alloy modification and particle size control to improve kinetic properties. This work attempts to build on the considerable previous research in this area, but examines specific alloy systems in greater detail, with attention to known phase properties and structures. The authors have found that specific phases can be produced which have significantly improved hydride properties compared to previous studies.

  7. Encrypted Data Storage in EGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Frohner, Ákos

    2006-01-01

    The medical community is routinely using clinical images and associated medical data for diagnosis, intervention planning and therapy follow-up. Medical imaging is producing an increasing number of digital images for which computerized archiving, processing and analysis are needed. Grids are promising infrastructures for managing and analyzing the huge medical databases. Given the sensitive nature of medical images, practiotionners are often reluctant to use distributed systems though. Security if often implemented by isolating the imaging network from the outside world inside hospitals. Given the wide scale distribution of grid infrastructures and their multiple administrative entities, the level of security for manipulating medical data should be particularly high. In this presentation we describe the architecture of a solution, the gLite Encrypted Data Storage (EDS), which was developed in the framework of Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE), a project of the European Commission (contract number INFSO--508...

  8. Thermal energy storage and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausz, W.

    1980-01-01

    The extraction of thermal energy from large LWR and coal fired plants for long distance transport to industrial and residential/commercial users is analyzed. Transport of thermal energy as high temperature water is shown to be considerably cheaper than transport as steam, hot oil, or molten salt over a wide temperature range. The delivered heat is competitive with user-generated heat from oil, coal, or electrode boilers at distances well over 50 km when the pipeline operates at high capacity factor. Results indicate that thermal energy storage makes meeting of even very low capacity factor heat demands economic and feasible and gives the utility flexibility to meet coincident electricity and heat demands effectively.

  9. Heat generating waste storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heat generating waste storage facility comprises an air flow regulating plug and a plug position control mechanism. When heat generation wastes are contained only in small number of containing tubes, the air flow regulator plugs of the containing tubes incorporated with heat generating wastes are raised, and air discharge holes are exposed from the upper end of the containing tube. The flow regulating plugs of the containing tubes not incorporated with heat generating waste are lowered, and the upper ends of the containing tubes are closed by closing members. Then, air streams are circulated only to the containing tubes incorporated with heat generation wastes. This can minimize the amount of the air flow of the air supply blowers and air exhaustion blowers thereby enabling to reduce the running cost. (N.H.)

  10. Public storage for the Open Science Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshina, T.; Guru, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Open Science Grid infrastructure doesn't provide efficient means to manage public storage offered by participating sites. A Virtual Organization that relies on opportunistic storage has difficulties finding appropriate storage, verifying its availability, and monitoring its utilization. The involvement of the production manager, site administrators and VO support personnel is required to allocate or rescind storage space. One of the main requirements for Public Storage implementation is that it should use SRM or GridFTP protocols to access the Storage Elements provided by the OSG Sites and not put any additional burden on sites. By policy, no new services related to Public Storage can be installed and run on OSG sites. Opportunistic users also have difficulties in accessing the OSG Storage Elements during the execution of jobs. A typical users' data management workflow includes pre-staging common data on sites before a job's execution, then storing for a subsequent download to a local institution the output data produced by a job on a worker node. When the amount of data is significant, the only means to temporarily store the data is to upload it to one of the Storage Elements. In order to do that, a user's job should be aware of the storage location, availability, and free space. After a successful data upload, users must somehow keep track of the data's location for future access. In this presentation we propose solutions for storage management and data handling issues in the OSG. We are investigating the feasibility of using the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System developed at RENCI as a front-end service to the OSG SEs. The current architecture, state of deployment and performance test results will be discussed. We will also provide examples of current usage of the system by beta-users.

  11. Irradiated fuel storage program in Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of Ontario Hydro's irradiated fuel storage program is to manage the used fuel discharged from their existing and future nuclear generating stations in a safe and economical manner until it is ready for reprocessing or disposal. While current irradiated fuel handling and storage systems are adequate, some modifications will be required to integrate them with eventual transportation and disposal systems. A secondary objective of the storage program, therefore, is to review and modify existing facilities and to develop future facilities using a total systems approach. Alternate storage concepts are being evaluated as part of a study which looks into the feasibility of storing irradiated fuel for periods greater than 50 years. The main requirements considered for extended storage of irradiated fuel are long-term retrievability, long-lasting structures, and long-term maintainability and control. The basic criteria governing the study are: safety, responsibility, current technology, environmental impact, economics, and public and social acceptability. The extended storage concepts considered are: (1) engineered air- or water-cooled vaults aboveground, near surface, or deep underground; (2) borehole emplacement aboveground, near surface, or deep underground; and (3) concrete canisters aboveground. Technical descriptions of the concepts from which the assessments will be made are now being prepared. So-called hybrid storage systems are also being investigated. The hybrid strategies consider changing from a wet storage system to a dry storage system, relocation from at surface to underground, and/or changing from an active cooling system to a passive cooling system after an initial storage period of 100 to 200 years. The final report, with evaluations of extended storage strategies, is scheduled for completion in early 1981

  12. Public storage for the Open Science Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Open Science Grid infrastructure doesn't provide efficient means to manage public storage offered by participating sites. A Virtual Organization that relies on opportunistic storage has difficulties finding appropriate storage, verifying its availability, and monitoring its utilization. The involvement of the production manager, site administrators and VO support personnel is required to allocate or rescind storage space. One of the main requirements for Public Storage implementation is that it should use SRM or GridFTP protocols to access the Storage Elements provided by the OSG Sites and not put any additional burden on sites. By policy, no new services related to Public Storage can be installed and run on OSG sites. Opportunistic users also have difficulties in accessing the OSG Storage Elements during the execution of jobs. A typical users' data management workflow includes pre-staging common data on sites before a job's execution, then storing for a subsequent download to a local institution the output data produced by a job on a worker node. When the amount of data is significant, the only means to temporarily store the data is to upload it to one of the Storage Elements. In order to do that, a user's job should be aware of the storage location, availability, and free space. After a successful data upload, users must somehow keep track of the data's location for future access. In this presentation we propose solutions for storage management and data handling issues in the OSG. We are investigating the feasibility of using the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System developed at RENCI as a front-end service to the OSG SEs. The current architecture, state of deployment and performance test results will be discussed. We will also provide examples of current usage of the system by beta-users.

  13. Onsite storage of spent nuclear fuel in metalic spent fuel storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virginia Electric and Power Company (Vepco) owns and operates two nuclear power stations within its system: the North Anna Power Station located in Louisa County, Virginia; and the Surry Power Station located in Surry County, Virginia. Each of these power stations has two pressurized water reactor operating units which share a common spent fuel pool. Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, Vepco is responsible for providing interim spent fuel storage until availability of the Federal Repository. Vepco has studied a number of options and has developed a program to provide the required onsite interim spent fuel storage. Options considered by Vepco included reracking, pin consolidation, dry storage and construction of a new spent fuel pool to provide the increased spent fuel storage capacity required. Vepco has selected reracking at North Anna combined with dry storage in metal spent fuel storage casks at Surrey to provide the required onsite spent fuel storage. A dry cask storage facility design and license application were developed and the license application was submitted to the NRC in October, 1982. The selection of the option to use dry cask storage of spent fuel at Surry represents the first attempt to license dry storage of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. This storage option is expected to provide an effective option for utilities without adequate storage space in their existing spent fuel pools

  14. Carbon storage in Amazonian podzols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Celia; Lucas, Yves; Pereira, Osvaldo; Merdy, Patricia; Santin, Roberta; Ishida, Débora; du Gardin, Beryl; Melfi, Adolpho

    2014-05-01

    It has recently been discovered that Amazonian podzols may store much larger quantities of carbon than previously thought, particularly in their deep Bh horizons (over 13.6 Pg for Brazilian Amazonia alone [1]). Similarly high carbon stocks are likely to exist in similar climate/soil areas, mainly in Africa and in Borneo. Such carbon stocks raise the problem of their stability in response to changes in land use or climate. Any significant changes in vegetation cover would significantly alter the soil water dynamics, which is likely to affect organic matter turnover in soils. The direction of the change, however, is not clear and is likely to depend on the specific conditions of carbon storage and properties of the soils. It is reasonable to assume that the drying of the Bh horizons of equatorial podzols, which are generally saturated, will lead to an increase in C mineralization, although the extent of this increase has not yet been determined. These unknowns resulted in research programs, granted by the Brazilian FAPESP and the French Région PACA-ARCUS and ANR, dedicated improving estimates of the Amazonian podzol carbon stocks and to an estimate of its mineralisability. Eight test areas were determined from the analysis of remote sensing data in the larger Amazonian podzol region located in the High Rio Negro catchment and studied in detail. Despite the extreme difficulties in carrying out the field work (difficulties in reaching the study sites and extracting the soils), more than a hundred points were sampled. In all podzols the presence of a thick deep Bh was confirmed, sometimes to depths greater than 12 m. The Bh carbon was quantified, indicating that carbon stocks in these podzols are even higher than estimated recently [1]. References 1- Montes, C.R.; Lucas, Y.; Pereira, O.J.R.; Achard, R.; Grimaldi, M.; Mefli, A.J. Deep plant?derived carbon storage in Amazonian podzols. Biogeosciences, 8, 113?120, 2011.

  15. Storage of onion under ambient conditions - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regular supply of onion throughout the year can be achieved either with an excellent onion storage facilities or through off-season cultivation. While, going for storage of onion for a longer period, some points needs to be considered. These include selection of suitable cultivars for storage, effect of crop management practices on storage quality (nutrition and irrigation), effect of integrated approach for reducing storage losses, management of storage chemicals and irradiation treatment for reducing storage losses, management of storage diseases of onion, proper utilization of onion storage systems and structure with better ventilation

  16. An alternative storage method for entomopathogenic nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLCÜ, Barış; HAZIR, Selçuk

    2012-01-01

    Tetra Pak containers were evaluated as an alternative to tissue culture flasks for nematode storage. Our data showed that Tetra Pak containers were an excellent alternative to tissue culture flasks for storage of H. bacteriophora and will more than likely be useful for other entomopathogenic nematode species.

  17. Storage Capacity of the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Buhot, Arnaud; Gordon, Mirta B.

    2000-01-01

    The storage capacity of an incremental learning algorithm for the parity machine, the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm, is analytically determined in the limit of a large number of hidden perceptrons. Different learning rules for the simple perceptron are investigated. The usual Gardner-Derrida one leads to a storage capacity close to the upper bound, which is independent of the learning algorithm considered.

  18. Mixed Solutions of Electrical Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Chioncel Cristian Paul; Chioncel Petru; Babescu Marius

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents electrical energy storage solutions using electricbatteries and supercapacitors powered from photovoltaic solarmodules, with possibilities of application in electric and hybrid vehicles.The future development of electric cars depends largely on electricalenergy storage solutions that should provide a higher range of roadand operating parameters comparable to those equipped with internalcombustion engines, that eliminate pollution.

  19. Mixed Solutions of Electrical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents electrical energy storage solutions using electricbatteries and supercapacitors powered from photovoltaic solarmodules, with possibilities of application in electric and hybrid vehicles.The future development of electric cars depends largely on electricalenergy storage solutions that should provide a higher range of roadand operating parameters comparable to those equipped with internalcombustion engines, that eliminate pollution.

  20. Storage technology for television home server

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress of high-density recording technology has brought about new fields in storage applications. A television home server is a home storage system for the age of digital broadcasting. It records the viewer's favorite programs automatically for subsequent viewing at any time. We propose an architecture for the home server realizing a high-speed recording/ playback capability with very large capacity

  1. Interim Storage Facility decommissioning. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the Interim Storage Facility were completed. Activities included performing a detailed radiation survey of the facility, removing surface and imbedded contamination, excavating and removing the fuel storage cells, restoring the site to natural conditions, and shipping waste to Hanford, Washington, for burial. The project was accomplished on schedule and 30% under budget with no measurable exposure to decommissioning personnel

  2. Effective hydrogen storage: a strategic chemistry challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, William I F

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current status and future potential of hydrogen storage from a chemistry perspective and is based on the concluding presentation of the Faraday Discussion 151--Hydrogen Storage Materials. The safe, effective and economical storage of hydrogen is one of the main scientific and technological challenges in the move towards a low-carbon economy. One key sector is transportation where future vehicles will most likely be developed around a balance of battery-electric and hydrogen fuel-cell electric technologies. Although there has been a very significant research effort in solid-state hydrogen storage, high-pressure gas storage combined with conventional metal hydrides is still seen as the current intermediate-term candidate for car manufacturers. Significant issues have arisen in the search for improved solid-state hydrogen storage materials; for example, facile reversibility has been a major challenge for many recently studied complex hydrides while physisorption in porous structures is still restricted to cryogenic temperatures. However, many systems fulfil the majority of necessary criteria for improved hydrogen storage--indeed, the discovery of reversibility in multicomponent hydride systems along with recent chemistry breakthroughs in off-board and solvent-assisted regeneration suggest that the goal of both improved on-board reversible and off-board regenerated hydrogen storage systems can be achieved. PMID:22455082

  3. Definition of a Storage Accounting Record

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, H. T.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Nilsen, J. K.; Zsolt, M.; Zappi, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this document a storage accounting record StAR is defined reflecting practical, financial and legal requirements of storage location, usage and space and data flow. The definition might be the base for a standardized schema or an extension of an existing record like the OGF UR.

  4. Swelling of spent fuel storage tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unexpected swelling phenomena have been reported in the storage racks of the spent fuel pool at several nuclear power plants. Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out in order to identify the governing mechanism and to analyze the interaction of the storage tube and the spent fuel element housed in the tube. (author). 2 refs., 7 figs

  5. Holographic Information Storage and Retrieval. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J. R.

    A four-month investigation was made of holographic information storage and retrieval. After an extensive review of the state of the art of various holographic systems, it was concluded that digital holographic storage techniques hold the greatest promise for commercial development, especially since they are particularly well suited to computer…

  6. Energy storage system for a pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several designs have been proposed for the DEMO fusion reactor. Some of them are working in a non-steady state mode. Since a power plant should be able to deliver to the grid a constant power, this challenge must be solved. Energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWhe with the capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. A review of different technologies for energy storage is made. Thermal energy storage (TES), fuel cells and other hydrogen storage, compressed air storage, water pumping, batteries, flywheels and supercapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage. Each one is briefly described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. The conclusion of the review is that, based on existing technology, thermal energy storage using molten salts and a system based on hydrogen storage are the most promising candidates to meet the requirements of a pulsed DEMO. These systems are investigated in more detail together with an economic assessment of each

  7. Industrial Storage Technology Applied to Library Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountz, John

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of conventional book stacks, moving aisle book stacks, and industrial storage techniques shows that the industrial technique is the least expensive to build, maintain, and operate. Characteristics of automated storage and retrieval systems are discussed, and formulas for calculating the size and costs of a library system are presented.…

  8. CHICKEN FEATHER FIBERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of Findings (Outputs/Outcomes): A Sievert’s apparatus for measuring the H2 storage capacities of adsorbents was built. The nitrogen adsorption and H2 storage test performed on the pyrolyzed chicken feather fibers (PCFF) prepared by a p...

  9. Integrating new Storage Technologies into EOS

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Andreas J; Rocha, Joaquim; Lensing, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The EOS[1] storage software was designed to cover CERN disk-only storage use cases in the medium-term trading scalability against latency. To cover and prepare for long-term requirements the CERN IT data and storage services group (DSS) is actively conducting R&D; and open source contributions to experiment with a next generation storage software based on CEPH[3] and ethernet enabled disk drives. CEPH provides a scale-out object storage system RADOS and additionally various optional high-level services like S3 gateway, RADOS block devices and a POSIX compliant file system CephFS. The acquisition of CEPH by Redhat underlines the promising role of CEPH as the open source storage platform of the future. CERN IT is running a CEPH service in the context of OpenStack on a moderate scale of 1 PB replicated storage. Building a 100+PB storage system based on CEPH will require software and hardware tuning. It is of capital importance to demonstrate the feasibility and possibly iron out bottlenecks and blocking issu...

  10. Technical study gas storage. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study will answer the following questions: (a) For what uses was the storage facility designed and for what use is it currently applied? Provide an overview of the technical data per gas storage facility: for instance, what is its capacity, volume, start-up time, etc.; (b) How often has this facility been used during the past 10 years? With what purpose was the facility brought into operation at the time? How much gas was supplied at the time from the storage facility?; (c) Given the characteristics and the use of the storage facility during the past 10 years and projected gas consumption in the future, how will the storage facility be used in the future?; (d) Are there other uses for which the gas storage facility can be deployed, or can a single facility be deployed for numerous uses? What are the technical possibilities in such cases? Questions (a) and (b) are answered separately for every storage facility. Questions (c) and (d) in a single chapter each (Chapter 2 and 3). An overview of the relevant storage data relating to current use, use in the last 10 years and use in future is given in the Annex

  11. 32 CFR 2001.43 - Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (B) An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) with the personnel responding to the alarm arriving within 15... Specification FF-L-2740. (ii) For open storage areas covered by Security-In-Depth, an IDS with the personnel... storage area every four hours by an employee cleared at least to the Secret level; or (ii) An IDS with...

  12. Storage, a stake for renewable energies integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of renewable energy sources is challenging the power system operation. Balancing consumption and generation at different times, from real time up to 10 years, with an increasing part of intermittent and fatal sources should indicate a clear route to storage development Up to now on opposite situation occurs. New storage project in Europe has been stopped because of missing business model, and there is no long term economical signal showing it could change in the near future. The capability to predict with a good accuracy, and share through the European transmission system the renewable production places storage in direct competition with other sources of flexibility. However, use case of storage is not limited to energy balancing. Ancillary services, connexion cost optimization, quality of supply are among other possible services offered by storage installation. For all of those, understanding technical requirements and economical issues is an initial condition to open a favourable game area for storage. Exploring new multi-service models through demonstrators, redesigning the electricity market in Europe are key initiatives to approach a new era for storage development. It doesn't prevent innovation to improve performance and reduce cost, an essential condition to give a chance for storage solution compared to other flexibility sources. (author)

  13. 3store: Efficient Bulk RDF Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Stephen; Gibbins, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    The development and deployment of practical Semantic Web applications requires technologies for the storage and retrieval of RDF data that are robust and scalable. In this paper, we describe the 3store RDF storage and query engine developed within the Advanced Knowledge Technologies project, and discuss the design rationale and optimisations behind it which enable the efficient handling of large RDF knowledge bases.

  14. Thermal Energy Storage Flight Experiment in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, David

    1992-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Storage Flight Experiment was designed to characterize void shape and location in LiF-based phase change materials in different energy storage configurations representative of advanced solar dynamic systems. Experiment goals and payload design are described in outline and graphic form.

  15. Probiotic Bacteria May Become Dormant during Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Gueimonde, Miguel; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Reinikainen, Johanna P.; Salminen, Seppo J.

    2005-01-01

    The determination of bacterial viability in probiotic products is of economic, technological, and clinical significance. We compared four methods to enumerate three Bifidobacterium strains in fermented oat products during storage. A subpopulation of nonculturable cells retained a functional cell membrane typical of viable cells, indicating that probiotic bacteria become dormant during storage.

  16. Design and operational experience of dry cask storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper (Power Point presentation) describes cask storage design features and available dry cask storage technology, cask types used for dry storage, design characteristics of CASTOR casks, the German licensing basis for cask storage systems, shielding requirements, thermal layout, mechanical design, criticality safety and containment, licensing procedure, operational experience of dry cask storage in Germany and worldwide

  17. Proceedings of the international workshop on irradiated fuel storage: operating experience and development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiated fuel storage was discussed under the following major topic headings: irradiated fuel management strategies, water pool storage, dry storage technology and engineering studies, dry storage economics, standards and licensing, dry storage - fuel behaviour, and dry storage - the future

  18. Storage Life of an Aluminised HE Composition .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Narang

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Most high explosive compositions are organic in nature and they tend to undergo slow decomposition during storage under different environmental conditions. The decomposition degrade the molecular stability of the explosive, thereby resulting in reduced performance and service life. The knowledge of decomposition behaviour of the explosive mass determines the storage life of the composition. Hence, change in the chemical stability, sensitivity, mechanical strength and performance are of utmost importance in the prediction of storage life of explosive/ammunitions systems. This paper presents the results on the rate of gas evolution, change in sensitivity, and thermal stability and weight loss of high explosive compositions, viz., Dentex and TNT when exposed to elevated temperature. Based on the collected data, a tentative storage life for the aluminised (Dentex composition has been computed to be 15 years. The data has been compared with TNT, a standard explosive for assessing the storage life.

  19. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.L.

    1995-01-03

    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location.

  20. Design of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide is for interim spent fuel storage facilities that are not integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. Following the introduction, Section 2 describes the general safety requirements applicable to the design of both wet and dry spent fuel storage facilities; Section 3 deals with the design requirements specific to either wet or dry storage. Recommendations for the auxiliary systems of any storage facility are contained in Section 4; these are necessary to ensure the safety of the system and its safe operation. Section 5 provides recommendations for establishing the quality assurance system for a storage facility. Section 6 discusses the requirements for inspection and maintenance that must be considered during the design. Finally, Section 7 provides guidance on design features to be considered to facilitate eventual decommissioning. 18 refs

  1. Comprehensive Monitoring for Heterogeneous Geographically Distributed Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnikova, N. [Fermilab; Karavakis, E. [CERN; Lammel, S. [Fermilab; Wildish, T. [Princeton U.

    2015-12-23

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then. In this paper we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.

  2. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy's Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1)

  3. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  4. Methane storage in advanced porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makal, Trevor A; Li, Jian-Rong; Lu, Weigang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-12-01

    The need for alternative fuels is greater now than ever before. With considerable sources available and low pollution factor, methane is a natural choice as petroleum replacement in cars and other mobile applications. However, efficient storage methods are still lacking to implement the application of methane in the automotive industry. Advanced porous materials, metal-organic frameworks and porous organic polymers, have received considerable attention in sorptive storage applications owing to their exceptionally high surface areas and chemically-tunable structures. In this critical review we provide an overview of the current status of the application of these two types of advanced porous materials in the storage of methane. Examples of materials exhibiting high methane storage capacities are analyzed and methods for increasing the applicability of these advanced porous materials in methane storage technologies described. PMID:22990753

  5. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location

  6. Exact Regenerating Codes for Distributed Storage

    CERN Document Server

    V., Rashmi K; Kumar, P Vijay; Ramachandran, Kannan

    2009-01-01

    Erasure coding techniques are used to increase the reliability of distributed storage systems while minimizing storage overhead. The bandwidth required to repair the system after a node failure also plays a crucial role in the system performance. In [1] authors have shown that a tradeoff exists between storage and repair bandwidth. They also have introduced the scheme of regenerating codes which meet this tradeoff. In this paper, a scheme of Exact Regenerating Codes is introduced, which are regenerating codes with an additional property of regenerating back the same node upon failure. For the minimum bandwidth point, which is suitable for applications like distributed mail servers, explicit construction for exact regenerating codes is provided. A subspace approach is provided, using which the necessary and sufficient conditions for a linear code to be an exact regenerating code are derived. This leads to the uniqueness of our construction. For the minimum storage point which suits applications such as storage...

  7. Security optical data storage in Fourier holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Chia; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chen, Yu-Jen; Lin, Shiuan-Huei; Wang, Li-Karn

    2012-03-20

    We have proposed and demonstrated a holographic security storage system that is implemented with a shift multiplexing technique. The security function of this storage system is achieved by using a microdiffuser (MD) for random phase encoding of the reference beams. The apparatus of random phase encoding in this system offers an additional and flexible function during the recording processes. The system can generate holographic security memory or nonsecurity holographic memory via using the MD or not. The storage capacity and the average signal-to-noise value of the security storage system are 16 bits/μm(2) and 3.5, respectively. Lateral shifting selectivity in this holographic security storage system is theoretically analyzed and experimentally investigated. PMID:22441475

  8. Heat storage systems. 5. rev. ed.; Waermespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, Andreas [ZAE Bayern, Garching (Germany); Hiebler, Stefan [ZAE Bayern, Garching (Germany). Gruppe Waermespeichersysteme; Reuss, Manfred [ZAE Bayern (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Solarthermie/Oberflaechennahe Geothermie

    2013-11-01

    Heat storages provide a means of adapting heat supply to demand both over time and in terms of quantity. Efficient heat storages are a prerequisite for making cost-effective use of waste and solar heat. The BINE reference book presents different storage technologies, offering planners, consultants and real estate professionals an overview of different storage media, capacity categories and types, these including long-term as well as high-temperature storages, along with information on economic efficiency. [German] Waermespeicher ermoeglichen es, das Waermeangebot im Zeitverlauf und in der Leistung dem Bedarf anzupassen. Erst durch effiziente Waermespeicher lassen sich Abwaerme oder solare Waerme wirtschaftlich nutzen. Das BINE-Fachbuch stellt die verschiedenen Speichertechnologien vor und bietet Planern, Beratern und der Immobilienwirtschaft einen Ueberblick ueber unterschiedliche Speichermedien, -groessen und -typen, Langzeit- und Hochtemperaturspeicher und die Wirtschaftlichkeit.

  9. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  10. Storage of weapons-grade plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the end of the cold war, the United States has started to reduce its nuclear weapons stockpiles and will place special nuclear material (plutonium and uranium) into storage. The existing plutonium storage facilities are designed for short-term storage or to support operation of adjacent processing facilities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to construct and operate a new plutonium storage facility as part of the reconfigured weapons complex, called Complex-21, to provide safe and secure long-term storage of plutonium materials. This facility will be required to meet new, more stringent requirements such as potential third-party inspection, enhanced safeguard and security requirements, and reduced personnel radiation exposure limits

  11. Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2016-05-03

    Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage apparatus controller includes processing circuitry configured to access first information which is indicative of surpluses and deficiencies of electrical energy upon an electrical power system at a plurality of moments in time, access second information which is indicative of temperature of a thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time, and use the first and second information to control an amount of electrical energy which is utilized by a heating element to heat the thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time.

  12. Reversible deep storage: reversibility options for storage in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the definition approach to reversibility conditions, presents the main characteristics of high-activity and intermediate-activity long-lived wastes, describes the storage in deep geological formations (safety functions, general description of the storage centre), discusses the design options for the different types of wastes (container, storage module, handling processes, phenomenological analysis, monitoring arrangements) and the decision process in support reversibility (steering of the storage process, progressive development and step-by-step closing), and reports and discusses the researches concerning the memory of the storage site

  13. Preliminary assessment of alternative dry storage methods for the storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the (1) state of technology, (2) licensability, (3) implementation schedule, and (4) costs of alternative dry methods for storage of spent fuel at a reactor location when used to supplement reactor pool storage facilities. The methods of storage that were considered included storage in casks, drywells, concrete silos and air-cooled vaults. The impact of disassembly of spent fuel and storage of consolidated fuel rods was also determined. The economic assessments were made based on the current projected storage requirements of Virginia Electric and Power Company's Surry Station for the period 1985 to 2009, which has two operating pressurized water reactors (824 MWe each). It was estimated that the unit cost for storage of spent fuel in casks would amount to $117/kgU and that such costs for storage in drywells would amount to $137/kgU. However, based on the overall assessment it was concluded both storage methods were equal in merit. Modular methods of storage were generally found to be more economic than those requiring all or most of the facilities to be constructed prior to commencement of storage operations

  14. Storage and transportation of spent fuel and high-level waste using dry storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the REA 2023 dry storage cask which has been designed for on-site storage and transportation of spent fuel and high-level waste. The REA 2023 is the first domestic commercial spent fuel dry storage cask completed for the Department of Energy program for demonstration of methods to improve on site utility fuel storage capacity. A description of the operations required for on-site handling and storage is provided with illustrations and photographs of the fabricated cask. An auxiliary skid is also described which is designed for both on-site handling/storage and transportation. A description of the lifting yoke and transportation impact limiters completes the total system for storage and transportation of spent fuel and high level waste in the REA 2023 casks

  15. A Review of Energy Storage Technologies:For the integration of fluctuating renewable energy

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, David

    2010-01-01

    A brief examination into the energy storage techniques currently available for the integration of fluctuating renewable energy was carried out. These included Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage (PHES), Underground Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage (UPHES), Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES), Battery Energy Storage (BES), Flow Battery Energy Storage (FBES), Flywheel Energy Storage (FES), Supercapacitor Energy Storage (SCES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), Hydrogen Energy ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... storage disease type VII glycogen storage disease type VII Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Glycogen storage disease type VII (GSDVII) is an inherited disorder caused by an ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type V

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... storage disease type V glycogen storage disease type V Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Glycogen storage disease type V (also known as GSDV or McArdle disease) is ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... storage disease type I glycogen storage disease type I Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Glycogen storage disease type I (also known as GSDI or von Gierke disease) ...

  19. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  20. Hanford transuranic storage corrosion review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of atmospheric corrosion of the transuranic (TRU) waste drums at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Project, near Richland, Washington, was evaluated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The rate of corrosion is principally contingent upon the effects of humidity, airborne pollutants, and temperature. Results of the study indicate that actual penetration of barrels due to atmospheric corrosion will probably not occur within the 20-year specified recovery period. Several other US burial sites were surveyed, and it appears that there is sufficient uncertainty in the available data to prevent a clearcut statement of the corrosion rate at a specific site. Laboratory and site tests are recommended before any definite conclusions can be made. The corrosion potential at the Hanford TRU waste site could be reduced by a combination of changes in drum materials (for example, using galvanized barrels instead of the currently used mild steel barrels), environmental exposure conditions (for example, covering the barrels in one of numerous possible ways), and storage conditions

  1. Data storage and retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Glen

    1992-01-01

    The Data Storage and Retrieval System (DSRS) consists of off-the-shelf system components integrated as a file server supporting very large files. These files are on the order of one gigabyte of data per file, although smaller files on the order of one megabyte can be accommodated as well. For instance, one gigabyte of data occupies approximately six 9-track tape reels (recorded at 6250 bpi). Due to this large volume of media, it was desirable to 'shrink' the size of the proposed media to a single portable cassette. In addition to large size, a key requirement was that the data needs to be transferred to a (VME based) workstation at very high data rates. One gigabyte (GB) of data needed to be transferred from an archiveable media on a file server to a workstation in less than 5 minutes. Equivalent size, on-line data needed to be transferred in less than 3 minutes. These requirements imply effective transfer rates on the order of four to eight megabytes per second (4-8 MB/s). The DSRS also needed to be able to send and receive data from a variety of other sources accessible from an Ethernet local area network.

  2. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  3. Cell biology of fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  4. Determination of the mothers' milk storage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Sercekus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Breast milk storage conditions, is an important issue alongside the protection of substantiality and immunological content of milk in terms of preventing the development of microorganisms. The purpose of this research was to determine breast milk storage applications of mothers. Methods: This study was a descriptive survey. Ten health care centers were taken for the study scope in Denizli. The study sample consisted of 77 mothers who stored breast milk. Results: 49.4% of the mother's stores their milk at room temperature, 76.6% of them stores in the refrigerator, 59.7% of them stores it in the deep-freezer. % 41.6 of women use plastic milk storage bags to store milk, 57.1% of them write date on the storage container, 37.7% of them boil in order to clean the containers, 51.9% of them clean containers after each use. Conclusion: It was found incorrect applications, which can adversely affect baby's health, at the selection of storage containers and cleaning, storage location, duration and thawing the frozen milk stages in this study. Important tasks fall to the healthcare personnel while teaching mothers the right applications for the storage of milk. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 483-488

  5. Autonomous operation of distributed storages in microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Chai, Yi Kai; Li, Ding; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Operation of distributed generators in microgrids has been widely discussed, but would not be fully autonomous if distributed energy storages are not considered. Storages are important since they provide energy buffering to load changes, energy levelling to source variations and ride-through enha......Operation of distributed generators in microgrids has been widely discussed, but would not be fully autonomous if distributed energy storages are not considered. Storages are important since they provide energy buffering to load changes, energy levelling to source variations and ride......-through enhancement to the microgrids. Recognising their importance, this study presents a scheme for sharing power among multiple distributed storages in coordination with the distributed sources and loads. The scheme prompts the storages to autonomously sense for local operating conditions, requesting for maximum...... to help with meeting the extra load demand. The described process takes place autonomously with energy eventually shared among the storages in proportion to their ratings. To test the concepts discussed, experiments have been performed with favourable results obtained for performance verification....

  6. CANDU spent fuel dry storage interim technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU heavy water reactor is developed by Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) it has 40 years of design life. During operation, the reactor can discharge a lot of spent fuels by using natural uranium. The spent fuel interim storage should be considered because the spent fuel bay storage capacity is limited with 6 years inventory. Spent fuel wet interim storage technique was adopted by AECL before 1970s, but it is diseconomy and produced extra radiation waste. So based on CANDU smaller fuel bundle dimension, lighter weight, lower burn-up and no-critical risk, AECL developed spent fuel dry interim storage technique which was applied in many CANDU reactors. Spent fuel dry interim storage facility should be designed base on critical accident prevention, decay heat removal, radiation protection and fissionable material containment. According to this introduction, analysis spent fuel dry interim storage facility and equipment design feature, it can be concluded that spent fuel dry interim storage could be met with the design requirement. (author)

  7. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design

  8. Dynamic Storage Assurance on Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dhanalakshmi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing investigate the problem of data security in cloud data storage, which is essentially a distributed storage system. Distributed storage integrity auditing mechanism, utilizes the homomorphic token and distributed erasure-coded data. The proposed design allows users to audit the cloud storage with very lightweight communication and computation cost. The auditing result not only ensures strong cloud storage correctness guarantee, but also simultaneously achieves fast data error localization, i.e., the identification of misbehaving server and recover the corrupted data. Considering the cloud data are dynamic in nature, the proposed design further supports secure and efficient dynamic operations on outsourced data, including block modification, deletion, and append. Analysis shows the pro-posed scheme is highly efficient and resilient against Byzan-tine failure, malicious data modification attack, and even server colluding attacks. With the advent of data storage and new technology trends that result in new failure modes for storage, interesting challenges arise in ensuring data integrity and security. In this paper, we discuss the cause of integrity violations and implementation issues to perform efficient integrity assurance. The main aim of this paper is to prevent the file from integrity violations and recovering the corrupted file with low cost overhead.

  9. Prospects for hydrogen storage in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzini, Valentina; Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen-based fuel cells are promising solutions for the efficient and clean delivery of electricity. Since hydrogen is an energy carrier, a key step for the development of a reliable hydrogen-based technology requires solving the issue of storage and transport of hydrogen. Several proposals based on the design of advanced materials such as metal hydrides and carbon structures have been made to overcome the limitations of the conventional solution of compressing or liquefying hydrogen in tanks. Nevertheless none of these systems are currently offering the required performances in terms of hydrogen storage capacity and control of adsorption/desorption processes. Therefore the problem of hydrogen storage remains so far unsolved and it continues to represent a significant bottleneck to the advancement and proliferation of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. Recently, however, several studies on graphene, the one-atom-thick membrane of carbon atoms packed in a honeycomb lattice, have highlighted the potentialities of this material for hydrogen storage and raise new hopes for the development of an efficient solid-state hydrogen storage device. Here we review on-going efforts and studies on functionalized and nanostructured graphene for hydrogen storage and suggest possible developments for efficient storage/release of hydrogen under ambient conditions. PMID:23165421

  10. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  11. Liquid crystals for holographic optical data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Avtar S; Jeeva, Shehzad; Ramanujam, P S

    2007-12-01

    A tutorial review is presented to inform and inspire the reader to develop and integrate strong scientific links between liquid crystals and holographic data storage, from a materials scientist's viewpoint. The principle of holographic data storage as a means of providing a solution to the information storage demands of the 21st century is detailed. Holography is a small subset of the much larger field of optical data storage and similarly, the diversity of materials used for optical data storage is enormous. The theory of polarisation holography which produces holograms of constant intensity, is discussed. Polymeric liquid crystals play an important role in the development of materials for holographic storage and photoresponsive materials based on azobenzene are targeted for discussion due to their ease of photo-reversion between trans- and cis-states. Although the final polymer may not be liquid crystalline, irradiation can induce ordered domains. The mesogens act in a co-operative manner, enhancing refractive indices and birefringences. Surface relief gratings are discussed as a consequence of holographic storage. Cholesteric polymers comprising azobenzene are briefly highlighted. Irradiation causing cis-trans-isomerisation can be used to control helix pitch. A brief mention of liquid crystals is also made since these materials may be of future interest since they are optically transparent and amenable to photo-induced anisotropy. PMID:17982514

  12. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  13. Microencapsulation of salts for enhanced thermochemical storage materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cuypers, R.; de Jong, A. J.; Eversdijk, J.; Spijker, J.C. van 't; Oversloot, H.P.; Ingenhut, B.L.J.; Cremers, R.K.H.; Papen-Botterhuis, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Thermochemical storage is a new and emerging long-term thermal storage for residential use (cooling, heating & domestic hot water generation), offering high thermal storage density without the need for thermal insulation during storage (Fig. 1). However, existing materials for thermochemical storage either suffer from practical issues like limited physical and mechanical stability and severe corrosivity (salt hydrates), or thermal storage capacities that are too low to substantially cover sea...

  14. Linepack storage valuation under price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas flows in pipelines as a consequence of the pressure difference at the inlet and outlet. Adjusting these pressures makes it possible to inject natural gas at one rate and withdraw at a different rate, hence using the pipeline as storage as well as transport. We study the value of using the so called pipeline linepack as a short-term gas storage and how this functionality may offset the discrepancy between the low flexibility in take-or-pay contracts and the high inherent flexibility of a gas-fired power plant. To value the storage option, we consider a cycling power plant facing volatile power prices while purchasing gas on a take-or-pay contract. We estimate a Markov regime-switching model for power prices and a mean reverting jump diffusion model for gas prices. Applying Least Squares Monte Carlo simulation to the operation of the linepack storage, we find that the storage option indeed has significant value for the plant, enabling it to better exploit the sometimes extreme price fluctuations. Finally, we show how power price volatility and jump frequency are the main value drivers, and that the size of the storage increases the value up to a point where no additional flexibility is used. - Highlights: ► Linepack, i.e., storage of natural gas en route in long pipelines, is valued for the first time. ► We find significant storage value for a North Sea case and a German gas-fired power plant. ► Power and natural gas prices are modelled realistically, as related stochastic processes with mean reversion and spikes. ► Storage operation is valued under uncertainty yielding close to exact values, without heuristics

  15. Hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panella, B.

    2006-09-13

    A great challenge for commercializing hydrogen powered vehicles is on-board hydrogen storage using economic and secure systems. A possible solution is hydrogen storage in light-weight solid materials. Here three principle storage mechanisms can be distinguished: i) absorption of hydrogen in metals ii) formation of compounds with ionic character, like complex hydrides and iii) physisorption (or physical adsorption) of hydrogen molecules on porous materials. Physical adsorption exhibits several advantages over chemical hydrogen storage as for example the complete reversibility and the fast kinetics. Two classes of porous materials were investigated for physical hydrogen storage, i.e. different carbon nanostructures and crystalline metal-organic frameworks possessing extremely high specific surface area. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured using a Sieverts' apparatus both at room temperature and at 77 K at pressures up to the saturation regime. Additionally, the adsorption sites of hydrogen in these porous materials were identified using thermal desorption spectroscopy extended to very low temperatures (down to 20 K). Furthermore, the adsorbed hydrogen phase was studied in various materials using Raman spectroscopy at different pressures and temperatures. The results show that the maximum hydrogen storage capacity of porous materials correlates linearly with the specific surface area and is independent of structure and composition. In addition the pore structure of the adsorbent plays an important role for hydrogen storage since the adsorption sites for H2 could be assigned to pores possessing different dimensions. Accordingly it was shown that small pores are necessary to reach high storage capacities already at low pressures. This new understanding may help to tailor and optimize new porous materials for hydrogen storage. (orig.)

  16. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

  17. EPRI's pumped storage planning and evaluation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPRI's Hydropower Pumped Storage Planning and Evaluation Guide was published in 1990. The Guide provides step-by-step procedures to: evaluate pumped-storage operation in a utility system, establish site development concept, estimate capital cost, and conduct economic analysis. The Guide provides a floppy diskette containing a production costing model simulating the chronologic operation of pumped storage in a generating system. It provides a series of estimating curves for the preparation of capital cost estimates. The paper presents how the Guide was organized and prepared, and highlights its contents

  18. Experimental assessment of bacterial storage yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahan-Gül, Ö.; Artan, N.; Orhon, D.;

    2002-01-01

    An experimental procedure was developed for the respirometric determination of bacterial storage yield as defined in the Activated Sludge Model No. 3. The proposed approach is based on the oxygen utilization rate (OUR) profile obtained from a batch test and correlates the area under the OUR curve...... to the amount of oxygen associated with substrate storage. Model simulation was used to evaluate the procedure for different initial experimental conditions. The procedure was tested on acetate. The same storage yield value of 0.76 gCOD/gCOD was calculated for two experiments, starting with different...

  19. Using Hadoop as a grid storage element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadoop is an open-source data processing framework that includes a scalable, fault-tolerant distributed file system, HDFS. Although HDFS was designed to work in conjunction with Hadoop's job scheduler, we have re-purposed it to serve as a grid storage element by adding GridFTP and SRM servers. We have tested the system thoroughly in order to understand its scalability and fault tolerance. The turn-on of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2009 poses a significant data management and storage challenge; we have been working to introduce HDFS as a solution for data storage for one LHC experiment, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS).

  20. Compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, J.M.

    1992-05-19

    The purpose of Project S-4257, USF-UNH 150,000 Gallon Storage Tank, is to provide interim storage for the liquid uranyl nitrate (UNH) product from H-Canyon until the UNH can be processed in the new Uranium Solidification Facility (Project S-2052). NPSR was requested by Project Management and DOE-SR to perform a design compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank to support the Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and the Operational Readiness Evaluation (ORE), respectively. The project was reviewed against the design criteria contained in the DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. This report documents the results of the compliance review.