Full Text Available Sexual reproduction is essential for the life cycle of most angiosperms. However, pseudovivipary is an important reproductive strategy in some grasses. In this mode of reproduction, asexual propagules are produced in place of sexual reproductive structures. However, the molecular mechanism of pseudovivipary still remains a mystery. In this work, we found three naturally occurring mutants in rice, namely, phoenix (pho, degenerative palea (dep, and abnormal floral organs (afo. Genetic analysis of them indicated that the stable pseudovivipary mutant pho was a double mutant containing both a Mendelian mutation in DEP and a non-Mendelian mutation in AFO. Further map-based cloning and microarray analysis revealed that dep mutant was caused by a genetic alteration in OsMADS15 while afo was caused by an epigenetic mutation in OsMADS1. Thus, OsMADS1 and OsMADS15 are both required to ensure sexual reproduction in rice and mutations of them lead to the switch of reproductive habit from sexual to asexual in rice. For the first time, our results reveal two regulators for sexual and asexual reproduction modes in flowering plants. In addition, our findings also make it possible to manipulate the reproductive strategy of plants, at least in rice.
Full Text Available ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/AF/AFO7-A/AFO724Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID AFO72...4F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFO724 (AFO724Q) /CSM/AF/AFO7-A/AFO724Q.Seq.d/ ATTGT
Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFO353 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16349-1 AFO353Z (Link... to Original site) - - AFO353Z 738 - - - - Show AFO353 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFO353 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16349-1 Original site URL http://dict...nce ---HQSIQLVIYPPTMQLFAGIKSICTEMAMDGCEKCSGNSPTTTCDVLPVYSSLCMAMP DMSQCANWTKMCSSSG...es) Frame A: ---HQSIQLVIYPPTMQLFAGIKSICTEMAMDGCEKCSGNSPTTTCDVLPVYSSLCMAMP DMSQCAN
Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Badisco, Liesbeth; Vanden Broeck, Jozef
Successful animal reproduction depends on multiple physiological and behavioral processes that take place in a timely and orderly manner in both mating partners. It is not only necessary that all relevant processes are well coordinated, they also need to be adjusted to external factors of abiotic and biotic nature (e.g. population density, mating partner availability). Therefore, it is not surprising that several hormonal factors play a crucial role in the regulation of animal reproductive physiology. In insects (the largest class of animals on planet Earth), lipophilic hormones, such as ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones, as well as several neuropeptides take part in this complex regulation. While some peptides can affect reproduction via an indirect action (e.g. by influencing secretion of juvenile hormone), others exert their regulatory activity by directly targeting the reproductive system. In addition to insect peptides with proven activities, several others were suggested to also play a role in the regulation of reproductive physiology. Because of the long evolutionary history of many insect orders, it is not always clear to what extent functional data obtained in a given species can be extrapolated to other insect taxa. In this paper, we will review the current knowledge concerning the neuropeptidergic regulation of insect reproduction and situate it in a more general physiological context.
Full Text Available It is now recognised that appropriate regulation of reproduction, energy intake and energy expenditure, and thus maintenance of body weight and fertility, relies on complex hypothalamic neuro-circuitry. Feeding and reproductive function are closely linked. During times of under nourishment and falling body fat the reproductive axis is down regulated. Circulating factors and hypothalamic circuits co-ordinate these responses. Leptin has been described to be an important peripheral signal that indicates body fat stores to the hypothalamus and thus links nutrition and reproduction. Leptin acts by altering neuropeptide circuits in the hypothalamus, which alter gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH release and food intake. The importance of key neuropeptide systems identified in rodents is now being established in man. Notably mutations in the melanocortin MC4 receptor are found in up to 4 % of the morbidly obese whilst in a proportion of patients with anorexia nervosa mutations have been identified in the agoutirelated peptide (AgRP gene, which codes for an endogenous antagonist of this receptor. Intranasal administration of a melanocortin fragment known to activate the MC4 receptor decreases adiposity in humans. The melanocortin system has been shown to influence the reproductive axis in rodents. However, the role of the melanocortin system in the control of reproduction in humans remains to be established. Since the discovery of leptin, attention has also been focused on peripheral signals that regulate reproduction, food intake and energy expenditure, either directly or via feedback on hypothalamic circuits. Notable new discoveries in this area include the gastric hormone ghrelin. Circulating ghrelin stimulates food intake in rodents and humans although an influence on the reproductive axis is yet to be reported. Neuropeptidregulation von Appetit und Reproduktion. Mittlerweile gilt es als anerkannt, daß eine entsprechende Regulation der
Dhillo, W S
The UK and international neuroendocrine community was deeply shocked and saddened the unbelievably premature death of Michael Harbuz in Bristol in 2006. Mick was a superb friend and colleague, and played a huge part in the development and activities of the British Neuroendocrine Group/British Society for Neuroendocrinology (BSN), serving as both Membership Secretary and Treasurer between 1999 and 2004. Mick was a leader in the field of neuroendocrine-immune interactions, and brought a great deal of charisma, humour and ability to meetings and conferences. He was also a passionate and committed supporter of the progress of young researchers and of their participation in neuroendocrine events. He recognised that today's postgraduate students and postdoctoral research fellows are tomorrow's neuroendocrine researchers, be it in academia, the health services or industry. To recognise Mick's great commitment to and enthusiasm for postgraduate education both in the University of Bristol and in the BSN, we decided to honour and remember him by instituting the 'Michael Harbuz Young Investigator Prize Lecture' to be delivered annually. Dr Waljit Dhillo from Imperial College London was the inaugural recipient of this award, and presented his lecture at the Annual Meeting of the BSN in Nottingham in September 2007, upon which this review is based. Recent evidence demonstrates that the neuropeptide kisspeptin and its receptor, GPR54, have a fundamental role in initiating the onset of puberty and are important in regulating reproductive function. This review discusses the evidence available from animals and humans demonstrating that kisspeptin potently stimulates the release of gonadotrophins by stimulating the release of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and that a lack of kisspeptin or GPR54 results in reproductive failure.
Maruska, Karen P
Social interactions and relative positions within a dominance hierarchy have helped shape the evolution of reproduction in many animals. Since reproduction is crucial in all animals, and rank typically regulates access to reproductive opportunities, understanding the mechanisms that regulate socially-induced reproductive processes is extremely important. How does position in a dominance hierarchy impact an individual's reproductive behavior, morphology, and physiology? Teleost fishes, and cichlids in particular, are ideally-suited models for studying how social status influences reproduction on multiple levels of biological organization. Here I review the current knowledge on the reproductive behavioral and physiological consequences of relative position in a dominance hierarchy, with a particular focus on male cichlids. Dominant and subordinate social status is typically associated with distinct differences in activity along the entire hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Further, when transitions in social status occur between subordinate and dominant individuals, there are plastic changes from whole-organism behavior to molecular-level gene expression modifications that occur quickly. These rapid changes in behavior and physiology have allowed cichlids the flexibility to adapt to and thrive in their often dynamic physical and social environments. Studies in cichlid fishes have, and will continue, to advance our understanding of how the social environment can modulate molecular, cellular, and behavioral outcomes relevant to reproductive success. Future studies that take advantage of the extreme diversity in mating systems, reproductive tactics, and parental care strategies within the cichlid group will help generate hypotheses and careful experimental tests on the mechanisms governing the social control of reproduction in many vertebrates.
Rodriguez, R.J.; Freeman, D. Carl; McArthur, E.D.; Kim, Y.-O.; Redman, R.S.
The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at five times the rate observed in nonsymbiotic plants. Endophytes also influenced sexual reproduction of mature big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plants. Two spatially distinct big sagebrush subspecies and their hybrids were symbiotic with unique fungal endophytes, despite being separated by only 380 m distance and 60 m elevation. A double reciprocal transplant experiment of parental and hybrid plants, and soils across the hybrid zone showed that fungal endophytes interact with the soils and different plant genotypes to confer enhanced plant reproduction in soil native to the endophyte and reduced reproduction in soil alien to the endophyte. Moreover, the most prevalent endophyte of the hybrid zone reduced the fitness of both parental subspecies. Because these endophytes are passed to the next generation of plants on seed coats, this interaction provides a selective advantage, habitat specificity, and the means of restricting gene flow, thereby making the hybrid zone stable, narrow and potentially leading to speciation. ?? 2009 Landes Bioscience.
Kisspeptin, a key factor in the neuroendocrinological regulation of animal reproduction, is a peptide product encoded by kiss genes, which act as the natural ligand of GPR54. Over the last decade, multiple functional molecular forms of kisspeptin have been found in vertebrate species. In fish, the major molecular structural form is kisspeptin-10. The kisspeptin/GPR54 system has multiple important functions in reproduction. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge on kisspeptin and its role in regulating fish reproductive, including the distribution and location of kisspeptin neurons in the brain, the molecular polymorphism of fish kisspeptin, functional diversity, the molecular mechanism of fish reproductive regulation, and the molecular evolution of kisspeptin as well as the co-regulation of fish reproduction by kisspeptin and other functional molecules. Perspectives on the future of kisspeptin regulation in fish reproduction are also highlighted.
Lee, Young-Shin; Choi, Young-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Kang-Hee
The ankle foot orthosis (AFO) is used as the gait assistive tool for hemiplegic patients. The structural characteristics of the AFO are applied to the state of the patient. However, the prescription guide for hemiplegic patients is not well established. The purpose of this study is to develop design guide to find out the structural characteristics of polypropylene of AFO used for hemiplegics. In this study, the rigidities of dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the AFO with varied types of ankle widths are investigated and performed by using FEM code.
Kim, Yeadong; Jeong, Jihoon
The Asian Forum for Polar Sciences (AFoPS), an international forum of Asian polar research institutes, was established for the advancement of polar sciences among its members in 2004. The Forum has served as an important medium of Asian collective endeavors for polar affairs in human and information exchange, research collaboration, and logistics cooperation for the last decade. The historical development of the AFoPS in retrospect can be divided into four phases: inception and establishment (2003-2004), growth and expansion (2005-2007), review and restructuring (2008-2011), and achievements and further measures (2012-2014). The progress of the AFoPS has not been linear and this trend will continue into the next decades. The Forum, however, clearly made achievements in this period of time, realizing multilateral research and logistics cooperation that would have been previously unimaginable; by doing so, it has laid the foundation for the future. Responsible for a great portion of the world's polar activities, the AFoPS will rise to meet the expectations of the world by producing notable research output, initiating international cooperative programs, and supporting non-polar Asian countries with education and research collaboration. These are the tasks of the AFoPS for the next decade and they require strategy that promotes and facilitates collaboration in a practical way and draws attention of non-polar Asian countries to the polar sciences.
Coston, Duncan J.; Gill, Richard J.; Hammond, Robert L.
Efficient cooperation in eusocial insect colonies requires effective communication, and there is abundant evidence of non-volatile chemicals playing a role in regulating reproduction within colonies. In contrast, there have been fewer studies investigating the role of volatile chemicals. This study investigated the potential role of volatile chemicals in regulating queen reproduction either by directly inhibiting queen reproduction or by honestly signalling queen fecundity to workers. We tested this using multiple queen colonies of the ant ( Leptothorax acervorum) from a functionally monogynous population where one queen monopolizes all reproduction. Nine colonies, each with an established laying queen, were split to produce two colony fragments—one containing the reproducing queen (group 1) and one containing only previously non-reproducing queens (group 2). Each group was separated by a fine wire mesh preventing physical contact, but allowing volatile chemical contact. In each group 2 fragment, we found that a single formerly non-reproductive queen commenced reproduction and that the rate of egg laying and maximum number of eggs recorded did not significantly differ between groups 1 and 2, results that do not support volatile chemicals as playing a role in regulating queen reproduction. Instead, our findings suggest that physical contact is necessary to maintain functional monogyny.
Watts, Heather E; Hahn, Thomas P
In order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable conditions, animals use environmental cues to up- and down-regulate the reproductive axis appropriately. Although photoperiodic cues are one of the best studied of such environmental cues, animals also attend to others such as temperature, food availability, rainfall and social cues. Such non-photic cues are expected to be particularly important for tropical species and temperate-zone species that exhibit flexible or opportunistic breeding schedules. In this study, we investigate the use of non-photic cues, specifically food availability and social cues, to time the initiation of reproductive development in the pine siskin (Spinus pinus), a temperate-zone songbird with a flexible breeding schedule. Following winter solstice, males were housed on a 12L:12D photoperiod with either access to a preferred food, a potential mate (social cue), or both. Control birds received only maintenance diet and no mate. Access to a preferred food had a significant positive effect on testis size and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH). However, we found no effect of social treatment on reproductive development. The effect of the food treatment on reproductive development did not appear to result from effects on body mass or fat, as neither measure differed across treatments. The food treatment influenced not only reproductive physiology, but also reproductive behavior in this species, as access to seeds had a positive effect on affiliation of pairs. This study demonstrates that food is a potent stimulus for the initiation of reproductive development in pine siskins.
Sheĭman, I M; Sakharova, N Iu; Tiras, Kh P; Shkutin, M F; Isaeva, V V
We studied asexual reproduction of planarians under the natural and artificial photoperiodic conditions. It was shown that light inhibits the fission of planarians, while darkness stimulates it. The diurnal dynamics of the fission of planarians demonstrated a circadian rhythm. This rhythm is stable, which is expressed when the conditions are experimentally changed: constant darkness, unnatural rhythm of light-darkness succession). However, this stability is affected at the time zone change. The planarians are adapted to new conditions and begin to fission at once in correspondence with the new diurnal regime.
Sánchez-Murillo, Rosa Icela; de la Torre-Martínez, Mayra; Aguirre-Linares, Jesús; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo
The entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus has been successfully used in the control of several insect pests. Asexually produced spores (conidia) are the means for dispersal and transmission of the entomopathogen; upon contact with the insect cuticle they germinate and penetrate the host. In model fungal systems it has been found that phototropism, resetting of the circadian rhythm, the induction of carotenogenesis and the development of reproductive structures are controlled by blue light. The effect of light quality on conidial yield of P. fumosoroseus was investigated. Incubation in total darkness resulted in continued vegetative growth and lack of reproductive structures. In contrast, growth of the fungus in continuous illumination or under a night-day regime resulted in prolific formation of conidiophores bearing abundant mature conidia. Conidiation was photoinduced in competent mycelia by a single pulse of blue light and colonies were competent only after they had grown at least 72 h under total darkness. The fluence-response curves generated with blue light indicated that the minimal fluence required for the photomorphogenetic response was 180 micro mol m(-2) and the half-maximal response was at 400 micro mol m(-2). A fluence of 540 micro mol m(-2) was enough to saturate the system, inducing the maximum production of 2.12x10(8) conidia per colony. Higher light intensities markedly decreased conidiation, suggesting the occurrence of a process of adaptation. The authors propose the existence of a dual light-perception system with at least two photoreceptors in P. fumosoroseus, one promoting and one inhibiting conidiation.
Full Text Available Appropriate nutrient response is essential for growth and reproduction. Under favorable nutrient conditions, the C. elegans nuclear receptor DAF-12 is activated by dafachronic acids, hormones that commit larvae to reproductive growth. Here, we report that in addition to its well-studied role in controlling developmental gene expression, the DAF-12 endocrine system governs expression of a gene network that stimulates the aerobic catabolism of fatty acids. Thus, activation of the DAF-12 transcriptome coordinately mobilizes energy stores to permit reproductive growth. DAF-12 regulation of this metabolic gene network is conserved in the human parasite, Strongyloides stercoralis, and inhibition of specific steps in this network blocks reproductive growth in both of the nematodes. Our study provides a molecular understanding for metabolic adaptation of nematodes to their environment, and suggests a new therapeutic strategy for treating parasitic diseases.
Wu, J; Miller, B L
The Stunted protein (StuAp) is a member of a family of transcription factors that regulate fungal development and cell cycle progression. Regulated stuA gene expression is required for correct cell pattern formation during asexual reproduction (conidiation) and for initiation of the sexual reproductive cycle in Aspergillus nidulans. Transcriptional initiation from two different promoters yields overlapping mRNAs (stuA alpha and stuAbeta) that upon translation yield the same protein. Here we show that multiple regulatory mechanisms interact to control (i) developmental competence-dependent expression of both transcripts and (ii) induction-dependent expression of stuA alpha, but not stuAbeta, by the conidiation-specific Bristle (BrlAp) transcriptional activator. Quantitative levels of both mRNAs are further modulated by (i) an activator(s) located at a far-upstream upstream activation sequence, (ii) feedback regulation by StuAp, and (iii) positive translational regulation that requires the peptide product of a micro-open reading frame unique to the stuA alpha mRNA 5' untranslated region. Gradients in stuA alpha expression were most important for correct cell and tissue type development. Threshold requirements were as follows: metula-phialide differentiation < ascosporogenesis < cleistothecial shell-Hülle cell differentiation. Altered stuA expression affected conidiophore morphology and conidial yields quantitatively but did not alter the temporal development of cell types or conidiophore density. By contrast, the sexual cycle showed both temporal delay and quantitative reduction in the number of cleistothecial initials but normal morphogenesis of tissue types.
Wang, Wei-yi; Xu, Guo-Heng
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) has long been considered as a classical rate-limiting enzyme during lipolysis since it was first described in 1960s. HSL is regulated mainly by catecholamine, including adrenalin. Studies in recent years indicated that the substrates for HSL are not only triglycerides, but also diacylglycerol with the catalytic activity is ten times that of triglycerides, glycerol esters and cholesterol esters, which overthrow the opinion that HSL is specific to triglyceride. The scientists have generated HSL gene knockout mice and confirmed HSL is widely located in the reproductive system, which indicates that HSL may play an important role in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process in the reproductive system. Here, we will focus on the features of the HSL gene, mRNA and its protein, and summarize the HSL functions in the reproductive system.
Hsiao Chang CHAN
@@ Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated Cl- channel, mutations of which are responsible for defective Cl- and/or HCO-3 secretions seen in cystic fibrosis (CF), a common lethal genetic disease affecting most exocrine glands/organs, including the lungs, intestine, pancreas and reproductive tracts of both sexes.
Full Text Available A laboratory study was undertaken to determine the effect of food quality on feeding, respiration, reproduction and the resulting carbon budget of Temora longicornis. The stoichiometric ratios N : P, C : N and C : P of Rhodomonas salina were used as indicators of food quality. R. salina was grown in media with different inorganic nutrient concentrations to produce food for T. longicornis with particulate organic N : P ratios ranging from 10 : 1 to 23 : 1. Feeding rate was not affected by food quality. Maximum respiration (R, egg production rate (EPR, assimilation efficiency (AE, gross growth efficiency (GGE and metabolic increment (MI occurred when T. longicornis was fed on phytoplankton with a food quality of 16N : 1P. EPR, GGE and AE also decreased with decreasing C : N ratio and the energy required to produce eggs (CoE decreased with decreasing N : P ratio, indicative of nitrogen-dependent production. These data suggest that an algal composition of 16N : 1P defines the Threshold Elemental Ratio (TER and is the optimum diet for T. longicornis. The variations in metabolic rates and the resulting carbon budget are proportional to the quality of food ingested. GGE was negatively affected at dietary ratios above and below 16N : 1P, which in the natural environment could lead to a decline in species biomass with detrimental consequences for fisheries and carbon export. Field data show that phytoplankton organic N : P ratios can change on decadal timescales, and that an increase in the food N : P ratio can co-occur with a shift to smaller sized zooplankton and a change in species abundance. Further research is required to assess how much of the change in zooplankton community structure and activity can be attributed to changes in food quality, rather than to changes in temperature and food quantity.
Ball, Gregory F; Ketterson, Ellen D
Although it is axiomatic that males and females differ in relation to many aspects of reproduction related to physiology, morphology and behaviour, relatively little is known about possible sex differences in the response to cues from the environment that control the timing of seasonal breeding. This review concerns the environmental regulation of seasonal reproduction in birds and how this process might differ between males and females. From an evolutionary perspective, the sexes can be expected to differ in the cues they use to time reproduction. Female reproductive fitness typically varies more as a function of fecundity selection, while male reproductive fitness varies more as a function sexual selection. Consequently, variation in the precision of the timing of egg laying is likely to have more serious fitness consequences for females than for males, while variation in the timing of recrudescence of the male testes and accompanying territory establishment and courtship are likely to have more serious fitness consequences for males. From the proximate perspective, sex differences in the control of reproduction could be regulated via the response to photoperiod or in the relative importance and action of supplementary factors (such as temperature, food supply, nesting sites and behavioural interactions) that adjust the timing of reproduction so that it is in step with local conditions. For example, there is clear evidence in several temperate zone avian species that females require both supplementary factors and long photoperiods in order for follicles to develop, while males can attain full gonadal size based on photoperiodic stimulation alone. The neuroendocrine basis of these sex differences is not well understood, though there are many candidate mechanisms in the brain as well as throughout the entire hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis that might be important.
Maruska, Karen P; Fernald, Russell D
Social interactions with the outcome of a position in a dominance hierarchy can have profound effects on reproductive behavior and physiology, requiring animals to integrate environmental information with their internal physiological state; but how is salient information from the animal's dynamic social environment transformed into adaptive behavioral, physiological, and molecular-level changes? The African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, is ideally suited to understand socially controlled reproductive plasticity because activity of the male reproductive (brain-pituitary-gonad) axis is tightly linked to social status. Males form hierarchies in which a small percentage of brightly colored dominant individuals have an active reproductive axis, defend territories, and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, drably colored, do not hold a territory, and have a suppressed reproductive system with minimal opportunities for spawning. These social phenotypes are plastic and quickly reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. Here, we review the rapid and remarkable plasticity that occurs along the entire reproductive axis when males rise in social rank, a transition that has important implications for the operational sex ratio of the population. When males rise in rank, transformations occur in the brain, pituitary, circulation, and testes over short time-scales (minutes to days). Changes are evident in overt behavior, as well as modifications at the physiological, cellular, and molecular levels that regulate reproductive capacity. Widespread changes triggered by a switch in rank highlight the significance of external social information in shaping internal physiology and reproductive competence.
Dickinson, Rachel E; Duncan, W Colin
The secreted SLIT glycoproteins and their Roundabout (ROBO) receptors were originally identified as important axon guidance molecules. They function as a repulsive cue with an evolutionarily conserved role in preventing axons from migrating to inappropriate locations during the assembly of the nervous system. In addition the SLIT-ROBO interaction is involved in the regulation of cell migration, cell death and angiogenesis and, as such, has a pivotal role during the development of other tissues such as the lung, kidney, liver and breast. The cellular functions that the SLIT/ROBO pathway controls during tissue morphogenesis are processes that are dysregulated during cancer development. Therefore inactivation of certain SLITs and ROBOs is associated with advanced tumour formation and progression in disparate tissues. Recent research has indicated that the SLIT/ROBO pathway could also have important functions in the reproductive system. The fetal ovary expresses most members of the SLIT and ROBO families. The SLITs and ROBOs also appear to be regulated by steroid hormones and regulate physiological cell functions in adult reproductive tissues such as the ovary and endometrium. Furthermore several SLITs and ROBOs are aberrantly expressed during the development of ovarian, endometrial, cervical and prostate cancer. This review will examine the roles this pathway could have in the development, physiology and pathology of the reproductive system and highlight areas for future research that could further dissect the influence of the SLIT/ROBO pathway in reproduction.
Traverso, Jose A; Pulido, Amada; Rodríguez-García, María I; Alché, Juan D
The success of sexual reproduction in plants involves (i) the proper formation of the plant gametophytes (pollen and embryo sac) containing the gametes, (ii) the accomplishment of specific interactions between pollen grains and the stigma, which subsequently lead to (iii) the fusion of the gametes and eventually to (iv) the seed setting. Owing to the lack of mobility, plants have developed specific regulatory mechanisms to control all developmental events underlying the sexual plant reproduction according to environmental challenges. Over the last decade, redox regulation and signaling have come into sight as crucial mechanisms able to manage critical stages during sexual plant reproduction. This regulation involves a complex redox network which includes reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), glutathione and other classic buffer molecules or antioxidant proteins, and some thiol/disulphide-containing proteins belonging to the thioredoxin superfamily, like glutaredoxins (GRXs) or thioredoxins (TRXs). These proteins participate as critical elements not only in the switch between the mitotic to the meiotic cycle but also at further developmental stages of microsporogenesis. They are also implicated in the regulation of pollen rejection as the result of self-incompatibility. In addition, they display precise space-temporal patterns of expression and are present in specific localizations like the stigmatic papillae or the mature pollen, although their functions and subcellular localizations are not clear yet. In this review we summarize insights and perspectives about the presence of thiol/disulphide-containing proteins in plant reproduction, taking into account the general context of the cell redox network.
Reproductive steroid hormones can disrupt the endocrine system of some species at ng/L concentrations. Sources of steroid hormones to the environment include human waste water effluents or manure produced at animal feeding operations (AFOs). Steroid hormones, such as 17ß-estradiol (E2) and estrone (...
Full Text Available In article the problem of formation of a regional family, youth policy is considered, necessity of regulation of processes of reproduction of the population, especially, in the conditions of the proceeding demographic crisis assuming presence of is standard-legal base, corresponding to the decision of problems of demographic development of region is proved. Results of the spent sociological interrogations on problems of family-marriage, reproductive behaviour of youth, and also the relation of the population of younger age groups to the state measures, the young families directed on support, birth rate increase are analyzed. The series of measures for increase family-marriage, reproductive, socio-labor activity of the population and, first of all, youth is offered.
Stevenson, Tyler J.; Ball, Gregory F.
Seasonal breeding in the temperate zone is a dramatic example of a naturally occurring change in physiology and behaviour. Cues that predict periods of environmental amelioration favourable for breeding must be processed by the brain so that the appropriate responses in reproductive physiology can be implemented. The neural integration of several environmental cues converges on discrete hypothalamic neurons in order to regulate reproductive physiology. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH1) and Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in avian and mammalian species, respectively, show marked variation in expression that is positively associated with breeding state. We applied the constancy/contingency model of predictability to investigate how GnRH1 and Kiss1 integrate different environmental cues to regulate reproduction. We show that variation in GnRH1 from a highly seasonal avian species exhibits a predictive change that is primarily based on contingency information. Opportunistic species have low measures of predictability and exhibit a greater contribution of constancy information that is sex-dependent. In hamsters, Kiss1 exhibited a predictive change in expression that was predominantly contingency information and is anatomically localized. The model applied here provides a framework for studies geared towards determining the impact of variation in climate patterns to reproductive success in vertebrate species. PMID:21208957
Stevenson, Tyler J; Ball, Gregory F
Seasonal breeding in the temperate zone is a dramatic example of a naturally occurring change in physiology and behaviour. Cues that predict periods of environmental amelioration favourable for breeding must be processed by the brain so that the appropriate responses in reproductive physiology can be implemented. The neural integration of several environmental cues converges on discrete hypothalamic neurons in order to regulate reproductive physiology. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH1) and Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in avian and mammalian species, respectively, show marked variation in expression that is positively associated with breeding state. We applied the constancy/contingency model of predictability to investigate how GnRH1 and Kiss1 integrate different environmental cues to regulate reproduction. We show that variation in GnRH1 from a highly seasonal avian species exhibits a predictive change that is primarily based on contingency information. Opportunistic species have low measures of predictability and exhibit a greater contribution of constancy information that is sex-dependent. In hamsters, Kiss1 exhibited a predictive change in expression that was predominantly contingency information and is anatomically localized. The model applied here provides a framework for studies geared towards determining the impact of variation in climate patterns to reproductive success in vertebrate species.
Oka, Ayako; Takada, Toyoyuki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Shiroishi, Toshihiko
Improper gene regulation is implicated in reproductive isolation, but its genetic and molecular bases are unknown. We previously reported that a mouse inter-subspecific X chromosome substitution strain shows reproductive isolation characterized by male-specific sterility due to disruption of meiotic entry in spermatogenesis. Here, we conducted comprehensive transcriptional profiling of the testicular cells of this strain by microarray. The results clearly revealed gross misregulation of gene expression in the substituted donor X chromosome. Such misregulation occurred prior to detectable spermatogenetic impairment, suggesting that it is a primal event in reproductive isolation. The misregulation of X-linked genes showed asymmetry; more genes were disproportionally downregulated rather than upregulated. Furthermore, this misregulation subsequently resulted in perturbation of global transcriptional regulation of autosomal genes, probably by cascading deleterious effects. Remarkably, this transcriptional misregulation was substantially restored by introduction of chromosome 1 from the same donor strain as the X chromosome. This finding implies that one of regulatory genes acting in trans for X-linked target genes is located on chromosome 1. This study collectively suggests that regulatory incompatibility is a major cause of reproductive isolation in the X chromosome substitution strain.
Migaud, H; Davie, A; Taylor, J F
Seasonality is an important adaptive trait in temperate fish species as it entrains or regulates most physiological events such as reproductive cycle, growth profile, locomotor activity and key life-stage transitions. Photoperiod is undoubtedly one of the most predictable environmental signals that can be used by most living organisms including fishes in temperate areas. This said, however, understanding of how such a simple signal can dictate the time of gonadal recruitment and spawning, for example, is a complex task. Over the past few decades, many scientists attempted to unravel the roots of photoperiodic signalling in teleosts by investigating the role of melatonin in reproduction, but without great success. In fact, the hormone melatonin is recognized as the biological time-keeping hormone in fishes mainly due to the fact that it reflects the seasonal variation in daylength across the whole animal kingdom rather than the existence of direct evidences of its role in the entrainment of reproduction in fishes. Recently, however, some new studies clearly suggested that melatonin interacts with the reproductive cascade at a number of key steps such as through the dopaminergic system in the brain or the synchronization of the final oocyte maturation in the gonad. Interestingly, in the past few years, additional pathways have become apparent in the search for a fish photoneuroendocrine system including the clock-gene network and kisspeptin signalling and although research on these topics are still in their infancy, it is moving at great pace. This review thus aims to bring together the current knowledge on the photic control of reproduction mainly focusing on seasonal temperate fish species and shape the current working hypotheses supported by recent findings obtained in teleosts or based on knowledge gathered in mammalian and avian species. Four of the main potential regulatory systems (light perception, melatonin, clock genes and kisspeptin) in fish reproduction
Full Text Available Abstract Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues. In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART. Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions. In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions. Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance.
Traverso, Jose A.; Pulido, Amada; Rodríguez-García, María I.; Alché, Juan D.
The success of sexual reproduction in plants involves (i) the proper formation of the plant gametophytes (pollen and embryo sac) containing the gametes, (ii) the accomplishment of specific interactions between pollen grains and the stigma, which subsequently lead to (iii) the fusion of the gametes and eventually to (iv) the seed setting. Owing to the lack of mobility, plants have developed specific regulatory mechanisms to control all developmental events underlying the sexual plant reproduction according to environmental challenges. Over the last decade, redox regulation and signaling have come into sight as crucial mechanisms able to manage critical stages during sexual plant reproduction. This regulation involves a complex redox network which includes reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), glutathione and other classic buffer molecules or antioxidant proteins, and some thiol/disulphide-containing proteins belonging to the thioredoxin superfamily, like glutaredoxins (GRXs) or thioredoxins (TRXs). These proteins participate as critical elements not only in the switch between the mitotic to the meiotic cycle but also at further developmental stages of microsporogenesis. They are also implicated in the regulation of pollen rejection as the result of self-incompatibility. In addition, they display precise space-temporal patterns of expression and are present in specific localizations like the stigmatic papillae or the mature pollen, although their functions and subcellular localizations are not clear yet. In this review we summarize insights and perspectives about the presence of thiol/disulphide-containing proteins in plant reproduction, taking into account the general context of the cell redox network. PMID:24294217
Winkler, R.; Zock, H.; Koppmann, R.
The Earth's atmosphere will change in the next decades with evident and increased unwanted effects on the living conditions, as a result of growing anthropogenic in- fluences in combination with climate variability. The wish to counteract and correct the resulting dangers requires comprehensive knowledge of all factors determining the conditions and dynamics of the atmosphere. Only through this knowledge a continued development of diagnostic and prognostic models will be possible, which then allows to estimate and assess adequately the effect and outcome of technical and administra- tive precautionary strategies. In order to identify the needs more precisely and to estab- lish priorities for their assessment, a working group was appointed which defined the relevant research tasks for future projects in the "Concept for Priority Mid-term Ger- man Atmospheric Research". This concept lead to announcement of the main funding focus "Atmospheric Research 2000" (AFO2000) within the German "Environmental Research Programme". The projects of AFO2000 are thematically structured into 4 in- terdisciplinary groups: 1. Surface-Atmosphere-Interactions, 2. Dynamics-Chemistry- Interactions, 3.Gas-Liquid-Solid Phase-Interactions, and 4. Overall Synthesis - Gen- eral Aspects. The first theme focuses on the chemical emissions, transport of mass and energy through the boundary layer into the free troposphere, chemical transformations near the surface, and other issues related to air quality. The second theme includes is- sues such as long-range and convective transport, and global budget of chemical com- pounds, as well as mesospheric and stratospheric processes. The third theme addresses the problems related to the microphysics and chemistry of different types of aerosols and the role of aerosol chemical composition in cloud formation. Finally, as part of the fourth theme, a large synthesis effort will be made using observational data and models. Here, the most advanced models will be
BACKGROUND:Trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloaretic acids (HAAs) are regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs); their joint reproductive toxicity in drinking water is unknown.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate a drinking water mixture of the four regulated THMs and five regulated HAAs ...
Camille Melón, Laverne; Maguire, Jamie
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes are regulated by GABAergic signaling at the level of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, respectively. Under basal conditions, activity of CRH and GnRH neurons are controlled in part by both phasic and tonic GABAergic inhibition, mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs), respectively. For CRH neurons, this tonic GABAergic inhibition is mediated by extrasynaptic, δ subunit-containing GABAARs. Similarly, a THIP-sensitive tonic GABAergic current has been shown to regulate GnRH neurons, suggesting a role for δ subunit-containing GABAARs; however, this remains to be explicitly demonstrated. GABAARs incorporating the δ subunit confer neurosteroid sensitivity, suggesting a potential role for neurosteroid modulation in the regulation of the HPA and HPG axes. Thus, stress-derived neurosteroids may contribute to the impact of stress on reproductive function. Interestingly, excitatory actions of GABA have been demonstrated in both CRH neurons at the apex of control of the HPA axis and in GnRH neurons which mediate the HPG axis, adding to the complexity for the role of GABAergic signaling in the regulation of these systems. Here we review the effects that stress has on GnRH neurons and HPG axis function alongside evidence supporting GABAARs as a major interface between the stress and reproductive axes.
Heeren, Gino; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Laun, Peter; von Seyerl, Phyllis; Kössler, Sonja; Klinger, Harald; Hager, Matthias; Bogengruber, Edith; Jarolim, Stefanie; Simon-Nobbe, Birgit; Schüller, Christoph; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Breitenbach-Koller, Lore; Mück, Christoph; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Criollo, Alfredo; Kroemer, Guido; Madeo, Frank; Breitenbach, Michael
Yeast mother cell-specific aging constitutes a model of replicative aging as it occurs in stem cell populations of higher eukaryotes. Here, we present a new long-lived yeast deletion mutation,afo1 (for aging factor one), that confers a 60% increase in replicative lifespan. AFO1/MRPL25 codes for a protein that is contained in the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome. Double mutant experiments indicate that the longevity-increasing action of the afo1 mutation is independent of mitochondrial translation, yet involves the cytoplasmic Tor1p as well as the growth-controlling transcription factor Sfp1p. In their final cell cycle, the long-lived mutant cells do show the phenotypes of yeast apoptosis indicating that the longevity of the mutant is not caused by an inability to undergo programmed cell death. Furthermore, the afo1 mutation displays high resistance against oxidants. Despite the respiratory deficiency the mutant has paradoxical increase in growth rate compared to generic petite mutants. A comparison of the single and double mutant strains for afo1 and fob1 shows that the longevity phenotype of afo1 is independent of the formation of ERCs (ribosomal DNA minicircles). AFO1/MRPL25 function establishes a new connection between mitochondria, metabolism and aging.
Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don
This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis.
Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy
To begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (Vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. RNA interference studied showed that expression of Vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. Juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) and GATAa but not ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its partner, ultraspiracle (USP) are required for expression of Vg genes. Feeding and mating working through Vg, Met, SRC, EcR, and GATAa regulate oocyte development. Knockdown of the expression of Met, SRC, EcR, USP, BR-C (Broad-Complex), TOR (target of rapamycin), and GATAa in female adults resulted in a reduction in the number eggs laid by them. Interestingly, Kruppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) knockdown in the adult females did not reduce their fecundity but affected the development of embryos in the eggs laid by females injected with Kr-h1 double-stranded RNA. These data suggest that JH functioning through Met and SRC regulate both vitellogenesis and oogenesis in C. lectularius. However, JH does not work through Kr-h1 but may work through transcription factors not yet identified. PMID:27762340
The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 was one of the most comprehensive and flexible vehicles for regulation of artificial reproduction and embryology of its area. However, its serviceability has recently been brought into question by both the materialisation of unforeseen dilemmas and the response of legal actors to these dilemma's which has often been ethically and democratically deficient. Nowhere is this better demonstrated than in the reproach of the regulatory authority and judiciary to the use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and cloning by cell nuclear replacement.
Smith, J T
Sheep are seasonal breeders, experiencing an annual period of reproductive quiescence in response to increased photoperiod during the late-winter into spring and renaissance during the late summer. The nonbreeding (anestrous) season is characterized by a reduction in the pulsatile secretion of GnRH from the brain, in part because of an increase in negative feedback activity of estrogen. Neuronal populations in the hypothalamus that produce kisspeptin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) appear to be important for the seasonal shift in reproductive activity, and the former are also mandatory for puberty onset. Kisspeptin cells in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and preoptic area appear to regulate GnRH neurons and transmit sex-steroid feedback signals to these neurons. Moreover, kisspeptin expression in the ARC is markedly up-regulated at the onset of the breeding season, as too are the number of kisspeptin fibers in close apposition to GnRH neurons. The lower levels of kisspeptin seen during the nonbreeding season can be "corrected" by infusion of kisspeptin, which causes ovulation in seasonally acyclic females. The role of GnIH is less clear, but mounting evidence supports a role for this neuropeptide in the inhibitory regulation of both GnRH secretion and gonadotropin release from the pituitary gland. Contrary to kisspeptin, GnIH expression is markedly reduced at the onset of the breeding season. In addition, the number of GnIH fibers in close apposition to GnRH neurons also decreases during this time. Importantly, exogenous GnIH treatment can block both the pulsatile release of LH and the preovulatory LH surge during the breeding season. In summary, it is most likely the integrated function of both these neuropeptide systems that modulate the annual shift in photoperiod to a physiological change in fertility.
CUMULATIVE TOXICITY OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT MIXTURE OF NINE REGULATED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN A MULTIGENERATIONAL RAT REPRODUCTIVE BIOASSAY J E Simmons, GR. Klinefelter, JM Goldman, AB DeAngelo, DS Best, A McDonald, LF Strader, AS Murr, JD Suarez, MH George, ES Hunte...
Eastwood, Daniel C; Herman, Bram; Noble, Ralph; Dobrovin-Pennington, Andreja; Sreenivasaprasad, S; Burton, Kerry S
Reproductive phase change from vegetative mycelium to the initiation of fruiting in Agaricus bisporus is regulated in large part by the sensing of environmental conditions. A model is proposed in which three separate environmental factors exert control at different stages of the reproductive developmental process change. The eight carbon volatile 1-octen-3-ol controls the early differentiation from vegetative hyphae to multicellular knots; temperature reduction is essential for the later differentiation of primodia; and carbon dioxide level exerts quantitative control on the number of fruiting bodies developed. Analysis of transcriptomic changes during the reproductive phase change was carried out with initiation-specific microarrays, and the newly published A. bisporus genome was used to analyse the promoter regions of differentially regulated genes. Our studies have shown there to be both early and late initiation responses relating to sensing of eight carbon volatiles and temperature respectively. A subset of 45 genes was transcriptionally regulated during the reproductive phase change which exhibited a range of functions including cell structure, nitrogen and carbon metabolism, and sensing and signalling. Three gene clusters linking increased transcription with developmental stage were identified. Analysis of promoter regions revealed cluster-specific conserved motifs indicative of co-ordinated regulation of transcription.
Fuchs, Silke; Behrends, Volker; Bundy, Jacob G; Crisanti, Andrea; Nolan, Tony
The blood meal of the female malaria mosquito is a pre-requisite to egg production and also represents the transmission route for the malaria parasite. The proper and rapid assimilation of proteins and nutrients in the blood meal creates a significant metabolic challenge for the mosquito. To better understand this process we generated a global profile of metabolite changes in response to blood meal of Anopheles gambiae, using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). To disrupt a key pathway of amino acid metabolism we silenced the gene phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) involved in the conversion of the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine. We observed increased levels of phenylalanine and the potentially toxic metabolites phenylpyruvate and phenyllactate as well as a reduction in the amount of tyrosine available for melanin synthesis. This in turn resulted in a significant impairment of the melanotic encapsulation response against the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Furthermore silencing of PAH resulted in a significant impairment of mosquito fertility associated with reduction of laid eggs, retarded vitellogenesis and impaired melanisation of the chorion. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the downstream enzyme DOPA decarboxylase that coverts DOPA into dopamine, produced similar effects on egg melanization and hatching rate suggesting that egg chorion maturation is mainly regulated via dopamine. This study sheds new light on the role of amino acid metabolism in regulating reproduction and immunity.
Full Text Available The blood meal of the female malaria mosquito is a pre-requisite to egg production and also represents the transmission route for the malaria parasite. The proper and rapid assimilation of proteins and nutrients in the blood meal creates a significant metabolic challenge for the mosquito. To better understand this process we generated a global profile of metabolite changes in response to blood meal of Anopheles gambiae, using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. To disrupt a key pathway of amino acid metabolism we silenced the gene phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH involved in the conversion of the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine. We observed increased levels of phenylalanine and the potentially toxic metabolites phenylpyruvate and phenyllactate as well as a reduction in the amount of tyrosine available for melanin synthesis. This in turn resulted in a significant impairment of the melanotic encapsulation response against the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Furthermore silencing of PAH resulted in a significant impairment of mosquito fertility associated with reduction of laid eggs, retarded vitellogenesis and impaired melanisation of the chorion. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the downstream enzyme DOPA decarboxylase that coverts DOPA into dopamine, produced similar effects on egg melanization and hatching rate suggesting that egg chorion maturation is mainly regulated via dopamine. This study sheds new light on the role of amino acid metabolism in regulating reproduction and immunity.
García-Fernández, José M; Cernuda-Cernuda, Rafael; Davies, Wayne I L; Rodgers, Jessica; Turton, Michael; Peirson, Stuart N; Follett, Brian K; Halford, Stephanie; Hughes, Steven; Hankins, Mark W; Foster, Russell G
Extraretinal photoreceptors located within the medio-basal hypothalamus regulate the photoperiodic control of seasonal reproduction in birds. An action spectrum for this response describes an opsin photopigment with a λmax of ∼ 492 nm. Beyond this however, the specific identity of the photopigment remains unresolved. Several candidates have emerged including rod-opsin; melanopsin (OPN4); neuropsin (OPN5); and vertebrate ancient (VA) opsin. These contenders are evaluated against key criteria used routinely in photobiology to link orphan photopigments to specific biological responses. To date, only VA opsin can easily satisfy all criteria and we propose that this photopigment represents the prime candidate for encoding daylength and driving seasonal breeding in birds. We also show that VA opsin is co-expressed with both gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) neurons. These new data suggest that GnRH and AVT neurosecretory pathways are endogenously photosensitive and that our current understanding of how these systems are regulated will require substantial revision.
Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W; Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, C Michael; Reckhow, Kenneth H
Animal feeding operations (AFOs) have been implicated as potentially major sources of estrogenic contaminants into the aquatic environment due to the relatively minimal treatment of waste and potential mobilization and transport of waste components from spray fields. In this study a Bayesian network (BN) model was developed to inform management decisions and better predict the transport and fate of natural steroidal estrogens from these sites. The developed BN model integrates processes of surface runoff and sediment loss with the modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) and the soil conservation service curve number (SCS-CN) runoff model. What-if scenario simulations of lagoon slurry wastes to the spray fields were conducted for the most abundant natural estrogen estrone (E1) observed in the system. It was found that E1 attenuated significantly after 2 months following waste slurry application in both spring and summer seasons, with the overall attenuation rate predicted to be higher in the summer compared to the spring. Using simulations of rainfall events in conjunction with waste slurry application rates, it was predicted that the magnitude of E1 runoff loss is significantly higher in the spring as compared to the summer months, primarily due to spray field crop management plans. Our what-if scenario analyses suggest that planting Bermuda grass in the spray fields is likely to reduce runoff losses of natural estrogens near the water bodies and ecosystems, as compared to planting of soybeans.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because of its ethical and social implications, preimplantation sex selection is frequently the subject of debates. METHODS: In 2006, we surveyed specialists in reproductive medicine in Germany using an anonymous questionnaire, including sociodemographic data and questions regarding ethical problems occurring in the practice of reproductive medicine. Most questions focused on preimplantation sex selection, including 10 case vignettes, since these enabled us to describe the most difficult and ethically controversial situations. This is the first survey among specialists in reproductive medicine regarding this topic in Germany. RESULTS: 114 specialists in reproductive medicine participated, 72 males (63% and 42 females (37%, average age was 48 years (age range 29-67 years. The majority of respondents (79% favoured a regulation that limits the use of preimplantation sex selection only for medical reasons, such as X-linked diseases (including 18%: summoning an ethics commission for every case. A minority of 18% approved of the use of sex selection for non-medical reasons (4% generally and further 14% for family balancing. 90% had received obvious requests from patients. The highest approval (46% got the counselling guideline against a preimplantation sex selection and advising a normal pregnancy, if preimplantation sex selection would be allowed in Germany. The majority (67% was opposed the personal use of preimplantation sex selection for non-medical reasons, but would think about it in medical cases. In opposite to woman, 14% of the men were in favour of personal use for non-medical reasons (p=0,043. 25% of specialists in reproductive medicine feared that an allowance of preimplantation sex selection would cause a shift in the sex ratio. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of German specialists in reproductive medicine opposes preimplantation sex selection for non-medical reasons while recommending preimplantation sex selection for medical
Sakurai, Toshihide; Lee, Hayoung; Kashima, Makoto; Saito, Yumi; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Kudome-Takamatsu, Tomomi; Nishimura, Osamu; Agata, Kiyokazu; Shibata, Norito
The growth in size of freshwater planarians in response to nutrient intake is limited by the eventual separation of tail and body fragments in a process called fission. The resulting tail fragment regenerates the entire body as an artificially amputated tail fragment would do, and the body fragment regenerates a tail, resulting in two whole planarians. This regenerative ability is supported by pluripotent somatic stem cells, called neoblasts, which are distributed throughout almost the entire body of the planarian. Neoblasts are the only planarian cells with the ability to continuously proliferate and give rise to all types of cells during regeneration, asexual reproduction, homeostasis, and growth. In order to investigate the molecular characteristics of neoblasts, we conducted an extensive search for neoblast-specific genes using the High Coverage Expression Profiling (HiCEP) method, and tested the function of the resulting candidates by RNAi. Disruption of the expression of one candidate gene, DjP2X-A (Dugesia japonica membrane protein P2X homologue), resulted in a unique phenotype. DjP2X-A RNAi leads to an increase of fission events upon feeding. We confirmed by immunohistochemistry that DjP2X-A is a membrane protein, and elucidated its role in regulating neoblast proliferation, thereby explaining its unique phenotype. We found that DjP2X-A decreases the burst of neoblast proliferation that normally occurs after feeding. We also found that DjP2X-A is required for normal proliferation in starved animals. We propose that DjP2X-A modulates stem cell proliferation in response to the nutritional condition.
Lucas, Keira J; Roy, Sourav; Ha, Jisu; Gervaise, Amanda L; Kokoza, Vladimir A; Raikhel, Alexander S
Female mosquitoes require a blood meal for reproduction, and this blood meal provides the underlying mechanism for the spread of many important vector-borne diseases in humans. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms linked to mosquito blood meal processes and reproductive events is of particular importance for devising innovative vector control strategies. We found that the conserved microRNA miR-8 is an essential regulator of mosquito reproductive events. Two strategies to inhibit miR-8 function in vivo were used for functional characterization: systemic antagomir depletion and spatiotemporal inhibition using the miRNA sponge transgenic method in combination with the yeast transcriptional activator gal4 protein/upstream activating sequence system. Depletion of miR-8 in the female mosquito results in defects related to egg development and deposition. We used a multialgorithm approach for miRNA target prediction in mosquito 3' UTRs and experimentally verified secreted wingless-interacting molecule (swim) as an authentic target of miR-8. Our findings demonstrate that miR-8 controls the activity of the long-range Wingless (Wg) signaling by regulating Swim expression in the female fat body. We discovered that the miR-8/Wg axis is critical for the proper secretion of lipophorin and vitellogenin by the fat body and subsequent accumulation of these yolk protein precursors by developing oocytes.
Shalev, Carmel; Moreno, Adi; Eyal, Hedva; Leibel, Michal; Schuz, Rhona; Eldar-Geva, Talia
The proliferation of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) for the treatment of infertility has brought benefit to many individuals around the world. But infertility and its treatment continue to be a cause of suffering, and over the past decade, there has been a steady growth in a new global market of inter-country medically assisted reproduction (IMAR) involving 'third-party' individuals acting as surrogate mothers and gamete donors in reproductive collaborations for the benefit of other individuals and couples who wish to have children. At the same time there is evidence of a double standard of care for third-party women involved in IMAR, violations of human rights of children and women, and extreme abuses that are tantamount to reproductive trafficking. This paper is the report of an inter-disciplinary working group of experts who convened in Israel to discuss the complex issues of IMAR. In Israel too IMAR practices have grown rapidly in recent years, mainly because of restrictions on access to domestic surrogacy for same sex couples and a chronically insufficient supply of egg cells for the treatment of couples and singles in need. Drawing upon local expertise, the paper describes documented practices that are harmful, suggests principles of good practice based on an ethic of care, and calls for action at the international, national and professional levels to establish a human rights based system of international governance for IMAR based on three regulatory models: public health monitoring, inter-country adoption, and trafficking in human beings, organs and tissues.
Huang, Juan; Hult, Ekaterina F; Marchal, Elisabeth; Tobe, Stephen S
The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) plays important roles in excitatory neurotransmission and in the regulation of reproduction in mammals. NMDAR in insects comprises two subunits, NR1 and NR2. In this study, we identified two NR1 paralogs and eleven NR2 alternatively spliced variants in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. This is the first report of NR1 paralogs in insects. The tissue distributions and expression profiles of DpNR1A, DpNR1B and DpNR2 in different tissues were also investigated. Previous studies have demonstrated NMDA-stimulated biosynthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) in the corpora allata through the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) in Diploptera punctata. However, our data show that the transcript levels of DpNR1A, DpNR1B and DpNR2 were low in the corpora allata. MK-801, a high-affinity antagonist of NMDAR, did not show any effect on JH biosynthesis in vitro. In addition, neither partial knockdown of DpNR2 nor in vivo treatment with a physiologically relevant dose of MK-801 resulted in any significant change in JH biosynthesis or basal oocyte growth. Injection of animals with a high dose of MK-801 (30 µg per animal per injection), which paralyzed the animals for 4-5 h, resulted in a significant decrease in JH biosynthesis on days 4 and 5. However, the reproductive events during the first gonadotrophic cycle in female D. punctata were unaffected. Thus, NMDAR does not appear to play important roles in the regulation of JH biosynthesis or mediate reproduction of female D. punctata.
Perfito, Nicole; Zann, Richard; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George; Hau, Michaela
The ability to breed at any time of year enables opportunistically breeding species to respond to good conditions whenever they occur. We investigate the neuroendocrine basis for this relatively unusual reproductive pattern in the avian world. One proposed mechanism for year-round breeding ability is tonic activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) production that is flexibly modified by gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) production during unfavorable conditions. GnIH could inhibit GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus and/or inhibit GnRH action on the anterior pituitary gland. We studied neuroendocrine patterns in wild Australian zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) sampled during a breeding period in Southern Australia, a non-breeding period in central Australia, and in juvenile males in the latter location. We asked whether patterns in immunoreactivity of three neuropeptides important for reproductive axis regulation, GnRH-I, GnRH-II and GnIH, during periods of breeding and non-breeding reflect this flexibility. We found that the numbers and sizes of immunoreactive (-ir) GnRH-I cells did not vary between breeding stages and ages. Contrary to our predictions, irGnIH cell number and size, as well as the synthesis of GnIH mRNA were similar in breeding and non-breeding conditions. However, breeding males had more and larger irGnRH-II cells in the midbrain compared to non-breeding males. Hence, while changes in irGnIH cells are not associated with fluctuations in gonadotropin secretion or gonad volume, the regulation of irGnRH-II cells might represent a previously-unidentified mechanism by which reproductive flexibility can be achieved; namely via behavioral neurotransmitter actions of GnRH-II rather than through the typical sensory-CNS integration-GnRH-I route.
After more than a decade of study, discussion and debate, the Canadian House of Commons and Senate have approved the Assisted Human Reproduction Act. Building on the earlier Bill C-47, which died on the order paper in 1997, the Act bans human cloning for reproductive or therapeutic purposes, payment for surrogacy arrangements, and trading in human reproductive materials or their use without informed consent. In addition, the Act significantly restricts research using human reproductive materials. This article compares the Act to legislative regimes in other nations with advanced human reproductive science. It concludes that while the Act has many laudable goals, it is flawed in that it tries to cover too much legislative ground. As a result it unreasonable impairs the ability of Canadian scientists to compete in areas such as stem cell research, and area that is expected to yield significant new approaches to treating human disease.
Yadav, Suneeta; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini
Avian literature reports the modulation of 'photoperiodic gonadal responses' by the temporal phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations in Japanese quail. But, the modulation of 'light colour responses' by the temporal synergism of neural oscillations is not yet known. Hence the present study was designed to investigate the interaction of the light colour (blue, red) and the phase relation of neural oscillations in the reproductive regulation of Japanese quail. Three week old male Japanese quail were divided into two groups and maintained under a long day length condition (16L:8D) and were exposed to a 30 lux intensity of blue LED (light emitting diode) (B LED) and a red LED light (R LED). At the age of 15.5weeks, quail of one subgroup of B LED were injected with serotonin precursor (5-HTP) and dopamine precursor (l-DOPA) 12hrs apart (B LED+12-hr) and those of the R LED group were injected with the same drugs (5mg/100g body weight over a period of thirteen days) but 8hrs apart (R LED+8-hr). The remaining subgroups of both the light colour groups (B LED & R LED) received normal saline twice daily and served as controls. Cloacal gland volume was recorded weekly until 35.5weeks of age when the study was terminated and reproductive parameters (testicular volume, GSI, seminiferous tubule diameter and plasma testosterone) were assessed. Results indicate that the 8-hr temporal phase relation of neural oscillations suppresses reproductive activity even during the photosensitive phase of the red light exposed quail (R LED+8-hr) compare to the R LED controls. On the other hand, the 12-hr temporal phase relation stimulates the gonadal development of the B LED+12-hr quail compared to the B LED controls which after completing one cycle entered into a regressive phase and remained sexually quiescent. These experiments suggest that the temporal phase relations of circadian neural oscillations, in addition to modulating the classical photoperiodic responses, may
Full Text Available Reproductive tract tumours, specifically leiomyoma, are commonly found in female rhinoceroses. Similar to humans, tumour growth in rhinoceroses is thought to be sex hormone dependent. Tumours can form and expand from the onset of ovarian activity at puberty until the cessation of sex-steroid influences at senescence. Extensive tumour growth results in infertility. The aim of this study was to down regulate reproductive function of tumour-diseased and infertile females to stop further tumour growth using a Gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF vaccine. Four infertile southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum and three Greater one-horned rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis with active ovaries and 2.7 ± 0.9 and 14.0 ± 1.5 reproductive tract tumours respectively were vaccinated against GnRF (Improvac®, Zoetis, Germany at 0, 4 and 16 weeks and re-boostered every 6-8 months thereafter. After GnRF vaccination ovarian and luteal activity was suppressed in all treated females. Three months after vaccination the size of the ovaries, the number of follicles and the size of the largest follicle were significantly reduced (P<0.03. Reproductive tract tumours decreased significantly in diameter (Greater-one horned rhino: P<0.0001; white rhino: P<0.01, presumably as a result of reduced sex-steroid influence. The calculated tumour volumes were reduced by 50.8 ± 10.9% in Greater one-horned and 48.6 ± 12.9% in white rhinoceroses. In conclusion, GnRF vaccine effectively down regulated reproductive function and decreased the size of reproductive tract tumours in female rhinoceros. Our work is the first to use down regulation of reproductive function as a symptomatic treatment against benign reproductive tumour disease in a wildlife species. Nonetheless, full reversibility and rhinoceros fertility following GnRF vaccination warrants further evaluation.
Walkden-Brown, S W; Martin, G B; Restall, B J
The induction of synchronous ovulatory activity in anovulatory sheep and goats after the introduction of males, the 'male effect', has probably been used to advantage since these species were domesticated and the underlying physiological and behavioural mechanisms have been progressively elucidated over the past 50 years. Less well understood is the analogous effect of oestrous females on males. This review examines the nature and importance of these male-female interactions in sheep and goats, and describes the most important internal and external factors influencing the reproductive outcomes of such interactions. It is proposed that the male and female effects are both components of a self-reinforcing cycle of stimulation that, under ideal conditions, culminates in the synchronous very rapid onset (within days) of fertile reproductive activity. However, precisely because of the speed of this response, it is suggested that mechanisms have evolved to limit its efficacy, and thus prevent conception at inappropriate times. The complexity of these factors and the interactions between them are highlighted, and a broad conceptual framework for understanding them is proposed based upon an appreciation of variation in both the responsiveness of the target animal and the quality of the signal from the signalling animal.
Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Troncoso, Mariana; Guiñazu, Elina; Valdez, Susana R; Fanelli, Mariel A; Ciocca, Daniel R; Kreimann, Erica L
In breast cancer cell lines, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulator factor 1 (NHERF1) gene is regulated at the transcriptional level by estrogens, the protein expression levels correlate with the presence of estrogen receptors and the effect is blocked by anti-estrogens. However, there is limited information regarding the regulation of NHERF1 by estrogens in normal colon tissue. The NHERF1 protein has an important role in the maintenance of the intestine ultrastructure. NHERF1-deficient mice showed defects in the intestinal microvilli as well as molecular alterations in brush border membrane proteins. Here, we have studied the expression of NHERF1 in normal rat colon and uterus during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats. We found that NHERF1 expression in rat colon during the estral cycle is modified by estrogen levels: higher expression of NHERF1 was observed during the proestrous and estrous stages and lower expression in diestrous 1 when estrogen levels decreased. In uterus, NHERF1 was expressed in the apical region of the luminal epithelium and glands in all stages of the estral cycle, and in both colon and uterus, the expression was independent of the proliferation status. Our results show that NHERF1 expression is regulated by estrogens in colon during the rat estral cycle.
In the UK human embryo research and infertility treatments are regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), a national statutory body set up in 1991. Clinics are required by law to be licensed by the HFEA and open to inspection. In 1999 there were 107 clinics licensed to carry out IVF and/or donor insemination. There are regional variations in National Health Service funding and seventy-five percent of those treated pay for most of their treatment, usually to avoid long waiting lists or because they do not meet the eligibility criteria set by their local health authority. Having described the code of practice laid down by the HFEA the paper discusses the implications of new reproductive technologies from a social science perspective, focusing on three topics which continue to be debated by the media, the regulatory authorities, health professionals and 'lay' people. First, age limits and other criteria for assisted reproduction which raise the question 'who should be allowed to reproduce?' Second, donor anonymity and the question of payment for donors. Finally, the screening and selection of embryos for implantation and the recurring theme in the media of 'designer babies'. The HFEA can be seen to fulfill its intended role, mediating between the infertility professionals, patients and the wider general public. It seeks to allay public fears while supporting professionals by avoiding restrictions on research and treatment and by consulting with the public as to when extensions to research will be acceptable.
Tatzuke, Yuki; Sunanaga, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kawamura, Kaz
A homolog of receptor for activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) was cloned from the budding tunicate Polyandrocarpa misakiensis. By RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses, PmRACK1 showed biphasic gene expression during asexual and sexual reproduction. In developing buds, the signal was exclusively observed in the multipotent atrial epithelium and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells that contributed to morphogenesis by the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). In juvenile zooids, the signal was first observable in germline precursor cells that arose as mesenchymal cell aggregated in the ventral hemocoel. In mature zooids, the germinal epithelium in the ovary and the pharynx were the most heavily stained parts. GFP reporter assay indicated that the ovarian expression of PmRACK1 was constitutive from germline precursor cells to oocytes. To elucidate the in vivo function of PmRACK1, RNA interference was challenged. When growing buds were incubated with 5 nmol/mL siRNA, most mesenchymal cells remained round and appeared to have no interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM), causing lower activity of MET without any apparent effects on cell proliferation. The resultant zooids became growth-deficient. The dwarf zooids did not form buds or mature gonads. Prior to RNAi, buds were treated with human BMP4 that could induce PmRACK1 expression, which resulted in MET activity. We conclude that in P. misakiensis, PmRACK1 plays roles in mesenchymal cell recruitment during formation of somatic and gonad tissues, which contributes to zooidal growth and sexual and asexual reproduction.
Tânia Cristina Machado
Full Text Available This article analyses juridical discourses about Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR in Portugal, focusing specifically on the access of lesbians to this type of intervention. Empirical data refer to an exploratory research that combined the analysis of legislation with non-directive interviews to five judges from Family and Juvenile Courts of Law of the Northern Region of Portugal. One argues that the representation of motherhood present in the law reinforces and reproduces normative sexuality and femininity while simultaneously justifies the exclusion of lesbians from MAR. As such, although Portuguese legislation emerges as a mechanism of partial deregulation of the gender regime since it appears to weaken the practical and causal association between sexuality and procreation, in fact, it ends up reinforcing dominant ideas of femininity and family. As for the judges who were interviewed, their representations of motherhood are broad enough to encompass medically assisted motherhood and/or motherhood accomplished within a lesbian couple. This is achieved through a process of normalisation of the lesbian and/or of lesbian motherhood, which may resort to five different assumptions: (i parenthood as a desire inherent to every human being; (ii motherhood as a defining element of femininity; (iii motherhood as a project framed by a stable conjugal relationship; (iv lesbian motherhood as something that can be accomplished through “natural” means; (v parenthood as a mechanism of social reproduction of the gender regime. These assumptions are differently combined and support different positions regarding lesbian motherhood: although some judges seem to concur with the preservation of heteronormativity, most favour legal changes to encompass other models of sexuality and family.
Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyzes family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies using the following treatments: homologues artificial insemination, heterologus artificial insemination (artificial insemination by donor, ovum donation, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. One specific situation of homologues artificial insemination is posthumous insemination, insemination after the death of the husband/partner. This procedure is allowed in, for instance, United Kingdom, but not allowed in France, Switzerland, and Italy. Considering genetics elements in this situation there is no doubt on fatherhood - father is a man whose sperm is used for insemination, regardless of the fact if frozen sperm or frozen embryo is used in the procedure. Nevertheless, until 2008 in United Kingdom, the husband/partner was not considered as legal father, because of the fact that the child was born after his death. Heterologous artificial insemination could be used in three different situations. First, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of different sexes. Second, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex and the third if a single woman is an only subject. Most recent procedure is the one in which subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex, specifically two women. This procedure is allowed in the United Kingdom and Sweden. In these legislatures, there is a rule that the woman who delivers the child is legal mother, and her spouse/partner is a second parent of the child. The most recent procedure of egg donation is a donation of only a part of an egg, mitochondrial DNA. In this case, there are in fact three genetic parents of the child: two genetic mothers and a father. Legally, the child has one mother (the woman who delivers a child and a father. One of potential outcomes of the recent research is the ability to create human embryo without any male genetic contribution - by
Moles, K.R.; Layzer, J.B.
Factors affecting the reproductive success of freshwater mussels in lotic systems are poorly understood. Gravidity, fecundity, and fertilization success of Actinonaias ligamentina were examined at 4 sites along a 63-km reach of the Green River immediately below the Green River Dam, Kentucky. No gravid females were collected at the site closest to the dam, and the percentage of gravid females at downstream sites ranged from 20 to 36%. Not all females became gravid, despite the presence of early stages of ova in the gonadal fluid. This observation suggests that female A. ligamentina undergo a resting stage and, therefore, might not become gravid every year. Fecundity differed among sites and increased with distance from the dam. Fertilization rates ranged from 32 to 97% among sites and increased with distance from the dam. Fertilization rate was independent of local mussel density and position in the mussel bed. The high fertilization rates observed in the upstream portions of mussel beds indicate that freshwater mussel sperm have the ability to travel to distant females in lotic systems. Therefore, females are not necessarily dependent upon nearby males for fertilization. Successful fertilization of A. ligamentina at low mussel densities in the Green River suggests that natural recovery of rare endangered species might be possible if host fish and suitable conditions for juvenile survival and growth are present. ?? 2008 by The North American Benthological Society.
Oğuz, Ahmet R
Chalcalburnus tarichi is an anadromous cyprinid fish that has adapted to extreme conditions (salinity 22 ‰, pH 9.8 and alkalinity 153 mEq × l⁻¹) in Lake Van in eastern Turkey. Changes in immunoreactivity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in gill tissue and osmolarity and ion levels in plasma were investigated in C. tarichi during reproductive migration. Physicochemical characteristics and ion levels in Lake Van were high compared freshwater. Plasma osmolality and plasma ion concentrations ([Na⁺], [K⁺] and [Cl⁻]) increased after transfer from freshwater to Lake Van. The mitochondria-rich (MR) cells of the gill were stained in both filament and lamellar epithelia of C. tarichi by immunocytochemistry with a specific antiserum for Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in river fish samples. Density and area of MR cells were decreased in lake-adapted fishes. These results indicated that freshwater acclimation capacity is correlated with the size and distribution of MR cells in C. tarichi, in contrast to many teleost fishes.
It has been established that reduced susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a genetic component. This genetic component may take the form of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA), which are molecules that function as regulators of gene expression. Various sncRNAs ...
Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Itoh, Hironori; Sentoku, Naoki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Izawa, Takeshi; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo
Because plant reproductive development occurs only in adult plants, the juvenile-to-adult phase change is an indispensable part of the plant life cycle. We identified two allelic mutants, peter pan syndrome-1 (pps-1) and pps-2, that prolong the juvenile phase in rice (Oryza sativa) and showed that rice PPS is an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1. The pps-1 mutant exhibits delayed expression of miR156 and miR172 and the suppression of GA biosynthetic genes, reducing the GA(3) content in this mutant. In spite of its prolonged juvenile phase, the pps-1 mutant flowers early, and this is associated with derepression of RAP1B expression in pps-1 plants independently of the Hd1-Hd3a/RFT1 photoperiodic pathway. PPS is strongly expressed in the fourth and fifth leaves, suggesting that it regulates the onset of the adult phase downstream of MORI1 and upstream of miR156 and miR172. Its ability to regulate the vegetative phase change and the time of flowering suggests that rice PPS acquired novel functions during the evolution of rice/monocots.
Budki, Puja; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod
Circannual rhythms regulate seasonal reproduction in many vertebrates. The present study investigated whether circannual reproductive phenotypes (rhythms in growth of gonads and molt) were generated independently of the circadian clocks in the subtropical non-photoperiodic spotted munia (Lonchura punctulata). Birds were subjected to light:dark (LD) cycles with identical light but varying dark hours, such that the period of LD cycle (T) equaled 16 h (T16; 12 h L:4 h D), 21 h (T21; 12 h L:9 h D), 24 h (T24; 12 h L:12 h D) and 27 h (T27; 12 h L:15 h D), or to continuous light (LL, 24 h L:0 h D) at ~18°C. During the ~21 month exposure, munia underwent at least two cycles of gonadal development and molt; changes in body mass were not rhythmic. This was similar to the occurrence of annual cycles in reproduction and molt observed in wild birds. A greater asynchrony between circannual cycles of gonad development and molt indicated their independent regulation. Females showed reproductive rhythms with similar circannual periods, whilst in males, circannual periods measured between peak gonadal size were longer in T21 and T24 than in T16 or T27. This suggested a sex-dependent timing of annual reproduction in the spotted munia. Also, food availability periods may not influence the circannual timing of reproduction, as shown by the results on the rhythm in gonadal growth and regression in munia under T-photocycles and LL that provided differential light (feeding) hours. Further, a short-term experiment revealed that activity-rest patterns in munia were synchronized with T-photocycles, but were arrhythmic under LL. We conclude that circadian rhythms are not involved in the timing of the annual reproductive cycle in the spotted munia.
Liu, Long; Fan, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zhenhe; Yang, Chan; Geng, Tuoyu; Gong, Daoqing; Hou, Zhuocheng; Ning, Zhonghua
The reproductive system of a female bird is responsible for egg production. The genes highly expressed in oviduct are potentially important. From RNA-seq analysis, C2H9orf152 (an orthologous gene of human C9orf152) was identified as highly expressed in chicken uterus. To infer its function, we obtained and characterized its complete cDNA sequence, determined its spatiotemporal expression, and probed its transcription factor(s) through pharmaceutical approach. Data showed that the complete cDNA sequence was 1468bp long with a 789bp of open reading frame. Compared to other tested tissues, this gene was highly expressed in the oviduct and liver tissues, especially uterus. Its expression in uterus was gradually increased during developmental and reproductive periods, which verified its involvement in the growth and maturity of reproductive system. In contrast, its expression was not significant different between active and quiescent uterus, suggesting the role of C2H9orf152 in reproduction is likely due to its long-term effect. Moreover, based on its 5'-flanking sequence, Foxd3 and Hnf4a were predicted as transcription factors of C2H9orf152. Using berberine or retinoic acid (which can regulate the activities of Hnf4a and Foxd3, respectively), we demonstrated suppression of C2H9orf152 by the chemicals in chicken primary hepatocytes. As retinoic acid regulates calcium metabolism, and Hnf4a is a key nuclear factor to liver, these findings suggest that C2H9orf152 is involved in liver function and calcium metabolism of reproductive system. In conclusion, C2H9orf152 may have a long-term effect on chicken reproductive system by regulating calcium metabolism, suggesting this gene has an important implication in the improvement of egg production and eggshell quality.
Brooke A LaFlamme
Full Text Available Proteases and protease inhibitors have been identified in the ejaculates of animal taxa ranging from invertebrates to mammals and form a major protein class among Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid proteins (SFPs. Other than a single protease cascade in mammals that regulates seminal clot liquefaction, no proteolytic cascades (i.e. pathways with at least two proteases acting in sequence have been identified in seminal fluids. In Drosophila, SFPs are transferred to females during mating and, together with sperm, are necessary for the many post-mating responses elicited in females. Though several SFPs are proteolytically cleaved either during or after mating, virtually nothing is known about the proteases involved in these cleavage events or the physiological consequences of proteolytic activity in the seminal fluid on the female. Here, we present evidence that a protease cascade acts in the seminal fluid of Drosophila during and after mating. Using RNAi to knock down expression of the SFP CG10586, a predicted serine protease, we show that it acts upstream of the SFP CG11864, a predicted astacin protease, to process SFPs involved in ovulation and sperm entry into storage. We also show that knockdown of CG10586 leads to lower levels of egg laying, higher rates of sexual receptivity to subsequent males, and abnormal sperm usage patterns, processes that are independent of CG11864. The long-term phenotypes of females mated to CG10586 knockdown males are similar to those of females that fail to store sex peptide, an important elicitor of long-term post-mating responses, and indicate a role for CG10586 in regulating sex peptide. These results point to an important role for proteolysis among insect SFPs and suggest that protease cascades may be a mechanism for precise temporal regulation of multiple post-mating responses in females.
Zhang, W N; Xiao, H J; Liang, G M; Guo, Y Y; Wu, K M
Evolution of resistance to insecticides usually has fitness tradeoffs associated with adaptation to the stress. The basic regulation mechanism of tradeoff between reproduction and resistance evolution to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Ha), based on the vitellogenin (Vg) gene expression was analyzed here. The full-length cDNA of the Vg gene HaVg (JX504706) was cloned and identified. HaVg has 5704 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame (ORF) of 5265 bp, which encoded 1756 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 197.28 kDa and a proposed isoelectric point of 8.74. Sequence alignment analysis indicated that the amino acid sequence of HaVg contained all of the conserved domains detected in the Vgs of the other insects and had a high similarity with the Vgs of the Lepidoptera insects, especially Noctuidae. The resistance level to Cry1Ac Bt toxin and relative HaVg mRNA expression levels among the following four groups: Cry1Ac-susceptible strain (96S), Cry1Ac-resistant strain fed on artificial diet with Bt toxin for 135 generations (BtR stands for the Cry1Ac Bt resistance), progeny of the Cry1Ac-resistant strain with a non-Bt-toxin artificial diet for 38 generations (CK1) and the direct descendants of the 135th-generation resistant larvae which were fed on an artificial diet without the Cry1Ac protein (CK2) were analyzed. Compared with the 96S strain, the resistance ratios of the BtR strain, the CK1 strain and the CK2 strain were 2917.15-, 2.15- and 2037.67-fold, respectively. The maximum relative HaVg mRNA expression levels of the BtR strain were approximately 50% less than that of the 96S strain, and the coming of maximum expression was delayed for approximately 4 days. The overall trend of the HaVg mRNA expression levels in the CK1 strain was similar to that in the 96S strain, and the overall trend of the HaVg mRNA expression levels in the CK2 strain was similar to that in the BtR strain. Our results
Billingsley, Barbara; Caulfield, Timothy
Non-Reproductive Human Cloning (NRHC) allows researchers to develop and clone cells, including non-reproductive cells, and to research the etiology and transmission of disease. The ability to clone specific stem cells may also allow researchers to clone cells with genetic defects and analyze those cells with more precisions. Despite those potential benefits, Parliament has banned such cloning due to a myriad of social and ethical concerns. In May 2002, the Canadian Government introduced Bill C-13 on assisted human reproductive technologies. Bill C-13 deals with both the scientific and the clinical use of human reproductive materials, and it prohibits a number of other activities, including NRHC. Although the Supreme Court of Canada has never ruled on whether scientific experiments area form of expression, academic support exists for this notion. The authors go through the legal analysis that would be required to find that scientific experiments are expression, focusing in part on whether NRHC could be considered violent and thus fall outside the protection of section 2(b). The latter question is complicated by the ongoing policy debate over whether an "embryonic cell" is property of human life. The authors then consider whether a ban on NRHC could be justified under section 1 of the Charter. They conclude that both the breadth of the legislative purpose and the proportionality of the measure are problematic. Proportionality is a specific concern because the ban could be viewed as an outright denial of scientific freedom of expression. Although consistent with current jurisprudence on freedom of expression, this paper runs against the flow of government policy in the areas of regulation and prohibition of non-reproductive human cloning. As there has been no Charter litigation to date on whether scientific research is a form of expression, the authors introduce a new way of looking at the legality of the regulation of new reproductive technologies.
Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F
Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through “hacking” a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253
Damme, van C.J.G.
In fisheries management the spawning stock biomass (SSB) is an important indicator of the status of exploited fish stocks. Knowledge on the reproductive biology is essential to estimate SSB. A large variety of reproductive strategies is found. In marine fish two extreme strategies are known, capital
Pinheiro Patrícia Fernanda F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin is associated with direct or indirect actions upon female reproductive function. However, its effects on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovulation are not clearly defined. This study aimed to verify whether exposure to long-term melatonin is able to cause reproductive hormonal disturbances as well as their role on sex steroid receptors in the rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation. Methods Twenty-four adult Wistar rats, 60 days old (+/- 250 g were randomly divided into two groups. Control group (Co: received 0.9% NaCl 0.3 mL + 95% ethanol 0.04 mL as vehicle; Melatonin-treated group (MEL: received vehicle + melatonin [100 μg/100 g BW/day] both intraperitoneally during 60 days. All animals were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4 a.m. Results Melatonin significantly reduced the plasma levels of LH and 17 beta-estradiol, while urinary 6-sulfatoximelatonin (STM was increased at the morning estrus. In addition, melatonin promoted differential regulation of the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, androgen receptor (AR and melatonin receptor (MTR along the reproductive tissues. In ovary, melatonin induced a down-regulation of ER-alpha and PRB levels. Conversely, it was observed that PRA and MT1R were up-regulated. In oviduct, AR and ER-alpha levels were down-regulated, in contrast to high expression of both PRA and PRB. Finally, the ER-beta and PRB levels were down-regulated in uterus tissue and only MT1R was up-regulated. Conclusions We suggest that melatonin partially suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, in addition, it induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in the ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.
Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Mesihovic, Anida; Simm, Stefan; Paupière, Marine Josephine; Hu, Yangjie; Paul, Puneet; Mishra, Shravan Kumar; Tschiersch, Bettina; Theres, Klaus; Bovy, Arnaud; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Klaus Dieter
Male reproductive tissues are more sensitive to heat stress (HS) compared to vegetative tissues, but the basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate the transcriptional changes required for protection from HS. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), HsfA2 acts as coactivator of HsfA1a and is one of the major Hsfs accumulating in response to elevated temperatures. The contribution of HsfA2 in heat stress response (HSR) and thermotolerance was inve...
De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Leus, Kristin; Van Elsacker, Linda
Reproduction is highly demanding in terms of energy expenditure, and the costs and benefits associated with postponing or investing in a reproductive effort are crucial determinants of an individual's fitness. Understanding the reproductive potential of a species under varying ecological conditions offers important insights into the dynamics of its social system. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the reproductive potential of wild- and captive-born golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) under captive conditions, based on studbook data compiled during 1984-2000. Litters produced by wild-born females breeding in captivity are similar in size to litters observed in the wild, but smaller than litters of captive-born females. The more stringent ecological conditions experienced by wild-born females during maturation may result in a lifelong effect on litter size. However, interbirth intervals are shorter for wild-born than captive-born females. The relatively smaller burden of infant care that results from having smaller litters may allow wild-born females to sustain the next pregnancy sooner. Reproduction in the Brazilian captive population is highly seasonal for both wild-born females and females born in captivity in Brazil. Changes in photoperiod over a year provide a proximate explanation for changes in the proportion of conceptions and births per month. Outside Brazil, breeding occurs year-round, and no clear birth peak is apparent. Information from field reports that could be used to relate this finding to ecological factors, such as resource availability, is unavailable.
Liping Wang; Hengfu Yin; Qian Qian; Jun Yang; Chaofeng Huang; Xiaohe Hu; Da Luo
In the monocot rice species Oryza sativa L., one of the most striking morphological processes during reproductive development is the concurrence of panicle development with the sequential elongation of upper internodes (UPIs). To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we cloned the rice gene NECK LEAF 1 (NL1), which when mutated results in delays in flowering time, smaller panicles with overgrown bracts and abnormal UPI elongation patterns. The NL1 gene encodes a GATA-type transcription factor with a single zinc finger domain, and its transcripts are de-tected predominantly in the bract primordia, which normally degenerate in the wild-type plants. Overexpression of NL1 in transgenic plants often gives rise to severe growth retardation, less vegetative phytomers and smaller leaves, suggesting that NL1 plays an important role in organ differentiation. A novel mutant allele of PLASTOCHRON1 (PLA1), a gene known to play a key role in regulating leaf initiation, was identified in this study. Genetic analysis demonstrated an interaction between nll and plal, with NL1 acting upstream of PLA1. The expression level and spatial pattern of PLA1 were found to be altered in the nll mutant. Furthermore, the expression of two regulators of flowering, Hd3a and OsMADS1, was also affected in the nll mutant. On the basis of these findings, we propose that NL1 is an intrinsic factor that modulates and coordinates organogenesis through regulating the expression of PLA1 and other regulatory genes during reproductive development in rice.
Wira, Charles R; Fahey, John V; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey V
The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the FRT. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack viral, bacterial, and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus, has evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol (E2 ) and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate and adaptive immune systems are under hormonal control, that protection varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle and as such, is dampened during the secretory stage of the cycle to optimize conditions for fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets.
Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei
Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R
冯冬冬; 姚海莉; 贺小卫; 杜亚轩; 左晓梅
脂肪组织可以分泌一系列激素和细胞因子，广泛参与机体的能量代谢、免疫和炎症反应、发育和生殖等生理、病理活动。瘦素、脂联素和抵抗素被认为是重要的脂肪分泌因子，可能在介导能量代谢状态、神经内分泌轴及繁殖的过程中发挥重要作用。%The adipose tissue can secrete hormones and gy metabolism, immune and inflammatory responses, develop logical activities. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin was consid tissue, and may play an important role in the process of inte crine axis and reproduction. cytokines, which participate widely in the body's enerment, reproduction and other physiological and pathoered to be important factors which secreted by dipose raction between energy metabolic and the neuroendocrine axis and reproduction.
Silva, Catarina S; Puranik, Sriharsha; Round, Adam; Brennich, Martha; Jourdain, Agnès; Parcy, François; Hugouvieux, Veronique; Zubieta, Chloe
Understanding the evolutionary leap from non-flowering (gymnosperms) to flowering (angiosperms) plants and the origin and vast diversification of the floral form has been one of the focuses of plant evolutionary developmental biology. The evolving diversity and increasing complexity of organisms is often due to relatively small changes in genes that direct development. These "developmental control genes" and the transcription factors (TFs) they encode, are at the origin of most morphological changes. TFs such as LEAFY (LFY) and the MADS-domain TFs act as central regulators in key developmental processes of plant reproduction including the floral transition in angiosperms and the specification of the male and female organs in both gymnosperms and angiosperms. In addition to advances in genome wide profiling and forward and reverse genetic screening, structural techniques are becoming important tools in unraveling TF function by providing atomic and molecular level information that was lacking in purely genetic approaches. Here, we summarize previous structural work and present additional biophysical and biochemical studies of the key master regulators of plant reproduction - LEAFY and the MADS-domain TFs SEPALLATA3 and AGAMOUS. We discuss the impact of structural biology on our understanding of the complex evolutionary process leading to the development of the bisexual flower.
Cottingham, Jane; Berer, Marge
The range of medicines and technologies that are essential for sexual and reproductive health care is well established, but access to them is far from universally assured, particularly in less developed countries. This paper shows how the pharmaceutical industry plays a major role in the lack of access to essential medicines for sexual and reproductive health care, by a) investing in products for profit-making reasons despite their negative health impact (e.g. hormone replacement therapy), b) marketing new essential medicines at prices beyond the reach of countries that most need them (e.g. HPV vaccines), and c) failing to invest in the development of new products (e.g. microbicides and medical abortion pills). Small companies, some of them non-profit-making, struggle to fill some of that demand (e.g. for female condoms). International patent protection contributes to high prices of medicines, and while international agreements such as compulsory licensing under TRIPS and the Medicines Patent Pool allow for mechanisms to enable poorer countries to get access to essential medicines, the obstacles created by "big pharma" are daunting. All these barriers have fostered a market in sub-standard medicines (e.g. fake medical abortion pills sold over the internet). An agenda driven by sexual and reproductive health needs, based on the right to health, must focus on universal access to essential medicines at prices developing countries can afford. We call for greater public investment in essential medicines, expanded production of affordable generic drugs, and the development of broad strategic plans, that include affordable medicines and technologies, for addressing identified public health problems, such as cervical cancer.
Gaston, Amèlia; Perrotte, Justine; Lerceteau-Köhler, Estelle; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Petit, Aurélie; Hernould, Michel; Rothan, Christophe; Denoyes, Béatrice
Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) stands as an interesting model for studying flowering behaviour and its relationship with asexual plant reproduction in polycarpic perennial plants. Strawberry produces both inflorescences and stolons (also called runners), which are lateral stems growing at the soil surface and producing new clone plants. In this study, the flowering and runnering behaviour of two cultivated octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch., 2n = 8× = 56) genotypes, a seasonal flowering genotype CF1116 and a perpetual flowering genotype Capitola, were studied along the growing season. The genetic bases of the perpetual flowering and runnering traits were investigated further using a pseudo full-sibling F1 population issued from a cross between these two genotypes. The results showed that a single major quantitative trait locus (QTL) named FaPFRU controlled both traits in the cultivated octoploid strawberry. This locus was not orthologous to the loci affecting perpetual flowering (SFL) and runnering (R) in Fragaria vesca, therefore suggesting different genetic control of perpetual flowering and runnering in the diploid and octoploid Fragaria spp. Furthermore, the FaPFRU QTL displayed opposite effects on flowering (positive effect) and on runnering (negative effect), indicating that both traits share common physiological control. These results suggest that this locus plays a major role in strawberry plant fitness by controlling the balance between sexual and asexual plant reproduction.
Bertschinger, H J; Jago, M; Nöthling, J O; Human, A
The GnRH analogue deslorelin, as a subcutaneous implant, was initially developed in Australia as an ovulation-inducing agent in mares. Its uses, for the suppression of reproduction in the domestic dog and cat and in other species, including humans, have been developed subsequently. Such implants have been used as a contraceptive modality in a variety of wild carnivores, both males and females. This paper describes the use of deslorelin implants as a contraceptive agent for cheetah males maintained in a semi-captive environment and housed in various camps together with females. Annually, male cheetahs were treated for 1 (n = 2), 2 (n = 7), 3 (n = 9), 4 (n = 3) or 5 (n = 1) consecutive years with an implant containing 4.7, 5.0 or 6.0 mg of deslorelin. On the first day of treatment and then on an annual basis, blood testosterone concentrations were analysed, testicular measurements were taken, appearance of penile spikes was determined, and semen was collected and evaluated. Pregnancy rates of mated or inseminated females were determined. A dose of 6 mg of deslorelin suppressed reproduction for at least 1 year, whereas with 4.7 and 5 mg of deslorelin, 3 of 17 males had a few non-motile spermatozoa in their ejaculates. All testosterone concentrations were basal at 1 year post-implant and no side effects were observed. We concluded that deslorelin implantation, at a dose of 6 mg, was a safe and reliable method of annual contraception in male cheetahs.
Pollux, B.J.A.; Korosi, A.; Verberk, W.C.E.P.; Pollux, P.M.J.; Velde, G. van der
Many European rivers are characterized by a canalized main channel, steep stony embankments, the absence of aquatic vegetation, regulated flow dynamics, reduced hydrological connectivity to the floodplains and a lack of spawning and nursery areas for many fish species. In such regulated rivers, trib
Pollux, B.J.A.; Korosi, A.; Verberk, W.C.E.P.; Pollux, P.M.J.; van der Velde, G.
Many European rivers are characterized by a canalized main channel, steep stony embankments, the absence of aquatic vegetation, regulated flow dynamics, reduced hydrological connectivity to the floodplains and a lack of spawning and nursery areas for many fish species. In such regulated rivers, trib
Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined the immunological response of antigen presenting cells (APC to genotype-I isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection by analysing the cytokine profile induced and evaluating the changes taking place upon infection on immunologically relevant cell markers (MHCI, MHCII, CD80/86, CD14, CD16, CD163, CD172a, SWC9. Several types of APC were infected with 39 PRRSV isolates. The results show that different isolates were able to induce different patterns of IL-10 and TNF-α. The four possible phenotypes based on the ability to induce IL-10 and/or TNF-α were observed, although different cell types seemed to have different capabilities. In addition, isolates inducing different cytokine-release profiles on APC could induce different expression of cell markers.
Cabrera, A R; Shirk, P D; Duehl, A J; Donohue, K V; Grozinger, C M; Evans, J D; Teal, P E A
The complete genomic region and corresponding transcript of the most abundant protein in phoretic varroa mites, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman), were sequenced and have homology with acarine hemelipoglycoproteins and the large lipid transfer protein (LLTP) super family. The genomic sequence of VdLLTP included 14 introns and the mature transcript coded for a predicted polypeptide of 1575 amino acid residues. VdLLTP shared a minimum of 25% sequence identity with acarine LLTPs. Phylogenetic assessment showed VdLLTP was most closely related to Metaseiulus occidentalis vitellogenin and LLTP proteins of ticks; however, no heme binding by VdLLTP was detected. Analysis of lipids associated with VdLLTP showed that it was a carrier for free and esterified C12 -C22 fatty acids from triglycerides, diacylglycerides and monoacylglycerides. Additionally, cholesterol and β-sitosterol were found as cholesterol esters linked to common fatty acids. Transcript levels of VdLLTP were 42 and 310 times higher in phoretic female mites when compared with males and quiescent deutonymphs, respectively. Coincident with initiation of the reproductive phase, VdLLTP transcript levels declined to a third of those in phoretic female mites. VdLLTP functions as an important lipid transporter and should provide a significant RNA interference target for assessing the control of varroa mites.
Du, Hongyi; Ouyang, Yidan; Zhang, Chengjun; Zhang, Qifa
• The hybrid sterility gene S5 comprises three types of alleles in cultivated rice. Such tri-allelic system provided a unique opportunity to study the molecular bases of evolutionary changes underlying reproductive isolation in plants. • We analysed the sequence diversity and evolutionary history of S5 in 138 Oryza accessions. We also examined the effect of the two functional variations (C819A and C1412T) in determining hybrid sterility by transformation. • Nineteen haplotypes were identified, which were classified into the indica-like, the japonica-like and the wide-compatibility gene (WCG)-like group, according to the sequence features of the tri-allelic system. The origin and evolutionary course of the three allelic groups were investigated, thus confirming the independent origins of indica and japonica subspecies. There were perfect associations between C819A and C1412T in the rice germplasm assayed, and the combination of C819 and C1412 was required for hybrid sterility. Evidence of positive selection in the WCG-like alleles suggested that they might have been favored by selection for higher compatibility in hybrids. • The complex evolution of S5 revealed the counteractive function of the three allelic groups at the species level. S5 might perform an important primary function in an evolutionary scale, and hybrid sterility acts as a 'byproduct' of this speciation gene.
Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Qiang
The "target of rapamycin" (TOR) nutritional signaling pathway and juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of vitellogenesis has been known for a long time. However, the interplay between these two pathways regulating vitellogenin (Vg) expression remains obscure. Here, we first demonstrated the key role of amino acids (AAs) in activation of Vg synthesis and egg development in Nilaparvata lugens using chemically defined artificial diets. AAs induced the expression of TOR and S6K (S6 kinase), whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of these two TOR pathway genes and rapamycin application strongly inhibited the AAs-induced Vg synthesis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), TOR, S6K and application of rapamycin resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mRNA levels of jmtN (juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, JHAMT). Application of JH III on the RNAi (Rheb and TOR) and rapamycin-treated females partially rescued the Vg expression. Conversely, knockdown of either jmtN or met (methoprene-tolerant, JH receptor) and application of JH III had no effects on mRNA levels of Rheb, TOR and S6K and phosphorylation of S6K. In summary, our results demonstrate that the TOR pathway induces JH biosynthesis that in turn regulates AAs-mediated Vg synthesis in N. lugens.
Nerve Growth Factor, Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Osteocalcin gene relationship in energy regulation, bone homeostasis and reproductive organs analyzed by mRNA quantitative evaluation and linear correlation analysis
Claudia Camerino; Elena Conte; Maria Cannone; Roberta Caloiero; Adriano Fonzino; Domenico Tricarico
Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) / Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and osteocalcin share common effects regulating energy, bone mass, reproduction and neuronal functions. To investigate on the gene-relationship between NGF, BDNF and Osteocalcin we compared by RT-PCR the transcript levels of Ngf, Bdnf and Osteocalcin as well as of their receptors p75NTR/NTRK1, NTRK2 and Gprc6a in brain, bone, white/brown adipose tissue (WAT/BAT) and reproductive organs of 3 months old female and male mice. B...
Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won
Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. The fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. In a model filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. The objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism of action in F. graminearum. We characterized five fluffy gene homologs in F. graminearum and found that FlbD is the only conserved regulator for conidiogenesis in A. nidulans and F. graminearum. Deletion of fgflbD prevented hyphal differentiation and the formation of perithecia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans flbD demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for FlbD functions are conserved in F. graminearum. Moreover, abaA-wetA pathway is positively regulated by FgFlbD during conidiogenesis in F. graminearum. Deleting fgflbD abolished morphological effects of abaA overexpression, which suggests that additional factors for FgFlbD or an AbaA-independent pathway for conidiogenesis are required for F. graminearum conidiation. Importantly, this study led to the construction of a genetic pathway of F. graminearum conidiogenesis and provides new insights into the genetics of conidiogenesis in fungi.
Bahamonde, Paulina A; McMaster, Mark E; Servos, Mark R; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Munkittrick, Kelly R
Intersex is a condition that has been associated with exposure to sewage effluents in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum). To better understand changes in the transcriptome that are associated with intersex, we characterized annual changes in the testis transcriptome in wild, unexposed fish. Rainbow darter males were collected from the Grand River (Ontario, Canada) in May (spawning), August (post-spawning), October (recrudescence), January (developing) and March (pre-spawning). Histology was used to determine the proportion of spermatogenic cell types that were present during each period of testicular maturation. Regression analysis determined that the proportion of spermatozoa versus spermatocytes in all stages of development (R2 ≥ 0.58) were inversely related; however this was not the case when males were in the post-spawning period. Gene networks that were specific to the transition from developing to pre-spawning stages included nitric oxide biosynthesis, response to wounding, sperm cell function, and stem cell maintenance. The pre-spawning to spawning transition included gene networks related to amino acid import, glycogenesis, Sertoli cell proliferation, sperm capacitation, and sperm motility. The spawning to post-spawning transition included unique gene networks associated with chromosome condensation, ribosome biogenesis and assembly, and mitotic spindle assembly. Lastly, the transition from post-spawning to recrudescence included gene networks associated with egg activation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, membrane fluidity, and sperm cell adhesion. Noteworthy was that there were a significant number of gene networks related to immune system function that were differentially expressed throughout reproduction, suggesting that immune network signalling has a prominent role in the male testis. Transcripts in the testis of post-spawning individuals showed patterns of expression that were most different for the majority of transcripts
Elphick, Maurice R
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) belongs to a family of vertebrate neuropeptides with a C-terminal PxRFamide motif, which exert effects by activating the G-protein coupled receptors NPFF1 and/or NPFF2. Comparative analysis of genome sequence data has revealed that orthologs of NPFF1/NPFF2-type receptors occur throughout the Bilateria and the neuropeptide ligand that activates the Drosophila NPFF1/NPFF2-type receptor has been identified as AYRKPPFNGSIFamide ("SIFamide"). Therefore, SIFamide-type neuropeptides, which occur throughout protostomian invertebrates, probably share a common evolutionary origin with vertebrate PxRFamide-type neuropeptides. Based on structural similarities, here SALMFamide neuropeptides are identified as candidate ligand components of this ancient bilaterian peptide-receptor signaling system in a deuterostomian invertebrate phylum, the echinoderms (e.g., starfish, sea urchins). Furthermore, functional studies provide evidence that PxRFamide/SALMFamide/SIFamide-type neuropeptides have evolutionarily conserved roles in regulation (typically inhibitory) of reproductive processes.
This article explores the reproductive health status of China. Since 1990, China has stepped up its efforts in promoting reproductive health and maternal and child health. Several studies demonstrated a remarkable progress made in this area. By 1997, maternal and infant mortality rates have declined, while the penetration rate for the immunization program and inpatient delivery rate increased. Despite these achievements, however, much remains to be done such as the lack of client-centered approaches to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the population for family planning services. A survey conducted in 1995 showed that the country's family planning program was focused primarily on demographic issues while little attention was given to reproductive health objectives. The situation improved when the State Planning Commission implemented its pilot program called the Quality of Care in Family Planning in China. The program yielded encouraging results including a reoriented philosophy towards reproductive health services, enhanced service facilities, informed choices for family planning methods, and the development of an operational information system. Another strategy adopted to address fertility and reproductive health issues was the implementation of adolescent reproductive health education as a required course for senior middle schools. Lastly, this article provided a brief overview of China's HIV/AIDS situation.
Stamou, M I; Cox, K H; Crowley, William F
The neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction is an intricate process requiring the exquisite coordination of an assortment of cellular networks, all converging on the GnRH neurons. These neurons have a complex life history, migrating mainly from the olfactory placode into the hypothalamus, where GnRH is secreted and acts as the master regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Much of what we know about the biology of the GnRH neurons has been aided by discoveries made using the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency (IGD), a family of rare Mendelian disorders that share a common failure of secretion and/or action of GnRH causing hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Over the last 30 years, research groups around the world have been investigating the genetic basis of IGD using different strategies based on complex cases that harbor structural abnormalities or single pleiotropic genes, endogamous pedigrees, candidate gene approaches as well as pathway gene analyses. Although such traditional approaches, based on well-validated tools, have been critical to establish the field, new strategies, such as next-generation sequencing, are now providing speed and robustness, but also revealing a surprising number of variants in known IGD genes in both patients and healthy controls. Thus, before the field moves forward with new genetic tools and continues discovery efforts, we must reassess what we know about IGD genetics and prepare to hold our work to a different standard. The purpose of this review is to: 1) look back at the strategies used to discover the "known" genes implicated in the rare forms of IGD; 2) examine the strengths and weaknesses of the methodologies used to validate genetic variation; 3)substantiate the role of known genes in the pathophysiology of the disease; and 4) project forward as we embark upon a widening use of these new and powerful technologies for gene discovery. (Endocrine Reviews 36: 603-621, 2015).
Stamou, M I; Cox, K H; Crowley, William F
The neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction is an intricate process requiring the exquisite coordination of an assortment of cellular networks, all converging on the GnRH neurons. These neurons have a complex life history, migrating mainly from the olfactory placode into the hypothalamus, where GnRH is secreted and acts as the master regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Much of what we know about the biology of the GnRH neurons has been aided by discoveries made using the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency (IGD), a family of rare Mendelian disorders that share a common failure of secretion and/or action of GnRH causing hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Over the last 30 years, research groups around the world have been investigating the genetic basis of IGD using different strategies based on complex cases that harbor structural abnormalities or single pleiotropic genes, endogamous pedigrees, candidate gene approaches as well as pathway gene analyses. Although such traditional approaches, based on well-validated tools, have been critical to establish the field, new strategies, such as next-generation sequencing, are now providing speed and robustness, but also revealing a surprising number of variants in known IGD genes in both patients and healthy controls. Thus, before the field moves forward with new genetic tools and continues discovery efforts, we must reassess what we know about IGD genetics and prepare to hold our work to a different standard. The purpose of this review is to: 1) look back at the strategies used to discover the "known" genes implicated in the rare forms of IGD; 2) examine the strengths and weaknesses of the methodologies used to validate genetic variation; 3) substantiate the role of known genes in the pathophysiology of the disease; and 4) project forward as we embark upon a widening use of these new and powerful technologies for gene discovery.
Ragimova, Sh A
Puberty was found to be delayed in female rats who had not obtained necessary amount of prolactin with the mother's milk. These rats developed hyperprolactinemia in reproductive age associated with a decrease in the hypothalamus' dopaminergic tonus as well as a decrease of the sexual steroids level. These rats develop most often disorders of estrous cycle and reproductive function.
Full Text Available The neuroendocrine mechanism regulates reproduction through the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis which is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. The HPG axis is regulated by a variety of internal as well as external factors. Serotonin, a monoamine neurotransmitter, is involved in a wide range of reproductive functions. In mammals, serotonin regulates sexual behaviours, gonadotropin release and gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH secretion. However, the serotonin system in teleost may play unique role in the control of reproduction as the mechanism of reproductive control in teleosts is not always the same as in the mammalian models. In fish, the serotonin system is also regulated by natural environmental factors as well as chemical substances. In particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are commonly detected as pharmaceutical contaminants in the natural environment. Those factors may influence fish reproductive functions via the serotonin system. This review summarizes the functional significance of serotonin in the teleosts reproduction.
Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.
Zheng, Haihong; Zhang, Keyu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Changlong; Lu, Jiaqi; Gao, Fei; Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Hao; Lin, Tao; Li, Liwei; Tong, Guangzhi; Wei, Zuzhang; Yuan, Shishan
The factors that determine the transcription-regulating sequence (TRS) activity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remain largely unclear. In this study, the effect of mutagenesis of conserved C nucleotides at positions 5 and 6 in the leader TRS (TRS-L) and/or canonical body TRS7 (TRS-B7) on the synthesis of subgenomic (sg) mRNA and virus infectivity was investigated in the context of a type 2 PRRSV infectious cDNA clone. The results showed that a double C mutation in the leader TRS completely abolished sg mRNAs synthesis and virus infectivity, but a single C mutation did not. A single C or double C mutation in TRS-B7.1 or/and TRS-B7.2 impaired or abolished the corresponding sg mRNA synthesis. Introduction of identical mutations in the leader and body TRSs partially restored sg mRNA7.1 and/or sg mRNA7.2 transcription, indicating that the base-pairing interaction between sense TRS-L and cTRS-B is a crucial factor influencing sg mRNA synthesis. Analysis of the mRNA leader-body junctions of mutants provided evidence for a mechanism of discontinuous minus-strand transcription. This study also showed that mutational inactivation of TRS-B7.1 or TRS-B7.2 did not affect the production of infectious progeny virus, and the sg mRNA formed from each of them could express N protein. However, TRS-B7.1 plays more important roles than TRS-B7.2 in maintaining the growth characteristic of type 2 PRRSV. These results provide more insight into the molecular mechanism of genome expression and subgenomic mRNA transcription of PRRSV.
Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard
Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...
Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.
Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.
Yuan, Ding; Wang, Hongwu; He, Haibo; Jia, Liangliang; He, Yumin; Wang, Ting; Zeng, Xiao; Li, Yuzhou; Li, Shouchao; Zhang, Changcheng
Total flavonoids of Epimedium (TFE) is the main active composition of Epimedium that has been used to treat male reproductive problems. The present aim was to investigate the protective effects of TFE on male mice reproductive system against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced oxidative injury. The animals were treated with CP to make testicular injury model and the protective effects of TFE were observed. In the CP-treated group, testicular and epididymal weights, sperm count and motility significantly decreased relative to the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Compared with the CP-treated group, TFE (200 and 400 mg/kg) treated mice increased testicular weights by 21.6% and 28.4% (P < 0.05), sperm counts by 81.7% and 148.3% (P < 0.01) and sperm motility by 47.2% and 61.3% (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, the CP-treated group showed enhancement of lipid peroxidation leading to testicular reproductive toxicity. TFE restored these oxidative damages by up-regulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes, especially SOD3 and GPX1. TUNEL assay and histopathological observations provided supportive evidence for above results, and when the dose of TFE increased, the aforesaid improvement became more and more strong. These results demonstrated that TFE exerted beneficially protective effects on the structural and functional damage of male mice reproductive system and reduced apoptosis in spermatogenic cells by inhibiting CP-induced oxidative stress.
Kerkum Yvette L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs, are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of walking energy cost of FROs is both limited and inconclusive. Much of this ambiguity may be due to a mismatch between the FRO ankle stiffness and the patient’s gait deviations. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of FROs optimised for ankle stiffness on the walking energy cost in children with SCP, compared to walking with shoes alone. In addition, effects on various secondary outcome measures will be evaluated in order to identify possible working mechanisms and potential predictors of FRO treatment success. Method/Design A pre-post experimental study design will include 32 children with SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion in midstance, recruited from our university hospital and affiliated rehabilitation centres. All participants will receive a newly designed FRO, allowing ankle stiffness to be varied into three configurations by means of a hinge. Gait biomechanics will be assessed for each FRO configuration. The FRO that results in the greatest reduction in knee flexion during the single stance phase will be selected as the subject’s optimal FRO. Subsequently, the effects of wearing this optimal FRO will be evaluated after 12–20 weeks. The primary study parameter will be walking energy cost, with the most important secondary outcomes being intensity of participation, daily activity, walking speed and gait biomechanics. Discussion The AFO-CP trial will be the first experimental study to evaluate the effect of individually optimised FROs on mobility and participation. The evaluation will include outcome measures at all levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, providing a unique
Seasonal plasticity in the peptide neuronal systems: potential roles of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, gonadotrophin-inhibiting hormone, neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the regulation of the reproductive axis in subtropical Indian weaver birds.
Surbhi; Rastogi, A; Rani, S; Kumar, V
Two experiments examined the expression of gonadotrophin-releasing and inhibiting hormones (GnRH-I, GnRH-II and GnIH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in subtropical Indian weaver birds, which demonstrate relative photorefractoriness. Experiment 1 measured peptide expression levels in the form of immunoreactive (-IR) cells, percentage cell area and cell optical density in the preoptic area (GnRH-I), midbrain (GnRH-II), paraventricular nucleus (GnIH), mediobasal hypothalamus [dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), infundibular complex (INc), NPY and VIP] and lateral septal organ (VIP) during the progressive, breeding, regressive and nonbreeding phases of the annual reproductive cycle. GnRH-I was decreased in the nonbreeding and VIP was increased in INc in the breeding and regressive states. GnRH-II and NPY levels did not differ between the testicular phases. Double-labelled immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed a close association between the GnRH/GnIH, GnRH/NPY, GnRH/VIP and GnIH/NPY peptide systems, implicating them interacting and playing roles in the reproductive regulation in weaver birds. Experiment 2 further measured these peptide levels in the middle of day and night in weaver birds that were maintained under short days (8 : 16 h light /dark cycle; photosensitive), exposed to ten long days (16 : 8 h light /dark cycle; photostimulated) or maintained for approximately 2 years on a 16 : 8 h light /dark cycle (photorefractory). Reproductively immature testes in these groups precluded the possible effect of an enhanced gonadal feedback on the hypothalamic peptide expression. There were group differences in the GnRH-I (not GnRH-II), GnIH, NPY and VIP immunoreactivity, albeit with variations in immunoreactivity measures in the present study. These results, which are consistent with those reported in birds with relative photorefractoriness, show the distribution and possibly a complex interaction of key neuropeptides in the regulation of the
马明华; 迟长凤; 吴常文
This paper describes the main research on reproductive regulation neuropeptide in the mol-lusks which play a critical role in the development, maturity and maintainance of molluscs reproductive system. The existence of the neuropeptides was detected in molluscs by the methods of immunohistochemistry, ELISA and HPLC. Kinds of neuropeptide were universe in molluscs, mainly distributed in the centural nervous system and reproduction system. Genes fragements of partial neuropeptide have been cloned through RT-PCR. As a result, there is still a lot of work needed to be done about neuropeptide research which will be references for reproduction regulation in molluscs.%阐述了海洋软体动物相关生殖调控类神经肽的研究并发现其在软体动物的性腺发育与成熟和繁殖功能的维持中起着重要作用。采用免疫组织化学、酶联免疫吸附测定以及高效液相色谱等方法在多种软体动物中检测到了多种神经肽的存在，主要分布于中枢神经以及周围神经系统。部分神经肽经过RT-PCR已克隆出其片段基因。该类神经肽在软体动物中具有广阔的研究空间，该研究将为软体动物生殖调控机理提供理论依据。
Chen, Jiongjiong; Ding, Jihua; Ouyang, Yidan; Du, Hongyi; Yang, Jiangyi; Cheng, Ke; Zhao, Jie; Qiu, Shuqing; Zhang, Xuelian; Yao, Jialing; Liu, Kede; Wang, Lei; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Xue, Yongbiao; Xia, Mian; Ji, Qing; Lu, Jufei; Xu, Mingliang; Zhang, Qifa
Hybrid sterility is a major form of postzygotic reproductive isolation. Although reproductive isolation has been a key issue in evolutionary biology for many decades in a wide range of organisms, only very recently a few genes for reproductive isolation were identified. The Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is divided into two subspecies, indica and japonica. Hybrids between indica and japonica varieties are usually highly sterile. A special group of rice germplasm, referred to as wide-compatibility varieties, is able to produce highly fertile hybrids when crossed to both indica and japonica. In this study, we cloned S5, a major locus for indica-japonica hybrid sterility and wide compatibility, using a map-based cloning approach. We show that S5 encodes an aspartic protease conditioning embryo-sac fertility. The indica (S5-i) and japonica (S5-j) alleles differ by two nucleotides. The wide compatibility gene (S5-n) has a large deletion in the N terminus of the predicted S5 protein, causing subcellular mislocalization of the protein, and thus is presumably nonfunctional. This triallelic system has a profound implication in the evolution and artificial breeding of cultivated rice. Genetic differentiation between indica and japonica would have been enforced because of the reproductive barrier caused by S5-i and S5-j, and species coherence would have been maintained by gene flow enabled by the wide compatibility gene.
The importance of the ovarian reserve, defined as the supply of primordial follicles in the mammalian ovary, to women’s health, mammalian fertility, and mammalian assisted reproductive technologies has been the subject of much research. Depletion of the ovarian reserve is considered to be a major fa...
Svendsen, Mette N.
This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....
Rasgon Jason L
Full Text Available Abstract Backgrond In the mosquito Aedes aegypti the insulin/insulin growth factor I signaling (IIS cascade is a key regulator of many physiological processes, including reproduction. Two important reproductive events, steroidogenesis in the ovary and yolk synthesis in the fat body, are regulated by the IIS cascade in mosquitoes. The signaling molecule phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN is a key inhibitor of the IIS cascade that helps modulate the activity of the IIS cascade. In Ae. aegypti, six unique splice variants of AaegPTEN were previously identified, but the role of these splice variants, particularly AaegPTEN3 and 6, were unknown. Results Knockdown of AaegPTEN or its specific splice variant AaegPTEN6 (the splice variant thought to regulate reproduction in the ovary and fat body using RNAi led to a 15–63% increase in egg production with no adverse effects on egg viability during the first reproductive cycle. Knockdown of AaegPTEN3, expressed predominantly in the head, had no effect on reproduction. We also characterized the protein expression patterns of these two splice variants during development and in various tissues during a reproductive cycle. Conclusion Previous studies in a range of organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, have demonstrated that disruption of the IIS cascade leads to decreased reproduction or sterility. In this study we demonstrate that knockdown of the IIS inhibitor PTEN can actually increase reproduction in the mosquito, at least during the first reproductive cycle.
Nerve Growth Factor, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Osteocalcin Gene Relationship in Energy Regulation, Bone Homeostasis and Reproductive Organs Analyzed by mRNA Quantitative Evaluation and Linear Correlation Analysis.
Camerino, Claudia; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Caloiero, Roberta; Fonzino, Adriano; Tricarico, Domenico
Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)/Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and osteocalcin share common effects regulating energy, bone mass, reproduction and neuronal functions. To investigate on the gene-relationship between NGF, BDNF, and Osteocalcin we compared by RT-PCR the transcript levels of Ngf, Bdnf and Osteocalcin as well as of their receptors p75NTR/NTRK1, NTRK2, and Gprc6a in brain, bone, white/brown adipose tissue (WAT/BAT) and reproductive organs of 3 months old female and male mice. Brain and bone were used as positive controls for NGF/BDNF and Osteocalcin respectively. The role of oxitocin(Oxt) and its receptor(Oxtr) was also investigated. Ngf expression shows an opposite trend compared to Bdnf. Ngf /p75NTR expression is 50% higher in BAT than brain, in both genders, but lower in bone. In contrast, Bdnf expression in bone is higher than in brain, but low in BAT/WAT. We found Osteocalcin gene expressed in brain in both genders, but Gprc6a expression is low in brain and BAT/WAT. As expected, Gprc6a gene is expressed in bone. Oxt gene was markedly expressed in brain, Oxtr in the ovaries and in fat and bone in both genders. Ngf is highly expressed in reproductive tissues and p75NTR mRNA levels are respectively 300, 100, and 50% higher in testis/ovaries/uterus than in brain. In contrast, BDNF genes are not expressed in reproductive tissues. As expected, Gprc6a is expressed in testis but not in the ovaries/uterus. A significant correlation was found between the expression levels of the gene ligands and their receptors in brain, BAT and testis suggesting a common pathway of different genes in these tissues in either male and female. Changes in the expression levels of osteocalcin, Ngf, or Bdnf genes may mutually affect the expression levels of the others. Moreover, it may be possible that different ligands may operate through different receptor subtypes. Oxt and Oxtr failed to show significant correlation. The up-regulation of Ngf /p75NTR in BAT is consistent
Nerve Growth Factor, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Osteocalcin Gene Relationship in Energy Regulation, Bone Homeostasis and Reproductive Organs Analyzed by mRNA Quantitative Evaluation and Linear Correlation Analysis
Camerino, Claudia; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Caloiero, Roberta; Fonzino, Adriano; Tricarico, Domenico
Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)/Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and osteocalcin share common effects regulating energy, bone mass, reproduction and neuronal functions. To investigate on the gene-relationship between NGF, BDNF, and Osteocalcin we compared by RT-PCR the transcript levels of Ngf, Bdnf and Osteocalcin as well as of their receptors p75NTR/NTRK1, NTRK2, and Gprc6a in brain, bone, white/brown adipose tissue (WAT/BAT) and reproductive organs of 3 months old female and male mice. Brain and bone were used as positive controls for NGF/BDNF and Osteocalcin respectively. The role of oxitocin(Oxt) and its receptor(Oxtr) was also investigated. Ngf expression shows an opposite trend compared to Bdnf. Ngf /p75NTR expression is 50% higher in BAT than brain, in both genders, but lower in bone. In contrast, Bdnf expression in bone is higher than in brain, but low in BAT/WAT. We found Osteocalcin gene expressed in brain in both genders, but Gprc6a expression is low in brain and BAT/WAT. As expected, Gprc6a gene is expressed in bone. Oxt gene was markedly expressed in brain, Oxtr in the ovaries and in fat and bone in both genders. Ngf is highly expressed in reproductive tissues and p75NTR mRNA levels are respectively 300, 100, and 50% higher in testis/ovaries/uterus than in brain. In contrast, BDNF genes are not expressed in reproductive tissues. As expected, Gprc6a is expressed in testis but not in the ovaries/uterus. A significant correlation was found between the expression levels of the gene ligands and their receptors in brain, BAT and testis suggesting a common pathway of different genes in these tissues in either male and female. Changes in the expression levels of osteocalcin, Ngf, or Bdnf genes may mutually affect the expression levels of the others. Moreover, it may be possible that different ligands may operate through different receptor subtypes. Oxt and Oxtr failed to show significant correlation. The up-regulation of Ngf /p75NTR in BAT is consistent
Nerve Growth Factor, Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Osteocalcin gene relationship in energy regulation, bone homeostasis and reproductive organs analyzed by mRNA quantitative evaluation and linear correlation analysis
Full Text Available Nerve Growth Factor (NGF / Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and osteocalcin share common effects regulating energy, bone mass, reproduction and neuronal functions. To investigate on the gene-relationship between NGF, BDNF and Osteocalcin we compared by RT-PCR the transcript levels of Ngf, Bdnf and Osteocalcin as well as of their receptors p75NTR/NTRK1, NTRK2 and Gprc6a in brain, bone, white/brown adipose tissue (WAT/BAT and reproductive organs of 3 months old female and male mice. Brain and bone were used as positive controls for NGF/BDNF and Osteocalcin respectively. The role of oxitocin(Oxt and its receptor(Oxtr was also investigated. Ngf expression shows an opposite trend compared to Bdnf. Ngf/p75NTR expression is 50% higher in BAT than brain, in both genders, but lower in bone. In contrast, Bdnf expression in bone is higher than in brain, but low in BAT/WAT. We found Osteocalcin gene expressed in brain in both genders, but Gprc6a expression is low in brain and BAT/WAT. As expected, Gprc6a gene is expressed in bone. Oxt gene was markedly expressed in brain, Oxtr in the ovaries and in fat and bone in both genders. Ngf is highly expressed in reproductive tissues and p75NTR mRNA levels are respectively 300%, 100% and 50% higher in testis/ovaries/uterus than in brain. In contrast, BDNF genes are not expressed in reproductive tissues. As expected, Gprc6a is expressed in testis but not in the ovaries/uterus. A significant correlation was found between the expression levels of the gene ligands and their receptors in brain, BAT and testis suggesting a common pathway of different genes in these tissues in either male and female. Changes in the expression levels of osteocalcin, Ngf or Bdnf genes may mutually affect the expression levels of the others. Moreover, it may be possible that different ligands may operate through different receptor subtypes. Oxt and Oxtr failed to show significant correlation. The up-regulation of Ngf/p75NTR in BAT is
Rhinehart, Erin M
The burgeoning field of metabolic reproduction regulation has been gaining momentum due to highly frequent discoveries of new neuroendocrine factors regulating both energy balance and reproduction. Universally throughout the animal kingdom, energy deficits inhibit the reproductive axis, which demonstrates that reproduction is acutely sensitive to fuel availability. Entrainment of reproductive efforts with energy availability is especially critical for females because they expend large amounts of energy on gestation and lactation. Research has identified an assortment of both central and peripheral factors involved in the metabolic regulation of reproduction. From an evolutionary perspective, these mechanisms likely evolved to optimize reproductive fitness in an environment with an unpredictable food supply and regular bouts of famine. To be effective, however, the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic regulation of reproduction must also retain developmental plasticity to allow organisms to adapt their reproductive strategies to their particular niche. In particular, the prenatal environment has emerged as a critical developmental window for programming the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic control of reproduction. This review will discuss the current knowledge about hormonal and molecular mechanisms that entrain reproduction with prevailing energy availability. In addition, it will provide an evolutionary, human life-history framework to assist in the interpretation of findings on gestational programming of the female reproductive function, with a focus on pubertal timing as an example. Future research should aim to shed light on mechanisms underlying the prenatal modulation of the adaptation to an environment with unstable resources in a way that optimizes reproductive fitness.
Swenson, Wade G; Wuertz, Beverly R K; Ondrey, Frank G
Tobacco is notably genotoxic and associated with head and neck carcinogenesis. Cigarette carcinogens have the capacity to alter early response gene expression in tobacco-related malignancies via genes such as nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). A number of early response gene activation events are also facilitated by fos/jun activator protein 1 (AP-1) associated pathways. In the present study, we hypothesize that tobacco products may induce microenvironment alterations, promoting angiogenesis and providing a permissive environment for head and neck cancer progression. In an in vitro analysis, we employed immortalized oral keratinocyte (HOK-16B) and laryngeal squamous carcinoma (UM-SCC-11A) cells to investigate interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induction by cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). IL-8 and VEGF expression is based on interactions between NFκB, AP-1, and NF-IL6. We identified at least 1.5-fold dose-dependent induction of AP-1, VEGF, and IL-8 promoter/reporter gene activity after 24 h exposure to CSC. Next, we stably transfected UM-SCC-11A cells with A-Fos, a dominant negative AP-1 protein. Treatment with CSC of the A-Fos cell lines compared to empty vector controls significantly down-regulated AP-1, VEGF, and IL-8 promoter/reporter gene expression. We also performed ELISAs and discovered significant up-regulation of IL-8 and VEGF secretion by UMSCC 11A after treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and CSC, which was down-regulated by the A-Fos dominant negative protein. We conclude tobacco carcinogens up-regulate AP-1 activity and AP-1 dependent IL-8 and VEGF gene expression in head and neck cancer. This up-regulation may promote an angiogenic phenotype favoring invasion in both premalignant and squamous cancer cells of the head and neck.
... Reproductive System en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. The female needs a ... like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves ...
This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...
Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M
To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...
... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...
True, Cadence; Verma, Saurabh; Grove, Kevin L; Smith, M Susan
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide implicated in both metabolic and reproductive regulation, raising the possibility that CART plays a role in reproductive inhibition during negative metabolic conditions. The current study characterized CART's regulatory influence on GnRH and kisspeptin (Kiss1) cells and determined the sensitivity of different CART populations to negative energy balance. CART fibers made close appositions to 60% of GnRH cells, with the majority of the fibers (>80%) originating from the arcuate nucleus (ARH) CART/pro-opiomelanocortin population. Electrophysiological recordings in GnRH-green fluorescent protein rats demonstrated that CART postsynaptically depolarizes GnRH cells. CART fibers from the ARH were also observed in close contact with Kiss1 cells in the ARH and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Recordings in Kiss1-GFP mice demonstrated CART also postsynaptically depolarizes ARH Kiss1 cells, suggesting CART may act directly and indirectly, via Kiss1 populations, to stimulate GnRH neurons. CART protein and mRNA levels were analyzed in 2 models of negative energy balance: caloric restriction (CR) and lactation. Both CART mRNA levels and the number of CART-immunoreactive cells were suppressed in the ARH during CR but not during lactation. AVPV CART mRNA was suppressed during CR, but not during lactation when there was a dramatic increase in CART-immunoreactive cells. These data suggest differing regulatory signals of CART between the models. In conclusion, both morphological and electrophysiological methods identify CART as a novel and potent stimulator of Kiss1 and GnRH neurons and suppression of CART expression during negative metabolic conditions could contribute to inhibition of the reproductive axis.
Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;
To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...
Meng, Xiannan; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Xiang; Xiang, Zou; Li, Dongmei; Han, Xiaodong
Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) is a harmful cyanotoxin produced by cyanobacteria. MC-LR can exert endocrine-disrupting activities in many organisms. We have previously demonstrated that MC-LR exerts both acute and chronic reproductive toxicity in male mice, resulting in a decline in sperm quality and damage to testicular structure. Moreover, we also observed extensive alterations in a panel of microRNAs in spermatogonial cells after exposure to MC-LR. In this study, we have confirmed that miR-541 was significantly increased both in GC-1 cells (in vitro) and in mouse testes (in vivo) after exposure to MC-LR. Our data support that p15 was the target gene of miR-541. Increase in miR-541 led to a reduction of p15 and murine double minute2 (MDM2), promoting the activation of p53 signaling and MC-LR-mediated cell apoptosis. Moreover, cells responded to MC-LR with reduced viability and increased apoptosis. Consistently, inhibiting miR-541 could upregulate the expression of p15 and MDM2, resulting in the downregulation of phospho-p53. Downregulation of miR-541 promoted cell viability by reducing MC-LR-induced cell apoptosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate here a crucial role for miR-541 in MC-LR-induced toxic effects on the reproductive system, in an attempt to provide a rational strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of MC-LR-induced impairment in the reproductive system. PMID:27608041
孙馥箐; 段华; 汪沙
由连接蛋白43 (connexin 43,Cx43)构成的细胞间间隙连接(gap junction,GJ)是介导细胞间直接的物质、能量交换及电、化学信号耦合的重要通路,其可保证细胞间功能活动的协调一致,在生殖系统细胞发育、分化及成熟等生理过程及功能活动中发挥非常重要的调控作用.性激素可在转录及翻译等层面调节生殖系统细胞Cx43的结构及表达,一方面通过核受体基因组机制调节Cx43基因的转录,另一方面通过非基因组快速信号传导通路机制调节Cx43的磷酸化水平,共同影响细胞间隙连接通讯(gapjunction intracellular communication,GJIC),进一步干预生殖系统细胞的病理、生理过程及功能活动.近年来,性激素在心血管系统病生理状态下对连接蛋白调节的变化及机制研究较为成熟,而在子宫、卵巢等生殖器官中,对性激素通过调节连接蛋白及间隙连接进而影响细胞间信息流通的研究较少,其作用机制并不清晰.故本文结合近年来文献,综述性激素对生殖系统细胞Cx43表达及GJIC的调控机制的研究进展,旨在为今后深入地研究提供可行的思路.%Gap junction (G J) composed of connexin 43 (Cx43) is a kind of cell-cell junction which significantly mediates the direct interchange of metabolites,energy and electrochemical signals from one cell to another.GJ ensures the coordination of intercellular activities and plays a vital role in the regulation of cell development,differentiation,maturation and functional activities in the reproductive system.Sexual hormones can influence the pathophysiological processes and functional activities of the reproductive cells by regulating gap junction intracellular communication (GJIC),which depends on the expression of Cx43.On one hand,sexual hormones regulate Cx43 gene transcription via the nuclear receptor mechanism,on the other hand,sexual hormones regulate Cx43 phosphorylation level through the signal
Le Thao T.
Full Text Available Neuropeptidomics, a mass spectrometry-based technique which aims to uncover the complete suite of neuropeptides present in a tissue, organ or cell from the brain or nervous system, has found application in studies examining physiological responses (e.g. food intake, appetite and reproduction. Neuropeptides (and peptide hormones have long been known as regulators of mammalian physiological processes, particularly reproduction. These peptides are derived from precursor proteins and become active via proteolytic processes and post-translational modifications. A relatively large number of neuropeptides, mainly formed in the hypothalamus or the anterior pituitary of mammals, have been specifically associated with reproduction, including GnRH, NPY, PYY and kisspeptin. Here, we will present an overview of neuropeptides, their roles in reproduction and the application of neuropeptidomics in this field. We address the advantages of neuropeptidomics in reproductive studies including the high throughput identification, profiling and quantification of neuropeptides present in reproductive tissues and also discuss some of the challenges. The application of neuropeptidomics to the field of reproduction will provide the foundation for a greater understanding of how neuropeptides act to regulate reproductive function.
Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo
Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed.
Meng C Wang
Full Text Available Reproductive senescence is a hallmark of aging. The molecular mechanisms regulating reproductive senescence and its association with the aging of somatic cells remain poorly understood. From a full genome RNA interference (RNAi screen, we identified 32 Caenorhabditis elegans gene inactivations that delay reproductive senescence and extend reproductive lifespan. We found that many of these gene inactivations interact with insulin/IGF-1 and/or TGF-β endocrine signaling pathways to regulate reproductive senescence, except nhx-2 and sgk-1 that modulate sodium reabsorption. Of these 32 gene inactivations, we also found that 19 increase reproductive lifespan through their effects on oocyte activities, 8 of them coordinate oocyte and sperm functions to extend reproductive lifespan, and 5 of them can induce sperm humoral response to promote reproductive longevity. Furthermore, we examined the effects of these reproductive aging regulators on somatic aging. We found that 5 of these gene inactivations prolong organismal lifespan, and 20 of them increase healthy life expectancy of an organism without altering total life span. These studies provide a systemic view on the genetic regulation of reproductive senescence and its intersection with organism longevity. The majority of these newly identified genes are conserved, and may provide new insights into age-associated reproductive senescence during human aging.
Honeybee (Apis mellifera Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses
Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration—especially via the nasal or rectal route—could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.
Palmer, Robert E; Inoue, Takao; Sherwood, David R; Jiang, Lily I; Sternberg, Paul W
The development of the reproductive system in Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established model system for patterning and organogenesis. We report the characterization of the cog-1 gene, mutations in which cause novel phenotypes in late patterning in vulval lineages, establishment of the vulva-uterine connection, development and function of the spermathecal-uterine junction, and the development of vas deferens-proctodeal connection in the male. We positionally cloned cog-1 and found that it encodes a homeobox protein most similar to the mammalian GTX and Nkx6.1 proteins. Analysis of cog-1 transcripts revealed that cog-1 is likely a complex locus with two promoters. Two mutant alleles of cog-1 differentially affect alternative transcripts and cause different phenotypes, suggesting that the two forms of cog-1 have distinct functions in C. elegans.
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)has long been considered as a classical rate-limiting enzyme during lipolysis since it was first described in 1 960s.HSL is regulated mainly by catecholamine,inclu-ding adrenalin.Studies in recent years indicated that the substrates for HSL are not only triglycerides, but also diacylglycerol with the catalytic activity is ten times that of triglycerides,glycerol esters and cho-lesterol esters,which overthrow the opinion that HSL is specific to triglyceride.The scientists have gener-ated HSL gene knockout mice and confirmed HSL is widely located in the reproductive system,which in-dicates that HSL may play an important role in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process in the reproductive system.Here,we will focus on the features of the HSL gene,mRNA and its protein,and summarize the HSL functions in the reproductive system.%激素敏感性脂肪酶被认为是经典的脂肪分解限速酶，可特异水解甘油三酯，受儿茶酚胺等激素调控。近年来研究表明：HSL 作用底物不仅有甘油三酯，还包括甘油二酯、甘油一酯、胆固醇酯等。然而，脂肪酶在生殖系统的功能并不清楚，基因敲除小鼠为证实 HSL 广泛存在于生殖系统提供良好模型，提示其可能在生殖系统生理及病理生理过程发挥重要调节作用，本文将着重介绍生殖系统中 HSL 基因与蛋白质结构并总结其在生殖系统的功能。
Whittington, Camilla M; Wilson, Anthony B
Prolactin (PRL) has one of the broadest ranges of functions of any vertebrate hormone, and plays a critical role in regulating aspects of reproduction in widely divergent lineages. However, while PRL structure, mode of action and functions have been well-characterised in mammals, studies of other vertebrate lineages remain incomplete. As the most diverse group of vertebrates, fish offer a particularly valuable model system for the study of the evolution of reproductive endocrine function. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the role of prolactin in fish reproduction, which extends to migration, reproductive development and cycling, brood care behaviour, pregnancy, and nutrient provisioning to young. We also highlight significant gaps in knowledge and advocate a specific bidirectional research methodology including both observational and manipulative experiments. Focusing research efforts towards the thorough characterisation of a restricted number of reproductively diverse fish models will help to provide the foundation necessary for a more explicitly evolutionary analysis of PRL function.
The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A Patient's Guide to Assisted Reproductive Technology Frequently Asked ...
Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T
The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...
胡建红; 岳国璋; 杜芳; 石红宇; 刘小弘
The study aims to explore the influence on the litter size,piglets birth weight and survival rate by adding a fixed amount of chromium picolinate,folic acid,vitamin E and vitamin A to the diet of pregnant sows in their first trimester.Two experimental groups（prepubertal gilts and multiparity sows） and two control groups were set up in this test.The results showed that litter size improved significantly（average 29.5%） with dietary supplemented chromium picolinate,folic acid,vitamin E and vitamin A to early stage of pregnancy sows,however,the adding above nutrition did not affect birth weight and survival rate.Dietary supplemented chromium picolinate and folic acid et al.to early stage of pregnancy sows improved reproduction performance of sows.%探讨妊娠母猪妊娠早期日粮中补加一定量的甲基吡啶铬、叶酸、维生素E和维生素A对母猪窝产仔数、初生重、仔猪成活率的影响。试验分为后备母猪和经产母猪两个组,并设相应的对照组,通过试验得出妊娠母猪妊娠早期日粮中补加一定量的甲基吡啶铬、叶酸、维生素E和维生素A,结果显著地提高母猪窝产仔数,平均为29.5%,对初生重和仔猪成活率无显著影响。在母猪妊娠早期的日粮中补加甲基吡啶铬和叶酸等进行营养调控,可提高母猪的繁殖性能。
Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Mikkelsen, Jens D
of rapamycin) and Crtc1 (Creb1-regulated transcription coactivator-1) as putative mediators for leptin regulation of Kiss1 expression, as well as the identification of other potential metabolic modulators of kisspeptin signaling, such as ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)....... and reproduction have been the subject of considerable attention; however, our understanding of the neurobiological basis for this phenomenon is still incomplete. In mid 1990s, the adipose-hormone, leptin, was proven as an essential signal for transmitting metabolic information onto the centers governing puberty...... and reproduction; yet, the ultimate mode of action of leptin on GnRH neurons has remained contentious for years. More recently, kisspeptins, a family of neuropeptides encoded by the Kiss1 gene, have emerged as conduits for the metabolic regulation of reproduction and putative effectors of leptin actions on Gn...
Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)
Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia
The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings.
Zhao, E; Mu, Qing
Phytoestrogens are a family of diverse polyphenolic compounds derived from nature plant that structurally or functionally mimic circulating estrogen in the mammalian reproductive system. They induce estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (a principal endocrine system involving in reproductive regulation) and peripheral reproductive organs. The dichotomy of phytoestrogen-mediated actions elucidates that they play the biological activities via complex mechanism...
Full Text Available Female reproductive cessation is one of the earliest age-related declines humans experience, occurring in mid-adulthood. Similarly, Caenorhabditis elegans' reproductive span is short relative to its total life span, with reproduction ceasing about a third into its 15-20 day adulthood. All of the known mutations and treatments that extend C. elegans' reproductive period also regulate longevity, suggesting that reproductive span is normally linked to life span. C. elegans has two canonical TGF-beta signaling pathways. We recently found that the TGF-beta Dauer pathway regulates longevity through the Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling (IIS pathway; here we show that this pathway has a moderate effect on reproductive span. By contrast, TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutants exhibit a substantially extended reproductive period, more than doubling reproductive span in some cases. Sma/Mab mutations extend reproductive span disproportionately to life span and act independently of known regulators of somatic aging, such as Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling and Dietary Restriction. This is the first discovery of a pathway that regulates reproductive span independently of longevity and the first identification of the TGF-beta Sma/Mab pathway as a regulator of reproductive aging. Our results suggest that longevity and reproductive span regulation can be uncoupled, although they appear to normally be linked through regulatory pathways.
Agbohessi, Prudencio T; Toko, Ibrahim I; Atchou, Vincent; Tonato, Roland; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, Patrick
We exposed African catfish Clarias gariepinus from embryo-larvae stage to adult stage (13 months old, BW) to chronic doses of Tihan 175 O-TEQ and endosulfan (Thionex) and assessed the impact of this exposure on endocrine regulation, liver status and offspring fitness. Endosulfan exposure caused a significant increase in plasma estradiol-17β (E2) and decreased plasma testosterone (T) but not 11 ketotestosterone (11-KT). Tihan decreased significantly plasma E2 and 11-KT, but not T. Endosulfan doses altered gonad histology and induced high proportions (18–30% of males) of ovotestis in males and follicular atretic oocytes in females, indicating occurrence of feminization in fish. Tihan also altered gonad histology but only one case of ovotestis was observed at the highest dose. Presence of foam cells in lobular lumen, fibrosis, necrosis, and immature cells released in lobular lumen were found in male gonads and melano-macrophage centers (MMCs), necrosis, fibrosis and vacuolation were observed in female gonads. Fish livers also suffered injuries such as MMCs, necrosis, fibrosis, vacuolation, dilatation of sinusoids, and nuclear pleomorphism. Chronic Tihan and Thionex exposures decreased fertilization rate, hatching rate, ova and larval weight, as well as larval resistance to osmotic choc. They also delayed hatching and increased abnormalities in the F1 generation, all these indicators suggesting transgenerational effects of these compounds.
Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs are key elements that facilitate genome evolution of the host organism. A number of studies have assessed the functions of TEs, which change gene expression in the host genome. Activation of TEs is controlled by epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. Several recent studies have reported that TEs can also be activated by biotic or abiotic stress in some plants. We focused on a Ty1/copia retrotransposon, ONSEN, that is activated by heat stress in Arabidopsis. We found that transcriptional activation of ONSEN was regulated by an siRNA-related pathway, and the activation could also be induced by oxidative stress. Mutants deficient in small interfering RNA (siRNA biogenesis that were exposed to heat stress at the initial stages of vegetative growth showed transgenerational transposition. The transposition was also detected in the progeny, which originated from tissue that had differentiated after exposure to the heat stress. The results indicated that in some undifferentiated cells, transpositional activity could be maintained quite long after exposure to the heat stress.
Karen L. Gamble
Full Text Available Health impairments, including reproductive issues, are associated with working nights or rotating shifts. For example, shift work has been associated with an increased risk of irregular menstrual cycles, endometriosis, infertility, miscarriage, low birth weight or pre-term delivery, and reduced incidence of breastfeeding. Based on what is known about circadian regulation of endocrine rhythms in rodents (and much less in humans, the circadian clock is an integral regulatory part of the reproductive system. When this 24-h program is disordered by environmental perturbation (such as shift work or genetic alterations, the endocrine system can be impaired. The purpose of this review is to explore the hypothesis that misalignment of reproductive hormones with the environmental light-dark cycle and/or sleep wake rhythms can disrupt menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and parturition. We highlight the role of the circadian clock in regulating human reproductive physiology and shift work-induced pathology within each step of the reproductive axis while exploring potential mechanisms from the animal model literature. In addition to documenting the reproductive hazards of shift work, we also point out important gaps in our knowledge as critical areas for future investigation. For example, future studies should examine whether forced desynchronization disrupts gonadotropin secretion rhythms and whether there are sleep/wake schedules that are better or worse for the adaptation of the reproductive system to shift work. These studies are necessary in order to define not only whether or not shift-work induced circadian misalignment impairs reproductive capacity, but also to identify strategies for the future that can minimize this desynchronization.
Igor Yu. Dolmatov
Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holot...
Choudhary, K K; Kavya, K M; Jerome, A; Sharma, R K
In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species.
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of Customs forms. 122.5 Section 122.5 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS General Definitions and Provisions § 122.5 Reproduction of Customs...
... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 3500.9 Section 3500.9 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...
Pamminger, T; Buttstedt, A; Norman, V; Schierhorn, A; Botías, C; Jones, J C; Basley, K; Hughes, W O H
Reproduction has been shown to be costly for survival in a wide diversity of taxa. The resulting trade-off, termed the reproduction-survival trade-off, is thought to be one of the most fundamental forces of life-history evolution. In insects the pleiotropic effect of juvenile hormone (JH), antagonistically regulating reproduction and pathogen resistance, is suggested to underlie this phenomenon. In contrast to the majority of insects, reproductive individuals in many eusocial insects defy this trade-off and live both long and prosper. By remodelling the gonadotropic effects of JH in reproductive regulation, the queens of the long-lived black garden ant Lasius niger (living up to 27 years), have circumvented the reproduction-survival trade off enabling them to maximize both reproduction and pathogen resistance simultaneously. In this study we measure fertility, vitellogenin gene expression and protein levels after experimental manipulation of hormone levels. We use these measurements to investigate the mechanistic basis of endocrinological role remodelling in reproduction and determine how JH suppresses reproduction in this species, rather then stimulating it, like in the majority of insects. We find that JH likely inhibits three key aspects of reproduction both during vitellogenesis and oogenesis, including two previously unknown mechanisms. In addition, we document that juvenile hormone, as in the majority of insects, has retained some stimulatory function in regulating vitellogenin expression. We discuss the evolutionary consequences of this complex regulatory architecture of reproduction in L. niger, which might enable the evolution of similar reproductive phenotypes by alternate regulatory pathways, and the surprising flexibility regulatory role of juvenile hormone in this process.
Full Text Available Abstract In the past few years a growing interest in vitamin D can be observed in the lay and biomedical literature due to findings demonstrating a low vitamin D status in the population. In addition to its importance for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis recent epidemiologic studies have observed relationships between low vitamin D levels and multiple disease states. This secosteroid hormone also regulates the expression of a large number of genes in reproductive tissues implicating a role for vitamin D in female reproduction. In this report we summarize the recent evidence that vitamin D status influences female reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. Human and animal data suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with impaired fertility, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. Evidence from observational studies shows higher rates of preeclampsia, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis and gestational diabetes in women with low vitamin D levels. However, confirmation of experimental observations establishing an association of vitamin D deficiency with adverse reproductive outcomes by high quality observational and large-scale randomized clinical trials is still lacking. The determination of optimal 25(OHD3 levels in the reproductive period and the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve those levels for the numerous actions of vitamin D throughout a woman's life would have important public health implications.
T I Romantsova
The physiological mechanisms controlling reproduction are closely linked to energy balance. In the recent years, accumulating evidence suggests that prolactin regulates metabolic functions, besides regulating breast development and stimulating milk formation. Hyperprolactinemia is associated with obesity and treatment with dopamine agonists results in weight loss. We discuss the integrated effects of prolactin in the metabolic control and reproductive function, the role of prolactin in the pa...
It is a common feature of debates on the regulation of reproductive medicine to find law portrayed as a crude form of intervention consisting in the imposition of inflexible rules on doctors and medical researchers. This paper argues that this view must be replaced by a more accurate assessment of the law's potential role in the regulation of reproductive medicine. From an analysis of the White Paper on human fertilisation and embryology, and in particular the proposed Statutory Licensing Aut...
Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R
The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and
陈梅; 李培旺; 陈景震; 蒋丽娟
According to field experiments,the effects of different plant growth regulators on vegetative growth and repro-ductive growth of Ricinus communis were observed and analyzed based on the experiments of treating castor with different kinds of hormone (IAA,6-BA,GA3 ,and KT),and take water treating as control.The results indicated that the stem diameter and plant height were increased by 100mg/L IAA,100~200mg/L 6-BA,200mg/L GA3 ,100~200mg/L KT. Then the flowering time was advanced by KT.Though the flowering time was longer by IAA,total inflorescence length and ratio of female inflorescence increased 26.38% and 56.17% respectively by 200mg/L IAA.The seed size and color were affected but there was no effect on seeds’oil content by four kinds of plant growth regulator.%对蓖麻幼苗喷施不同浓度的植物生长调节剂（IAA、6-BA、GA3、KT），并以清水处理为对照，观测分析植物生长调节剂对蓖麻营养生长及生殖生长的影响。结果表明：100 mg/L的IAA、100～200 mg/L的6-BA、200 mg/L的GA3和100～200 mg/L的KT对蓖麻的地径和株高均有促进作用，KT则提早了始花期；IAA延迟了蓖麻的始花期，但提高了蓖麻花序总长度和雌花序的长度。其中200 mg/L IAA分别使花序总长度和雌花序长度增长了26.38％和56.17％。植物生长调节剂影响种子的大小和色泽，对种子含油率无明显影响。
Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo
selective reproduction has been placed under the aegis of science and expertise in novel ways. New laboratory and clinical techniques allow for the selective fertilization of gametes, implantation of embryos, or abortion of fetuses. Although they will often overlap with assisted reproductive technologies...... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...
Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.
Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)
... Information For... Media Policy Makers My Reproductive Life Plan Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... use with their patients. How to Make a Plan First, think about your goals for school, for ...
... affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below are links to publications authored by ASRM and its affiliated societies. Latest Additions: Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility Robotic surgery The Intrauterine Device (IUD): A Long-acting ...
Hjordt Hansen, Maj V; Dalsgaard, Torur; Hartwell, Dorthe
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproductive long-term prognosis of women with and without endometriosis, to explore changes over time, and to quantify the contribution of artificial reproductive techniques. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark 1977-2009. SAMPLE: Data retrieved from four national...... registries. Among 15-49-year-old women during the period 1977-82, 24 667 were diagnosed with endometriosis and 98 668 (1:4) women without endometriosis were age-matched. METHODS: To assess long-term reproductive prognosis, all pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women with and without endometriosis......, but this was restricted to pregnancies from assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: Women with endometriosis have slightly fewer children, but this lessened over time due to artificially conceived pregnancies. The risk for miscarriages and ectopic pregnancies was increased compared with women without the disease....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ROCKFISH database houses data from rockfish species collected by the SWFSC FED along the California coast as part of a reproductive study originating in the...
Legendre, Marc; JALABERT, B.
Apart from a few species on which specific studies have been conducted (e.g. on the sexual cycle), most research on the physiology of reproduction in African inland waters fishes deals with four families : Cichlidae, Mugilidae, Clariidae and Anguillidae, due to their economic importance in fisheries and fishiculture. A detailed review of date on these four families is given after a brief summary of general knowledge concerning Teleostean fishes
Background: Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective: This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women’s reproductive health in develo...
Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.
Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack
Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos
Dolmatov, Igor Yu
Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed.
In the perspective of Marx’s materialism,the thesis expounds the natural reproduction and economic reproduction of agriculture,and analyzes the relationship between the two production processes.The natural reproduction of agriculture,the contradicted unification of agricultural organism and natural environment,conforms to natural law and has the specific objective environmental requirements.The economic reproduction of agriculture is the process of people’s production and labor which takes keeping the life vitality of agricultural organism as objective,including the reproduction of agricultural productivity and the reproduction of agricultural production relations.The agricultural productivity comprises social productivity and natural productivity.The process of agricultural economic reproduction must conform to the objective natural law and economic law.The relationship of agricultural natural reproduction and economic reproduction is that the agricultural natural reproduction process is intertwined with economic reproduction process;the variation trend of agricultural natural reproduction ability and economic reproduction ability is identical;the agricultural economic reproduction dominates over the natural reproduction.
Hladkova, A I
Industrial conditions, gynaecological disorders, ovarian deficiency being unfavourable factors for pigs reproduction, as well as the necessity in rapid sex maturation require thorough knowledge on physiology of reproduction processes. The importance belongs to the hormonal treatment in development of special biotechnological methods. Efficiency of the latter is determined by the kind of hormone used, its dose, injection time in sex cycle and the knowledge of species specificity of physiological regulation of reproductive processes in pigs of great value. The achievements in this country and abroad, devoted to the technology of oestrogens, gestagens, androgens and their combinations as well as gonadotropins (PMS, CG), gonadotropin-releasing hormone applications have been reviewed. The most often used schemes of hormonal treatment and drugs, as well as the results obtained have been described. The data presented can be used for needs of practical cattle-breeding.
Dragojevic Dikic, Svetlana; Jovanovic, Ana Mitrovic; Dikic, Srdjan; Jovanovic, Tomislav; Jurisic, Aleksandar; Dobrosavljevic, Aleksandar
As the Higgs boson could be a key to unlocking mysteries regarding our Universe, melatonin, a somewhat mysterious substance secreted by the pineal gland primarily at night, might be a crucial factor in regulating numerous processes in human reproduction. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant which has an essential role in controlling several physiological reactions, as well as biological rhythms throughout human reproductive life. Melatonin, which is referred to as a hormone, but also as an autocoid, a chronobiotic, a hypnotic, an immunomodulator and a biological modifier, plays a crucial part in establishing homeostatic, neurohumoral balance and circadian rhythm in the body through synergic actions with other hormones and neuropeptides. This paper aims to analyze the effects of melatonin on the reproductive function, as well as to shed light on immunological and oncostatic properties of one of the most powerful hormones.
Schwenke, Robin A; Lazzaro, Brian P; Wolfner, Mariana F
Immune defense and reproduction are physiologically and energetically demanding processes and have been observed to trade off in a diversity of female insects. Increased reproductive effort results in reduced immunity, and reciprocally, infection and activation of the immune system reduce reproductive output. This trade-off can manifest at the physiological level (within an individual) and at the evolutionary level (genetic distinction among individuals in a population). The resource allocation model posits that the trade-off arises because of competition for one or more limiting resources, and we hypothesize that pleiotropic signaling mechanisms regulate allocation of that resource between reproductive and immune processes. We examine the role of juvenile hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signaling in regulating both oogenesis and immune system activity, and propose a signaling network that may mechanistically regulate the trade-off. Finally, we discuss implications of the trade-off in an ecological and evolutionary context.
Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system (ECS is an evolutionarily conserved master system deeply involved in the central and local control of reproductive functions in both sexes. The tone of these lipid mediators—deeply modulated by the activity of biosynthetic and hydrolyzing machineries—regulates reproductive functions from gonadotropin discharge and steroid biosynthesis to the formation of high quality gametes and successful pregnancy. This review provides an overview on ECS and reproduction and focuses on the insights in the regulation of endocannabinoid production by steroids, in the regulation of male reproductive activity, and in placentation and parturition. Taken all together, evidences emerge that the activity of the ECS is crucial for procreation and may represent a target for the therapeutic exploitation of infertility.
Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E
It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on
Full Text Available It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species. These adipokines regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and embryo development. They are also present in the uterus and placenta where they could create a favorable environment for embryonic implantation and play a key role in maternal-fetal metabolism communication and gestation. Reproductive functions are strongly dependent on energy balance, and thereby metabolic abnormalities can lead to the development of some pathophysiologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adipokines could be a link between reproduction and energy metabolism and could partly explain some infertility related to obesity or PCOS.
Development of Wuchereria bancrofti in Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed in the larval instar to sublethal dosages of insecticides and one insect growth regulator and their influence on reproduction of filaria-infected mosquitoes.
Seif, A I; Husseiny, I M; Soliman, B A; Soliman, M A; el-Kady, M A
The effects of exposure of Culex pipiens larvae to sublethel concentrations of larvicides on uptake, development of Wuchereria bancrofti, survival rate and reproduction of filaria-infected mosquitoes were investigated. Fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens were exposed to LC40 of the surfactant Triton X-100, the insect growth regulator DPX alone or combined with LC10 of the surfactant and permethrin alone or combined with LC10 of the surfactant. Adults that survived insecticide treatments and controls were infected by allowing them to feed on microfilaremic volunteers. Significant reduction in the uptake of microfilaria was observed in groups treated with Triton X-100 alone or combined either with permethrin or DPX when compared to control. The overall infection and infective rates were significantly reduced in mosquitoes treated with Triton X-100 either alone or combined with permethrin. Treatment with Triton X-100 and DPX prolonged the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) and retarded the development of filarial larvae, while permethrin either alone or combined with Triton X-100 and DPX combined with Triton X-100 shortened the EIP. All larvicides reduced the number of infective larvae (L3)/mosquito and induced deformities among he different parasite stages, especially in mosquitoes treated with combination of permethrin and Triton X-100 or mixture of DPX and Triton X-100 where 36% and 54.9% respectively of L3S were deformed. In treated mosquitoes, a low percentage of L3S was detected in the head and proboscis region while the majority was trapped in the thoracic region. The survival rates of mosquitoes were reduced in cases treated with permethrin, DPX and Triton X-100 while treatment with mixture of DPX and Triton X-100 induced higher rate of mortalities when compared to control. Egg production of filaria- infected Cx. pipiens was significantly reduced in mosquitoes treated with DPX and Triton X-100. It was observed that the addition of Triton X-100 to DPX or to
Elza Ibrahim Auerkari
Full Text Available Much of the recent research on gonadotropin – related control processes of reproduction and reproductive maturation has concentrated on the neuronal and molecular biology of gonadotropin release. The reproductive development of healthy mammals requires appropriate fetal develompment and migration of the neural network controlling and including the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH – producing neurons that are needed to regulate GnRH and luteinizing hormone (LH release. GnRH is also necessary for the development of the gonadotropin – producing pituitary gland. The fetal gonads respon to GnRH – induced LH production by producing the gonadal steroids required for further reproductive differentiation. Pubertal maturation is characterised by increases in LH levels, representing the corresponding pulsatile release of GnRH. This GnRH pulse generator appears to be an intrinsic property of the arcuate nucleus at the medial basal hypothalamus. The generator activity can be mediated by the neurotransmitter aspartate which activates neurons of the hypothalamus, inducing acuate releases of GnRH and hence initiates puberty. A major factor in human reproductive maturation is the decrease in the age of puberty, caused by improvement of nutritional conditions due to the socio – economic development. This implies that the pubertal activation of GnRH secretion depends on metabolic conditions. Of the substances that mediate the metabolic condition to the neuronal network regulating GnRH secretion, the role of the neuropeptide Y (NPY appears instrumental : for healthy mammals less food means more NPY, and accumulated NPY makes food to become sex. NPY does this by regulating the appropriate hypothalamic functions including the neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin release.
Carey J. Fitzgerald
Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.
Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel
Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.
陈小章; 何琼; AJONUMA; Louis-Chukwuemeka; 王晓飞
An optimal fluid microenvironment in the female reproductive tract is considered to be crucial for successful reproductive events. Fluid absorption and secretion across the reproductive tract epithelia largely depends on electrolyte transport through the apically and basolaterally located ion channels, working together with an array of other transporters. This review will discuss the role of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in regulating the fluid volume and composition of the reproductive tract and their importance in various reproductive events such as sperm capacitation and implantation. Disturbance of the fluid microenvironment due to defects or abnormal regulation of these ion channels as causes for a number of pathological conditions, such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndromes, hydrosalpinx and infertility, is also discussed.%雌性生殖道内适宜的液体微环境对一系列生殖事件起至关重要的作用.位于生殖道上皮细胞顶膜或基底膜的一系列离子通道和转运体,通过对水、电解质的跨膜转运,从而调节雌性生殖道内液体的分泌与吸收.本综述着重探讨了上皮细胞钠离子通道和囊性纤维化跨膜电导调节体对雌性生殖道内液体容量和成分的调节以及它们在不同生殖事件,比如精子获能及着床中的重要作用.同时对因离子通道失活或失调引起的雌性生殖道内液体微环境稳态失衡导致的一系列病理改变,如卵巢过度刺激综合征、输卵管积水以及不孕提出了新的见解.
Horner, John R.
Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.
Milla, S; Wang, N; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P
Reproduction in vertebrates is controlled by the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad axis and the main hormone actions have been extensively described. Still, despite the scattered information in fish, accumulating evidence strongly indicates that corticosteroids play essential roles in reproductive mechanisms. An integrative approach is important for understanding these implications. Animal husbandry and physiological studies at molecular to organismal levels have revealed that these corticosteroids are regulators of fish reproductive processes. But their involvements appear strongly contrasted. Indeed, for both sexes, corticosteroids present either deleterious or positive effects on fish reproduction. In this review, the authors will attempt to gather and clarify the available information about these physiological involvements. The authors will also suggest future ways to prospect corticosteroid roles in fish reproduction.
Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA through activating its G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR 1–6 exerts diverse cellular effects that in turn influence several physiological processes including reproductive function of the female. Studies in various species of animals and also in humans have identified important roles for the receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of human and animal reproductive tract function. These aspects range from ovarian and uterine function, estrous cycle regulation, early embryo development, embryo implantation, decidualization to pregnancy maintenance and parturition. LPA signaling can also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and reproductive tissue associated tumors. The review describes recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to human and ruminant reproduction, pointing at the cow as a relevant model to study LPA influence on the human reproductive performance.
Simonneaux, Valérie; Ansel, Laura; Revel, Florent G
Reproduction is a complex and energy demanding function. When internal and external conditions might impair reproductive success (negative energy balance, stress, harsh season) reproductive activity has to be repressed. Recent evidence suggests that these inhibitory mechanisms operate on Kiss1......-expressing neurons, which were recently shown to be implicated in the regulation of GnRH release. Hamsters are seasonal rodents which are sexually active in long photoperiod and quiescent in short photoperiod. The photoperiodic information is transmitted to the reproductive system by melatonin, a pineal...... hormone whose secretion is adjusted to night length. The photoperiodic variation in circulating melatonin has been shown to synchronize reproductive activity with seasons, but the mechanisms involved in this effect of melatonin were so far unknown. Recently we have observed that Kiss1 mRNA level...
Clark, David A
According to Mark Twain, "It ain't what you don't know that gets you into trouble. It's what you know for sure that just ain't so." Four items believed by reproductive immunologists are analyzed. (1) In a semiallogeneic (outbred) mating, maternofetal tolerance is required to prevent immune rejection manifesting as infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss, preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. (2) Regulation of natural killer (NK) cells at the fetomaternal interface by interaction with fetal trophoblast paternal class I MHC is obligatory for pregnancy success. (3) Failure of angiogenesis triggered by complement activation is a key mechanism in pregnancy pathology. (4) Randomized controlled (double-blind) clinical trials and systematic reviews exemplified by the Cochrane database provide reliable evidence on which to base treatment and promulgate guidelines. Those who heed not the lessons of history are doomed to repeat the same mistakes in the future. History shows that we do this and expect a different outcome.
Omer Faruk TEKBAS
Full Text Available However a lot of chemicals had been used in our daily life, we have enough knowledge about the effects of only for a small portion of them on reproductive health. Our knowledge had been arisen from epidemiologic and experimental studies. In order to protect ourselves from chemicals in the environment it should be concentrate on experimental studies and the results of them should be carefully studied during epidemiological researches. It would be tried to tell about the main chemicals which had been known as effective on reproductive health on the following review. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 50-59
Humaidan, P; Bungum, L; Bungum, M
stimulation with recombinant FSH. METHODS: Blood samples were prospectively collected from a total of 207 normal women undergoing assisted reproduction and analysed retrospectively. Based on LH levels on stimulation day 8 patients were divided into four groups: 1.51 IU/l. RESULTS...
Huang, Dong-Wei; Chu, Ming-Xing
Animal seasonal reproduction involves complicated neuroendocrine processes of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. It is dominantly regulated by photoperiod, a crucial environmental cue. Melatonin, as internal photoperiod signal, regulates seasonal reproduction of animals. In recent years, it has been found that Kiss1/GPR54 system, which may influence GnRH secretion evidently, is regulated by both melatonin and feedback action of gonadal steroid hormones. Consequently, Kiss1/GPR54 system may play a key role in seasonal reproduction. Additionally, there exists another potential retrograde control pathway of seasonal breeding, which involves TSH-DIO2/DIO3 system. TSH-DIO2/ DIO3 system affects synthesis and secretion of GnRH and is regulated by melatonin, as well as Kiss1/GPR54 system. In this article, melatonin signal, especially the research advances of Kissl/GPR54 system and TSH-DIO2/DIO3 system were reviewed.
Brents, Lisa K.
Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system. PMID:27354844
Miller, W B
The evolution of reproduction has been characterized by the development of complex biological and behavioral mechanisms that serve to regulate chance events. Human reproduction has been characterized by the increasing importance of individual choice. Some contemporary manifestations of this broad trend are the high incidence of contraceptive and "proceptive" behavior among couples in Western, industrialized nations. The former behavior willingly attempts to prevent conception while the latter actively attempts to induce conception (such as concentrating intercourse around the time of ovulation). Both patterns of behavior indicate that a choice is being made. A 3-year study of 1000 women revealed proceptive behavior as the most important factor predicting occurance of conception among married couples in the United States. The general strategeis people follow while making childbearing decisions: termination, sequencing, and pre-planning form a continuum following the historical trend toward greater reproductive control. In the terminating strategy, a couple makes no decision about child bearing until the number of children they have become enough or too much. In the sequencing strategy, decisions to have children are made 1 child at a time until a satisfactory limit is reached. In the pre-planning strategy, a plan is worked out ahead of time and is subsequently carried out. As new reproductive technology is introduced and as progressive change is made in society's reproductive related values and beliefs, choice will continue to dominate chance as the highly likely trend for the future of reproduction. Surrogate maternity is just 1 example of this trend. However, these new options, which culminate in the theory and practice of "progensis," (still in its infancy), as well as offering a rich opportunity, can also incur psychological burdens on a couple. Thus, as with any kind of freedom, these developments will require care, caution and responsibility.
Boone, M.M.; De Vries, D.; Horbach, U.
Arrangement of a sound reproduction system (1), including at least one input (2), a sound field generator (4), a loudspeaker panel (10); the at least one input (2) connected to the sound filed generator (4), and the sound filed (4) connected to the loudspeaker panel (10); the at least one input (2)
Buuck, R. John
Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…
Kalmbach, Keri Horan; Fontes Antunes, Danielle Mota; Dracxler, Roberta Caetano; Knier, Taylor Warner; Seth-Smith, Michelle Louise; Wang, Fang; Liu, Lin; Keefe, David Lawrence
Telomeres mediate biologic aging in organisms as diverse as plants, yeast, and mammals. We propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging that posits telomere shortening in the female germ line as the primary driver of reproductive aging in women. Experimental shortening of telomeres in mice, which normally do not exhibit appreciable oocyte aging, and which have exceptionally long telomeres, recapitulates the aging phenotype of human oocytes. Telomere shortening in mice reduces synapsis and chiasmata, increases embryo fragmentation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, spindle dysmorphologies, and chromosome abnormalities. Telomeres are shorter in the oocytes from women undergoing in vitro fertilization, who then produce fragmented, aneuploid embryos that fail to implant. In contrast, the testes are replete with spermatogonia that can rejuvenate telomere reserves throughout the life of the man by expressing telomerase. Differences in telomere dynamics across the life span of men and women may have evolved because of the difference in the inherent risks of aging on reproduction between men and women. Additionally, growing evidence links altered telomere biology to endometriosis and gynecologic cancers, thus future studies should examine the role of telomeres in pathologies of the reproductive tract.
The reproductive activity in male mammals is well known to be regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary- gonad axis. The hypothalamic neurons secreting gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) govern the reproductive neuroendocrine system by integrating all the exogenous information impinging on themselves. The GnRH synthesized and released from the hypothalamus arrives at the anterior pituitary through the portal vessels, provoking the production of the gonadotropins(follicle-stimulating hormone ...
Kátia Cibelle Machado Pirotta
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as intenções reprodutivas e caracterizar as práticas de regulação da fecundidade, abarcando a contracepção e o aborto, entre um grupo de adolescentes e jovens de alta escolaridade. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram levantados a partir de um estudo amplo quali-quantitativo com estudantes de graduação com idade de até 24 anos, de uma universidade pública estadual localizada na cidade de São Paulo. A população estudada foi constituída de 952 estudantes que freqüentavam disciplinas sorteadas pelo método de sorteio aleatório; e numa segunda etapa foram realizadas 33 entrevistas em profundidade com alunos voluntários. Na primeira etapa, os alunos foram entrevistados em sala de aula, através de um questionário auto-aplicável e, na segunda etapa, foram gravadas entrevistas em profundidade, realizadas em um local previamente combinado. RESULTADOS: O padrão de família idealizado pelo grupo era pequeno, com até dois filhos. A idade considerada ideal no nascimento do primeiro filho seria próxima aos 30 anos. Os estudantes referiram uma alta proporção de uso de contraceptivos - sobretudo do condom e da pílula. Ao lado disso, observa-se uma alta proporção de gestações finalizadas pelo aborto. Como resultante desse quadro, a fecundidade é bastante baixa no grupo, ou seja, 27 estudantes referiram uma ou mais gestações. Os dados qualitativos não foram objeto de análise. CONCLUSÕES: Embora o tamanho idealizado para a família reflita uma tendência geral presente na sociedade brasileira, constata-se que o grupo adia a maternidade/paternidade em função de um projeto de vida orientado para a conclusão de um curso superior e a inserção no mercado de trabalho. Ainda assim, a contracepção e a prevenção das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis são vivenciadas precariamente.OBJECTIVE: To identify reproductive intentions and fertility regulation practices, including contraception and abortion, in a group of
David, H P
Using a rational scientific approach upholding public health values, this article notes experience gained from 25 years of cooperative transnational research on reproductive behavior. An overview of world population trends is followed by discussions of reproductive rights as a human right, the utility of acceptability studies of modern methods of fertility regulation, and findings from research on psychological responses to abortion, long-term developmental effects of compulsory pregnancy, and the use of incentives and disincentives to influence family size. There is also consideration of the clash between private values and public policy on reproductive behavior in the United States and the convergence achieved in Denmark and the Netherlands, where rates of unintended pregnancy are among the world's lowest.
Vijayan K. Pillai
Full Text Available Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between.This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development.Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health.The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.
Bronson, F H
This paper attempts to integrate the physiological and ecological perspectives of the reproductive biology of the house mouse (Mus musculus). The endeavor is made within a larger context to provide a prototype for mammalian reproductive ecology in general. Specifically, the environmental regulation of the reproduction of Mus musculus is examined in relation to its ecological opportunism and, in particular, in relation to its history of global colonization. House mice can live as commensals of man or under totally feral conditions. Stable, high density, commensal populations are characterized by an insular division of the living space into demeterritories, each dominated by a single male. Feral populations typically are characterized by temporal, spatial, and social instability. Territoriality is improbable under such conditions, particularly given the necessity for large home ranges in most feral habitats. In both feral and commensal populations, however, male aggressiveness promotes the large-scale dispersal of young, all of which are potential colonizers. Of the ten or so environmental factors known to influence reproduction in house mice, seven probably are of routine importance in natural populations: diurnal modulation by daily light:dark cycles; caloric intake; nutrition; extreme temperature; agaonistic stimuli; socio-tactile cues; and priming pheronomes. The last two factors named operate directly on the secretion of luteinizing hormone or prolactin; the others act at many points in the reproductive system. Reproduction in the house mouse seems divorced from photoperiodically induced seasonality; indeed, this species breeds well even in constant darkness. Seasonal breeding may or may not then occur, depending upon dietary considerations, with or without a secondary interaction with variation in ambient temperature. There is no evidence for a dependence upon secondary plant compounds. Some of the effects of priming pheromones that have been observed
In temperate zones, animals use changes in day length as a calendar to time their breeding season. However, the photoreceptive and neuroendocrine mechanisms of seasonal reproduction are considered to differ markedly between birds and mammals. This can be understood from the fact that the eye is the only photoreceptive organ, and melatonin mediates the photoperiodic information in mammals, whereas in birds, photoperiodic information is directly received by the deep brain photoreceptors and melatonin is not involved in seasonal reproduction. Recent molecular and functional genomics analysis uncovered the gene cascade regulating seasonal reproduction in birds and mammals. Long day-induced thyroid stimulating hormone in the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland regulates thyroid hormone catabolism within the mediobasal hypothalamus. Further, this local thyroid hormone catabolism appears to regulate seasonal gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion. These findings suggest that although the light input pathway is different between birds and mammals (i.e. light or melatonin), the core mechanisms are conserved in these vertebrates.
Eisenberg, Iris; Kotaja, Noora; Goldman-Wohl, Debra; Imbar, Tal
microRNAs constitute a large family of approximately 21-nucleotide-long, noncoding RNAs. They emerged more than 20 years ago as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The regulatory role of these small RNA molecules has recently begun to be explored in the human reproductive system. microRNAs have been shown to play an important role in control of reproductive functions, especially in the processes of oocyte maturation, folliculogenesis, corpus luteum function, implantation, and early embryonic development. Knockout of Dicer, the cytoplasmic enzyme that cleaves the pre-miRNA to its mature form, results in postimplantation embryonic lethality in several animal models, attributing to these small RNA vital functions in reproduction and development. Another intriguing characteristic of microRNAs is their presence in body fluids in a remarkably stable form that is protected from endogenous RNase activity. In this chapter we will describe the current knowledge on microRNAs, specifically relating to human gonadal cells. We will focus on their role in the ovarian physiologic process and ovulation dysfunction, regulation of spermatogenesis and male fertility, and putative involvement in human normal and aberrant trophoblast differentiation and invasion through the process of placentation.
This article examines the trope of reproduction in narratives of Tibetan refugees living in Dharamsala, India. As they make sense of their personal histories, Tibetan refugees invoke a collective story that mirrors human rights literature on Tibet. Women come into contact with this literature through its incorporation into a political discourse expressed by the exile government and health institutions. The article traces facets of this discourse that deal centrally with reproduction. Political discourse on reproduction articulates pronatalism as a solution to the refugee community's concern with survival, and the discourse frames modernity as a site of violence through China's reproductive regulations. And yet, Tibetan refugees also employ the notion of modernity when discussing their own free reproductive decision-making, positioning modern reproductive interventions in opposition to Indian society. The article demonstrates that Tibetan refugees navigate competing figurations of modernity by expressing political resistance and affiliation through the idiom of reproduction.
Full Text Available Ghrelin and one of its functional receptors, GHS-R1a (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor 1a, were firstly studied about 15 years. Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone that affects several biological functions including food intake, glucose release, cell proliferation… Ghrelin and GHS-R1a are expressed in key cells of both male and female reproductive organs in several species including fishes, birds, and mammals suggesting a well-conserved signal through the evolution and a role in the control of fertility. Ghrelin could be a component of the complex series of nutrient sensors such as adipokines, and nuclear receptors, which regulate reproduction in function of the energy stores. The objective of this paper was to report the available information about the ghrelin system and its role at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in both sexes.
T I Romantsova
Full Text Available The physiological mechanisms controlling reproduction are closely linked to energy balance. In the recent years, accumulating evidence suggests that prolactin regulates metabolic functions, besides regulating breast development and stimulating milk formation. Hyperprolactinemia is associated with obesity and treatment with dopamine agonists results in weight loss. We discuss the integrated effects of prolactin in the metabolic control and reproductive function, the role of prolactin in the pathogenesis of obesity. The present review also describes the effects of treatment with cabergoline on body weight and cardiovascular risk markers.
Full Text Available Energy balance plays an important role in the control of reproduction. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms connecting the two systems are not well understood especially in teleosts. The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in the regulation of both energy balance and reproduction, and contains a number of neuropeptides, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, orexin, neuropeptide-Y (NPY, ghrelin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH, cholecystokinin (CCK, 26RFa, nesfatin, kisspeptin, and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH. These neuropeptides are involved in the control of energy balance and reproduction either directly or indirectly. On the other hand, synthesis and release of these hypothalamic neuropeptides are regulated by metabolic signals from the gut and the adipose tissue. Furthermore, neurons producing these neuropeptides interact with each other, providing neuronal basis of the link between energy balance and reproduction. This review summarizes the advances made in our understanding of the physiological roles of the hypothalamic neuropeptides in energy balance and reproduction in teleosts, and discusses how they interact with GnRH, kisspeptin, and pituitary gonadotropins to control reproduction in teleosts.
Jo Beldring Henningsen
Full Text Available Seasonal control of reproduction is critical for the perpetuation of species living in temperate zones that display major changes in climatic environment and availability of food resources. In mammals, seasonal cues are mainly provided by the annual change in the 24h light/dark ratio (i.e. photoperiod, which is translated into the nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin. The annual rhythm in this melatonin signal acts as a synchronizer ensuring that breeding occurs when environmental conditions favor survival of the offspring. Although specific mechanisms might vary among seasonal species, the hypothalamic RF (Arg-Phe amide-related peptides (RFRP-1 and -3 are believed to play a critical role in the central control of seasonal reproduction and in all seasonal species investigated, the RFRP system is persistently inhibited in short photoperiod. Central chronic administration of RFRP-3 in short day-adapted male Syrian hamsters fully reactivates the reproductive axis despite photoinhibitory conditions, which highlights the importance of the seasonal changes in RFRP expression for proper regulation of the reproductive axis. The acute effects of RFRP peptides, however, depend on species, photoperiod and recent studies point towards a different role of RFRP in regulating female reproductive activity. In this review we summarize the recent advances made to understand the role and underlying mechanisms of RFRP in the seasonal control of reproduction, primarily focusing on mammalian species.
Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.
Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.
A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.
2 of the 5 health warnings that must now appear on American cigarette packs and cigarette advertising refer to some of the increased hazards smoking entails for the woman and her unborn child. Yet, the myriad reproductive risks associated with smoking are little known or considered by the general public--or even by physicians--when compared with the dangers of lung cancer, heart attacks and emphysema. In an attempt to remedy that deficit, 8 government agencies sponsored the 1st International Conference on Smoking and Reproductive Health, held October 15-17, 1985 in San Francisco. Speaker after expert speaker connected smoking during pregnancy with increased risks of low birth weight, miscarriage, infant mortality and morbidity--including poorer health of surviving children up to at least age 3--ectopic pregnancy, infertility, menstrual disorders, early menopause, osteoporosis, cervical cancer and dysplasia, cardiovascular disease and placental abnormalities. Similarly, the conference participants documented the association of smoking among men with lower sperm count and increased prevalence of abnormal sperm. The following measures were urged at the closing statements of the conference: 1) an increased effort to inform doctors and health professionals of these findings; 2) increasing the tax on cigarettes, so that smokers would pay for their own health costs; 3) decreasing or eliminating government subsidies for growing tobacco, while helping growers make the transition to nontobacco crops; 4) making smoking cessation programs more widely available; 5) prohibiting the sale of cigarettes through vending machines; and 6) banning all smoking in the workplace.
Fatet, Alice; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Leboeuf, Bernard
Goats are spontaneously ovulating, polyoestrous animals. Oestrous cycles in goats are reviewed in this paper with a view to clarifying interactions between cyclical changes in tissues, hormones and behaviour. Reproduction in goats is described as seasonal; the onset and length of the breeding season is dependent on various factors such as latitude, climate, breed, physiological stage, presence of the male, breeding system and specifically photoperiod. In temperate regions, reproduction in goats is described as seasonal with breeding period in the fall and winter and important differences in seasonality between breeds and locations. In tropical regions, goats are considered continuous breeders; however, restricted food availability often causes prolonged anoestrous and anovulatory periods and reduced fertility and prolificacy. Different strategies of breeding management have been developed to meet the supply needs and expectations of consumers, since both meat and milk industries are subjected to growing demands for year-round production. Hormonal treatments, to synchronize oestrus and ovulation in combination with artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating, allow out-of-season breeding and the grouping of the kidding period. Photoperiodic treatments coupled with buck effect now allow hormone-free synchronization of ovulation but fertility results after AI are still behind those of hormonal treatments. The latter techniques are still under study and will help meeting the emerging social demand of reducing the use of hormones for the management of breeding systems.
Carlos Roberto Izzo
Full Text Available SUMMARY The concern about the maintenance of the human species has existed since the earliest civilizations. Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility has led to the development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART which, along with the evolution of genetics and molecular biology studies, have contributed in a concrete way to the management of infertile couples. Classic in vitro fertilization was initially developed 35 years ago for the treatment of women with tubal blockage, however, it remains inaccessible to a significant proportion of infertile couples around the world. This can be explained by the lack of specialized clinics in some countries and by the high cost of the procedures. Efforts have been employed to increase the number of treatment cycles for assisted reproduction, as for example, the creation of low-cost programs. Even today, infertility remains a problem of global proportions, affecting millions of couples. The estimate of the incidence of infertility is uncertain, mainly because of the criteria used for its definition. This article aims to review the most important aspects, succinctly, regarding the incidence, etiology, and treatment options available to infertile couples.
Izzo, Carlos Roberto; Monteleone, Pedro Augusto Araújo; Serafini, Paulo C
The concern about the maintenance of the human species has existed since the earliest civilizations. Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility has led to the development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) which, along with the evolution of genetics and molecular biology studies, have contributed in a concrete way to the management of infertile couples. Classic in vitro fertilization was initially developed 35 years ago for the treatment of women with tubal blockage, however, it remains inaccessible to a significant proportion of infertile couples around the world. This can be explained by the lack of specialized clinics in some countries and by the high cost of the procedures. Efforts have been employed to increase the number of treatment cycles for assisted reproduction, as for example, the creation of low-cost programs. Even today, infertility remains a problem of global proportions, affecting millions of couples. The estimate of the incidence of infertility is uncertain, mainly because of the criteria used for its definition. This article aims to review the most important aspects, succinctly, regarding the incidence, etiology, and treatment options available to infertile couples.
Hoving, L.L.; Soede, N.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Feitsma, H.; Kemp, B.
The objective of this study was to determine relations between reproductive performance, i.e. being a repeat breeder and litter size, in 2nd parity and reproductive performance in later parities. In addition, relations between the 1st and 2nd parity litter size and litter size in later parities were
van de Wiel, L.
The last century saw struggles for women's reproductive choices both to avoid childbearing (i.e. abortion, contraception) and to achieve it (i.e. IVF, artificial insemination). Now, after the turn of the millennium, these two approaches to regulate reproduction are combined in oocyte cryopreservatio
Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario
The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use
Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F
Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones.
Apeng Lin; Songdong Shen; Jianwei Wang; Binlun Yan
Enteromorpha prolifera (Muell.) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae), which is distributed widely in the Inter-tidal zone of the ocean, is one of the most common fouling green algae. However, the present understandings of the life history of E. prolifera have been insufficient to explain their seasonal abundances. Thus it is essential to investigate how many.reproductive strategies are likely to contribute to the successful colonization and flourishing of the green alga. In the present study the reproduction diversity of E. prolifera was observed and studied systematically by culturing chopped tissues. Our results showed that there are in total seven pathways of reproduction for E. prolifera including sexual, asexual and vegetative reproduction. It was Indicated that the variety of the reproductive ways and the large quantity of reproductive cells produced and released during the reproductive season are the two key factors that facilitate colonization of E. prolifera. The reproduction of the alga E. prolifera mainly depends on asexual methods. The results presented here contribute to increasing our understanding about how the opportunistic macroalgae successfully maintain colonization and excessive growth.
Beemster, P.; Groenen, P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.
Inositol is involved in several aspects of reproduction. It affects overall embryogenesis, may prevent neural tube defects, and stimulates the production of lung surfactant. This article will review the involvement of inositol in reproduction. After describing the biologic function of inositol and i
Collins, J.; Diedrich, K.; Franks, S.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Jacobs, P. A.; Karges, B.; Kennedy, S.; Marozzi, A.; Regan, L.; Baird, D. T.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diczfalusy, E.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Liebaers, I.; Ragni, G.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.
BACKGROUND: Sexual reproduction provides the means for preserving genetic identity and in turn, genetic variability may affect the ability to reproduce. This review aims to summarize current research on genetic diagnosis and genetic causes of reproductive disorders.METHODS: Searches were done by sub
PE are a large family ofcompounds used in a wide array ofconsumer, industrial and medical products. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period offetal reproductive development produced male reproductive mal...
Schenker, Joscph G
It is important to those who practise reproductive techniques to learn about different religious perspectives related to reproductive health problems. Religious groups are active in influencing the public regarding bioethical positions, and this is particularly evident with issues concerning procreation, abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. The attitude toward reproductive practice varies among Christian groups. While assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, it may be practised by Protestant, Anglican and other denominations. According to traditional Christian views, beginning at conception, the embryo has moral status as a human being, and thus most assisted reproductive technologies are forbidden. According to Islam, the procedures of IVF and embryo transfer are acceptable, although they can be performed only for husband and wife. Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. This paper presents the attitude of monotheistic religions to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.
... Printing and Binding Regulations, printing of reports, data, or other written material, if required herein... one set, size 81/2 by 11 inches or less, printed on one side only and in one color. All copy... for reproduction by photo offset methods) shall become the property of the Government and shall...
Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Toft, Gunnar
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental fungicide that may disrupt androgen regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HCB levels and biomarkers of male reproductive function. 589 Spouses of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were enrolled...
Agarwal, Ashok; Gupta, Sajal; Sharma, Rakesh K
labour and preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. The review also addresses the growing literature on the role of nitric oxide species in female reproduction. The involvement of nitric oxide species in regulation of endometrial and ovarian function, etiopathogenesis of endometriosis, and maintenance of uterine quiescence, initiation of labour and ripening of cervix at parturition is discussed. Complex interplay between cytokines and oxidative stress in the etiology of female reproductive disorders is discussed. Oxidant status of the cell modulates angiogenesis, which is critical for follicular growth, corpus luteum formation endometrial differentiation and embryonic growth is also highlighted in the review. Strategies to overcome oxidative stress and enhance fertility, both natural and assisted are delineated. Early interventions being investigated for prevention of preeclampsia are enumerated. Trials investigating combination intervention strategy of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in preventing preeclampsia are highlighted. Antioxidants are powerful and there are few trials investigating antioxidant supplementation in female reproduction. However, before clinicians recommend antioxidants, randomized controlled trials with sufficient power are necessary to prove the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in disorders of female reproduction. Serial measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers in longitudinal studies may help delineate the etiology of some of the diosorders in female reproduction such as preeclampsia.
Sharma Rakesh K
embryopathies, preterm labour and preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. The review also addresses the growing literature on the role of nitric oxide species in female reproduction. The involvement of nitric oxide species in regulation of endometrial and ovarian function, etiopathogenesis of endometriosis, and maintenance of uterine quiescence, initiation of labour and ripening of cervix at parturition is discussed. Complex interplay between cytokines and oxidative stress in the etiology of female reproductive disorders is discussed. Oxidant status of the cell modulates angiogenesis, which is critical for follicular growth, corpus luteum formation endometrial differentiation and embryonic growth is also highlighted in the review. Strategies to overcome oxidative stress and enhance fertility, both natural and assisted are delineated. Early interventions being investigated for prevention of preeclampsia are enumerated. Trials investigating combination intervention strategy of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in preventing preeclampsia are highlighted. Antioxidants are powerful and there are few trials investigating antioxidant supplementation in female reproduction. However, before clinicians recommend antioxidants, randomized controlled trials with sufficient power are necessary to prove the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in disorders of female reproduction. Serial measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers in longitudinal studies may help delineate the etiology of some of the diosorders in female reproduction such as preeclampsia.
Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel
Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes...... in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology is of clinical importance....
Zohar, Yonathan; Muñoz-Cueto, José Antonio; Elizur, Abigail; Kah, Olivier
This review aims at synthesizing the most relevant information regarding the neuroendocrine circuits controlling reproduction, mainly gonadotropin release, in teleost fish. In teleosts, the pituitary receives a more or less direct innervation by neurons sending projections to the vicinity of the pituitary gonadotrophs. Among the neurotransmitters and neuropeptides released by these nerve endings are gonadotrophin-releasing hormones (GnRH) and dopamine, acting as stimulatory and inhibitory factors (in many but not all fish) on the liberation of LH and to a lesser extent that of FSH. The activity of the corresponding neurons depends on a complex interplay between external and internal factors that will ultimately influence the triggering of puberty and sexual maturation. Among these factors are sex steroids and other peripheral hormones and growth factors, but little is known regarding their targets. However, very recently a new actor has entered the field of reproductive physiology. KiSS1, first known as a tumor suppressor called metastin, and its receptor GPR54, are now central to the regulation of GnRH, and consequently LH and FSH secretion in mammals. The KiSS system is notably viewed as instrumental in integrating both environmental cues and metabolic signals and passing this information onto the reproductive axis. In fish, there are two KiSS genes, KiSS1 and KiSS2, expressed in neurons of the preoptic area and mediobasal hypothalamus. Pionneer studies indicate that KiSS and GPR54 expression seem to be activated at puberty. Although precise information as to the physiological effects of KiSS1 in fish, notably on GnRH neurons and gonadotropin release, is still limited, KiSS neurons may emerge as the "gatekeeper" of puberty and reproduction in fish as in mammals.
Full Text Available Social behaviors are key components of reproduction because they are essential for successful fertilization. Social behaviors such as courtship, mating, and aggression are strongly associated with sex steroids, such as testosterone, estradiol and progesterone. Secretion of sex steroids from the gonads is regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis in vertebrates. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a pivotal hypothalamic neuropeptide that stimulates gonadotropin release from the pituitary. In recent years, the role of neuropeptides containing the C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide peptides has been emphasized in vertebrate reproduction. In particular, two key RFamide peptides, kisspeptin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH, emerged as critical accelerator and suppressor of gonadotropin secretion. Kisspeptin stimulates GnRH release by directly acting on GnRH neurons, whereas GnIH inhibits gonadotropin release by inhibiting kisspeptin or GnRH neurons or pituitary gonadotropes. These neuropeptides can regulate social behavior by regulating the HPG axis. However, distribution of neuronal fibers of GnRH, kisspeptin and GnIH neurons are not limited within the hypothalamus, and the existence of extra-hypothalamic neuronal fibers suggests direct control of social behavior within the brain. It has traditionally been shown that central administration of GnRH can stimulate female sexual behavior in rats. Recently, it was shown that Kiss1, one of the paralogs of kisspeptin peptide family, regulates fear responses in zebrafish and GnIH inhibits socio-sexual behavior in birds. Here we highlight recent findings regarding the role of GnRH, kisspeptin and GnIH in the regulation of social behaviors in fish, birds and mammals and discuss their importance in future biological and biomedical research.
The recent case of the UK woman who lost her legal struggle to be impregnated with her own frozen embryos, raises critical issues about the meaning of reproductive autonomy and the scope of regulatory practices. I revisit this case within the context of contemporary debate about the moral and legal dimensions of assisted reproduction. I argue that the gender neutral context that frames discussion of regulatory practices is unjust unless it gives appropriate consideration to the different positions women and men occupy in relation to reproductive processes and their options for autonomous choice. First, I consider relevant legal rulings, media debate, and scholarly commentary. Then I discuss the concept of reproductive autonomy imbedded in this debate. I argue that this concept conflates informed consent and reproductive autonomy, thereby providing an excessively narrow reading of autonomy that fails to give due regard to relations among individuals or the social, political and economic environment that shapes their options. I contrast this notion of autonomy with feminist formulations that seek to preserve respect for the agency of individuals without severing them from the conditions of their embodiment, their surrounding social relationships, or the political contexts that shape their options. Taking these considerations into account I weigh the advantages of regulation over the commercial market arrangement that prevails in some countries and suggest general guidelines for a regulatory policy that would more equitably resolve conflicting claims to reproductive autonomy.
Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Williams, Tony D
Life-history theory predicts that costs are associated with reproduction. One possible mediator of costs involves the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which in birds can be measured in feathers grown during the breeding period. Glucocorticoids mediate physiological responses to unpredictable environmental or other stressors, but they can also function as metabolic regulators during more predictable events such as reproduction. Here we show that corticosterone ("Cort") in feathers grown during the breeding season reflects reproductive effort in two Antarctic seabird species (giant petrels, Macronectes spp.). In females of both species, but not males, feather Cort ("fCort") was nearly 1.5-fold higher in successful than failed breeders (those that lost their eggs/chicks), suggesting a cost of successful reproduction, i.e., high fCort levels in females reflect the elevated plasma Cort levels required to support high metabolic demands of chick-rearing. Successful breeding also led to delayed moult prior to winter migration. The fCort levels and pre-migration moult score that we measured at the end of current breeding were predictive of subsequent reproductive effort in the following year. Birds with high fCort and a delayed initiation of moult were much more likely to defer breeding in the following year. Cort levels and the timing of moult thus provide a potential mechanism for the tradeoff between current and future reproduction.
Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights.
Ouédraogo, Arouna P
Results of previous qualitative and quantitative stages of the research project demonstrated that, although consumers had poor knowledge about breeding and reproduction procedures, they were concerned about the impact of breeding practices on their food items. They acknowledged breeding and reproduction to be at the very core of animal-based food chain process. Since however modern breeding programmers beg so much for genetics, their practices increasingly raised consumer concerns. This paper presents results of a research addressing this issue and based on interviews of livestock breeders and specialized scientists. This research was undertaken within the frame of an EU funded project (Sustainable Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction Project, 2000-2003). Interviews were performed according to the methodology of focus groups and results were used to prepare a discussion guide, including definitions of breeding techniques such as artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and molecular genetics. Farm animal breeding and reproduction methods raised high level of concerns in conventional terms like safety, healthiness and quality of food, factory farming and related consequences on environment, international issues, and cost. Several propositions were presented that deal with modern farm animal breeding and reproduction, EU regulation of breeding procedures, education of consumers on breeding methods, and labelling of products on breeding and reproduction grounds.
Green tea proanthocyanidins cause impairment of hormone-regulated larval development and reproductive fitness via repression of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, insulin-like peptide and cytochrome P450 genes in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto
Nyanjom, Steven G.; Mutunga, James M.; Njeru, Sospeter N.; Bargul, Joel L.
Successful optimization of plant-derived compounds into control of nuisance insects would benefit from scientifically validated targets. However, the close association between the genotypic responses and physiological toxicity effects mediated by these compounds remains underexplored. In this study, we evaluated the sublethal dose effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs) sourced from green tea (Camellia sinensis) on life history traits of Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) mosquitoes with an aim to unravel the probable molecular targets. Based on the induced phenotypic effects, genes selected for study targeted juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis, signal transduction, oxidative stress response and xenobiotic detoxification in addition to vitellogenesis in females. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure of larval stages (L3/L4) to sublethal dose of 5 ppm dramatically extended larval developmental period for up to 12 days, slowed down pupation rates, induced abnormal larval-pupal intermediates and caused 100% inhibition of adult emergence. Further, females exhibited significant interference of fecundity and egg hatchability relative to controls (p reproductive fitness thus could be potentially used for controlling populations of malaria vectors. PMID:28301607
Full Text Available This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary “forensic endocrine” analysis of events relevant to our specialty.
The House of Commons Science & Technology Committee has reviewed the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act. It considered a) the balance between legislation, regulation and reproductive freedom; b) the role of Parliament in human reproductive technologies; and c) the foundation, adequacy and appropriateness of the ethical framework for legislation. It also considered the Act itself and the workings of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. Its report is written from a very liberal perspective, but is a very thorough overview of current issues and debate in the field. There follow, slightly abridged, the conclusions and recommendations of the 200-page report.
Blomberg Jensen, Martin
The spectrum of vitamin D (VD)-mediated effects has expanded in recent years, and VD is now recognized as a versatile signaling molecule rather than being solely a regulator of bone health and calcium homeostasis. One of the recently identified target areas of VD is male reproductive function....... The VD receptor (VDR) and the VD metabolizing enzyme expression studies documented the presence of this system in the testes, mature spermatozoa, and ejaculatory tract, suggesting that both systemic and local VD metabolism may influence male reproductive function. However, it is still debated which cell...
Van Beers, Britta C
The main question in this article is how national legal orders in Europe, given their often restrictive laws on reproductive markets and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), are currently responding and should respond to reproductive tourism, in light of the fact that access to foreign reproductive markets seems to be making these national laws 'merely symbolic'. Although many national governments have finally managed after many years of political and legal struggles to establish a carefully balanced legal framework for the regulation of these often ethically and religiously sensitive matters, ironically reproductive travel seems to be turning national reproductive laws into a dead letter. Currently, as a reaction to these developments, new legal strategies are being proposed and explored. Within the European context, the view is gaining ground that laws that curb international reproductive markets and their accompanying streams of fertility tourism have become ineffective, meaningless, and even harmful. As a result, a certain tendency towards tolerance of reproductive markets and reproductive travel can be detected in both politics and academia. According to this line of reasoning, restrictive and prohibitive legislation should be replaced by more pragmatic policies that take the realities of reproductive markets as a starting point. From this perspective, the legal restrictions within the country of origin, rather than the lack of regulation in the country of destination, should be regarded as the core of the problem. As a result, an increasing number of scholars and policy makers are arguing for more lenient national policies towards ARTs, hoping to thereby remove the main incentive for aspiring parents to resort to foreign reproductive services. This emerging pragmatic strategy of tolerance towards reproductive tourism and international reproductive markets rests on three arguments, which are each critically examined in this article. Although these
Full Text Available In the unconventional climacteric fig (Ficus carica fruit, pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit of the same genotype exhibit different ripening characteristics. Integrative comparative analyses of tissue-specific transcript and of hormone levels during fruit repining from pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fig fruit were employed to unravel the similarities and differences in their regulatory processes during fruit repining. Assembling tissue-specific transcripts into 147,000 transcripts with 53,000 annotated genes provided new insights into the spatial distribution of many classes of regulatory and structural genes, including those related to color, taste and aroma, storage, protein degradation, seeds and embryos, chlorophyll, and hormones. Comparison of the pollinated and parthenocarpic tissues during fruit ripening showed differential gene expression, especially in the fruit inflorescence. The distinct physiological green phase II and ripening phase III differed significantly in their gene-transcript patterns in both pulp and inflorescence tissues. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole fruits enabled the first determination of ripening-related hormone levels from pollinated and non-pollinated figs. Ethylene and auxin both increased during fruit ripening, irrespective of pollination, whereas no production of active gibberellins or cytokinins was found in parthenocarpic or pollinated ripening fruit. Tissue-specific transcriptome revealed apparent different metabolic gene patterns for ethylene, auxin and ABA in pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fruit, mostly in the fruit inflorescence. Our results demonstrate that the production of abscisic acid (ABA, non-active ABA–GE conjugate and non-active indoleacetic acid (IAA–Asp conjugate in pollinated fruits is much higher than in parthenocarpic fruits. We suggest that fruit ripening is coordinated by the reproductive part of the syconium and the differences in ABA production between pollinated and
Musgrave, M. E.; Kuang, A.; Porterfield, D. M.
Because plant reproduction is a complex developmental process there are many possible sites of perturbation by the unusual environments of orbital spacecraft. Previous long-duration experiments on Soviet platforms shared features of slowed development through the vegetative stage of plant growth and aborted reproductive function. Our goal has been to understand how special features of the spaceflight environment impact physiological function and reproductive development. In a series of short-duration experiments in the Shuttle mid-deck we studied early reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen and ovule development aborted at an early stage in the first experiment on STS-54 which utilized closed plant growth chambers. Post-flight analysis suggested that the plants may have been carbon dioxide limited. Subsequent experiments utilized carbon dioxide enrichment (on STS-51) and cabin air flow-through with an air exchange system (on STS-68). Both modifications allowed pollen and ovule development to occur normally on orbit, and full reproductive development up to the stage of an immature seed occurred on STS-68. However, analysis of plant roots from these experiments demonstrated a limitation in rootzone aeration in the spaceflight material that was not mitigated by these procedures. In the future, additional resources (crew time, upgraded flight hardware, and special platforms) will invite more elaborate, long-duration experimentation. On the ISS, a variable speed centrifuge and upgraded plant habitats will permit detailed experiments on the role of gravity in shaping the plant micro-environment, and what influence this plays during reproduction.
Nord, Eric A.; Shea, Katriona; Lynch, Jonathan P.
Background and Aims Timing of reproduction is a key life-history trait that is regulated by resource availability. Delayed reproduction in soils with low phosphorus availability is common among annuals, in contrast to the accelerated reproduction typical of other low-nutrient environments. It is hypothesized that this anomalous response arises from the high marginal value of additional allocation to root growth caused by the low mobility of phosphorus in soils. Methods To better understand the benefits and costs of such delayed reproduction, a two-resource dynamic allocation model of plant growth and reproduction is presented. The model incorporates growth, respiration, and carbon and phosphorus acquisition of both root and shoot tissue, and considers the reallocation of resources from senescent leaves. The model is parameterized with data from Arabidopsis and the optimal reproductive phenology is explored in a range of environments. Key Results The model predicts delayed reproduction in low-phosphorus environments. Reproductive timing in low-phosphorus environments is quite sensitive to phosphorus mobility, but is less sensitive to the temporal distribution of mortality risks. In low-phosphorus environments, the relative metabolic cost of roots was greater, and reproductive allocation reduced, compared with high-phosphorus conditions. The model suggests that delayed reproduction in response to low phosphorus availability may be reduced in plants adapted to environments where phosphorus mobility is greater. Conclusions Delayed reproduction in low-phosphorus soils can be a beneficial response allowing for increased acquisition and utilization of phosphorus. This finding has implications both for efforts to breed crops for low-phosphorus soils, and for efforts to understand how climate change may impact plant growth and productivity in low-phosphorus environments. PMID:21712299
Awruch, C A
The class Chondrichthyes, that includes Elasmobranchii and Holocephali, is a diverse group of fish occupying a key position at the base of vertebrate evolution. Their evolutionary success is greatly attributed to their wide range of reproductive strategies controlled by different endocrine mechanics. As in other vertebrates, hormonal control of reproduction in chondrichthyans is mediated by the neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that regulates the brain control of gonadal activity via a hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Chondrichthyans lack of a direct vascular supply from the hypothalamus to the zone of the pituitary where the gonadotropic activity resides, thus transport between these two zones likely occurs via the general circulation. In the brain of elasmobranchs, two groups of GnRH, GnRH-I and GnRH-II were identified, and the presence of two immunoreactive gonadotropins similar to the luteinising (LH) and follicle stimulating (FSH) hormones was identified in the pituitary. In holocephalans, only GnRH-II has been confirmed, and while gonadotropin activity has been found in the buccal pituitary lobe, the presence of gonadotropin receptors in the gonads remains unknowns. The diversity of reproductive strategies display by chondrichthyans makes it difficult to generalize the control of gametogenesis and steroidogenesis; however, some general patterns emerge. In both sexes, androgens and estrogens are the main steroids during gonadal growth; while progestins have maturational activity. Androgens also form the precursors for estrogen steroid production. Estrogens stimulate the hepatic synthesis of yolk and stimulate the development of different part of the reproductive tract in females. The role of other gonadal steroids may play in chondrichthyan reproduction remains largely unknown. Future work should concentrate in filling the gaps into the current knowledge of the HPG axis regulation, and the use of reproductive endocrinology as a non
郑育声; 朱伟杰; 谢琪璇
Obese gene was cloned and its protein product which named leptin was found to be expressed specially in fat tissues in 1994. As a metabolic signal of reproductive system, leptin reflects the situations of nutrition and energy, which the body supplys to the brain, and stimulates reproductive endocrinology system, then regulates the functions of reproduction through hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The present status of leptin in this field was reviewed.
Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Wang, Wen-Ping; Wang, Yi; Wang, Lu; Xu, Xiao-Xue; Zhang, Kun; Deng, Dao-Gui
The water flea Daphnia are planktonic crustaceans commonly found in freshwater environment that can switch their reproduction mode from parthenogenesis to sexual reproduction to adapt to the external environment. As such, Daphnia are great model organisms to study the mechanism of reproductive switching, the underlying mechanism of reproduction and development in cladocerans and other animals. However, little is known about the Daphnia’s reproductive behaviour at a molecular level. We constructed a genetic database of the genes expressed in a sexual female (SF) and a parthenogenetic female (PF) of D. similoides using Illumina HiSeq 2500. A total of 1,763 differentially expressed genes (865 up- and 898 down-regulated) were detected in SF. Of the top 30 up-regulated SF unigenes, the top 4 unigenes belonged to the Chitin_bind_4 family. In contrast, of the top down-regulated SF unigenes, the top 3 unigenes belonged to the Vitellogenin_N family. This is the first study to indicate genes that may have a crucial role in reproductive switching of D. similoides, which could be used as candidate genes for further functional studies. Thus, this study provides a rich resource for investigation and elucidation of reproductive switching in D. similoides. PMID:27671106
Full Text Available This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869 to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir, coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reproductive strategy was generally followed during the stem phase of the domestic cycle, when one or both grandparents were present, especially when the family head was in the senior generation. By contrast, a son-first strategy was favored when childbearing began in the conjugal phase of the cycle. This suggests grandparental influence on the junior couple's reproductive decisions in favor of the cultural ideal. I find that the senior couple's decision to marry the heir early or late strongly affects the reproductive strategies followed by him after marriage. I show that when a grandmother is present at the onset of childbearing, especially if she is relatively young, the junior couple ends up with more offspring on average. A controlled analysis of infanticiding behavior is interpreted in terms of conjugal power and coalition formation. It appears that a grandmother gets her way only when she and her son gang up on the daughter-in-law, but such a coalition is likely only when her son dominates the conjugal relationship (which in turn reflects the grandmother's success in binding the son tightly to her emotionally and in delaying his marriage. Otherwise, the grandmother may be shut out from reproductive decision-making by the solidary conjugal coalition.
Cattapan, Alana; Cohen, Sara R
In June 2012, the Canadian House of Commons passed the so-called omnibus budget bill, making several important changes to the governance of assisted reproduction in Canada. The bill (Bill C-38) was widely criticized for its unwieldy size and rapid passage through Parliament, preventing adequate parliamentary debate and public scrutiny. Given the substantive nature of the amendments to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act made by Bill C-38, and the lack of relevant discussion about these changes both before and following its passage, this commentary is intended to identify how Bill C-38 may alter the governance of reproductive technologies in Canada. In this commentary, we address some of the more significant changes made by Bill C-38 to the regulation of reproductive medicine in Canada. We identify the benefits and challenges of closing Assisted Human Reproduction Canada, noting that doing so eliminates a much-needed forum for stakeholder consultation in this field. Further, we explore the implications of moving the regulation of donor semen from the Food and Drugs Act to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act; these include increased liability for physicians, and opportunities to expand the existing regulations to account for the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer Canadians using donor gametes and recent advances in reproductive technologies. Overall, we argue that although the implementation of a policy framework in this field remains highly dependent on yet-to-be written regulations, the changes to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act enabled by Bill C-38 may significantly alter how Canadians interact with reproductive technologies.
Santy, P. A.; Jennings, R. T.; Craigie, D.
Mankind's exploration and colonization of the frontier of space will ultimately depend on men's and women's ability to live, work, and reproduce in the space environment. This paper reviews animal studies, from microorganisms to mammals, done in space or under space-simulated conditions, which identify some of the key areas which might interfere with human reproductive physiology and/or embryonic development. Those space environmental factors which impacted almost all species included: microgravity, artificial gravity, radiation, and closed life support systems. These factors may act independently and in combination to produce their effects. To date, there have been no studies which have looked at the entire process of reproduction in any animal species. This type of investigation will be critical in understanding and preventing the problems which will affect human reproduction. Part II will discuss these problems directly as they relate to human physiology.
At the Population Council's Center for Biomedical Research basic research is being conducted on the reproductive system with a view to develop new contraceptive and reproductive health technologies. Research in the Reproductive Physiology Program at the Center is carried out by reproductive endocrinologists, molecular biologists, and biochemists working in eight laboratories. In several of the laboratories the function of hormones that regulate spermatogenesis is studied. Scientists in Milan Bagchi's laboratory have developed a model system, composed of cellular components in a test tube, that allows them to study the full sequence of events involved in signal transduction. In James Catterall's laboratory, scientists study how androgens regulate sexual development at the molecular level. The steroid hormones cortisol and corticosterone play critical roles in mammalian fetal development. Scientists in several laboratories study the function of two specialized testicular cells: the Leydig and Sertoli cells. The Leydig cell synthesizes and secretes testosterone, an androgen that regulates spermatogenesis. The Sertoli cell maintains the environment in which spermatogenesis occurs. Researchers in Glen Gunsalus's laboratory study an androgen-binding protein secreted by the Sertoli cell. In collaboration with scientists at the Shanghai Research Center of Biotechnology, they used advanced genetic techniques to create a biologically active form of the protein in silk worm larvae. Scientists in Patricia Morris's laboratory recently identified molecular signals that control the interactions between developing sperm and Sertoli and Leydig cells. In the laboratory of David Phillips, scientists are investigating how the HIV virus penetrates the outer layer of cells in the genital tract and infects underlying cells. In 1994 a vaginally applied microbicide was developed that may inhibit infection by sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Applications of basic research such
Traboulsi, Wael; Brouillet, Sophie; Sergent, Frederic; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima; Aboussaouira, Touria; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean Jacques; Benharouga, Mohamed; Alfaidy, Nadia
Prokineticin 1 (PROK1) and (PROK2), are two closely related proteins that were identified as the mammalian homologs of their two amphibian homologs, mamba intestinal toxin (MIT-1) and Bv8. PROKs activate two G-protein linked receptors (prokineticin receptor 1 and 2, PROKR1 and PROKR2). Both PROK1 and PROK2 have been found to regulate a stunning array of biological functions. In particular, PROKs stimulate gastrointestinal motility, thus accounting for their family name "prokineticins". PROK1 acts as a potent angiogenic mitogen, thus earning its other name, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial factor. In contrast, PROK2 signaling pathway has been shown to be a critical regulator of olfactory bulb morphogenesis and sexual maturation. During the last decade, strong evidences established the key roles of prokineticins in the control of human central and peripheral reproductive processes. PROKs act as main regulators of the physiological functions of the ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis, with marked dysfunctions in various pathological conditions such as recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia. PROKs have also been associated to the tumor development of some of these organs. In the central system, prokineticins control the migration of GnRH neurons, a key process that controls reproductive functions. Importantly, mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 are associated to the development of Kallmann syndrome, with direct consequences on the reproductive system. This review describes the finely tuned actions of prokineticins in the control of the central and peripheral reproductive processes. Also, it discusses future research directions for the use of these cytokines as diagnostic markers for several reproductive diseases.
Aiceles, Veronica; da Fonte Ramos, Cristiane
Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the serum levels of thyroid hormones are below that necessary to carry out physiological functions in the body. Hypothyroidism is related to obesity as an increase in body weight gain is seen in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, an inverse correlation between free thyroxine values and body mass index has been reported. Leptin, a polypeptide hormone produced by adipocytes, was originally thought to be an antiobesity hormone due its anorexic effects on hypothalamic appetite regulation. However, nowadays it is known that leptin conveys information about the nutritional status to the brain being considered a crucial endocrine factor for regulating several physiological processes including reproduction. Since the identification of thyroid hormone and leptin receptors on the testes, these hormones are being recognized as having important roles in male reproductive functions. A clear link exists among thyroid hormones, leptin and reproduction. Both hormones can negatively affect spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the overall prevalence of primary infertility ranging from 8 to 15%. The fact that 30% of couples' inability to conceive is related to a male factor and that the longer hypothyroidism persisted, the greater the damage to the testes, strongly suggest that more studies attempting to clarify both hormones actions directly in the testes need to be conducted specially in cases of congenital hypothyroidism. Therefore, the goal of this review is to highlight the relationship of such hormones in the reproductive system.
Knowledge of fish reproduction is of high relevance to basic fish biology and comparative evolution. Furthermore, fish are excellent biomedical models, and the impact of aquaculture on worldwide food production is steadily increasing. Consequently, research on fish reproduction and the potential modes of its manipulation has become more and more important. Reproduction in fish is regulated by the integration of endogenous neuroendocrine (gonadotropins), endocrine, and autocrine/paracrine signals with exogenous (environmental) factors. The main endocrine regulators of gonadal sex differentiation and function are steroid hormones. However, recent studies suggest that other hormones are also involved. Most prominent among these hormones are the insulin-like growth factors (Igfs), i.e., Igf1, Igf2, and, most recently, Igf3. Thus, the present review deals with the expression patterns and potential physiological functions of Igf1 and Igf2 in male and female gonads. It further considers the potential involvement of growth hormone (Gh) and balances the reasons for endocrine vs. autocrine/paracrine action of the Igfs on the gonads of fish. Finally, this review discusses the early and late development of gonadal Igf1 and Igf2 and whether they are targets of endocrine-disrupting compounds. Future topics for novel research investigation on Igfs and fish reproduction are presented.
Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg
Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes.
Endocannabinoids are fatty acid amides like anandamide (AEA), and monoacylglycerols like 2-arachidonoylglycerol, that bind to cannabinoid, vanilloid and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Their biological actions are controlled through not yet fully characterized cellular mechanisms. These compounds, together with their related enzymes, that include key proteins for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptors, and purported membrane transporter(s), form the "endocannabinoid system (ECS)". In the past few years AEA and related ECS elements have emerged as essential players in various aspects of human reproduction, both for males and females. Here, the key features of the ECS and the potential of its components to direct human fertility towards a positive or negative end will be reviewed. In particular, the involvement of AEA and related ECS elements in regulating embryo oviductal transport, blastocyst implantation and placental development (in females), and sperm survival, motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction (in males) will be addressed, as well as the role of endocannabinoids in sperm-oviduct interactions. Additionally, the possibility that blood AEA and its hydrolase FAAH may represent reliable diagnostic markers of natural and assisted reproduction in humans will be discussed, along with the therapeutic exploitation of ECS-oriented drugs as useful fertility enhancers.
Malapi-Wight, Martha; Kim, Jung-Eun; Shim, Won-Bo
Fusarium verticillioides is an important plant pathogenic fungus causing maize ear and stalk rots. In addition, the fungus is directly associated with fumonisin contamination of food and feeds. Here, we report the functional characterization of Ada1, a putative Cys2-His2 zinc finger transcription factor with a high level of similarity to Aspergillus nidulans FlbC, which is required for the activation of the key regulator of conidiation brlA. ADA1 is predicted to encode a protein with two DNA binding motifs at the C terminus and a putative activator domain at the N terminus region. Deletion of the flbC gene in A. nidulans results in "fluffy" cotton-like colonies, with a defect in transition from vegetative growth to asexual development. In this study we show that Ada1 plays a key role in asexual development in F. verticillioides. Conidia production was significantly reduced in the knockout mutant (Δada1), in which aberrant conidia and conidiophores were also observed. We identified genes that are predicted to be downstream of ADA1, based on A. nidulans conidiation signaling pathway. Among them, the deletion of stuA homologue, FvSTUA, resulted in near absence of conidia production. To further investigate the functional conservation of this transcription factor, we complemented the Δada1 strain with A. nidulans flbC, F. verticillioides ADA1, and chimeric constructs. A. nidulans flbC failed to restore conidia production similar to the wild-type level. However, the Ada1N-terminal domain, which contains a putative activator, fused to A. nidulans FlbC C-terminal motif successfully complemented the Δada1 mutant. Taken together, Ada1 is an important transcriptional regulator of asexual development in F. verticillioides and that the N-terminus domain is critical for proper function of this transcription factor.
Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S
Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy.
Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H
Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.
Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH
Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349
Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R
Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.
Redução de sementes do tangor 'Murcote' com a aplicação de biorreguladores durante o florescimento Reduction of seeds in 'Honey' orange by application of plant growth regulators during reproductive stages
Marcio Christian Serpa Domingues
Full Text Available O presente ensaio foi conduzido em cultivo comercial do tangor 'Murcote' e teve por objetivo avaliar a atuação dos biorreguladores 2,4-D (auxina, NAA (auxina, GA3 (giberelina e BA (citocinina, na redução do número de sementes, sem afetar a qualidade dos frutos cítricos. Os tratamentos foram: Testemunha; 10 e 20 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D; 100, 150 e 200 mg.L-1 de NAA, 100 e 200 mg.L-1 de GA3 e 20 e 40 mg.L-1 de BA. Verificou-se que nenhum dos reguladores vegetais influenciou na qualidade dos frutos de tangor 'murcote', sem redução de peso, tamanho e teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Já em relação ao número de sementes, nenhum dos reguladores vegetais foi efetivo na redução de sementes inviáveis, porém mostraram efeito na redução de sementes viáveis, conseqüentemente com redução do número total de sementes nos frutos, quando tratados com NAA a 100 e 200 mg.L-1 juntamente com GA3 a 100 mg.L-1, com redução de 30 % do total de sementes.The present experiment was conducted in a commercial tangor 'Murcote' citrus grove in Pratania, São Paulo State, Brazil and had the objective to evaluate the effects of, 2,4-D (auxin, NAA (auxin, GA3 (gibberellin and BA (cytokinin, on the reduction of seed number, without modifications on citrus fruit quality. The treatments sprayed were as follow: control (water; 10 and 20 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D; 100, 150 and 200 mg.L-1 of NAA; 100 and 200 mg.L-1 of GA3 ; 20 and 40 mg.L-1 of BA. The results showed that none of plant growth regulators influenced fruit quality, without weight reduction, diameter or ºBrix. In relation to seed number, none of the plant growth regulators were effective on reduction of seed number, however the reduced of viable seed number and total seed number of fruits, specially with the treatment of 100 and 200 mg.L-1 of NAA and 100 mg.L-1 of GA3, that showed a reduction of 30% of total seed of tangor murcott fruits.
Santamaria, Xavier; Taylor, Hugh
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs estimated to regulate the translation of mRNAs in 30% of all genes in animals by inhibiting translation. Aberrant miRNA expression is associated with many human diseases, including gynecological diseases, cancer, inflammatory diseases, and cardiovascular disorders. Abnormal expression of miRNAs has been observed in multiple human reproductive tract diseases including preeclampsia, endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma, uterine leiomyomata, ovarian carcinoma, endometriosis, and recurrent pregnancy loss. In the following review, an update of the role of microRNA and gynecological diseases is performed covering, not only impact of microRNA dysregulation in the origin of each disease, but also showing the potential useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool that miRNA may play in these gynecological pathologies.
The author, an American law professor, believes that whole-body cloning of adult humans will be possible in the near future. He does not believe the procedure should be banned when used as a form of assisted reproduction, but that it should be regulated by the government to ensure proper testing and application. After raising a number of scientific, ethical, religious and legal issues, Professor Chester addresses parentage in light of both old and new concepts of the 'family.' Finally, he focuses on the problem of women as surrogate mothers of clones, arguing in the process that the surrogate, having no real genetic tie to the clone, would have less of a claim to parentage than at least some of the surrogates currently gestating foetuses.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has inflicted both the patients and the doctors with its multiple occurrence,intractability and long duration. So far,TCM treatment of this disease failed to show its advantages. With a careful study of the disease,the authors put forward the view that it is advisable to monitor PCOS state during child-bearing period, improve the pathogenic environmental factors in the uterus during the embryonic period,regulate the premonitory symptoms during puberty,and establish advanced preventative measures.%多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)作为现代疾病谱以其多发、疑难、病程缠绵而困惑医患双方.中医药的干预为临床增添了思路,然而却未彰显出优势.潜心学习PCOS巢局部病理生理和生殖遗传学的最新研究,传承中医补肾的学术精粹,提出干预路径应在对育龄期母体PCOS状态的监控,胚胎期改善宫内内分泌环境,围青春期PCOS先兆症状的早期调护,建立超前的防治措施.是中医药对PCOS生殖障碍调控的时机和方案.
Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni
Professionals compete and cooperate over how states should govern their population. Declining fertility rates in advanced economies have led to debates about how to enable those of reproductive age to have more children and to have them earlier. This springs from political and socio....... These professional groups have their own bodies of knowledge on how they view fertility, fecundity and the role of women in social reproduction. They can also cooperate to create ‘issue linkages’ on ART across their professional ecologies. The article discusses how professionals apply their bodies of knowledge...
This review provides a brief update of the occurrence and adaptive significance of asexual reproduction in echinoderms. It then focuses on the state of knowledge of biotic and abiotic factors that influence asexual processes in this group, particularly factors that may play a role in regulating the expression and relative proportion of asexual versus sexual phenotypes within populations of species, as well as factors modulating and triggering asexual processes. The information presented in th...
Dunné, Frédérique Margo van
Genetic factors play an important role in the regulation of human life span but the exact pathways remain to be elucidated, however they may be interrelated with the regulation of human reproduction. It is argued that an innate cytokine profile supportive of Th1-type T cells favors survival of infec
Full Text Available Reproduction is associated with the circadian system, primarily as a result of the connectivity between the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and reproduction-regulating brain regions, such as preoptic area (POA, anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV and arcuate nucleus (ARC. Networking of the central pacemaker to these hypothalamic brain regions is partly represented by close fiber appositions to specialised neurons, such as kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons; accounting for rhythmic release of gonadotropins and sex steroids. Numerous studies have attempted to dissect the neurochemical properties of GnRH neurons, which possess intrinsic oscillatory features through the presence of clock genes to regulate the pulsatile and circadian secretion. However, less attention has been given to kisspeptin, the upstream regulator of GnRH and a potent mediator of reproductive functions including puberty. Kisspeptin exerts its stimulatory effects on GnRH secretion via its cognate Kiss-1R receptor that is co-expressed on GnRH neurons. Emerging studies have found that kisspeptin neurons oscillate on a circadian basis and that these neurons also express clock genes that are thought to regulate its rhythmic activities. Based on the fiber networks between the SCN and reproductive nuclei such as the POA, AVPV, ARC, it is suggested that interactions among the central biological clock and reproductive neurons ensure optimal reproductive functionality. Within this neuronal circuitry, kisspeptin neuronal system is likely to ‘time’ reproduction in a long term during development and ageing, in a medium term to regulate circadian or estrus cycle, and in a short term to regulate pulsatile GnRH secretion.
Martín, José; López, Pilar
This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Many lizards have diverse glands that produce chemosignals used in intraspecific communication and that can have reproductive consequences. For example, information in chemosignals of male lizards can be used in intrasexual competition to identify and assess the fighting potential or dominance status of rival males either indirectly through territorial scent-marks or during agonistic encounters. Moreover, females of several lizard species "prefer" to establish or spend more time on areas scent-marked by males with compounds signaling a better health or body condition or a higher genetic compatibility, which can have consequences for their mating success and inter-sexual selection processes. We review here recent studies that suggest that the information content of chemosignals of lizards may be reliable because several physiological and endocrine processes would regulate the proportions of chemical compounds available for gland secretions. Because chemosignals are produced by the organism or come from the diet, they should reflect physiological changes, such as different hormonal levels (e.g. testosterone or corticosterone) or different health states (e.g. parasitic infections, immune response), and reflect the quality of the diet of an individual. More importantly, some compounds that may function as chemosignals also have other important functions in the organism (e.g. as antioxidants or regulating the immune system), so there could be trade-offs between allocating these compounds to attending physiological needs or to produce costly sexual "chemical ornaments". All these factors may contribute to maintain chemosignals as condition-dependent sexual signals, which can inform conspecifics on the characteristics and state of the sender and allow making behavioral decisions with reproductive consequences. To understand the evolution of chemical secretions of lizards as sexual signals and their
R.F.A. Weber (Robert)
textabstractIn this thesis some effects of PRL on reproductive functions have been investigated PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma. animal model has been used: For in men with a comparison an In. rats hyperprolactinemia has been induced by sub-cutaneous inoculation of a PRL- and ACTH-secreting transpla
This paper briefly reviews some works on reproductive physiology in cetaceans with special reference to dolphins from the following aspects: estrous cycle in female dolphins, hormonal profiles during pregnancy, testosterone levels and seasonality in testicular activity, ovulation induction and sperm collection and freezing.
Many mammalian species use chemosignals to coordinate reproduction by altering the physiology and behavior of both sexes. Chemosignals prime reproductive physiology so that individuals become sexually mature and active at times when mating is most probable and suppress it when it is not. Once in reproductive condition, odors produced and deposited by both males and females are used to find and select individuals for mating. The production, dissemination and appropriate responses to these cues are modulated heavily by organizational and activational effects of gonadal sex steroids and thereby intrinsically link chemical communication to the broader reproductive context. Many compounds have been identified as "pheromones" but very few have met the expectations of that term: a unitary, species-typical substance that is both necessary and sufficient for an experience-independent behavioral or physiological response. In contrast, most responses to chemosignals are dependent or heavily modulated by experience, either in adulthood or during development. Mechanistically, chemosignals are perceived by both main and accessory (vomeronasal) olfactory systems with the importance of each system tied strongly to the nature of the stimulus rather than to the response. In the central nervous system, the vast majority of responses to chemosignals are mediated by cortical and medial amygdala connections with hypothalamic and other forebrain structures. Despite the importance of chemosignals in mammals, many details of chemical communication differ even among closely related species and defy clear categorization. Although generating much research and public interest, strong evidence for the existence of a robust chemical communication among humans is lacking.
The Canadian province of Quebec recently amended its Health Insurance Act to cover the costs of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The province of Ontario recently de-insured IVF. Both provinces cited cost-effectiveness as their grounds, but the question as to whether a public health insurance system ought to cover IVF raises the deeper question of how we should understand reproduction at the social level, and whether its costs should be a matter of individual or collective responsibility. In this article I examine three strategies for justifying collective provisions in a liberal society and assess whether public reproductive assistance can be defended on any of these accounts. I begin by considering, and rejecting, rights-based and needs-based approaches. I go on to argue that instead we ought to address assisted reproduction from the perspective of the contractarian insurance-based model for public health coverage, according to which we select items for inclusion based on their unpredictability in nature and cost. I argue that infertility qualifies as an unpredictable incident against which rational agents would choose to insure under ideal conditions and that assisted reproduction is thereby a matter of collective responsibility, but only in cases of medical necessity or inability to pay. The policy I endorse by appeal to this approach is a means-tested system of coverage resembling neither Ontario nor Quebec's, and I conclude that it constitutes a promising alternative worthy of serious consideration by bioethicists, political philosophers, and policy-makers alike.
Bruyère, Hélène; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica; Kalousek, Dagmar K
This chapter presents the summary of two molecular cytogenetic techniques--FISH and CGH--with their applications and limitations in the studies of pregnancy loss. These molecular techniques clearly represent a significant advantage over the traditional cytogenetic technique and likely will become the predominant cytogenetic techniques in reproductive cytogenetics of the future.
Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which beco
Wagdy K.B. Khalil; Abdu, Faiza
Introduction Zonisamide (ZNS) is a modern antiepileptic drug (AED) that is distinguished from other AEDs by its unique structure and broad mechanistic profile. The pineal hormone melatonin is involved in the regulation of reproductive function, including the timing of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. The aim of the present work was to study the protective effect of melatonin against the potential suppression impact of ZNS on reproductive activity. Material and methods Ninety adult albino m...
Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis has various biological and pharmacological functions, and it has been claimed as a tonic supplement for sexual and reproductive dysfunctions for a long time in oriental society. In this article, the in vitro and in vivo effects of C. sinensis and cordycepin on mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis are briefly described, the stimulatory mechanisms are summarized, and the recent findings related to the alternative substances regulating male reproductive functions are also discussed.
Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a human fungal pathogen with a defined sexual cycle. Nutrient-limiting conditions and pheromones induce a dimorphic transition from unicellular yeast to multicellular hyphae and the production of infectious spores. Sexual reproduction involves cells of either opposite (bisexual or one (unisexual mating type. Bisexual and unisexual reproduction are governed by shared components of the conserved pheromone-sensing Cpk1 MAPK signal transduction cascade and by Mat2, the major transcriptional regulator of the pathway. However, the downstream targets of the pathway are largely unknown, and homology-based approaches have failed to yield downstream transcriptional regulators or other targets. In this study, we applied insertional mutagenesis via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transkingdom DNA delivery to identify mutants with unisexual reproduction defects. In addition to elements known to be involved in sexual development (Crg1, Ste7, Mat2, and Znf2, three key regulators of sexual development were identified by our screen: Znf3, Spo11, and Ubc5. Spo11 and Ubc5 promote sporulation during both bisexual and unisexual reproduction. Genetic and phenotypic analyses provide further evidence implicating both genes in the regulation of meiosis. Phenotypic analysis of sexual development showed that Znf3 is required for hyphal development during unisexual reproduction and also plays a central role during bisexual reproduction. Znf3 promotes cell fusion and pheromone production through a pathway parallel to and independent of the pheromone signaling cascade. Surprisingly, Znf3 participates in transposon silencing during unisexual reproduction and may serve as a link between RNAi silencing and sexual development. Our studies illustrate the power of unbiased genetic screens to reveal both novel and conserved circuits that operate sexual reproduction.
Imbar, Tal; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio; Laufer, Neri
MicroRNAs constitute a large family of approximately 21-nucleotide-long, noncoding RNAs. They emerged more than 20 years ago as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The regulatory role of these small RNA molecules has recently begun to be explored in the human reproductive system. In this issue's Views and Reviews, the authors present the current knowledge regarding the involvement of microRNAs in several aspects of human reproduction and discuss its future implications for clinical practice.
Whirledge, Shannon; Cidlowski, John A.
In addition to the well-characterized role of the sex steroid receptors in regulating fertility and reproduction, reproductive events are also mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to an individual's environment. Glucocorticoid secretion in response to stress contributes to the well-characterized suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis through central actions in the hypothalamus and pituitary. However, both animal and in vitro studies indicate that oth...
Full Text Available AIM: According to the rights to equality in reproductive and sexual rights, no persons should be discriminated against their sexual and reproductive lives, in their access to health care and/or services on the grounds of race, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family position, age, language, religion, political, or other opinion; national or social origin, property, birth, or other status In this context, health professionals devoted to reproductive health are responsible for the provision of services to individuals equally and should maintain equality rights. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of gender on the reproductive health of women and utilization of reproductive health services. METHODS: The study population consisted of 250 married women at their reproductive ages of 15 to 49, who applied to the obstetrics and gynecology service of a university hospital and a gynecology clinic of a training hospital dedicated to obstetrics and gynecology between 1 February 2007 and 30 April 2007. The data collection form was developed by researchers after evaluation of the relevant literature which relevance of gender discrimination could show where the questions. RESULTS: 52% of Women have graduated from primary school. Education levels of women with men (her husband between level of education is statistically significant difference, and women were receive less education than men (her husband (²=34.231, p<0.001. The study was determined that women who received training secondary school and above, worked and decision maker to domestic that they get prenatal care of a high percentage and deliver their babies in the hospital with the aid of a health care professional, and they go to medical center from gynecological problems and they need to obtain permission from their husbands in order to seek aid at a medical center of a low percentage (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Women's reproductive health, gender discrimination status
Nielsen, Nete Munk; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Stenager, Egon
It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting.......It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting....
Panagopoulos, Dimitris J
Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.
Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydın, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Brita Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann Maximilian
Boric acid and sodium borates are classified as toxic to reproduction in the CLP Regulation under "Category 1B" with the hazard statement of "H360FD". This classification is based on the reprotoxic effects of boric acid and sodium borates in animal experiments at high doses. However, boron mediated reprotoxic effects have not been proven in epidemiological studies so far. The epidemiological study performed in Bandırma boric acid production plant is the most comprehensive published study in this field with 204 voluntarily participated male workers. Sperm quality parameters (sperm morphology, concentration and motility parameters), FSH, LH and testosterone levels were determined in all participated employees as the reproductive toxicity biomarkers of males. However, boron mediated unfavorable effects on reproduction in male workers have not been determined even in the workers under very high daily boron exposure (0.21 mg B/kg-bw/day) conditions. The NOAEL for rat reproductive toxicity is equivalent to a blood boron level of 2020 ng/g. This level is higher than the mean blood boron concentration (223.89 ± 69.49 ng/g) of the high exposure group workers in Bandırma boric acid production plant (Turkey) by a factor of 9. Accordingly, classifying boric acid and sodium borates under "Category 1B" as "presumed reproductive human toxicant in the CLP regulation seems scientifically not reasonable. The results of the epidemiological studies (including the study performed in China) support for a down-classification of boric acid from the category 1B, H360FD to category 2, H361d, (suspected of damaging the unborn child).
Early intrauterine fetal (mis)programming determines not only cardiovascular and metabolic regulation in later life, but also reproductive function. Intrauterine growth restriction may be associated with precocious maturation of gonadal function and an earlier onset of puberty and menarche. Especially prenatal androgen excess has negative effects on the development of the ovaries and female genital phenotype itself as well as on the neuroendocrine feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis followed by a polycystic ovary syndrome with hyperandrogenism and anovulation in later life. These associations, which can be clearly demonstrated in animal experiments, need further confirmation by epidemiological and clinical trials in humans.
Roediger, Roger D.; Barr, Harry L.
This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with approved practices in dairy reproduction. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 200 slides dealing with the following topics: the importance of good reproduction, the male and female roles in reproduction, selection of…
Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.
These lesson plans are intended for use in conducting classes on asexual plant reproduction. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about asexual plant reproduction/propagation. The following topics are among those discussed: plant reproduction methods,…
This thesis reports on cost-effectiveness in reproductive medicine. Firstly, we evaluated the methodologic quality of studies in reproductive medicine. Insight into the quality of economical analysis in reproductive medicine is important for valuing the performed studies and to assess whether these
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reproduction. 9.7 Section 9.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.7 Reproduction. Chimpanzee reproduction...
Luna, Maricela; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ahumada-Solórzano, Marisela S; Harvey, Steve; Carranza, Martha; Arámburo, Carlos
Increasing evidence shows that growth hormone (GH) expression is not limited to the pituitary, as it can be produced in many other tissues. It is known that growth hormone (GH) plays a role in the control of reproductive tract development. Acting as an endocrine, paracrine and/or autocrine regulator, GH influences proliferation, differentiation and function of reproductive tissues. In this review we substantiate the local expression of GH mRNA and GH protein, as well as the GH receptor (GHR) in both male and female reproductive tract, mainly in the chicken. Locally expressed GH was found to be heterogeneous, with a 17 kDa variant being predominant. GH secretagogues, such as GHRH and TRH co-localize with GH expression in the chicken testis and induce GH release. In the ovarian follicular granulosa cells, GH and GHR are co-expressed and stimulate progesterone production, which was neutralized by a specific GH antibody. Both testicular and follicular cells in primary cultures were able to synthesize and release GH to the culture medium. We also characterized GH and GH mRNA expression in the hen's oviduct and showed that it had 99.6% sequence identity with pituitary GH. Data suggest local reproductive GH may have important autocrine/paracrine effects.
Gasparini, Fabio; Manni, Lucia; Cima, Francesca; Zaniolo, Giovanna; Burighel, Paolo; Caicci, Federico; Franchi, Nicola; Schiavon, Filippo; Rigon, Francesca; Campagna, Davide; Ballarin, Loriano
The colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri is a widespread filter-feeding ascidian that lives in shallow waters and is easily reared in aquaria. Its peculiar blastogenetic cycle, characterized by the presence of three blastogenetic generations (filtering adults, buds, and budlets) and by recurrent generation changes, has resulted in over 60 years of studies aimed at understanding how sexual and asexual reproduction are coordinated and regulated in the colony. The possibility of using different methodological approaches, from classical genetics to cell transplantation, contributed to the development of this species as a valuable model organism for the study of a variety of biological processes. Here, we review the main studies detailing rearing, staging methods, reproduction and colony growth of this species, emphasizing the asymmetry in sexual and asexual reproduction potential, sexual reproduction in the field and the laboratory, and self- and cross-fertilization. These data, opportunely matched with recent tanscriptomic and genomic outcomes, can give a valuable help to the elucidation of some important steps in chordate evolution.
Werfel, Justin; Bar-Yam, Yaneer
The evolution of altruistic behavior through group selection is generally viewed as possible in theory but unlikely in reality, because individual selection favoring selfish strategies should act more rapidly than group selection favoring cooperation. Here we demonstrate the evolution of altruism, in the form of conditional reproductive restraint based on an explicitly social mechanism, modulated by intrapopulation communication comprising signal and evolved response, in a spatially distributed predatory/parasitic/pathogenic model system. The predatory species consistently comes to exploit a signal implying overcrowding, individuals constraining their reproduction in response, with a corresponding increase in equilibrium reproduction rate in the absence of signal. This signaled restraint arises in a robust way for a range of model spatial systems; it outcompetes non-signal-based restraint and is not vulnerable to subversion by noncooperating variants. In these systems, communication is used to evaluate population density and regulate reproduction accordingly, consistent with central ideas of Wynne-Edwards [Wynne-Edwards, V. C. (1962) Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior (Hafner, New York)], whose claims about the evolutionary importance of group selection helped ignite decades of controversy. This quantitative simulation model shows how the key evolutionary transition from solitary living to sociality can occur. The process described here of cooperation evolving through communication may also help to explain other major evolutionary transitions such as intercellular communication leading to multicellular organisms.
Full Text Available Study of the reproductive strategy of crayfish species is of great importance in the current astacological world. Crayfish are among the largest freshwater invertebrates, and as keystone species, they are able to regulate the structure of the benthic fauna in the freshwaters, demonstrating different ecological strategies and life spans ranging up to 20+ years. In order to bring together the various pieces of information related to this issue, this overview of published scientific reports was conducted. The majority of crayfish species studied show sexual dimorphism, with approximately equal numbers of males and females. However, over some decades numerous observations have been made for a few species that may have different modes of reproduction, such as hermaphroditism or intersex (e.g. Cherax quadricarinatus, Samastacus spinifrons, Parastacus virilastacus and Pacifastacus leniusculus and parthenogenesis (only Procambarus fallax f. virginalis. A recent study showed a new case of parthenogenesis as apomictic parthenogenesis (only Orconectes limosus. In addition, there are many investigations into the reproduction biology of crayfish, including using eyestalk ablation or androgenic gland ablation under various lab conditions and hybridization under natural conditions (e.g. Astacus astacus X Astacus leptodactylus, Orconectes rusticus X Orconectes propinquus. There are also some chemical factors which could possibly affect the reproduction system of crayfish in the wild.
Matsuura, Kenji; Vargo, Edward L; Kawatsu, Kazutaka; Labadie, Paul E; Nakano, Hiroko; Yashiro, Toshihisa; Tsuji, Kazuki
The evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction may involve important tradeoffs because asexual reproduction can double an individual's contribution to the gene pool but reduces diversity. Moreover, in social insects the maintenance of genetic diversity among workers may be important for colony growth and survival. We identified a previously unknown termite breeding system in which both parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction are conditionally used. Queens produce their replacements asexually but use normal sexual reproduction to produce other colony members. These findings show how eusociality can lead to extraordinary reproductive systems and provide important insights into the advantages and disadvantages of sex.
Full Text Available Reproductive rights were established as a subset of the human rights. Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children. Issues regarding the reproductive rights are vigorously contested, regardless of the population’s socioeconomic level, religion or culture. Following review article discusses reproductive rights with respect to Indian context focusing on socio economic and cultural aspects. Also discusses sensitization of government and judicial agencies in protecting the reproductive rights with special focus on the protecting the reproductive rights of people with disability (mental illness and mental retardation.
Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente
associated with ART techniques, but disentangling the influence of the ART procedures per se from the effect of the reproductive disease of the parents is a challenge. Epidemiological human studies have shown altered birth weight profiles in ART compared with spontaneously conceived singletons. Conception......Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...... with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human...
Reid, Gregor; Brigidi, Patrizia; Burton, Jeremy P; Contractor, Nikhat; Duncan, Sylvia; Fargier, Emilie; Hill, Colin; Lebeer, Sarah; Martín, Rocio; McBain, Andrew J; Mor, Gil; O'Neill, Catherine; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Swann, Jonathan; van Hemert, Saskia; Ansell, Juliett
As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although further evidence is required, we propose that much of medical dogma is about to change significantly through recognition and understanding of these hitherto unrecognized microbe-host interactions. A meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics held in Aberdeen, Scotland (June 2014), presented new views and challenged established concepts on the role of microbes in reproduction and health of the mother and infant. This article summarizes some of the main aspects of these discussions.
Full Text Available Parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes obtained from infertility treatments has gained new interest in recent years as an alternative approach to create embryos with no reproductive purpose for research in areas such as assisted reproduction technologies itself, somatic cell, and nuclear transfer experiments and for derivation of clinical grade pluripotent embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine. Different activating methods have been tested on human and nonhuman oocytes, with varying degrees of success in terms of parthenote generation rates, embryo development stem cell derivation rates. Success in achieving a standardized artificial activation methodology for human oocytes and the subsequent potential therapeutic gain obtained from these embryos depends mainly on the availability of gametes donated from infertility treatments. This review will focus on the creation of parthenotes from clinically unusable oocytes for derivation and establishment of human parthenogenetic stem cell lines and their potential applications in regenerative medicine.
Bennett, Nigel C
The Damaraland mole-rat is a subterranean mammal exhibiting extreme reproductive skew with a single reproductive female in each colony responsible for procreation. Non-reproductive female colony members are physiologically suppressed while in the colony, exhibiting reduced concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and a decreased response of the pituitary, as measured by the release of bioactive LH, to an exogenous dose of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). Removal of the reproductive female from the colony results in an elevation of LH and an enhanced response of the pituitary to a GnRH challenge in non-reproductive females comparable to reproductive females, implying control of reproduction in these individuals by the reproductive female. The Damaraland mole-rat is an ideal model for investigating the physiological and behavioral mechanisms that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In contrast, we know less about the control of reproduction at the level of the hypothalamus. The immunohistochemistry of the GnRH system of both reproductive and non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats has revealed no significant differences with respect to morphology, distribution or numbers of immunoreactive GnRH perikarya. We examined whether the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin was responsible for the inhibition of the release of the GnRH from the neurons indirectly by measuring LH concentrations in these non-reproductive females following single, hourly and 8 hourly injections of the opioid antagonist naloxone. The results imply that the endogenous opioid peptide, beta-endorphin, is not responsible for the inhibition of GnRH release from the perikarya in non-reproductive females. Preliminary data examining the circulating levels of cortisol also do not support a role for circulating glucocorticoids. The possible role of kisspeptin is discussed.
Introduction Preconception care recognizes that many adolescent girls and young women will be thrust into motherhood without the knowledge, skills or support they need. Sixty million adolescents give birth each year worldwide, even though pregnancy in adolescence has mortality rates at least twice as high as pregnancy in women aged 20-29 years. Reproductive planning and contraceptive use can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually-transmitted infections in adolescent girls and women. Smaller families also mean better nutrition and development opportunities, yet 222 million couples continue to lack access to modern contraception. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Comprehensive interventions can prevent first pregnancy in adolescence by 15% and repeat adolescent pregnancy by 37%. Such interventions should address underlying social and community factors, include sexual and reproductive health services, contraceptive provision; personal development programs and emphasizes completion of education. Appropriate birth spacing (18-24 months from birth to next pregnancy compared to short intervals <6 months) can significantly lower maternal mortality, preterm births, stillbirths, low birth weight and early neonatal deaths. Conclusion Improving adolescent health and preventing adolescent pregnancy; and promotion of birth spacing through increasing correct and consistent use of effective contraception are fundamental to preconception care. Promoting reproductive planning on a wider scale is closely interlinked with the
Sujal S Phadke
Full Text Available Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous human fungal pathogen that typically causes infection in tropical and subtropical regions and is responsible for an ongoing outbreak in immunocompetent individuals on Vancouver Island and in the Pacific Northwest of the US. Pathogenesis of this species may be linked to its sexual cycle that generates infectious propagules called basidiospores. A marked predominance of only one mating type (α in clinical and environmental isolates suggests that a-α opposite-sex reproduction may be infrequent or geographically restricted, raising the possibility of an alternative unisexual cycle involving cells of only α mating type, as discovered previously in the related pathogenic species Cryptococcus neoformans. Here we report observation of hallmark features of unisexual reproduction in a clinical isolate of C. gattii (isolate 97/433 and describe genetic and environmental factors conducive to this sexual cycle. Our results are consistent with population genetic evidence of recombination in the largely unisexual populations of C. gattii and provide a useful genetic model for understanding how novel modes of sexual reproduction may contribute to evolution and virulence in this species.
Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T
The human microbiome has been termed the "second human genome" and data that has come about of late certainly makes it appear every bit as complex. The human body contains 10-fold more microbial cells than the human cells and accounts for 1%-3% of our total body mass. As we learn more about this symbiotic relationship, it appears this complex interaction occurs in nearly every part of the body, even those areas at one time considered to be sterile. Indeed, the microbiome in human reproduction has been investigated in terms of both the lower and upper reproductive tract and includes interactions even at the point of gametogenesis. What is all the more fascinating is that we have known about the importance of microbes for over 150 years, even before they existed in name. And now, with the assistance of an exciting technologic revolution which has pushed forward our understanding of the microbiome, we appear to stand on the precipice of a higher level of understanding of microbes, the biofilms they create, and their impact of health and disease in human reproduction.
Liu, Li; Yang, Yongyi; Stark, Henry
We consider the reproduction of color subject to material and neighborhood constraints. By 'material constraints,' we mean any constraints that are applied to the amount of ink, lights, voltages, and currents that are used in the generation of color. In the first instance we consider the problem of reproducing a target color constrained by maximum additive color signals, such as in the phosphorescence process in a cathode ray tube. In the second instance we consider the more difficult problem of reproducing color subject to constraints on the maximum primary color variations in a (spatial) neighborhood. We introduce the idea of adjacent color variance (ACV) and then attempt to reproduce colors subject to an upper bound on the ACV. An algorithm that is suitable for this task is the method of vector space projections (VSP). In order to use VSP for constrained color reproduction, we use a novel approach to linearize nonlinear CIE-Lab space constraints. Experimental results are furnished that demonstrate that using the ACV as a bound helps to reduce reproduction artifacts in a color image.
Lutterschmidt, Deborah I
The majority of studies on reproductive neuroendocrinology in snakes have focused on one particular snake population in Manitoba, Canada, the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). Although traditionally these studies have emphasized its unusual temporal dissociation between mating behavior and peak gonadal activity, current evidence suggests that reproductive regulation in this population may be more similar to the norm than previously thought. Like other ectotherms, temperature plays a critical role in activating reproductive behavior in red-sided garter snakes. Diel melatonin and corticosterone rhythms appear to be important in transducing temperature cues, and it is clear that both hormones regulate courtship behavior during spring. Current evidence also suggests that sex steroid hormones are in fact central to reproductive regulation in males, although the timing of their action occurs during winter dormancy. Whether this is also true for female T. sirtalis parietalis requires further study, but it should be noted that patterns of sex steroid hormones are sexually dimorphic during winter dormancy, as are melatonin rhythms during spring emergence. While continuing to advance our understanding of reproductive regulation in this extremely well-studied population is prudent, future comparative studies are critical for understanding if and how reproductive regulatory mechanisms differ across environments, populations, and phylogenies. For example, melatonin and corticosterone responses to environmental cues vary significantly among populations of T. sirtalis in a common garden, as do male courtship behavior and androgen concentrations. These data support the hypothesis that neuroendocrine-mediated responses to environmental cues underlie phenotypic plasticity in reproductive life history traits.
Hansen, Peter J
technologies that have the potential to improve efficiency of livestock production. The focus will be on technologies that manipulate male and female gametes as well as the stem cells from which they are derived and the preimplantation embryo. While technology is crucial to other interventions in the reproductive process like control of seasonal breeding, hormonal regulation of ovulation, estrous cyclicity and pregnancy establishment, feeding to optimize reproduction, minimizing environmental stress, and selection of genes controlling reproduction, these will not be considered here. Rather the reader is directed to other chapters in this volume as well as some reviews on other aspects of artificial manipulation of reproduction (Reprod Fertil Dev 24:258-266, 2011; Reprod Domest Anim 43:40-47, 2008; Reprod Domest Anim 43:122-128, 2008; Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 66:87-102, 2009; Comprehensive biotechnology, Amsterdam, pp 477-485; Dairy production medicine, Chichester, pp 153-163; Theriogenology 76:1619-1631, 2011; Theriogenology 76:1568-1582, 2011; Theriogenology 77:1-11, 2012). Given the large number of mammalian species used for production of products useful for man and the diversity in their biology and management, the review will not be comprehensive but instead will use results from species that are most illustrative of the opportunities generated by assisted reproductive technologies.
Markov, A V; Zakharov, I A
The effects have been considered that the intracellular symbiotic alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis induces in its hosts, such as insects and other arthropods: cytoplasmic incompatibility upon mating, feminization, parthenogenesis, and androcide. Specific features of the bacterium genome and possible mechanisms of its action on hosts are discussed.
Paul, Diane B; Day, Benjamin
In this paper, we show that the question of the relative importance of innate characteristics and institutional arrangements in explaining human difference was vehemently contested in Britain during the first half of the nineteenth century. Thus Sir Francis Galton's work of the 1860s should be seen as an intervention in a pre-existing controversy. The central figure in these earlier debates-as well as many later ones-was the philosopher and economist John Stuart Mill. In Mill's view, human nature was fundamentally shaped by history and culture, factors that accounted for most mental and behavioral differences between men and women and among people of different classes, nationalities, and races. Indeed, Mill's whole program of social reform depended on the assumption that human differences were not fixed by nature. To identify the leading figures in these disputes about difference and the concrete context in which they occurred, we explore three debates in which Mill played a key role: over the capacities and rights of women, the viability of peasant proprietorship in India and Ireland, and the status of black labor in Jamaica. The last two draw our attention to the important colonial context of the nature-nurture debate. We also show that ideas that for us seem of a piece were not always linked for these earlier thinkers, nor did views on innateness necessarily have the political correlates that we now take for granted.
Full Text Available The physiological mechanisms controlling the growth, lactation and reproductive cycles of cervids, and the control of allocation of energy to different organs are discussed. The growth cycle may be secondary to an appetite cycle, regulated by changes in the secretion of prolactin, gonadal steroids, and possibly unknown factors. The reproductive cycle is controlled by changes in the release at the hypothalamic hormone GnRH, and by changes in the feedback effect of gonadal steroids. These cycles are probably the result of the timing effects of nutrition and changing photoperiod on an endogenous, circannual rhythm. The effect of photopenod is mediated by the pineal hormone melatonin. The physiological mechanisms controlling the partitioning of substrates between milk production, fetal growth and the tissues of the mother are poorly understood, but may involve changes in the secretion of growth hormone, insulin and triiodothyronine.
Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.
Boisen, Ida Marie; Bøllehuus Hansen, Lasse; Mortensen, Li Juel
Vitamin D is a versatile signaling molecule with an established role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone health. In recent years the spectrum of vitamin D target organs has expanded and a reproductive role is supported by the presence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D...... metabolizing enzymes in the gonads, reproductive tract, and human spermatozoa. Interestingly, expression levels of VDR and the vitamin D inactivating enzyme CYP24A1 in human spermatozoa serve as positive predictive markers of semen quality and are higher expressed in spermatozoa from normal than infertile men....... VDR mediates a non-genomic increase in intracellular calcium concentration, sperm motility, and induces the acrosome reaction. Furthermore, functional animal model studies have shown that vitamin D is important for sex steroid production, estrogen signaling, and semen quality. Cross-sectional clinical...
Ouyang, Jenny Q; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Quetting, Michael; Hau, Michaela
Hormones mediate major physiological and behavioural components of the reproductive phenotype of individuals. To understand basic evolutionary processes in the hormonal regulation of reproductive traits, we need to know whether, and during which reproductive phases, individual variation in hormone concentrations relates to fitness in natural populations. We related circulating concentrations of prolactin and corticosterone to parental behaviour and reproductive success during both the pre-breeding and the chick-rearing stages in both individuals of pairs of free-living house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Prolactin and baseline corticosterone concentrations in pre-breeding females, and prolactin concentrations in pre-breeding males, predicted total number of fledglings. When the strong effect of lay date on total fledgling number was corrected for, only pre-breeding baseline corticosterone, but not prolactin, was negatively correlated with the reproductive success of females. During the breeding season, nestling provisioning rates of both sexes were negatively correlated with stress-induced corticosterone levels. Lastly, individuals of both sexes with low baseline corticosterone before and high baseline corticosterone during breeding raised the most offspring, suggesting that either the plasticity of this trait contributes to reproductive success or that high parental effort leads to increased hormone concentrations. Thus hormone concentrations both before and during breeding, as well as their seasonal dynamics, predict reproductive success, suggesting that individual variation in absolute concentrations and in plasticity is functionally significant, and, if heritable, may be a target of selection.
Rodrigues, Marisa A; Flatt, Thomas
In most animals reproduction trades off with somatic maintenance and survival. Physiologically this trade-off is mediated by hormones with opposite effects on reproduction and maintenance. In many insects, this regulation is achieved by an endocrine network that integrates insulin-like/IGF-1 signaling (IIS), juvenile hormone (JH), and the yolk precursor vitellogenin (Vg) (or, more generally, yolk proteins [YPs]). Downregulation of this network promotes maintenance and survival at the expense of reproduction. Remarkably, however, queens of highly eusocial social insects exhibit both enormous reproductive output and longevity, thus escaping the trade-off. Here we argue - based on recent evidence - that the proximate reason for why eusocial insects can decouple this trade-off is that they have evolved a different 'wiring' of the IIS-JH-Vg/YP circuit.
Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Grossniklaus, Ueli
The life cycle of flowering plants alternates between two heteromorphic generations: a diploid sporophytic generation and a haploid gametophytic generation. During the development of the plant reproductive lineages - the germlines - typically, single sporophytic (somatic) cells in the flower become committed to undergo meiosis. The resulting spores subsequently develop into highly polarized and differentiated haploid gametophytes that harbour the gametes. Recent studies have provided insights into the genetic basis and regulatory programs underlying cell specification and the acquisition of reproductive fate during both sexual reproduction and asexual (apomictic) reproduction. As we review here, these recent advances emphasize the importance of transcriptional, translational and post-transcriptional regulation, and the role of epigenetic regulatory pathways and hormonal activity.
Cabal, Luisa; Olaya, Monica Arango; Robledo, Valentina Montoya
Conscientious Objection or conscientious refusal (CO) in access to reproductive health care is at the center of current legal debates worldwide. In countries such as the US and the UK, constitutional dilemmas surrounding CO in the context of reproductive health services reveal inadequate policy frameworks for balancing CO rights with women's rights to access contraception and abortion. The Colombian Constitutional Court's holistic jurisprudence regarding CO standards has applied international human rights norms so as to not only protect women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights, but to also introduce clear limits for the exercise of CO in health care settings. This paper reviews Latin American lines of regulation in Argentina, Uruguay, and Mexico City to argue that the Colombian Court's jurisprudence offers a strong guidance for future comprehensive policy approaches that aim to effectively balance tensions between CO and women's reproductive rights.
2008270 Conjugated effects of fluorine and aluminum on the sex hormones of male rats. XIA Shuhua(夏曙华), et al. Dept Clin Lab Sci, Guiyang Med Coo, Guiyang 550004. Chin J Endemiol 2008;27(2):134-136.Objective To observe the combined poisonous effects of fluoride and aluminum on sex hormone of male rats.Methods Sixteen weaned SD healthy male rats aged two week were selected and divided into control group,aluminum group,fluoride group,fluorine-aluminum group,four rats in each group.All rats in the experimental
Malnutrition is a major problem in developing countries, and obesity and eating disorders are increasingly common in developing as well as developed countries. The reproductive axis is closely linked to nutritional status, especially undernutrition in the female, and inhibitory pathways involving detectors in the hind brain suppress ovulation in subjects with weight loss. Recovery may occur after minimal reacquisition of weight because energy balance is more important than body fat mass. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa affect up to 5% of women of reproductive age causing amenorrhoea, infertility and, in those who do conceive, an increased likelihood of miscarriage. Obesity can affect reproduction through fat cell metabolism, steroids and secretion of proteins such as leptin and adiponectin and through changes induced at the level of important homeostatic factors such as pancreatic secretion of insulin, androgen synthesis by the ovary and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) production by the liver. WHO estimates that 9 to 25% of women in developed countries are severely obese, and obese mothers are much more likely to have obese children, especially if they have gestational diabetes. Obesity-associated anovulation may lead to infertility and to a higher risk of miscarriage. Management of anovulation with obesity involves diet and exercise as well as standard approaches to ovulation induction. Many obese women conceive without assistance, but pregnancies in obese women have increased rates of pregnancy-associated hypertension, gestational diabetes, large babies, Cesarean section and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Among contraceptors, the fear of weight gain affects uptake and continuation of hormonal contraceptives, although existing trials indicate that any such effects are small. For all methods of hormonal contraception, weight above 70 kg is associated with increased failure rates.
WILLEMSE Michiel T M
important action which is based on a persisting cooperation and points to a push during evolution. The push is expressed as communication: the driving force in the evolution. Based on the interactions between organisms and interactions between organisms and the dynamic environment, communication is considered as a driving force leading to the evolution as explained in the development of plant reproduction. Consequences for reproduction, its regulation and the process of evolution are discussed.
Since the first birth after in vitro fertilization more than 5 million of IVF babies are born in the world. Assisted reproductive technologies captivate the public, they allow maternity without ovary (oocyte donation), without uterus (surrogate mother), paternity without spermatozoids (sperm donation), parentality without limits of age, parentality after death and homoparentality. These technologies arise a lot of ethics questions, the problem is that the answers are not the same all-round the world, laws are based on morals, beliefs, faiths, and convictions. Theses variations arise themselves questions on the value of these non-universal answers.
Tyl, Rochelle W
In Vivo Models for Male Reproductive Toxicology (Rochelle W. Tyl, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina). Assessment of male reproductive function requires a specific set of evaluations of the various steps in successful mating from sperm production to copulation to fertilization to production of a viable litter. This unit outlines the measurements that are standard for determining the effects of treatment with toxicant on the reproductive capacity of male mice and rats.
Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler
To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception....
Full Text Available Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL. We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the zombie centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology.
Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E
The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing.
Tattersall, Glenn J; Leite, Cleo A C; Sanders, Colin E; Cadena, Viviana; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Milsom, William K
With some notable exceptions, small ectothermic vertebrates are incapable of endogenously sustaining a body temperature substantially above ambient temperature. This view was challenged by our observations of nighttime body temperatures sustained well above ambient (up to 10°C) during the reproductive season in tegu lizards (~2 kg). This led us to hypothesize that tegus have an enhanced capacity to augment heat production and heat conservation. Increased metabolic rates and decreased thermal conductance are the same mechanisms involved in body temperature regulation in those vertebrates traditionally acknowledged as "true endotherms": the birds and mammals. The appreciation that a modern ectotherm the size of the earliest mammals can sustain an elevated body temperature through metabolic rates approaching that of endotherms enlightens the debate over endothermy origins, providing support for the parental care model of endothermy, but not for the assimilation capacity model of endothermy. It also indicates that, contrary to prevailing notions, ectotherms can engage in facultative endothermy, providing a physiological analog in the evolutionary transition to true endothermy.
Full Text Available Schistosome parasites still represent a serious public health concern and a major economic problem in developing countries. Pathology of schistosomiasis is mainly due to massive egg production by these parasites and to inflammatory responses raised against the eggs which are trapped in host tissues. Tyrosine kinases (TKs are key molecules that control cell differentiation and proliferation and they already represent important targets in cancer therapy. During the recent years, it has been shown that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK signaling was active in reproductive organs and that it could regulate sexual maturation of schistosomes and egg production. This opens interesting perspectives for the control of transmission and pathogenesis of schistosomiasis based on new therapies targeting schistosome RTKs. This review relates the numerous data showing the major roles of kinase signaling in schistosome reproduction. It describes the conserved and particular features of schistosome RTKs, their implication in gametogenesis and reproduction processes and summarizes recent works indicating that RTKs and their signaling partners are interesting chemotherapeutical targets in new programs of control.
Niu, Shihui; Yuan, Huwei; Sun, Xinrui; Porth, Ilga; Li, Yue; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Li, Wei
The development of reproductive structures in gymnosperms is still poorly studied because of a lack of genomic information and useful genetic tools. The hermaphroditic reproductive structure derived from unisexual gymnosperms is an even less studied aspect of seed plant evolution. To extend our understanding of the molecular mechanism of hermaphroditism and the determination of sexual identity of conifer reproductive structures in general, unisexual and bisexual cones from Pinus tabuliformis were profiled for gene expression using 60K microarrays. Expression patterns of genes during progression of sexual cone development were analysed using RNA-seq. The results showed that, overall, the transcriptomes of male structures in bisexual cones were more similar to those of female cones. However, the expression of several MADS-box genes in the bisexual cones was similar to that of male cones at the more juvenile developmental stage, while despite these expression shifts, male structures of bisexual cones and normal male cones were histologically indistinguishable and cone development was continuous. This study represents a starting point for in-depth analysis of the molecular regulation of cone development and also the origin of hermaphroditism in pine.
Thysen, Iver; Enevoldsen, Carsten
Two complementary approaches to produce visual information from reproduction records are described and exemplified. The Event Display shows all reproductive events, over a year, for all cows in a herd, by symbols placed in an array with columns representing calendar weeks and rows representing in...
Lidegaard, Øjvind; Pinborg, Anja; Andersen, Anders Nyboe
To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies.......To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies....
Bravo, P W
The physiology of reproduction with emphasis in endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Basic concepts of ovarian follicular dynamics, endocrine events associated with induction of ovulation, corpus luteum formation, pregnancy, parturition, postpartum interval, puberty, and sexual behavior on the female are reviewed. Pathologic conditions of the reproductive process are also reviewed.
Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.
These lesson plans are intended for use in conducting classes on sexual plant reproduction. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about sexual plant reproduction/propagation. The following topics are among those discussed: sexual and asexual plant…
Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming
More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.
Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) prevention and treatment is one of the three major projects organized by the National Population and Family Planning Commission. The author, based on the practice of this project and the China/UNFPA reproductive health and family planning project, made some suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of the efforts made to prevent and treat RTIs.
... reproductions (includes, but is not limited to, commercial printing, advertising, and printing of forms). (5... published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (76 FR 43960) for a 60-day public comment period. This...; printing and reproductions; consulting and other services; payments to other agencies/funds; supplies...
Raven, John A; Griffiths, Howard
The role of photosynthesis by reproductive structures during grain-filling has important implications for cereal breeding, but the methods for assessing the contribution by reproductive structures to grain-filling are invasive and prone to compensatory changes elsewhere in the plant. A technique analysing the natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes in soluble carbohydrates has significant promise. However, it depends crucially on there being no more than two sources of organic carbon (leaf and ear/awn), with significantly different (13)C:(12)C ratios and no secondary fractionation during grain-filling. The role of additional peduncle carbohydrate reserves represents a potential means for N remobilization, as well as for hydraulic continuity during grain-filling. The natural abundance of the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen are also useful for exploring the influence of reproduction on whole plant carbon and water relations and have been used to examine the resource costs of reproduction in females and males of dioecious plants. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures is widespread among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, including many clades of algae and embryophytes of different levels of complexity. The possible evolutionary benefits of photosynthesis in reproductive structures include decreasing the carbon cost of reproduction and 'use' of transpiratory loss of water to deliver phloem-immobile calcium Ca(2+) and silicon [Si(OH)4] via the xylem. The possible costs of photosynthesis in reproductive structures are increasing damage to DNA from photosynthetically active, and hence UV-B, radiation and the production of reactive oxygen species.
de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S
This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007.......This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007....
Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; de Mouzon, J
This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008.......This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008....
A. C. TSIKLIRAS; K. I. STERGIOU; Froese, Rainer
Fish reproductive biology (onset and duration of spawning, sex ratio, maturity stages, length and age at maturity, and fecundity) is important in fisheries research, stock assessment, and management. In this editorial note, we provide some criteria and recommendations on issues of fish reproductive biology, which may be useful in research planning, data analysis and presentation, as well as in manuscript preparation.
Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun
The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy.
The efficacy of hexaflumuron was evaluated in the laboratory against boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, captured in pheromone-baited traps for gustatory response and reproduction of the insect. Hexaflumuron is an insect growth regulator which inhibits chitin synthesis and disrupts inse...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photographic or other reproductions of Government obligations. 103.52 Section 103.52 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS...
Full Text Available Since the discovery of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH in mammals at the beginning of the 1970’s, it was generally accepted that GnRH is the only hypothalamic neuropeptide regulating gonadotropin release in mammals and other vertebrates. In 2000, however, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH, a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that actively inhibits gonadotropin release, was discovered in quail. Numerous studies over the past decade and a half have demonstrated that GnIH serves as a key player regulating reproduction across vertebrates, acting on the brain and pituitary to modulate reproductive physiology and behavior. In the latter case, recent evidence indicates that GnIH can regulate reproductive behavior through changes in neurosteroid, such as neuroestrogen, biosynthesis in the brain. This review summarizes the discovery of GnIH and the contributions to GnIH research focused on its mode of action, regulation of biosynthesis, and how these findings advance our understanding of reproductive neuroendocrinology.
The occurrence of puberty and maintenance of normal reproductive cycles are regulated by secretion of gonadotropin hormones from the pituitary gland, which is dependent upon the pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. It is well established that secretion of...
Reza Omani Samani
Full Text Available Rapid development in assisted reproductive techniques along with relieving the pain of childlessnesshas brought new ethical and policy dilemmas. Posthumous assisted reproduction is the mostchallenging, difficult and sensitive issue to be discussed ethically and religiously. In this paper theacceptability of the posthumous reproduction in Islamic contexts is evaluated and major concernslike Consent and ownership of the gametes after death, Family and Marriage vision and Welfareof the child are discussed together with some international legislation. We can conclude that uponIslamic vision to assisted reproductive techniques as treatment of families and relieving the seriousproblem of childlessness, posthumous assisted reproduction is unacceptable even with previouslyfrozen gametes or embryos. Also, Islamic vision to marriage, consent and welfare of the childconfirms the unacceptability. There must be some law or legislation to ban this procedure in Islamiccontexts.
... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6150 Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and microinjectors. (a) Identification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micromanipulators...
... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6140 Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments. (a) Identification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micropipette...
Adeogun A. Olubukola
Full Text Available Problem statement: Reproductive success is a key factor in determining species survival and the unregulated discharge of industrial effluents into rivers and streams in a developing country like Nigeria, can impair reproductive ability in non-target organisms like fish. Fish, generally accumulate contaminants from their environment in their tissues and these can be transmitted through the yolk lipids to the eggs. Approach: Prespawning Clarias gariepinus female brooders were exposed to composite effluent mixtures from a food and beverage industry (discharged into Ona river for a period of thirty days to determine its effect on growth and fertility/reproductive success (viability of eggs and survival of the F1 generation fries. Physico-chemical parameters of effluent samples and exposure concentrations were analyzed and effluent sample was further analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn. Results: Exposure to the effluents caused decreased weight (-7.33% and egg production (198 eggs in the highest exposure concentration. Significant decreases (p1 generation fries (68.68, 46.42 and 22.33% with increasing effluent concentration was also observed in the order 0.00%> 4.40%> 6.60% and there were no viable eggs and fingerlings in the highest exposure concentration(13.20%. Effluent sample and exposure concentrations had acidic pH and low DO values while effluent sample contained Fe and Pb in concentrations above the specified standard by the National Environment Standards and Regulation Agency (NESREA for food and beverage industry effluent discharged into surface waters. Conclusion: The toxic nature of these effluents on the reproductive success of C. gariepinus (a commercially important freshwater fish in Nigeria is of great concern to sustainable fisheries if stringent measures to monitor effluent quality discharge into this river are not implemented.
Bazer, Fuller W
I became interested in biology as an undergraduate in a premedical curriculum but developed a passion for the field of reproductive biology because of a course in physiology of reproduction taken to meet requirements for admission to veterinary school. My career path changed, and I entered graduate school, obtained the Ph.D., and have enjoyed an academic career as a reproductive biologist conducting research in uterine biology and pregnancy in animal science departments at the University of Florida and at Texas A&M University. However, I have never allowed academic boundaries to interfere with research and graduate education as that is contrary to collegiality, the cornerstone of great universities. I consider that my major contributions to science include 1) identification of proteins secreted by cells of the uterine endometrium that are critical to successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy; 2) discovery of steroids and proteins required for pregnancy recognition signaling and their mechanisms of action in pigs and ruminant species; 3) investigation of fetal-placental development and placental transport of nutrients, including water and electrolytes; 4) identification of linkages between nutrition and fetal-placental development; 5) defining aspects of the endocrinology of pregnancy; and 6) contributing to efforts to exploit the therapeutic value of interferon tau, particularly for treatment of autoimmune diseases. My current studies are focused on the role of select nutrients in the uterine lumen, specifically amino acids and glucose, that affect development and survival of the conceptus and translation of mRNAs and, with colleagues at Seoul National University, gene expression by the avian reproductive tract at key periods postovulation. Another goal is to understand stromal-epithelial cell signaling, whereby progesterone and estrogen act via uterine stromal cells that express receptors for sex steroids to stimulate secretion of growth factors (e
Full Text Available This work presents a relationship between environmental conditions and reproductive performance in modern humans. Birth rates and sex ratio (SRB at birth were analyzed from large data scales. The results include data from people working or living under different job respectively socio-economic conditions, such as employees working in the academic field, employees under supervisory or hire and fire conditions, and people who have better access to resources. The results show that employees who have better jobs and earn more money do have more children and females under better socio-economic conditions do give birth to more sons. In conclusion, it is suggested that different socio-economic environmental conditions may have an impact on female and male birth rates and SRBs, which may be related to stress perception rates.
Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels
STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... sample size and the results have been contradictory. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A coordinated international cross-sectional study among 8344 healthy men. A total of 1872 fertile men aged 18-45 years (with pregnant partners) from four European cities and four US states, and 6472 young men (most...... with unknown fertility) aged 18-28 years from the general population in six European countries were recruited. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The men were recruited using standardized protocols. A semen analysis was performed and men completed a questionnaire on health and lifestyle, including...
Fornaro, Peter R.; Gschwind, Rudolf; Rosenthaler, Lukas; Laurenson, Pip
Many contemporary art collections contain important art installations where artists have used 35 mm slides as the primary medium. The number of ours these works are on show makes it necessary to regularly change the slides due to light fading. With funding from the Henry Moore Foundation. The conservation department at Tate initiated a project to examine ways in which digital technology could be used to aid the conservation of these works. The aim of the project was to place the original slides in cold storage and explored the possibility of using digital technology to make duplicate sets for display in the gallery. The reproductions needed to be of very high quality both in terms of resolution and color management. This paper discusses the use of densitometry to calibrate both device dependent and device independent systems for digitally reproducing 35 mm slides using a scanner and a film recorder and the effect of metamery when using slide films which employ different dyes.
Thomas, Michael A.; Quinodoz, Sofia; Schötz, Eva-Maria
Asexual reproduction by division in higher organisms is rare, because a prerequisite is the ability to regenerate an entire organism from a piece of the original body. Freshwater planarians are one of the few animals that can reproduce this way, but little is known about the regulation of their reproduction cycles or strategies. We have previously shown that a planarian's reproduction strategy is randomized to include fragmentations, producing multiple offspring, as well as binary fissions, and can be partially explained by a maximum relative entropy principle. In this study we attempt to decompose the factors controlling their reproduction cycle. Based on recent studies on the cell cycle of budding yeast, which suggest that molecular noise in gene expression and cell size at birth together control cell cycle variability, we investigated whether the variability in planarian reproduction waiting times could be similarly regulated. We find that such a model can indeed explain the observed distribution of waiting times between birth and next reproductive event, suggesting that birth size and a stochastic noise term govern the reproduction dynamics of asexual planarians.
Gawałek, Monika; Sliwowska, Joanna H
The theory that individuals are born as tabula rasa and that their knowledge comes from experience and perception is no longer true. Studies suggest that experience is gained as early as in the mother's womb. Moreover, environmental stressors like alcohol or inadequate diet can affect physiological systems such as the hypothalmic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The effects of these stressors can manifest as alterations in sexual development and adult reproductive functions. In this review, we consider and compare evidence from animal models and human studies demonstrating the role of environmental stressors (alcohol and under- or overnutrition) on the HPG axis. We review the role of alcohol and inadequate diet in prenatal reproductive system programming and consider specific candidate neurons in the adult hypothalamus through which reproductive function is being regulated. Finally, we review evidence from animal studies on the role that alcohol and diet play in fertility and reproductive disorders. We conclude that in order to better understand reproductive failure in animals and humans we need to consider in utero development and pay more attention to early life experience when searching for the origins of reproductive diseases.
Honji, Renato Massaaki; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; Pandolfi, Matias; Shimizu, Akio; Borella, Maria Inês; Moreira, Renata Guimarães
Freshwater fish that live exclusively in rivers are at particular risk from fragmentation of the aquatic system, mainly the species that migrate upriver for reproduction. That is the case of Salminus hilarii, an important migratory species currently classified as "almost threatened" in the São Paulo State (Brazil), facing water pollution, dam construction, riparian habitat destruction and environmental changes that are even more serious in this State. Additionally, this species show ovulation dysfunction in captivity. Our studies focused on the identification and distribution of the pituitary cell types in the adenohypophysis of S. hilarii females, including a morphometric analysis that compares pituitary cells from wild and captive broodstocks during the reproductive annual cycle. The morphology of adenohypophysial cells showed differences following the reproductive cycle and the environment. In general, optical density suggested a higher cellular activity during the previtellogenic (growth hormone) and vitellogenic (somatolactin) stages in both environments. Additionally, the nucleus/cell ratio analysis suggested that growth hormone and somatolactin cells were larger in wild than in captive females in most reproductive stages of the annual cycle. In contrast, prolactin hormone showed no variation throughout the reproductive cycle (in both environments). Morphometrical analyses related to reproduction of S. hilarii in different environmental conditions, suggest that somatolactin and growth hormone play an important role in reproduction in teleost and can be responsible for the regulation of associated processes that indirectly affect reproductive status.
Vázquez, María Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel
As an essential function for perpetuation of species, reproduction, including puberty onset, is sensitive to the size of body energy stores and the metabolic state of the organism. Accordingly, impaired energy homeostasis, ranging from extreme leanness, such as in anorexia or cachexia, to morbid obesity has an impact on the timing of puberty and is often associated to fertility problems. The neuroendocrine basis for such phenomenon is the close connection between numerous metabolic hormones and nutritional cues with the various elements of the so-called hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Yet, despite previous fragmentary knowledge, it was only the discovery of the adipose-hormone, leptin, in 1994 what revolutionized our understanding on how metabolic and reproductive systems closely interplay and allowed the definition of the neurohormonal causes of perturbations of puberty and fertility in conditions of impaired body energy homeostasis. In this article, we aim to provide a synoptic view of the mechanisms whereby leptin engages in the regulation of different elements of the HPG axis, with special attention to its effects and mechanisms of action on the different elements of the reproductive brain and its proven direct effects in the gonads. In addition, we will summarize the state-of-the-art regarding the putative roles of leptin during gestation, including its potential function as placental hormone. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual leptin alterations in reproductive disorders, with special attention to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a disease in which reproductive, metabolic and neuroendocrine alterations are commonly observed. All in all, we intend to provide an updated account of our knowledge on the physiological roles of leptin in the metabolic regulation of the reproductive axis and its eventual pathophysiological implications in prevalent reproductive disorders, such as PCOS.
Casarini, Livio; Santi, Daniele; Marino, Marco
Gonadotropins and their receptors' genes carry several single-nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in endocrine genotypes modulating reproductive parameters, diseases, and lifespan leading to important implications for reproductive success and potential relevance during human evolution. Here we illustrate common genotypes of the gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors' genes and their clinical implications in phenotypes relevant for reproduction such as ovarian cycle length, age of menopause, testosterone levels, polycystic ovary syndrome, and cancer. We then discuss their possible role in human reproduction and adaptation to the environment. Gonadotropins and their receptors' variants are differently distributed among human populations. Some hints suggest that they may be the result of natural selection that occurred in ancient times, increasing the individual chance of successful mating, pregnancy, and effective post-natal parental cares. The gender-related differences in the regulation of the reproductive endocrine systems imply that many of these genotypes may lead to sex-dependent effects, increasing the chance of mating and reproductive success in one sex at the expenses of the other sex. Also, we suggest that sexual conflicts within the FSH and LH-choriogonadotropin receptor genes contributed to maintain genotypes linked to subfertility among humans. Because the distribution of polymorphic markers results in a defined geographical pattern due to human migrations rather than natural selection, these polymorphisms may have had only a weak impact on reproductive success. On the contrary, such genotypes could acquire relevant consequences in the modern, developed societies in which parenthood attempts often occur at a later age, during a short, suboptimal reproductive window, making clinical fertility treatments necessary.
Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modifiers of the SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier family have emerged as key regulators of protein function and fate. While the past few years have seen an enormous increase in knowledge on SUMO enzymes, substrates, and consequences of modification, regulation of SUMO conjugation is far from being understood. This brief review will provide an overview on recent advances concerning (i the interplay between sumoylation and other post-translational modifications at the level of individual targets and (ii global regulation of SUMO conjugation and deconjugation.
Full Text Available Reproductive function is regulated by a plethora of signals that integrate physiological and environmental information. Among others, metabolic factors are key components of this circuit since they inform about the propitious timing for reproduction depending on energy availability. This information is processed mainly at the hypothalamus that, in turn, modulates gonadotropin release from the pituitary and, thereby, gonadal activity. Metabolic hormones, such as leptin, insulin, and ghrelin, act as indicators of the energy status and convey this information to the reproductive axis regulating its activity. In this review, we will analyse the central mechanisms involved in the integration of this metabolic information and their contribution to the control of the reproductive function. Particular attention will be paid to summarize the participation of GnRH, Kiss1, NPY, and POMC neurons in this process and their possible interactions to contribute to the metabolic control of reproduction.
Haydock, Joseph; Koenig, Walter D
Reproductive skew models, which focus on the degree to which reproduction is shared equally (low skew) or monopolized by a single individual (high skew) within groups, have been heralded as providing a general unifying framework for understanding the factors determining social evolution. Here, we test the ability of optimal skew, or "transactional," models, which predict the level of skew necessary to promote stable associations of dominants and subordinates, rather than independent breeding, to predict reproductive partitioning in the acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). This species provides a key test case because only a few vertebrates exhibit polygynandry (multiple breeders of both sexes within a group). Contrary to the predictions of the models, joint-nesting females share reproduction more equitably than expected, apparently because egg destruction and the inability of females to defend their eggs from cobreeders eliminate any possibility for one female to control reproduction. For males, however, reproductive skew is high, with the most successful male siring over three times as many young as the next most successful male. Although this result is consistent with optimal skew models, other aspects of male behavior are not; in particular, the reproductively most successful male frequently switches between nests produced by the same set of cobreeders, and we were unable to detect any phenotypic correlate of success. These results are consistent with an alternative null model in which cobreeder males have equal chance of paternity, but paternity of offspring within broods is nonindependent as a consequence of female, rather than male, control.
Madan, M L; Prakash, B S
Buffalo, as the major livestock species for milk and meat production, contribute significantly to the economy of many countries in south & south-east Asia, South America, Africa and the Mediterranean. Improved buffalo production could significantly enhance the economy and the living standards of farmers in countries where buffaloes predominate; particularly, in countries with a tropical climate. The major factors limiting the efficient utilization of buffaloes in countries with a tropical climate are: late maturity; poor estrus expressivities, particularly in summer months; long postpartum calving intervals; low reproductive efficiencies and fertility rates which are closely linked with environmental stress; as well as managerial problems. As good reproductive performance is essential for efficient livestock production, the female buffalo calves must grow rapidly to attain sexual maturity, initiate estrous cycles, ovulate and be mated by fertile males or inseminated with quality semen to optimize conception and production. In the last two decades, considerable attention has been focused on understanding some of the causes for the inherent limitations in reproduction among buffaloes by studying their reproductive endocrinology as well as developing biotechniques for augmenting their reproductive efficiency. This review provides an overview of buffalo reproductive endocrinology and also of the research done to date towards the enhancement of buffalo reproductive efficiency through endocrine and embryo biotechniques.
Jiménez-Quesada, María J; Traverso, José Á; Alché, Juan de Dios
In the life cycle of a flowering plant, the male gametophyte (pollen grain) produced in the anther reaches the stigmatic surface and initiates the pollen-pistil interaction, an important step in plant reproduction, which ultimately leads to the delivery of two sperm cells to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) inside the ovule. The pollen tube undergoes a strictly apical expansion characterized by a high growth rate, whose targeting should be tightly regulated. A continuous exchange of signals therefore takes place between the haploid pollen and diploid tissue of the pistil until fertilization. In compatible interactions, theses processes result in double fertilization to form a zygote (2n) and the triploid endosperm. Among the large number of signaling mechanisms involved, the redox network appears to be particularly important. Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) are superoxide-producing enzymes involved in a broad range of processes in plant physiology. In this study, we review the latest findings on understanding Rboh activity in sexual plant reproduction, with a particular focus on the male gametophyte from the anther development stages to the crowning point of fertilization. Rboh isoforms have been identified in both the male and female gametophyte and have proven to be tightly regulated. Their role at crucial points such as proper growth of pollen tube, self-incompatibility response and eventual fertilization is discussed.
Full Text Available ) Danio rerio gelsolin mRNA, complet... 96 1e-18 BC125898_1( BC125898 |pid:none) Danio rerio scinderin like ...1( BC155581 |pid:none) Danio rerio scinderin like a, mRNA... 95 4e-18 protein update 2009. 4.26 PSORT psg: 0
Full Text Available Lactuca sativa cDNA clone QGF5G14, mRNA sequence. 46 1e-12 3 BQ872057 |BQ872057.1 QGI13I20.yg.ab1 QG_ABCDI lettuce salinas...1621 |BQ861621.1 QGC19C04.yg.ab1 QG_ABCDI lettuce salinas Lactuca sativa cDNA clone QGC19C04, mRNA sequence.... 46 2e-10 3 BQ874895 |BQ874895.1 QGI6J07.yg.ab1 QG_ABCDI lettuce salinas Lactuca sativa cDNA clone QGI6J07, ...mRNA sequence. 46 2e-10 3 BQ852273 |BQ852273.1 QGB17J10.yg.ab1 QG_ABCDI lettuce salinas Lactuca sativa cDNA ...clone QGB17J10, mRNA sequence. 46 2e-10 3 BQ864388 |BQ864388.1 QGC26I18.yg.ab1 QG_ABCDI lettuce salinas
Full Text Available ksck*ey snr*slrftrketllqsw*t*cscp*t*lcrpir*syrkrsfithllwyskw*fcnfthc wcsswyrn*thr*w*nyn*rccwssns*ilftnfrei...ki*ni Frame B: fkknhlgnlkifnikk*kksflttfvyaeekkrnekyiiirfwlcckast*lplkkrrlf cnnc*fi
Full Text Available Translated Amino Acid sequence qfsfy*llvvwqqfrvlptqkvtqvdwyqmhqifhqfqvliqilphlkiqlnntlfhilk v**qn*reiki...sfsfyys*fixk** knkk Frame B: qfsfy*llvvwqqfrvlptqkvtqvdwyqmhqifhqfqvliqilphlkiqlnntlfhilk v**qn*reikifsftlfy
Full Text Available 2, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE. 46 0.55 1 AI773934 |AI773934.1 EST255034 tomato resistant, Cornell...90786 |AI490786.1 EST241494 tomato shoot, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA cl...136 |AI484136.1 EST248943 tomato resistant, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA
Full Text Available mato radicle, 5 d post-imbibition, Cornell University Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cLEZ19K24 5', mRNA ...I782264 |AI782264.1 EST263143 tomato susceptible, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum
Full Text Available NLFHFFKFYFLNSIFHFFSINFLFLKLFILFPKKK--- ---NASKXLFQEFLQSHLIESLISISHQMXQLYH*kilkiilkq*n*lvlnlmilkllfl iiqennqa...fqkk--- ---NASKXLFQEFLQSHLIESLISISHQMXQLYH*kilkiilkq*n*lvlnlmilkllfl iiqennqalfhqviqinhhhhqviinhsnhnqllklihl
Full Text Available 2 CD008053 |CD008053.1 VVB082D05_335234 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of V...06712.1 VVB066D06_332552 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed ...719214 |CD719214.1 VVB158G03_410335 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis ...uence tag database for abiotic stressed berries of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA clone ...tum cDNA clone cLEX14P1 5', mRNA sequence. 66 6e-07 1 CB910900 |CB910900.1 VVD157G07_379711 An expressed seq
Full Text Available iskivyifii*ts*rnsttt*kinmifiykdinlwfg*tcigehtnl iddmfpitwyftgdesi*nlltnifdstrhffk...ymlqlmyllflgqcll*kllkhlkldllvlmvhlqikllldh*lhlnllnlayy yylxyk*ri Frame C: llaywxsysi*nciskivyifii*ts*rnsttt*kinmifiykdinlwfg*tcigeht
Full Text Available L Q11067 PROBABLE PROTEIN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE P5 PRECURSOR ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 AW255071 |AW255071.1 ML1365 peppermint glandu...lar trichome Mentha x piperita cDNA, mRNA sequence. 64 3e-06 1 BM315730 |BM315730.1
Full Text Available 71.1 ML1365 peppermint glandular trichome Mentha x piperita cDNA, mRNA sequence. 64 2e-06 1 BM315730 |BM3157...IN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE P5 PRECURSOR ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 AW255071 |AW2550
Full Text Available a and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium. 58 4e-19 6 BD183625 |B...D183625.1 Material for diagnosing malaria and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium. 58 4e-19
Full Text Available r diagnosing malaria and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium. 62 3e-27 5 BD183625 |BD183625....1 Material for diagnosing malaria and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium. 62 3e-27 5 AB0260
Full Text Available antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium. 76 4e-63 10 BD183626 |BD183626.1 Material for diagnosing malar...ia and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium. 76 4e-63 10 AB026051 |AB026051.1 Plasmodium falc
Full Text Available 183625.1 Material for diagnosing malaria and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium. 62 8e-29 5... BD183626 |BD183626.1 Material for diagnosing malaria and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium
Full Text Available F429969 |pid:none) Homo sapiens cyclin-box carrying p... 197 6e-49 AF465728_1( AF465728 |pid:none) Homo sapi...yclin fold prote... 194 8e-48 AF413522_1( AF413522 |pid:none) Homo sapiens cyclin-box carrying
Full Text Available riciarum succinyl-CoA synthetase, beta subunit (scsB) mRNA, complete cds. 46 9e-14 ...-10 Scabies lambda zap express cDNA library Sarcoptes scabiei cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 3e-15 4 AF493055 |AF493055.1 Neocallimastix pat
Full Text Available alase, gene of said catalase and composition containing said catalase, and process for preparing catalase using the genetic engineeri...ng technology. 86 6e-13 1 CC133697 |CC133697.1 NDL.83G19
Full Text Available FFPPFIVIFFLFLFLLLLLSLLLYNYTIQILIYN FQ*igcvagprkraltlrksittqtgraalekitlkfidtsskfghglhhnrckirlnis asrnqdqlra*h...LFNLXKLLLFFFYYYVFLFSI ILLDFSFAFSFFSLPIMFKFFLKMLFFFPPFIVIFFLFLFLLLLLSLLLYNYTIQILIYN FQ*igcvagprkraltlrksittqtgraal
Full Text Available mmglxxfqxhvgn*kxmxk*nsislxxx Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value...4. 4 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N BZ128529 |BZ128529.1...ificant alignments: (bits) Value CP000020_1061( CP000020 |pid:none) Vibrio fischeri ES114 chromosom... 42 0.
Full Text Available tist ttiitttftttttssttttksrqfkihfiifkqiisefkilqilsttksikv Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame ...i tttistaattkstkstkstkpakptkstnsstystfnttttssitttnvtttttsttist ttiitttftttttssttttksrqfkihfiifkqiisefkilqils
Full Text Available eld-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis...s from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82
Full Text Available ed Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone...d-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F01 5', mR
Full Text Available -collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-70_B02 5', mRN...rom field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F0
Full Text Available A-FP_124000-223 Immature Ovaries from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck...886.1 USDA-FP_125000-394 Immature Ovaries from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
Full Text Available cted Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clo...eld-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F01 5',
Full Text Available ia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-70_B...ed Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F01 5', mRNA sequen
Full Text Available mpqpslen*mlfiqlqkcwlwllkcknkkwemvqiml lh*qvnfykkqqly*rwdftqvkl*lvlkkqvlnfkrllnq*lyti*rilqirrrlqnv* nqpsqvnnmdmrnfyqrlspmhvfkfyqrkqlis...isimlespr--- ---lyitlkdskscwfvfnlnsnyvvfvkqsvqlh*lnwvplslrnwvtvlkyslkrsvq pnvvfsvki
Full Text Available oducing significant alignments: (bits) Value N AZ549565 |AZ549565.1 ENTGD95TF Entamoeba histolytica Shear...TCI79TR Entamoeba histolytica Sheared DNA Entamoeba histolytica genomic, DNA sequence. 42 1.5 1 AZ688547 |AZ...688547.1 ENTIN90TR Entamoeba histolytica Sheared DNA Entamoeba histolytica genomi...c, DNA sequence. 42 1.5 1 BH148090 |BH148090.1 ENTQM09TR Entamoeba histolytica Sheared DNA Entamoeba histoly...tica genomic, DNA sequence. 42 1.5 1 BH131557 |BH131557.1 ENTOL83TF Entamoeba histolytica Sheared DNA Entamo
Full Text Available significant alignments: (bits) Value N BH157484 |BH157484.1 ENTRI87TF Entamoeba histolytica Shear...41.1 ENTEI38TR Entamoeba histolytica Sheared DNA Entamoeba histolytica genomic, D...NA sequence. 58 2e-04 1 AZ681035 |AZ681035.1 ENTJN08TF Entamoeba histolytica Sheared DNA Entamoeba histolyti...30.1 ENTTQ61TR Entamoeba histolytica Sheared DNA Entamoeba histolytica genomic, DNA sequence. 58 2e-04 1 AZ5...43842 |AZ543842.1 ENTGD17TR Entamoeba histolytica Sheared DNA Entamoeba histolytica genomic, DNA sequence. 5
Full Text Available |BH157484.1 ENTRI87TF Entamoeba histolytica Sheared DNA Entamoeba histolytica genomic, DNA sequence. 58 2e-...04 1 AZ683723 |AZ683723.1 ENTHN94TF Entamoeba histolytica Sheared DNA Entamoeba h...istolytica genomic, DNA sequence. 58 2e-04 1 AZ545241 |AZ545241.1 ENTEI38TR Entamoeba histolytica Sheared DN...A Entamoeba histolytica genomic, DNA sequence. 58 2e-04 1 BH154330 |BH154330.1 ENTTQ61TR Entamoeba histolytica Shear...ed DNA Entamoeba histolytica genomic, DNA sequence. 58 2e-04 1 AZ681035 |AZ681035.1 ENTJN08TF Entamoeba histolytica Shear
Full Text Available oides trichosuri IL pAMP1 v1 Chiapelli McCarter Parastrongyloides...yloides trichosuri FL pAMP1 v1 Chiapelli McCarter Parastrongyloides trichosuri cDNA...elium discoideum UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 (UDPGP2) mRNA, complete cds. 50 3e-05 3 BI322718 |BI322718.1 kx15d03.y3 Parastrongyl...tamoeba invadens genomic clone EINCU18, DNA sequence. 34 0.19 3 BI743473 |BI743473.1 kx44f12.y1 Parastrong
Full Text Available 18 |BI322718.1 kx15d03.y3 Parastrongyloides trichosuri IL pAMP1 v1 Chiapelli McCarter Parastrongyloides tric...3-169C19, complete sequence. 36 0.31 4 BI743473 |BI743473.1 kx44f12.y1 Parastrongyloides trichosuri FL pAMP1... v1 Chiapelli McCarter Parastrongyloides trichosuri cDNA 5' similar to TR:Q9XUS6 Q9XUS6 K08E3.5A PROTEIN. [1
Full Text Available ne max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1053-857 5' similar to TR:Q9ZS06 Q...9ZS06 RNA HELICASE ;, mRNA sequence. 56 1e-08 2 AW759959 |AW759959.1 sl56c07.y1 Gm-c1027 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS...ASE P47 HOMOLOG.  ;, mRNA sequence. 38 5e-08 4 BI974435 |BI974435.1 saj01e10.y1 Gm-c1065 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS... 42 2e-07 4 AI966749 |AI966749.1 sc57c05.y1 Gm-c1016 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c101
Full Text Available uence 6225 from Patent WO02053728. 40 8e-10 5 BF071471 |BF071471.1 st59b09.y1 Gm-c1053 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS...SE ;, mRNA sequence. 56 1e-08 2 AW759959 |AW759959.1 sl56c07.y1 Gm-c1027 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS...  ;, mRNA sequence. 38 5e-08 4 BI974435 |BI974435.1 saj01e10.y1 Gm-c1065 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS...6749 |AI966749.1 sc57c05.y1 Gm-c1016 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1016-513 5' similar
Full Text Available Value N BI315670 |BI315670.1 saf75f12.y1 Gm-c1078 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1078-2...79.1 sg79d05.y1 Gm-c1007 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1007-2626 5' similar to TR:O657...7629.1 sa37e09.y1 Gm-c1004 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1004-1505 5' similar to TR:O2...4653 O24653 GDI2. ;, mRNA sequence. 56 5e-04 1 BE800797 |BE800797.1 sq98c12.y1 Gm-c1049 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS...quence. 56 5e-04 1 AW306227 |AW306227.1 se47g11.y1 Gm-c1017 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS
Full Text Available 7E2 map 21q22.2,D21S349-MX1. 32 0.61 6 BM093255 |BM093255.1 saj06h02.y1 Gm-c1065 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS...cine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1040-1068 5', mRNA sequence. 42 0.78 2 BI424033 |BI424033.1... sah65a10.y1 Gm-c1049 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1049-30...2.3 2 BE802815 |BE802815.1 sr45a02.y1 Gm-c1051 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1051-963
Full Text Available ne max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1053-857 5' similar to TR:Q9ZS06 Q...9ZS06 RNA HELICASE ;, mRNA sequence. 56 1e-08 2 AW759959 |AW759959.1 sl56c07.y1 Gm-c1027 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS...ASE P47 HOMOLOG.  ;, mRNA sequence. 38 5e-08 4 BI974435 |BI974435.1 saj01e10.y1 Gm-c1065 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS... 42 2e-07 4 AI966749 |AI966749.1 sc57c05.y1 Gm-c1016 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c101
Full Text Available neuroblastoma with good prognosis, in comparion between human neuroblastoma with good prognosis and human neuroblastoma with bad prog...nosis. 36 0.23 3 BX220849 |BX220849.1 Danio rerio genomi... 0.23 3 BD083746 |BD083746.1 Nucleic acid sequence characterized in that expression is potentiated in human
Full Text Available NNDNNNNNNNNNNN NNNXXXSXXNXXXXMHXXXXXXXXX--- ---DVIDFLVDLTSNHKNE*exfandnfnlr*fhglyrwrc*trei*rg*chaiggcl*x kyrf*t*rigris...exfandnfnlr*fhglyrwrc*trei*rg*chaiggcl*x kyrf*t*rigristin*giklfn**flyp*wnr*ngngnlinfki*snvsnsisflglst fnynst
Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N BM774584 |BM774584.1 ra95c11.y1 Meloidogyne incognita egg pAMP1 Bird Meloidogyne ...B17 Apis mellifera cDNA clone BB170011A20F01 5', mRNA sequence. 64 2e-10 3 AW827814 |AW827814.1 ra59b10.y1 Bird...TASE ;, mRNA sequence. 48 4e-07 3 AW871572 |AW871572.1 ra79e06.y1 Bird-Rao Meloidogyne incognita J2 Meloidog
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Folsom, Lisal J; Fuqua, John S
Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities affecting female infants. The severity of clinical manifestations varies and it affects multiple organ systems. Women with Turner syndrome have a 3-fold increase in mortality, which becomes even more pronounced in pregnancy. Reproductive options include adoption or surrogacy, assisted reproductive techniques, and in rare cases spontaneous pregnancy. Risks for women with Turner syndrome during pregnancy include aortic disorders, hepatic disease, thyroid disease, type 2 diabetes, and cesarean section delivery. Providers must be familiar with the risks and recommendations in caring for women with Turner syndrome of reproductive age.
Selection in reproductive medicine today relies on normative assessments of what ‘good life’ consists of. This paper explores the terms under which such assessments are made by focusing on three particular concepts of ‘quality’: quality of life, biological quality and population quality....... It is suggested that the apparently conflicting hypes, hopes and fears that surround reproductive medicine can co-circulate because of the different forms of normative assessment that these concepts allow. To ensure clarity in bioethical deliberations about selection, it is necessary to highlight how...... these differing forms of assessment are mobilized and invoked in practices of and debates about reproductive medicine. Udgivelsesdato: November...
Brouillet, Sophie; Hoffmann, Pascale; Alfaidy, Nadia; Feige, Jean-Jacques
During the last decade, there has been growing evidence for the involvement of prokineticins and their receptors (PROK/PROKR) in human reproduction, with multiple roles in the female and male reproductive systems. The PROK/PROKR signalling complex has been reported as a new actor in ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis physiology, with marked dysfunction in various pathological conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome, recurrent pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and ectopic pregnancy. Altogether, the results strongly suggest the involvement of prokineticins in spermatogenesis, oocyte competence, embryo implantation, pregnancy, and delivery, and argue for the clinical relevance of these cytokines and their receptors as diagnostic markers for several reproductive diseases.
Blenstrup, Lene Tølbøll; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.
on births, abortions and assisted reproduction as well as selected characteristics of the women (and men) involved. Validity and Coverage: Both the validity and coverage of each register is considered of high quality. Conclusions: These registers provide, both individually and in combination, unique......Introduction: The establishing of three Danish population based registers, namely the Fertility Database, the Register of Legally Induced Abortions and the In Vitro Fertilisation register aimed at providing data for surveying of reproductive outcome. Content: The registers include information...... opportunities for undertaking detailed and comprehensive research in the field of reproduction....
Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post
Mohammad Saied Salehi
Full Text Available Until 2000 it was believed that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH was the sole regulator of hypophyseal gonadotropes. In 2000, the discovery of a gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH initiated a revolution in the field of reproductive physiology. Identification of GnIH homologues in mammals, the arginine-phenylalanine- amide (RFamide-related peptides (RFRPs, indicated a similar function. Subsequently, further works conducted in various laboratories worldwide have shown that these neuropeptides inhibit the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis. This review discusses the role of RFRPs in mammalian reproductive processes.
Bodart, Jean-Francois; Petr, Jaroslav
Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO) role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction. PMID:27579148
Nevoral, Jan; Bodart, Jean-Francois; Petr, Jaroslav
Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO) role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction.
Full Text Available Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART, because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction.
Su, Emily J; Xin, Hong; Monsivais, Diana
Knowledge surrounding estrogen and estrogen receptor biology continues to evolve, and the diversity of their actions and complexity of their mechanisms are becoming increasingly evident. Estrogen receptor (ER) regulation of reproduction is no exception. Although it is well established that estrogen and ERα play key roles in mediating several reproductive biological processes, such as myometrial and endometrial growth, increasing evidence suggests that ERβ is also an important factor. ERβ is a key mediator in folliculogenesis and may also play a role in stimulating ovulation and regulating aspects of luteinization. ERβ is also expressed in higher quantities than ERα in the human myometrium and cervix during pregnancy, and thus it may play a part in the initiation of labor and parturition. Finally, ERβ is the sole ER expressed within the endothelium of the endometrium and the fetoplacental vasculature, and studies suggest that its role may contribute to angiogenic and vasomotor changes that play a role in both implantation and regulation of fetoplacental blood flow.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected from specimens captured throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico on various research vessels. Data...
Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M E; Frølund, Maria;
of pelvic inflammatory disease. Therefore, control programmes must prevent first and repeat infections to improve women's reproductive health. FUNDING: Unrestricted partial funding from Frederiksberg Kommune, Frederiksberg, Denmark. BD held an Medical Research Council Population Health Scientist Fellowship...
Bravo, P W; Johnson, L W
The physiology of reproduction with emphasis on endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Information regarding male anatomy, puberty, testicular function, semen description, and sexual behavior is also included.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A bibliographic database on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) with references to developmental and reproductive toxicology...
... affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below are links to publications authored by ASRM and its affiliated societies. Latest Additions: Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility Robotic surgery The Intrauterine Device (IUD): A Long-acting ...
Laurie Schwab Zabin
@@ The field of reproductive health has had long experience negotiating challenging environments in ways that other health fields have not -- perhaps because other health fields usually deal with illness which everyone agrees is not a good thing. Or maybe because we have all been born, we all think we know something about reproduction. Whatever the reason,we have over the years seen bitter political and ideological debates over population and family planning, abortion, the treatment of HIV/AIDS, in vitro fertilization, new contraceptive technologies--and now adolescent reproductive health. We shouldn't be surprised.But just as we have had to prevail in those debates in the past, they are crucial today: the numbers of young people entering their reproductive years throughout the world, especially the developing world, make it essential that youth be reached not only with messages and services crafted in the last 40 years but also with new messages, new ideas and new services.
In the 21st century, human reproduction increasingly involves decisions about which gametes to fertilize, which embryos to implant, or which fetuses to abort. The term ‘selective reproduction’ refers to these increasingly widespread efforts to bring specific kinds of children into being....... To this end, selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) have been developed and routinized over the last few decades. In today’s world, selective reproduction is taking place on a historically unprecedented scale; through sex-selective abortions following ultrasound scans, termination of pregnancies following...... detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening and testing programs, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century provides unique ethnographic insights...
Havstad, Joyce C
Proponents of human reproductive cloning do not dispute that cloning may lead to violations of clones' right to self-determination, or that these violations could cause psychological harms. But they proceed with their endorsement of human reproductive cloning by dismissing these psychological harms, mainly in two ways. The first tactic is to point out that to commit the genetic fallacy is indeed a mistake; the second is to invoke Parfit's non-identity problem. The argument of this paper is that neither approach succeeds in removing our moral responsibility to consider and to prevent psychological harms to cloned individuals. In fact, the same commitment to personal liberty that generates the right to reproduce by means of cloning also creates the need to limit that right appropriately. Discussion of human reproductive cloning ought to involve a careful and balanced consideration of both the relevant aspects of personal liberty - the parents' right to reproductive freedom and the cloned child's right to self-determination.
Schenker, J G
It is important to those who practice reproduction techniques to learn about the different religious attitudes related to reproductive health problems. Religion exerts an influence on civil authorities in the field of reproduction such as prevention or procreation and in issues such as abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards reproduction can be learned from the fact that the first commandment of God to Adam was be fruitful and multiply. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and sperm originate from the wife and husband, respectively. All Rabbinical rulings permit the use of contraception for medical indications. Economic difficulties and inconveniences of raising children are not indications for birth control practice. According to Judaism abortion on demand is forbidden but it may be performed if the mother's life is in danger. The attitude toward reproductive practice is different among the different divisions of Christianity. The practice of assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, however, it may be practiced by Protestant, Anglican and other Denomination's. According to the Roman Catholic doctrine the primary purpose of marriage is procreation. The contraceptive act destroys the potential of producing new life by sexual intercourse and violates the purpose of marriage and, therefore, is a sin against nature. The Christian tradition views the embryo as a human being since conception and, therefore, abortion is strictly forbidden. According to Islam, the procedure of IVF and ET is acceptable, however, it can be preformed only if it involves the husband and the wife. It allows contraception practice only under some circumstances and only in some special cases abortion can be preformed. Religion, being concerned with affairs that are regarded as extraordinary and as having unique importance in life, is an intrinsic aspect of the culture of all societies, religious groups, however
Haydock, Joseph; Koenig, Walter D.
Reproductive skew models, which focus on the degree to which reproduction is shared equally (low skew) or monopolized by a single individual (high skew) within groups, have been heralded as providing a general unifying framework for understanding the factors determining social evolution. Here, we test the ability of optimal skew, or “transactional,” models, which predict the level of skew necessary to promote stable associations of dominants and subordinates, rather than independent breeding,...
DE Meeûs, Thierry; Prugnolle, Franck; Agnew, Philip
Reproduction is essential to all organisms if they are to contribute to the next generation. There are various means and ways of achieving this goal. This review focuses on the role of asexual reproduction for eukaryotic organisms and how its integration in a life cycle can influence their population genetics and evolution. An important question for evolutionary biologists as to why some organisms reproduce sexually, as opposed to asexually, is addressed. We also discuss the economic and medi...
de Meeûs, T; Prugnolle, F; Agnew, P
Reproduction is essential to all organisms if they are to contribute to the next generation. There are various means and ways of achieving this goal. This review focuses on the role of asexual reproduction for eukaryotic organisms and how its integration in a life cycle can influence their population genetics and evolution. An important question for evolutionary biologists as to why some organisms reproduce sexually, as opposed to asexually, is addressed. We also discuss the economic and medical importance of asexual organisms.
Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar
Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.
Full Text Available Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.
Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; Kupka, M
The 13th European in vitro fertilization (IVF)-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2009: are there any changes in the trends compared with previous years?......The 13th European in vitro fertilization (IVF)-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2009: are there any changes in the trends compared with previous years?...
Schenker, Joseph G
The progress achieved during the last 25 years in the assisted reproductive technology field has been phenomenal. Many countries currently practice genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and surrogacy. While embryo research and therapeutic cloning are carried out only in a few centers, thus far human cloning has been universally condemned. Nonetheless, the rapid evolution and progress of these various techniques of assisted reproduction has opened a Pandora's box of ethical issues that must be urgently addressed.
Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco
1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality.
Emergence of the concept of reproductive health over the past decade was stimulated by distinct currents in the fields of health and of feminist theory. The broadened concept represents a reaction to the essentially demographic justification offered for population policies and their principal instrument of action, family planning, since the 1970s. The new focus is more affirmative, and its discourse promotes the right to health, to improved access to services, and to health services offering quality and respect for women. Social justice aspects, especially nondiscrimination against the poor and other specific groups, and free selection of contraceptive options and services have assumed greater importance. Reproductive health is viewed as encompassing psychological aspects and power relations within marital unions. Very general provisional definitions of the concept of reproductive health are acceptable for the moment. But it is important to arrive at a definition that will be clear and specific and will combine the preoccupations of the health field with feminist concerns. The problem of measurement is related to the problem of definition. Satisfactory indicators of reproductive health are lacking. Existing indicators such as maternal mortality, fertility measures, or contraceptive prevalence continue to be used despite their narrow focus. Several priority areas of research in reproductive health have been identified, including aspects and determinants of sexual behavior, roles of men and women in reproductive health, the dynamics of contraceptive usage, undesired pregnancy, determinants and consequences of induced abortion, lactation and spacing and their relationship to sterilization, and maternal morbidity and mortality.
Aron, S; Timmermans, I; Pearcy, M
An enduring problem in evolutionary biology is the near ubiquity of sexual reproduction despite the inherent cost of transmitting only half the parent's genes to progeny. Queens of some ant species circumvent this cost by using selectively both sexual reproduction and parthenogenesis: workers arise from fertilized eggs, while new queens are produced by parthenogenesis. We show that queens of the ant Cataglyphis cursor maximize the transmission rate of their genes by regulating the proportion of fertilized and parthenogenetic eggs laid over time. Parthenogenetic offspring are produced in early spring, when workers raise the brood into sexuals. After the mating period, queens lay mostly fertilized eggs that will be reared as the non-reproductive caste.
Full Text Available Knowledge of sexual reproduction systems in flowering plants is essential to humankind, with crop fertility vitally important for food security. Here, we review rapidly emerging new evidence for the key importance of non-coding RNAs in male reproductive development in flowering plants. From the commitment of somatic cells to initiating reproductive development through to meiosis and the development of pollen—containing the male gametes (sperm cells—in the anther, there is now overwhelming data for a diversity of non-coding RNAs and emerging evidence for crucial roles for them in regulating cellular events at these developmental stages. A particularly exciting development has been the association of one example of cytoplasmic male sterility, which has become an unparalleled breeding tool for producing new crop hybrids, with a non-coding RNA locus.
Chianese, Rosanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Cacciola, Giovanna; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria; Cobellis, Gilda
Many advances have been carried out on the estrogens, GnRH and endocannabinoid system that have impact in the reproductive field. Indeed, estrogens, the generally accepted female hormones, have performed an unsuspected role in male sexual functions thanks to studies on non-mammalian vertebrates. Similarly, these animal models have provided important contributions to the identification of several GnRH ligand and receptor variants and their possible involvement in sexual behavior and gonadal function regulation. Moreover, the use of non-mammalian animal models has contributed to a better comprehension about the endocannabinoid system action in several mammalian reproductive events. We wish to highlight here how non-mammalian vertebrate animal model research contributes to advancements with implications on human health as well as providing a phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of reproductive systems in vertebrates.
The prostate is a principal accessory genital gland that is vital for normal fertility. Epithelial cells lining the prostate acini release in a defined fashion (exocytosis) organellar nanosized structures named prostasomes. They are involved in the protection of sperm cells against immune response in the female reproductive tract by modulating the complement system and by inhibiting monocyte and neutrophil phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation. The immunomodulatory function most probably involves small non-coding RNAs present in prostasomes. Prostasomes have also been proposed to regulate the timing of sperm cell capacitation and induction of the acrosome reaction, since they are rich in various transferable bioactive molecules (e.g. receptors and enzymes) that promote the fertilising ability of sperm cells. Antigenicity of sperm cells has been well documented and implicated in involuntary immunological infertility of human couples, and antisperm antibodies (ASA) occur in several body fluids. The propensity of sperm cells to carry attached prostasomes suggests that they are a new category of sperm antigens. Circulating human ASA recognise prostasomes, and among 12 identified prostasomal antigens, prolactin- inducible protein (95 %) and clusterin (85 %) were immunodominant at the expense of the other 10 that were sporadically occurring.
Yang, Guihong; Su, Juan; Li, Xun; Yao, Yuan; Lei, Zhihai; Yang, Xizhi; Kou, Rui; Liu, Yanpeng
Evidence has revealed that neuromedin S (NMS) and neuromedin U-receptor type-2 (NMU2R) mRNAs are expressed in the central nervous system and reproductive organs. Previous data indicated that variation of NMS and NMU2R was due to the phases of the adult rat hypothalamus estrus cycle. However, the expression and function of NMS in the pig reproductive axis remains unexplored. In this study, 16 virginal gilts were classified into four groups: proestrus, estrus, diestrus 1, and diestrus 2; the expression of NMS and NMU2R in the cyclic pig hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis was studied by reverse transcriptaion-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the effect of NMS on the reproductive axis in vitro was detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The cloned pig NMS and NMU2R sequences were 82% and 90.2% identical to those of the corresponding human homologues, respectively. RT-PCR showed that NMS and NMU2R mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and pituitary changed with the estrus cycle, i.e., with the highest level in the proestrus group and the lowest in the estrus group. In the ovary, NMS and NMU2R expression was highest in the diestrus 2 group and the lowest in the proestrus group. In the in vitro study, different concentrations of NMS induced the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol at different levels of the reproductive axis. Taken together, the expression pattern of NMS during the estrus cycle and its role in reproductive hormones in vitro provide novel evidences of the potential roles of NMS in the regulation of pig reproduction.
Benign protate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in older men.Epristeride is an uncompetitive inhibitor of steroid 5α-reductase,the enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT),and has been shown to retard the growth of hyperplastic prostates.The study included the toxicological effects of epristeride on prostate,vas deferens and sperm.The results were listed below.(1)The 180 days toxicity of epristeride (100mg·kg-1) on interstitial cells of Beagle dog tests and DNA in prostatic epithelial cells couldn't reverse during 60 days vonvalescence,and that the DHT and prostate specific antigen (PSA) level in the gland,the volume of the grland,glandular epithelial cell height and acinar luminal area could reverse to normal during the same convalescence.(2)It was demonstrated that an apoptosis of vas deferens epithelial cell of SD rat was observed at the concentration of 0.3 and 1.0nmol·L-1 epristeride in vitro.The results of PCR showed the exkpression of bcl-2 on vas deferens epithelial cells treated or untreated with epristeride,but the sequence of bcl-2 did not altered.(3)Motility and motile rate of sperm of rat,dog and human in vitro were videotaped and analyzed with computer-assisted sperm anaysis(CASA) system after 1h and 2h incubation.MOT(the percentage of motile sperm) of Beagle dog sperm were significantly reduced after treated with 0.6,6 and 60μmol·L-1 epristeride,respectively,but no significant change occurred in SD rat and human at the same concertations of epristeride.Is a word,epristeride is a better drug against BPH though there are much reproductive toxicity.
Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, Hardin; Hefner, Jeromi
The Spotted Salamander is a wide-ranging salamander of the eastern United States that typically breeds in winter or early spring in ephemeral pools in lowland forests. Ambystoma maculatum is known to deposit 2-4 egg masses per year, each containing 1-250 eggs. As part of ongoing research into the ecology and reproductive biology of Spotted Salamanders in the Kisatchie District of Kisatchie National Forest in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, USA, we have been counting the number of embryos per egg mass. We captured seven female A. maculatum in a small pool, six of which were still gravid. We took standard measurements, including SVL, and then implanted a Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag) into each adult female as was the protocol. About an hour after processing these animals we marked new A. maculatum egg masses found in the same small pool using PVC pin flags pushed carefully through the outer jelly. We did not have enough time to process them that evening, and it was not until a few days later that we photographed those masses. We discovered that one of the masses contained a PIT tag in the outer jelly that corresponded to one of the six gravid females that were marked that same evening. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PIT tags being the means, albeit coincidentally, by which a particular egg mass of Ambystoma maculatum has been assigned to a particular female. For our purposes, losing the PIT tag from the adult female is counter to the goals of our study of this population, and we will no longer be implanting PIT tags into gravid females.
Connell, Mt; Owen, Cm; Segars, Jh
Müllerian and vaginal anomalies are congenital malformations of the female reproductive tract resulting from alterations in the normal developmental pathway of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and vagina. The most common of the Müllerian anomalies affect the uterus and may adversely impact reproductive outcomes highlighting the importance of gaining understanding of the genetic mechanisms that govern normal and abnormal development of the female reproductive tract. Modern molecular genetics with study of knock out animal models as well as several genetic syndromes featuring abnormalities of the female reproductive tract have identified candidate genes significant to this developmental pathway. Further emphasizing the importance of understanding female reproductive tract development, recent evidence has demonstrated expression of embryologically significant genes in the endometrium of adult mice and humans. This recent work suggests that these genes not only play a role in the proper structural development of the female reproductive tract but also may persist in adults to regulate proper function of the endometrium of the uterus. As endometrial function is critical for successful implantation and pregnancy maintenance, these recent data suggest a target for gene therapy. Future research will be needed to determine if gene therapy may improve reproductive outcomes for patients with demonstrated deficient endometrial expression related to abnormal gene expression.
de Peyster, Ann
Ethyl t-butyl ether (ETBE) is a motor fuel oxygenate used in reformulated gasoline. Knowledge of developmental and reproductive toxicity potential of ETBE is critical for making informed decisions about acceptance and regulations. This review discusses toxicology studies providing information about effects on reproduction and the conceptus. Seven GLP-compliant studies following widely accepted protocols have focused specifically on developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) in rats and rabbits exposed to ETBE by gavage with doses up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day, the limit specified in standardized test guidelines. Other repeat-dose general toxicology studies have administered ETBE to rodents for up to 180 days, and included reproductive organ weights, histology, or other indications of reproductive system structure or function. DART potential of the main ETBE metabolite t-butyl alcohol and class-related MTBE has also been studied. More GLP-compliant studies exist for evaluating ETBE using well-established, currently recommended protocols than are available for many other chemicals used today. The database for determining ETBE DART potential is adequate, although not all study details are currently easily accessible for peer-review. ETBE does not appear to be selectively toxic to reproduction or embryofetal development in the absence of other manifestations of general toxicity. Studies using recommended methods for sample preservation and analysis have shown no targeted effect on the reproductive system. No embryofetal effects were observed in rabbits. Early postnatal rat pup deaths show no clear dose-response and have largely been attributed to total litter losses with accompanying evidence of maternal neglect or frank maternal morbidity.
Giray, Tugrul; Giovanetti, Manuela; West-Eberhard, Mary Jane
Previous studies of the division of labor in colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera (wasps and bees) have led to two hypotheses regarding the evolution of juvenile hormone (JH) involvement. The novel- or single-function hypothesis proposes that the role of JH has changed from an exclusively reproductive function in primitively eusocial species (those lacking morphologically distinct queen and worker castes), to an exclusively behavioral function in highly eusocial societies (those containing morphologically distinct castes). In contrast, the split-function hypothesis proposes that JH originally functioned in the regulation of both reproduction and behavior in ancestral solitary species. Then, when reproductive and brood-care tasks came to be divided between queens and workers, the effects of JH were divided as well, with JH involved in regulation of reproductive maturation of egg-laying queens, and behavioral maturation, manifested as age-correlated changes in worker tasks, of workers. We report experiments designed to test these hypotheses. After documenting age-correlated changes in worker behavior (age polyethism) in the neotropical primitively eusocial wasp Polistes canadensis, we demonstrate that experimental application of the JH analog methoprene accelerates the onset of guarding behavior, an age-correlated task, and increases the number of foraging females; and we demonstrate that JH titers correlate with both ovarian development of queens and task differentiation in workers, as predicted by the split-function hypothesis. These findings support a view of social insect evolution that sees the contrasting worker and queen phenotypes as derived via decoupling of reproductive and brood-care components of the ancestral solitary reproductive physiology. PMID:15728373
Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyphenism, the expression of different phenotypes with the same genetic background, is well known for social insects. The substantial physiological and morphological differences among the castes generally are the result of differential gene expression. In lower termites, workers are developmentally flexible to become neotenic replacement reproductives via a single moult after the death of the founding reproductives. Thus, both castes (neotenics and workers are expected to differ mainly in the expression of genes linked to reproductive division of labour, which constitutes the fundamental basis of insect societies. Results Representational difference analysis of cDNAs was used to study differential gene expression between neotenics and workers in the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae. We identified and, at least partially cloned five novel genes that were highly expressed in female neotenics. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of all five genes in different castes (neotenics, founding reproductives, winged sexuals and workers of both sexes confirmed the differential expression patterns. In addition, the relative expression of these genes was determined in three body parts of female neotenics (head, thorax, and abdomen using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusion The identified genes could be involved in the control and regulation of reproductive division of labour. Interestingly, this study revealed an expression pattern partly similar to social Hymenoptera indicating both common and species-specific regulatory mechanisms in hemimetabolous and holometabolous social insects.
Full Text Available Evolutionary accounts of human traits are often based on proxies for genetic fitness (e.g., number of sex partners, facial attractiveness. Instead of using proxies, actual differences in reproductive success is a more direct measure of darwinian fitness. Certain voice acoustics such as fundamental frequency and measures of health such as handgrip strength correlate with proxies of fitness, yet there are few studies showing the relation of these traits to reproduction. Here, we explore whether the fundamental frequency of the voice and handgrip strength account for differences in actual reproduction among a population of natural fertility humans. Our results show that both fundamental frequency and handgrip strength predict several measures of reproductive success among a group of indigenous Namibian females, particularly amongst the elderly, with weight also predicting reproductive outcomes among males. These findings demonstrate that both hormonally regulated and phenotypic quality markers can be used as measures of darwinian fitness among humans living under conditions that resemble the evolutionary environment of Homo sapiens. We also argue that these findings provide support for the Grandmother Hypothesis.
Takehiro G Kusakabe
Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a neuroendocrine peptide that plays a central role in the vertebrate hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The roles of GnRH in the control of vertebrate reproductive functions have been established, while its non-reproductive function has been suggested but less well understood. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis has in its non-reproductive larval stage a prominent GnRH system spanning the entire length of the nervous system. Tunicate GnRH receptors are phylogenetically closest to vertebrate GnRH receptors, yet functional analysis of the receptors revealed that these simple chordates have evolved a unique GnRH system with multiple ligands and receptor heterodimerization enabling complex regulation. One of the gnrh genes is conspicuously expressed in the motor ganglion and nerve cord, which are homologous structures to the hindbrain and spinal cord of vertebrates. Correspondingly, GnRH receptor genes were found to be expressed in the tail muscle and notochord of embryos, both of which are phylotypic axial structures along the nerve cord. Our findings suggest a novel non-reproductive role of GnRH in tunicates. Furthermore, we present evidence that GnRH-producing cells are present in the hindbrain and spinal cord of the medaka, Oryzias latipes, thereby suggesting the deep evolutionary origin of a non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates.
Burton, Jason C.; Wang, Shang; Behringer, Richard R.; Larina, Irina V.
Infertility is a known major health concern and is estimated to impact ~15% of couples in the U.S. The majority of failed pregnancies occur before or during implantation of the fertilized embryo into the uterus. Understanding the mechanisms regulating development by studying mouse reproductive organs could significantly contribute to an improved understanding of normal development of reproductive organs and developmental causes of infertility in humans. Towards this goal, we report a three-dimensional (3D) imaging study of the developing mouse reproductive organs (ovary, oviduct, and uterus) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In our study, OCT was used for 3D imaging of reproductive organs without exogenous contrast agents and provides micro-scale spatial resolution. Experiments were conducted in vitro on mouse reproductive organs ranging from the embryonic day 14.5 to adult stages. Structural features of the ovary, oviduct, and uterus are presented. Additionally, a comparison with traditional histological analysis is illustrated. These results provide a basis for a wide range of infertility studies in mouse models. Through integration with traditional genetic and molecular biology approaches, this imaging method can improve understanding of ovary, oviduct, and uterus development and function, serving to further contribute to our understanding of fertility and infertility.
The control of reproduction is necessary to optimise the productivity of livestock production systems. The regulations of organic farming do not impose specific reproductive practices among those that are already in use except that some of them are not authorized. Whatever the animal species, the success of reproduction in organic systems mainly relies on the choice of adapted breeds. Because sheep and goats are well-known seasonal breeders the major issue is to overcome this limitation of r...
Full Text Available Background: In urban environment, exposure to the emission of motor vehicles is common. In urban peoples it is a very difficult task to distinguish among peoples with different grades of momentous period exposure to such pollutants. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat on the reproductive health of rickshaw drivers. Methods: Adult married male individuals were recruited randomly in the study from Btkhella, Malakand agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Two groups were made, control (n=45 and rickshaw drivers (n=50. A special questionnaire was designed about occupational activities, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. From both groups 5 mL of the blood was collected and was analyze for serum total testosterone and cortisol using Biocheck (USA and Antibodies-online GmbH (Germany kits. Results: In control group the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 657.6±16.84 ng/dl and cortisol was 443.8±14.67 mU/L. In rickshaw drivers the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 577.1±11.42 ng/dl and cortisol was 595.1±8.879mU/L. In rickshaw drivers there was a significant reduction in total serum testosterone (P0.0002 but a significant increase in serum cortisol level (P < 0.0001 at 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: Reproductive health problems like decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, absent morning and nocturnal erection, ejaculatory problems, primary infertility and secondary infertility were prevalent in rickshaw drivers but, no such problems were found in control group. Chronic exposure to pollutants such as diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat negatively regulate Hypothalmo-Pituitary Gonadal axis (HPG leading to reproductive problems.
Full Text Available Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 (ptgs2 were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRbeta levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg, maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs, and ovulation (ptgs2, deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans.
Dickens, Molly J; Bentley, George E
In seasonal species, glucocorticoid concentrations are often highest during the breeding season. However, the role of increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in the regulation of reproduction remains poorly understood. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, to document reproductive consequences of a non-pharmacological hindrance to seasonal HPA fluctuations. Using wild-caught male and female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) housed in an outdoor, semi-natural environment, we divided birds into two mixed-sex groups. One group remained in the outdoor aviary, where starlings breed at the appropriate time of year. The other group was transferred into an indoor flight aviary, where we predicted reproductive suppression to occur. We measured changes in corticosterone (CORT) at baseline and stress-induced concentrations prior to group separation and at the experiment's conclusion. After ten days, the birds showed remarkable differences in breeding behavior and HPA activity. Outdoor birds exhibited increases in baseline and stress-induced CORT and progressed into active breeding (pairing, nest building, egg laying, etc.). In contrast, indoor birds displayed no change in baseline or stress-induced CORT and few signs of active breeding. We found significant sex and treatment effects on expression of HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis elements, suggesting sex-specific regulatory mechanisms. Our data suggest a novel, facilitating role for the HPA axis in the transition between early breeding and active breeding in a wild, seasonal avian species. In addition, understanding how changes in housing condition affect seasonal HPA fluctuations may help alleviate barriers to breeding wild animals in captivity.
Serour, G I
Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral.
Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre
This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...
Gürtin, Zeynep B
In March 2010, Turkey became the first country to legislate against the cross-border travel of its citizens seeking third-party reproductive assistance. Although the use of donor eggs, donor spermatozoa and surrogacy had been illegal in Turkey since the introduction of a regulatory framework for assisted reproductive treatment in 1987, men and women were free to access these treatments in other jurisdictions. In some cases, such travel for cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) was even facilitated by sophisticated arrangements between IVF clinics in Turkey and in other countries, particularly in Cyprus. However, new amendments to Turkey's assisted reproduction legislation specifically forbid travel for the purposes of third-party assisted reproduction. This article outlines the cultural context of assisted reproductive treatment in Turkey; details the Turkish assisted reproduction legislation, particularly as it pertains to third-party reproductive assistance; explores Turkish attitudes towards donor gametes and surrogacy; assesses the existence and extent of CBRC prior to March 2010; and discusses some of the legal, ethical and practical implications of the new legislation. As CBRC becomes an increasingly pertinent issue, eliciting debate and discussion at both national and international levels, it is important to carefully consider the particular circumstances and potential consequences of this unique example.
REPRODUCTION & REPRODUCTION PHYSIOLOGY
Abstract not available. REPRODUCTION & REPRODUCTION PHYSIOLOGY (1996). Abstracts of the communications presented during the 6th World Rabbit Congress: REPRODUCTION & REPRODUCTION PHYSIOLOGY. Toulouse, July 9-12, 1996. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/10486.
Full Text Available Seasonally-breeding mammals rely on the photoperiodic signal to restrict their fertility to a certain time of the year. The photoperiodic information is translated in the brain via the pineal hormone melatonin, and it is now well established that it is the variation in the duration of the nocturnal peak of melatonin which synchronises reproduction with the seasons. The Syrian hamster is a long day breeder, and sexual activity is therefore promoted by exposure to a long day photoperiod and inhibited by exposure to a short day photoperiod. Interestingly, in this species electrolytic lesion of the mediobasal hypothalamus abolishes the short day-induced gonadal regression. We have shown that the expression of a recently discovered neuronal population, namely RFamide-related peptide (rfrp neurons, present in the mediobasal hypothalamus, is strongly down-regulated by melatonin in short day conditions, but not altered by circulating levels of sex steroids. The role of rfrp and its product RFRP-3 in the regulation of reproductive activity has been extensively studied in mammals, and our recent findings indicate that this peptide is a potent stimulator of the reproductive axis in the Syrian hamster. It induces a marked increase in GnRH neuron activity and gonadotrophin secretion, and it is able to rescue reproductive activity in short day sexually inactive hamsters. Little is known about the localisation of the RFRP-3 receptor, GPR147, in the rodent brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that RFRP-3 could be acting via two intermediates, the GnRH neurons in the preoptic area and the Kiss1 neurons in the arcuate nucleus, but future studies should aim at describing the localisation of Gpr147 in the Syrian hamster brain. Altogether our data indicate that the rfrp neuronal population within the mediobasal hypothalamus might be a serious candidate in mediating the photoperiodic effects of melatonin on the regulation of the reproductive axis.
Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing
Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered.
Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing
Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered.
Wagner, D.; Waller, R. G.; Montgomery, A. D.; Kelley, C. D.; Toonen, R. J.
The Hawaiian black coral fishery has maintained steady catch levels for over 50 years. However, recent declines in the biomass of commercially valuable Hawaiian black corals question whether regulations need to be redefined for sustainable harvesting. Fishery management efforts are complicated by the limited information on the basic life history and reproduction of black corals. To address this knowledge gap, we used histological techniques to investigate sexual reproductive processes within Antipathes griggi, the dominant species targeted by the fishery. Our results indicate that A. griggi is likely gonochoric with a 1:1 sex ratio and has an annual reproductive cycle. Furthermore, the percentage of polyps containing gametes dropped continuously throughout the reproductive season, indicating that spawning occurs in successive events with greatest intensity between November and December. Current fishing regulations prohibit harvesting of colonies <90 cm in height in state waters, and colonies <120 cm in height in federal waters. This study indicates that ~80% meeting the state harvesting limit, and ~90% of colonies meeting the federal limit, are sexually mature. Therefore, increasing these minimum size harvesting limits would ensure that more colonies can reproduce before being exposed to fishing mortality. Although A. griggi can be found to depths of 100 m, it is rare below the 75 m depth limit at which commercial harvest occurs in Hawai`i. Thus, the supposed depth refuge from harvest does not really exist.
Kowalik, Magdalena K; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan
Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum (CL) is a key regulator of normal cyclical reproductive functions in the females of mammalian species. The physiological effects of progesterone are mediated by the canonical genomic pathway after binding of progesterone to its specific nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), which acts as a ligand-activated transcription factor and has two main isoforms, PGRA and PGRB. These PGR isoforms play different roles in the cell; PGRB acts as an activator of progesterone-responsive genes, while PGRA can inhibit the activity of PGRB. The ratio of these isoforms changes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy, and it corresponds to the different levels of progesterone signaling occurring in the reproductive tract. Progesterone exerts its effects on cells also by a non-genomic mechanism by the interaction with the progesterone-binding membrane proteins including the progesterone membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and 2, and the membrane progestin receptors (mPRs). These receptors rapidly activate the appropriate intracellular signal transduction pathways, and subsequently they can initiate specific cell responses or modulate genomic cell responses. The diversity of progesterone receptors and their cellular actions enhances the role of progesterone as a factor regulating the function of the reproductive system and other organs. This paper deals with the possible involvement of nuclear and membrane-bound progesterone receptors in the function of target cells within the female reproductive tract.
Fernández, Agustín F; Toraño, Estela García; Urdinguio, Rocío González; Lana, Abel Gayo; Fernández, Ignacio Arnott; Fraga, Mario F
Not only genetic but also epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene expression, cellular differentiation and development processes. Additionally, "environmental epigenetics" studies the interaction between the environment and the epigenome, and its potential role in the regulation of gene activity. Several studies have shown that the impact of environmental exposures on the epigenome takes on more importance during early fertilization and embryonic development, given that during these periods epigenetic reprogramming occurs and the new epigenetic profile of the offspring is established. Epigenetic alterations in the germline are especially relevant since they can be transmitted trans-generationally and could be associated with a wide range of diseases including several reproductive disorders. In this chapter we review some epigenetic mechanisms, focusing mainly on DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are related to reproductive aspects, and we discuss the controversies in the literature surrounding how environmental conditions, such as exposure to toxic substances or treatment with assisted reproductive techniques (ART), may be involved in epigenetic alterations that affect reproductive success.
The reproductive endocrine system regulates reproductive phenomena, including ovulation, implantation, maintenance of gestation, et al. Disorders of this system result in female infertility; over 30% of female infertility are caused by the reproductive endocrinopathies. The classify of those disorders is very complicated. The pathophysiological mechanism is related with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis at different level. In this review, treatment and management of disorders of the reproductive endocrine system were concisely introduced, which was based on the mainstream guidelines published by international associations and Chinese Medical Association.%排卵、着床、妊娠维持等生殖过程皆是在生殖内分泌系统的调控下完成的，生殖内分泌系统出现异常可能会导致女性不孕症的发生。各类生殖内分泌疾病约占女性不孕症的1/3，病种分类繁杂，病理机制复杂，涉及性腺轴的多个环节。以国际共识及中华医学会发布的诊疗指南为蓝本，针对生殖内分泌疾病如何导致不孕症，提纲挈领地介绍主要生殖内分泌疾病的助孕策略。
Full Text Available Maf1 is a conserved repressor of RNA polymerase (Pol III transcription; however, its physiological role in the context of a multicellular organism is not well understood. Here, we show that C. elegans MAFR-1 is functionally orthologous to human Maf1, represses the expression of both RNA Pol III and Pol II transcripts, and mediates organismal fecundity and lipid homeostasis. MAFR-1 impacts lipid transport by modulating intestinal expression of the vitellogenin family of proteins, resulting in cell-nonautonomous defects in the developing reproductive system. MAFR-1 levels inversely correlate with stored intestinal lipids, in part by influencing the expression of the lipogenesis enzymes fasn-1/FASN and pod-2/ACC1. Animals fed a high carbohydrate diet exhibit reduced mafr-1 expression and mutations in the insulin signaling pathway genes daf-18/PTEN and daf-16/FoxO abrogate the lipid storage defects associated with deregulated mafr-1 expression. Our results reveal physiological roles for mafr-1 in regulating organismal lipid homeostasis, which ensure reproductive success.
Kubokawa, Kaoru; Tando, Yukiko; Roy, Sonali
The cephalochordate, amphioxus, is phylogenetically placed at the most primitive position in the chordate clade. Despite many studies on the endocrine system of amphioxus, definitive evidence has not been reported for the presence an endocrine system comparable to the pituitary-gonadal axis, which is important in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates. Recent genome analyses in the amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, showed that it does not have any pituitary hormone genes except the thyrostimulin gene. Thyrostimulin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone consisting of α and β subunits, and is present in various organs of vertebrates. Analyses of a phylogenetic tree and a synteny suggest that amphioxus' thyrostimulin is an ancestral type of the glycoprotein hormones in chordates. In addition, genes for sex steroidogenic enzymes belonging to the CYP family were found in the genome sequences. The conversion pathway of sex steroids from cholesterol to estrogen, androgen, and major sex steroids was also identified in the gonads of amphioxus in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated the expression of genes encoding thyrostimulin and sex steroidogenic enzymes by an in situ hybridization technique. Here, we discuss the evolution of hormones and reproductive functions in the neuroendocrine control system of chordates.
Peluso, C; Fonseca, F L A; Rodart, I F; Cavalcanti, V; Gastaldo, G; Christofolini, D M; Barbosa, C P; Bianco, B
Ovarian reserve tests provide knowledge of a possible response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in patients undergoing assisted reproduction treatment, allowing management and alteration of treatment protocol with the appropriate dose of gonadotrophin. Several parameters have been used as predictors of ovarian response. The basal FSH serum level on the third day of the menstrual cycle seemed to be the best predictor, but with significant intraindividual variability from one cycle to another. Thus, the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) emerges as a new ovarian test marker. AMH is produced exclusively in the gonads, by the granulosa cells, and plays an important role in folliculogenesis, acting on the modulation of follicular recruitment in the granulosa cells in order to limit the number of recruited oocytes and to regulate the number of growing follicles and their selection for ovulation. It has been suggested that AMH is strongly associated with oocyte yield after ovarian stimulation and could therefore be capable of predicting the ovarian response and the quality of oocytes and embryos. In this review, we discuss the role of AMH in assisted reproduction outcomes.
Barrett, Spencer C H
Flowering plants possess an unrivaled diversity of mechanisms for achieving sexual and asexual reproduction, often simultaneously. The commonest type of asexual reproduction is clonal growth (vegetative propagation) in which parental genotypes (genets) produce vegetative modules (ramets) that are capable of independent growth, reproduction, and often dispersal. Clonal growth leads to an expansion in the size of genets and increased fitness because large floral displays increase fertility and opportunities for outcrossing. Moreover, the clonal dispersal of vegetative propagules can assist "mate finding," particularly in aquatic plants. However, there are ecological circumstances in which functional antagonism between sexual and asexual reproductive modes can negatively affect the fitness of clonal plants. Populations of heterostylous and dioecious species have a small number of mating groups (two or three), which should occur at equal frequency in equilibrium populations. Extensive clonal growth and vegetative dispersal can disrupt the functioning of these sexual polymorphisms, resulting in biased morph ratios and populations with a single mating group, with consequences for fertility and mating. In populations in which clonal propagation predominates, mutations reducing fertility may lead to sexual dysfunction and even the loss of sex. Recent evidence suggests that somatic mutations can play a significant role in influencing fitness in clonal plants and may also help explain the occurrence of genetic diversity in sterile clonal populations. Highly polymorphic genetic markers offer outstanding opportunities for gaining novel insights into functional interactions between sexual and clonal reproduction in flowering plants.
Full Text Available The Dogo Argentino (DA is the first and only breed from Argentina recognized worldwide. Although its morphologic features have been well established, its normal reproductive parameters are not clearly known. The aim of this study was to determine the main DA bitch reproductive parameters. One hundred and forty-nine surveys were obtained from breeders from Córdoba province, Argentina: one for each intact DA bitch from 1 to 14 years old. The DA bitch reached puberty at an average of 8.93 months. The mean duration of vulval bleeding found in this study was 11.11 days. The clinical signs characteristic for proestrous-estrous were vulval edema (89.93%, bleeding during the time of mating (32.21%, holding the tail to the side (95.30%, and docility during mating (85.91%. DA bitches had a whelping rate of 84%. Out of 299 pregnancies, 89.30% exhibited a normal parturition, 6.69% presented dystocia, 2.68% needed Cesarean section, and 1.34% aborted. In conclusion, the reproductive parameters of the DA bitch are similar to those identified for other large breeds. DA often showed a prolonged vulval bleeding longer than proestrus. Its high whelping rate, its low incidence of dystocia, and its good maternal ability define the DA as a good reproductive breed with normal reproductive functions.
Whitsett, J.M.; Miller, L.L.
Female deer mice were exposed to a short day photoperiod beginning during 1 of 3 stages of life. In the first experiment, exposure to SD during adulthood resulted in a minimal disruption of reproductive condition; many females bore 2 litters after the onset of this treatment. In the second experiment, females reared on SD from weaning matured normally, as measured by vaginal introitus; however, vaginal closure occurred in approximately one-half of these females by 9 weeks of age. In the third experiment, females were born of mothers housed on either an SD or a long day photoperiod, and were continued on the maternal photoperiod until 6 weeks of postnatal age. The SD photoperiod markedly inhibited reproductive maturation as measured by vaginal patency, ovarian weight, and uterine weight. A comparison of reproductive organ weights and vaginal condition provided evidence for the validity of the latter measure as an index of reproductive state. As assayed by the present testing procedure, the sensitivity of the reproductive system to photoperiod decreases as a function of age in female deer mice.
Ahmet Reşit Ersay
Full Text Available In Turkey, one out of five person belonging to 10-24 age group, is at risk concerning reproductive health. Topics related to the reproductive health, are neither discussed within the family or society, nor within the educational system. Adolescents, who have to experience sexual intercourse with insufficient and incorrect knowledge, have to face with sexually transmitted diseases (STD, teenage pregnancy, abortion and other problems as a consequence of this experience. Research on this area has showed that both adolescents and young adults, especially health personnel, requested training on reproductive health. In terms of planning health services effectively, these topics should be evaluated carefully in Turkey. In this research, reproductive health regarding adolescents and young adults is examined under the four headings of sexual experience, STD, use of protection and productivity. As a result, depending on all the cultural restrictions and health service limitations, it is observed that adolescents and young adults experience sexual relationship with an inadequate knowledge and consequently, they have to face with problems. Within this context, it is suggested to expand the reproductive health educational programmes involving family, school and society within long term.
Reynolds, L P; Vonnahme, K A
The 2015 Triennial Reproduction Symposium focused on developmental programming of fertility. The topics covered during the morning session included the role of the placenta in programming of fetal growth and development, effects of feeding system and level of feeding during pregnancy on the annual production cycle and lifetime productivity of heifer offspring, effects of litter size and level of socialization postnatally on reproductive performance of pigs, effects of postnatal dietary intake on maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and onset of puberty in heifers, effects of housing systems on growth performance and reproductive efficiency of gilts, and effects of energy balance on sexual differentiation in rodent models. The morning session concluded with presentation of the American Society of Animal Science L. E. Casida Award for Excellence in Graduate Education to Dr. Michael Smith from the University of Missouri, Columbia, who shared his philosophy of graduate education. The afternoon session included talks on the role of epigenetic modifications in developmental programming and transgenerational inheritance of reproductive dysfunction, effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on fetal development and long-term physiology of the individual, and potential consequences of real-life exposure to environmental contaminants on reproductive health. The symposium concluded with a summary talk and the posing of 2 questions to the audience. From an evolutionary standpoint, programming and epigenetic events must be adaptive; when do they become maladaptive? If there are so many environmental factors that induce developmental programming, are we doomed, and if not, what is or are the solution or solutions?
Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.
Heverton Luis Moreira
Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.
Vasconcelos, L P; Alves, D C; Gomes, L C
Fish reproductive guilds were used to evaluate the responses of species with different reproductive strategies during two different periods of post-dam construction. The data used for the comparisons were collected in the upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil), downstream of the Porto Primavera dam, 2 and 10 years after impoundment. The abundance (catch per unit effort, CPUE), species richness, evenness and structure of communities, all within reproductive guilds, were used to test the hypothesis that these metrics vary spatially and temporally. The influence of damming on species structure and the diversity of fish reproductive guilds varied spatiotemporally, and species with opportunistic reproductive strategies tended to be less affected. Conversely, long-distance migratory species responded more markedly to spatiotemporal variations, indicating that the ecosystem dynamics exert greater effects on populations of these species. Thus, the effects of a dam, even if attenuated, may extend over several years, especially downstream. This finding emphasizes the importance of maintaining large undammed tributaries downstream of reservoirs.
Reproduction and fertility have been objects of keen inquiry since the dawn of humanity. Medieval anatomists provided the first accurate depictions of the female reproductive system, and early microscopists were fascinated by the magnified sight of sperm cells. Initial successes were achieved in the in vitro fertilization of frogs and the artificial insemination of dogs. Gamete and embryo research was in the cradle of modern cell biology, providing the first evidence of the multi-cellular composition of living beings and pointing out the importance of chromosomes for heredity. In the 20th century, reproductive research paved the way for the study of the cytoskeleton, cell signaling, and the cell cycle. In the last three decades, the advent of reproductive cell biology has brought us human in vitro fertilization, animal cloning, and human and animal embryonic stem cells. It has contributed to the development of transgenesis, proteomics, genomics, and epigenetics. This Special Issue represents a sample of the various areas of reproductive biology, with emphasis on molecular and cell biological aspects. Advances in spermatology, ovarian function, fertilization, and maternal-fetal interactions are discussed within the framework of fertility and diseases such as endometriosis and diabetes.
Arlt, S P; Heuwieser, W
With new knowledge being generated and published daily, the importance of evidence-based approaches in veterinary medicine is obvious. Clinicians must stay current or risk making poor decisions that clients may challenge. Especially in animal reproduction, several new substances and procedures to diagnose or treat reproductive disorders have been introduced in the last years. On the other hand, a closer look at the quality of published literature on animal reproduction reveals major deficits in methodology and reporting of many clinical trials. We strongly recommend systematically assessing the quality of scientific information when reading journal papers before using the given information in practice. The aim of evidence-based medicine (EBM) is to base the decisions in the practice of medicine on valid, clinically relevant research data. Therefore, we suggest that students should become familiar with the concepts of evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) at the beginning of their veterinary education. Concepts and supporting tools such as checklists for literature assessment have been developed and validated. The purpose of this article is to review and discuss the importance of incorporating EBVM in animal reproduction. The need for further research that produces strong evidence in different fields of animal reproduction and better reporting of relevant study information is obvious.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative sequencing studies among a wide range of taxonomic groups, including fungi, have led to the discovery that reproductive genes evolve more rapidly than other genes. However, for fungal reproductive genes the question has remained whether the rapid evolution is a result of stochastic or deterministic processes. The mating-type (mat genes constitute the master regulators of sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and here we present a study of the molecular evolution of the four mat-genes (mat a-1, mat A-1, mat A-2 and mat A-3 of 20 Neurospora taxa. Results We estimated nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates of genes to infer their evolutionary rate, and confirmed that the mat-genes evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the evolutionary trajectories are related to the reproductive modes of the taxa; likelihood methods revealed that positive selection acting on specific codons drives the diversity in heterothallic taxa, while among homothallic taxa the rapid evolution is due to a lack of selective constraint. The latter finding is supported by presence of stop codons and frame shift mutations disrupting the open reading frames of mat a-1, mat A-2 and mat A-3 in homothallic taxa. Lower selective constraints of mat-genes was found among homothallic than heterothallic taxa, and comparisons with non-reproductive genes argue that this disparity is not a nonspecific, genome-wide phenomenon. Conclusion Our data show that the mat-genes evolve rapidly in Neurospora. The rapid divergence is due to either adaptive evolution or lack of selective constraints, depending on the reproductive mode of the taxa. This is the first instance of positive selection acting on reproductive genes in the fungal kingdom, and illustrates how the evolutionary trajectory of reproductive genes can change after a switch in reproductive behaviour of an organism.
Little is known about the reproductive health of women migrant farmworkers in the US. The health and rights of these workers are advanced by fundamental human rights principles that are sometimes conceptually and operationally siloed into three approaches: reproductive health, reproductive rights, and reproductive justice. I focus on the latter framework, as it lends critical attention to the structural oppression central to poor reproductive health, as well as to the agency of communities organizing and leading efforts to improve their health. I review what is known about these women's reproductive health; identify three realms of reproduction oppression affecting their reproductive health: labor/occupational conditions, health care, and social relations involving race, immigration and fertility; and then highlight some current efforts at women farmworker-directed change. Finally, I make several analytical observations that suggest the importance of the reproductive justice framework to broader discussions of migrant worker justice and its role in realizing their right to health.
Full Text Available Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males in some traditional human populations. We calculate three indices of reproductive ageing in men (oldest age at reproduction, male late-life reproduction, and post-reproductive representation and identify a continuum of male reproductive longevity across eight traditional societies ranging from !Kung, Hadza and Agta hunter-gatherers exhibiting low levels of polygyny, early age at last reproduction and long post-reproductive lifespans, to male Gambian agriculturalists and Turkana pastoralists showing higher levels of polygyny, late-life reproduction and shorter post-reproductive lifespans. We conclude that the uniquely human detachment between rates of somatic senescence and reproductive decline, and the existence of post-reproductive lifespans, are features of both male and female life histories, and therefore not exclusive consequences of menopause.
Full Text Available Timor deer (Rusa timorensis is a newly domesticated animal in Indonesia and other countries in the world. It is a potential source of meat and livelihood. Low birth rate is a problem of deer farming in Indonesia. It happens because of low concern for key aspects of behaviors including reproductive behavior. The aim of this review is to give information about reproductive behavior of Timor deer in natural habitat and captivity breeding. Libido and estrous behaviors of Timor deer in captivity breeding were similar with natural habitat. However, male Timor deer in captivity breeding took longer time to approach the females before mating, compared with those in their natural habitat. Aggressive behavior commonly leads mating. Parturition and maternal behavior of hinds are affected by limitation of space, therefore dividing the area of cage which depends on age and physiological status is needed to improve reproductive management.
Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis
. Specifically, it is suggested that the phase differential of the source driving signals should be in agreement with the phase differential of the desired sound pressure field. The performance of the suggested method is compared with that of conventional effort regularization, wave field synthesis (WFS......In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...
Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Gissler, M.; Skjaerven, R.
to lowering the rate of multiples but also concerning the health of singletons. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), the University of Copenhagen and the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation has supported the project. The Co......STUDY QUESTIONS Has the perinatal outcome of children conceived after assisted reproductive technology (ART) improved over time? SUMMARY ANSWER The perinatal outcomes in children born after ART have improved over the last 20 years, mainly due to the reduction of multiple births. WHAT IS KNOWN....... LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION We were not able to adjust for some potential confounders such as BMI, smoking, length or cause of infertility. The Nordic ART populations have changed over time, and in recent years, both less as well as severely reproductive ill couples are being treated. This may have...
Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Kamath, Mohan S
Multiple pregnancy, a complication of assisted reproduction technology, is associated with poorer maternal and perinatal outcomes. The primary reason behind this is the strategy of replacing more than one embryo during an assisted reproduction technology cycle to maximise pregnancy rates. The solution to this problem is to reduce the number of embryos transferred during in-vitro fertilisation. The transition from triple- to double-embryo transfer, which decreased the risk of triplets without compromising pregnancy rates, was easily implemented. The adoption of a single embryo transfer policy has been slow because of concerns about impaired pregnancy rates in a fresh assisted reproduction technology cycle. Widespread availability of effective cryopreservation programmes means that elective single embryo transfer, along with subsequent frozen embryo transfers, could provide a way forward. Any such strategy will need to consider couples' preferences and existing funding policies, both of which have a profound influence on decision making around embryo transfer.
Baar, Teun; Brettel, Hans; Ortiz Segovia, Maria V.
The studies regarding fine art reproduction mainly focus on the accuracy of colour and the recreation of surface texture properties. Since reflection properties other than colour are neglected, important details of the artwork are lost. For instance, gloss properties, often characteristic to painters and particular movements in the history of art, are not well reproduced. The inadequate reproduction of the different gloss levels of a piece of fine art leads to a specular reflection mismatch in printed copies with respect to the original works that affects the perceptual quality of the printout. We used different print parameters of a 3D high resolution printing setup to control the gloss level on a printout locally. Our method can be used to control gloss automatically and in crucial applications such as fine art reproduction.
Jensen, D A
Human reproductive cloning provides the possibility of genetically related children for persons for whom present technologies are ineffective. I argue that the desire for genetically related children is not, by itself, a sufficient reason to engage in human reproductive cloning. I show this by arguing that the value underlying the desire for genetically related children implies a tension between the parent and the future child. This tension stems from an instance of a deprivation and violates a general principle of reasons for deprivation. Alternative considerations, such as a right to procreative autonomy, do not appear helpful in making the case for human reproductive cloning merely on the basis of the desire for genetically related children.
Full Text Available The amount of body fat and the energy balance are important factors that influence the timing of puberty and the normal reproductive function. Leptin is a key hormone that conveys to the central nervous system information about the individual energy reserve and modulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis. Recent findings suggest that the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV mediates the effects of leptin as a permissive factor for the onset of puberty and the coordinated secretion of luteinizing hormone during conditions of negative energy balance. Thus, in this review we will summarize the existing literature about the potential role played by PMV neurons in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis.
Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Dunsiger, Shira; Swales, Heather H; Aurigemma, Gerard P; Ockene, Ira; Rosman, Lindsey; Wittstein, Ilan S
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) occurs predominantly in postmenopausal women, suggesting a possible role of reproductive and hormonal factors in the pathophysiology of this condition. Yet reproductive characteristics of women with TC have received limited attention. This prospective case-control study sought to explore reproductive characteristics associated with TC. Incident TC cases and myocardial infarction (MI) controls were recruited among consecutive women presenting at the emergency departments of 2 large medical centers in Massachusetts and Connecticut. Female healthy controls were recruited from a registry of research volunteers. Information about reproductive history was collected 1 month after discharge using standardized questionnaires completed during phone interviews. Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations with reproductive factors. From March 2013 to October 2015, 209 women were screened for eligibility and 107 (45 TC, 32 MI, and 30 healthy controls) were enrolled. Conditions uniquely associated with TC were a history of irregular menses (adjusted OR, TC vs MI 8.30; 95% CI 1.01 to 69.18), number of pregnancies (adjusted β coefficient 0.69; SE 0.35, p = 0.05), and use of post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy (OR 5.79; CI 1.20 to 28.02). We did not find associations with history of infertility, breastfeeding, hysterectomy or oophorectomy, oral contraceptive use, and age at menopause. In conclusion, our findings suggest that premenopausal reproductive factors may play an important role in the onset of TC at a later age. These results need to be confirmed in future studies with larger populations.
Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi;
success rates, surrogates faced the risk of multiple pregnancy and fetal reduction with little information regarding the risks involved. In the globalized market of Commercial surrogacy in India, and with clinics compromising on ethics, there is an urgent need for formulation of regulative law...... Research are somewhat vague and contradictory, resulting in self-regulated practices of fertility clinics. This paper broadly looks at clinical ethics in reproduction in the practice of surrogacy and decision-making in various procedures. Through empirical research in New Delhi, the capital of India, from...... for the clinical practice and maintenance of principles of reproductive ethics in order to ensure that the interests of surrogate mothers are safeguarded....
Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi
success rates, surrogates faced the risk of multiple pregnancy and fetal reduction with little information regarding the risks involved. In the globalized market of Commercial surrogacy in India, and with clinics compromising on ethics, there is an urgent need for formulation of regulative law......As a neo-liberal economy, India has become one of the new health tourism destinations, with Commercial gestational surrogacy as an expanding market. Yet the Indian Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Bill has been pending for five years, and the guidelines issued by the Indian Council of Medical...... Research are somewhat vague and contradictory, resulting in self-regulated practices of fertility clinics. This paper broadly looks at clinical ethics in reproduction in the practice of surrogacy and decision-making in various procedures. Through empirical research in New Delhi, the capital of India, from...
Kawashima, Tomokazu; Berger, Frédéric
Epigenetic reprogramming consists of global changes in DNA methylation and histone modifications. In mammals, epigenetic reprogramming is primarily associated with sexual reproduction and occurs during both gametogenesis and early embryonic development. Such reprogramming is crucial not only to maintain genomic integrity through silencing transposable elements but also to reset the silenced status of imprinted genes. In plants, observations of stable transgenerational inheritance of epialleles have argued against reprogramming. However, emerging evidence supports that epigenetic reprogramming indeed occurs during sexual reproduction in plants and that it has a major role in maintaining genome integrity and a potential contribution to epiallelic variation.
Vacek, E C
Catholic natural law has had a long and evolving interest in bioethics. Thomas Aquinas left natural law a legacy of great flexibility in evaluating goods within a whole life. He also bequeathed to the Church the basis for an abolutism on sexual issues. Modern reproductive medicine and a deeper understanding of human freedom have reopened these issues. The Vatican has developed new, holistic arguments to proscribe reproductive interventions, but critics remain unconvinced that marital relationships and goods have been adequately evaluated. The resolution of this debate will require further experience and reflection.
Edsgard, Stefan Daniel
During the last decades a decline in male reproductive health has been observed in Nordic countries, and particularly in Denmark. Testicular cancer is the most fatal form of male reproductive disorders, and despite high remission rates it is typically accompanied with infertility. The main topic...... superimposed with established phenomic information. We thereby identified a recurrent CNV at a locus with genes encoding for the relaxin peptide hormones, indicating their potential role in testis function. Paper III presents a genome-wide assocation study on testicular dysgenesis syndrome. We confirmed...
Nielsen, N. M.; Jorgensen, K. T.; Stenager, E.
Background: It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting. Methods: Using national databases, we established a cohort comprising 4.4 million...... Danish men and women born between 1935 and 1989 and alive in 1968 or later. We obtained information about their live-born children, pregnancy losses, pregnancy complications, and infertility diagnoses. MS cases in the cohort were identified through 2004 in the Danish Register of Multiple Sclerosis...
Klepsatel, P; Gáliková, M; De Maio, N; Ricci, S; Schlötterer, C; Flatt, T
The life history of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) is well understood, but fitness components are rarely measured by following single individuals over their lifetime, thereby limiting insights into lifetime reproductive success, reproductive senescence and post-reproductive lifespan. Moreover, most studies have examined long-established laboratory strains rather than freshly caught individuals and may thus be confounded by adaptation to laboratory culture, inbreeding or mutation accumulation. Here, we have followed the life histories of individual females from three recently caught, non-laboratory-adapted wild populations of D. melanogaster. Populations varied in a number of life-history traits, including ovariole number, fecundity, hatchability and lifespan. To describe individual patterns of age-specific fecundity, we developed a new model that allowed us to distinguish four phases during a female's life: a phase of reproductive maturation, followed by a period of linear and then exponential decline in fecundity and, finally, a post-ovipository period. Individual females exhibited clear-cut fecundity peaks, which contrasts with previous analyses, and post-peak levels of fecundity declined independently of how long females lived. Notably, females had a pronounced post-reproductive lifespan, which on average made up 40% of total lifespan. Post-reproductive lifespan did not differ among populations and was not correlated with reproductive fitness components, supporting the hypothesis that this period is a highly variable, random 'add-on' at the end of reproductive life rather than a correlate of selection on reproductive fitness. Most life-history traits were positively correlated, a pattern that might be due to genotype by environment interactions when wild flies are brought into a novel laboratory environment but that is unlikely explained by inbreeding or positive mutational covariance caused by mutation accumulation.
Gardiner, Donald L; Dixon, Matthew W A; Spielmann, Tobias; Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Hawthorne, Paula L; Ortega, Maria R; Kemp, David J; Trenholme, Katharine R
Gametocytogenesis is fundamental for transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum from the human host to the mosquito vector, yet very little is understood about what triggers the switch between asexual reproduction and gametocytogenesis. Arresting the progression through the sexual cycle would block transmission of this disease. Here we identify a novel gene in P. falciparum that when genetically silenced reduces gametocyte production by a factor of 6, and when complemented up-regulates gametocyte-specific gene transcription.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period when physical, psychological and social maturity is achieved. Therefore, reproductive health in adolescence is of great importance.Aims: This study was performed to determine the effects of training for reproductive health and behavior on knowledge of reproductive health and reproductive behavior in adolescents.Methodology: This is a semi-experimental study and included 700 adolescent from the city of Sanlıurfa, Turkey. The participants were selected from volunteers and aged 15-24 years. A questionnaire composed of questions about demographic features and reproductive health and behavior. The dependent variables tested were mean scores of the participants on reproductive health, breast self-examination of the female participants, testicular self-examination and use of condoms by the male participants. The independent variable tested was training for reproductive health. T-test was used to analyze data about dependent groups and Chi-square test (McNemar was used to compare between two dependent groups.Results: The mean age of the participants was 18.80 ± 2.82 years and 51.0% of the participants secondary school graduates. The total score of the participants on knowledge of reproductive health increased from 6.48 before training to 15.80 after training, with a significant difference (p=0.000. While the percentage of the female participants performing breast self-examination was 22.9% before training, it increased to 71.2% after training, with a significant difference (p=0.000. However, the percentage of the male participants performing testicular self-examination only rose from 14.7% to 29.4% (p=0.000. The use of condoms by the male participants increased from 12.2% to 18.3%, with a significant difference (p=0.000.Conclusion: Training for reproductive health did not only increase knowledge of reproductive health but also promote reproductive health behavior. It can be recommended that nurses should
Baylis, Françoise; Downie, Jocelyn; Snow, Dave
The Assisted Human Reproduction Act (AHR Act) came into effect in 2004. The AHR Act stipulates in s.12 that no reimbursement of expenditures incurred in the course of donating gametes, maintaining or transporting in vitro embryos, or providing surrogacy services is permitted, except in accordance with the regulations and with receipts. Ten years later, Health Canada still has not drafted the regulations governing reimbursement. Section 12 is therefore still not in force. Health Canada and others have asserted that there is a Health Canada policy on reimbursement and that reimbursement with receipts is legally permissible. We dispute the existence of such a policy and its legitimacy (if it exists). We also challenge the decision by Health Canada not to produce regulations and thereby make it possible for Parliament to bring s.12 into force. This intentional lack of action is worrisome on at least two fronts. First, it sidesteps the processes required for regulations and thereby ducks the Parliamentary oversight very deliberately built into the AHR Act. Second, it leaves Canadians who provide and who access assisted human reproduction uncertain about what is and is not permitted, and therefore fearful of, or at risk of, prosecution. We conclude that Health Canada should take the steps necessary to put regulations in front of Parliament so that Parliament will then be able to pass regulations and bring s.12 into force. Canadians should demand no less.
Full Text Available Aphids, the destructive insect pests in the agriculture, horticulture and forestry, are capable of reproducing asexually and sexually upon environmental change. However, the molecular basis of aphid reproductive mode switch remains an enigma. Here we report a comparative analysis of differential gene expression profiling among parthenogenetic females, gynoparae and sexual females of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii, using the RNA-seq approach with next-generation sequencing platforms, followed by RT-qPCR. At the cutoff criteria of fold change ≥2 and P<0.01, we identified 741 up- and 879 down-regulated genes in gynoparae versus parthenogenetic females, 2,101 up- and 2,210 down-regulated genes in sexual females compared to gynoparae, and 1,614 up- and 2,238 down-regulated genes in sexual females relative to parthenogenetic females. Gene ontology category and KEGG pathway analysis suggest the involvement of differentially expressed genes in multiple cellular signaling pathways into the reproductive mode transition, including phototransduction, cuticle composition, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation and endocrine regulation. This study forms a basis for deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the shift from asexual to sexual reproduction in the cotton aphid. It also provides valuable resources for future studies on this host-alternating aphid species, and the insight into the understanding of reproductive mode plasticity in different aphid species.
... of materials in library collections. 505.3 Section 505.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY... in library collections. (a) Photocopy reproduction of paper copy will be set as a flat fee of...
Peregrin, Laura S; Butcher, Paul A; Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B
In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34%) were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory). Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish); gastric herniation (46%); ruptured swim bladder (73%); organ displacement (48%); and kidney (3%), liver (73%) and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%); with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes) with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract) and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish). The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.
Laura S Peregrin
Full Text Available In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34% were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory. Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish; gastric herniation (46%; ruptured swim bladder (73%; organ displacement (48%; and kidney (3%, liver (73% and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%; with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish. The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.