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Sample records for afo regulate reproductive

  1. DEP and AFO regulate reproductive habit in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual reproduction is essential for the life cycle of most angiosperms. However, pseudovivipary is an important reproductive strategy in some grasses. In this mode of reproduction, asexual propagules are produced in place of sexual reproductive structures. However, the molecular mechanism of pseudovivipary still remains a mystery. In this work, we found three naturally occurring mutants in rice, namely, phoenix (pho, degenerative palea (dep, and abnormal floral organs (afo. Genetic analysis of them indicated that the stable pseudovivipary mutant pho was a double mutant containing both a Mendelian mutation in DEP and a non-Mendelian mutation in AFO. Further map-based cloning and microarray analysis revealed that dep mutant was caused by a genetic alteration in OsMADS15 while afo was caused by an epigenetic mutation in OsMADS1. Thus, OsMADS1 and OsMADS15 are both required to ensure sexual reproduction in rice and mutations of them lead to the switch of reproductive habit from sexual to asexual in rice. For the first time, our results reveal two regulators for sexual and asexual reproduction modes in flowering plants. In addition, our findings also make it possible to manipulate the reproductive strategy of plants, at least in rice.

  2. Reproductive Steroid Regulation of Mood and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Johnson, Sarah L; Abate, Anna C; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine evidence supporting the role of reproductive steroids in the regulation of mood and behavior in women and the nature of that role. In the first half of the article, we review evidence for the following: (i) the reproductive system is designed to regulate behavior; (ii) from the subcellular to cellular to circuit to behavior, reproductive steroids are powerful neuroregulators; (iii) affective disorders are disorders of behavioral state; and (iv) reproductive steroids affect virtually every system implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. In the second half of the article, we discuss the diagnosis of the three reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders (premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postpartum depression, and perimenopausal depression) and present evidence supporting the relevance of reproductive steroids to these conditions. Existing evidence suggests that changes in reproductive steroid levels during specific reproductive states (i.e., the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, parturition, and the menopause transition) trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women, thus suggesting the etiopathogenic relevance of these hormonal changes in reproductive mood disorders. Understanding the source of individual susceptibility is critical to both preventing the onset of illness and developing novel, individualized treatments for reproductive-related affective dysregulation. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1135-1160, 2016e. PMID:27347888

  3. Neuropeptide Regulation of Appetite and Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small CJ

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now recognised that appropriate regulation of reproduction, energy intake and energy expenditure, and thus maintenance of body weight and fertility, relies on complex hypothalamic neuro-circuitry. Feeding and reproductive function are closely linked. During times of under nourishment and falling body fat the reproductive axis is down regulated. Circulating factors and hypothalamic circuits co-ordinate these responses. Leptin has been described to be an important peripheral signal that indicates body fat stores to the hypothalamus and thus links nutrition and reproduction. Leptin acts by altering neuropeptide circuits in the hypothalamus, which alter gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH release and food intake. The importance of key neuropeptide systems identified in rodents is now being established in man. Notably mutations in the melanocortin MC4 receptor are found in up to 4 % of the morbidly obese whilst in a proportion of patients with anorexia nervosa mutations have been identified in the agoutirelated peptide (AgRP gene, which codes for an endogenous antagonist of this receptor. Intranasal administration of a melanocortin fragment known to activate the MC4 receptor decreases adiposity in humans. The melanocortin system has been shown to influence the reproductive axis in rodents. However, the role of the melanocortin system in the control of reproduction in humans remains to be established. Since the discovery of leptin, attention has also been focused on peripheral signals that regulate reproduction, food intake and energy expenditure, either directly or via feedback on hypothalamic circuits. Notable new discoveries in this area include the gastric hormone ghrelin. Circulating ghrelin stimulates food intake in rodents and humans although an influence on the reproductive axis is yet to be reported. Neuropeptidregulation von Appetit und Reproduktion. Mittlerweile gilt es als anerkannt, daß eine entsprechende Regulation der

  4. Assisted reproductive technology in the USA: Is more regulation needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Lucy; Blyth, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The regulation of assisted reproductive technologies is a contested area. Some jurisdictions, such as the UK and a number of Australian states, have comprehensive regulation of most aspects of assisted reproductive technologies; others, such as the USA, have taken a more piecemeal approach and rely on professional guidelines and the general regulation of medical practice to govern this area. It will be argued that such a laissez-faire approach is inadequate for regulating the complex area of assisted reproductive technologies. Two key examples, reducing multiple births and registers of donors and offspring, will be considered to illustrate the effects of the regulatory structure of assisted reproductive technologies in the USA on practice. It will be concluded that the regulatory structure in the USA fails to provide an adequate mechanism for ensuring the ethical and safe conduct of ART services, and that more comprehensive regulation is required. PMID:25171854

  5. Responsive regulation of cross-border assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-12-01

    This article considers the question: how might Australian regulators constructively respond to the dynamic and complex challenges posed by cross-border assisted reproduction? To begin, the article summarises the available international scholarship and outlines what little we know about Australian cross-border reproductive travel. Of the three generally proposed responses to cross-border reproductive care (prohibition, harm minimisation and harmonisation), the article summarily rejects the first approach, and instead discusses a mixture of the latter two. The article proposes the beginnings of an immediate policy response aimed not at stopping cross-border practices per se, but rather at understanding and reducing the risks associated with them, as well as flagging the pursuit of more ambitious meta-goals such as developing more equitable and accessible treatment frameworks for assisted reproductive technology and encouraging domestic self-sufficiency in reproduction. PMID:26939503

  6. Molecular basis for regulating seasonal reproduction in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki-Ohkawa, Taeko; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Animals that inhabit mid- to high-latitude regions exhibit various adaptive behaviors, such as migration, reproduction, molting and hibernation in response to seasonal cues. These adaptive behaviors are tightly regulated by seasonal changes in photoperiod, the relative day length vs night length. Recently, the regulatory pathway of seasonal reproduction has been elucidated using quail. In birds, deep brain photoreceptors receive and transmit light information to the pars tuberalis in the pituitary gland, which induces the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid-stimulating hormone locally activates thyroid hormone via induction of type 2 deiodinase in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Thyroid hormone then induces morphological changes in the terminals of neurons that express gonadotropin-releasing hormone and facilitates gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary gland. In mammals, light information is received by photoreceptors in the retina and neurally transmitted to the pineal gland, where it inhibits the synthesis and secretion of melatonin, which is crucial for seasonal reproduction. Importantly, the signaling pathway downstream of light detection and signaling is fully conserved between mammals and birds. In fish, the regulatory components of seasonal reproduction are integrated, from light detection to neuroendocrine output, in a fish-specific organ called the saccus vasculosus. Various physiological processes in humans are also influenced by seasonal environmental changes. The findings discussed herein may provide clues to addressing human diseases, such as seasonal affective disorder. PMID:27068698

  7. Regulation of seasonal reproduction by hypothalamic activation of thyroid hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai eShinomiya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organisms living outside the tropics measure the changes in the length of the day to adapt to seasonal changes in the environment. Animals that breed during spring and summer are called long-day breeders, while those that breed during fall are called short-day breeders. Although the influence of thyroid hormone in the regulation of seasonal reproduction has been known for several decades, its precise mechanism remained unknown. Recent studies revealed that the activation of thyroid hormone within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH plays a key role in this phenomenon. This localized activation of the thyroid hormone is controlled by thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH secreted from the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland. Although seasonal reproduction is a rate-limiting factor in animal production, genes involved in photoperiodic signal transduction pathway could emerge as potential targets to facilitate domestication.

  8. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; Freeman, D. Carl; McArthur, E.D.; Kim, Y.-O.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at five times the rate observed in nonsymbiotic plants. Endophytes also influenced sexual reproduction of mature big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plants. Two spatially distinct big sagebrush subspecies and their hybrids were symbiotic with unique fungal endophytes, despite being separated by only 380 m distance and 60 m elevation. A double reciprocal transplant experiment of parental and hybrid plants, and soils across the hybrid zone showed that fungal endophytes interact with the soils and different plant genotypes to confer enhanced plant reproduction in soil native to the endophyte and reduced reproduction in soil alien to the endophyte. Moreover, the most prevalent endophyte of the hybrid zone reduced the fitness of both parental subspecies. Because these endophytes are passed to the next generation of plants on seed coats, this interaction provides a selective advantage, habitat specificity, and the means of restricting gene flow, thereby making the hybrid zone stable, narrow and potentially leading to speciation. ?? 2009 Landes Bioscience.

  9. a Study on the Structural Stress Analysis of Plastic Ankle Foot Orthosis (afo) Under Dorsiflexion and Plantarflextion Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Shin; Choi, Young-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Kang-Hee

    The ankle foot orthosis (AFO) is used as the gait assistive tool for hemiplegic patients. The structural characteristics of the AFO are applied to the state of the patient. However, the prescription guide for hemiplegic patients is not well established. The purpose of this study is to develop design guide to find out the structural characteristics of polypropylene of AFO used for hemiplegics. In this study, the rigidities of dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the AFO with varied types of ankle widths are investigated and performed by using FEM code.

  10. The development of the Asian Forum for Polar Sciences (AFoPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeadong; Jeong, Jihoon

    2015-12-01

    The Asian Forum for Polar Sciences (AFoPS), an international forum of Asian polar research institutes, was established for the advancement of polar sciences among its members in 2004. The Forum has served as an important medium of Asian collective endeavors for polar affairs in human and information exchange, research collaboration, and logistics cooperation for the last decade. The historical development of the AFoPS in retrospect can be divided into four phases: inception and establishment (2003-2004), growth and expansion (2005-2007), review and restructuring (2008-2011), and achievements and further measures (2012-2014). The progress of the AFoPS has not been linear and this trend will continue into the next decades. The Forum, however, clearly made achievements in this period of time, realizing multilateral research and logistics cooperation that would have been previously unimaginable; by doing so, it has laid the foundation for the future. Responsible for a great portion of the world's polar activities, the AFoPS will rise to meet the expectations of the world by producing notable research output, initiating international cooperative programs, and supporting non-polar Asian countries with education and research collaboration. These are the tasks of the AFoPS for the next decade and they require strategy that promotes and facilitates collaboration in a practical way and draws attention of non-polar Asian countries to the polar sciences.

  11. Recent advance in Asian polar science - Commemorating ten-year activities of the Asian Forum for Polar Sciences (AFoPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Doi, Koichiro; Ewe, Hong Tat; Krishnan, Kottekkatu Padinchati; Lee, Jae Il; Liu, Ruiyuan

    2015-12-01

    The Asian Forum for Polar Sciences (AFoPS) was established in 2004 to encourage and facilitate cooperation for the advance of polar sciences among countries in the Asian region. It commemorated tenth anniversary organizing the AFoPS Symposium on 7 October, 2014 in Port Dickson, Malaysia, hosted by the National Antarctic Research Center (NARC), University of Malaya. This second volume of AFoPS Special Issue includes those presentations submitted to the Symposium and scientific papers from AFoPS countries on wide variety of polar research. This publication is one of the excellent achievements of AFoPS.

  12. Plant sexual reproduction: aspects of interaction, history and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, M.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in angiosperms is an interactive process involving the sporophyte, gametophytes, embryo and endosperm as well as the environment, aimed at achieving pollination, fertilization and dispersal. This interaction occurs via an interface with nutrients and signals outside the cell and

  13. Non-photoperiodic regulation of reproductive physiology in the flexibly breeding pine siskin (Spinus pinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Heather E.; Hahn, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    In order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable conditions, animals use environmental cues to up- and down-regulate the reproductive axis appropriately. Although photoperiodic cues are one of the best studied of such environmental cues, animals also attend to others such as temperature, food availability, rainfall and social cues. Such non-photic cues are expected to be particularly important for tropical species and temperate-zone species that exhibit flexible or opportunistic breed...

  14. Non-photoperiodic regulation of reproductive physiology in the flexibly breeding pine siskin (Spinus pinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Heather E; Hahn, Thomas P

    2012-09-01

    In order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable conditions, animals use environmental cues to up- and down-regulate the reproductive axis appropriately. Although photoperiodic cues are one of the best studied of such environmental cues, animals also attend to others such as temperature, food availability, rainfall and social cues. Such non-photic cues are expected to be particularly important for tropical species and temperate-zone species that exhibit flexible or opportunistic breeding schedules. In this study, we investigate the use of non-photic cues, specifically food availability and social cues, to time the initiation of reproductive development in the pine siskin (Spinus pinus), a temperate-zone songbird with a flexible breeding schedule. Following winter solstice, males were housed on a 12L:12D photoperiod with either access to a preferred food, a potential mate (social cue), or both. Control birds received only maintenance diet and no mate. Access to a preferred food had a significant positive effect on testis size and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH). However, we found no effect of social treatment on reproductive development. The effect of the food treatment on reproductive development did not appear to result from effects on body mass or fat, as neither measure differed across treatments. The food treatment influenced not only reproductive physiology, but also reproductive behavior in this species, as access to seeds had a positive effect on affiliation of pairs. This study demonstrates that food is a potent stimulus for the initiation of reproductive development in pine siskins.

  15. Reproductive experiential regulation of cognitive and emotional resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsley, Craig H; Bales, Karen L; Bardi, Massimo; Stolzenberg, Danielle S

    2015-11-01

    Adaptation virtually defines survival. For mammals, arguably, no other developmental milestone is exemplified by--nor more reliant on--the sudden and dramatic behavioral alterations observed in the maternal female, which rapidly must undergo change in order to express a large suite of proper and effective maternal behaviors. As pregnancy progresses, as well as during lactation, when pup cues are rich and rampant, the female is literally transformed from an organism that actively avoided offspring-related signals, to one highly motivated by those same cues to build nests, be attracted to pups and to retrieve, group, groom, crouch-over, care for, and protect, the young. Ancillary responses such as reference memory, spatial learning, foraging (including predation), and boldness improve in mothers compared to virgins. Such modifications arise early and are persistent, with neural benefits that last well into senescence. Evolutionarily, such enhancements have likely reduced the maternal burdens associated with sheltering and feeding the vulnerable young; collectively, this strengthens the mother's/parent's reproductive fitness and that of the pups in which all this effort is invested. Of the many behaviors that change as a function of pending or concurrent maternity, therefore, what is the role of modifications to resilience, the ability to withstand the numerous, unpredictable, and threatening environmental events that the mother/parent must daily, indeed, multiply daily, face and thwart in order to bring the offspring from pups to fully functioning adults. We explore these questions, and their connections, here in a multi-disciplinary manner focused on the constellation of change that summates to fundamentally alter the female for the rest of her life. Behavior, brain, neurochemistry and genes are fundamentally changed as the substrate for reproduction unfolds and expresses its inherent plasticity. PMID:26092267

  16. [The Integration and Regulation of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase in Reproductive System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-yi; Xu, Guo-Heng

    2015-02-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) has long been considered as a classical rate-limiting enzyme during lipolysis since it was first described in 1960s. HSL is regulated mainly by catecholamine, including adrenalin. Studies in recent years indicated that the substrates for HSL are not only triglycerides, but also diacylglycerol with the catalytic activity is ten times that of triglycerides, glycerol esters and cholesterol esters, which overthrow the opinion that HSL is specific to triglyceride. The scientists have generated HSL gene knockout mice and confirmed HSL is widely located in the reproductive system, which indicates that HSL may play an important role in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process in the reproductive system. Here, we will focus on the features of the HSL gene, mRNA and its protein, and summarize the HSL functions in the reproductive system.

  17. The Fate and Transport of Reproductive Hormones and Their Conjugates in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive steroid hormones can disrupt the endocrine system of some species at ng/L concentrations. Sources of steroid hormones to the environment include human waste water effluents or manure produced at animal feeding operations (AFOs). Steroid hormones, such as 17ß-estradiol (E2) and estrone (...

  18. Critical Role of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulation(CFTR)in Female Reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsiao Chang CHAN

    2003-01-01

    @@ Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated Cl- channel, mutations of which are responsible for defective Cl- and/or HCO-3 secretions seen in cystic fibrosis (CF), a common lethal genetic disease affecting most exocrine glands/organs, including the lungs, intestine, pancreas and reproductive tracts of both sexes.

  19. Reproductive hormones regulate the selective permeability of the blood-brain barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Andrea C.; Clemente, Luca; Liu, Tianbing; Bowen, Richard L.; Meethal, Sivan Vadakkadath; Atwood, Craig S.

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive hormones regulate the selective permeability of the blood-brain barrier : Current address: Department of Biochemistry, Colorado State University, CO, USA. (Clemente, Luca) correspondence: Corresponding author. University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School, Wm S. Middleton Memorial VA (GRECC 11G), 2500 Overlook Terrace, Madison, WI 53705, USA. Tel.: +1 608 256 1901x11664; fax: +1 608 280 7291. (Atw...

  20. Phenotypic selection and regulation of reproduction in different environments in wild barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volis, S.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Mendlinger, S.; Ward, D.

    2004-01-01

    Plasticity of the phenotypic architecture of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, was studied in response to water and nutrient stress. Direct and indirect selection on several vegetative and reproductive traits was estimated and path analysis used to reveal how regulating pathways via maternal investme

  1. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated. PMID:26231239

  2. Food quality regulates the metabolism and reproduction of Temora longicornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Buitenhuis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was undertaken to determine the effect of food quality on feeding, respiration, reproduction and the resulting carbon budget of Temora longicornis. The stoichiometric ratios N : P, C : N and C : P of Rhodomonas salina were used as indicators of food quality. R. salina was grown in media with different inorganic nutrient concentrations to produce food for T. longicornis with particulate organic N : P ratios ranging from 10 : 1 to 23 : 1. Feeding rate was not affected by food quality. Maximum respiration (R, egg production rate (EPR, assimilation efficiency (AE, gross growth efficiency (GGE and metabolic increment (MI occurred when T. longicornis was fed on phytoplankton with a food quality of 16N : 1P. EPR, GGE and AE also decreased with decreasing C : N ratio and the energy required to produce eggs (CoE decreased with decreasing N : P ratio, indicative of nitrogen-dependent production. These data suggest that an algal composition of 16N : 1P defines the Threshold Elemental Ratio (TER and is the optimum diet for T. longicornis. The variations in metabolic rates and the resulting carbon budget are proportional to the quality of food ingested. GGE was negatively affected at dietary ratios above and below 16N : 1P, which in the natural environment could lead to a decline in species biomass with detrimental consequences for fisheries and carbon export. Field data show that phytoplankton organic N : P ratios can change on decadal timescales, and that an increase in the food N : P ratio can co-occur with a shift to smaller sized zooplankton and a change in species abundance. Further research is required to assess how much of the change in zooplankton community structure and activity can be attributed to changes in food quality, rather than to changes in temperature and food quantity.

  3. Involvement of opioid peptides in the regulation of reproduction in the prawn Penaeus indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    The possible involvement of an endogenous opioid system in the regulation of ovarian development in the prawn Penaeus indicus was investigated. Injection of leucine-enkephalin significantly increased the ovarian index and oocyte diameter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of methionine-enkephalin significantly decreased the ovarian index and oocyte diameters. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that an opioid system is involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans.

  4. Cross-border reproductive care: quality and safety challenges for the regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Trish

    2010-06-01

    Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) is increasing and poses legal, ethical, and moral challenges, not least for the organizations that regulate IVF. Fertility treatment in the U.K. is regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority which has focused on providing comprehensive information for people seeking CBRC, the standards of quality and safety they should expect, and issues of donor anonymity, surrogacy, multiple births, and PGD. PMID:20056208

  5. Non-photoperiodic regulation of reproductive physiology in the flexibly breeding pine siskin (Spinus pinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Heather E; Hahn, Thomas P

    2012-09-01

    In order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable conditions, animals use environmental cues to up- and down-regulate the reproductive axis appropriately. Although photoperiodic cues are one of the best studied of such environmental cues, animals also attend to others such as temperature, food availability, rainfall and social cues. Such non-photic cues are expected to be particularly important for tropical species and temperate-zone species that exhibit flexible or opportunistic breeding schedules. In this study, we investigate the use of non-photic cues, specifically food availability and social cues, to time the initiation of reproductive development in the pine siskin (Spinus pinus), a temperate-zone songbird with a flexible breeding schedule. Following winter solstice, males were housed on a 12L:12D photoperiod with either access to a preferred food, a potential mate (social cue), or both. Control birds received only maintenance diet and no mate. Access to a preferred food had a significant positive effect on testis size and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH). However, we found no effect of social treatment on reproductive development. The effect of the food treatment on reproductive development did not appear to result from effects on body mass or fat, as neither measure differed across treatments. The food treatment influenced not only reproductive physiology, but also reproductive behavior in this species, as access to seeds had a positive effect on affiliation of pairs. This study demonstrates that food is a potent stimulus for the initiation of reproductive development in pine siskins. PMID:22569115

  6. Thiol-based redox regulation in sexual plant reproduction: new insights and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Jose A; Pulido, Amada; Rodríguez-García, María I; Alché, Juan D

    2013-01-01

    The success of sexual reproduction in plants involves (i) the proper formation of the plant gametophytes (pollen and embryo sac) containing the gametes, (ii) the accomplishment of specific interactions between pollen grains and the stigma, which subsequently lead to (iii) the fusion of the gametes and eventually to (iv) the seed setting. Owing to the lack of mobility, plants have developed specific regulatory mechanisms to control all developmental events underlying the sexual plant reproduction according to environmental challenges. Over the last decade, redox regulation and signaling have come into sight as crucial mechanisms able to manage critical stages during sexual plant reproduction. This regulation involves a complex redox network which includes reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), glutathione and other classic buffer molecules or antioxidant proteins, and some thiol/disulphide-containing proteins belonging to the thioredoxin superfamily, like glutaredoxins (GRXs) or thioredoxins (TRXs). These proteins participate as critical elements not only in the switch between the mitotic to the meiotic cycle but also at further developmental stages of microsporogenesis. They are also implicated in the regulation of pollen rejection as the result of self-incompatibility. In addition, they display precise space-temporal patterns of expression and are present in specific localizations like the stigmatic papillae or the mature pollen, although their functions and subcellular localizations are not clear yet. In this review we summarize insights and perspectives about the presence of thiol/disulphide-containing proteins in plant reproduction, taking into account the general context of the cell redox network.

  7. Larval regulation of worker reproduction in the polydomous ant Novomessor cockerelli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebie, Jessica D.; Hölldobler, Bert; Liebig, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Although workers in many ant species are capable of producing their own offspring, they generally rear the queen's offspring instead. There are various mechanisms that regulate worker reproduction including inhibitory effects of ant brood. Colonies of the ant Novomessor cockerelli are monogynous and polydomous resulting in a large portion of nest workers being physically isolated from the queen for extended periods of time. Some workers experimentally isolated from the queen in laboratory nests lay viable eggs, which develop into males. We investigate the mechanism that regulates worker fertility in subnests separated from the queen by giving queenless worker groups queen-produced larvae, queen-produced eggs, or no brood. Our findings show that larvae delay the time to worker egg-laying, but eggs have no effect. Larval inhibition is a likely mechanism that contributes to the regulation of worker reproduction in N. cockerellli because larvae are easily transported to subnests that do not contain a queen.

  8. Information theory and the neuropeptidergic regulation of seasonal reproduction in mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Tyler J; Ball, Gregory F

    2011-08-22

    Seasonal breeding in the temperate zone is a dramatic example of a naturally occurring change in physiology and behaviour. Cues that predict periods of environmental amelioration favourable for breeding must be processed by the brain so that the appropriate responses in reproductive physiology can be implemented. The neural integration of several environmental cues converges on discrete hypothalamic neurons in order to regulate reproductive physiology. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH1) and Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in avian and mammalian species, respectively, show marked variation in expression that is positively associated with breeding state. We applied the constancy/contingency model of predictability to investigate how GnRH1 and Kiss1 integrate different environmental cues to regulate reproduction. We show that variation in GnRH1 from a highly seasonal avian species exhibits a predictive change that is primarily based on contingency information. Opportunistic species have low measures of predictability and exhibit a greater contribution of constancy information that is sex-dependent. In hamsters, Kiss1 exhibited a predictive change in expression that was predominantly contingency information and is anatomically localized. The model applied here provides a framework for studies geared towards determining the impact of variation in climate patterns to reproductive success in vertebrate species.

  9. The hypothalamic photoreceptors regulating seasonal reproduction in birds: A prime role for VA opsin.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Fernandez, JM; Cernuda-Cernuda, R.; Davies, WL; Rodgers, J.; Turton, M.; Peirson, SN; Follett, BK; Halford, S; Hughes, S.; Hankins, MW; Foster, RG

    2015-01-01

    Extraretinal photoreceptors located within the medio-basal hypothalamus regulate the photoperiodic control of seasonal reproduction in birds. An action spectrum for this response describes an opsin photopigment with a λmax of ∼492nm. Beyond this however, the specific identity of the photopigment remains unresolved. Several candidates have emerged including rod-opsin; melanopsin (OPN4); neuropsin (OPN5); and vertebrate ancient (VA) opsin. These contenders are evaluated against key criteria use...

  10. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalev Carmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues. In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART. Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions. In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions. Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance.

  11. Thiol-based redox regulation in sexual plant reproduction: new insights and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Jose A.; Pulido, Amada; Rodríguez-García, María I.; Alché, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    The success of sexual reproduction in plants involves (i) the proper formation of the plant gametophytes (pollen and embryo sac) containing the gametes, (ii) the accomplishment of specific interactions between pollen grains and the stigma, which subsequently lead to (iii) the fusion of the gametes and eventually to (iv) the seed setting. Owing to the lack of mobility, plants have developed specific regulatory mechanisms to control all developmental events underlying the sexual plant reproduction according to environmental challenges. Over the last decade, redox regulation and signaling have come into sight as crucial mechanisms able to manage critical stages during sexual plant reproduction. This regulation involves a complex redox network which includes reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), glutathione and other classic buffer molecules or antioxidant proteins, and some thiol/disulphide-containing proteins belonging to the thioredoxin superfamily, like glutaredoxins (GRXs) or thioredoxins (TRXs). These proteins participate as critical elements not only in the switch between the mitotic to the meiotic cycle but also at further developmental stages of microsporogenesis. They are also implicated in the regulation of pollen rejection as the result of self-incompatibility. In addition, they display precise space-temporal patterns of expression and are present in specific localizations like the stigmatic papillae or the mature pollen, although their functions and subcellular localizations are not clear yet. In this review we summarize insights and perspectives about the presence of thiol/disulphide-containing proteins in plant reproduction, taking into account the general context of the cell redox network. PMID:24294217

  12. Ultrasound guided block of the saphenous neuroma following use of an AFO in a patient with paraplegia. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesikburun, S; Köroğlu Omaç, Ö; Yaşar, E; Yilmaz, B; Kenan Tan, A

    2014-04-01

    The saphenous nerve is the terminal branch of the femoral nerve and a pure sensory nerve that provide sensation to medial leg. Injury to saphanous nerve following trauma or surgery of the knee can result in formation of a painful neuroma along its distribution. We present a case of saphenous neuroma following use of an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) in a patient with paraplegia. A 36-year-old patient with paraplegia who was capable of walking independently with his AFO presented to our department with a 3-month history of pain in his left calf. Examination revealed tenderness, paresthesias and positive Tinel sign over the anteromedial aspect of the calf. Ultrasonographic examination of the painful area showed a mass with heterogenous echogenity which was consistent with a saphenous neuroma at the site where fastener band of AFO compressed to skin. We performed a nerve block with steroid and local anesthetic injection under ultrasound guidance to the neuroma. The patient reported pain relief following injection. The use of the AFO may cause a painful saphenous neuroma which is an unusual cause of extremity pain in patients with paraplegia. Ultrasound may be a beneficial diagnostic tool and a guidance for the therapeutic interventions in this condition. PMID:24398411

  13. GABAergic regulation of the HPA and HPG axes and the impact of stress on reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camille Melón, Laverne; Maguire, Jamie

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes are regulated by GABAergic signaling at the level of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, respectively. Under basal conditions, activity of CRH and GnRH neurons are controlled in part by both phasic and tonic GABAergic inhibition, mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs), respectively. For CRH neurons, this tonic GABAergic inhibition is mediated by extrasynaptic, δ subunit-containing GABAARs. Similarly, a THIP-sensitive tonic GABAergic current has been shown to regulate GnRH neurons, suggesting a role for δ subunit-containing GABAARs; however, this remains to be explicitly demonstrated. GABAARs incorporating the δ subunit confer neurosteroid sensitivity, suggesting a potential role for neurosteroid modulation in the regulation of the HPA and HPG axes. Thus, stress-derived neurosteroids may contribute to the impact of stress on reproductive function. Interestingly, excitatory actions of GABA have been demonstrated in both CRH neurons at the apex of control of the HPA axis and in GnRH neurons which mediate the HPG axis, adding to the complexity for the role of GABAergic signaling in the regulation of these systems. Here we review the effects that stress has on GnRH neurons and HPG axis function alongside evidence supporting GABAARs as a major interface between the stress and reproductive axes.

  14. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis.

  15. Juvenile hormone regulation of female reproduction in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    To begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (Vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. RNA interference studied showed that expression of Vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. Juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) and GATAa but not ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its partner, ultraspiracle (USP) are required for expression of Vg genes. Feeding and mating working through Vg, Met, SRC, EcR, and GATAa regulate oocyte development. Knockdown of the expression of Met, SRC, EcR, USP, BR-C (Broad-Complex), TOR (target of rapamycin), and GATAa in female adults resulted in a reduction in the number eggs laid by them. Interestingly, Kruppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) knockdown in the adult females did not reduce their fecundity but affected the development of embryos in the eggs laid by females injected with Kr-h1 double-stranded RNA. These data suggest that JH functioning through Met and SRC regulate both vitellogenesis and oogenesis in C. lectularius. However, JH does not work through Kr-h1 but may work through transcription factors not yet identified. PMID:27762340

  16. The role of kisspeptin and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone in the seasonal regulation of reproduction in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J T

    2012-08-01

    Sheep are seasonal breeders, experiencing an annual period of reproductive quiescence in response to increased photoperiod during the late-winter into spring and renaissance during the late summer. The nonbreeding (anestrous) season is characterized by a reduction in the pulsatile secretion of GnRH from the brain, in part because of an increase in negative feedback activity of estrogen. Neuronal populations in the hypothalamus that produce kisspeptin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) appear to be important for the seasonal shift in reproductive activity, and the former are also mandatory for puberty onset. Kisspeptin cells in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and preoptic area appear to regulate GnRH neurons and transmit sex-steroid feedback signals to these neurons. Moreover, kisspeptin expression in the ARC is markedly up-regulated at the onset of the breeding season, as too are the number of kisspeptin fibers in close apposition to GnRH neurons. The lower levels of kisspeptin seen during the nonbreeding season can be "corrected" by infusion of kisspeptin, which causes ovulation in seasonally acyclic females. The role of GnIH is less clear, but mounting evidence supports a role for this neuropeptide in the inhibitory regulation of both GnRH secretion and gonadotropin release from the pituitary gland. Contrary to kisspeptin, GnIH expression is markedly reduced at the onset of the breeding season. In addition, the number of GnIH fibers in close apposition to GnRH neurons also decreases during this time. Importantly, exogenous GnIH treatment can block both the pulsatile release of LH and the preovulatory LH surge during the breeding season. In summary, it is most likely the integrated function of both these neuropeptide systems that modulate the annual shift in photoperiod to a physiological change in fertility.

  17. Predicting characteristics of rainfall driven estrogen runoff and transport from swine AFO spray fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W; Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, C Michael; Reckhow, Kenneth H

    2015-11-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) have been implicated as potentially major sources of estrogenic contaminants into the aquatic environment due to the relatively minimal treatment of waste and potential mobilization and transport of waste components from spray fields. In this study a Bayesian network (BN) model was developed to inform management decisions and better predict the transport and fate of natural steroidal estrogens from these sites. The developed BN model integrates processes of surface runoff and sediment loss with the modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) and the soil conservation service curve number (SCS-CN) runoff model. What-if scenario simulations of lagoon slurry wastes to the spray fields were conducted for the most abundant natural estrogen estrone (E1) observed in the system. It was found that E1 attenuated significantly after 2 months following waste slurry application in both spring and summer seasons, with the overall attenuation rate predicted to be higher in the summer compared to the spring. Using simulations of rainfall events in conjunction with waste slurry application rates, it was predicted that the magnitude of E1 runoff loss is significantly higher in the spring as compared to the summer months, primarily due to spray field crop management plans. Our what-if scenario analyses suggest that planting Bermuda grass in the spray fields is likely to reduce runoff losses of natural estrogens near the water bodies and ecosystems, as compared to planting of soybeans.

  18. Phenylalanine metabolism regulates reproduction and parasite melanization in the malaria mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Silke; Behrends, Volker; Bundy, Jacob G; Crisanti, Andrea; Nolan, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The blood meal of the female malaria mosquito is a pre-requisite to egg production and also represents the transmission route for the malaria parasite. The proper and rapid assimilation of proteins and nutrients in the blood meal creates a significant metabolic challenge for the mosquito. To better understand this process we generated a global profile of metabolite changes in response to blood meal of Anopheles gambiae, using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). To disrupt a key pathway of amino acid metabolism we silenced the gene phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) involved in the conversion of the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine. We observed increased levels of phenylalanine and the potentially toxic metabolites phenylpyruvate and phenyllactate as well as a reduction in the amount of tyrosine available for melanin synthesis. This in turn resulted in a significant impairment of the melanotic encapsulation response against the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Furthermore silencing of PAH resulted in a significant impairment of mosquito fertility associated with reduction of laid eggs, retarded vitellogenesis and impaired melanisation of the chorion. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the downstream enzyme DOPA decarboxylase that coverts DOPA into dopamine, produced similar effects on egg melanization and hatching rate suggesting that egg chorion maturation is mainly regulated via dopamine. This study sheds new light on the role of amino acid metabolism in regulating reproduction and immunity.

  19. Phenylalanine metabolism regulates reproduction and parasite melanization in the malaria mosquito.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Fuchs

    Full Text Available The blood meal of the female malaria mosquito is a pre-requisite to egg production and also represents the transmission route for the malaria parasite. The proper and rapid assimilation of proteins and nutrients in the blood meal creates a significant metabolic challenge for the mosquito. To better understand this process we generated a global profile of metabolite changes in response to blood meal of Anopheles gambiae, using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. To disrupt a key pathway of amino acid metabolism we silenced the gene phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH involved in the conversion of the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine. We observed increased levels of phenylalanine and the potentially toxic metabolites phenylpyruvate and phenyllactate as well as a reduction in the amount of tyrosine available for melanin synthesis. This in turn resulted in a significant impairment of the melanotic encapsulation response against the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Furthermore silencing of PAH resulted in a significant impairment of mosquito fertility associated with reduction of laid eggs, retarded vitellogenesis and impaired melanisation of the chorion. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the downstream enzyme DOPA decarboxylase that coverts DOPA into dopamine, produced similar effects on egg melanization and hatching rate suggesting that egg chorion maturation is mainly regulated via dopamine. This study sheds new light on the role of amino acid metabolism in regulating reproduction and immunity.

  20. Estradiol regulation of nucleotidases in female reproductive tract epithelial cells and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zheng; Fahey, John V; Bodwell, Jack E; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Rossoll, Richard M; Crist, Sarah G; Patel, Mickey V; Wira, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The use of topical and oral adenosine derivatives in HIV prevention that need to be maintained in tissues and cells at effective levels to prevent transmission prompted us to ask whether estradiol could influence the regulation of catabolic nucleotidase enzymes in epithelial cells and fibroblasts from the upper and lower female reproductive tract (FRT) as these might affect cellular TFV-DP levels. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts were isolated from endometrium (EM), endocervix (CX) and ectocervix (ECX) tissues from hysterectomy patients, grown to confluence and treated with or without estradiol prior to RNA isolation. The expression of nucleotidase (NT) genes was measurable by RT-PCR in epithelial cells and fibroblasts from all FRT tissues. To determine if sex hormones have the potential to regulate NT, we evaluated NT gene expression and NT biological activity in FRT cells following hormone treatment. Estradiol increased expression of Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase after 2 or 4 h in endometrial epithelial cells but not epithelial cells or fibroblasts from other sites. In studies using a modified 5'-Nucleotidase biological assay for nucleotidases, estradiol increased NT activity in epithelial cells and fibroblasts from the EM, CX and ECX at 24 and 48 h. In related studies, HUVEC primary cells and a HUVEC cell line were unresponsive to estradiol in terms of nucleotidase expression or biological activity. Our findings of an increase in nucleotidase expression and biological activity induced by estradiol do not directly assess changes in microbicide metabolism. However, they do suggest that when estradiol levels are elevated during the menstrual cycle, FRT epithelial cells and fibroblasts from the EM, CX and ECX have the potential to influence microbicide levels that could enhance protection of HIV-target cells (CD4+T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells) throughout the FRT. PMID:23936114

  1. Estradiol regulation of nucleotidases in female reproductive tract epithelial cells and fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shen

    Full Text Available The use of topical and oral adenosine derivatives in HIV prevention that need to be maintained in tissues and cells at effective levels to prevent transmission prompted us to ask whether estradiol could influence the regulation of catabolic nucleotidase enzymes in epithelial cells and fibroblasts from the upper and lower female reproductive tract (FRT as these might affect cellular TFV-DP levels. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts were isolated from endometrium (EM, endocervix (CX and ectocervix (ECX tissues from hysterectomy patients, grown to confluence and treated with or without estradiol prior to RNA isolation. The expression of nucleotidase (NT genes was measurable by RT-PCR in epithelial cells and fibroblasts from all FRT tissues. To determine if sex hormones have the potential to regulate NT, we evaluated NT gene expression and NT biological activity in FRT cells following hormone treatment. Estradiol increased expression of Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase after 2 or 4 h in endometrial epithelial cells but not epithelial cells or fibroblasts from other sites. In studies using a modified 5'-Nucleotidase biological assay for nucleotidases, estradiol increased NT activity in epithelial cells and fibroblasts from the EM, CX and ECX at 24 and 48 h. In related studies, HUVEC primary cells and a HUVEC cell line were unresponsive to estradiol in terms of nucleotidase expression or biological activity. Our findings of an increase in nucleotidase expression and biological activity induced by estradiol do not directly assess changes in microbicide metabolism. However, they do suggest that when estradiol levels are elevated during the menstrual cycle, FRT epithelial cells and fibroblasts from the EM, CX and ECX have the potential to influence microbicide levels that could enhance protection of HIV-target cells (CD4+T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells throughout the FRT.

  2. Ethical attitudes of German specialists in reproductive medicine and legal regulation of preimplantation sex selection in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Wilhelm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because of its ethical and social implications, preimplantation sex selection is frequently the subject of debates. METHODS: In 2006, we surveyed specialists in reproductive medicine in Germany using an anonymous questionnaire, including sociodemographic data and questions regarding ethical problems occurring in the practice of reproductive medicine. Most questions focused on preimplantation sex selection, including 10 case vignettes, since these enabled us to describe the most difficult and ethically controversial situations. This is the first survey among specialists in reproductive medicine regarding this topic in Germany. RESULTS: 114 specialists in reproductive medicine participated, 72 males (63% and 42 females (37%, average age was 48 years (age range 29-67 years. The majority of respondents (79% favoured a regulation that limits the use of preimplantation sex selection only for medical reasons, such as X-linked diseases (including 18%: summoning an ethics commission for every case. A minority of 18% approved of the use of sex selection for non-medical reasons (4% generally and further 14% for family balancing. 90% had received obvious requests from patients. The highest approval (46% got the counselling guideline against a preimplantation sex selection and advising a normal pregnancy, if preimplantation sex selection would be allowed in Germany. The majority (67% was opposed the personal use of preimplantation sex selection for non-medical reasons, but would think about it in medical cases. In opposite to woman, 14% of the men were in favour of personal use for non-medical reasons (p=0,043. 25% of specialists in reproductive medicine feared that an allowance of preimplantation sex selection would cause a shift in the sex ratio. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of German specialists in reproductive medicine opposes preimplantation sex selection for non-medical reasons while recommending preimplantation sex selection for medical

  3. Fish as models for the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, M; Bosma, P T; Fraser, E J; Van Look, K J; Trudeau, V L

    1998-06-01

    Models are essential for the full understanding of neuroendocrine control processes. In this regard fish offer a rich source of biological material. They have diverse growth and reproductive strategies, inhabiting most of the Earth's aquatic ecological niches. Fish possess many of the common vertebrate features but also offer several unique aspects to allow the biologist easy access to the study of hypothalamic and pituitary function. Several key examples of how teleosts, or the bony fish, can offer insight into fundamental mechanisms of vertebrate sex differentiation, growth and reproduction are reviewed. PMID:9827007

  4. A Preliminary Study of the Effectiveness of Chinese Therapeutic Food on Regulating Female Reproductive Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Lulu Fu; Hong Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of Chinese therapeutic food on female reproductive hormones in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Chinese kiwi fruit extract (Hong En No. 1) was provided for Australian peri-menopausal women for one month. Chinese medical assessment and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE) tests were conducted. Twenty-six urinary samples (pre and post-trial) which met the requirement of testing were analysed, the ra...

  5. Potential roles for GNIH and GNRH-II in reproductive axis regulation of an opportunistically breeding songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfito, Nicole; Zann, Richard; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George; Hau, Michaela

    2011-08-01

    The ability to breed at any time of year enables opportunistically breeding species to respond to good conditions whenever they occur. We investigate the neuroendocrine basis for this relatively unusual reproductive pattern in the avian world. One proposed mechanism for year-round breeding ability is tonic activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) production that is flexibly modified by gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) production during unfavorable conditions. GnIH could inhibit GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus and/or inhibit GnRH action on the anterior pituitary gland. We studied neuroendocrine patterns in wild Australian zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) sampled during a breeding period in Southern Australia, a non-breeding period in central Australia, and in juvenile males in the latter location. We asked whether patterns in immunoreactivity of three neuropeptides important for reproductive axis regulation, GnRH-I, GnRH-II and GnIH, during periods of breeding and non-breeding reflect this flexibility. We found that the numbers and sizes of immunoreactive (-ir) GnRH-I cells did not vary between breeding stages and ages. Contrary to our predictions, irGnIH cell number and size, as well as the synthesis of GnIH mRNA were similar in breeding and non-breeding conditions. However, breeding males had more and larger irGnRH-II cells in the midbrain compared to non-breeding males. Hence, while changes in irGnIH cells are not associated with fluctuations in gonadotropin secretion or gonad volume, the regulation of irGnRH-II cells might represent a previously-unidentified mechanism by which reproductive flexibility can be achieved; namely via behavioral neurotransmitter actions of GnRH-II rather than through the typical sensory-CNS integration-GnRH-I route.

  6. Canada's Assisted Human Reproductive Act: is it scientific censorship, or a reasoned approach to the regulation of rapidly emerging reproductive technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Colin

    2004-01-01

    After more than a decade of study, discussion and debate, the Canadian House of Commons and Senate have approved the Assisted Human Reproduction Act. Building on the earlier Bill C-47, which died on the order paper in 1997, the Act bans human cloning for reproductive or therapeutic purposes, payment for surrogacy arrangements, and trading in human reproductive materials or their use without informed consent. In addition, the Act significantly restricts research using human reproductive materials. This article compares the Act to legislative regimes in other nations with advanced human reproductive science. It concludes that while the Act has many laudable goals, it is flawed in that it tries to cover too much legislative ground. As a result it unreasonable impairs the ability of Canadian scientists to compete in areas such as stem cell research, and area that is expected to yield significant new approaches to treating human disease.

  7. Interactive effect of light colours and temporal synergism of circadian neural oscillations in reproductive regulation of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Suneeta; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2016-09-01

    Avian literature reports the modulation of 'photoperiodic gonadal responses' by the temporal phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations in Japanese quail. But, the modulation of 'light colour responses' by the temporal synergism of neural oscillations is not yet known. Hence the present study was designed to investigate the interaction of the light colour (blue, red) and the phase relation of neural oscillations in the reproductive regulation of Japanese quail. Three week old male Japanese quail were divided into two groups and maintained under a long day length condition (16L:8D) and were exposed to a 30 lux intensity of blue LED (light emitting diode) (B LED) and a red LED light (R LED). At the age of 15.5weeks, quail of one subgroup of B LED were injected with serotonin precursor (5-HTP) and dopamine precursor (l-DOPA) 12hrs apart (B LED+12-hr) and those of the R LED group were injected with the same drugs (5mg/100g body weight over a period of thirteen days) but 8hrs apart (R LED+8-hr). The remaining subgroups of both the light colour groups (B LED & R LED) received normal saline twice daily and served as controls. Cloacal gland volume was recorded weekly until 35.5weeks of age when the study was terminated and reproductive parameters (testicular volume, GSI, seminiferous tubule diameter and plasma testosterone) were assessed. Results indicate that the 8-hr temporal phase relation of neural oscillations suppresses reproductive activity even during the photosensitive phase of the red light exposed quail (R LED+8-hr) compare to the R LED controls. On the other hand, the 12-hr temporal phase relation stimulates the gonadal development of the B LED+12-hr quail compared to the B LED controls which after completing one cycle entered into a regressive phase and remained sexually quiescent. These experiments suggest that the temporal phase relations of circadian neural oscillations, in addition to modulating the classical photoperiodic responses, may

  8. Interactive effect of light colours and temporal synergism of circadian neural oscillations in reproductive regulation of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Suneeta; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2016-09-01

    Avian literature reports the modulation of 'photoperiodic gonadal responses' by the temporal phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations in Japanese quail. But, the modulation of 'light colour responses' by the temporal synergism of neural oscillations is not yet known. Hence the present study was designed to investigate the interaction of the light colour (blue, red) and the phase relation of neural oscillations in the reproductive regulation of Japanese quail. Three week old male Japanese quail were divided into two groups and maintained under a long day length condition (16L:8D) and were exposed to a 30 lux intensity of blue LED (light emitting diode) (B LED) and a red LED light (R LED). At the age of 15.5weeks, quail of one subgroup of B LED were injected with serotonin precursor (5-HTP) and dopamine precursor (l-DOPA) 12hrs apart (B LED+12-hr) and those of the R LED group were injected with the same drugs (5mg/100g body weight over a period of thirteen days) but 8hrs apart (R LED+8-hr). The remaining subgroups of both the light colour groups (B LED & R LED) received normal saline twice daily and served as controls. Cloacal gland volume was recorded weekly until 35.5weeks of age when the study was terminated and reproductive parameters (testicular volume, GSI, seminiferous tubule diameter and plasma testosterone) were assessed. Results indicate that the 8-hr temporal phase relation of neural oscillations suppresses reproductive activity even during the photosensitive phase of the red light exposed quail (R LED+8-hr) compare to the R LED controls. On the other hand, the 12-hr temporal phase relation stimulates the gonadal development of the B LED+12-hr quail compared to the B LED controls which after completing one cycle entered into a regressive phase and remained sexually quiescent. These experiments suggest that the temporal phase relations of circadian neural oscillations, in addition to modulating the classical photoperiodic responses, may

  9. Ovarian down Regulation by GnRF Vaccination Decreases Reproductive Tract Tumour Size in Female White and Greater One-Horned Rhinoceroses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Robert; Schwarzenberger, Franz; Göritz, Frank; Oh, Serena; Fernandes, Teresa; Bernardino, Rui; Leclerc, Antoine; Greunz, Eva; Mathew, Abraham; Forsyth, Sarah; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive tract tumours, specifically leiomyoma, are commonly found in female rhinoceroses. Similar to humans, tumour growth in rhinoceroses is thought to be sex hormone dependent. Tumours can form and expand from the onset of ovarian activity at puberty until the cessation of sex-steroid influences at senescence. Extensive tumour growth results in infertility. The aim of this study was to down regulate reproductive function of tumour-diseased and infertile females to stop further tumour growth using a Gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) vaccine. Four infertile southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and three Greater one-horned rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis) with active ovaries and 2.7 ± 0.9 and 14.0 ± 1.5 reproductive tract tumours respectively were vaccinated against GnRF (Improvac®, Zoetis, Germany) at 0, 4 and 16 weeks and re-boostered every 6–8 months thereafter. After GnRF vaccination ovarian and luteal activity was suppressed in all treated females. Three months after vaccination the size of the ovaries, the number of follicles and the size of the largest follicle were significantly reduced (P<0.03). Reproductive tract tumours decreased significantly in diameter (Greater-one horned rhino: P<0.0001; white rhino: P<0.01), presumably as a result of reduced sex-steroid influence. The calculated tumour volumes were reduced by 50.8 ± 10.9% in Greater one-horned and 48.6 ± 12.9% in white rhinoceroses. In conclusion, GnRF vaccine effectively down regulated reproductive function and decreased the size of reproductive tract tumours in female rhinoceros. Our work is the first to use down regulation of reproductive function as a symptomatic treatment against benign reproductive tumour disease in a wildlife species. Nonetheless, full reversibility and rhinoceros fertility following GnRF vaccination warrants further evaluation. PMID:27403662

  10. 'Not so wrong that we are prepared to threaten the entire service': the regulation of reproductive technologies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, M

    2001-01-01

    In the UK human embryo research and infertility treatments are regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), a national statutory body set up in 1991. Clinics are required by law to be licensed by the HFEA and open to inspection. In 1999 there were 107 clinics licensed to carry out IVF and/or donor insemination. There are regional variations in National Health Service funding and seventy-five percent of those treated pay for most of their treatment, usually to avoid long waiting lists or because they do not meet the eligibility criteria set by their local health authority. Having described the code of practice laid down by the HFEA the paper discusses the implications of new reproductive technologies from a social science perspective, focusing on three topics which continue to be debated by the media, the regulatory authorities, health professionals and 'lay' people. First, age limits and other criteria for assisted reproduction which raise the question 'who should be allowed to reproduce?' Second, donor anonymity and the question of payment for donors. Finally, the screening and selection of embryos for implantation and the recurring theme in the media of 'designer babies'. The HFEA can be seen to fulfill its intended role, mediating between the infertility professionals, patients and the wider general public. It seeks to allay public fears while supporting professionals by avoiding restrictions on research and treatment and by consulting with the public as to when extensions to research will be acceptable.

  11. Regulating Lesbian Motherhood: Gender, Sexuality and Medically Assisted Reproduction in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses juridical discourses about Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR in Portugal, focusing specifically on the access of lesbians to this type of intervention. Empirical data refer to an exploratory research that combined the analysis of legislation with non-directive interviews to five judges from Family and Juvenile Courts of Law of the Northern Region of Portugal. One argues that the representation of motherhood present in the law reinforces and reproduces normative sexuality and femininity while simultaneously justifies the exclusion of lesbians from MAR. As such, although Portuguese legislation emerges as a mechanism of partial deregulation of the gender regime since it appears to weaken the practical and causal association between sexuality and procreation, in fact, it ends up reinforcing dominant ideas of femininity and family. As for the judges who were interviewed, their representations of motherhood are broad enough to encompass medically assisted motherhood and/or motherhood accomplished within a lesbian couple. This is achieved through a process of normalisation of the lesbian and/or of lesbian motherhood, which may resort to five different assumptions: (i parenthood as a desire inherent to every human being; (ii motherhood as a defining element of femininity; (iii motherhood as a project framed by a stable conjugal relationship; (iv lesbian motherhood as something that can be accomplished through “natural” means; (v parenthood as a mechanism of social reproduction of the gender regime. These assumptions are differently combined and support different positions regarding lesbian motherhood: although some judges seem to concur with the preservation of heteronormativity, most favour legal changes to encompass other models of sexuality and family.

  12. Gonadotropin Inhibitory Hormone Down-Regulates the Brain-Pituitary Reproductive Axis of Male European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paullada-Salmerón, José A; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; Morano, Francesca; Zanuy, Silvia; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release from the pituitary of birds and mammals. However, the physiological role of orthologous GnIH peptides on the reproductive axis of fish is still uncertain, and their actions on the main neuroendocrine systems controlling reproduction (i.e., GnRHs, kisspeptins) have received little attention. In a recent study performed in the European sea bass, we cloned a cDNA encoding a precursor polypeptide that contained C-terminal MPMRFamide (sbGnIH-1) and MPQRFamide (sbGnIH-2) peptide sequences, developed a specific antiserum against sbGnIH-2, and characterized its central and pituitary GnIH projections in this species. In this study, we analyzed the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 on brain and pituitary expression of reproductive hormone genes (gnrh1, gnrh2, gnrh3, kiss1, kiss2, gnih, lhbeta, fshbeta), and their receptors (gnrhr II-1a, gnrhr II-2b, kiss1r, kiss2r, and gnihr) as well as on plasma Fsh and Lh levels. In addition, we determined the effects of GnIH on pituitary somatotropin (Gh) expression. The results obtained revealed the inhibitory role of sbGnIH-2 on brain gnrh2, kiss1, kiss2, kiss1r, gnih, and gnihr transcripts and on pituitary fshbeta, lhbeta, gh, and gnrhr-II-1a expression, whereas sbGnIH-1 only down-regulated brain gnrh1 expression. However, at different doses, central administration of both sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 decreased Lh plasma levels. Our work represents the first study reporting the effects of centrally administered GnIH in fish and provides evidence of the differential actions of sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 on the reproductive axis of sea bass, the main inhibitory role being exerted by the sbGnIH-2 peptide. PMID:26984999

  13. European accomplishments in regulation of the family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyzes family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies using the following treatments: homologues artificial insemination, heterologus artificial insemination (artificial insemination by donor, ovum donation, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. One specific situation of homologues artificial insemination is posthumous insemination, insemination after the death of the husband/partner. This procedure is allowed in, for instance, United Kingdom, but not allowed in France, Switzerland, and Italy. Considering genetics elements in this situation there is no doubt on fatherhood - father is a man whose sperm is used for insemination, regardless of the fact if frozen sperm or frozen embryo is used in the procedure. Nevertheless, until 2008 in United Kingdom, the husband/partner was not considered as legal father, because of the fact that the child was born after his death. Heterologous artificial insemination could be used in three different situations. First, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of different sexes. Second, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex and the third if a single woman is an only subject. Most recent procedure is the one in which subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex, specifically two women. This procedure is allowed in the United Kingdom and Sweden. In these legislatures, there is a rule that the woman who delivers the child is legal mother, and her spouse/partner is a second parent of the child. The most recent procedure of egg donation is a donation of only a part of an egg, mitochondrial DNA. In this case, there are in fact three genetic parents of the child: two genetic mothers and a father. Legally, the child has one mother (the woman who delivers a child and a father. One of potential outcomes of the recent research is the ability to create human embryo without any male genetic contribution - by

  14. Putative molecular mechanism underlying sperm chromatin remodelling is regulated by reproductive hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill-Sharma Manjeet Kaur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The putative regulatory role of the male reproductive hormones in the molecular mechanism underlying chromatin condensation remains poorly understood. In the past decade, we developed two adult male rat models wherein functional deficits of testosterone or FSH, produced after treatments with 20 mg/Kg/d of cyproterone acetate (CPA per os, for a period of 15 days or 3 mg/Kg/d of fluphenazine decanoate (FD subcutaneously, for a period of 60 days, respectively, affected the rate of sperm chromatin decondensation in vitro. These rat models have been used in the current study in order to delineate the putative roles of testosterone and FSH in the molecular mechanism underlying remodelling of sperm chromatin. Results We report that deficits of both testosterone and FSH affected the turnover of polyubiquitylated histones and led to their accumulation in the testis. Functional deficits of testosterone reduced expression of MIWI, the 5-methyl cap binding RNA-binding protein (PIWIlike murine homologue of the Drosophila protein PIWI/P-element induced wimpy testis containing a PAZ/Piwi-Argonaut-Zwille domain and levels of histone deacetylase1 (HDAC1, ubiquitin ligating enzyme (URE-B1/E3, 20S proteasome α1 concomitant with reduced expression of ubiquitin activating enzyme (ube1, conjugating enzyme (ube2d2, chromodomain Y like protein (cdyl, bromodomain testis specific protein (brdt, hdac6 (histone deacetylase6, androgen-dependent homeobox placentae embryonic protein (pem/RhoX5, histones h2b and th3 (testis-specific h3. Functional deficits of FSH reduced the expression of cdyl and brdt genes in the testis, affected turnover of ubiquitylated histones, stalled the physiological DNA repair mechanism and culminated in spermiation of DNA damaged sperm. Conclusions We aver that deficits of both testosterone and FSH differentially affected the process of sperm chromatin remodelling through subtle changes in the ‘chromatin condensation

  15. The regulation of science and the Charter of Rights: would a ban on non-reproductive human cloning unjustifiably violate freedom of expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Barbara; Caulfield, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Non-Reproductive Human Cloning (NRHC) allows researchers to develop and clone cells, including non-reproductive cells, and to research the etiology and transmission of disease. The ability to clone specific stem cells may also allow researchers to clone cells with genetic defects and analyze those cells with more precisions. Despite those potential benefits, Parliament has banned such cloning due to a myriad of social and ethical concerns. In May 2002, the Canadian Government introduced Bill C-13 on assisted human reproductive technologies. Bill C-13 deals with both the scientific and the clinical use of human reproductive materials, and it prohibits a number of other activities, including NRHC. Although the Supreme Court of Canada has never ruled on whether scientific experiments area form of expression, academic support exists for this notion. The authors go through the legal analysis that would be required to find that scientific experiments are expression, focusing in part on whether NRHC could be considered violent and thus fall outside the protection of section 2(b). The latter question is complicated by the ongoing policy debate over whether an "embryonic cell" is property of human life. The authors then consider whether a ban on NRHC could be justified under section 1 of the Charter. They conclude that both the breadth of the legislative purpose and the proportionality of the measure are problematic. Proportionality is a specific concern because the ban could be viewed as an outright denial of scientific freedom of expression. Although consistent with current jurisprudence on freedom of expression, this paper runs against the flow of government policy in the areas of regulation and prohibition of non-reproductive human cloning. As there has been no Charter litigation to date on whether scientific research is a form of expression, the authors introduce a new way of looking at the legality of the regulation of new reproductive technologies.

  16. Characteristics, tissue-specific expression, and hormonal regulation of expression of tyrosine aminotransferase in the avian female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, W; Song, G

    2016-10-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Accumulation of tyrosine in the body due to a genetic mutation in the TAT gene causes tyrosomia type II in humans. The TAT gene is regarded as a model for studying steroid-inducible factors regulating a variety of biological functions of TAT. However, little is known of the effects of estrogen on the expression of the TAT gene in chickens. Therefore, in the present study, we identified expression of the avian TAT gene in various organs. The results showed the TAT was detected predominantly in the liver and reproductive organs including testis, oviduct, and ovary. Specifically, TAT mRNA was expressed abundantly in the glandular and luminal epithelia of the oviducts in response to endogenous and exogenous estrogens which also induce dramatic morphological changes in the oviduct of chickens. In addition, target microRNAs of TAT (miR-1460, miR-1626-3p, miR-1690-5p, and miR-7442-3p) were found to modulate expression of the TAT gene. Especially, miR-1690-5p influenced TAT gene transcription by binding directly to its 3'-UTR region. Moreover, the expression of TAT was abundant in glandular epithelia of cancerous but not normal ovaries from laying hens. Taken together, our findings suggest that TAT plays an important role in the cytodifferentiation of oviducts in response to estrogen and in the progression of ovarian cancer in chickens. PMID:27295280

  17. Vertebrate Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  18. Reproductive hacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through “hacking” a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  19. Don’t put all your eggs in one basket! : reproductive strategies and fecundity regulation in temperate marine teleosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    In fisheries management the spawning stock biomass (SSB) is an important indicator of the status of exploited fish stocks. Knowledge on the reproductive biology is essential to estimate SSB. A large variety of reproductive strategies is found. In marine fish two extreme strategies are known, capital

  20. Melatonin reduces LH, 17 beta-estradiol and induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in reproductive tissues during rat ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Patrícia Fernanda F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin is associated with direct or indirect actions upon female reproductive function. However, its effects on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovulation are not clearly defined. This study aimed to verify whether exposure to long-term melatonin is able to cause reproductive hormonal disturbances as well as their role on sex steroid receptors in the rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation. Methods Twenty-four adult Wistar rats, 60 days old (+/- 250 g were randomly divided into two groups. Control group (Co: received 0.9% NaCl 0.3 mL + 95% ethanol 0.04 mL as vehicle; Melatonin-treated group (MEL: received vehicle + melatonin [100 μg/100 g BW/day] both intraperitoneally during 60 days. All animals were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4 a.m. Results Melatonin significantly reduced the plasma levels of LH and 17 beta-estradiol, while urinary 6-sulfatoximelatonin (STM was increased at the morning estrus. In addition, melatonin promoted differential regulation of the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, androgen receptor (AR and melatonin receptor (MTR along the reproductive tissues. In ovary, melatonin induced a down-regulation of ER-alpha and PRB levels. Conversely, it was observed that PRA and MT1R were up-regulated. In oviduct, AR and ER-alpha levels were down-regulated, in contrast to high expression of both PRA and PRB. Finally, the ER-beta and PRB levels were down-regulated in uterus tissue and only MT1R was up-regulated. Conclusions We suggest that melatonin partially suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, in addition, it induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in the ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.

  1. An investigation of the neurophysiologic effect of tone-reducing AFOs on reflex excitability in subjects with spasticity following stroke while standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, Aileen; Bach, Timothy; Rogers, Douglas; Bernhardt, Julie

    2010-06-01

    Tone-reducing ankle-foot orthoses (TRAFOs) are said to improve the control and functioning of spastic lower limbs by their biomechanic and neurophysiologic effects. Unfortunately, there is limited evidence in literature to support the theory that TRAFOs can effectively decrease spasticity in the foot and ankle neurophysiologically. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the neurophysiologic effect of TRAFOs on soleus muscle reflex excitability in subjects with spasticity following stroke while standing. A repeated-measures intervention study was conducted on 15 adult subjects with stroke who were recruited from the community. Custom-made articulated ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) and TRAFOs with orthokinetic compression garments (OCGs) were fabricated for each subject. Five conditions were tested: (1) Shoes only, (2) AFO, (3) TRAFO, (4) TRAFO with OCG, (5) shoes only, to determine if the TRAFOs were most effective in decreasing spasticity as assessed by the ratio of maximum Hoffmann reflex amplitude to maximum muscle response amplitude (Hmax:Mmax ratio) of the soleus. The results found that there were no significant treatment effects for the interventions (F = 0.992, df = 2.167, p = 0.388), however, when analysed subject-by-subject, four subjects displayed significant increases in their Hmax:Mmax ratios to at least one treatment condition. Overall, the results demonstrated that the tone-reducing devices had no significant neurophysiologic effect on soleus reflex excitability in subjects with spasticity, however individual responses showed that the TRAFOs increased spasticity in some individuals. PMID:20184503

  2. Interactions between gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and orexin in the regulation of feeding and reproduction in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Leah J; Xu, Meiyu; Volkoff, Hélène

    2008-08-01

    Links between energy homeostasis and reproduction have been demonstrated in vertebrates. As a general rule, abundant food resources favor reproduction whereas low food availability induces an inhibition of reproductive processes. In both mammals and fish, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and orexin (OX) are hypothalamic neuropeptides that play critical roles in the regulation of sexual behavior and appetite, respectively. In order to assess possible interactions between orexin and GnRH in the control of feeding and reproduction in goldfish, we examined the effects of chicken GnRH (cGnRH-II) intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection on feeding behavior and OX brain mRNA expression as well as the effects of orexin ICV injections on spawning behavior and cGnRH-II brain mRNA expression. Treatment with cGnRH-II at doses that stimulate spawning (0.5 ng/g or 1 ng/g) resulted in a decrease in both food intake and hypothalamic orexin mRNA expression. Treatment with orexin A at doses that stimulate feeding (10 ng/g) induced an inhibition of spawning behavior and a decrease in cGnRH-II expression in the hypothalamus and optic tectum-thalamus. Our results suggest that the anorexigenic actions of cGnRH-II in goldfish might be in part mediated by OX and that orexin inhibits reproductive behavior in part via the inhibition of the GnRH system. Our data suggest the existence of a coordinated control of feeding and reproduction by the orexin and GnRH systems in goldfish. PMID:18544455

  3. Don’t put all your eggs in one basket! : reproductive strategies and fecundity regulation in temperate marine teleosts

    OpenAIRE

    Damme, van, M.

    2013-01-01

    In fisheries management the spawning stock biomass (SSB) is an important indicator of the status of exploited fish stocks. Knowledge on the reproductive biology is essential to estimate SSB. A large variety of reproductive strategies is found. In marine fish two extreme strategies are known, capital spawners which have a determinate fecundity (no de novo oocyte recruitment during spawning), and income spawners which have an indeterminate fecundity (de novo oocyte recruitment during spawning)....

  4. NECK LEAF 1, a GATA type transcription factor, modulates organogenesis by regulating the expression of multiple regulatory genes during reproductive development in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Wang; Hengfu Yin; Qian Qian; Jun Yang; Chaofeng Huang; Xiaohe Hu; Da Luo

    2009-01-01

    In the monocot rice species Oryza sativa L., one of the most striking morphological processes during reproductive development is the concurrence of panicle development with the sequential elongation of upper internodes (UPIs). To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we cloned the rice gene NECK LEAF 1 (NL1), which when mutated results in delays in flowering time, smaller panicles with overgrown bracts and abnormal UPI elongation patterns. The NL1 gene encodes a GATA-type transcription factor with a single zinc finger domain, and its transcripts are de-tected predominantly in the bract primordia, which normally degenerate in the wild-type plants. Overexpression of NL1 in transgenic plants often gives rise to severe growth retardation, less vegetative phytomers and smaller leaves, suggesting that NL1 plays an important role in organ differentiation. A novel mutant allele of PLASTOCHRON1 (PLA1), a gene known to play a key role in regulating leaf initiation, was identified in this study. Genetic analysis demonstrated an interaction between nll and plal, with NL1 acting upstream of PLA1. The expression level and spatial pattern of PLA1 were found to be altered in the nll mutant. Furthermore, the expression of two regulators of flowering, Hd3a and OsMADS1, was also affected in the nll mutant. On the basis of these findings, we propose that NL1 is an intrinsic factor that modulates and coordinates organogenesis through regulating the expression of PLA1 and other regulatory genes during reproductive development in rice.

  5. 犬繁殖调控技术研究进展%Current Status and Progress in Canine Reproductive Regulation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董佳涵; 朱淑文

    2011-01-01

    由于犬具有一些独特的生殖生理特点,使犬的繁殖调控技术的发展一直面临着一些困难.目前犬繁殖调控技术的研究远远落后于其他哺乳动物.本文综述了犬诱导发情、精液保存、人工受精、胚胎移植及克隆等犬的繁殖调控技术国内外研究进展.%Currently, studies on canine reproductive regulation technology are far less developed than that in other mammals.Compared with other mammals, canine reproductive physiology has unique characteristics which make canine reproductive biotechnology faced with some difficulties.This review summaries the following aspects, including induction of estrus in dogs,preservation of semen and artificial insemination (AI) , embryo transfer (ET) and clone, and discusses its current progress and prospect.

  6. Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R

  7. Metabolic Regulation of Adipose Tissue on Reproduction%脂肪组织对繁殖的代谢调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冬冬; 姚海莉; 贺小卫; 杜亚轩; 左晓梅

    2012-01-01

    脂肪组织可以分泌一系列激素和细胞因子,广泛参与机体的能量代谢、免疫和炎症反应、发育和生殖等生理、病理活动。瘦素、脂联素和抵抗素被认为是重要的脂肪分泌因子,可能在介导能量代谢状态、神经内分泌轴及繁殖的过程中发挥重要作用。%The adipose tissue can secrete hormones and gy metabolism, immune and inflammatory responses, develop logical activities. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin was consid tissue, and may play an important role in the process of inte crine axis and reproduction. cytokines, which participate widely in the body's enerment, reproduction and other physiological and pathoered to be important factors which secreted by dipose raction between energy metabolic and the neuroendocrine axis and reproduction.

  8. Access to essential medicines for sexual and reproductive health care: the role of the pharmaceutical industry and international regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Jane; Berer, Marge

    2011-11-01

    The range of medicines and technologies that are essential for sexual and reproductive health care is well established, but access to them is far from universally assured, particularly in less developed countries. This paper shows how the pharmaceutical industry plays a major role in the lack of access to essential medicines for sexual and reproductive health care, by a) investing in products for profit-making reasons despite their negative health impact (e.g. hormone replacement therapy), b) marketing new essential medicines at prices beyond the reach of countries that most need them (e.g. HPV vaccines), and c) failing to invest in the development of new products (e.g. microbicides and medical abortion pills). Small companies, some of them non-profit-making, struggle to fill some of that demand (e.g. for female condoms). International patent protection contributes to high prices of medicines, and while international agreements such as compulsory licensing under TRIPS and the Medicines Patent Pool allow for mechanisms to enable poorer countries to get access to essential medicines, the obstacles created by "big pharma" are daunting. All these barriers have fostered a market in sub-standard medicines (e.g. fake medical abortion pills sold over the internet). An agenda driven by sexual and reproductive health needs, based on the right to health, must focus on universal access to essential medicines at prices developing countries can afford. We call for greater public investment in essential medicines, expanded production of affordable generic drugs, and the development of broad strategic plans, that include affordable medicines and technologies, for addressing identified public health problems, such as cervical cancer. PMID:22118143

  9. PFRU, a single dominant locus regulates the balance between sexual and asexual plant reproduction in cultivated strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Amèlia; Perrotte, Justine; Lerceteau-Köhler, Estelle; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Petit, Aurélie; Hernould, Michel; Rothan, Christophe; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2013-04-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) stands as an interesting model for studying flowering behaviour and its relationship with asexual plant reproduction in polycarpic perennial plants. Strawberry produces both inflorescences and stolons (also called runners), which are lateral stems growing at the soil surface and producing new clone plants. In this study, the flowering and runnering behaviour of two cultivated octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch., 2n = 8× = 56) genotypes, a seasonal flowering genotype CF1116 and a perpetual flowering genotype Capitola, were studied along the growing season. The genetic bases of the perpetual flowering and runnering traits were investigated further using a pseudo full-sibling F1 population issued from a cross between these two genotypes. The results showed that a single major quantitative trait locus (QTL) named FaPFRU controlled both traits in the cultivated octoploid strawberry. This locus was not orthologous to the loci affecting perpetual flowering (SFL) and runnering (R) in Fragaria vesca, therefore suggesting different genetic control of perpetual flowering and runnering in the diploid and octoploid Fragaria spp. Furthermore, the FaPFRU QTL displayed opposite effects on flowering (positive effect) and on runnering (negative effect), indicating that both traits share common physiological control. These results suggest that this locus plays a major role in strawberry plant fitness by controlling the balance between sexual and asexual plant reproduction.

  10. The non-structural protein Nsp2TF of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus down-regulates the expression of Swine Leukocyte Antigen class I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian M; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Ni, Yan-Yan; Cao, Dianjun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is arguably the most economically-important global swine pathogen. Here we demonstrated that PRRSV down-regulates Swine Leukocyte Antigen class I (SLA-I) expression in porcine alveolar macrophages, PK15-CD163 cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. To identify the viral protein(s) involved in SLA-I down-regulation, we tested all 22 PRRSV structural and non-structural proteins and identified that Nsp1α and Nsp2TF, and GP3 significantly down-regulated SLA-I expression with Nsp2TF showing the greatest effect. We further generated a panel of mutant viruses in which the Nsp2TF protein synthesis was abolished, and found that the two mutants with disrupted -2 ribosomal frameshifting elements and additional stop codons in the TF domain were unable to down-regulate SLA-I expression. Additionally we demonstrated that the last 68 amino acids of TF domain in Nsp2TF are critical for this function. Collectively, the results indicate a novel function of Nsp2TF in negative modulation of SLA-I expression. PMID:26895249

  11. Cytokine profiles and phenotype regulation of antigen presenting cells by genotype-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimeno Mariona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined the immunological response of antigen presenting cells (APC to genotype-I isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection by analysing the cytokine profile induced and evaluating the changes taking place upon infection on immunologically relevant cell markers (MHCI, MHCII, CD80/86, CD14, CD16, CD163, CD172a, SWC9. Several types of APC were infected with 39 PRRSV isolates. The results show that different isolates were able to induce different patterns of IL-10 and TNF-α. The four possible phenotypes based on the ability to induce IL-10 and/or TNF-α were observed, although different cell types seemed to have different capabilities. In addition, isolates inducing different cytokine-release profiles on APC could induce different expression of cell markers.

  12. Male reproductive health and yoga

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice cel...

  13. Genomic organization and reproductive regulation of a large lipid transfer protein in the varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A R; Shirk, P D; Duehl, A J; Donohue, K V; Grozinger, C M; Evans, J D; Teal, P E A

    2013-10-01

    The complete genomic region and corresponding transcript of the most abundant protein in phoretic varroa mites, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman), were sequenced and have homology with acarine hemelipoglycoproteins and the large lipid transfer protein (LLTP) super family. The genomic sequence of VdLLTP included 14 introns and the mature transcript coded for a predicted polypeptide of 1575 amino acid residues. VdLLTP shared a minimum of 25% sequence identity with acarine LLTPs. Phylogenetic assessment showed VdLLTP was most closely related to Metaseiulus occidentalis vitellogenin and LLTP proteins of ticks; however, no heme binding by VdLLTP was detected. Analysis of lipids associated with VdLLTP showed that it was a carrier for free and esterified C12 -C22 fatty acids from triglycerides, diacylglycerides and monoacylglycerides. Additionally, cholesterol and β-sitosterol were found as cholesterol esters linked to common fatty acids. Transcript levels of VdLLTP were 42 and 310 times higher in phoretic female mites when compared with males and quiescent deutonymphs, respectively. Coincident with initiation of the reproductive phase, VdLLTP transcript levels declined to a third of those in phoretic female mites. VdLLTP functions as an important lipid transporter and should provide a significant RNA interference target for assessing the control of varroa mites.

  14. Functional analysis of genes involved in the regulation of development of reproductive organs in rice (Oryza sativa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Quality of the rice grain is determined mainly by starch and protein contents of the endosperm. In this thesis, the analyses of four genes involved in the regulation of development of rice grain and floret are presented. Two CCCH type zinc finger proteins, OsGZF1 and OsGZF2, were identified as novel

  15. Switching on flowers: transient LEAFY induction reveals novel aspects of the regulation of reproductive development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris eWagner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Developmental fate decisions in cell populations fundamentally depend on at least two parameters: a signal that is perceived by the cell and the intrinsic ability of the cell to respond to the signal. The same regulatory logic holds for phase transitions in the lifecycle of an organism, for example the switch to reproductive development in flowering plants. Here we have tested the response of the monocarpic plant species Arabidopsis thaliana to a signal that directs flower formation, the plant specific transcription factor LEAFY (LFY. Using transient steroid-dependent LEAFY (LFY activation in lfy null mutant Arabidopsis plants, we show that the plant’s competence to respond to the LFY signal changes during development. Very early in the life cycle, the plant is not competent to respond to the signal. Subsequently, transient LFY activation can direct primordia at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem to adopt a floral fate. Finally, the plants acquire competence to initiate the flower-patterning program in response to transient LFY activation. Similar to a perennial life strategy, we did not observe reprogramming of all primordia after perception of the transient signal, instead only a small number of meristems responded, followed by reversion to the prior developmental program. The ability to initiate flower formation and to direct flower patterning in response to transient LFY upregulation was dependent on the known direct LFY target APETALA1 (AP1. Prolonged LFY or activation could alter the developmental gradient and bypass the requirement for AP1. Prolonged high AP1 levels, in turn, can also alter the plants’ competence. Our findings shed light on how plants can fine-tune important phase transitions and developmental responses.

  16. Regulation of fat storage and reproduction by Krüppel-like transcription factor KLF3 and fat-associated genes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Bakheet, Razan; Parhar, Ranjit S; Huang, Cheng-Han; Hussain, M Mahmood; Pan, Xiaoyue; Siddiqui, Shahid S; Hashmi, Sarwar

    2011-08-19

    Coordinated regulation of fat storage and utilization is essential for energy homeostasis, and its disruption is associated with metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis in humans. Across species, Krüppel-like transcription factors (KLFs) have been identified as key components of adipogenesis. In humans, KLF14 acts as a master transregulator of adipose gene expression in type 2 diabetes and cis-acting expression quantitative trait locus associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Herein we report that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, mutants in klf-3 accumulate large fat droplets rich in neutral lipids in the intestine; this lipid accumulation is associated with an increase in triglyceride levels. The klf-3 mutants show normal pharyngeal pumping; however, they are sterile or semisterile. We explored important genetic interactions of klf-3 with the genes encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation in mitochondria or peroxisomes and FA synthesis in the cytosol, namely acyl-CoA synthetase (acs-1 and acs-2), acyl-CoA oxidase (F08A8.1 and F08A8.2), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (fat-7). We show that mutations or RNA interference in these genes increases fat deposits in the intestine of acs-1, acs-2, F08A8.1, and F08A8 animals. We further show that acs-1 and F08A8.1 influence larval development and fertility, respectively. Thus, KLF3 may regulate FA utilization in the intestine and reproductive tissue. We demonstrate that depletion of F08A8.1 activity, but not of acs-1, acs-2, F08A8.2, or fat-7 activity, enhances the fat phenotype of the klf-3 mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that klf-3 regulates lipid metabolism, along with acs-1, acs-2, F08A8.1, and F08A8.2, by promoting FA β-oxidation and, in parallel, may contribute to normal reproductive behavior and fecundity in C. elegans. PMID:21704635

  17. Association of the molecular regulation of ear leaf senescence/stress response and photosynthesis/metabolism with heterosis at the reproductive stage in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Zhang, Zhe; Tan, Xianjie; Jiang, Yufeng; Gao, Jiong; Lin, Li; Wang, Zhenhua; Ren, Jun; Wang, Xiaolei; Qin, Lanqiu; Cheng, Weidong; Qi, Ji; Kuai, Benke

    2016-01-01

    Maize exhibits a wide range of heterotic traits, but the molecular basis of heterosis at the reproductive stage has seldom been exploited. Leaf senescence is a degenerative process which affects crop yield and quality. In this study, we observed significantly delayed ear leaf senescence in the reciprocal hybrids of B73/Mo17 and Zheng58/Chang7-2 after silking, and all the hybrids displayed larger leaf areas and higher stems with higher yields. Our time-course transcriptome analysis identified 2,826 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two parental lines (PP-DEGs) and 2,328 DEGs between parental lines and the hybrid (PH-DEGs) after silking. Notably, several senescence promoting genes (ZmNYE1, ZmORE1, ZmWRKY53 and ZmPIFs) exhibited underdominant expression patterns in the hybrid, whereas putative photosynthesis and carbon-fixation (ZmPEPC)-associated, starch biosynthetic (ZmAPS1, ZmAPL), gibberellin biosynthetic genes (ZmGA20OX, ZmGA3OX) expressed overdominantly. We also identified 86 transcription factors from PH-DEGs, some of which were known to regulate senescence, stress and metabolic processes. Collectively, we demonstrate a molecular association of the regulations of both ear leaf senescence/stress response and photosynthesis/metabolism with heterosis at the late developmental stage. This finding not only extends our understanding to the molecular basis of maize heterosis but also provides basic information for molecular breeding. PMID:27435114

  18. TOR Pathway-Mediated Juvenile Hormone Synthesis Regulates Nutrient-Dependent Female Reproduction in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-03-28

    The "target of rapamycin" (TOR) nutritional signaling pathway and juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of vitellogenesis has been known for a long time. However, the interplay between these two pathways regulating vitellogenin (Vg) expression remains obscure. Here, we first demonstrated the key role of amino acids (AAs) in activation of Vg synthesis and egg development in Nilaparvata lugens using chemically defined artificial diets. AAs induced the expression of TOR and S6K (S6 kinase), whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of these two TOR pathway genes and rapamycin application strongly inhibited the AAs-induced Vg synthesis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), TOR, S6K and application of rapamycin resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mRNA levels of jmtN (juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, JHAMT). Application of JH III on the RNAi (Rheb and TOR) and rapamycin-treated females partially rescued the Vg expression. Conversely, knockdown of either jmtN or met (methoprene-tolerant, JH receptor) and application of JH III had no effects on mRNA levels of Rheb, TOR and S6K and phosphorylation of S6K. In summary, our results demonstrate that the TOR pathway induces JH biosynthesis that in turn regulates AAs-mediated Vg synthesis in N. lugens.

  19. Reproductive technologies and reproductive rights

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Pinhas Shifman

    2014-01-01

    We observe a modern approach that allows for the possibility of a planned separation between sexual relations and procreation. The widespread use of contraceptives created the possibility of sex without reproduction, just as reproductive technologies created the possibility of reproduction without sex. Consequentially, the individual`s ability to control and plan childbirth has expanded, but parallel possibilities have been created for societal intervention in that process. The question wheth...

  20. FgFlbD regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. The fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. In a model filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. The objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism of action in F. graminearum. We characterized five fluffy gene homologs in F. graminearum and found that FlbD is the only conserved regulator for conidiogenesis in A. nidulans and F. graminearum. Deletion of fgflbD prevented hyphal differentiation and the formation of perithecia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans flbD demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for FlbD functions are conserved in F. graminearum. Moreover, abaA-wetA pathway is positively regulated by FgFlbD during conidiogenesis in F. graminearum. Deleting fgflbD abolished morphological effects of abaA overexpression, which suggests that additional factors for FgFlbD or an AbaA-independent pathway for conidiogenesis are required for F. graminearum conidiation. Importantly, this study led to the construction of a genetic pathway of F. graminearum conidiogenesis and provides new insights into the genetics of conidiogenesis in fungi.

  1. Reproductive Health and Reproductive Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive health represents, almost to an equal extent, a socio-cultural and a medical fact. What influences it, both positively and negatively, stems from the ways in which we culturally cognize and act with regard to reproductive behavior. These thoughts and actions are conditioned by a culturally contextualized conceptualization of human physiology which is, in turn, based on the conceptualization of sexuality, and especially, the normativization of gender roles. Therefore, reproductive health is, above all, female health, when viewed as a socio-cultural category, meaning that reproductive vulnerability mostly refers to those factors that negatively influence female reproductive health. These factors are social – they negatively influence reproductive health through the institutional and legally normative aspects, they are economic – they decrease the number of those who, in a certain socio-cultural context, have timely access to quality medical care, and they are cultural – they reinforce modes of thinking and behavior which do not take into consideration the right of every human being to his or her own sexual and reproductive life, but rather insist on conforming individual sexuality and reproductive desires and capacities to the dominant cultural norm.

  2. From gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone to SIFamides: are echinoderm SALMFamides the "missing link" in a bilaterian family of neuropeptides that regulate reproductive processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphick, Maurice R

    2013-11-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) belongs to a family of vertebrate neuropeptides with a C-terminal PxRFamide motif, which exert effects by activating the G-protein coupled receptors NPFF1 and/or NPFF2. Comparative analysis of genome sequence data has revealed that orthologs of NPFF1/NPFF2-type receptors occur throughout the Bilateria and the neuropeptide ligand that activates the Drosophila NPFF1/NPFF2-type receptor has been identified as AYRKPPFNGSIFamide ("SIFamide"). Therefore, SIFamide-type neuropeptides, which occur throughout protostomian invertebrates, probably share a common evolutionary origin with vertebrate PxRFamide-type neuropeptides. Based on structural similarities, here SALMFamide neuropeptides are identified as candidate ligand components of this ancient bilaterian peptide-receptor signaling system in a deuterostomian invertebrate phylum, the echinoderms (e.g., starfish, sea urchins). Furthermore, functional studies provide evidence that PxRFamide/SALMFamide/SIFamide-type neuropeptides have evolutionarily conserved roles in regulation (typically inhibitory) of reproductive processes.

  3. Discovering Genes Essential to the Hypothalamic Regulation of Human Reproduction Using a Human Disease Model: Adjusting to Life in the "-Omics" Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamou, M I; Cox, K H; Crowley, William F

    2016-02-01

    The neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction is an intricate process requiring the exquisite coordination of an assortment of cellular networks, all converging on the GnRH neurons. These neurons have a complex life history, migrating mainly from the olfactory placode into the hypothalamus, where GnRH is secreted and acts as the master regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Much of what we know about the biology of the GnRH neurons has been aided by discoveries made using the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency (IGD), a family of rare Mendelian disorders that share a common failure of secretion and/or action of GnRH causing hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Over the last 30 years, research groups around the world have been investigating the genetic basis of IGD using different strategies based on complex cases that harbor structural abnormalities or single pleiotropic genes, endogamous pedigrees, candidate gene approaches as well as pathway gene analyses. Although such traditional approaches, based on well-validated tools, have been critical to establish the field, new strategies, such as next-generation sequencing, are now providing speed and robustness, but also revealing a surprising number of variants in known IGD genes in both patients and healthy controls. Thus, before the field moves forward with new genetic tools and continues discovery efforts, we must reassess what we know about IGD genetics and prepare to hold our work to a different standard. The purpose of this review is to: 1) look back at the strategies used to discover the "known" genes implicated in the rare forms of IGD; 2) examine the strengths and weaknesses of the methodologies used to validate genetic variation; 3)substantiate the role of known genes in the pathophysiology of the disease; and 4) project forward as we embark upon a widening use of these new and powerful technologies for gene discovery. (Endocrine Reviews 36: 603-621, 2015).

  4. Pivotal roles for hormonally regulated expression of the HEP21 gene in the reproductive tract of chickens for oviduct development and in ovarian carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, W; Song, G

    2014-07-01

    Hen egg protein (HEP21) is a 21-kDa secreted protein and has a single copy of the Ly6/uPAR domain. Although HEP21 is expressed primarily in the chicken oviduct, its biological function(s) in the reproductive system of chickens is not known. Thus, in the present study, we investigated expression patterns of HEP21 with respect to hormonal regulation, oviduct development, changes in expression in laying hens undergoing induced molting, and in the development of ovarian carcinogenesis in laying hens. Results of present study indicated that HEP21 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression increased (P glandular (GE) and luminal epithelia of the magnum of the chicken oviduct in response to estrogen. The expression of HEP21 mRNA decreased (P < 0.001) as the oviduct regressed during induced molting and increased (P < 0.001) with recrudescence of the oviduct following molting. HEP21 mRNA was most abundant in GE of the oviduct during recrudescence, but not during oviduct regression following induced molting. Moreover, we found abundant expression of HEP21 in GE of cancerous ovaries, but not in normal ovaries of hens. Collectively, results of present study suggest that HEP21 is an estrogen-responsive gene in the oviduct of hens that likely regulates development of the chicken oviduct, and egg production and formation. Furthermore, there is increased expression of HEP21 in epithelial-derived ovarian cancer suggesting that HEP21 could be used for diagnosis and monitoring carcinogenesis in laying hens and in women. PMID:24906939

  5. Reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This article explores the reproductive health status of China. Since 1990, China has stepped up its efforts in promoting reproductive health and maternal and child health. Several studies demonstrated a remarkable progress made in this area. By 1997, maternal and infant mortality rates have declined, while the penetration rate for the immunization program and inpatient delivery rate increased. Despite these achievements, however, much remains to be done such as the lack of client-centered approaches to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the population for family planning services. A survey conducted in 1995 showed that the country's family planning program was focused primarily on demographic issues while little attention was given to reproductive health objectives. The situation improved when the State Planning Commission implemented its pilot program called the Quality of Care in Family Planning in China. The program yielded encouraging results including a reoriented philosophy towards reproductive health services, enhanced service facilities, informed choices for family planning methods, and the development of an operational information system. Another strategy adopted to address fertility and reproductive health issues was the implementation of adolescent reproductive health education as a required course for senior middle schools. Lastly, this article provided a brief overview of China's HIV/AIDS situation.

  6. ROLE OF SEROTONIN IN FISH REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy ePrasad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine mechanism regulates reproduction through the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis which is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. The HPG axis is regulated by a variety of internal as well as external factors. Serotonin, a monoamine neurotransmitter, is involved in a wide range of reproductive functions. In mammals, serotonin regulates sexual behaviours, gonadotropin release and gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH secretion. However, the serotonin system in teleost may play unique role in the control of reproduction as the mechanism of reproductive control in teleosts is not always the same as in the mammalian models. In fish, the serotonin system is also regulated by natural environmental factors as well as chemical substances. In particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are commonly detected as pharmaceutical contaminants in the natural environment. Those factors may influence fish reproductive functions via the serotonin system. This review summarizes the functional significance of serotonin in the teleosts reproduction.

  7. Genetic manipulation of a transcription-regulating sequence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals key nucleotides determining its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haihong; Zhang, Keyu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Changlong; Lu, Jiaqi; Gao, Fei; Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Hao; Lin, Tao; Li, Liwei; Tong, Guangzhi; Wei, Zuzhang; Yuan, Shishan

    2014-08-01

    The factors that determine the transcription-regulating sequence (TRS) activity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remain largely unclear. In this study, the effect of mutagenesis of conserved C nucleotides at positions 5 and 6 in the leader TRS (TRS-L) and/or canonical body TRS7 (TRS-B7) on the synthesis of subgenomic (sg) mRNA and virus infectivity was investigated in the context of a type 2 PRRSV infectious cDNA clone. The results showed that a double C mutation in the leader TRS completely abolished sg mRNAs synthesis and virus infectivity, but a single C mutation did not. A single C or double C mutation in TRS-B7.1 or/and TRS-B7.2 impaired or abolished the corresponding sg mRNA synthesis. Introduction of identical mutations in the leader and body TRSs partially restored sg mRNA7.1 and/or sg mRNA7.2 transcription, indicating that the base-pairing interaction between sense TRS-L and cTRS-B is a crucial factor influencing sg mRNA synthesis. Analysis of the mRNA leader-body junctions of mutants provided evidence for a mechanism of discontinuous minus-strand transcription. This study also showed that mutational inactivation of TRS-B7.1 or TRS-B7.2 did not affect the production of infectious progeny virus, and the sg mRNA formed from each of them could express N protein. However, TRS-B7.1 plays more important roles than TRS-B7.2 in maintaining the growth characteristic of type 2 PRRSV. These results provide more insight into the molecular mechanism of genome expression and subgenomic mRNA transcription of PRRSV.

  8. Male reproductive health and yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  9. Optimising Ankle Foot Orthoses for children with Cerebral Palsy walking with excessive knee flexion to improve their mobility and participation; protocol of the AFO-CP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerkum Yvette L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs, are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of walking energy cost of FROs is both limited and inconclusive. Much of this ambiguity may be due to a mismatch between the FRO ankle stiffness and the patient’s gait deviations. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of FROs optimised for ankle stiffness on the walking energy cost in children with SCP, compared to walking with shoes alone. In addition, effects on various secondary outcome measures will be evaluated in order to identify possible working mechanisms and potential predictors of FRO treatment success. Method/Design A pre-post experimental study design will include 32 children with SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion in midstance, recruited from our university hospital and affiliated rehabilitation centres. All participants will receive a newly designed FRO, allowing ankle stiffness to be varied into three configurations by means of a hinge. Gait biomechanics will be assessed for each FRO configuration. The FRO that results in the greatest reduction in knee flexion during the single stance phase will be selected as the subject’s optimal FRO. Subsequently, the effects of wearing this optimal FRO will be evaluated after 12–20 weeks. The primary study parameter will be walking energy cost, with the most important secondary outcomes being intensity of participation, daily activity, walking speed and gait biomechanics. Discussion The AFO-CP trial will be the first experimental study to evaluate the effect of individually optimised FROs on mobility and participation. The evaluation will include outcome measures at all levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, providing a unique

  10. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  11. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Male Reproductive System Print A ... reproductive systems. continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  12. 海洋软体动物生殖调控相关神经肽的研究进展%Review on Reproductive Regulation Neuropeptide in the Mollusks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明华; 迟长凤; 吴常文

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the main research on reproductive regulation neuropeptide in the mol-lusks which play a critical role in the development, maturity and maintainance of molluscs reproductive system. The existence of the neuropeptides was detected in molluscs by the methods of immunohistochemistry, ELISA and HPLC. Kinds of neuropeptide were universe in molluscs, mainly distributed in the centural nervous system and reproduction system. Genes fragements of partial neuropeptide have been cloned through RT-PCR. As a result, there is still a lot of work needed to be done about neuropeptide research which will be references for reproduction regulation in molluscs.%阐述了海洋软体动物相关生殖调控类神经肽的研究并发现其在软体动物的性腺发育与成熟和繁殖功能的维持中起着重要作用。采用免疫组织化学、酶联免疫吸附测定以及高效液相色谱等方法在多种软体动物中检测到了多种神经肽的存在,主要分布于中枢神经以及周围神经系统。部分神经肽经过RT-PCR已克隆出其片段基因。该类神经肽在软体动物中具有广阔的研究空间,该研究将为软体动物生殖调控机理提供理论依据。

  13. Mechanisms linking energy balance and reproduction: impact of prenatal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinehart, Erin M

    2016-01-01

    The burgeoning field of metabolic reproduction regulation has been gaining momentum due to highly frequent discoveries of new neuroendocrine factors regulating both energy balance and reproduction. Universally throughout the animal kingdom, energy deficits inhibit the reproductive axis, which demonstrates that reproduction is acutely sensitive to fuel availability. Entrainment of reproductive efforts with energy availability is especially critical for females because they expend large amounts of energy on gestation and lactation. Research has identified an assortment of both central and peripheral factors involved in the metabolic regulation of reproduction. From an evolutionary perspective, these mechanisms likely evolved to optimize reproductive fitness in an environment with an unpredictable food supply and regular bouts of famine. To be effective, however, the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic regulation of reproduction must also retain developmental plasticity to allow organisms to adapt their reproductive strategies to their particular niche. In particular, the prenatal environment has emerged as a critical developmental window for programming the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic control of reproduction. This review will discuss the current knowledge about hormonal and molecular mechanisms that entrain reproduction with prevailing energy availability. In addition, it will provide an evolutionary, human life-history framework to assist in the interpretation of findings on gestational programming of the female reproductive function, with a focus on pubertal timing as an example. Future research should aim to shed light on mechanisms underlying the prenatal modulation of the adaptation to an environment with unstable resources in a way that optimizes reproductive fitness.

  14. Maternal effects and population regulation: maternal density-induced reproduction suppression impairs offspring capacity in response to immediate environment in root voles Microtus oeconomus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jiang-Hui; Du, Shou-Yang; Wu, Yan; Cao, Yi-Fan; Nie, Xu-Heng; He, Hui; You, Zhi-Bing

    2015-03-01

    The hypothesis that maternal effects act as an adaptive bridge in translating maternal environments into offspring phenotypes, and thereby affecting population dynamics has not been studied in the well-controlled fields. In this study, the effects of maternal population density on offspring stress axis, reproduction and population dynamics were studied in root voles (Microtus oeconomus). Parental enclosures for breeding offspring were established by introducing six adults per sex into each of 4 (low density) and 30 adults per sex into each of another 4 (high density) enclosures. Live-trapping started 2 weeks after. Offspring captured at age of 20-30 days were removed to the laboratory, housed under laboratory conditions until puberty, and subsequently used to establish offspring populations in these same enclosures, after parental populations had been removed. [Correction added on 8 January 2015 after first online publication: '10-20 days' has been changed to '20-30 days.'] Offspring from each of the two parental sources were assigned into four enclosures with two for each of the two density treatments used in establishing parental populations (referred to as LL and LH for maternally unstressed offspring, assigned in low and high density, and HL and HH for maternally stressed offspring, assigned in low and high density). Faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) levels, offspring reproduction traits and population dynamics were tested following repeated live-trapping over two seasons. Differential fluctuations in population size were observed between maternally density-stressed and density-unstressed offspring. Populations in LL and LH groups changed significantly in responding to initial density and reached the similar levels at beginning of the second trapping season. Populations in HL and HH groups, however, were remained relatively steady, and in HL group, the low population size was sustained until end of experiment. Maternal density stress was associated with

  15. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  16. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  17. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  18. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Skip sharing on social media links Share ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved June 11, 2012, ...

  19. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  20. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  1. Researches on Regulation Mechanism of Connexin 43 Expression in Reproductive System by Sexual Hormones%性激素对生殖系统Cx43表达调控机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙馥箐; 段华; 汪沙

    2015-01-01

    由连接蛋白43 (connexin 43,Cx43)构成的细胞间间隙连接(gap junction,GJ)是介导细胞间直接的物质、能量交换及电、化学信号耦合的重要通路,其可保证细胞间功能活动的协调一致,在生殖系统细胞发育、分化及成熟等生理过程及功能活动中发挥非常重要的调控作用.性激素可在转录及翻译等层面调节生殖系统细胞Cx43的结构及表达,一方面通过核受体基因组机制调节Cx43基因的转录,另一方面通过非基因组快速信号传导通路机制调节Cx43的磷酸化水平,共同影响细胞间隙连接通讯(gapjunction intracellular communication,GJIC),进一步干预生殖系统细胞的病理、生理过程及功能活动.近年来,性激素在心血管系统病生理状态下对连接蛋白调节的变化及机制研究较为成熟,而在子宫、卵巢等生殖器官中,对性激素通过调节连接蛋白及间隙连接进而影响细胞间信息流通的研究较少,其作用机制并不清晰.故本文结合近年来文献,综述性激素对生殖系统细胞Cx43表达及GJIC的调控机制的研究进展,旨在为今后深入地研究提供可行的思路.%Gap junction (G J) composed of connexin 43 (Cx43) is a kind of cell-cell junction which significantly mediates the direct interchange of metabolites,energy and electrochemical signals from one cell to another.GJ ensures the coordination of intercellular activities and plays a vital role in the regulation of cell development,differentiation,maturation and functional activities in the reproductive system.Sexual hormones can influence the pathophysiological processes and functional activities of the reproductive cells by regulating gap junction intracellular communication (GJIC),which depends on the expression of Cx43.On one hand,sexual hormones regulate Cx43 gene transcription via the nuclear receptor mechanism,on the other hand,sexual hormones regulate Cx43 phosphorylation level through the signal

  2. Honeybee (Apis mellifera Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-A Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration—especially via the nasal or rectal route—could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  3. Expression and Its Regulation of KiSS-1 Gene Related with Reproduction%KiSS-1基因与生殖相关的表达及其调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 孙蕾; 常喆

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been found that KiSS-1 gene plays important roles in mammalian reproduction. Kisspeptin, the peptide product of the KiSS-1 gene has been shown to be powerful stimulators of the gonadotropin. Recent advances of expression of KiSS-1 gene related with reproduction and its regulation of hypothalamic expression by sex steroid hormones, metabolic hormone and photoperiod were reviewed in this paper for providing a reference for the direction of further study of KiSS-1 gene.%最近研究发现,KiSS-1基因在哺乳动物生殖内分泌的调节中具有重要作用,其编码的产物——kisspeptin能够强有力地刺激促性腺激素的分泌.笔者综述了KiSS-1基因与生殖相关的表达及性腺类固醇激素、代谢激素与光周期对其在下丘脑表达调节的最新研究进展,为今后KiSS-1基因的研究取向提供参考.

  4. Reproduction of Przewalski's Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaříková, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    This work is about reproduction of Przewalski’s horses (Equus Przewalskii, Poliakov, 1881), which is similar to reproduction of domestic horses (Equus caballus, Linaeus, 1758). Przewalski’s horses are considered to only living ancestor of domestic horses, logically they have similar biology and reproduction. Despite different numbers of chromosome they could have fertile offspring. Reproductive differences are mainly in length of reproduction indicators. For example Przewalsky’s horses ar...

  5. Neuropeptidomics applied to studies of mammalian reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thao T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptidomics, a mass spectrometry-based technique which aims to uncover the complete suite of neuropeptides present in a tissue, organ or cell from the brain or nervous system, has found application in studies examining physiological responses (e.g. food intake, appetite and reproduction. Neuropeptides (and peptide hormones have long been known as regulators of mammalian physiological processes, particularly reproduction. These peptides are derived from precursor proteins and become active via proteolytic processes and post-translational modifications. A relatively large number of neuropeptides, mainly formed in the hypothalamus or the anterior pituitary of mammals, have been specifically associated with reproduction, including GnRH, NPY, PYY and kisspeptin. Here, we will present an overview of neuropeptides, their roles in reproduction and the application of neuropeptidomics in this field. We address the advantages of neuropeptidomics in reproductive studies including the high throughput identification, profiling and quantification of neuropeptides present in reproductive tissues and also discuss some of the challenges. The application of neuropeptidomics to the field of reproduction will provide the foundation for a greater understanding of how neuropeptides act to regulate reproductive function.

  6. Gene pathways that delay Caenorhabditis elegans reproductive senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng C Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive senescence is a hallmark of aging. The molecular mechanisms regulating reproductive senescence and its association with the aging of somatic cells remain poorly understood. From a full genome RNA interference (RNAi screen, we identified 32 Caenorhabditis elegans gene inactivations that delay reproductive senescence and extend reproductive lifespan. We found that many of these gene inactivations interact with insulin/IGF-1 and/or TGF-β endocrine signaling pathways to regulate reproductive senescence, except nhx-2 and sgk-1 that modulate sodium reabsorption. Of these 32 gene inactivations, we also found that 19 increase reproductive lifespan through their effects on oocyte activities, 8 of them coordinate oocyte and sperm functions to extend reproductive lifespan, and 5 of them can induce sperm humoral response to promote reproductive longevity. Furthermore, we examined the effects of these reproductive aging regulators on somatic aging. We found that 5 of these gene inactivations prolong organismal lifespan, and 20 of them increase healthy life expectancy of an organism without altering total life span. These studies provide a systemic view on the genetic regulation of reproductive senescence and its intersection with organism longevity. The majority of these newly identified genes are conserved, and may provide new insights into age-associated reproductive senescence during human aging.

  7. 激素敏感性脂肪酶 HSL 对生殖系统的整合调控%The Integration and Regulation of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase in Reproductive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威仪; 徐国恒

    2015-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)has long been considered as a classical rate-limiting enzyme during lipolysis since it was first described in 1 960s.HSL is regulated mainly by catecholamine,inclu-ding adrenalin.Studies in recent years indicated that the substrates for HSL are not only triglycerides, but also diacylglycerol with the catalytic activity is ten times that of triglycerides,glycerol esters and cho-lesterol esters,which overthrow the opinion that HSL is specific to triglyceride.The scientists have gener-ated HSL gene knockout mice and confirmed HSL is widely located in the reproductive system,which in-dicates that HSL may play an important role in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process in the reproductive system.Here,we will focus on the features of the HSL gene,mRNA and its protein,and summarize the HSL functions in the reproductive system.%激素敏感性脂肪酶被认为是经典的脂肪分解限速酶,可特异水解甘油三酯,受儿茶酚胺等激素调控。近年来研究表明:HSL 作用底物不仅有甘油三酯,还包括甘油二酯、甘油一酯、胆固醇酯等。然而,脂肪酶在生殖系统的功能并不清楚,基因敲除小鼠为证实 HSL 广泛存在于生殖系统提供良好模型,提示其可能在生殖系统生理及病理生理过程发挥重要调节作用,本文将着重介绍生殖系统中 HSL 基因与蛋白质结构并总结其在生殖系统的功能。

  8. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies.

  9. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  10. REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF YELLOW PERCH (PERCA FLAVESCENS): ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENDOCRINOLOGICAL CUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of reproductive processes in yellow perch is fundamental for intensive culture of this commercially important, freshwater, perciform fish. This paper describes the annual reproductive cycle of female and male perch. It...

  11. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  12. Reproductive problems of the work force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, G D; Ravindran, J

    2000-03-01

    The number of women in the workforce in increasing. A substantial proportion are in the reproductive age which brings to attention the problem of work exposures that adversely affect reproductive outcome. These exposures include chemicals, radiation, strenuous physical activity and infections. They affect reproduction by effect on the germ cells, through hormonal distribution which in turn affects transport of germ cells or zygote, implantation and development. Some of these exposures are teratogenic. At present, some regulations and policies seem to be directed at women workers while there is evidence to show that women are not the only victims. Paternal exposures have also been reported to be associated with infertility, spontaneous abortions and other adverse outcomes. There is insufficient information about reproductive effects of work exposures and hence further research is required in this area. PMID:11072503

  13. Membrane progesterone receptors in reproduction and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Cosmes, Paulina; Vázquez-Martínez, Edgar Ricardo; Cerbón, Marco; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2016-10-15

    Progesterone is a sexual steroid hormone that has a critical role in reproductive processes in males and females of several species, including humans. Furthermore, progesterone has been associated with pathological diseases such as breast, gynecological and brain cancer, regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis. In the past, progesterone actions were thought to be only mediated by its intracellular receptor (PR). However, recent evidence has demonstrated that membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) mediate most of the non-classical progesterone actions. The role of the different mPRs subtypes in progesterone effects in reproduction and cancer is an emerging and exciting research area. Here we review studies to date regarding mPRs role in reproduction and cancer and discuss their functions and clinical relevance, suggesting mPRs as putative pharmacological targets and disease markers in cancer and diseases associated with reproduction. PMID:27368976

  14. Social context and reproductive potential affect worker reproductive decisions in a eusocial insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yagound

    Full Text Available Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps, the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be investigated and taken into account to understand the regulation of reproduction in insect societies. However, we know virtually nothing about the proximate mechanisms at the basis of worker reproductive decisions. Here, we test the hypothesis that the capacity of workers to reproduce in foreign colonies lies in their ability to react differently according to the colonial context and whether this reaction is influenced by a particular internal state. Using the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we show that workers exhibit an extremely high reproductive plasticity which is conditioned by the social context they experience. Fertile workers reintroduced into their mother colony reverted to sterility, as expected. On the contrary, a high level of ovary activity persisted in fertile workers introduced into a foreign nest, and this despite more frequent direct contacts with the queen and the brood than control workers. Foreign workers' reproductive decisions were not affected by the resident queen, their level of fertility being similar whether or not the queen was removed from the host colony. Workers' physiological state at the time of introduction is also of crucial importance, since infertile workers failed to develop a reproductive phenotype in a foreign nest. Therefore, both internal and environmental factors appear to condition individual reproductive strategies in this species, suggesting that more complex decision-making mechanisms are involved in the regulation

  15. Influence of Electroacupuncture on Efficacy of Estrogen in Regulating Hypothalamic Reproductive Endocrine Activity in Rats%电针对雌激素调节内分泌功能的作用及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少军; 谭连红; 杨永升; 乔丽娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the efficacy of estrogen-induced regulation of reproductive endocrine in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.Methods Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into control, model (OVX), EA-Guanyuan(CV 4), Estrogen (E) and EA+ E groups (n = 6 in each group).OVX model was duplicated by removing the bilateral ovaries.EA (5 Hz/20 Hz, 1 -2 mA) was applied to "Guanyuan" (CV 4) for 30 min, once every other day and for 3 sessions.Estrogen at doses of 0.5 mg/kg and 0.25 mg/kg was intraperitonealy given to rats in the E group and EA+ E group, respectively.Serum estrogen and cortisol contents were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and the expression of hypothalamic gonadotrophin releasing hormone(GnRH)mRNA, G protein-coupled receptor 54(GPR 54)mRNA, kisspeptin-1 (Kiss-1)mRNA and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA were detected by using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Compared with the control group, the expression levels of GnRH mRNA, GPR 54 mRNA and Kiss-1 mRNA in hypothalamus in the model group were increased significantly (P<0.05), while the expression of hypothalamic CRH mRNA was down-regulated obviously ( P<0.05), and serum cortisol and estrogen levels were reduced significantly (P<0.05).In comparison with the model group, the expression levels of hypothalamic GnRH mRNA in the EA, E and EA+ E groups, and those of hypothalamic GPR 54 mRNA and Kiss-1 mRNA in the E and EA+ E groups were down-regulated considerably (P<0.05); whereas hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression levels in the E and EA+ E groups were up-regulated obviously (P<0.05) ,and serum cortisol and estrogen contents in the E and EA+ E groups were increased remarkably (P<0.05).Comparison among the EA and EA+ E groups showed that the effects of EA+E group were significantly superior to those of EA group in down-regulating hypothalalmic GnRH mRNA and GPR 54 mRNA expression, and in up-regulating hypothalamic CRH m

  16. Shift work and circadian dysregulation of reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Gamble

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Health impairments, including reproductive issues, are associated with working nights or rotating shifts. For example, shift work has been associated with an increased risk of irregular menstrual cycles, endometriosis, infertility, miscarriage, low birth weight or pre-term delivery, and reduced incidence of breastfeeding. Based on what is known about circadian regulation of endocrine rhythms in rodents (and much less in humans, the circadian clock is an integral regulatory part of the reproductive system. When this 24-h program is disordered by environmental perturbation (such as shift work or genetic alterations, the endocrine system can be impaired. The purpose of this review is to explore the hypothesis that misalignment of reproductive hormones with the environmental light-dark cycle and/or sleep wake rhythms can disrupt menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and parturition. We highlight the role of the circadian clock in regulating human reproductive physiology and shift work-induced pathology within each step of the reproductive axis while exploring potential mechanisms from the animal model literature. In addition to documenting the reproductive hazards of shift work, we also point out important gaps in our knowledge as critical areas for future investigation. For example, future studies should examine whether forced desynchronization disrupts gonadotropin secretion rhythms and whether there are sleep/wake schedules that are better or worse for the adaptation of the reproductive system to shift work. These studies are necessary in order to define not only whether or not shift-work induced circadian misalignment impairs reproductive capacity, but also to identify strategies for the future that can minimize this desynchronization.

  17. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, K K; Kavya, K M; Jerome, A; Sharma, R K

    2016-04-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species.

  18. Ethical Issues Currently Being Discussed in Relation to Reproductive Medicine and the Laws Governing Reproductive Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Schleissing, S.; Kersten, J; Thaler, C. J.; von Schönfeldt, V.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive medicine laws in Germany currently mean that the relationship status of prospective parents is taken into consideration in decisions on whether their application for assisted reproduction is approved or rejected. In the light of new forms of shared parenthood, we should ask ourselves whether the current regulations are still an appropriate way of guaranteeing the best for the child. Current medical practices and their legal basis will be illustrated using the examp...

  19. Social aspects in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    1999-01-01

    In-vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive techniques have become common practice in many countries today, regulated by established legislation, regulations or by committee-set ethical standards. The rapid evolution and progress of these techniques have revealed certain social issues that have to be addressed. The traditional heterosexual couple, nowadays, is not considered by many as the only 'IVF appropriate patient' since deviations from this pattern (single mother, lesbians) have also gained access to these treatments. Genetic material donation, age limitation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, surrogacy and cloning are interpreted differently in the various countries, as their definition and application are influenced by social factors, religion and law. Financial and emotional stresses are also often described in infertile couples. Information as deduced from the world literature regarding IVF regulation, as well as about the existing religious, cultural and social behaviours towards these new technologies, is presented in this article in relation to the social aspects of assisted reproduction. PMID:10333367

  20. Polyamines on the reproductive landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Pavine L C; Palin, Marie-France; Murphy, Bruce D

    2011-10-01

    The polyamines are ubiquitous polycationic compounds. Over the past 40 yr, investigation has shown that some of these, namely spermine, spermidine, and putrescine, are essential to male and female reproductive processes and to embryo/fetal development. Indeed, their absence is characterized by infertility and arrest in embryogenesis. Mammals synthesize polyamines de novo from amino acids or import these compounds from the diet. Information collected recently has shown that polyamines are essential regulators of cell growth and gene expression, and they have been implicated in both mitosis and meiosis. In male reproduction, polyamine expression correlates with stages of spermatogenesis, and polyamines appear to function in promoting sperm motility. There is evidence for polyamine involvement in ovarian follicle development and ovulation in female mammals, and polyamine synthesis is required for steroidogenesis in the ovary. Studies of the embryo indicate a polyamine requirement that can be met from maternal sources before implantation, whereas elimination of polyamine synthesis abrogates embryo development at gastrulation. Polyamines play roles in embryo implantation, in decidualization, and in placental formation and function, and polyamine privation during gestation results in intrauterine growth retardation. Emerging information implicates dietary arginine and dietary polyamines as nutritional regulators of fertility. The mechanisms by which polyamines regulate these multiple and diverse processes are not yet well explored; thus, there is fertile ground for further productive investigation. PMID:21791568

  1. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 3500.9 Section 3500.9 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  2. CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of reproduction is important for seed stock production, selective breeding, growth rate, feed efficiency, meat quality, and biosecurity. These needs to control reproduction differ among cultivars and even segments of the same industry. No matter the impetus for aquaculturists to want to alte...

  3. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  4. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes some unique features of marsupial reproduction which include (1) chromosomal sex determination, (2) reproductive system, (3) birth, (4) location, and (5) embryonic diapause. These features suggest that viviparity evolved separately in eutherian and marsupial stocks after their derivation from a common oviparous ancestor. Bibliography.…

  5. Reproduction in eusocial bees (Apidae: Apini, Meliponini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinh, T.X.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents some key aspects of the regulation and the mechanisms of colony reproduction in honeybees and stingless bees. Special attention is paid to key questions about how the production of males, gynes and swarms takes place, and what intranidal and extranidal factors are related to the

  6. Adult neurogenesis and reproductive functions in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaud, Martine; Butruille, Lucile; Duittoz, Anne; Pillon, Delphine; Batailler, Martine

    2016-07-01

    During adulthood, the mammalian brain retains the capacity to generate new cells and new neurons in particular. It is now well established that the birth of these new neurons occurs in well-described sites: the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, as well as in other brain regions including the hypothalamus. In this review, we describe the canonical neurogenic niches and illustrate the functional relevance of adult-born neurons of each neurogenic niche in the reproductive physiology. More specifically, we highlight the effect of reproductive social stimuli on the neurogenic processes and conversely, the contributions of adult-born neurons to the reproductive physiology and behavior. We next review the recent discovery of a novel neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamus and the median eminence and the compelling evidence of the link existing between the new-born hypothalamic neurons and the regulation of metabolism. In addition, new perspectives on the possible involvement of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the control of photoperiodic reproductive physiology in seasonal mammals are discussed. Altogether, the studies highlighted in this review demonstrate the potential role of neurogenesis in reproductive function and emphasize the importance of increasing our knowledge on the regulation processes and the physiological relevance of these adult-born neurons. This constitutes a necessary step toward a potential manipulation of these plasticity mechanisms. PMID:27177964

  7. 喷施植物生长调节剂对蓖麻营养和生殖生长的影响%Effect of spraying plant growth regulators on vegetative and reproductive growth of Ricinus communis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 李培旺; 陈景震; 蒋丽娟

    2014-01-01

    According to field experiments,the effects of different plant growth regulators on vegetative growth and repro-ductive growth of Ricinus communis were observed and analyzed based on the experiments of treating castor with different kinds of hormone (IAA,6-BA,GA3 ,and KT),and take water treating as control.The results indicated that the stem diameter and plant height were increased by 100mg/L IAA,100~200mg/L 6-BA,200mg/L GA3 ,100~200mg/L KT. Then the flowering time was advanced by KT.Though the flowering time was longer by IAA,total inflorescence length and ratio of female inflorescence increased 26.38% and 56.17% respectively by 200mg/L IAA.The seed size and color were affected but there was no effect on seeds’oil content by four kinds of plant growth regulator.%对蓖麻幼苗喷施不同浓度的植物生长调节剂(IAA、6-BA、GA3、KT),并以清水处理为对照,观测分析植物生长调节剂对蓖麻营养生长及生殖生长的影响。结果表明:100 mg/L的IAA、100~200 mg/L的6-BA、200 mg/L的GA3和100~200 mg/L的KT对蓖麻的地径和株高均有促进作用,KT则提早了始花期;IAA延迟了蓖麻的始花期,但提高了蓖麻花序总长度和雌花序的长度。其中200 mg/L IAA分别使花序总长度和雌花序长度增长了26.38%和56.17%。植物生长调节剂影响种子的大小和色泽,对种子含油率无明显影响。

  8. The politics of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  9. Reproductive data for groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ROCKFISH database houses data from rockfish species collected by the SWFSC FED along the California coast as part of a reproductive study originating in the...

  10. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  11. Improving reproductive success and fertility preservation by ovarian treatments in different species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high technicity of the current reproductive techniques and the complexity of the reproductive system in different species require a profound training in reproductive biology. Reproductive biology has become an important part in the curriculum of veterinary sciences. The precise understanding of the metabolic regulation changes of cells and tissues cultured in vitro is essential to know the precise boundaries within which the gametic culturist needs to operate in order to ensure normal healthy offspring

  12. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  13. Reproductive Liberty and Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Carol A. Kates

    2004-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence pointing to a looming Malthusian catastrophe, governmental measures to reduce population have been opposed both by religious conservatives and by many liberals, especially liberal feminists. Liberal critics have claimed that 'utilitarian' population policies violate a 'fundamental right of reproductive liberty'. This essay argues that reproductive liberty should not be considered a fundamental human right, or certainly not an indefeasible right. It should, instead...

  14. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  15. The Natural Reproduction and Economic Reproduction of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the perspective of Marx’s materialism,the thesis expounds the natural reproduction and economic reproduction of agriculture,and analyzes the relationship between the two production processes.The natural reproduction of agriculture,the contradicted unification of agricultural organism and natural environment,conforms to natural law and has the specific objective environmental requirements.The economic reproduction of agriculture is the process of people’s production and labor which takes keeping the life vitality of agricultural organism as objective,including the reproduction of agricultural productivity and the reproduction of agricultural production relations.The agricultural productivity comprises social productivity and natural productivity.The process of agricultural economic reproduction must conform to the objective natural law and economic law.The relationship of agricultural natural reproduction and economic reproduction is that the agricultural natural reproduction process is intertwined with economic reproduction process;the variation trend of agricultural natural reproduction ability and economic reproduction ability is identical;the agricultural economic reproduction dominates over the natural reproduction.

  16. Updates in Reproduction Coming from the Endocannabinoid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Meccariello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system (ECS is an evolutionarily conserved master system deeply involved in the central and local control of reproductive functions in both sexes. The tone of these lipid mediators—deeply modulated by the activity of biosynthetic and hydrolyzing machineries—regulates reproductive functions from gonadotropin discharge and steroid biosynthesis to the formation of high quality gametes and successful pregnancy. This review provides an overview on ECS and reproduction and focuses on the insights in the regulation of endocannabinoid production by steroids, in the regulation of male reproductive activity, and in placentation and parturition. Taken all together, evidences emerge that the activity of the ECS is crucial for procreation and may represent a target for the therapeutic exploitation of infertility.

  17. Prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E

    2016-07-01

    It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on

  18. Adipokines and the Female Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species. These adipokines regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and embryo development. They are also present in the uterus and placenta where they could create a favorable environment for embryonic implantation and play a key role in maternal-fetal metabolism communication and gestation. Reproductive functions are strongly dependent on energy balance, and thereby metabolic abnormalities can lead to the development of some pathophysiologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adipokines could be a link between reproduction and energy metabolism and could partly explain some infertility related to obesity or PCOS.

  19. The pluralism problem in cross-border reproductive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrow, R F

    2010-12-01

    Outlawing well established forms of assisted reproduction places obstacles in the path of couples who wish to attain their reproductive goals with medical assistance. One effect of restrictive reproductive laws that has received widespread attention is cross-border reproductive travel. In Europe, such travel is permitted by the policy of free movement of persons that is a cornerstone of the democratic and economic stability of the European Union. Cross-border reproductive travel fails to promote moral and political pluralism in democratic states for three primary reasons. First, the opportunity for patients to go abroad for treatment tempers organized resistance to the law and allows government to pass stricter regulations than it otherwise might. Second, cross-border reproductive care has been shown to have deleterious extraterritorial effects that undermine the articulated rationales behind restrictive reproductive laws. Third, laws that generate demand for cross-border reproductive care often fail to satisfy the standard of proportionality that restrictions on human reproduction must meet. PMID:20940141

  20. Induction of Gonadotropins for Reproductive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Much of the recent research on gonadotropin – related control processes of reproduction and reproductive maturation has concentrated on the neuronal and molecular biology of gonadotropin release. The reproductive development of healthy mammals requires appropriate fetal develompment and migration of the neural network controlling and including the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH – producing neurons that are needed to regulate GnRH and luteinizing hormone (LH release. GnRH is also necessary for the development of the gonadotropin – producing pituitary gland. The fetal gonads respon to GnRH – induced LH production by producing the gonadal steroids required for further reproductive differentiation. Pubertal maturation is characterised by increases in LH levels, representing the corresponding pulsatile release of GnRH. This GnRH pulse generator appears to be an intrinsic property of the arcuate nucleus at the medial basal hypothalamus. The generator activity can be mediated by the neurotransmitter aspartate which activates neurons of the hypothalamus, inducing acuate releases of GnRH and hence initiates puberty. A major factor in human reproductive maturation is the decrease in the age of puberty, caused by improvement of nutritional conditions due to the socio – economic development. This implies that the pubertal activation of GnRH secretion depends on metabolic conditions. Of the substances that mediate the metabolic condition to the neuronal network regulating GnRH secretion, the role of the neuropeptide Y (NPY appears instrumental : for healthy mammals less food means more NPY, and accumulated NPY makes food to become sex. NPY does this by regulating the appropriate hypothalamic functions including the neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin release.

  1. Peptides: Basic determinants of reproductive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Onder; Aydin, Suleyman; Celik, Nilufer; Yilmaz, Musa

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian reproduction is a costly process in terms of energy consumption. The critical information regarding metabolic status is signaled to the hypothalamus mainly through peripheral peptides from the adipose tissue and gastrointestinal tract. Changes in energy stores produce fluctuations in leptin, insulin, ghrelin and glucose signals that feedback mainly to the hypothalamus to regulate metabolism and fertility. In near future, possible effects of the nutritional status on GnRH regulation can be evaluated by measuring serum or tissue levels of leptin and ghrelin in patiens suffering from infertility. The fact that leptin and ghrelin are antagonistic in their effects on GnRH neurons, their respective agonistic and antagonistic roles make them ideal candidates to use instead of GnRH agonist and antagonist. Similarly, kisspeptin expressing neurons are likely to mediate the well-established link between energy balance and reproductive functions. Exogenous kisspeptin can be used for physiological ovarian hyperstimulation for in-vitro fertilization. Moreover, kisspeptin antagonist therapy can be used for the treatment of postmenapousal women, precocious puberty, PCOS, endometriosis and uterine fibroids. In this review, we will analyze the central mechanisms involved in the integration of metabolic information and their contribution to the control of the reproductive function. Particular attention will be paid to summarize the participation of leptin, kisspeptin, ghrelin, NPY, orexin, urocortin, VIP, insulin, galanin, galanin like peptide, oxytocin, agouti gene-related peptide, and POMC neurons in this process and their possible interactions to contribute to the metabolic control of reproduction. PMID:26074346

  2. Speeding the reproductive revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, B; Upadhyay, U

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, the international community set the goal of ensuring universal access to reproductive health care by 2015 and agreed to finance its costs. Few governments and donor countries, however, have made good on commitments made at the ICPD. Reproductive health is not improving and may actually be getting worse. Specific goals to be reached by 2015 include meeting all unmet need for family planning, reducing maternal mortality by 75% compared with 1990 levels, and reducing infant mortality to lower than 35 deaths/1000 births. Reaching these and the related reproductive health goals of the ICPD was calculated to cost about US$17 billion/year until 2000, then to increase to $22 billion/year by 2015 (in constant 1993 US dollars). Developing countries agreed to pay 66% of the cost, while donor countries paid the remainder. Immediately after the ICPD, reproductive health funding increased substantially, then declined again, with most donor countries failing to meet their funding commitments. Failure to deliver on the promised financial support for the ICPD goals will result in higher levels of unintended pregnancies, induced abortions, cases of maternal mortality, and infant deaths. Governments need to be convinced that paying for reproductive health programs is an urgent priority and that developing countries, donor countries, and multilateral institutions all have much to gain from reaching the ICPD goals. PMID:12322000

  3. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  4. Reproductive prognosis in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt Hansen, Maj V; Dalsgaard, Torur; Hartwell, Dorthe;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproductive long-term prognosis of women with and without endometriosis, to explore changes over time, and to quantify the contribution of artificial reproductive techniques. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark 1977-2009. SAMPLE: Data retrieved from four national...... registries. Among 15-49-year-old women during the period 1977-82, 24 667 were diagnosed with endometriosis and 98 668 (1:4) women without endometriosis were age-matched. METHODS: To assess long-term reproductive prognosis, all pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women with and without endometriosis...... until the end of 2009. To explore changes over time, the endometriosis cohorts were followed for 15 years from the years 1980, 1986, 1992 and 1998, with the corresponding control cohorts. All pregnancy outcomes were categorized into naturally or artificially conceived pregnancies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...

  5. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study. PMID:26521666

  6. Kisspeptin and the seasonal control of reproduction in hamsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonneaux, Valérie; Ansel, Laura; Revel, Florent G;

    2008-01-01

    Reproduction is a complex and energy demanding function. When internal and external conditions might impair reproductive success (negative energy balance, stress, harsh season) reproductive activity has to be repressed. Recent evidence suggests that these inhibitory mechanisms operate on Kiss1......-expressing neurons, which were recently shown to be implicated in the regulation of GnRH release. Hamsters are seasonal rodents which are sexually active in long photoperiod and quiescent in short photoperiod. The photoperiodic information is transmitted to the reproductive system by melatonin, a pineal...... hormone whose secretion is adjusted to night length. The photoperiodic variation in circulating melatonin has been shown to synchronize reproductive activity with seasons, but the mechanisms involved in this effect of melatonin were so far unknown. Recently we have observed that Kiss1 mRNA level in the...

  7. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA Signaling in Human and Ruminant Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Wocławek-Potocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA through activating its G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR 1–6 exerts diverse cellular effects that in turn influence several physiological processes including reproductive function of the female. Studies in various species of animals and also in humans have identified important roles for the receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of human and animal reproductive tract function. These aspects range from ovarian and uterine function, estrous cycle regulation, early embryo development, embryo implantation, decidualization to pregnancy maintenance and parturition. LPA signaling can also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and reproductive tissue associated tumors. The review describes recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to human and ruminant reproduction, pointing at the cow as a relevant model to study LPA influence on the human reproductive performance.

  8. Reproductive rights under attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, K

    1995-01-01

    Women's groups, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, funding groups, and donor countries must all be lobbied with the message that sexual and reproductive health issues are inextricably linked to women in development, education, and future economic strength of nations worldwide. In the Beijing Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum the draft Plan of Action had 35% of its language bracketed and subject to negotiation in Beijing. The previous International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo had only 15% of its language bracketed. Much of the language bracketed for Beijing had already been fully agreed upon before the Cairo conference. The bracketed language was in the health and human rights sections, and most of the language pertained to sexual and reproductive health. The increase in controversy is due to an opposition better organized in Beijing than it had been in Cairo, due to the opposition's failure to recognize the implications of the Cairo declarations on women, men, and children, and due to the opposition's general intolerance of sexual and reproductive issues. The major factor, however, was the linking of women's rights with sexual and reproductive health issues. Family planners joined with women's rights groups, which had always promoted women's control over their bodies as the cornerstone of equality. This connection was interpreted as a threat to the social order by conservative societies. NGO participants included 1400 people representing 170 countries. The NGO anti-abortion contingent was well-funded, well-organized, and large. Lobbying was conducted in an effort to convince people to oppose any language pertaining to gender, sexual and reproductive health, and adolescent rights. Anti-abortion lobbyists also rifled through documents of pro-choice participants. In Canada and the United States anti-abortion groups are lobbying hard to overturn the Cairo Plan of Action and to expand their efforts internationally among

  9. Popular myths in reproductive immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David A

    2014-10-01

    According to Mark Twain, "It ain't what you don't know that gets you into trouble. It's what you know for sure that just ain't so." Four items believed by reproductive immunologists are analyzed. (1) In a semiallogeneic (outbred) mating, maternofetal tolerance is required to prevent immune rejection manifesting as infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss, preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. (2) Regulation of natural killer (NK) cells at the fetomaternal interface by interaction with fetal trophoblast paternal class I MHC is obligatory for pregnancy success. (3) Failure of angiogenesis triggered by complement activation is a key mechanism in pregnancy pathology. (4) Randomized controlled (double-blind) clinical trials and systematic reviews exemplified by the Cochrane database provide reliable evidence on which to base treatment and promulgate guidelines. Those who heed not the lessons of history are doomed to repeat the same mistakes in the future. History shows that we do this and expect a different outcome.

  10. Regulatory assessment of reproductive toxicology data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This chapter outlines a regulator's personal approach to the assessment of reproductive toxicology data in the context of the assessment of the overall nonclinical data package for pharmaceutical agents. Using as a framework the International Conference on Harmonisation Common Technical Document headings, guidance is provided on the expectations of regulators for the presentation and discussion of the data by the applicant to facilitate the risk assessment process. Consideration is given to the use of reproductive toxicology data in the assessment process for both clinical trial applications (CTAs) and marketing authorization applications (MAAs). Suggestions for some guiding principles in drafting of the various product information documents (for example the Investigator's Brochure (IB) for CTAs and the Nonclinical Overview and Summary of Product Characteristics for MAAs) are included. PMID:23138923

  11. Ethics and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    2000-06-01

    In vitro fertilization and assisted reproductive technology have made great progress during the last 20 years. Genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and surrogacy are currently practiced in many countries. On the other hand, embryo research is practiced only in a small number of nations, whereas human cloning has thus far been universally condemned. The rapid evolution and progress of all these techniques of assisted reproduction has revealed certain ethical issues that have to be addressed. PMID:10825637

  12. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Lisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system. PMID:27354844

  13. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  14. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades...

  15. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  16. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  17. PRIVACY ASPECTS OF THE MEDICALLY ASSISTED HUMAN REPRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela FRÃSIE

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of privacy issues in the medically assisted human reproduction system includes both the rights of the person, as general private law right subject, respectively rights inseparably related to the very existence of the human being which circumscribe the general idea of "personality right" but also their rights as patient and also the rights deriving from the regulation of the statute of the human body, its elements and its products. Assisted reproduction technologies raise serious ...

  18. Telomeres and reproductive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Infertility, miscarriage and aneuploid offspring increase with age in women, and meiotic dysfunction underlies reproductive aging. How aging disrupts meiotic function in women remains unclear, but as women increasingly delay having children, solving this problem becomes an urgent priority. Telomeres consist of a (TTAGGG)(n) repeated sequence and associated proteins at chromosome ends, mediate aging in mitotic cells and may also mediate aging during meiosis. Telomeres shorten both during DNA replication and from the response to oxidative DNA damage. Oocytes do not divide in adult mammals, but their precursors do replicate during fetal oogenesis; eggs ovulated from older females have traversed more mitotic cell cycles before entering meiosis during fetal oogenesis than eggs ovulated from younger females. Telomeres also would be expected to shorten from inefficient DNA repair of oxidative damage, because the interval between fetal oogenesis and ovulation is exceptionally prolonged in women. We have tested the hypothesis that telomere shortening disrupts meiosis by shortening telomeres experimentally in mice, which normally do not exhibit age-related meiotic dysfunction. Interestingly, mouse telomeres are much longer than human telomeres, but genetic or pharmacological shortening of mouse telomeres recapitulates in mice the human reproductive aging phenotype as the mouse telomeres reach the length of telomeres from older women. These observations led us to propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging. Moreover, chronological oxidative stress increases with reproductive aging, leading to DNA damage preferentially at (TTAGGG)(n) repeats. Finally, if telomeres shorten with aging, how do they reset across generations? Telomerase could not play a significant role in telomere elongation during early development, because this enzyme is not active until the blastocyst stage, well after the stage when telomere elongation takes place. Rather, telomeres lengthen during the

  19. The reproductive ecology of the house mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, F H

    1979-09-01

    This paper attempts to integrate the physiological and ecological perspectives of the reproductive biology of the house mouse (Mus musculus). The endeavor is made within a larger context to provide a prototype for mammalian reproductive ecology in general. Specifically, the environmental regulation of the reproduction of Mus musculus is examined in relation to its ecological opportunism and, in particular, in relation to its history of global colonization. House mice can live as commensals of man or under totally feral conditions. Stable, high density, commensal populations are characterized by an insular division of the living space into demeterritories, each dominated by a single male. Feral populations typically are characterized by temporal, spatial, and social instability. Territoriality is improbable under such conditions, particularly given the necessity for large home ranges in most feral habitats. In both feral and commensal populations, however, male aggressiveness promotes the large-scale dispersal of young, all of which are potential colonizers. Of the ten or so environmental factors known to influence reproduction in house mice, seven probably are of routine importance in natural populations: diurnal modulation by daily light:dark cycles; caloric intake; nutrition; extreme temperature; agaonistic stimuli; socio-tactile cues; and priming pheronomes. The last two factors named operate directly on the secretion of luteinizing hormone or prolactin; the others act at many points in the reproductive system. Reproduction in the house mouse seems divorced from photoperiodically induced seasonality; indeed, this species breeds well even in constant darkness. Seasonal breeding may or may not then occur, depending upon dietary considerations, with or without a secondary interaction with variation in ambient temperature. There is no evidence for a dependence upon secondary plant compounds. Some of the effects of priming pheromones that have been observed

  20. Introduction: Imaging in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Tamar; Laufer, Neri

    2016-06-01

    The authors of this Views and Reviews outline in detail the indispensable role of imaging tools-ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging-in the diagnosis and treatment of female and male factor infertility. Equipment producing diagnostic images, coupled with ever-increasing computing power, will pave the way for novel functional dynamic studies that will expand the understanding of reproductive processes and their management. PMID:27117374

  1. Ghrelin in Female and Male Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Dupont

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin and one of its functional receptors, GHS-R1a (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor 1a, were firstly studied about 15 years. Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone that affects several biological functions including food intake, glucose release, cell proliferation… Ghrelin and GHS-R1a are expressed in key cells of both male and female reproductive organs in several species including fishes, birds, and mammals suggesting a well-conserved signal through the evolution and a role in the control of fertility. Ghrelin could be a component of the complex series of nutrient sensors such as adipokines, and nuclear receptors, which regulate reproduction in function of the energy stores. The objective of this paper was to report the available information about the ghrelin system and its role at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in both sexes.

  2. Central Circadian Control of Female Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke H Miller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, it has become clear just how much of our physiology is under the control of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and the cell-intrinsic molecular clock that ticks with a periodicity of approximately 24 hours. The SCN prepares our digestive system for meals, our adrenal axis for the stress of waking up in the morning, and the genes expressed in our muscles when we prepare to exercise, Long before molecular studies of genes such as Clock, Bmal1, and the Per homologs were possible, it was obvious that female reproductive function was under strict circadian control at every level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, and in the establishment and successful maintenance of pregnancy. This review highlights our current understanding of the role that the SCN plays in regulating female reproductive physiology, with a special emphasis on the advances made possible through the use of circadian mutant mice.

  3. Conceiving modernity: discourses on reproduction in a community of Tibetan refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Shannon

    2013-06-01

    This article examines the trope of reproduction in narratives of Tibetan refugees living in Dharamsala, India. As they make sense of their personal histories, Tibetan refugees invoke a collective story that mirrors human rights literature on Tibet. Women come into contact with this literature through its incorporation into a political discourse expressed by the exile government and health institutions. The article traces facets of this discourse that deal centrally with reproduction. Political discourse on reproduction articulates pronatalism as a solution to the refugee community's concern with survival, and the discourse frames modernity as a site of violence through China's reproductive regulations. And yet, Tibetan refugees also employ the notion of modernity when discussing their own free reproductive decision-making, positioning modern reproductive interventions in opposition to Indian society. The article demonstrates that Tibetan refugees navigate competing figurations of modernity by expressing political resistance and affiliation through the idiom of reproduction. PMID:23804300

  4. Conceiving modernity: discourses on reproduction in a community of Tibetan refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Shannon

    2013-06-01

    This article examines the trope of reproduction in narratives of Tibetan refugees living in Dharamsala, India. As they make sense of their personal histories, Tibetan refugees invoke a collective story that mirrors human rights literature on Tibet. Women come into contact with this literature through its incorporation into a political discourse expressed by the exile government and health institutions. The article traces facets of this discourse that deal centrally with reproduction. Political discourse on reproduction articulates pronatalism as a solution to the refugee community's concern with survival, and the discourse frames modernity as a site of violence through China's reproductive regulations. And yet, Tibetan refugees also employ the notion of modernity when discussing their own free reproductive decision-making, positioning modern reproductive interventions in opposition to Indian society. The article demonstrates that Tibetan refugees navigate competing figurations of modernity by expressing political resistance and affiliation through the idiom of reproduction.

  5. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction. PMID:22889430

  6. Central Pathways Integrating Metabolism and Reproduction in Teleosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md eShahjahan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy balance plays an important role in the control of reproduction. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms connecting the two systems are not well understood especially in teleosts. The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in the regulation of both energy balance and reproduction, and contains a number of neuropeptides, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, orexin, neuropeptide-Y (NPY, ghrelin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH, cholecystokinin (CCK, 26RFa, nesfatin, kisspeptin, and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH. These neuropeptides are involved in the control of energy balance and reproduction either directly or indirectly. On the other hand, synthesis and release of these hypothalamic neuropeptides are regulated by metabolic signals from the gut and the adipose tissue. Furthermore, neurons producing these neuropeptides interact with each other, providing neuronal basis of the link between energy balance and reproduction. This review summarizes the advances made in our understanding of the physiological roles of the hypothalamic neuropeptides in energy balance and reproduction in teleosts, and discusses how they interact with GnRH, kisspeptin, and pituitary gonadotropins to control reproduction in teleosts.

  7. RFRP neurons - the doorway to understanding seasonal reproduction in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Beldring Henningsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal control of reproduction is critical for the perpetuation of species living in temperate zones that display major changes in climatic environment and availability of food resources. In mammals, seasonal cues are mainly provided by the annual change in the 24h light/dark ratio (i.e. photoperiod, which is translated into the nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin. The annual rhythm in this melatonin signal acts as a synchronizer ensuring that breeding occurs when environmental conditions favor survival of the offspring. Although specific mechanisms might vary among seasonal species, the hypothalamic RF (Arg-Phe amide-related peptides (RFRP-1 and -3 are believed to play a critical role in the central control of seasonal reproduction and in all seasonal species investigated, the RFRP system is persistently inhibited in short photoperiod. Central chronic administration of RFRP-3 in short day-adapted male Syrian hamsters fully reactivates the reproductive axis despite photoinhibitory conditions, which highlights the importance of the seasonal changes in RFRP expression for proper regulation of the reproductive axis. The acute effects of RFRP peptides, however, depend on species, photoperiod and recent studies point towards a different role of RFRP in regulating female reproductive activity. In this review we summarize the recent advances made to understand the role and underlying mechanisms of RFRP in the seasonal control of reproduction, primarily focusing on mammalian species.

  8. For Whom the Clock Ticks: Reproductive Ageing and Egg Freezing in Dutch and British News Media

    OpenAIRE

    de Wiel, Lucy van

    2014-01-01

    The last century saw struggles for women's reproductive choices both to avoid childbearing (i.e. abortion, contraception) and to achieve it (i.e. IVF, artificial insemination). Now, after the turn of the millennium, these two approaches to regulate reproduction are combined in oocyte cryopreservation (OC), or egg freezing. With it, a new reproductive question has emerged as egg freezing simultaneously represents an active choice not to have children at present and a commitment to a future, po...

  9. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  10. Reproduction or opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard; Karen, David; Nielsen, Jens Christian;

    2016-01-01

    what key experiences and relationships lead students to abandon or sustain their interest in careers related to sports and how this differs for boys and girls. By applying Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and types of capital, we conclude that there are elements of both reproduction......) with a follow-up survey in 2015. In this paper, we explore the social backgrounds and experiences of students in order to examine their likelihood of retention during the first few years of the program. Focusing on socioeconomic status, the role of having parents in elite sports, and type of sport, we study...

  11. Reproductive interference between animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröning, Julia; Hochkirch, Axel

    2008-09-01

    Although sexual interactions between species (reproductive interference) have been reported from a wide range of animal taxa, their potential for determining species coexistence is often disregarded. Here, we review evidence from laboratory and field studies illustrating that heterospecific sexual interactions are frequently associated with fitness loss and can have severe ecological and evolutionary consequences. We define reproductive interference as any kind of interspecific interaction during the process of mate acquisition that adversely affects the fitness of at least one of the species involved and that is caused by incomplete species recognition. We distinguish seven types of reproductive interference: signal jamming, heterospecific rivalry, misdirected courtship, heterospecific mating attempts, erroneous female choice, heterospecific mating, and hybridization. We then discuss the sex-specific costs of these types and highlight two typical features of reproductive interference: density-dependence and asymmetry. Similar to competition, reproductive interference can lead to displacement of one species (sexual exclusion), spatial, temporal, or habitat segregation, changes in life history parameters, and reproductive character displacement. In many cases, patterns of coexistence might be shaped by reproductive interference rather than by resource competition, as the presence of a few heterospecifics might substantially decrease reproductive success. Therefore, interspecific sexual interactions should receive more attention in ecological research. Reproductive interference has mainly been discussed in the context of invasive species or hybrid zones, whereas its influence on naturally-occurring sympatric species pairs has rarely been addressed. To improve our knowledge of the ecological significance of reproductive interference, findings from laboratory experiments should be validated in the field. Future studies should also focus on ecological mechanisms, such

  12. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    OpenAIRE

    G. William Skinner

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869) to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir), coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reprodu...

  13. Gender and Women's Reproductive Health

    OpenAIRE

    Aygul Akyuz; Gonul Sahiner

    2010-01-01

    AIM: According to the “rights to equality” in reproductive and sexual rights, “no persons should be discriminated against their sexual and reproductive lives, in their access to health care and/or services on the grounds of race, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family position, age, language, religion, political, or other opinion; national or social origin, property, birth, or other status” In this context, health professionals devoted to reproductive health are r...

  14. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  15. Complex chemosensory control of female reproductive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Eleanor J; Shah, Nirao M

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse. PMID:24587340

  16. Complex chemosensory control of female reproductive behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor J Fraser

    Full Text Available Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE and the vomeronasal organ (VNO in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse.

  17. For Whom the Clock Ticks: Reproductive Ageing and Egg Freezing in Dutch and British News Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van de Wiel

    2014-01-01

    The last century saw struggles for women's reproductive choices both to avoid childbearing (i.e. abortion, contraception) and to achieve it (i.e. IVF, artificial insemination). Now, after the turn of the millennium, these two approaches to regulate reproduction are combined in oocyte cryopreservatio

  18. 31 CFR 103.52 - Photographic or other reproductions of Government obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photographic or other reproductions of Government obligations. 103.52 Section 103.52 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... Provisions § 103.52 Photographic or other reproductions of Government obligations. Nothing herein...

  19. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones.

  20. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  1. Work, environment and reproductive health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Snijder (Claudia)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWith the increasing labour force participation among women in Western countries, many women will work during their reproductive years. This will increase the likelihood that women during their reproductive years will be exposed to a variety of risk factors at work that may effect their r

  2. Reproduction Diversity of Enteromorpha prolifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apeng Lin; Songdong Shen; Jianwei Wang; Binlun Yan

    2008-01-01

    Enteromorpha prolifera (Muell.) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae), which is distributed widely in the Inter-tidal zone of the ocean, is one of the most common fouling green algae. However, the present understandings of the life history of E. prolifera have been insufficient to explain their seasonal abundances. Thus it is essential to investigate how many.reproductive strategies are likely to contribute to the successful colonization and flourishing of the green alga. In the present study the reproduction diversity of E. prolifera was observed and studied systematically by culturing chopped tissues. Our results showed that there are in total seven pathways of reproduction for E. prolifera including sexual, asexual and vegetative reproduction. It was Indicated that the variety of the reproductive ways and the large quantity of reproductive cells produced and released during the reproductive season are the two key factors that facilitate colonization of E. prolifera. The reproduction of the alga E. prolifera mainly depends on asexual methods. The results presented here contribute to increasing our understanding about how the opportunistic macroalgae successfully maintain colonization and excessive growth.

  3. Phthalates as developmental reproductive toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PE are a large family ofcompounds used in a wide array ofconsumer, industrial and medical products. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period offetal reproductive development produced male reproductive mal...

  4. Genetic aspects of female reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.; Diedrich, K.; Franks, S.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Jacobs, P. A.; Karges, B.; Kennedy, S.; Marozzi, A.; Regan, L.; Baird, D. T.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diczfalusy, E.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Liebaers, I.; Ragni, G.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual reproduction provides the means for preserving genetic identity and in turn, genetic variability may affect the ability to reproduce. This review aims to summarize current research on genetic diagnosis and genetic causes of reproductive disorders.METHODS: Searches were done by sub

  5. Comprehensive Review on Kisspeptin and Its Role in Reproductive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Holly; Dhillo, Waljit S; Jayasena, Channa N

    2015-06-01

    Kisspeptin has recently emerged as a key regulator of the mammalian reproductive axis. It is known that kisspeptin, acting centrally via the kisspeptin receptor, stimulates secretion of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). Loss of kisspeptin signaling causes hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in humans and other mammals. Kisspeptin interacts with other neuropeptides such as neurokinin B and dynorphin, to regulate GnRH pulse generation. In addition, a growing body of evidence suggests that kisspeptin signaling be regulated by nutritional status and stress. Kisspeptin may also represent a novel potential therapeutic target in the treatment of fertility disorders. Early human studies suggest that peripheral exogenous kisspeptin administration stimulates gonadotrophin release in healthy adults and in patients with certain forms of infertility. This review aims to concisely summarize what is known about kisspeptin as a regulator of reproductive function, and provide an update on recent advances within this field. PMID:26194072

  6. Environmental hexachlorobenzene exposure and human male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar;

    2015-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental fungicide that may disrupt androgen regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HCB levels and biomarkers of male reproductive function. 589 Spouses of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were enroll...

  7. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2005-07-01

    embryopathies, preterm labour and preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. The review also addresses the growing literature on the role of nitric oxide species in female reproduction. The involvement of nitric oxide species in regulation of endometrial and ovarian function, etiopathogenesis of endometriosis, and maintenance of uterine quiescence, initiation of labour and ripening of cervix at parturition is discussed. Complex interplay between cytokines and oxidative stress in the etiology of female reproductive disorders is discussed. Oxidant status of the cell modulates angiogenesis, which is critical for follicular growth, corpus luteum formation endometrial differentiation and embryonic growth is also highlighted in the review. Strategies to overcome oxidative stress and enhance fertility, both natural and assisted are delineated. Early interventions being investigated for prevention of preeclampsia are enumerated. Trials investigating combination intervention strategy of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in preventing preeclampsia are highlighted. Antioxidants are powerful and there are few trials investigating antioxidant supplementation in female reproduction. However, before clinicians recommend antioxidants, randomized controlled trials with sufficient power are necessary to prove the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in disorders of female reproduction. Serial measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers in longitudinal studies may help delineate the etiology of some of the diosorders in female reproduction such as preeclampsia.

  8. Reproductive neuroendocrine pathways of social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar eParhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social behaviors are key components of reproduction because they are essential for successful fertilization. Social behaviors such as courtship, mating, and aggression are strongly associated with sex steroids, such as testosterone, estradiol and progesterone. Secretion of sex steroids from the gonads is regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis in vertebrates. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a pivotal hypothalamic neuropeptide that stimulates gonadotropin release from the pituitary. In recent years, the role of neuropeptides containing the C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide peptides has been emphasized in vertebrate reproduction. In particular, two key RFamide peptides, kisspeptin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH, emerged as critical accelerator and suppressor of gonadotropin secretion. Kisspeptin stimulates GnRH release by directly acting on GnRH neurons, whereas GnIH inhibits gonadotropin release by inhibiting kisspeptin or GnRH neurons or pituitary gonadotropes. These neuropeptides can regulate social behavior by regulating the HPG axis. However, distribution of neuronal fibers of GnRH, kisspeptin and GnIH neurons are not limited within the hypothalamus, and the existence of extra-hypothalamic neuronal fibers suggests direct control of social behavior within the brain. It has traditionally been shown that central administration of GnRH can stimulate female sexual behavior in rats. Recently, it was shown that Kiss1, one of the paralogs of kisspeptin peptide family, regulates fear responses in zebrafish and GnIH inhibits socio-sexual behavior in birds. Here we highlight recent findings regarding the role of GnRH, kisspeptin and GnIH in the regulation of social behaviors in fish, birds and mammals and discuss their importance in future biological and biomedical research.

  9. [Reproductive toxicity of lindane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Nicole; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Bouvet, Suzanne; Goudey-Perrière, Françoise

    2002-01-01

    The present paper bears on the main effects of lindane (gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane) on endocrine and reproductive functions in mammals. This pesticide, once widely used to kill lice and a variety of pests that attack agricultural products, livestock and trees, has been progressively eliminated from many applications since the mid-1970s in Europe or USA, but is still used in the rest of the world. Lindane is absorbed through respiratory, digestive or cutaneous routes and accumulates in fat tissues. It damages human liver, kidney, neural and immune systems and induces birth defects, cancer and death. Chronic administration results in endocrine disruption in birds as well as in mammals. Treatment with 1-40 mg of lindane/kg b.w. disrupts testicular morphology, decreases spermatogenesis, inhibits testicular steroidogenesis, reduces plasma androgen concentrations and may adversely affect reproductive performances in males. In females, lindane disrupts the estrous cycle, reduces serum estrogen and progesterone levels, decreases sexual receptivity whereas in pregnant dams it decreases whelping rate and litter size. These effects were also observed in some rats exposed to residual environmental doses. In addition, there is concern that irreversible effects may be induced when animals are exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critically susceptible phases of sexual differentiation or development. These effects would results from (i) alterations of gonade or gamete cell membranes (ii) cell metabolism changes including alterations of ionic exchanges (mainly calcium or potassium), direct or free radical-mediated inhibition of steroidogenesis (iii) or neuroendocrine changes leading to a decrease in sexual performance of either parents or their offsprings exposed in utero or through lactation. PMID:12645304

  10. Corticosterone mediated costs of reproduction link current to future breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Williams, Tony D

    2013-11-01

    Life-history theory predicts that costs are associated with reproduction. One possible mediator of costs involves the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which in birds can be measured in feathers grown during the breeding period. Glucocorticoids mediate physiological responses to unpredictable environmental or other stressors, but they can also function as metabolic regulators during more predictable events such as reproduction. Here we show that corticosterone ("Cort") in feathers grown during the breeding season reflects reproductive effort in two Antarctic seabird species (giant petrels, Macronectes spp.). In females of both species, but not males, feather Cort ("fCort") was nearly 1.5-fold higher in successful than failed breeders (those that lost their eggs/chicks), suggesting a cost of successful reproduction, i.e., high fCort levels in females reflect the elevated plasma Cort levels required to support high metabolic demands of chick-rearing. Successful breeding also led to delayed moult prior to winter migration. The fCort levels and pre-migration moult score that we measured at the end of current breeding were predictive of subsequent reproductive effort in the following year. Birds with high fCort and a delayed initiation of moult were much more likely to defer breeding in the following year. Cort levels and the timing of moult thus provide a potential mechanism for the tradeoff between current and future reproduction.

  11. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-06-11

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights.

  12. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights. PMID:26204578

  13. New reproductive technologies: Equity and access to reproductive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henifin, M S

    1993-01-01

    While attention has focused on the promise of new reproductive technologies to provide cures for infertility, efforts aimed at preventing infertility have languished, and the major cause of infant morbidity and morality--lack of prenatal care--has worsened. This article explores the social and ethical issues arising out of the uses of three new reproductive technologies: surrogacy, in vitro fertilization, and prenatal screening. In addition, coerced medical interventions during pregnancy are described. Examination of the social circumstances surrounding the use of these medical technologies supports the conclusion that new reproductive technologies have increased, rather than decreased, inequities in access to and allocation of health care resources. PMID:17165238

  14. Public perceptions of reproductive biotechnologies: the case of farm animal breeding and reproduction in France and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Arouna P

    2004-01-01

    Results of previous qualitative and quantitative stages of the research project demonstrated that, although consumers had poor knowledge about breeding and reproduction procedures, they were concerned about the impact of breeding practices on their food items. They acknowledged breeding and reproduction to be at the very core of animal-based food chain process. Since however modern breeding programmers beg so much for genetics, their practices increasingly raised consumer concerns. This paper presents results of a research addressing this issue and based on interviews of livestock breeders and specialized scientists. This research was undertaken within the frame of an EU funded project (Sustainable Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction Project, 2000-2003). Interviews were performed according to the methodology of focus groups and results were used to prepare a discussion guide, including definitions of breeding techniques such as artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and molecular genetics. Farm animal breeding and reproduction methods raised high level of concerns in conventional terms like safety, healthiness and quality of food, factory farming and related consequences on environment, international issues, and cost. Several propositions were presented that deal with modern farm animal breeding and reproduction, EU regulation of breeding procedures, education of consumers on breeding methods, and labelling of products on breeding and reproduction grounds. PMID:15268794

  15. Bodies of Knowledge in Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    -economic concerns about fulfilling desired fertility rates, maintaining high levels of human capital, and supporting fiscal and pension systems. This article investigates professionals addressing declining fertility through assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including doctors, demographers and economists...

  16. Reproductive ecology of predaceous Heteroptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive ecology entails relating the physiology and behavior of an organism to its environment and the community in which it lives. Terrestrial predatory Heteroptera (including Anthocoridae, Geocoridae, Miridae, Nabidae, Pentatomidae, Phymatidae, and Reduviidae) display a wide range of reproduc...

  17. Laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, WS; Ng, EH

    2000-01-01

    A number of advances have been made concerning the laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection has revolutionised the treatment of male infertility. With the development of better embryo culture media, blastocyst transfer is now possible and is likely to reduce high-order multiple pregnancy in assisted reproduction treatment. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis has become an alternative to prenatal diagnosis. The recent use of molecular biology techniques to d...

  18. Caribbean lobster reproduction: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ayra, L.; Cruz, R.

    2010-01-01

    This review of the reproduction of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus aims to provide information that will improve the management decisions, the study in population dynamics and on spiny lobsters aquaculture research. We update the reader on this topic with studies carried out by decades in Cuban archipelago, Florida, Bermuda, Mexico and Brazil. In particular, it was discussed the results of fieldwork studies on reproductive cycle, fecundity, brood size and population egg prod...

  19. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt w...

  20. Lifetime reproductive effort in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Oskar; Walker, Robert; Hamilton, Marcus J.

    2009-01-01

    Lifetime reproductive effort (LRE) measures the total amount of metabolized energy diverted to reproduction during the lifespan. LRE captures key components of the life history and is particularly useful for describing and comparing the life histories of different organisms. Given a simple energetic production constraint, LRE is predicted to be similar in value for very different life histories. However, humans have some unique ecological characteristics that may alter LRE, such as the long p...

  1. Parthenogenesis and Human Assisted Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Bos-Mikich; Fabiana F. Bressan; Ruggeri, Rafael R.; Yeda Watanabe; Flávio V. Meirelles

    2016-01-01

    Parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes obtained from infertility treatments has gained new interest in recent years as an alternative approach to create embryos with no reproductive purpose for research in areas such as assisted reproduction technologies itself, somatic cell, and nuclear transfer experiments and for derivation of clinical grade pluripotent embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine. Different activating methods have been tested on human and nonhuman oocytes, with var...

  2. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  3. Plant reproduction in spaceflight environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Kuang, A.; Porterfield, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    Because plant reproduction is a complex developmental process there are many possible sites of perturbation by the unusual environments of orbital spacecraft. Previous long-duration experiments on Soviet platforms shared features of slowed development through the vegetative stage of plant growth and aborted reproductive function. Our goal has been to understand how special features of the spaceflight environment impact physiological function and reproductive development. In a series of short-duration experiments in the Shuttle mid-deck we studied early reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen and ovule development aborted at an early stage in the first experiment on STS-54 which utilized closed plant growth chambers. Post-flight analysis suggested that the plants may have been carbon dioxide limited. Subsequent experiments utilized carbon dioxide enrichment (on STS-51) and cabin air flow-through with an air exchange system (on STS-68). Both modifications allowed pollen and ovule development to occur normally on orbit, and full reproductive development up to the stage of an immature seed occurred on STS-68. However, analysis of plant roots from these experiments demonstrated a limitation in rootzone aeration in the spaceflight material that was not mitigated by these procedures. In the future, additional resources (crew time, upgraded flight hardware, and special platforms) will invite more elaborate, long-duration experimentation. On the ISS, a variable speed centrifuge and upgraded plant habitats will permit detailed experiments on the role of gravity in shaping the plant micro-environment, and what influence this plays during reproduction.

  4. Optimizing reproductive phenology in a two-resource world: a dynamic allocation model of plant growth predicts later reproduction in phosphorus-limited plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Eric A.; Shea, Katriona; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Timing of reproduction is a key life-history trait that is regulated by resource availability. Delayed reproduction in soils with low phosphorus availability is common among annuals, in contrast to the accelerated reproduction typical of other low-nutrient environments. It is hypothesized that this anomalous response arises from the high marginal value of additional allocation to root growth caused by the low mobility of phosphorus in soils. Methods To better understand the benefits and costs of such delayed reproduction, a two-resource dynamic allocation model of plant growth and reproduction is presented. The model incorporates growth, respiration, and carbon and phosphorus acquisition of both root and shoot tissue, and considers the reallocation of resources from senescent leaves. The model is parameterized with data from Arabidopsis and the optimal reproductive phenology is explored in a range of environments. Key Results The model predicts delayed reproduction in low-phosphorus environments. Reproductive timing in low-phosphorus environments is quite sensitive to phosphorus mobility, but is less sensitive to the temporal distribution of mortality risks. In low-phosphorus environments, the relative metabolic cost of roots was greater, and reproductive allocation reduced, compared with high-phosphorus conditions. The model suggests that delayed reproduction in response to low phosphorus availability may be reduced in plants adapted to environments where phosphorus mobility is greater. Conclusions Delayed reproduction in low-phosphorus soils can be a beneficial response allowing for increased acquisition and utilization of phosphorus. This finding has implications both for efforts to breed crops for low-phosphorus soils, and for efforts to understand how climate change may impact plant growth and productivity in low-phosphorus environments. PMID:21712299

  5. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  6. Energetics, Reproductive Ecology, and Human Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology is a relatively new subfield of human evolutionary biology focusing on the responsiveness of the human reproductive system to ecological variables. Many of the advances in human, and more recently primate, reproductive ecology concern the influence of energetics on the allocation of reproductive effort. This paper reviews eleven working hypotheses that have emerged from recent work in reproductive ecology that have potential bearing on the role of energetics in huma...

  7. Discovery of a secular trend in Cayo Santiago macaque reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Kessler, Matthew J; Delgado, Diana L; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Sabat, Alberto M

    2016-02-01

    Reproductive synchrony and the consequent clustering of births are hypothesized to be regulated by seasonal changes in rainfall and food availability. Such climate-related seasonality is, however, questionable in tropical populations occupying temporally invariant habitats year round. Using the long-term data of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques from 1973 to 2013, this study distinguishes synchrony (a greater than chance clustering of births) from seasonality (a cluster of births during a period of the year when abiotic conditions are favorable) and shows that females are highly synchronized (>72% of births in a 3-month period) but the effects of environmental zeitgebers on reproduction are overridden by biological factors. Specifically, biotic and abiotic factors including (i) loss of immature offspring; (ii) population density; (iii) age at delivery; (iv) rainfall; and (v) changes in colony management were modeled in relation to the annual onset of births and the median birth date. Females experiencing loss of immature offspring had an interbirth interval of seasons by 2050. The secular trend in reproduction appears to be triggered by changes in the age at delivery of females, the absence of physiological constraints from maternal investment due to offspring loss, shorter interbirth interval, and a higher degree of coordination due to increasing population density. This study challenges the reproductive phenology previously described for rhesus macaques highlighting the importance of long-term studies in addressing the ultimate causes of reproductive synchrony. PMID:26540010

  8. 瘦素对生殖调节的研究进展%Effects of leptin on reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑育声; 朱伟杰; 谢琪璇

    2001-01-01

    Obese gene was cloned and its protein product which named leptin was found to be expressed specially in fat tissues in 1994. As a metabolic signal of reproductive system, leptin reflects the situations of nutrition and energy, which the body supplys to the brain, and stimulates reproductive endocrinology system, then regulates the functions of reproduction through hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The present status of leptin in this field was reviewed.

  9. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869 to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir, coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reproductive strategy was generally followed during the stem phase of the domestic cycle, when one or both grandparents were present, especially when the family head was in the senior generation. By contrast, a son-first strategy was favored when childbearing began in the conjugal phase of the cycle. This suggests grandparental influence on the junior couple's reproductive decisions in favor of the cultural ideal. I find that the senior couple's decision to marry the heir early or late strongly affects the reproductive strategies followed by him after marriage. I show that when a grandmother is present at the onset of childbearing, especially if she is relatively young, the junior couple ends up with more offspring on average. A controlled analysis of infanticiding behavior is interpreted in terms of conjugal power and coalition formation. It appears that a grandmother gets her way only when she and her son gang up on the daughter-in-law, but such a coalition is likely only when her son dominates the conjugal relationship (which in turn reflects the grandmother's success in binding the son tightly to her emotionally and in delaying his marriage. Otherwise, the grandmother may be shut out from reproductive decision-making by the solidary conjugal coalition.

  10. Reproductive switching analysis of Daphnia similoides between sexual female and parthenogenetic female by transcriptome comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Wang, Wen-Ping; Wang, Yi; Wang, Lu; Xu, Xiao-Xue; Zhang, Kun; Deng, Dao-Gui

    2016-01-01

    The water flea Daphnia are planktonic crustaceans commonly found in freshwater environment that can switch their reproduction mode from parthenogenesis to sexual reproduction to adapt to the external environment. As such, Daphnia are great model organisms to study the mechanism of reproductive switching, the underlying mechanism of reproduction and development in cladocerans and other animals. However, little is known about the Daphnia’s reproductive behaviour at a molecular level. We constructed a genetic database of the genes expressed in a sexual female (SF) and a parthenogenetic female (PF) of D. similoides using Illumina HiSeq 2500. A total of 1,763 differentially expressed genes (865 up- and 898 down-regulated) were detected in SF. Of the top 30 up-regulated SF unigenes, the top 4 unigenes belonged to the Chitin_bind_4 family. In contrast, of the top down-regulated SF unigenes, the top 3 unigenes belonged to the Vitellogenin_N family. This is the first study to indicate genes that may have a crucial role in reproductive switching of D. similoides, which could be used as candidate genes for further functional studies. Thus, this study provides a rich resource for investigation and elucidation of reproductive switching in D. similoides. PMID:27671106

  11. Reproductive cycles of buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, B M A O

    2011-04-01

    The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17β are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving

  12. Prokineticins in central and peripheral control of human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Wael; Brouillet, Sophie; Sergent, Frederic; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima; Aboussaouira, Touria; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean Jacques; Benharouga, Mohamed; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    Prokineticin 1 (PROK1) and (PROK2), are two closely related proteins that were identified as the mammalian homologs of their two amphibian homologs, mamba intestinal toxin (MIT-1) and Bv8. PROKs activate two G-protein linked receptors (prokineticin receptor 1 and 2, PROKR1 and PROKR2). Both PROK1 and PROK2 have been found to regulate a stunning array of biological functions. In particular, PROKs stimulate gastrointestinal motility, thus accounting for their family name "prokineticins". PROK1 acts as a potent angiogenic mitogen, thus earning its other name, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial factor. In contrast, PROK2 signaling pathway has been shown to be a critical regulator of olfactory bulb morphogenesis and sexual maturation. During the last decade, strong evidences established the key roles of prokineticins in the control of human central and peripheral reproductive processes. PROKs act as main regulators of the physiological functions of the ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis, with marked dysfunctions in various pathological conditions such as recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia. PROKs have also been associated to the tumor development of some of these organs. In the central system, prokineticins control the migration of GnRH neurons, a key process that controls reproductive functions. Importantly, mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 are associated to the development of Kallmann syndrome, with direct consequences on the reproductive system. This review describes the finely tuned actions of prokineticins in the control of the central and peripheral reproductive processes. Also, it discusses future research directions for the use of these cytokines as diagnostic markers for several reproductive diseases. PMID:26574895

  13. The benefits of basic research: advances in reproductive physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    At the Population Council's Center for Biomedical Research basic research is being conducted on the reproductive system with a view to develop new contraceptive and reproductive health technologies. Research in the Reproductive Physiology Program at the Center is carried out by reproductive endocrinologists, molecular biologists, and biochemists working in eight laboratories. In several of the laboratories the function of hormones that regulate spermatogenesis is studied. Scientists in Milan Bagchi's laboratory have developed a model system, composed of cellular components in a test tube, that allows them to study the full sequence of events involved in signal transduction. In James Catterall's laboratory, scientists study how androgens regulate sexual development at the molecular level. The steroid hormones cortisol and corticosterone play critical roles in mammalian fetal development. Scientists in several laboratories study the function of two specialized testicular cells: the Leydig and Sertoli cells. The Leydig cell synthesizes and secretes testosterone, an androgen that regulates spermatogenesis. The Sertoli cell maintains the environment in which spermatogenesis occurs. Researchers in Glen Gunsalus's laboratory study an androgen-binding protein secreted by the Sertoli cell. In collaboration with scientists at the Shanghai Research Center of Biotechnology, they used advanced genetic techniques to create a biologically active form of the protein in silk worm larvae. Scientists in Patricia Morris's laboratory recently identified molecular signals that control the interactions between developing sperm and Sertoli and Leydig cells. In the laboratory of David Phillips, scientists are investigating how the HIV virus penetrates the outer layer of cells in the genital tract and infects underlying cells. In 1994 a vaginally applied microbicide was developed that may inhibit infection by sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Applications of basic research such

  14. Insulin-like growth factors and fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Manfred

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of fish reproduction is of high relevance to basic fish biology and comparative evolution. Furthermore, fish are excellent biomedical models, and the impact of aquaculture on worldwide food production is steadily increasing. Consequently, research on fish reproduction and the potential modes of its manipulation has become more and more important. Reproduction in fish is regulated by the integration of endogenous neuroendocrine (gonadotropins), endocrine, and autocrine/paracrine signals with exogenous (environmental) factors. The main endocrine regulators of gonadal sex differentiation and function are steroid hormones. However, recent studies suggest that other hormones are also involved. Most prominent among these hormones are the insulin-like growth factors (Igfs), i.e., Igf1, Igf2, and, most recently, Igf3. Thus, the present review deals with the expression patterns and potential physiological functions of Igf1 and Igf2 in male and female gonads. It further considers the potential involvement of growth hormone (Gh) and balances the reasons for endocrine vs. autocrine/paracrine action of the Igfs on the gonads of fish. Finally, this review discusses the early and late development of gonadal Igf1 and Igf2 and whether they are targets of endocrine-disrupting compounds. Future topics for novel research investigation on Igfs and fish reproduction are presented. PMID:19864315

  15. A link between hypothyroidism, obesity and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiceles, Veronica; da Fonte Ramos, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the serum levels of thyroid hormones are below that necessary to carry out physiological functions in the body. Hypothyroidism is related to obesity as an increase in body weight gain is seen in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, an inverse correlation between free thyroxine values and body mass index has been reported. Leptin, a polypeptide hormone produced by adipocytes, was originally thought to be an antiobesity hormone due its anorexic effects on hypothalamic appetite regulation. However, nowadays it is known that leptin conveys information about the nutritional status to the brain being considered a crucial endocrine factor for regulating several physiological processes including reproduction. Since the identification of thyroid hormone and leptin receptors on the testes, these hormones are being recognized as having important roles in male reproductive functions. A clear link exists among thyroid hormones, leptin and reproduction. Both hormones can negatively affect spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the overall prevalence of primary infertility ranging from 8 to 15%. The fact that 30% of couples' inability to conceive is related to a male factor and that the longer hypothyroidism persisted, the greater the damage to the testes, strongly suggest that more studies attempting to clarify both hormones actions directly in the testes need to be conducted specially in cases of congenital hypothyroidism. Therefore, the goal of this review is to highlight the relationship of such hormones in the reproductive system. PMID:26953711

  16. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy. PMID:24919342

  17. Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes.

  18. Redução de sementes do tangor 'Murcote' com a aplicação de biorreguladores durante o florescimento Reduction of seeds in 'Honey' orange by application of plant growth regulators during reproductive stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Christian Serpa Domingues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio foi conduzido em cultivo comercial do tangor 'Murcote' e teve por objetivo avaliar a atuação dos biorreguladores 2,4-D (auxina, NAA (auxina, GA3 (giberelina e BA (citocinina, na redução do número de sementes, sem afetar a qualidade dos frutos cítricos. Os tratamentos foram: Testemunha; 10 e 20 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D; 100, 150 e 200 mg.L-1 de NAA, 100 e 200 mg.L-1 de GA3 e 20 e 40 mg.L-1 de BA. Verificou-se que nenhum dos reguladores vegetais influenciou na qualidade dos frutos de tangor 'murcote', sem redução de peso, tamanho e teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Já em relação ao número de sementes, nenhum dos reguladores vegetais foi efetivo na redução de sementes inviáveis, porém mostraram efeito na redução de sementes viáveis, conseqüentemente com redução do número total de sementes nos frutos, quando tratados com NAA a 100 e 200 mg.L-1 juntamente com GA3 a 100 mg.L-1, com redução de 30 % do total de sementes.The present experiment was conducted in a commercial tangor 'Murcote' citrus grove in Pratania, São Paulo State, Brazil and had the objective to evaluate the effects of, 2,4-D (auxin, NAA (auxin, GA3 (gibberellin and BA (cytokinin, on the reduction of seed number, without modifications on citrus fruit quality. The treatments sprayed were as follow: control (water; 10 and 20 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D; 100, 150 and 200 mg.L-1 of NAA; 100 and 200 mg.L-1 of GA3 ; 20 and 40 mg.L-1 of BA. The results showed that none of plant growth regulators influenced fruit quality, without weight reduction, diameter or ºBrix. In relation to seed number, none of the plant growth regulators were effective on reduction of seed number, however the reduced of viable seed number and total seed number of fruits, specially with the treatment of 100 and 200 mg.L-1 of NAA and 100 mg.L-1 of GA3, that showed a reduction of 30% of total seed of tangor murcott fruits.

  19. Time and Plan for Regulating PCOS Reproductive Disorder with Chinese medicine%试论中医药对PCOS生殖障碍调控的时机与方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈勇; 任青玲

    2009-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has inflicted both the patients and the doctors with its multiple occurrence,intractability and long duration. So far,TCM treatment of this disease failed to show its advantages. With a careful study of the disease,the authors put forward the view that it is advisable to monitor PCOS state during child-bearing period, improve the pathogenic environmental factors in the uterus during the embryonic period,regulate the premonitory symptoms during puberty,and establish advanced preventative measures.%多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)作为现代疾病谱以其多发、疑难、病程缠绵而困惑医患双方.中医药的干预为临床增添了思路,然而却未彰显出优势.潜心学习PCOS巢局部病理生理和生殖遗传学的最新研究,传承中医补肾的学术精粹,提出干预路径应在对育龄期母体PCOS状态的监控,胚胎期改善宫内内分泌环境,围青春期PCOS先兆症状的早期调护,建立超前的防治措施.是中医药对PCOS生殖障碍调控的时机和方案.

  20. Cloning for human reproduction: one American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, R

    2001-09-01

    The author, an American law professor, believes that whole-body cloning of adult humans will be possible in the near future. He does not believe the procedure should be banned when used as a form of assisted reproduction, but that it should be regulated by the government to ensure proper testing and application. After raising a number of scientific, ethical, religious and legal issues, Professor Chester addresses parentage in light of both old and new concepts of the 'family.' Finally, he focuses on the problem of women as surrogate mothers of clones, arguing in the process that the surrogate, having no real genetic tie to the clone, would have less of a claim to parentage than at least some of the surrogates currently gestating foetuses.

  1. Roles of autophagy in male reproductive development in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru eHanamata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy, a major catabolic pathway in eukaryotic cells, is essential in development, maintenance of cellular homeostasis, immunity and programmed cell death (PCD in multicellular organisms. In plant cells, autophagy plays roles in recycling of proteins and metabolites including lipids, and is involved in many physiological processes such as abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, its roles during reproductive development had remained poorly understood. Quantitative live cell imaging techniques for the autophagic flux and genetic studies in several plant species have recently revealed significant roles of autophagy in developmental processes, regulation of PCD and lipid metabolism. We here review the novel roles of autophagic fluxes in plant cells, and discuss their possible significance in PCD and metabolic regulation, with particular focus on male reproductive development during the pollen maturation.

  2. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  3. Ethical issues in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B M

    1992-07-01

    Since the birth of Louise Brown in 1978, no other area in clinical practice and medical research has held the public interest to the same extent as the assisted reproductive technologies. This has led to the formation of committees of enquiry, guidelines from professional bodies, the passage of legislation, and the formation of legislative bodies. The ethical issues which arise in the clinical practice of assisted reproduction, the donation of gametes and embryos, and their cryopreservation, surrogacy, and human embryo research are reviewed. PMID:1309130

  4. Genomic imprinting and assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaillet J Richard

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Imprinted genes exhibit a parent-of-origin specific pattern of expression. Such genes have been shown to be targets of molecular defects in particular genetic syndromes such as Beckwith-Wiedemann and Angelman syndromes. Recent reports have raised concern about the possibility that assisted reproduction techniques, such as in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, might cause genomic imprinting disorders. The number of reported cases of those disorders is still too small to draw firm conclusions and the safety of these widely used assisted reproduction techniques needs to be further evaluated.

  5. Reproductive Technology in the Context of Reproductive Teleology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Neil J.; Hampton, Simon Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that in the ordinary course of events, most parents routinely practice "reproductive teleology" in that they attempt to manipulate the physical and psychological characteristics of children, and they do so as part of the process of good parenting. Furthermore, such attempts are socially approved of and encouraged. With these…

  6. Reproductive conflicts and egg discrimination in a socially polymorphic ant

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier J.; Delaplace L.; Chapuisat M.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to discriminate against competitors shapes cooperation and conflicts in all forms of social life. In insect societies, workers may detect and destroy eggs laid by other workers or by foreign queens, which can contribute to regulate reproductive conflicts among workers and queens. Variation in colony kin structure affects the magnitude of these conflicts and the diversity of cues used for discrimination, but the impact of the number of queens per colony on the ability of workers to...

  7. The special programme of research in human reproduction: forty years of activities to achieve reproductive health for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use

  8. A “Timed” Kiss Is Essential for Reproduction: Lessons from Mammalian Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putteeraj, Manish; Soga, Tomoko; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is associated with the circadian system, primarily as a result of the connectivity between the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and reproduction-regulating brain regions, such as preoptic area (POA), anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), and arcuate nucleus (ARC). Networking of the central pacemaker to these hypothalamic brain regions is partly represented by close fiber appositions to specialized neurons, such as kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons; accounting for rhythmic release of gonadotropins and sex steroids. Numerous studies have attempted to dissect the neurochemical properties of GnRH neurons, which possess intrinsic oscillatory features through the presence of clock genes to regulate the pulsatile and circadian secretion. However, less attention has been given to kisspeptin, the upstream regulator of GnRH and a potent mediator of reproductive functions including puberty. Kisspeptin exerts its stimulatory effects on GnRH secretion via its cognate Kiss-1R receptor that is co-expressed on GnRH neurons. Emerging studies have found that kisspeptin neurons oscillate on a circadian basis and that these neurons also express clock genes that are thought to regulate its rhythmic activities. Based on the fiber networks between the SCN and reproductive nuclei such as the POA, AVPV, and ARC, it is suggested that interactions among the central biological clock and reproductive neurons ensure optimal reproductive functionality. Within this neuronal circuitry, kisspeptin neuronal system is likely to “time” reproduction in a long term during development and aging, in a medium term to regulate circadian or estrus cycle, and in a short term to regulate pulsatile GnRH secretion. PMID:27630616

  9. A "Timed" Kiss Is Essential for Reproduction: Lessons from Mammalian Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putteeraj, Manish; Soga, Tomoko; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is associated with the circadian system, primarily as a result of the connectivity between the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and reproduction-regulating brain regions, such as preoptic area (POA), anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), and arcuate nucleus (ARC). Networking of the central pacemaker to these hypothalamic brain regions is partly represented by close fiber appositions to specialized neurons, such as kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons; accounting for rhythmic release of gonadotropins and sex steroids. Numerous studies have attempted to dissect the neurochemical properties of GnRH neurons, which possess intrinsic oscillatory features through the presence of clock genes to regulate the pulsatile and circadian secretion. However, less attention has been given to kisspeptin, the upstream regulator of GnRH and a potent mediator of reproductive functions including puberty. Kisspeptin exerts its stimulatory effects on GnRH secretion via its cognate Kiss-1R receptor that is co-expressed on GnRH neurons. Emerging studies have found that kisspeptin neurons oscillate on a circadian basis and that these neurons also express clock genes that are thought to regulate its rhythmic activities. Based on the fiber networks between the SCN and reproductive nuclei such as the POA, AVPV, and ARC, it is suggested that interactions among the central biological clock and reproductive neurons ensure optimal reproductive functionality. Within this neuronal circuitry, kisspeptin neuronal system is likely to "time" reproduction in a long term during development and aging, in a medium term to regulate circadian or estrus cycle, and in a short term to regulate pulsatile GnRH secretion. PMID:27630616

  10. Assisted reproduction and distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitch, Vida

    2015-02-01

    The Canadian province of Quebec recently amended its Health Insurance Act to cover the costs of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The province of Ontario recently de-insured IVF. Both provinces cited cost-effectiveness as their grounds, but the question as to whether a public health insurance system ought to cover IVF raises the deeper question of how we should understand reproduction at the social level, and whether its costs should be a matter of individual or collective responsibility. In this article I examine three strategies for justifying collective provisions in a liberal society and assess whether public reproductive assistance can be defended on any of these accounts. I begin by considering, and rejecting, rights-based and needs-based approaches. I go on to argue that instead we ought to address assisted reproduction from the perspective of the contractarian insurance-based model for public health coverage, according to which we select items for inclusion based on their unpredictability in nature and cost. I argue that infertility qualifies as an unpredictable incident against which rational agents would choose to insure under ideal conditions and that assisted reproduction is thereby a matter of collective responsibility, but only in cases of medical necessity or inability to pay. The policy I endorse by appeal to this approach is a means-tested system of coverage resembling neither Ontario nor Quebec's, and I conclude that it constitutes a promising alternative worthy of serious consideration by bioethicists, political philosophers, and policy-makers alike. PMID:24602147

  11. Financing reproductive health in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khanna, A.; Pradhan, J.; Rashid, H.A.; Beekink, E.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is the signatory of both, International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) programme of action and Millennium Development goals (MDGs). The Government of Bangladesh has set ambitious agendas for improving Reproductive Health (RH) services, to achieve the targets till 2015. In

  12. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context. PMID:12348800

  13. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  14. Hyperprolactinemia and male reproductive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.A. Weber (Robert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis some effects of PRL on reproductive functions have been investigated PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma. animal model has been used: For in men with a comparison an In. rats hyperprolactinemia has been induced by sub-cutaneous inoculation of a PRL- and ACTH-secreting transpla

  15. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    2000-01-01

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which beco

  16. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility SREI Members-only Forum Home About Us About SREI Vision and Mission ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SREI is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  17. Reproductive history and risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Stenager, Egon;

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting....

  18. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include ...

  19. Gender and Women's Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: According to the “rights to equality” in reproductive and sexual rights, “no persons should be discriminated against their sexual and reproductive lives, in their access to health care and/or services on the grounds of race, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family position, age, language, religion, political, or other opinion; national or social origin, property, birth, or other status” In this context, health professionals devoted to reproductive health are responsible for the provision of services to individuals equally and should maintain equality rights. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of gender on the reproductive health of women and utilization of reproductive health services. METHODS: The study population consisted of 250 married women at their reproductive ages of 15 to 49, who applied to the obstetrics and gynecology service of a university hospital and a gynecology clinic of a training hospital dedicated to obstetrics and gynecology between 1 February 2007 and 30 April 2007. The data collection form was developed by researchers after evaluation of the relevant literature which relevance of gender discrimination could show where the questions. RESULTS: 52% of Women’ have graduated from primary school. Education levels of women with men (her husband between level of education is statistically significant difference, and women were receive less education than men (her husband (²=34.231, p<0.001. The study was determined that women who received training secondary school and above, worked and decision maker to domestic that they get prenatal care of a high percentage and deliver their babies in the hospital with the aid of a health care professional, and they go to medical center from gynecological problems and they need to obtain permission from their husbands in order to seek aid at a medical center of a low percentage (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Women's reproductive health, gender discrimination status

  20. A Role for Glucocorticoids in Stress-Impaired Reproduction: Beyond the Hypothalamus and Pituitary

    OpenAIRE

    Whirledge, Shannon; Cidlowski, John A.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the well-characterized role of the sex steroid receptors in regulating fertility and reproduction, reproductive events are also mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to an individual's environment. Glucocorticoid secretion in response to stress contributes to the well-characterized suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis through central actions in the hypothalamus and pituitary. However, both animal and in vitro studies indicate that oth...

  1. Asexual Plant Reproduction. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    These lesson plans are intended for use in conducting classes on asexual plant reproduction. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about asexual plant reproduction/propagation. The following topics are among those discussed: plant reproduction methods,…

  2. Approved Practices in Dairy Reproduction. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Roger D.; Barr, Harry L.

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with approved practices in dairy reproduction. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 200 slides dealing with the following topics: the importance of good reproduction, the male and female roles in reproduction, selection of…

  3. Cost-effectiveness in reproductive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Moolenaar

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports on cost-effectiveness in reproductive medicine. Firstly, we evaluated the methodologic quality of studies in reproductive medicine. Insight into the quality of economical analysis in reproductive medicine is important for valuing the performed studies and to assess whether these

  4. Is Boric Acid Toxic to Reproduction in Humans? Assessment of the Animal Reproductive Toxicity Data and Epidemiological Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydın, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Brita Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates are classified as toxic to reproduction in the CLP Regulation under "Category 1B" with the hazard statement of "H360FD". This classification is based on the reprotoxic effects of boric acid and sodium borates in animal experiments at high doses. However, boron mediated reprotoxic effects have not been proven in epidemiological studies so far. The epidemiological study performed in Bandırma boric acid production plant is the most comprehensive published study in this field with 204 voluntarily participated male workers. Sperm quality parameters (sperm morphology, concentration and motility parameters), FSH, LH and testosterone levels were determined in all participated employees as the reproductive toxicity biomarkers of males. However, boron mediated unfavorable effects on reproduction in male workers have not been determined even in the workers under very high daily boron exposure (0.21 mg B/kg-bw/day) conditions. The NOAEL for rat reproductive toxicity is equivalent to a blood boron level of 2020 ng/g. This level is higher than the mean blood boron concentration (223.89 ± 69.49 ng/g) of the high exposure group workers in Bandırma boric acid production plant (Turkey) by a factor of 9. Accordingly, classifying boric acid and sodium borates under "Category 1B" as "presumed reproductive human toxicant in the CLP regulation seems scientifically not reasonable. The results of the epidemiological studies (including the study performed in China) support for a down-classification of boric acid from the category 1B, H360FD to category 2, H361d, (suspected of damaging the unborn child).

  5. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, J G; Eisenberg, V H

    1997-07-01

    oppression of women. The practice has to be stopped. Recognition of the fetus as a 'patient' has a potential effect on women's right for autonomy; they have no legal obligation to undergo invasive procedures and to risk their health for the sake of their fetuses. The woman carries ethical obligations toward her fetus. This obligation should not be enforced by the law. At present women bear most of the burden of reproductive health. All of them have a right of access to fertility regulation. Governments and society must ensure the women's equal rights to health care just as men have in the regulation of their fertility. PMID:9253679

  6. The evolution of reproductive restraint through social communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Justin; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2004-07-27

    The evolution of altruistic behavior through group selection is generally viewed as possible in theory but unlikely in reality, because individual selection favoring selfish strategies should act more rapidly than group selection favoring cooperation. Here we demonstrate the evolution of altruism, in the form of conditional reproductive restraint based on an explicitly social mechanism, modulated by intrapopulation communication comprising signal and evolved response, in a spatially distributed predatory/parasitic/pathogenic model system. The predatory species consistently comes to exploit a signal implying overcrowding, individuals constraining their reproduction in response, with a corresponding increase in equilibrium reproduction rate in the absence of signal. This signaled restraint arises in a robust way for a range of model spatial systems; it outcompetes non-signal-based restraint and is not vulnerable to subversion by noncooperating variants. In these systems, communication is used to evaluate population density and regulate reproduction accordingly, consistent with central ideas of Wynne-Edwards [Wynne-Edwards, V. C. (1962) Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior (Hafner, New York)], whose claims about the evolutionary importance of group selection helped ignite decades of controversy. This quantitative simulation model shows how the key evolutionary transition from solitary living to sociality can occur. The process described here of cooperation evolving through communication may also help to explain other major evolutionary transitions such as intercellular communication leading to multicellular organisms.

  7. Conventional vs unconventional assisted reproductive technologies: opinions of young physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostiuc, S

    2013-01-01

    In the last three and a half decades, an increasing number of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have been developed, some of them already being used in clinical practice, while others will probably remain purely theoretical due to their associated ethical issues. The purpose of this study was to analyse the opinions of medical residents regarding various ARTs, both classical and unconventional. We conducted a multi-institutional survey among 142 medical residents in order to assess the views of young physicians of regarding ARTs. Most responders were in favour of medical procedures like gamete donation and surrogacy. When asked about more controversial procedures such as posthumous sperm procurement or reproductive cloning, most were against. Progress in reproductive medicine is made at a fast pace, as more and more couples are found infertile and as the birth rate in developed countries becomes smaller and smaller. If not carefully followed and regulated, this can easily lead to the development of highly controversial procedures, which can significantly alter the way we see human reproduction. As the law has a very traditional approach, it is often left behind by progress in this field, leaving potentially controversial procedures unregulated for long periods of time. During these periods, physicians have the very important role of analysing what is good and what is not and when to recognise procedures that go against general ethical and medical principles. PMID:23259883

  8. Different aspects of reproduction strategies in crayfish: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazicioglu B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the reproductive strategy of crayfish species is of great importance in the current astacological world. Crayfish are among the largest freshwater invertebrates, and as keystone species, they are able to regulate the structure of the benthic fauna in the freshwaters, demonstrating different ecological strategies and life spans ranging up to 20+ years. In order to bring together the various pieces of information related to this issue, this overview of published scientific reports was conducted. The majority of crayfish species studied show sexual dimorphism, with approximately equal numbers of males and females. However, over some decades numerous observations have been made for a few species that may have different modes of reproduction, such as hermaphroditism or intersex (e.g. Cherax quadricarinatus, Samastacus spinifrons, Parastacus virilastacus and Pacifastacus leniusculus and parthenogenesis (only Procambarus fallax f. virginalis. A recent study showed a new case of parthenogenesis as apomictic parthenogenesis (only Orconectes limosus. In addition, there are many investigations into the reproduction biology of crayfish, including using eyestalk ablation or androgenic gland ablation under various lab conditions and hybridization under natural conditions (e.g. Astacus astacus X Astacus leptodactylus, Orconectes rusticus X Orconectes propinquus. There are also some chemical factors which could possibly affect the reproduction system of crayfish in the wild.

  9. Cost of reproduction and offspring quality in the evolution of reproductive effort

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Tuula

    2002-01-01

    Any organism has a limited amount of resources, which have to be partitioned among several activities such as maintenance, growth and reproduction. Reproductive effort is defined as the proportion of parental resources devoted to fecundity and offspring survival. The extent of reproductive effort is restricted by trade-offs that cancel out the advantages of increasing investment in reproduction. This thesis presents an investigation into the determinants of reproductive effort in the bank vol...

  10. Women Reproductive Rights in India: Prospective Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kosgi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive rights were established as a subset of the human rights. Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children. Issues regarding the reproductive rights are vigorously contested, regardless of the population’s socioeconomic level, religion or culture. Following review article discusses reproductive rights with respect to Indian context focusing on socio economic and cultural aspects. Also discusses sensitization of government and judicial agencies in protecting the reproductive rights with special focus on the protecting the reproductive rights of people with disability (mental illness and mental retardation.

  11. [A reproductive function in metallurgists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, A M

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the results of a complex investigation of a reproductive function including examination of semen and blood hormones in 100 metallurgists and 80 workers not engaged in metallurgy of ferrous metals (a control group) has shown that 44% metallurgists and 18.5% controls have pathology (p semen viscosity, oligospermia, teratospermia, asthenoteratospermia, male sterility than the control group (p < 0.001). Metallurgists have a moderate and high relative risk of reproduction function pathology (RR = 1.6-2.9). Urological pathology in metallurgists can be reduced after prophylactic programs. This proves the necessity of including urological examination and ultrasonic scanning in programs of regular check-up of metallurgists. PMID:19526877

  12. Microbes central to human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Brigidi, Patrizia; Burton, Jeremy P; Contractor, Nikhat; Duncan, Sylvia; Fargier, Emilie; Hill, Colin; Lebeer, Sarah; Martín, Rocio; McBain, Andrew J; Mor, Gil; O'Neill, Catherine; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Swann, Jonathan; van Hemert, Saskia; Ansell, Juliett

    2015-01-01

    As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although further evidence is required, we propose that much of medical dogma is about to change significantly through recognition and understanding of these hitherto unrecognized microbe-host interactions. A meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics held in Aberdeen, Scotland (June 2014), presented new views and challenged established concepts on the role of microbes in reproduction and health of the mother and infant. This article summarizes some of the main aspects of these discussions.

  13. Alcohol and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    by type of alcohol. However, we found a linear association between total alcohol consumption and total or free testosterone in both groups of men. Young and fertile men who consumed >20 units of alcohol per week had, respectively, 24.6 pmol/l (95% confidence interval 16.3-32.9) and 19.7 pmol/l (7......STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... serum testosterone levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High alcohol intake has been associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few studies have examined the correlation between alcohol and reproductive function and most have been conducted in selected populations of infertile men or have a small...

  14. Colour Reproduction on Tablet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zorić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Internet and mobile devices client services and other print production are migrating more and more to online platforms. In a recent technology changeover it is obvious that there is growing number of printers as well need from the customers for the print service providers to expand their business to online and mobile platforms. With this technological transition there are some open questions regarding the possibilities of using the tablet devices for colour soft proofing and other colour related operations. As a display devices on a hardware level there are large similarities with the desktop display devices but the operating systems which are driving them are not yet colour smart. There have been some initial attempts to characterize the colour reproduction on this type of devices and find a possibility of using them not just for information content but also for colour managed content. In this study we have tested several tablets (Apple iPad2,Asus Transformer TF101, Samsung Galaxy Tab 1 with different display and OS technology and tested a software which is intended for colour managed viewing of the reproduction. We have measured the colour reproduction of the tablets with the digital version of the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker card and have calculated the colour differences between the colour chart data and the displayed data. We have calibrated the Ipad2 with the only existing colour management tool the Spyder Gallery and we have also tested the chart display with and without the colour correction of the software. We have found that there are differences in the colour reproduction of the display technologies and that the possibilities of a real colour managed workflow has yet to be resolved on the OS level of tablet and mobile devices

  15. Reproductive issues in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R.; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of menstrual irregularities, women with anorexia nervosa are becoming pregnant. The physical and psychological demands of pregnancy and motherhood can represent an immense challenge for women already struggling with the medical and psychological stress of an eating disorder. This article summarizes key issues related to reproduction in women with anorexia nervosa, highlighting the importance of preconception counseling, adequate gestational weight gain, and sufficien...

  16. Teasing apart socially-induced infertility in non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats, Fukomys damarensis (Rodentia: Bathyergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nigel C

    2011-12-01

    The Damaraland mole-rat is a subterranean mammal exhibiting extreme reproductive skew with a single reproductive female in each colony responsible for procreation. Non-reproductive female colony members are physiologically suppressed while in the colony, exhibiting reduced concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and a decreased response of the pituitary, as measured by the release of bioactive LH, to an exogenous dose of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). Removal of the reproductive female from the colony results in an elevation of LH and an enhanced response of the pituitary to a GnRH challenge in non-reproductive females comparable to reproductive females, implying control of reproduction in these individuals by the reproductive female. The Damaraland mole-rat is an ideal model for investigating the physiological and behavioral mechanisms that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In contrast, we know less about the control of reproduction at the level of the hypothalamus. The immunohistochemistry of the GnRH system of both reproductive and non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats has revealed no significant differences with respect to morphology, distribution or numbers of immunoreactive GnRH perikarya. We examined whether the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin was responsible for the inhibition of the release of the GnRH from the neurons indirectly by measuring LH concentrations in these non-reproductive females following single, hourly and 8 hourly injections of the opioid antagonist naloxone. The results imply that the endogenous opioid peptide, beta-endorphin, is not responsible for the inhibition of GnRH release from the perikarya in non-reproductive females. Preliminary data examining the circulating levels of cortisol also do not support a role for circulating glucocorticoids. The possible role of kisspeptin is discussed.

  17. Impact of three phthalate esters on the sexual reproduction of the Monogonont rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, V; Iovine, C; Thomé, J-P; Joaquim-Justo, C

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters are widespread contaminants that can cause endocrine disruption in vertebrates. Studies showed that molecules with hormonal activities in vertebrates and invertebrates can affect asexual and sexual reproduction in rotifers. We investigated the impact of di-hexylethyl phthalate (DEHP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), on the asexual and sexual reproduction of the freshwater monogonont rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus in order to determine a potential environmental risk for sexual reproduction. We observed that DEHP has no significant impact on both asexual and sexual reproduction up to 2 mg/L. DBP has a positive effect on asexual reproduction at concentrations from 0.05 to 1 mg/L, but depresses it at 2 mg/L. Sexual reproduction is only affected at 2 mg/L and the impact observed is negative. BBP displayed a negative impact on both asexual and sexual reproduction at 1 and 2 mg/L. However we showed that the impacts of BBP on mixis and fertilization rates observed are due to the decrease in population growth rates at these concentrations and not to a direct impact of BBP on the mixis and the fertilization processes. Our results show that sexual reproduction in B. calyciflorus is not more sensitive than asexual reproduction to any of the substances tested which indicates the mode of action of these molecules is related to general toxicity and not to an interference with potential endocrine regulation of sexual reproduction. Comparison of effect concentrations and surface water contamination by phthalate esters suggests these compounds do not constitute a risk for primary consumers in these environments. PMID:26666431

  18. [Reproductive aspects of celiac disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, Anna Velia; Trinti, Biagino

    2005-01-01

    In the past, celiac disease (CD), or intolerance to gluten, was considered a rare disease of infancy characterized by chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and delayed growth. Besides the overt enteropathy, there are other clinic and subclinical forms which appear later in life. Target organs are not limited to the gut, but include liver, thyroid, skin and female and male reproductive systems. CD interference on reproduction is related to the multifactorial nature of the disease, whose pathological manifestations can be modulated, besides gluten, by different concurrent genetic and environmental factors. CD induces malabsorption with consequent deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, folic acid and vitamin K, which are essential for organogenesis, and fat-soluble vitamins important for spermatogenesis. Regarding endocrine disorders, the deficiencies of specific trace elements on ovarian function could explain its involvement in the increased risk of female osteoporosis in CD patients. Affected males show a picture of tissue resistance to androgens; the increases of follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin, not associated with infertility, may indicate an imbalance at hypothalamus-pituitary level, with general effects on health. Since reproductive alterations are reversible, adoption of a gluten-free diet supported by early diagnosis is important. Therefore, the detection of early biomarkers, such as deficiencies of vitamins and/or iron and andrological or endocrinological dysfunctions, should trigger timely strategies for prevention and treatment. PMID:16250182

  19. Unisexual reproduction of Cryptococcus gattii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujal S Phadke

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous human fungal pathogen that typically causes infection in tropical and subtropical regions and is responsible for an ongoing outbreak in immunocompetent individuals on Vancouver Island and in the Pacific Northwest of the US. Pathogenesis of this species may be linked to its sexual cycle that generates infectious propagules called basidiospores. A marked predominance of only one mating type (α in clinical and environmental isolates suggests that a-α opposite-sex reproduction may be infrequent or geographically restricted, raising the possibility of an alternative unisexual cycle involving cells of only α mating type, as discovered previously in the related pathogenic species Cryptococcus neoformans. Here we report observation of hallmark features of unisexual reproduction in a clinical isolate of C. gattii (isolate 97/433 and describe genetic and environmental factors conducive to this sexual cycle. Our results are consistent with population genetic evidence of recombination in the largely unisexual populations of C. gattii and provide a useful genetic model for understanding how novel modes of sexual reproduction may contribute to evolution and virulence in this species.

  20. Spatial processing in color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yongyi; Stark, Henry

    2005-08-01

    We consider the reproduction of color subject to material and neighborhood constraints. By 'material constraints,' we mean any constraints that are applied to the amount of ink, lights, voltages, and currents that are used in the generation of color. In the first instance we consider the problem of reproducing a target color constrained by maximum additive color signals, such as in the phosphorescence process in a cathode ray tube. In the second instance we consider the more difficult problem of reproducing color subject to constraints on the maximum primary color variations in a (spatial) neighborhood. We introduce the idea of adjacent color variance (ACV) and then attempt to reproduce colors subject to an upper bound on the ACV. An algorithm that is suitable for this task is the method of vector space projections (VSP). In order to use VSP for constrained color reproduction, we use a novel approach to linearize nonlinear CIE-Lab space constraints. Experimental results are furnished that demonstrate that using the ACV as a bound helps to reduce reproduction artifacts in a color image.

  1. Interactions of spermatozoa with the female reproductive tract: inspiration for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, S S

    2007-01-01

    Artificial insemination with sexed semen, in vitro fertilisation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection have been used to reproduce animals, but often not as successfully as natural mating. Learning more about how spermatozoa normally interact with the female tract can provide inspiration for developing improvements in assisted reproduction. The present review focuses on Bos taurus, because more is known about this species than others. At coitus, bull spermatozoa are deposited into the anterior vagina, where they rapidly enter the cervix. Cervical mucus quickly filters out seminal plasma from spermatozoa, unlike most assisted reproduction protocols. Spermatozoa that reach the uterus may require certain cell surface proteins to swim through the uterotubal junction. Shortly after passing through the junction, most spermatozoa are trapped in a storage reservoir by binding to oviducal epithelium, in the case of cattle via bovine seminal plasma (BSP) proteins coating the sperm head. As ovulation approaches, spermatozoa capacitate and shed BSP proteins. This reduces sperm binding to the epithelium and releases them from storage. Motility hyperactivation assists spermatozoa in leaving the storage reservoir, swimming through oviducal mucus and the cumulus oophorus, and penetrating the oocyte zona pellucida. Chemotactically regulated switching between asymmetrical (i.e. hyperactivated) and symmetrical flagellar beating may also guide spermatozoa to the oocyte. PMID:17389139

  2. John Stuart Mill, innate differences, and the regulation of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Diane B; Day, Benjamin

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we show that the question of the relative importance of innate characteristics and institutional arrangements in explaining human difference was vehemently contested in Britain during the first half of the nineteenth century. Thus Sir Francis Galton's work of the 1860s should be seen as an intervention in a pre-existing controversy. The central figure in these earlier debates-as well as many later ones-was the philosopher and economist John Stuart Mill. In Mill's view, human nature was fundamentally shaped by history and culture, factors that accounted for most mental and behavioral differences between men and women and among people of different classes, nationalities, and races. Indeed, Mill's whole program of social reform depended on the assumption that human differences were not fixed by nature. To identify the leading figures in these disputes about difference and the concrete context in which they occurred, we explore three debates in which Mill played a key role: over the capacities and rights of women, the viability of peasant proprietorship in India and Ireland, and the status of black labor in Jamaica. The last two draw our attention to the important colonial context of the nature-nurture debate. We also show that ideas that for us seem of a piece were not always linked for these earlier thinkers, nor did views on innateness necessarily have the political correlates that we now take for granted.

  3. Reproductive experiential regulation of cognitive and emotional resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsley, CH; Bales, KL; De Bardi, M.; Stolzenberg, DS

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Adaptation virtually defines survival. For mammals, arguably, no other developmental milestone is exemplified by - nor more reliant on - the sudden and dramatic behavioral alterations observed in the maternal female, which rapidly must undergo change in order to express a large suite of proper and effective maternal behaviors. As pregnancy progresses, as well as during lactation, when pup cues are rich and rampant, the female is literally transformed from an ...

  4. Advances in human reproductive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, P T

    1994-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology pertains to reproduction biology and changes due to environmental influences. The research literature relies on clinical, epidemiological, and demographic analysis. The emphasis is on normal, nonpathological states and a broad range of ecological conditions. This review focused on the importance of age and energetic stress from ecological conditions rather than dieting or self-directed exercise in changing female fecundity. The literature on male reproductive ecology is still small but growing. J.W. Wood provided a comprehensive overview of the field. Natural fertility, as defined by Henry, is the lack of parity-specific fertility limitation. There is evidence that fertility can vary widely in natural fertility populations. There are consistent age patterns among different natural fertility populations. Doring found that there was higher frequency of anovulatory and luteal insufficiency in cycles during perimenarche and perimenopausal periods. Infertility studies have shown declines in pregnancy rates in women over the age of 30 years. Ovum donation evaluations have found both uterine age and ovarian and oocyte age to be related to the probability of a successful pregnancy. Basal follicle stimulating hormone and the endometrial thickness are important predictors of ovarian capacity and related to age and declining fecundity. Much of the literature on fecundity is derived from women with impaired reproductive physiology. In Lipson and Ellison's study of healthy women, average follicular and average luteal estradiol values declined with increasing subject age. Low follicular levels were correlated with smaller follicular size, low oocyte fertilizability, reduced endometrial thickness, and low pregnancy rates. Comparisons across populations have shown that populations experience declines in luteal function with age, but levels of luteal functions varied widely. Chronic conditions which slow growth and delay reproductive maturation may impact

  5. Current and future assisted reproductive technologies for mammalian farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    technologies that have the potential to improve efficiency of livestock production. The focus will be on technologies that manipulate male and female gametes as well as the stem cells from which they are derived and the preimplantation embryo. While technology is crucial to other interventions in the reproductive process like control of seasonal breeding, hormonal regulation of ovulation, estrous cyclicity and pregnancy establishment, feeding to optimize reproduction, minimizing environmental stress, and selection of genes controlling reproduction, these will not be considered here. Rather the reader is directed to other chapters in this volume as well as some reviews on other aspects of artificial manipulation of reproduction (Reprod Fertil Dev 24:258-266, 2011; Reprod Domest Anim 43:40-47, 2008; Reprod Domest Anim 43:122-128, 2008; Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 66:87-102, 2009; Comprehensive biotechnology, Amsterdam, pp 477-485; Dairy production medicine, Chichester, pp 153-163; Theriogenology 76:1619-1631, 2011; Theriogenology 76:1568-1582, 2011; Theriogenology 77:1-11, 2012). Given the large number of mammalian species used for production of products useful for man and the diversity in their biology and management, the review will not be comprehensive but instead will use results from species that are most illustrative of the opportunities generated by assisted reproductive technologies.

  6. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  7. Physiological control of growth, reproduction and lactation in deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ryg

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The physiological mechanisms controlling the growth, lactation and reproductive cycles of cervids, and the control of allocation of energy to different organs are discussed. The growth cycle may be secondary to an appetite cycle, regulated by changes in the secretion of prolactin, gonadal steroids, and possibly unknown factors. The reproductive cycle is controlled by changes in the release at the hypothalamic hormone GnRH, and by changes in the feedback effect of gonadal steroids. These cycles are probably the result of the timing effects of nutrition and changing photoperiod on an endogenous, circannual rhythm. The effect of photopenod is mediated by the pineal hormone melatonin. The physiological mechanisms controlling the partitioning of substrates between milk production, fetal growth and the tissues of the mother are poorly understood, but may involve changes in the secretion of growth hormone, insulin and triiodothyronine.

  8. Plant germline formation: common concepts and developmental flexibility in sexual and asexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2015-01-15

    The life cycle of flowering plants alternates between two heteromorphic generations: a diploid sporophytic generation and a haploid gametophytic generation. During the development of the plant reproductive lineages - the germlines - typically, single sporophytic (somatic) cells in the flower become committed to undergo meiosis. The resulting spores subsequently develop into highly polarized and differentiated haploid gametophytes that harbour the gametes. Recent studies have provided insights into the genetic basis and regulatory programs underlying cell specification and the acquisition of reproductive fate during both sexual reproduction and asexual (apomictic) reproduction. As we review here, these recent advances emphasize the importance of transcriptional, translational and post-transcriptional regulation, and the role of epigenetic regulatory pathways and hormonal activity.

  9. The fate and transport of reproductive hormones and their conjugates in the environment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, F. X.; Shrestha, S. L.; Hakk, H.; Smith, D. J.; Larsen, G. L.; Padmanabhan, G.

    2009-12-01

    Reproductive steroid hormones can disrupt the endocrine system of some species at ng/L concentrations. Sources of steroid hormones to the environment include human waste water effluents or manure produced at animal feeding operations (AFOs). Steroid hormones, such as 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1), undergo various fate and transport processes, and laboratory studies have shown that they do not persist long (hours to few days), and have very little if any mobility in soil. Nonetheless, steroid hormones are detected at frequencies and concentrations of concern in the natural environment that would suggest their moderate persistence and mobility. One theory that may partially explain the disparity between field and laboratory studies is that conjugated forms of hormones are more mobile than their deconjugated counterparts. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates are found in abundance in animal waste and are more soluble than their deconjugated forms. Laboratory studies were conducted to study the fate of a major urinary E2 conjugate, 17β-estradiol glucuronide (E2G), in a Hamar soil (Sandy, mixed, frigid typic Endoaquolls) from the surface and subsurface horizons. Speciation studies using batch sorption indicated that E2G degraded to E2 and E1 within 24 hours in the upper horizon soil with organic carbon content (OC) of 1.35%; whereas it persisted more in the lower horizon soil containing 0.32% OC. For initial concentrations of 2.8-28 mg/L, more than 15% of the applied dose concentration was still intact in the conjugate form in the aqueous phase for 3 - 14 days, in the lower horizon soil. The decline of E2G in the aqueous phase in the upper horizon soil was approximated with a first-order rate constant (k), which ranged from -0.208 to -0.279/h. The k values ranged from -0.006 to -0.016/h for the lower soil horizon. The differences in k values between the two horizons could be attributed to differences in bacterial activity and/or differences in sorption capacities

  10. Reproductive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008270 Conjugated effects of fluorine and aluminum on the sex hormones of male rats. XIA Shuhua(夏曙华), et al. Dept Clin Lab Sci, Guiyang Med Coo, Guiyang 550004. Chin J Endemiol 2008;27(2):134-136.Objective To observe the combined poisonous effects of fluoride and aluminum on sex hormone of male rats.Methods Sixteen weaned SD healthy male rats aged two week were selected and divided into control group,aluminum group,fluoride group,fluorine-aluminum group,four rats in each group.All rats in the experimental

  11. Evolution of plant reproduction: From fusion and dispersal to interaction and communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILLEMSE Michiel T M

    2009-01-01

    important action which is based on a persisting cooperation and points to a push during evolution. The push is expressed as communication: the driving force in the evolution. Based on the interactions between organisms and interactions between organisms and the dynamic environment, communication is considered as a driving force leading to the evolution as explained in the development of plant reproduction. Consequences for reproduction, its regulation and the process of evolution are discussed.

  12. Immune Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus...

  13. In vivo models for male reproductive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Rochelle W

    2002-05-01

    In Vivo Models for Male Reproductive Toxicology (Rochelle W. Tyl, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina). Assessment of male reproductive function requires a specific set of evaluations of the various steps in successful mating from sperm production to copulation to fertilization to production of a viable litter. This unit outlines the measurements that are standard for determining the effects of treatment with toxicant on the reproductive capacity of male mice and rats.

  14. Survival to reproductive cessation drives variation in post-reproductive lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proske, Beate; Burger, Oskar; Levitis, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    How many post-reproductive individuals are found in a population depends on how many individuals survive to reproductive cessation and how long they live thereafter. Post-reproductive Representation (PrR), a measure of post-reproductive lifespan intended for interspecific comparisons, allows a cl......-reproductive. Research on the evolution of post-reproductive lifespan should take into account the primary importance of survival to reproductive cessation, rather than focusing on the length of life thereafter....... the majority of variation in PrR among a group of small cohorts of rotifers, and among several historical Swedish cohorts. We emphasize that women are distinct from other primates in the proportion reaching reproductive cessation, but not in the proportion of adult life-expectancy that is post...

  15. Functions of VEGF in female reproductive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As a homodimeric glycoprotein, vascular en- dothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly specific mitogen of vascular endothelial cells. It can induce proliferation and migration, and inhibit apoptosis of endothelial cell. VEGF is involved in many processes in the female reproductive system, such as ovulation, periodical changes of endometrium, embryo implantation and development. VEGF plays important roles in some reproductive diseases, including preeclampsia and fetal hypoevolutism in uterus. Based on our studies on angiogenesis and its relevant factors in the female reproductive system these years, the functions of VEGF in female reproductive system are reviewed, and the research prospect and application of VEGF are also discussed.

  16. Reproductive 'surrogacy' and parental licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Christine

    2015-06-01

    A serious moral weakness of reproductive 'surrogacy' is that it can be harmful to the children who are created. This article presents a proposal for mitigating this weakness. Currently, the practice of commercial 'surrogacy' operates only in the interests of the adults involved (the gestator and the commissioning individuals who employ her), not in the interests of the child who is created. Whether 'surrogacy' is seen as the purchase of a baby, the purchase of parental rights, or the purchase of reproductive labor, all three views share the same significant flaws. They endorse the transfer, for a fee, of the infant from the woman who gestated it to those who commissioned it, but without justifying such a transfer; they fail to demonstrate that the commissioners have any entitlement to the infant, or, for that matter, suitability to be the infant's parents; and they fail to take any notice of the infant's needs, interests, and wellbeing. A mere genetic connection is not enough to establish that the commissioners are entitled to receive the baby or that they are competent to raise it. Their good intentions, however caring, are not enough. Therefore, just as in the practice of adoption, there should be a formal institutionalized system for screening and licensing the prospective social parents, which would make the infant's needs, interests, and wellbeing paramount. I reply to several potential objections to this proposal, including the objection that genetic parents who raise their own child are not screened and licensed. PMID:25082172

  17. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv B; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Bergh, Christina; Aittomäki, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development, coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been associated with ART techniques, but disentangling the influence of the ART procedures per se from the effect of the reproductive disease of the parents is a challenge. Epidemiological human studies have shown altered birthweight profiles in ART compared with spontaneously conceived singletons. Conception with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational-age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human adolescents conceived by ART have altered lipid and glucose profiles and thereby a higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This commentary describes the basic concepts of epigenetics and gives a short overview of the existing literature on the association between imprinting disorders, epigenetic modification and ART. PMID:26458360

  18. Global warming and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

    2012-10-01

    The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing.

  19. Seasonal reproductive endothermy in tegu lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Leite, Cleo A C; Sanders, Colin E; Cadena, Viviana; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Milsom, William K

    2016-01-01

    With some notable exceptions, small ectothermic vertebrates are incapable of endogenously sustaining a body temperature substantially above ambient temperature. This view was challenged by our observations of nighttime body temperatures sustained well above ambient (up to 10°C) during the reproductive season in tegu lizards (~2 kg). This led us to hypothesize that tegus have an enhanced capacity to augment heat production and heat conservation. Increased metabolic rates and decreased thermal conductance are the same mechanisms involved in body temperature regulation in those vertebrates traditionally acknowledged as "true endotherms": the birds and mammals. The appreciation that a modern ectotherm the size of the earliest mammals can sustain an elevated body temperature through metabolic rates approaching that of endotherms enlightens the debate over endothermy origins, providing support for the parental care model of endothermy, but not for the assimilation capacity model of endothermy. It also indicates that, contrary to prevailing notions, ectotherms can engage in facultative endothermy, providing a physiological analog in the evolutionary transition to true endothermy.

  20. Dicty_cDB: AFO852 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lar to O46030 CYSTEINE PROTEINASE. Sitophilus zeamais (maize weevil), mRNA sequence. 50 2e-06 3 dna update 2... 4 BQ834906 |BQ834906.1 Po_ad_04H08_TEXF1 Psoroptes ovis mixed Psoroptes ovis cDNA clone Po_ad_04H08 5' simi

  1. Dicty_cDB: AFO688 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available no Acid sequence ---XNKXVVGENGXNGXXIVXQPXIXTXELLXAIXKXXGGLXSEXSXKXESFKXKENXIX KIDKXLKXDLGVXNXFIPLXSKXFDLXTKXDXYXVXPYEKASQGX...TXLGKFESFGXXGKX MLFXNGXQXWGGPKRSLKXXXECGXX Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ---XNKXVVGENGXNGX...XIVXQPXIXTXELLXAIXKXXGGLXSEXSXKXESFKXKENXIX KIDKXLKXDLGVXNXFIPLXSKXFDLXTKXDXYXVXPYEKASQGXTXLGKFESFGXXGKX MLFXNGX...QXWGGPKRSLKXXXECGXX Frame B: ---kixk*lvkmvkmvkxlxnnxkfxhx...nfxmqfxxxlvgwxanxqxkxkvlxkkkmxxx rlikxlnxi*elxmxsfxxxvxxliwxlxrtxtxfxhmkkxpkvxlx*vnsnxlvxxxkx cyxkmxxxxgxxxn

  2. Dicty_cDB: AFO222 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alase, gene of said catalase and composition containing said catalase, and process for preparing catalase using the genetic engineeri...ng technology. 86 6e-13 1 CC133697 |CC133697.1 NDL.83G19

  3. Dicty_cDB: AFO550 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KTWKSKKESKHQEYTDS--- ---KLKKLKKSTTITNNKHHFHYGCNH*ryssliglymfre*ikllgttirtfysrfkdw hiifritslqsfl*fhlqilrshski...gyqrhgnqkknlnikniqtl--- ---KLKKLKKSTTITNNKHHFHYGCNH*ryssliglymfre*ikllgttirtfysrfkdw hiifritslqsfl*fhlqilrsh

  4. Dicty_cDB: AFO871 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mmglxxfqxhvgn*kxmxk*nsislxxx Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value...4. 4 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N BZ128529 |BZ128529.1...ificant alignments: (bits) Value CP000020_1061( CP000020 |pid:none) Vibrio fischeri ES114 chromosom... 42 0.

  5. Dicty_cDB: AFO274 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N AC012149 |AC012149.11 Homo sapiens chromosome 3 clone RP11-119E13, WORK...mo sapiens chromosome 3 clone RP11-717C3 map 3, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 50 unordered pieces. 46 1e-04 2 AC10...6532 |AC106532.4 Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-136K8, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 1 ordered piece. 50 2e-04 2 AC...50 2e-04 2 AC068766 |AC068766.13 Homo sapiens chromosome 3 clone RP11-84J20, WORK...ING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 58 unordered pieces. 50 2e-04 2 AC140203 |AC140203.1 Mus musculus chromosome UNK clone RP24-334J15, WORK

  6. Dicty_cDB: AFO513 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5-PRIME end of clone CS0DI007YP04 of PLACENTA COT 25-NORMALIZED of Homo sapiens (human). 62 5e-17 4 BD126332...1.1 human full-length cDNA 5-PRIME end of clone CS0DJ014YC06 of T CELLS (JURKAT CELL LINE) COT 10-NORMALIZED

  7. Dicty_cDB: AFO416 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FFPPFIVIFFLFLFLLLLLSLLLYNYTIQILIYN FQ*igcvagprkraltlrksittqtgraalekitlkfidtsskfghglhhnrckirlnis asrnqdqlra*h...LFNLXKLLLFFFYYYVFLFSI ILLDFSFAFSFFSLPIMFKFFLKMLFFFPPFIVIFFLFLFLLLLLSLLLYNYTIQILIYN FQ*igcvagprkraltlrksittqtgraal

  8. Dicty_cDB: AFO872 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otgun reads, with very preliminary annotation. 46 1.1 1 AL133316 |AL133316.5 Human chromosome 14 DNA sequenc...NCE, 3 unordered pieces. 44 0.93 2 AL160371 |AL160371.4 Leishmania major Friedlin assembled chromosome 15 sh

  9. Dicty_cDB: AFO760 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Translated Amino Acid sequence qfsfy*llvvwqqfrvlptqkvtqvdwyqmhqifhqfqvliqilphlkiqlnntlfhilk v**qn*reiki...sfsfyys*fixk** knkk Frame B: qfsfy*llvvwqqfrvlptqkvtqvdwyqmhqifhqfqvliqilphlkiqlnntlfhilk v**qn*reikifsftlfy

  10. Dicty_cDB: AFO224 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ksck*ey snr*slrftrketllqsw*t*cscp*t*lcrpir*syrkrsfithllwyskw*fcnfthc wcsswyrn*thr*w*nyn*rccwssns*ilftnfrei...ki*ni Frame B: fkknhlgnlkifnikk*kksflttfvyaeekkrnekyiiirfwlcckast*lplkkrrlf cnnc*fi

  11. Dicty_cDB: AFO860 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( EF137905 |pid:none) Helianthus annuus plastid enolase ... 274 4e-72 DQ497988_1( DQ497988 |pid:none) Polypterus senegal...ectes natans enolase B mRNA... 273 7e-72 DQ497985_1( DQ497985 |pid:none) Polypterus senegalus enolase A mRN.

  12. Dicty_cDB: AFO814 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NLFHFFKFYFLNSIFHFFSINFLFLKLFILFPKKK--- ---NASKXLFQEFLQSHLIESLISISHQMXQLYH*kilkiilkq*n*lvlnlmilkllfl iiqennqa...fqkk--- ---NASKXLFQEFLQSHLIESLISISHQMXQLYH*kilkiilkq*n*lvlnlmilkllfl iiqennqalfhqviqinhhhhqviinhsnhnqllklihl

  13. Dicty_cDB: AFO687 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fprcsfk yhfkirssk*snwy*nvitisitsyr*ig*rssmeskisny*lystfsftirc*il**kt w*fmydlvr*ssifns*ssn**feeinrsiws*lgke*y...k*snwy*nvitisitsyr*ig*rssmeskisny*lystfsftirc*il**kt w*fmydlvr*ssifns*ssn**feeinrsiws*lgke*yysksfiftlssklsls...RANAEMKKSLRKTFGG LCHDDTPMVKRAAATNLG--- ---LPCVKDLVSDSSQHVRAALAQVIMSLAPIYGKEDTLTHPFRIVFTSLKR*fprcsfk yhfkirss

  14. Dicty_cDB: AFO433 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 71.1 ML1365 peppermint glandular trichome Mentha x piperita cDNA, mRNA sequence. 64 2e-06 1 BM315730 |BM3157...IN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE P5 PRECURSOR ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 AW255071 |AW2550

  15. Dicty_cDB: AFO363 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L Q11067 PROBABLE PROTEIN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE P5 PRECURSOR ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 AW255071 |AW255071.1 ML1365 peppermint glandu...lar trichome Mentha x piperita cDNA, mRNA sequence. 64 3e-06 1 BM315730 |BM315730.1

  16. Dicty_cDB: AFO558 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 CD008053 |CD008053.1 VVB082D05_335234 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of V...06712.1 VVB066D06_332552 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed ...719214 |CD719214.1 VVB158G03_410335 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis ...uence tag database for abiotic stressed berries of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA clone ...tum cDNA clone cLEX14P1 5', mRNA sequence. 66 6e-07 1 CB910900 |CB910900.1 VVD157G07_379711 An expressed seq

  17. Dicty_cDB: AFO676 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iskivyifii*ts*rnsttt*kinmifiykdinlwfg*tcigehtnl iddmfpitwyftgdesi*nlltnifdstrhffk...ymlqlmyllflgqcll*kllkhlkldllvlmvhlqikllldh*lhlnllnlayy yylxyk*ri Frame C: llaywxsysi*nciskivyifii*ts*rnsttt*kinmifiykdinlwfg*tcigeht

  18. Dicty_cDB: AFO466 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 BI435340 |BI435340.1 EST538101 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanum tuberosum...1 1 BI433279 |BI433279.1 EST536040 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone PPCBC62 5' sequ...ence, mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 BQ046631 |BQ046631.1 EST595749 P. infestans-challenge...1 1 BG591390 |BG591390.1 EST499232 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone BPLI8D17 5' seq...uence, mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 BI435853 |BI435853.1 EST538614 P. infestans-challenge

  19. Dicty_cDB: AFO108 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .12 Medicago truncatula clone mth2-14k4, complete sequence. 46 0.20 4 BI433279 |BI433279.1 EST536040 P. infestans-challenge...I435717.1 EST538478 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone PPCCI86 5' sequence, mRNA sequ...ence. 48 0.29 1 BQ046631 |BQ046631.1 EST595749 P. infestans-challenged potato lea...I435853.1 EST538614 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone PPCCL22 5' sequence, mRNA sequ...ence. 48 0.29 1 BG591390 |BG591390.1 EST499232 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solan

  20. Dicty_cDB: AFO568 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available berosum cDNA clone STMCF59 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 BI435340 |BI435340.1 EST538101 P. infestans-challenge....26 1 BI435717 |BI435717.1 EST538478 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone PPCCI86 5' se...quence, mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 BQ046631 |BQ046631.1 EST595749 P. infestans-challenged potato leaf, incompa...quence, mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 BI435853 |BI435853.1 EST538614 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanum tuberos...um cDNA clone PPCCL22 5' sequence, mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 BG591390 |BG591390.1 EST499232 P. infestans-challenge

  1. Dicty_cDB: AFO706 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BI435853 |BI435853.1 EST538614 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone PPCCL22 5' sequence..., mRNA sequence. 48 0.30 1 BG591390 |BG591390.1 EST499232 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanum tuberosum cDN...435340.1 EST538101 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone PPCCD08 5' sequence, mRNA seque...nce. 48 0.30 1 BI435717 |BI435717.1 EST538478 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanu...m tuberosum cDNA clone PPCCI86 5' sequence, mRNA sequence. 48 0.30 1 BI433279 |BI433279.1 EST536040 P. infestans-challenge

  2. Dicty_cDB: AFO381 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tissues Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone STMCF59 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 BI435340 |BI435340.1 EST538101 P. infestans-challenge...mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 BI433279 |BI433279.1 EST536040 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanum tuberosum cDNA ...clone PPCBC62 5' sequence, mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 BQ046631 |BQ046631.1 EST595749 P. infestans-challenged p...mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 BI435717 |BI435717.1 EST538478 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanum tuberosum cDNA ...clone PPCCI86 5' sequence, mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 BG591390 |BG591390.1 EST499232 P. infestans-challenged l

  3. Dicty_cDB: AFO646 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1053-857 5' similar to TR:Q9ZS06 Q...9ZS06 RNA HELICASE ;, mRNA sequence. 56 1e-08 2 AW759959 |AW759959.1 sl56c07.y1 Gm-c1027 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS...ASE P47 HOMOLOG. [1] ;, mRNA sequence. 38 5e-08 4 BI974435 |BI974435.1 saj01e10.y1 Gm-c1065 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS... 42 2e-07 4 AI966749 |AI966749.1 sc57c05.y1 Gm-c1016 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c101

  4. Dicty_cDB: AFO484 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uence 6225 from Patent WO02053728. 40 8e-10 5 BF071471 |BF071471.1 st59b09.y1 Gm-c1053 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS...SE ;, mRNA sequence. 56 1e-08 2 AW759959 |AW759959.1 sl56c07.y1 Gm-c1027 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS... [1] ;, mRNA sequence. 38 5e-08 4 BI974435 |BI974435.1 saj01e10.y1 Gm-c1065 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS...6749 |AI966749.1 sc57c05.y1 Gm-c1016 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1016-513 5' similar

  5. Dicty_cDB: AFO611 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Value N BI315670 |BI315670.1 saf75f12.y1 Gm-c1078 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1078-2...79.1 sg79d05.y1 Gm-c1007 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1007-2626 5' similar to TR:O657...7629.1 sa37e09.y1 Gm-c1004 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1004-1505 5' similar to TR:O2...4653 O24653 GDI2. ;, mRNA sequence. 56 5e-04 1 BE800797 |BE800797.1 sq98c12.y1 Gm-c1049 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS...quence. 56 5e-04 1 AW306227 |AW306227.1 se47g11.y1 Gm-c1017 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS

  6. Dicty_cDB: AFO278 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7E2 map 21q22.2,D21S349-MX1. 32 0.61 6 BM093255 |BM093255.1 saj06h02.y1 Gm-c1065 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS...cine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1040-1068 5', mRNA sequence. 42 0.78 2 BI424033 |BI424033.1... sah65a10.y1 Gm-c1049 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1049-30...2.3 2 BE802815 |BE802815.1 sr45a02.y1 Gm-c1051 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1051-963

  7. Dicty_cDB: AFO440 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c1053-857 5' similar to TR:Q9ZS06 Q...9ZS06 RNA HELICASE ;, mRNA sequence. 56 1e-08 2 AW759959 |AW759959.1 sl56c07.y1 Gm-c1027 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS...ASE P47 HOMOLOG. [1] ;, mRNA sequence. 38 5e-08 4 BI974435 |BI974435.1 saj01e10.y1 Gm-c1065 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS... 42 2e-07 4 AI966749 |AI966749.1 sc57c05.y1 Gm-c1016 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME SYSTEMS CLONE ID: Gm-c101

  8. Dicty_cDB: AFO124 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6267 |AI036267.1 vl83f02.r1 Stratagene mouse diaphragm (#937303) Mus musculus cDNA clone IMAGE:987291 5' sim...sequence. 56 5e-04 1 AA570937 |AA570937.1 vl85f03.r1 Stratagene mouse diaphragm (#937303) Mus musculus cDNA

  9. Dicty_cDB: AFO841 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mella elegans mRNA for enolase. 86 8e-73 11 BD183625 |BD183625.1 Material for diagnosing malaria and immune ...antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium. 76 4e-63 10 BD183626 |BD183626.1 Material for diagnosing malar

  10. Dicty_cDB: AFO782 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequence 2945 from Patent WO02094868. 50 3e-27 6 BD183626 |BD183626.1 Material for diagnosing... malaria and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium. 62 3e-27 5 BD183625 |BD183625.1 Material for diagnosing

  11. Dicty_cDB: AFO218 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lii cDNA clone PYCNG69 5' end, mRNA sequence. 70 1e-21 3 BD183626 |BD183626.1 Material for diagnosing malari...D183625.1 Material for diagnosing malaria and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium. 58 4e-19 ...a and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium. 58 4e-19 6 BD183625 |B

  12. Dicty_cDB: AFO869 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BD183626 |BD183626.1 Material for diagnosing malaria and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodiu...gnosing malaria and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium. 62 8e-29 5...Y17298 |Y17298.1 Cunninghamella elegans mRNA for enolase. 86 2e-30 6 BD183625 |BD183625.1 Material for dia

  13. Dicty_cDB: AFO225 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Danio rerio gelsolin mRNA, complet... 96 1e-18 BC125898_1( BC125898 |pid:none) Danio rerio scinderin like ...1( BC155581 |pid:none) Danio rerio scinderin like a, mRNA... 95 4e-18 protein update 2009. 4.26 PSORT psg: 0

  14. Dicty_cDB: AFO449 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gnments: (bits) Value N BM774584 |BM774584.1 ra95c11.y1 Meloidogyne incognita egg pAMP1 Bird Meloidogyne inc...ssed in fertilized egg. 42 3e-05 3 AW827814 |AW827814.1 ra59b10.y1 Bird-Rao Meloi...sequence. 40 8e-05 3 AW871572 |AW871572.1 ra79e06.y1 Bird-Rao Meloidogyne incognita J2 Meloidogyne incognita

  15. Dicty_cDB: AFO620 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N BM774584 |BM774584.1 ra95c11.y1 Meloidogyne incognita egg pAMP1 Bird Meloidogyne ...B17 Apis mellifera cDNA clone BB170011A20F01 5', mRNA sequence. 64 2e-10 3 AW827814 |AW827814.1 ra59b10.y1 Bird...TASE ;, mRNA sequence. 48 4e-07 3 AW871572 |AW871572.1 ra79e06.y1 Bird-Rao Meloidogyne incognita J2 Meloidog

  16. Dicty_cDB: AFO251 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Pyrocystis lunula actin mRNA, comp... 252 3e-66 AY221950_1( AY221950 |pid:none) Pseudo-nitzschia multise...ries actin... 252 3e-66 protein update 2009. 4.26 PSORT psg: 0.84 gvh: 0.59 alm: 0.

  17. Dicty_cDB: AFO510 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gfsir*ytikrs***nl*ine*rkr*ti*rfrincl*kfyik ssygsiritfyk*icrrlsrfkilwwyrsc**irnslskesiksipfg*e*mgc*cstiq w*ssqfrslhsiikttrsyngfrftir...wsfnswlsnr*eedfsiinlfrinaisnwc*wf nrlstfrreciivqtkinhfrciclskrmglqenesn--- ---ftir

  18. Dicty_cDB: AFO831 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE. 46 0.55 1 AI773934 |AI773934.1 EST255034 tomato resistant, Cornell...90786 |AI490786.1 EST241494 tomato shoot, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA cl...136 |AI484136.1 EST248943 tomato resistant, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA

  19. Dicty_cDB: AFO228 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mato radicle, 5 d post-imbibition, Cornell University Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cLEZ19K24 5', mRNA ...I782264 |AI782264.1 EST263143 tomato susceptible, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum

  20. Dicty_cDB: AFO366 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available o Acid sequence ---qkxtqxrvatnspqxigxlfnxlfqnvmptspfxlpqknvxqfvaxtxxxiaqilyv qkvx...ll Frames) Frame A: ---qkxtqxrvatnspqxigxlfnxlfqnvmptspfxlpqknvxqfvaxtxxxiaqilyv ...xcsxscskm*cqrvpxhspkkmlxnl*pxpxxxlpkyfms krxiv*ldgxlinqkxnvxinvnktapl*nxpcqxvkmvp...nxsktxxnvatnvqxxixxp lnvlxxxxxkxnxfxpxqenvxxfxxxxxiaptpyvqhx*xpxnqxnxvxxxxxfqlxqi xpl*nxpxxfxkxxqnxqkxqmxxxtxxpx*xxxlxxvlxqxxx...ptxpfxlpqkxxxxfv dxt Frame C: ---kxnpxkgcykfppxnwxxvqxlvpkcnaneslxtppkkcxpicspnptlxcpntlcp

  1. Dicty_cDB: AFO150 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sf nxsinfkcxnctsxxstnxx*lxxxxxxkxx--- ---xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxixxxxxsxxnsxnnhsknnhy*insnsntnsnss cy*sc*ttk...iykktqtqiknlkwqetrnklkrtlnqsllilminhy*ilqi*i lqfkqvhqlkktekklllppppppqlqlqpqhqlqqllpqqkkkvkklklxqhhqmyqlq xqhqlqmlxlhqlxkhkxlxtxqxxxx...kxxx--- ---xxxxxxxxxxxmxxxxxxxxxxxxxxlxxlxqlxqqplkeqpllnqlqlqhqlqlql llkllnnqkknhhq

  2. Dicty_cDB: AFO328 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hmi*stifeviqiifnkqk*nlik*nl*kti*nknkkqsnknikkk--- ---xxxxxxxxxxxxivxxxxxxxxxxwllxxxxxxvxxvxihylilxxxlvlxxqxlvx xxx...alnqsngsgneqvvaapsv Frame B: tvgllel*pft*ysrqylksfk*flinknki**NKIYRKQYKIKTKNKVIKILKKK--- ---xxxxxxxxxxxx*xxxsxxxxyxxgyxxxxxxxxkxxx...fii*y*xfxwycxxnx*xx xxxkxxxq*ix*kxngs*iilftstinsnfktyyyxcn*ykykykhmn*ihy*nq*lhym ieqln

  3. Dicty_cDB: AFO379 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available no Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ---xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxkxxxxxxxfxxxxxvxfxxvxixxwxxxxxixixkxnxxxx...kpslvrllhsklkvlitlrmlkpksktkkvfh rinnvsfspvnnwrmvvlslittfkrnplsi*fsd*evvckfl*klslvkplhsklkvvt tlrm*kqkfktkkvs Frame B: ---xxxxxxxxx...fxxxxxxxxxxxxxsxxxxxxxfxw*xlxxgxxxxxxqyxkxxxxxxg xxixrwyxn

  4. Dicty_cDB: AFO338 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Translated Amino Acid sequence ---xxxgxxlxxgxtxxxxkyxkxxxxpxgxxikxvvxkxlskh*XVXXITXXVEGSDNI ENVKTKIQDKEGIPPD...krnpl si*fsd*evvckfl*klslvkplhsklkvvttlrm*kqkfkt Frame B: ---xxxwxxixxwxxxxxxqixkxnxlsxwsxx*xggxqxfvktlxgxxh...xgxxlxxgxtxxxxkyxkxxxxpxgxxikxvvxkxlskh*XVXXITXXVEGSDNI ENVKTKIQDKEGIPPDXQRLIFXGKQLEDGRTLSDYNIQKESTLHLVLRLRG

  5. Dicty_cDB: AFO756 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ino Acid sequence ---sxrvvxtlxm*xxxxqdkegxppxxqrlxsxvxnxxmvvlslitksxknxlstwssd *X...: ---sxrvvxtlxm*xxxxqdkegxppxxqrlxsxvxnxxmvvlslitksxknxlstwssd *XGGMQXFVKTLTGKTIT...nvsxrwxtixxwsysl*lqnpxrixsplgpqi xkvvckxlskh*lvrpslxklraqiilkmlkqrfktkkvshqtnkd*fslvnn*kmvvls xittfkrnplsi*s

  6. Gender and social reproduction: historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, B; Brenner, J

    1989-01-01

    It is argued that gender relations and social reproduction were both shaped by macrohistorical processes and shaped the processes. Social reproduction is defined within feminist theory as more than production in the Marxist sense. Societal reproduction is a combination of the organization of production, the organization of social reproduction, the perpetuation of gender, and the continuation of class relations. Social reproduction includes the care and socialization of children and care of the elderly or infirm. Social reproduction includes the organization of sexuality, biological reproduction, and how food, clothing, and shelter are made available. Most social reproduction occurs within the family unit. It is pointed out that variations in the distribution of the work of social reproduction are affected by the family, market, community, and state. The ways in which women construct their own worlds of activity is a central concern. The feminist concept of social reproduction differs from modernization theory, which is concerned with the institutional location of the tasks of social reproduction and the structural effects on the family and gender relations. This literature review focuses only on the history of family strategies and separate gender-related activities. The authors describe the changes in family organization that define men as income producers and women as caretakers, who base child rearing on love and feminine virtue rather than patriarchal authority and religious doctrine. The discussion focuses on the differences in marital relationships, motherhood, and sexuality between upper and middle class and working class women in the 19th century. Among working class women, a good wife was an efficient manager, a skilled domestic worker, and an income earner. The turn of the century was a period of social change marked by smaller average family size, the decline of household production, the rise in real wages, and increased consumption. It is argued that

  7. Adolescents with Special Needs: Clinical Challenges in Reproductive Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, Elisabeth H

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents with special needs have unique reproductive health care needs related to their physical and cognitive issues. This review discusses some of the most common concerns that are encountered in clinical practice, as the clinician will partner with the adolescent and her family to guide her through the pubertal transition and to help navigate the risks and rights of reproduction. Families often seek anticipatory guidance before menarche on menstrual hygiene, abuse risk and sexuality and can be reassured that most teens with special needs do very well with menstruation. The clinician needs to evaluate the teenager's reproductive knowledge as well her risk for abuse and coercion and her ability to consent to sexual activity, if she requests contraception. Menstrual management is mostly based on the impact of the menstrual cycles on the teenager's life and activities. The adolescents may have a decreased ability to tolerate menses or pain, or experience changes in seizure pattern or altered mood. Hormonal treatment is often used to assist with menstrual hygiene, cyclical mood changes or dysmenorrhea. The goal of treatment can be complete amenorrhea, alleviate pain or regulate and decrease menstrual flow. The unique risks and benefits of hormonal treatment for this special population are highlighted. PMID:26542013

  8. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitti, Maurizio; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Di Carlo, Michela; Carta, Gaspare; Antonosante, Andrea; Artini, Paolo Giovanni; Cimini, Annamaria; Tatone, Carla; Benedetti, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed. PMID:27559343

  9. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Gaspare; Artini, Paolo Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed.

  10. Cold acclimation and vegetative/reproductive transition in winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereals display a broad capacity range to survive low temperatures (LT and frost condition. Exposure of winter cereals to low, nonfreezing temperatures during the autumn and before freezing injury occurs can induces various changes in genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolom levels in plant cells, by which plants are able to adjust their metabolism to LT and improve their freezing tolerance (FT. The difference between the cultivars can be interpreted by hardening conditions and the different mode and severity of changes occurred in each levels during cold acclimation. FT in cereals is dependent upon phonological development and the highest level of FT only acquires during the vegetative stage and plants by initiation of the reproductive phase lose the ability for hardening. Phonological growth is controlled by the developmental genes (vernalization, photoperiod, etc. which regulate the vegetative/reproductive transition and consequently determine the duration and level of FT expression. Furthermore under filed condition winter survival is also determined by the acclimation temperature of locations that may affect phenological development and delay the beginning of reproductive growth.

  11. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Vitti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed.

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Gaspare; Artini, Paolo Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed. PMID:27559343

  13. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures: costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-04-01

    The role of photosynthesis by reproductive structures during grain-filling has important implications for cereal breeding, but the methods for assessing the contribution by reproductive structures to grain-filling are invasive and prone to compensatory changes elsewhere in the plant. A technique analysing the natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes in soluble carbohydrates has significant promise. However, it depends crucially on there being no more than two sources of organic carbon (leaf and ear/awn), with significantly different (13)C:(12)C ratios and no secondary fractionation during grain-filling. The role of additional peduncle carbohydrate reserves represents a potential means for N remobilization, as well as for hydraulic continuity during grain-filling. The natural abundance of the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen are also useful for exploring the influence of reproduction on whole plant carbon and water relations and have been used to examine the resource costs of reproduction in females and males of dioecious plants. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures is widespread among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, including many clades of algae and embryophytes of different levels of complexity. The possible evolutionary benefits of photosynthesis in reproductive structures include decreasing the carbon cost of reproduction and 'use' of transpiratory loss of water to deliver phloem-immobile calcium Ca(2+) and silicon [Si(OH)4] via the xylem. The possible costs of photosynthesis in reproductive structures are increasing damage to DNA from photosynthetically active, and hence UV-B, radiation and the production of reactive oxygen species. PMID:25871648

  14. Prevention and Treatment of Reproductive Tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangLifang

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) prevention and treatment is one of the three major projects organized by the National Population and Family Planning Commission. The author, based on the practice of this project and the China/UNFPA reproductive health and family planning project, made some suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of the efforts made to prevent and treat RTIs.

  15. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...

  16. Immune cells in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy. PMID:25713505

  17. Marx, Irigaray, and the politics of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbaum, A E

    1994-01-01

    Both the concept and practice of reproduction have been newly configured, with reproductive labor assuming an abstract value as social labor and women around the globe work to produce baby commodities which enter the market along with other domestic and imported products. This situation dictates that surrogacy not be treated as an aberration. One must instead reconceptualize the maternal body as a reproductive resource and rethink the relationship between mother and fetus. This paper attempts to develop a materialist analysis of reproductive labor by offering a strategy for renarrativizing the mother. It briefly explains what feminists involved in the pro-abortion movement could gain by incorporating a Marxist understanding of reproductive labor as productive in the strictest sense, and then suggests, through an analysis of the work of Luce Irigaray, the simultaneous need for a self-reflexive renarrativization of the maternal body which may account for women's role as reproductive laborers. Sections are on reproduction, maternal as mimetic matrix, and reproductive ethics and sexual rights. PMID:12290609

  18. Sexual Plant Reproduction. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    These lesson plans are intended for use in conducting classes on sexual plant reproduction. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about sexual plant reproduction/propagation. The following topics are among those discussed: sexual and asexual plant…

  19. Assisted reproduction and child neurodevelopmental outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2013-01-01

    To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception.......To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception....

  20. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  1. Imprinting disorders after assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Pinborg, Anja; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2006-01-01

    To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies.......To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies....

  2. 76 FR 62632 - NARA Records Reproduction Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... reproductions (includes, but is not limited to, commercial printing, advertising, and printing of forms). (5... published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (76 FR 43960) for a 60-day public comment period. This...; printing and reproductions; consulting and other services; payments to other agencies/funds; supplies...

  3. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures: costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-04-01

    The role of photosynthesis by reproductive structures during grain-filling has important implications for cereal breeding, but the methods for assessing the contribution by reproductive structures to grain-filling are invasive and prone to compensatory changes elsewhere in the plant. A technique analysing the natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes in soluble carbohydrates has significant promise. However, it depends crucially on there being no more than two sources of organic carbon (leaf and ear/awn), with significantly different (13)C:(12)C ratios and no secondary fractionation during grain-filling. The role of additional peduncle carbohydrate reserves represents a potential means for N remobilization, as well as for hydraulic continuity during grain-filling. The natural abundance of the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen are also useful for exploring the influence of reproduction on whole plant carbon and water relations and have been used to examine the resource costs of reproduction in females and males of dioecious plants. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures is widespread among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, including many clades of algae and embryophytes of different levels of complexity. The possible evolutionary benefits of photosynthesis in reproductive structures include decreasing the carbon cost of reproduction and 'use' of transpiratory loss of water to deliver phloem-immobile calcium Ca(2+) and silicon [Si(OH)4] via the xylem. The possible costs of photosynthesis in reproductive structures are increasing damage to DNA from photosynthetically active, and hence UV-B, radiation and the production of reactive oxygen species.

  4. Editorial note on reproductive biology of fishes

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. TSIKLIRAS; K. I. STERGIOU; Froese, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Fish reproductive biology (onset and duration of spawning, sex ratio, maturity stages, length and age at maturity, and fecundity) is important in fisheries research, stock assessment, and management. In this editorial note, we provide some criteria and recommendations on issues of fish reproductive biology, which may be useful in research planning, data analysis and presentation, as well as in manuscript preparation.

  5. Visual monitoring of reproduction in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Iver; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    individual cows. The Reproduction Monitor consists of graphs of insemination and pregnancy rates evaluated weekly with a Bayesian technique. These visual monitoring tools are well suited to explore temporal variation in reproductive performance, they provide a quick overview of herd performance...

  6. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE KINETICS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation a model for the hormonal regulation of the reproductive endocrine system in the adult male rat will be discussed. The model includes a description of the kinetics of the androgenic hormones testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, as well as the receptor-mediate...

  7. Distinct hypothalamic neurons mediate estrogenic effects on energy homeostasis and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogens regulate body weight and reproduction primarily through actions on estrogen receptor-a(ERa). However, ERalpha-expressing cells mediating these effects are not identified. We demonstrate that brain-specific deletion of ERalapha in female mice causes abdominal obesity stemming from both hype...

  8. Role of Seminal Plasma in Human Female Reproductive Failure: Immunomodulation, Inflammation, and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah J; Politch, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Human seminal plasma contains factors that can regulate the female immune system and potentially promote reproductive fitness. Adverse effects on fertility and pregnancy may occur when seminal plasma provides insufficient, excessive, or altered signals or when the female partner is incapable of receiving these signals. PMID:26178849

  9. Effect of Hexaflumuron on gustation and reproduction of adult boll weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of hexaflumuron was evaluated in the laboratory against boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, captured in pheromone-baited traps for gustatory response and reproduction of the insect. Hexaflumuron is an insect growth regulator which inhibits chitin synthesis and disrupts inse...

  10. Neuropeptides linking the control of appetite with reproductive function in domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of puberty and maintenance of normal reproductive cycles are regulated by secretion of gonadotropin hormones from the pituitary gland, which is dependent upon the pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. It is well established that secretion of...

  11. Corticosterone metabolism by chicken follicle cells does not affect ovarian reproductive hormone synthesis in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettenbacher, Sophie; Henriksen, Rie; Groothuids, Ton G.; Lepschy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids affect reproductive hormone production in many species. In chickens, elevated plasma corticosterone down-regulates testosterone and progesterone concentrations in plasma, but also in egg yolk. This suppression could be mediated via the hypothalamic-pituitary system but also via local

  12. SUMO: regulating the regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossis Guillaume

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modifiers of the SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier family have emerged as key regulators of protein function and fate. While the past few years have seen an enormous increase in knowledge on SUMO enzymes, substrates, and consequences of modification, regulation of SUMO conjugation is far from being understood. This brief review will provide an overview on recent advances concerning (i the interplay between sumoylation and other post-translational modifications at the level of individual targets and (ii global regulation of SUMO conjugation and deconjugation.

  13. Posthumous Assisted Reproduction from Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Omani Samani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in assisted reproductive techniques along with relieving the pain of childlessnesshas brought new ethical and policy dilemmas. Posthumous assisted reproduction is the mostchallenging, difficult and sensitive issue to be discussed ethically and religiously. In this paper theacceptability of the posthumous reproduction in Islamic contexts is evaluated and major concernslike Consent and ownership of the gametes after death, Family and Marriage vision and Welfareof the child are discussed together with some international legislation. We can conclude that uponIslamic vision to assisted reproductive techniques as treatment of families and relieving the seriousproblem of childlessness, posthumous assisted reproduction is unacceptable even with previouslyfrozen gametes or embryos. Also, Islamic vision to marriage, consent and welfare of the childconfirms the unacceptability. There must be some law or legislation to ban this procedure in Islamiccontexts.

  14. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente;

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...... with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human...... adolescents conceived by ART have altered lipid and glucose profiles and thereby a higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This commentary describes the basic concepts of epigenetics and gives a short overview of the existing literature on the association between imprinting disorders...

  15. Management, Resources and Reproductive Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Wallner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a relationship between environmental conditions and reproductive performance in modern humans. Birth rates and sex ratio (SRB at birth were analyzed from large data scales. The results include data from people working or living under different job respectively socio-economic conditions, such as employees working in the academic field, employees under supervisory or hire and fire conditions, and people who have better access to resources. The results show that employees who have better jobs and earn more money do have more children and females under better socio-economic conditions do give birth to more sons. In conclusion, it is suggested that different socio-economic environmental conditions may have an impact on female and male birth rates and SRBs, which may be related to stress perception rates.

  16. Reproductive toxicity: Male and female reproductive systems as targets for chemical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattison, D.R.; Plowchalk, D.R.; Meadows, M.J.; Al-Juburi, A.Z.; Gandy, J.; Malek, A. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of current knowledge of reproductive biology and toxicology, it is apparent that chemicals affecting reproduction may elicit their effects at a number of sites in both the male and the female reproductive system. This multiplicity of targets is attributable to the dynamic nature of the reproductive system, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is controlled by precise positive and negative feedback mechanisms among its components. Interference by a xenobiotic at any level in either the male or the female reproductive system may ultimately impair hypothalamic or pituitary function. Normal gonadal processes such as spermatogenesis or oogenesis, ejaculation or ovulation, hormone production by Leydig or granulosa cells, and the structure or function of the accessory reproductive structures (e.g., epididymis, fallopian tube) also appear vulnerable to xenobiotics. The reproductive system is a complex one that requires local and circulating hormones for control. This brief review illustrates a system for characterizing the mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants, as well as for defining the sites available for disruption of reproduction. Unfortunately, at present, data addressing the actual vulnerability of reproduction are sorely lacking. However, when experiments have been conducted and combined with epidemiologic data or clinical observation, it has been possible to demonstrate impairment of reproductive processes by xenobiotics. The role of environmental exposure to xenobiotics in the increase in infertility that has been observed remains to be defined. 87 references.

  17. Contributions of an animal scientist to reproductive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazer, Fuller W

    2011-08-01

    I became interested in biology as an undergraduate in a premedical curriculum but developed a passion for the field of reproductive biology because of a course in physiology of reproduction taken to meet requirements for admission to veterinary school. My career path changed, and I entered graduate school, obtained the Ph.D., and have enjoyed an academic career as a reproductive biologist conducting research in uterine biology and pregnancy in animal science departments at the University of Florida and at Texas A&M University. However, I have never allowed academic boundaries to interfere with research and graduate education as that is contrary to collegiality, the cornerstone of great universities. I consider that my major contributions to science include 1) identification of proteins secreted by cells of the uterine endometrium that are critical to successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy; 2) discovery of steroids and proteins required for pregnancy recognition signaling and their mechanisms of action in pigs and ruminant species; 3) investigation of fetal-placental development and placental transport of nutrients, including water and electrolytes; 4) identification of linkages between nutrition and fetal-placental development; 5) defining aspects of the endocrinology of pregnancy; and 6) contributing to efforts to exploit the therapeutic value of interferon tau, particularly for treatment of autoimmune diseases. My current studies are focused on the role of select nutrients in the uterine lumen, specifically amino acids and glucose, that affect development and survival of the conceptus and translation of mRNAs and, with colleagues at Seoul National University, gene expression by the avian reproductive tract at key periods postovulation. Another goal is to understand stromal-epithelial cell signaling, whereby progesterone and estrogen act via uterine stromal cells that express receptors for sex steroids to stimulate secretion of growth factors (e

  18. Back In Time: Fish Oocyte As A Superior Model For Human Reproduction? A Review *

    OpenAIRE

    Weingartová I.; Dvořáková M.; Nevoral J.; Vyskočilová A.; Sedmíková M.; Rylková K.; Kalous L.; Jílek F.

    2015-01-01

    The progress of reproductive biotechnology is dependent on the amount, quality, and availability of female gametes – oocytes. The proper selection of a suitable model organism is vital to ensure effective research of the signal pathways that regulate oogenesis and meiotic maturation. Many factors are involved in meiosis regulation and some of them are evolutionarily conserved. Xenopus laevis is a traditional model for cell cycle research, which has become a background for a more detailed stud...

  19. PI3K: An Attractive Candidate for the Central Integration of Metabolism and Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Maricedes eAcosta-Martinez

    2012-01-01

    In neurons, as in a variety of other cell types, the enzyme phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is a key intermediate that is common to the signaling pathways of a number of peripheral metabolic cues, including insulin and leptin, which are well known to regulate both metabolic and reproductive functions. In this article, I explore the possibility that PI3K is a key integrator of metabolic and neural signals regulating gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) release a...

  20. Impact of gene polymorphisms of gonadotropins and their receptors on human reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Santi, Daniele; Marino, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Gonadotropins and their receptors' genes carry several single-nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in endocrine genotypes modulating reproductive parameters, diseases, and lifespan leading to important implications for reproductive success and potential relevance during human evolution. Here we illustrate common genotypes of the gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors' genes and their clinical implications in phenotypes relevant for reproduction such as ovarian cycle length, age of menopause, testosterone levels, polycystic ovary syndrome, and cancer. We then discuss their possible role in human reproduction and adaptation to the environment. Gonadotropins and their receptors' variants are differently distributed among human populations. Some hints suggest that they may be the result of natural selection that occurred in ancient times, increasing the individual chance of successful mating, pregnancy, and effective post-natal parental cares. The gender-related differences in the regulation of the reproductive endocrine systems imply that many of these genotypes may lead to sex-dependent effects, increasing the chance of mating and reproductive success in one sex at the expenses of the other sex. Also, we suggest that sexual conflicts within the FSH and LH-choriogonadotropin receptor genes contributed to maintain genotypes linked to subfertility among humans. Because the distribution of polymorphic markers results in a defined geographical pattern due to human migrations rather than natural selection, these polymorphisms may have had only a weak impact on reproductive success. On the contrary, such genotypes could acquire relevant consequences in the modern, developed societies in which parenthood attempts often occur at a later age, during a short, suboptimal reproductive window, making clinical fertility treatments necessary.

  1. Impact of gene polymorphisms of gonadotropins and their receptors on human reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Santi, Daniele; Marino, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Gonadotropins and their receptors' genes carry several single-nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in endocrine genotypes modulating reproductive parameters, diseases, and lifespan leading to important implications for reproductive success and potential relevance during human evolution. Here we illustrate common genotypes of the gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors' genes and their clinical implications in phenotypes relevant for reproduction such as ovarian cycle length, age of menopause, testosterone levels, polycystic ovary syndrome, and cancer. We then discuss their possible role in human reproduction and adaptation to the environment. Gonadotropins and their receptors' variants are differently distributed among human populations. Some hints suggest that they may be the result of natural selection that occurred in ancient times, increasing the individual chance of successful mating, pregnancy, and effective post-natal parental cares. The gender-related differences in the regulation of the reproductive endocrine systems imply that many of these genotypes may lead to sex-dependent effects, increasing the chance of mating and reproductive success in one sex at the expenses of the other sex. Also, we suggest that sexual conflicts within the FSH and LH-choriogonadotropin receptor genes contributed to maintain genotypes linked to subfertility among humans. Because the distribution of polymorphic markers results in a defined geographical pattern due to human migrations rather than natural selection, these polymorphisms may have had only a weak impact on reproductive success. On the contrary, such genotypes could acquire relevant consequences in the modern, developed societies in which parenthood attempts often occur at a later age, during a short, suboptimal reproductive window, making clinical fertility treatments necessary. PMID:26370242

  2. Kisspeptins and RFRP-3 act in concert to synchronize rodent reproduction with seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eSimonneaux

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal mammals use the photoperiodic variation in the nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin to synchronize their reproductive activity with seasons. In rodents, the short day profile of melatonin secretion has long been proven to inhibit reproductive activity. Lately, we demonstrated that melatonin regulates the expression of the hypothalamic peptides kisspeptins (Kp and RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3, recently discovered as potent regulators of GnRH neuron activity. In the male Syrian hamster, Kp expression in the arcuate nucleus is down-regulated by melatonin independently of the inhibitory feedback of testosterone. A central or peripheral administration of Kp induces an increase in pituitary gonadotropins and gonadal hormone secretion, but most importantly a chronic infusion of the peptide reactivates the photoinhibited reproductive axis of Syrian hamsters kept in short day conditions. RFRP-3 expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus is also strongly inhibited by melatonin in a short day photoperiod. Although RFRP-3 is usually considered as an inhibitory component of the gonadotropic axis, a central acute administration of RFRP-3 in the male Syrian hamster induces a marked increase in gonadotropin secretion and testosterone production. Furthermore, a chronic central infusion of RFRP-3 in short day-adapted hamsters reactivates the reproductive axis, in the same manner as Kp. Both Kp and RFRP-3 neurons project onto GnRH neurons and both neuropeptides regulate GnRH neuron activity. In addition, central RFRP-3 infusion was associated with a significant increase in arcuate Kp expression. However, the actual sites of action of both peptides in the Syrian hamster brain are still unknown. Altogether our findings indicate that Kp and RFRP neurons are pivotal relays for the seasonal regulation of reproduction, and also suggest that RFRP neurons might be the primary target of the melatoninergic message.

  3. Reproductive endocrinology and biotechnology applications among buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, M L; Prakash, B S

    2007-01-01

    Buffalo, as the major livestock species for milk and meat production, contribute significantly to the economy of many countries in south & south-east Asia, South America, Africa and the Mediterranean. Improved buffalo production could significantly enhance the economy and the living standards of farmers in countries where buffaloes predominate; particularly, in countries with a tropical climate. The major factors limiting the efficient utilization of buffaloes in countries with a tropical climate are: late maturity; poor estrus expressivities, particularly in summer months; long postpartum calving intervals; low reproductive efficiencies and fertility rates which are closely linked with environmental stress; as well as managerial problems. As good reproductive performance is essential for efficient livestock production, the female buffalo calves must grow rapidly to attain sexual maturity, initiate estrous cycles, ovulate and be mated by fertile males or inseminated with quality semen to optimize conception and production. In the last two decades, considerable attention has been focused on understanding some of the causes for the inherent limitations in reproduction among buffaloes by studying their reproductive endocrinology as well as developing biotechniques for augmenting their reproductive efficiency. This review provides an overview of buffalo reproductive endocrinology and also of the research done to date towards the enhancement of buffalo reproductive efficiency through endocrine and embryo biotechniques.

  4. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. PMID:21958915

  5. Reproductive skew in the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydock, Joseph; Koenig, Walter D

    2002-05-14

    Reproductive skew models, which focus on the degree to which reproduction is shared equally (low skew) or monopolized by a single individual (high skew) within groups, have been heralded as providing a general unifying framework for understanding the factors determining social evolution. Here, we test the ability of optimal skew, or "transactional," models, which predict the level of skew necessary to promote stable associations of dominants and subordinates, rather than independent breeding, to predict reproductive partitioning in the acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). This species provides a key test case because only a few vertebrates exhibit polygynandry (multiple breeders of both sexes within a group). Contrary to the predictions of the models, joint-nesting females share reproduction more equitably than expected, apparently because egg destruction and the inability of females to defend their eggs from cobreeders eliminate any possibility for one female to control reproduction. For males, however, reproductive skew is high, with the most successful male siring over three times as many young as the next most successful male. Although this result is consistent with optimal skew models, other aspects of male behavior are not; in particular, the reproductively most successful male frequently switches between nests produced by the same set of cobreeders, and we were unable to detect any phenotypic correlate of success. These results are consistent with an alternative null model in which cobreeder males have equal chance of paternity, but paternity of offspring within broods is nonindependent as a consequence of female, rather than male, control.

  6. Interface between metabolic balance and reproduction in ruminants: focus on the hypothalamus and pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Iain J

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". The interface between metabolic regulators and the reproductive system is reviewed with special reference to the sheep. Even though sheep are ruminants with particular metabolic characteristics, there is a broad consensus across species in the way that the reproductive system is influenced by metabolic state. An update on the neuroendocrinology of reproduction indicates the need to account for the way that kisspeptin provides major drive to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and also mediates the feedback effects of gonadal steroids. The way that kisspeptin function is influenced by appetite regulating peptides (ARP) is considered. Another newly recognised factor is gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), which has a dual function in that it suppresses reproductive function whilst also acting as an orexigen. Our understanding of the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure has expanded exponentially in the last 3 decades and historical perspective is provided. The function of the regulatory factors and the hypothalamic cellular systems involved is reviewed with special reference to the sheep. Less is known of these systems in the cow, especially the dairy cow, in which a major fertility issue has emerged in parallel with selection for increased milk production. Other endocrine systems--the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, the growth hormone (GH) axis and the thyroid hormones--are influenced by metabolic state and are relevant to the interface between metabolic function and reproduction. Special consideration is given to issues such as season and lactation, where the relationship between metabolic hormones and reproductive function is altered. PMID:24568750

  7. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Superoxide Production in Plant Reproductive Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quesada, María J.; Traverso, José Á.; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    In the life cycle of a flowering plant, the male gametophyte (pollen grain) produced in the anther reaches the stigmatic surface and initiates the pollen–pistil interaction, an important step in plant reproduction, which ultimately leads to the delivery of two sperm cells to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) inside the ovule. The pollen tube undergoes a strictly apical expansion characterized by a high growth rate, whose targeting should be tightly regulated. A continuous exchange of signals therefore takes place between the haploid pollen and diploid tissue of the pistil until fertilization. In compatible interactions, theses processes result in double fertilization to form a zygote (2n) and the triploid endosperm. Among the large number of signaling mechanisms involved, the redox network appears to be particularly important. Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) are superoxide-producing enzymes involved in a broad range of processes in plant physiology. In this study, we review the latest findings on understanding Rboh activity in sexual plant reproduction, with a particular focus on the male gametophyte from the anther development stages to the crowning point of fertilization. Rboh isoforms have been identified in both the male and female gametophyte and have proven to be tightly regulated. Their role at crucial points such as proper growth of pollen tube, self-incompatibility response and eventual fertilization is discussed. PMID:27066025

  8. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Superoxide Production in Plant Reproductive Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quesada, María J; Traverso, José Á; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    In the life cycle of a flowering plant, the male gametophyte (pollen grain) produced in the anther reaches the stigmatic surface and initiates the pollen-pistil interaction, an important step in plant reproduction, which ultimately leads to the delivery of two sperm cells to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) inside the ovule. The pollen tube undergoes a strictly apical expansion characterized by a high growth rate, whose targeting should be tightly regulated. A continuous exchange of signals therefore takes place between the haploid pollen and diploid tissue of the pistil until fertilization. In compatible interactions, theses processes result in double fertilization to form a zygote (2n) and the triploid endosperm. Among the large number of signaling mechanisms involved, the redox network appears to be particularly important. Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) are superoxide-producing enzymes involved in a broad range of processes in plant physiology. In this study, we review the latest findings on understanding Rboh activity in sexual plant reproduction, with a particular focus on the male gametophyte from the anther development stages to the crowning point of fertilization. Rboh isoforms have been identified in both the male and female gametophyte and have proven to be tightly regulated. Their role at crucial points such as proper growth of pollen tube, self-incompatibility response and eventual fertilization is discussed.

  9. An Ethical Analysis of Assisted Reproduction Providers' Websites in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Ayesha; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2016-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) are intertwined and coevolving. These technologies are increasingly used to fulfill socially and culturally framed requests, for example, "family balancing," or to enable postmenopausal women or homosexual couples to have genetically linked children. The areas of ART and RGT are replete with ethical issues, because different social practices and legal regulations, as well as economic inequalities within and among countries, create vulnerable groups and, therefore, the potential for exploitation. This article provides an overview of the ART and RGT landscape in Pakistan and analyzes the available online content addressing Pakistani citizens and international clients. We explored the topic in view of socioeconomic challenges in Pakistan, particularly deeply rooted poverty, lack of education, gender discrimination, and absence of regulation. As online information given by ART and RGT providers is readily available and could easily raise false hopes, make use of discriminatory statements with regard to women, and promote gender selection to meet sociocultural expectations, it should be subjected to quality control. PMID:27348834

  10. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  11. Reproductive Issues in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Lisal J; Fuqua, John S

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities affecting female infants. The severity of clinical manifestations varies and it affects multiple organ systems. Women with Turner syndrome have a 3-fold increase in mortality, which becomes even more pronounced in pregnancy. Reproductive options include adoption or surrogacy, assisted reproductive techniques, and in rare cases spontaneous pregnancy. Risks for women with Turner syndrome during pregnancy include aortic disorders, hepatic disease, thyroid disease, type 2 diabetes, and cesarean section delivery. Providers must be familiar with the risks and recommendations in caring for women with Turner syndrome of reproductive age.

  12. Reproductive Issues in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Lisal J; Fuqua, John S

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities affecting female infants. The severity of clinical manifestations varies and it affects multiple organ systems. Women with Turner syndrome have a 3-fold increase in mortality, which becomes even more pronounced in pregnancy. Reproductive options include adoption or surrogacy, assisted reproductive techniques, and in rare cases spontaneous pregnancy. Risks for women with Turner syndrome during pregnancy include aortic disorders, hepatic disease, thyroid disease, type 2 diabetes, and cesarean section delivery. Providers must be familiar with the risks and recommendations in caring for women with Turner syndrome of reproductive age. PMID:26568488

  13. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J.; Larsen, John Christian; Christiansen, Pia;

    1996-01-01

    environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal...... and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...

  14. Gasotransmitters in Gametogenesis and Early Development: Holy Trinity for Assisted Reproductive Technology—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodart, Jean-Francois; Petr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO) role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction. PMID:27579148

  15. Gasotransmitters in Gametogenesis and Early Development: Holy Trinity for Assisted Reproductive Technology-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevoral, Jan; Bodart, Jean-Francois; Petr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO) role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction.

  16. Gasotransmitters in Gametogenesis and Early Development: Holy Trinity for Assisted Reproductive Technology—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nevoral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART, because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction.

  17. Reproductive patterns of pedigree cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, I

    1987-07-01

    A survey of Brisbane catteries was carried out to investigate reproductive patterns of pedigree cats. Eighteen breeders supplied data on 751 litters with a total of 3171 kittens covering the Persian, Chinchilla, Siamese, Burmese and Abyssinian breeds. The overall sex ratio at birth was 100 males to 92 females. There was a significant seasonal effect on sex ratio with litters conceived during the wet season (September to February) producing more males than expected and litters conceived during the dry season producing more females than expected. Litter size and breed had no significant effect on the sex ratio. The average litter size varied with the breed with the most prolific being the Burmese (5.0) then the Siamese (4.5), Persian (3.9), Abyssinian (3.5) and Chinchilla (2.8). The average litter size was smaller for the first litter than for the subsequent 3 litters. The maximum average litter size was reached at 6 years with only a moderate decline thereafter. There was a seasonal fluctuation in births with the greatest numbers being born in spring and the least in late autumn. Longhair cats showed a more marked seasonal distribution of births than the shorthairs which reproduced for most of the year, particularly the Burmese breed. PMID:3675409

  18. Reproductive technologies and the quality of offspring in Asia: reproductive pioneering and moral pragmatism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues relevant to this special issue of Culture, Health & Sexuality on the quality of offspring, including gender selection, ecofeminism, eugenics, reproductive agency, moral pioneering and reproductive pragmatism in China, India and Japan. First, it discusses various approaches to choice in sex selection, focusing on an instrumentalist and an ecofeminist approach. Second, it discusses issues of reproductive choice in the light of various concepts of eugenics and power, which have been used to characterise the relationship between the state, the individual and prenatal genetic testing. Third, it queries Foucault's notion of biopower in relation to reproductive agency. In reviewing the evidence, the chapter raises questions about how women and parents in Asian societies can be understood in terms of 'reproductive pragmatism', 'empowerment' and/or 'moral pioneering' when faced with the use of new reproductive technologies in modern societies. PMID:19499397

  19. Corticosterone-mediated reproductive decisions: sex allocation, the cost of reproduction and maternal fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Oliver P.

    2007-01-01

    Managing reproductive investment within the scope of an individual’s energetic condition is required to maximize fitness. To be successful, individuals must make the correct decisions about when to reproduce, when to abandon an attempt, how many resources to invest in current and future attempts and where those resources should be allocated. These reproductive decisions therefore involve complex life-history trade-offs between an individual’s condition and current reproduction, future reprodu...

  20. Social Context and Reproductive Potential Affect Worker Reproductive Decisions in a Eusocial Insect

    OpenAIRE

    Yagound, Boris; Blacher, Pierre; Chameron, Stéphane; Châline, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be in...

  1. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A bibliographic database on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) with references to developmental and reproductive toxicology...

  2. Adolescent Reproductive Health:Challenges and Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Schwab Zabin

    2004-01-01

    @@ The field of reproductive health has had long experience negotiating challenging environments in ways that other health fields have not -- perhaps because other health fields usually deal with illness which everyone agrees is not a good thing. Or maybe because we have all been born, we all think we know something about reproduction. Whatever the reason,we have over the years seen bitter political and ideological debates over population and family planning, abortion, the treatment of HIV/AIDS, in vitro fertilization, new contraceptive technologies--and now adolescent reproductive health. We shouldn't be surprised.But just as we have had to prevail in those debates in the past, they are crucial today: the numbers of young people entering their reproductive years throughout the world, especially the developing world, make it essential that youth be reached not only with messages and services crafted in the last 40 years but also with new messages, new ideas and new services.

  3. Neurological rehabilitation: sexuality and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisen, Mindy Lipson

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality is the embodiment of sexual and reproductive activities involving complex interactions among biological, psychological, and social systems. An individual's perception of their sexuality, as well as society's perception, can have an inestimable impact on self-esteem, and hence willingness to openly address these issues Earle S (2001). Disability, facilitated sex and the role of the nurse. J Adv Nurs 3: 433-440. Such barriers to communication represent a real challenge to practicing clinicians. However, advances in treatment options obligate the clinician providing care to those with neurogenic sexual/reproductive dysfunction to learn to communicate effectively about these issues, provide effective therapies, and refer patients to appropriate specialists. This chapter will address counseling, an overview of male and female sexual and reproductive physiological responses in the case of an intact nervous system, and a description of the impact of disorders of the nervous system on sexual function and reproductive health. Treatment options are also reviewed.

  4. Danish registers on aspects of reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenstrup, Lene Tølbøll; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The establishing of three Danish population based registers, namely the Fertility Database, the Register of Legally Induced Abortions and the In Vitro Fertilisation register aimed at providing data for surveying of reproductive outcome. Content: The registers include information on...

  5. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark Reproductive Biology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected from specimens captured throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico on various research vessels. Data...

  6. The community-level effects of women's education on reproductive behaviour in rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi D. Benefo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Using survey and census data for rural Ghana collected in the 1980s, this study examines the ability of women's education to increase interest in fertility regulation and contraception among all women, regardless of their individual and household features. The study finds that, net of her own characteristics, a woman's interest in limiting fertility and using modern contraception increase with the percent of educated women in her community. These results suggest that female education has a greater capacity to introduce novel reproductive ideas and behaviors into rural areas of Africa and thereby transform the demographic landscape in the region than is currently believed. There is also evidence that female education may undermine existing methods of regulating fertility. Other community characteristics that increase women's interest in regulating fertility and contraceptive use in this setting include access to transportation and proximity to urban areas. However, these are not as powerful as women's education in transforming reproductive behavior.

  7. Reproductive skew in the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker

    OpenAIRE

    Haydock, Joseph; Koenig, Walter D.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive skew models, which focus on the degree to which reproduction is shared equally (low skew) or monopolized by a single individual (high skew) within groups, have been heralded as providing a general unifying framework for understanding the factors determining social evolution. Here, we test the ability of optimal skew, or “transactional,” models, which predict the level of skew necessary to promote stable associations of dominants and subordinates, rather than independent breeding,...

  8. Neotenic reproduction in various animal groups

    OpenAIRE

    Nevěčný, Karel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to collect information about neoteny (i. e. reproduction of animals in the larval stage to adult without metamorphosis) that describe the reproduction and assess the representation, if found more groups of animals in which it occurs. The basic method was searching various sources, sorting and analyzing. It is a compilation of work to prepare review. The sources of information were professional articles and books of Czech and foreign, including some Internet resource...

  9. Reproductive Liberty and Overpopulation: A Response

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Warner

    2004-01-01

    This appraisal of Carol A. Kates' 'Reproductive Liberty and Overpopulation' challenges her call for world-wide population control measures - using compulsory methods if necessary - to save the world's environment. The most successful part of Kates' paper is her argument that reproductive rights are not indefeasible and nonnegotiable, but that like many rights, they are conditional and open to a balancing of individual freedom against collective community interests. But her advocacy of mandato...

  10. Reproductive health of adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Reşit Ersay; Gülbu Tortumluoğlu

    2006-01-01

                   In Turkey, one out of five person belonging to 10-24 age group, is at risk concerning reproductive health. Topics related to the reproductive health, are neither discussed within the family or society, nor within the educational system. Adolescents, who have to experience sexual intercourse with insufficient and incorrect knowledge, have to face with sexually transmitted diseases (STD), teenage pregnancy, abo...

  11. Reproduction of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Popcorn Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Cardwell, D. M.; Ingham, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    Popcorn cultivars were evaluated in field and greenhouse tests for resistance to the Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, as potential resistant crops in potato rotations. A nematode reproductive factor (Rf) was calculated for each cultivar. Reproductive factor values also were compared on a relative basis as percentages of the Rf on a susceptible field corn standard, Pioneer 3578. Popcorn cultivars W206 and Robust 33-77 consistently supported low population densities of M. chi...

  12. Reproductive and Psychological Outcomes of Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Linna, Milla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the impact of eating disorders on young women's reproductive and psychological health in both clinical and population-based settings. Two samples of women were utilized to meet these goals. First, women treated at the eating disorder clinic of Helsinki University Central Hospital during 1995-2010 (n=2257) were compared with matched controls drawn from the Central Population Register (n=9028). Register-based measures of general reproductive outcomes, co...

  13. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vested

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.

  14. The Politics and Policies of Reproductive Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Patosalmi, Mervi

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the politics and policies of reproductive agency through a redescription of three Finnish policy documents dealing with the declining birth rate: the Government report on the future 'Finland for people of all ages' (2004), Business and Policy Forum EVA report 'Condemned to Diminish?' (Tuomitut vÀhenemÀÀn?) (2003), and the Family Federation's 'Population Policy Program' (2004). The redescription is done with the help of the notion of reproductive agency, which draws on D...

  15. Ethical aspects of advanced reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2003-11-01

    The progress achieved during the last 25 years in the assisted reproductive technology field has been phenomenal. Many countries currently practice genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and surrogacy. While embryo research and therapeutic cloning are carried out only in a few centers, thus far human cloning has been universally condemned. Nonetheless, the rapid evolution and progress of these various techniques of assisted reproduction has opened a Pandora's box of ethical issues that must be urgently addressed.

  16. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality.

  17. Reproductive cessation and post-reproductive lifespan in Asian elephants and pre-industrial humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Short post-reproductive lifespan is widespread across species, but prolonged post-reproductive life-stages of potential adaptive significance have been reported only in few mammals with extreme longevity. Long post-reproductive lifespan contradicts classical evolutionary predictions of simultaneous senescence in survival and reproduction, and raises the question of whether extreme longevity in mammals promotes such a life-history. Among terrestrial mammals, elephants share the features with great apes and humans, of having long lifespan and offspring with long dependency. However, little data exists on the frequency of post-reproductive lifespan in elephants. Here we use extensive demographic records on semi-captive Asian elephants (n = 1040) and genealogical data on pre-industrial women (n = 5336) to provide the first comparisons of age-specific reproduction, survival and post-reproductive lifespan in both of these long-lived species. Results We found that fertility decreased after age 50 in elephants, but the pattern differed from a total loss of fertility in menopausal women with many elephants continuing to reproduce at least until the age of 65 years. The probability of entering a non-reproductive state increased steadily in elephants from the earliest age of reproduction until age 65, with the longer living elephants continuing to reproduce until older ages, in contrast to humans whose termination probability increased rapidly after age 35 and reached 1 at 56 years, but did not depend on longevity. Post-reproductive lifespan reached 11–17 years in elephants and 26–27 years in humans living until old age (depending on method), but whereas half of human adult lifespan (of those reproductive females surviving to the age of 5% fecundity) was spent as post-reproductive, only one eighth was in elephants. Consequently, although some elephants have long post-reproductive lifespans, relatively few individuals reach such a phase and the

  18. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality. PMID:18700872

  19. FT Duplication Coordinates Reproductive and Vegetative Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chuan-Yu [Mississippi State University (MSU); Adams, Joshua P. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Kim, Hyejin [Mississippi State University (MSU); No, Kyoungok [Mississippi State University (MSU); Ma, Caiping [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Strauss, Steven [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Drnevich, Jenny [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Wickett, Norman [Pennsylvania State University; Vandervelde, Lindsay [Mississippi State University (MSU); Ellis, Jeffrey D. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Rice, Brandon [Mississippi State University (MSU); Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Brunner, Amy M. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Page, Grier P. [RTI International; Carlson, John E. [Pennsylvania State University; DePamphilis, Claude [Pennsylvania State University; Luthe, Dawn S. [Pennsylvania State University; Yuceer, Cetin [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2011-01-01

    Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.

  20. Emerging Roles for Non-Coding RNAs in Male Reproductive Development in Flowering Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Rodriguez-Enriquez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of sexual reproduction systems in flowering plants is essential to humankind, with crop fertility vitally important for food security. Here, we review rapidly emerging new evidence for the key importance of non-coding RNAs in male reproductive development in flowering plants. From the commitment of somatic cells to initiating reproductive development through to meiosis and the development of pollen—containing the male gametes (sperm cells—in the anther, there is now overwhelming data for a diversity of non-coding RNAs and emerging evidence for crucial roles for them in regulating cellular events at these developmental stages. A particularly exciting development has been the association of one example of cytoplasmic male sterility, which has become an unparalleled breeding tool for producing new crop hybrids, with a non-coding RNA locus.

  1. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on mourning dove reproduction and circulating progesterone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval, P.J.; Peterle, T.J.; Harder, J.D.

    1987-10-01

    PCBs acquired in sublethal doses increase activation of the liver's microsomal action and hepatic mixed function oxidase (MFO) enzymes. Physiological effects of increase in the MFO system may delay, if not eliminate, avian reproductive behavior and nesting success. No evidence is yet available to clearly link PCBs to lowered levels of circulating steroids in birds. However, data concerning the effects of PCBs on avian reproduction are abundant. Increased degradation of circulating steroids might alter essential hormone dynamics associated with nesting behavior and ovulation. Alternatively, normal feedback regulation by the pituitary-gonadal axis might lead to a full compensatory response to increased MFO such that hormone profiles remain unaltered, suggesting alternative modes of action for PCBs in reproductive disorders. Therefore, the authors investigated the effect of dietary PCBs on circulating progesterone levels prior to and during egg laying in wild-trapped mourning doves (Zenaida macroura).

  2. Gender-associated genes in filarial nematodes are important for reproduction and potential intervention targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Wen Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A better understanding of reproductive processes in parasitic nematodes may lead to development of new anthelmintics and control strategies for combating disabling and disfiguring neglected tropical diseases such as lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Transcriptomatic analysis has provided important new insights into mechanisms of reproduction and development in other invertebrates. We have performed the first genome-wide analysis of gender-associated (GA gene expression in a filarial nematode to improve understanding of key reproductive processes in these parasites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Version 2 Filarial Microarray with 18,104 elements representing ∼85% of the filarial genome was used to identify GA gene transcripts in adult Brugia malayi worms. Approximately 19% of 14,293 genes were identified as GA genes. Many GA genes have potential Caenorhabditis elegans homologues annotated as germline-, oogenesis-, spermatogenesis-, and early embryogenesis- enriched. The potential C. elegans homologues of the filarial GA genes have a higher frequency of severe RNAi phenotypes (such as lethal and sterility than other C. elegans genes. Molecular functions and biological processes associated with GA genes were gender-segregated. Peptidase, ligase, transferase, regulator activity for kinase and transcription, and rRNA and lipid binding were associated with female GA genes. In contrast, catalytic activity from kinase, ATP, and carbohydrate binding were associated with male GA genes. Cell cycle, transcription, translation, and biological regulation were increased in females, whereas metabolic processes of phosphate and carbohydrate metabolism, energy generation, and cell communication were increased in males. Significantly enriched pathways in females were associated with cell growth and protein synthesis, whereas metabolic pathways such as pentose phosphate and energy production pathways were enriched in males. There were

  3. Reproductive toxicological study on epristeride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunZY; ZhuY

    2002-01-01

    Benign protate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in older men.Epristeride is an uncompetitive inhibitor of steroid 5α-reductase,the enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT),and has been shown to retard the growth of hyperplastic prostates.The study included the toxicological effects of epristeride on prostate,vas deferens and sperm.The results were listed below.(1)The 180 days toxicity of epristeride (100mg·kg-1) on interstitial cells of Beagle dog tests and DNA in prostatic epithelial cells couldn't reverse during 60 days vonvalescence,and that the DHT and prostate specific antigen (PSA) level in the gland,the volume of the grland,glandular epithelial cell height and acinar luminal area could reverse to normal during the same convalescence.(2)It was demonstrated that an apoptosis of vas deferens epithelial cell of SD rat was observed at the concentration of 0.3 and 1.0nmol·L-1 epristeride in vitro.The results of PCR showed the exkpression of bcl-2 on vas deferens epithelial cells treated or untreated with epristeride,but the sequence of bcl-2 did not altered.(3)Motility and motile rate of sperm of rat,dog and human in vitro were videotaped and analyzed with computer-assisted sperm anaysis(CASA) system after 1h and 2h incubation.MOT(the percentage of motile sperm) of Beagle dog sperm were significantly reduced after treated with 0.6,6 and 60μmol·L-1 epristeride,respectively,but no significant change occurred in SD rat and human at the same concertations of epristeride.Is a word,epristeride is a better drug against BPH though there are much reproductive toxicity.

  4. UN conference reaffirms reproductive rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-26

    The United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, also known as the Habitat II conference, met in Istanbul from June 3 to 14. It was the last major UN gathering of this millennium and the first major UN meeting since 1995's Fourth World Conference on Women (the "Beijing Conference")--and thus an important opportunity for a wider international community to weigh in on agreements reached in Beijing and at the International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo in 1994. The final document that emerged from Habitat II, the "Global Plan of Action," affirmed crucial elements of those earlier accords. The Habitat documents calls for action to "[d]evelop and implement programmes to ensure universal access for women throughout their life-span to a full range of affordable health care services, including those related to reproductive health care, which includes family planning and sexual health, consistent with the Report of the International Conference on Population and Development." Language adopted at the Cairo meeting is also affirmed in Habitat's call for "universal access to the widest range of primary health care services." Perhaps most significantly, the Istanbul document reiterated an important declaration from the Beijing conference: "While the significance of national and regional particularities and various historical, cultural, and religious backgrounds must be borne in mind, it is the duty of all States to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms." Most of the 189 UN members and observer states that attended the conference upheld all three of these provisions. Only a small group of states--Argentina, Guatemala, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, and the Holy See--filed reservations on the health care sections. PMID:12347289

  5. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  6. Expression of NMS and NMU2R in the pig reproductive axis during the estrus cycle and the effect of NMS on the reproductive axis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guihong; Su, Juan; Li, Xun; Yao, Yuan; Lei, Zhihai; Yang, Xizhi; Kou, Rui; Liu, Yanpeng

    2009-12-01

    Evidence has revealed that neuromedin S (NMS) and neuromedin U-receptor type-2 (NMU2R) mRNAs are expressed in the central nervous system and reproductive organs. Previous data indicated that variation of NMS and NMU2R was due to the phases of the adult rat hypothalamus estrus cycle. However, the expression and function of NMS in the pig reproductive axis remains unexplored. In this study, 16 virginal gilts were classified into four groups: proestrus, estrus, diestrus 1, and diestrus 2; the expression of NMS and NMU2R in the cyclic pig hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis was studied by reverse transcriptaion-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the effect of NMS on the reproductive axis in vitro was detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The cloned pig NMS and NMU2R sequences were 82% and 90.2% identical to those of the corresponding human homologues, respectively. RT-PCR showed that NMS and NMU2R mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and pituitary changed with the estrus cycle, i.e., with the highest level in the proestrus group and the lowest in the estrus group. In the ovary, NMS and NMU2R expression was highest in the diestrus 2 group and the lowest in the proestrus group. In the in vitro study, different concentrations of NMS induced the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol at different levels of the reproductive axis. Taken together, the expression pattern of NMS during the estrus cycle and its role in reproductive hormones in vitro provide novel evidences of the potential roles of NMS in the regulation of pig reproduction.

  7. Juvenile hormone, reproduction, and worker behavior in the neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, Tugrul; Giovanetti, Manuela; West-Eberhard, Mary Jane

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the division of labor in colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera (wasps and bees) have led to two hypotheses regarding the evolution of juvenile hormone (JH) involvement. The novel- or single-function hypothesis proposes that the role of JH has changed from an exclusively reproductive function in primitively eusocial species (those lacking morphologically distinct queen and worker castes), to an exclusively behavioral function in highly eusocial societies (those containing morphologically distinct castes). In contrast, the split-function hypothesis proposes that JH originally functioned in the regulation of both reproduction and behavior in ancestral solitary species. Then, when reproductive and brood-care tasks came to be divided between queens and workers, the effects of JH were divided as well, with JH involved in regulation of reproductive maturation of egg-laying queens, and behavioral maturation, manifested as age-correlated changes in worker tasks, of workers. We report experiments designed to test these hypotheses. After documenting age-correlated changes in worker behavior (age polyethism) in the neotropical primitively eusocial wasp Polistes canadensis, we demonstrate that experimental application of the JH analog methoprene accelerates the onset of guarding behavior, an age-correlated task, and increases the number of foraging females; and we demonstrate that JH titers correlate with both ovarian development of queens and task differentiation in workers, as predicted by the split-function hypothesis. These findings support a view of social insect evolution that sees the contrasting worker and queen phenotypes as derived via decoupling of reproductive and brood-care components of the ancestral solitary reproductive physiology. PMID:15728373

  8. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    de Kerk, Madelon van; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investig...

  9. Reproductive timing in marine fishes: variability, temporal scales, and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan; Ganias, Konstantinos; Saborido-Rey, Fran; Murua, Hilario; Hunter, John

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive timing can be defined as the temporal pattern of reproduction over a lifetime. Although reproductive timing is highly variable in marine fishes, certain traits are universal, including sexual maturity, undergoing one or more reproductive cycles, participating in one or more spawning events within a reproductive cycle, release of eggs or offspring, aging, and death. These traits commonly occur at four temporal scales: lifetime, annual, intraseasonal, and diel. It has l...

  10. PTEN与女性生殖%PTEN and Female Reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃茜(综述); 刘冬娥(审校)

    2013-01-01

    近年来研究发现,抑癌基因Pten及其编码的PTEN蛋白可能通过磷脂酰肌醇3激酶(PI3K)等通路调控细胞的生长、分化及凋亡。在女性生殖系统中,PTEN通过PTEN-PI3K-3-磷酸肌醇依赖性蛋白激酶-1(PDK1)信号网络,不但控制原始卵泡的生存和激活、颗粒细胞的增殖和分化,影响卵泡的发育、生殖衰老的过程和生殖时间的长短,而且调控子宫内膜的增殖及早期胚胎的着床和发育。%Recent studies found that Pten, a tumor suppressor gene, and PTEN protein played an important role in regulating cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis through the PI3K pathway. In the female reproductive system, PTEN plays an important role in regulating follicular development, reproductive aging and years by controlling the survival and activation of primordial follicles , the proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells though the PTEN-PI3K-PDK1 signaling networks. By the same networks, PTEN regulates the endometrial proliferation, and the implantation and development of early embryo.

  11. Molecular basis for the reproductive division of labour in a lower termite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehli Michael

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyphenism, the expression of different phenotypes with the same genetic background, is well known for social insects. The substantial physiological and morphological differences among the castes generally are the result of differential gene expression. In lower termites, workers are developmentally flexible to become neotenic replacement reproductives via a single moult after the death of the founding reproductives. Thus, both castes (neotenics and workers are expected to differ mainly in the expression of genes linked to reproductive division of labour, which constitutes the fundamental basis of insect societies. Results Representational difference analysis of cDNAs was used to study differential gene expression between neotenics and workers in the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae. We identified and, at least partially cloned five novel genes that were highly expressed in female neotenics. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of all five genes in different castes (neotenics, founding reproductives, winged sexuals and workers of both sexes confirmed the differential expression patterns. In addition, the relative expression of these genes was determined in three body parts of female neotenics (head, thorax, and abdomen using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusion The identified genes could be involved in the control and regulation of reproductive division of labour. Interestingly, this study revealed an expression pattern partly similar to social Hymenoptera indicating both common and species-specific regulatory mechanisms in hemimetabolous and holometabolous social insects.

  12. Three-dimensional imaging of the developing mouse female reproductive organs with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Jason C.; Wang, Shang; Behringer, Richard R.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Infertility is a known major health concern and is estimated to impact ~15% of couples in the U.S. The majority of failed pregnancies occur before or during implantation of the fertilized embryo into the uterus. Understanding the mechanisms regulating development by studying mouse reproductive organs could significantly contribute to an improved understanding of normal development of reproductive organs and developmental causes of infertility in humans. Towards this goal, we report a three-dimensional (3D) imaging study of the developing mouse reproductive organs (ovary, oviduct, and uterus) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In our study, OCT was used for 3D imaging of reproductive organs without exogenous contrast agents and provides micro-scale spatial resolution. Experiments were conducted in vitro on mouse reproductive organs ranging from the embryonic day 14.5 to adult stages. Structural features of the ovary, oviduct, and uterus are presented. Additionally, a comparison with traditional histological analysis is illustrated. These results provide a basis for a wide range of infertility studies in mouse models. Through integration with traditional genetic and molecular biology approaches, this imaging method can improve understanding of ovary, oviduct, and uterus development and function, serving to further contribute to our understanding of fertility and infertility.

  13. A conserved non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro G Kusakabe

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a neuroendocrine peptide that plays a central role in the vertebrate hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The roles of GnRH in the control of vertebrate reproductive functions have been established, while its non-reproductive function has been suggested but less well understood. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis has in its non-reproductive larval stage a prominent GnRH system spanning the entire length of the nervous system. Tunicate GnRH receptors are phylogenetically closest to vertebrate GnRH receptors, yet functional analysis of the receptors revealed that these simple chordates have evolved a unique GnRH system with multiple ligands and receptor heterodimerization enabling complex regulation. One of the gnrh genes is conspicuously expressed in the motor ganglion and nerve cord, which are homologous structures to the hindbrain and spinal cord of vertebrates. Correspondingly, GnRH receptor genes were found to be expressed in the tail muscle and notochord of embryos, both of which are phylotypic axial structures along the nerve cord. Our findings suggest a novel non-reproductive role of GnRH in tunicates. Furthermore, we present evidence that GnRH-producing cells are present in the hindbrain and spinal cord of the medaka, Oryzias latipes, thereby suggesting the deep evolutionary origin of a non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates.

  14. Voice and handgrip strength predict reproductive success in a group of indigenous African females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Atkinson

    Full Text Available Evolutionary accounts of human traits are often based on proxies for genetic fitness (e.g., number of sex partners, facial attractiveness. Instead of using proxies, actual differences in reproductive success is a more direct measure of darwinian fitness. Certain voice acoustics such as fundamental frequency and measures of health such as handgrip strength correlate with proxies of fitness, yet there are few studies showing the relation of these traits to reproduction. Here, we explore whether the fundamental frequency of the voice and handgrip strength account for differences in actual reproduction among a population of natural fertility humans. Our results show that both fundamental frequency and handgrip strength predict several measures of reproductive success among a group of indigenous Namibian females, particularly amongst the elderly, with weight also predicting reproductive outcomes among males. These findings demonstrate that both hormonally regulated and phenotypic quality markers can be used as measures of darwinian fitness among humans living under conditions that resemble the evolutionary environment of Homo sapiens. We also argue that these findings provide support for the Grandmother Hypothesis.

  15. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN RICKSHAW DRIVERS: Occupational Exposure to Environmental Stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam. Nabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In urban environment, exposure to the emission of motor vehicles is common. In urban peoples it is a very difficult task to distinguish among peoples with different grades of momentous period exposure to such pollutants. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat on the reproductive health of rickshaw drivers. Methods: Adult married male individuals were recruited randomly in the study from Btkhella, Malakand agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Two groups were made, control (n=45 and rickshaw drivers (n=50. A special questionnaire was designed about occupational activities, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. From both groups 5 mL of the blood was collected and was analyze for serum total testosterone and cortisol using Biocheck (USA and Antibodies-online GmbH (Germany kits. Results: In control group the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 657.6±16.84 ng/dl and cortisol was 443.8±14.67 mU/L. In rickshaw drivers the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 577.1±11.42 ng/dl and cortisol was 595.1±8.879mU/L. In rickshaw drivers there was a significant reduction in total serum testosterone (P0.0002 but a significant increase in serum cortisol level (P < 0.0001 at 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: Reproductive health problems like decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, absent morning and nocturnal erection, ejaculatory problems, primary infertility and secondary infertility were prevalent in rickshaw drivers but, no such problems were found in control group. Chronic exposure to pollutants such as diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat negatively regulate Hypothalmo-Pituitary Gonadal axis (HPG leading  to reproductive problems.

  16. DEHP impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting critical factors in oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliana Carnevali

    Full Text Available Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 (ptgs2 were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRbeta levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg, maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs, and ovulation (ptgs2, deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans.

  17. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

  18. Recrudescence mechanisms and gene expression profile of the reproductive tracts from chickens during the molting period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooyoung Jeong

    Full Text Available The reproductive system of chickens undergoes dynamic morphological and functional tissue remodeling during the molting period. The present study identified global gene expression profiles following oviductal tissue regression and regeneration in laying hens in which molting was induced by feeding high levels of zinc in the diet. During the molting and recrudescence processes, progressive morphological and physiological changes included regression and re-growth of reproductive organs and fluctuations in concentrations of testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and corticosterone in blood. The cDNA microarray analysis of oviductal tissues revealed the biological significance of gene expression-based modulation in oviductal tissue during its remodeling. Based on the gene expression profiles, expression patterns of selected genes such as, TF, ANGPTL3, p20K, PTN, AvBD11 and SERPINB3 exhibited similar patterns in expression with gradual decreases during regression of the oviduct and sequential increases during resurrection of the functional oviduct. Also, miR-1689* inhibited expression of Sp1, while miR-17-3p, miR-22* and miR-1764 inhibited expression of STAT1. Similarly, chicken miR-1562 and miR-138 reduced the expression of ANGPTL3 and p20K, respectively. These results suggest that these differentially regulated genes are closely correlated with the molecular mechanism(s for development and tissue remodeling of the avian female reproductive tract, and that miRNA-mediated regulation of key genes likely contributes to remodeling of the avian reproductive tract by controlling expression of those genes post-transcriptionally. The discovered global gene profiles provide new molecular candidates responsible for regulating morphological and functional recrudescence of the avian reproductive tract, and provide novel insights into understanding the remodeling process at the genomic and epigenomic levels.

  19. RFRP neurons are critical gatekeepers for the photoperiodic control of reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eSimonneaux

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonally-breeding mammals rely on the photoperiodic signal to restrict their fertility to a certain time of the year. The photoperiodic information is translated in the brain via the pineal hormone melatonin, and it is now well established that it is the variation in the duration of the nocturnal peak of melatonin which synchronises reproduction with the seasons. The Syrian hamster is a long day breeder, and sexual activity is therefore promoted by exposure to a long day photoperiod and inhibited by exposure to a short day photoperiod. Interestingly, in this species electrolytic lesion of the mediobasal hypothalamus abolishes the short day-induced gonadal regression. We have shown that the expression of a recently discovered neuronal population, namely RFamide-related peptide (rfrp neurons, present in the mediobasal hypothalamus, is strongly down-regulated by melatonin in short day conditions, but not altered by circulating levels of sex steroids. The role of rfrp and its product RFRP-3 in the regulation of reproductive activity has been extensively studied in mammals, and our recent findings indicate that this peptide is a potent stimulator of the reproductive axis in the Syrian hamster. It induces a marked increase in GnRH neuron activity and gonadotrophin secretion, and it is able to rescue reproductive activity in short day sexually inactive hamsters. Little is known about the localisation of the RFRP-3 receptor, GPR147, in the rodent brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that RFRP-3 could be acting via two intermediates, the GnRH neurons in the preoptic area and the Kiss1 neurons in the arcuate nucleus, but future studies should aim at describing the localisation of Gpr147 in the Syrian hamster brain. Altogether our data indicate that the rfrp neuronal population within the mediobasal hypothalamus might be a serious candidate in mediating the photoperiodic effects of melatonin on the regulation of the reproductive axis.

  20. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered. PMID:27585557

  1. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-09-02

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered.

  2. Reproductive Parameters of the Dogo Argentino Bitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Caffaratti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dogo Argentino (DA is the first and only breed from Argentina recognized worldwide. Although its morphologic features have been well established, its normal reproductive parameters are not clearly known. The aim of this study was to determine the main DA bitch reproductive parameters. One hundred and forty-nine surveys were obtained from breeders from Córdoba province, Argentina: one for each intact DA bitch from 1 to 14 years old. The DA bitch reached puberty at an average of 8.93 months. The mean duration of vulval bleeding found in this study was 11.11 days. The clinical signs characteristic for proestrous-estrous were vulval edema (89.93%, bleeding during the time of mating (32.21%, holding the tail to the side (95.30%, and docility during mating (85.91%. DA bitches had a whelping rate of 84%. Out of 299 pregnancies, 89.30% exhibited a normal parturition, 6.69% presented dystocia, 2.68% needed Cesarean section, and 1.34% aborted. In conclusion, the reproductive parameters of the DA bitch are similar to those identified for other large breeds. DA often showed a prolonged vulval bleeding longer than proestrus. Its high whelping rate, its low incidence of dystocia, and its good maternal ability define the DA as a good reproductive breed with normal reproductive functions.

  3. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

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    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  4. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

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    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.

  5. Influences of clonality on plant sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Spencer C H

    2015-07-21

    Flowering plants possess an unrivaled diversity of mechanisms for achieving sexual and asexual reproduction, often simultaneously. The commonest type of asexual reproduction is clonal growth (vegetative propagation) in which parental genotypes (genets) produce vegetative modules (ramets) that are capable of independent growth, reproduction, and often dispersal. Clonal growth leads to an expansion in the size of genets and increased fitness because large floral displays increase fertility and opportunities for outcrossing. Moreover, the clonal dispersal of vegetative propagules can assist "mate finding," particularly in aquatic plants. However, there are ecological circumstances in which functional antagonism between sexual and asexual reproductive modes can negatively affect the fitness of clonal plants. Populations of heterostylous and dioecious species have a small number of mating groups (two or three), which should occur at equal frequency in equilibrium populations. Extensive clonal growth and vegetative dispersal can disrupt the functioning of these sexual polymorphisms, resulting in biased morph ratios and populations with a single mating group, with consequences for fertility and mating. In populations in which clonal propagation predominates, mutations reducing fertility may lead to sexual dysfunction and even the loss of sex. Recent evidence suggests that somatic mutations can play a significant role in influencing fitness in clonal plants and may also help explain the occurrence of genetic diversity in sterile clonal populations. Highly polymorphic genetic markers offer outstanding opportunities for gaining novel insights into functional interactions between sexual and clonal reproduction in flowering plants.

  6. Cell biology solves mysteries of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovsky, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Reproduction and fertility have been objects of keen inquiry since the dawn of humanity. Medieval anatomists provided the first accurate depictions of the female reproductive system, and early microscopists were fascinated by the magnified sight of sperm cells. Initial successes were achieved in the in vitro fertilization of frogs and the artificial insemination of dogs. Gamete and embryo research was in the cradle of modern cell biology, providing the first evidence of the multi-cellular composition of living beings and pointing out the importance of chromosomes for heredity. In the 20th century, reproductive research paved the way for the study of the cytoskeleton, cell signaling, and the cell cycle. In the last three decades, the advent of reproductive cell biology has brought us human in vitro fertilization, animal cloning, and human and animal embryonic stem cells. It has contributed to the development of transgenesis, proteomics, genomics, and epigenetics. This Special Issue represents a sample of the various areas of reproductive biology, with emphasis on molecular and cell biological aspects. Advances in spermatology, ovarian function, fertilization, and maternal-fetal interactions are discussed within the framework of fertility and diseases such as endometriosis and diabetes.

  7. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Developmental programming of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L P; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Triennial Reproduction Symposium focused on developmental programming of fertility. The topics covered during the morning session included the role of the placenta in programming of fetal growth and development, effects of feeding system and level of feeding during pregnancy on the annual production cycle and lifetime productivity of heifer offspring, effects of litter size and level of socialization postnatally on reproductive performance of pigs, effects of postnatal dietary intake on maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and onset of puberty in heifers, effects of housing systems on growth performance and reproductive efficiency of gilts, and effects of energy balance on sexual differentiation in rodent models. The morning session concluded with presentation of the American Society of Animal Science L. E. Casida Award for Excellence in Graduate Education to Dr. Michael Smith from the University of Missouri, Columbia, who shared his philosophy of graduate education. The afternoon session included talks on the role of epigenetic modifications in developmental programming and transgenerational inheritance of reproductive dysfunction, effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on fetal development and long-term physiology of the individual, and potential consequences of real-life exposure to environmental contaminants on reproductive health. The symposium concluded with a summary talk and the posing of 2 questions to the audience. From an evolutionary standpoint, programming and epigenetic events must be adaptive; when do they become maladaptive? If there are so many environmental factors that induce developmental programming, are we doomed, and if not, what is or are the solution or solutions?

  8. Reproductive health of adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Reşit Ersay

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, one out of five person belonging to 10-24 age group, is at risk concerning reproductive health. Topics related to the reproductive health, are neither discussed within the family or society, nor within the educational system. Adolescents, who have to experience sexual intercourse with insufficient and incorrect knowledge, have to face with sexually transmitted diseases (STD, teenage pregnancy, abortion and other problems as a consequence of this experience. Research on this area has showed that both adolescents and young adults, especially health personnel, requested training on reproductive health. In terms of planning health services effectively, these topics should be evaluated carefully in Turkey. In this research, reproductive health regarding adolescents and young adults is examined under the four headings of sexual experience, STD, use of protection and productivity. As a result, depending on all the cultural restrictions and health service limitations, it is observed that adolescents and young adults experience sexual relationship with an inadequate knowledge and consequently, they have to face with problems. Within this context, it is suggested to expand the reproductive health educational programmes involving family, school and society within long term.

  9. Application of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Disorders of Reproductive Endocrine System%生殖内分泌疾病的助孕策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 陈子江

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive endocrine system regulates reproductive phenomena, including ovulation, implantation, maintenance of gestation, et al. Disorders of this system result in female infertility; over 30% of female infertility are caused by the reproductive endocrinopathies. The classify of those disorders is very complicated. The pathophysiological mechanism is related with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis at different level. In this review, treatment and management of disorders of the reproductive endocrine system were concisely introduced, which was based on the mainstream guidelines published by international associations and Chinese Medical Association.%排卵、着床、妊娠维持等生殖过程皆是在生殖内分泌系统的调控下完成的,生殖内分泌系统出现异常可能会导致女性不孕症的发生。各类生殖内分泌疾病约占女性不孕症的1/3,病种分类繁杂,病理机制复杂,涉及性腺轴的多个环节。以国际共识及中华医学会发布的诊疗指南为蓝本,针对生殖内分泌疾病如何导致不孕症,提纲挈领地介绍主要生殖内分泌疾病的助孕策略。

  10. Physiological Roles for mafr-1 in Reproduction and Lipid Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshat Khanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maf1 is a conserved repressor of RNA polymerase (Pol III transcription; however, its physiological role in the context of a multicellular organism is not well understood. Here, we show that C. elegans MAFR-1 is functionally orthologous to human Maf1, represses the expression of both RNA Pol III and Pol II transcripts, and mediates organismal fecundity and lipid homeostasis. MAFR-1 impacts lipid transport by modulating intestinal expression of the vitellogenin family of proteins, resulting in cell-nonautonomous defects in the developing reproductive system. MAFR-1 levels inversely correlate with stored intestinal lipids, in part by influencing the expression of the lipogenesis enzymes fasn-1/FASN and pod-2/ACC1. Animals fed a high carbohydrate diet exhibit reduced mafr-1 expression and mutations in the insulin signaling pathway genes daf-18/PTEN and daf-16/FoxO abrogate the lipid storage defects associated with deregulated mafr-1 expression. Our results reveal physiological roles for mafr-1 in regulating organismal lipid homeostasis, which ensure reproductive success.

  11. Evolution of the reproductive endocrine system in chordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubokawa, Kaoru; Tando, Yukiko; Roy, Sonali

    2010-07-01

    The cephalochordate, amphioxus, is phylogenetically placed at the most primitive position in the chordate clade. Despite many studies on the endocrine system of amphioxus, definitive evidence has not been reported for the presence an endocrine system comparable to the pituitary-gonadal axis, which is important in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates. Recent genome analyses in the amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, showed that it does not have any pituitary hormone genes except the thyrostimulin gene. Thyrostimulin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone consisting of α and β subunits, and is present in various organs of vertebrates. Analyses of a phylogenetic tree and a synteny suggest that amphioxus' thyrostimulin is an ancestral type of the glycoprotein hormones in chordates. In addition, genes for sex steroidogenic enzymes belonging to the CYP family were found in the genome sequences. The conversion pathway of sex steroids from cholesterol to estrogen, androgen, and major sex steroids was also identified in the gonads of amphioxus in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated the expression of genes encoding thyrostimulin and sex steroidogenic enzymes by an in situ hybridization technique. Here, we discuss the evolution of hormones and reproductive functions in the neuroendocrine control system of chordates.

  12. Paternal fenvalerate exposure influences reproductive functions in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Parvizi, Nahid; Zhou, Yuchuan; Xu, Kesi; Jiang, Hui; Li, Rongjie; Hang, Yiqiong; Lu, Yang

    2013-11-01

    Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has been shown to have adverse effects on male reproductive system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate whether these adverse effects are passed from exposed male mice to their offspring. Adult male mice received Fen (10 mg/kg) daily for 30 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Fenvalerate significantly changed the methylation status of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (Ace), forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a), huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 (Nr3c2), promyelocytic leukemia (Pml), and Prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator (Ptgfrn) genes in paternal mice sperm genomic DNA. Further, Fen significantly increased sperm abnormalities; serum testosterone and estradiol-17ß level in adult male (F0) and their male offspring (F1). Further, paternal Fen treatment significantly increased the length of estrous cycle, serum estradiol-17ß concentration in estrus, and progesterone levels in diestrus in female offspring (F1). These findings suggest that adverse effects of paternal Fen exposure on reproductive functions can be seen not only in treated males (F0) but also in their offsprings. PMID:23548413

  13. Effects of melatonin and prolactin in reproduction: review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Fernanda das Chagas Angelo Mendes; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Teixeira, Valéria Wanderley; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho

    2015-01-01

    The pineal gland is responsible for producing a hormone called melatonin (MEL), and is accepted as the gland that regulates reproduction in mammals. Prolactin (PRL) also exhibits reproductive activity in animals in response to photoperiod. It is known that the concentrations of PRL are high in the summer and reduced during winter, the opposite of what is seen with melatonin in these seasons. In placental mammals, both prolactin and melatonin affect implantation, which is considered a critical point of pregnancy, since a successful pregnancy requires the development of a synchronous interaction between the endometrium and blastocyst for placental development. It is also known that PRL levels during pregnancy are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy, because this hormone induces the corpus luteum to produce progesterone, in addition to stimulating blastocyst implantation to maintain pregnancy and form the placenta. However, melatonin levels in plasma have also been shown to increase during pregnancy, peaking at the end of this period, which suggests that this hormone plays an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, it is clear that treatment with prolactin or melatonin interferes with the processes responsible for the development and maintenance of pregnancy.

  14. The evolutionary trajectory of the mating-type (mat genes in Neurospora relates to reproductive behavior of taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannesson Hanna

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative sequencing studies among a wide range of taxonomic groups, including fungi, have led to the discovery that reproductive genes evolve more rapidly than other genes. However, for fungal reproductive genes the question has remained whether the rapid evolution is a result of stochastic or deterministic processes. The mating-type (mat genes constitute the master regulators of sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and here we present a study of the molecular evolution of the four mat-genes (mat a-1, mat A-1, mat A-2 and mat A-3 of 20 Neurospora taxa. Results We estimated nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates of genes to infer their evolutionary rate, and confirmed that the mat-genes evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the evolutionary trajectories are related to the reproductive modes of the taxa; likelihood methods revealed that positive selection acting on specific codons drives the diversity in heterothallic taxa, while among homothallic taxa the rapid evolution is due to a lack of selective constraint. The latter finding is supported by presence of stop codons and frame shift mutations disrupting the open reading frames of mat a-1, mat A-2 and mat A-3 in homothallic taxa. Lower selective constraints of mat-genes was found among homothallic than heterothallic taxa, and comparisons with non-reproductive genes argue that this disparity is not a nonspecific, genome-wide phenomenon. Conclusion Our data show that the mat-genes evolve rapidly in Neurospora. The rapid divergence is due to either adaptive evolution or lack of selective constraints, depending on the reproductive mode of the taxa. This is the first instance of positive selection acting on reproductive genes in the fungal kingdom, and illustrates how the evolutionary trajectory of reproductive genes can change after a switch in reproductive behaviour of an organism.

  15. Reproductive neuropeptides: prevalence of GnRH and KNDy neural signalling components in a model avian, gallus gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nerine T; Tello, Javier A; Bedecarrats, Gregoy Y; Millar, Robert P

    2013-09-01

    Diverse external and internal environmental factors are integrated in the hypothalamus to regulate the reproductive system. This is mediated through the pulsatile secretion of GnRH into the portal system to stimulate pituitary gonadotrophin secretion, which in turn regulates gonadal function. A single subpopulation of neurones termed 'KNDy neurones' located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus co-localise kisspeptin (Kiss), neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin (Dyn) and are responsive to negative feedback effects of sex steroids. The co-ordinated secretion from KNDy neurones appears to modulate the pulsatile release of GnRH, acting as a proximate pacemaker. This review briefly describes the neuropeptidergic control of reproduction in the avian class, highlighting the status of reproductive neuropeptide signalling systems homologous to those found in mammalian genomes. Genes encoding the GnRH system are complete in the chicken with similar roles to the mammalian counterparts, whereas genes encoding Kiss signalling components appear missing in the avian lineage, indicating a differing set of hypothalamic signals controlling avian reproduction. Gene sequences encoding both NKB and Dyn signalling components are present in the chicken genome, but expression analysis and functional studies remain to be completed. The focus of this article is to describe the avian complement of neuropeptidergic reproductive hormones and provide insights into the putative mechanisms that regulate reproduction in birds. These postulations highlight differences in reproductive strategies of birds in terms of gonadal steroid feedback systems, integration of metabolic signals and seasonality. Also included are propositions of KNDy neuropeptide gene silencing and plasticity in utilisation of these neuropeptides during avian evolution. PMID:23756151

  16. Variation in male reproductive longevity across traditional societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Vinicius

    Full Text Available Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males in some traditional human populations. We calculate three indices of reproductive ageing in men (oldest age at reproduction, male late-life reproduction, and post-reproductive representation and identify a continuum of male reproductive longevity across eight traditional societies ranging from !Kung, Hadza and Agta hunter-gatherers exhibiting low levels of polygyny, early age at last reproduction and long post-reproductive lifespans, to male Gambian agriculturalists and Turkana pastoralists showing higher levels of polygyny, late-life reproduction and shorter post-reproductive lifespans. We conclude that the uniquely human detachment between rates of somatic senescence and reproductive decline, and the existence of post-reproductive lifespans, are features of both male and female life histories, and therefore not exclusive consequences of menopause.

  17. Role of vitamin D in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhi, Seyedeh Zahra; Ghaffari, Firouzeh; Kazerouni, Faranak

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that belongs to the family of steroid hormones. The biological actions of vitamin D are exerted through a soluble protein, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is a transcription factor located in the nuclei of target cells that mediates the genomic action of the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3). This transcription factor is distributed in various tissues, including the reproductive system. The presence of VDR in female reproductive tissue suggests that vitamin D is involved in female reproduction. The present article reviews the impact of vitamin D on anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), as an ovarian reserve marker, and ovarian steroidogenesis. This article also discusses the impact of vitamin D as a factor that influences infertility and the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF), insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenism, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PMID:26747961

  18. Towards gloss control in fine art reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Teun; Brettel, Hans; Ortiz Segovia, Maria V.

    2015-03-01

    The studies regarding fine art reproduction mainly focus on the accuracy of colour and the recreation of surface texture properties. Since reflection properties other than colour are neglected, important details of the artwork are lost. For instance, gloss properties, often characteristic to painters and particular movements in the history of art, are not well reproduced. The inadequate reproduction of the different gloss levels of a piece of fine art leads to a specular reflection mismatch in printed copies with respect to the original works that affects the perceptual quality of the printout. We used different print parameters of a 3D high resolution printing setup to control the gloss level on a printout locally. Our method can be used to control gloss automatically and in crucial applications such as fine art reproduction.

  19. Shift Work, Jet Lag, and Female Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Mahoney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms and “clock gene” expression are involved in successful reproductive cycles, mating, and pregnancy. Alterations or disruptions of biological rhythms, as commonly occurs in shift work, jet lag, sleep deprivation, or clock gene knock out models, are linked to significant disruptions in reproductive function. These impairments include altered hormonal secretion patterns, reduced conception rates, increased miscarriage rates and an increased risk of breast cancer. Female health may be particularly susceptible to the impact of desynchronizing work schedules as perturbed hormonal rhythms can further influence the expression patterns of clock genes. Estrogen modifies clock gene expression in the uterus, ovaries, and suprachiasmatic nucleus, the site of the primary circadian clock mechanism. Further work investigating clock genes, light exposure, ovarian hormones, and reproductive function will be critical for indentifying how these factors interact to impact health and susceptibility to disease.

  20. Male Reproductive Disorders and Fertility Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Buck Louis, Germaine M;

    2016-01-01

    semen quality, childlessness, changed sex ratio, and increasing demand for assisted reproductive techniques. We present evidence that several adult male reproductive problems arise in utero and are signs of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Although TDS might result from genetic mutations, recent...... than genetics, are the most important factors in the observed trends. These environmental factors might act either directly or via epigenetic mechanisms. In the latter case, the effects of exposures might have an impact for several generations post-exposure. In conclusion, there is an urgent need...... to prioritize research in reproductive physiology and pathophysiology, particularly in highly industrialized countries facing decreasing populations. We highlight a number of topics that need attention by researchers in human physiology, pathophysiology, environmental health sciences, and demography....

  1. Reproductive Behaviour Of Timor Deer (Rusa Timorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Sansudewa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timor deer (Rusa timorensis is a newly domesticated animal in Indonesia and other countries in the world. It is a potential source of meat and livelihood. Low birth rate is a problem of deer farming in Indonesia. It happens because of low concern for key aspects of behaviors including reproductive behavior. The aim of this review is to give information about reproductive behavior of Timor deer in natural habitat and captivity breeding. Libido and estrous behaviors of Timor deer in captivity breeding were similar with natural habitat. However, male Timor deer in captivity breeding took longer time to approach the females before mating, compared with those in their natural habitat. Aggressive behavior commonly leads mating. Parturition and maternal behavior of hinds are affected by limitation of space, therefore dividing the area of cage which depends on age and physiological status is needed to improve reproductive management.

  2. Identification of an ant queen pheromone regulating worker sterility

    OpenAIRE

    Holman, Luke; Jørgensen, Charlotte G.; Nielsen, John; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    The selective forces that shape and maintain eusocial societies are an enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology. Ordinarily sterile workers can usually reproduce given the right conditions, so the factors regulating reproductive division of labour may provide insight into why eusociality has persisted over evolutionary time. Queen-produced pheromones that affect worker reproduction have been implicated in diverse taxa, including ants, termites, wasps and possibly mole rats, but to date have on...

  3. Classification of reproductive toxicants with diverse mechanisms in the embryonic stem cell test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling, Christian; Fischer, Kristin; Luch, Andreas; Seiler, Andrea E M

    2015-12-01

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is a promising system to detect embryotoxicity in vitro. Recent studies have pointed out some limitations of the EST and suggest that the applicability domain of the EST and its prediction model have to be better defined. Here, eight substances of known reproductive toxicity were tested in the EST under blind conditions. We applied the prediction model to the data of the EST after classifying the substances according to the published criteria. In addition, a simplified classification of the EST results into two classes as an approach to hazard assessment was compared to the European Union Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Regulation labels of the substances. With one exception, substances that are labeled as reproductive toxicants according to the CLP Regulation were detected as embryotoxic in the EST while substances without label were found to be non-embryotoxic according to the EST. PMID:26558462

  4. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility. PMID:26552702

  5. A possible route to prebiotic vesicle reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Pier Luigi; Rasi, Pasquale Stano Silvia; Mavelli, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    Spherical bounded structures such as those formed by surfactant aggregates (mostly micelles and vesicles), with an inside that is chemically and physically different from the outside medium, can be seen as primitive cell models. As such, they are fundamental structures for the theory of autopoiesis as originally formulated by Varela and Maturana. In particular, since self-reproduction is a very important feature of minimal cellular life, the study of self-reproduction of micelles and vesicles represents a quite challenging bio-mimetic approach. Our laboratory has put much effort in recent years into implementing self-reproduction of vesicles as models for self-reproduction of cellular bounded structures, and this article is a further contribution in this direction. In particular, we deal with the so-called matrix effect of vesicles, related to the fact that when fresh surfactant is added to an aqueous solution containing preformed vesicles of a very narrow size distribution, the newly formed vesicles (instead of being polydisperse, as is usually the case) have dimensions very close to those of the preformed ones. In practice, this corresponds to a mechanism of reproduction of vesicles of the same size. In this article, the matrix effect is re-elaborated in the perspective of the origin of life, and in particular in terms of the prebiotic mechanisms that might permit the growth and reproduction of vesicles. The data are analyzed by dynamic light scattering with a new program that permits the calculation of the number-weighted size distribution. It is shown that, on adding a stoichiometric amount of oleate micelles to preformed oleate vesicles extruded at 50 and 100 nm, the final distribution contains about twice the initial number of particles, centered around 50 and 100 nm. The same holds when oleate is added to preformed phospholipid liposomes. By contrast, when the same amount of oleate is added to an aqueous solution (as a control experiment), a very broad

  6. Links between nutrition and reproduction in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situations in which nutrition modulates reproductive function, and targets involved, are identified, particularly in relation to initiation of cyclicity (at puberty, during the post-partum period or after induction of ovulation), fertility and induction of ovulation. The usefulness and pertinence of measurements of body weight variations, body condition score, nutritional balance or blood metabolites (glucose, ketone bodies, free fatty acids, cholesterol, urea and amino acids) to evaluate nutritional status in this context is considered. Leptin could play a central role in causal mechanisms linking nutrition and reproduction, in conjunction with somatotropic axis, insulin, opioids, and neuropeptide Y. (author)

  7. Ethical aspects of advanced reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2003-11-01

    The progress achieved during the last 25 years in the assisted reproductive technology field has been phenomenal. Many countries currently practice genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and surrogacy. While embryo research and therapeutic cloning are carried out only in a few centers, thus far human cloning has been universally condemned. Nonetheless, the rapid evolution and progress of these various techniques of assisted reproduction has opened a Pandora's box of ethical issues that must be urgently addressed. PMID:14644805

  8. Epigenetic reprogramming in plant sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Berger, Frédéric

    2014-09-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming consists of global changes in DNA methylation and histone modifications. In mammals, epigenetic reprogramming is primarily associated with sexual reproduction and occurs during both gametogenesis and early embryonic development. Such reprogramming is crucial not only to maintain genomic integrity through silencing transposable elements but also to reset the silenced status of imprinted genes. In plants, observations of stable transgenerational inheritance of epialleles have argued against reprogramming. However, emerging evidence supports that epigenetic reprogramming indeed occurs during sexual reproduction in plants and that it has a major role in maintaining genome integrity and a potential contribution to epiallelic variation.

  9. Reproductive history and post-reproductive mortality: A sibling comparison analysis using Swedish register data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kolk, Martin; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reproductive history influences post-reproductive mortality. A potential explanation for this association is confounding by socioeconomic status in the family of origin, as socioeconomic status is related to both fertility behaviours and to long-term health. We examine the relationship between age at first birth, completed parity, and post-reproductive mortality and address the potential confounding role of family of origin. We use Swedish population register data for men and women born 1932-1960, and examine both all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The contributions of our study are the use of a sibling comparison design that minimizes residual confounding from shared family background characteristics and assessment of cause-specific mortality that can shed light on the mechanisms linking reproductive history to mortality. Our results were entirely consistent with previous research on this topic, with teenage first time parents having higher mortality, and the relationship between parity and mortality following a U-shaped pattern where childless men and women and those with five or more children had the highest mortality. These results indicate that selection into specific fertility behaviours based upon socioeconomic status and experiences within the family of origin does not explain the relationship between reproductive history and post-reproductive mortality. Additional analyses where we adjust for other lifecourse factors such as educational attainment, attained socioeconomic status, and post-reproductive marital history do not change the results. Our results add an important new level of robustness to the findings on reproductive history and mortality by showing that the association is robust to confounding by factors shared by siblings. However it is still uncertain whether reproductive history causally influences health, or whether other confounding factors such as childhood health or risk-taking propensity could

  10. Evolution of asexual reproduction in leaves of the genus Kalanchoë

    OpenAIRE

    Garcês, Helena M. P.; Champagne, Connie E. M.; Brad T Townsley; Park, Soomin; Malhó, Rui; Pedroso, Maria C.; Harada, John J.; Sinha, Neelima R.

    2007-01-01

    Plant somatic cells have the remarkable ability to regenerate an entire organism. Many species in the genus Kalanchoë, known as “mother of thousands,” develop plantlets on the leaf margins. Using key regulators of organogenesis (STM) and embryogenesis (LEC1 and FUS3) processes, we analyzed asexual reproduction in Kalanchoë leaves. Suppression of STM abolished the ability to make plantlets. Here, we report that constitutive plantlet-forming species, like Kalanchoë daigremontiana, form plantlet...

  11. Effects of Training for Reproductive Health of Knowledge of Reproductive Health and Behaviour in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Bahar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period when physical, psychological and social maturity is achieved. Therefore, reproductive health in adolescence is of great importance.Aims: This study was performed to determine the effects of training for reproductive health and behavior on knowledge of reproductive health and reproductive behavior in adolescents.Methodology: This is a semi-experimental study and included 700 adolescent from the city of Sanlıurfa, Turkey. The participants were selected from volunteers and aged 15-24 years. A questionnaire composed of questions about demographic features and reproductive health and behavior. The dependent variables tested were mean scores of the participants on reproductive health, breast self-examination of the female participants, testicular self-examination and use of condoms by the male participants. The independent variable tested was training for reproductive health. T-test was used to analyze data about dependent groups and Chi-square test (McNemar was used to compare between two dependent groups.Results: The mean age of the participants was 18.80 ± 2.82 years and 51.0% of the participants secondary school graduates. The total score of the participants on knowledge of reproductive health increased from 6.48 before training to 15.80 after training, with a significant difference (p=0.000. While the percentage of the female participants performing breast self-examination was 22.9% before training, it increased to 71.2% after training, with a significant difference (p=0.000. However, the percentage of the male participants performing testicular self-examination only rose from 14.7% to 29.4% (p=0.000. The use of condoms by the male participants increased from 12.2% to 18.3%, with a significant difference (p=0.000.Conclusion: Training for reproductive health did not only increase knowledge of reproductive health but also promote reproductive health behavior. It can be recommended that nurses should

  12. 7 CFR 505.3 - Fees for paper copying, duplicating, and reproduction of materials in library collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of materials in library collections. 505.3 Section 505.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY... in library collections. (a) Photocopy reproduction of paper copy will be set as a flat fee of...

  13. Angling-induced barotrauma in snapper Chrysophrys auratus: are there consequences for reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregrin, Laura S; Butcher, Paul A; Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B

    2015-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34%) were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory). Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish); gastric herniation (46%); ruptured swim bladder (73%); organ displacement (48%); and kidney (3%), liver (73%) and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%); with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes) with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract) and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish). The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.

  14. Angling-induced barotrauma in snapper Chrysophrys auratus: are there consequences for reproduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S Peregrin

    Full Text Available In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34% were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory. Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish; gastric herniation (46%; ruptured swim bladder (73%; organ displacement (48%; and kidney (3%, liver (73% and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%; with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish. The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.

  15. Angiogenesis in female reproductive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Neovascularization, i.e. new blood vessels formation, can be divided into two different processes: vasculogenesis, whereby a primitive vascular network is established during embryogenesis from multipotential mesenchymal progenitors; and angiogenesis, which refers to the new blood vessels formation from pre-existing vessels[1,2]. Angiogenesis contributes to the most process throughout the whole life span from embryonic development to adult growth[2]. In this meaning, neovascularization is usually used to imply angiogenesis. Under physiological condi-tions, angiogenesis is a strictly regulated event and rarely happens in most adult tissues except for fracture or heal-ing of wounds[2,3]. However, a notable phenomenon is that the tissues of ovary and uterine endometrium are unique in the cycle-specific changes in vascularity that occur in each estrous/menstrual cycle. Active angiogenesis occurs in placenta to satisfy the needs of embryonic implantation and development. Defects in angiogenesis are associated with some gynecopathies including luteal phase defect, endometriosis, pregnancy loss and preeclampsia[4].

  16. Recent improvements in channel catfish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of reproduction in fish is a primary requisite for reliable, predictable and quality seed stock for aquaculture production or a stock enhancement program. Channel catfish is the leading aquaculture species in USA, accounting for 335 million pounds with a farm gate value of over $ 400 millio...

  17. Behavioural reproductive isolation and speciation in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Punita Nanda; Bashisth Narayan Singh

    2012-06-01

    The origin of premating reproductive isolation continues to help elucidate the process of speciation and is the central event in the evolution of biological species. Therefore, during the process of species formation the diverging populations must acquire some means of reproductive isolation so that the genes from one gene pool are prevented from dispersing freely into a foreign gene pool. In the genus Drosophila, the phenomenon of behavioural reproductive isolation, which is an important type of premating (prezygotic) reproductive isolating mechanisms, has been extensively studied and interesting data have been documented. In many cases incomplete sexual isolation has been observed and the pattern and degree of isolation within and between the species have often been used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships. The present review documents an overview of speciation mediated through behavioural incompatibility in different species groups of Drosophila with particular reference to the models proposed on the basis of one-sided ethological isolation to predict the direction of evolution. This study is crucial for understanding the mechanism of speciation through behavioural incompatibility and also for an understanding of speciation genetics in future prospects.

  18. Test systems to identify reproductive toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, K; Stahlmann, R

    2000-09-01

    Experience with drugs and other xenobiotics indicates that both animal testing and epidemiological studies are necessary to provide adequate data for an estimation of risks that might be associated with exposure to a chemical substance. In this review, the pros and cons of test systems for reproductive toxicity are discussed. Usually, several studies are performed to cover the different phases of the reproductive cycle. In the preclinical development of drugs, the three so-called 'segment testing protocols' have been used for several decades now. More recently, new testing concepts have been accepted internationally which include more flexibility in implementation. Several examples of compounds with the potential for reproductive toxicity are presented in more detail in a discussion of some pitfalls of the tests for fertility (phthalates and fluoroquinolones), teratogenicity (acyclovir and protease inhibitors) and postnatal developmental toxicity (fluoroquinolones). In addition, important aspects of kinetics and metabolism as a prerequisite for a rational interpretation of results from toxicological studies are briefly discussed. In vitro assays are useful for supplementing the routinely used in vivo approaches or for studying an expected or defined effect, but they are not suitable for revealing an unknown effect of a chemical on the complex reproductive process. PMID:11021511

  19. Islam, Assisted Reproduction, and the Bioethical Aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya

    2016-04-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways. PMID:26602421

  20. Reproductive decisions after fetal genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergament, Eugene; Pergament, Deborah

    2012-10-01

    A broad range of testing modalities for fetal genetic disease has been established. These include carrier screening for single-gene mutations, first-trimester and second-trimester screening for chromosome abnormalities and open neural-tube defects, prenatal diagnosis by means of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Reproductive decisions before and after fetal genetic counselling represent the culmination of a dynamic interaction between prospective parents, obstetrician and genetic counsellor. The decision to undergo genetic testing before and after genetic counselling is influenced by a host of interrelated factors, including patient-partner and family relationships, patient-physician communication, societal mores, religious beliefs, and the media. Because of the complexity of personal and societal factors involved, it is not surprising that genetic counselling concerning reproductive decision-making must be individualised. A limited number of principles, guidelines and standards apply when counselling about testing for fetal genetic disease. These principles are that genetic counselling should be non-directive and unbiased and that parental decisions should be supported regardless of the reproductive choice. A critical responsibility of the obstetrician and genetic counsellor is to provide accurate and objective information about the implications, advantages, disadvantages and consequences of any genetic testing applied to prospective parents and their fetuses. These principles and responsibilities will be tested as newer technologies, such as array comparative genome hybridisation, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis and sequencing of the entire genome are introduced into the field of reproductive genetics and become routine practice.

  1. An Ethnography of the Navajo Reproductive Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Describes the reproductive cycle (menarche, menstrual cycle, fertility and contraceptive use, and menopause) as experienced by two groups of contemporary Navajo women. Eighty Navajo women, 40 traditional and 40 acculturated, participated in the 1978 research project which focused on influences of menopause. (ERB)

  2. Abuse of Assistant Reproductive Technologies Banned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Is it morally and legally viable for unmarried womento have a child through in vitro fertilization? Is fetusreduction operation necessary for multi-births causedby assistant reproductive technologies? Such issueshave aroused great concerns from governmentofficials and demographers and the general public

  3. Serving rural Australia with reproductive health expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, T; Kovacs, G T; Kinfu, Y

    2001-10-01

    This study aimed to review the use of reproductive health services in Family Planning clinics by women from rural (non-metropolitan) Australia through a retrospective analysis of data collected at clinics of seven state/territory Family Planning Organisations (FPO). From a total of 146 157 client visits to FPO clinics between July 1998 and June 1999, 42 497 (29.1%) were by clients who lived outside metropolitan areas. Some 97% of clients were women. Our results show the use of reproductive health services by women from rural areas was different from the services used by women from metropolitan areas. There were fewer male clients, more women over 40 years of age, and fewer clients from a non-English speaking background. More of the attendees had pension cards and fewer were privately insured. We concluded there is considerable demand for reproductive health services among the rural population and reproductive health care needs to be expanded to reach rural women. PMID:11736848

  4. Higher Education and Class: Production or Reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with questions relating to the role of education and especially Higher Education in the reproduction of class division in society. Social classes and how they are formed and reproduced has always been one of the greatest challenges for Marxism and social theory in general. The questions regarding the role of education, and…

  5. Improving embryo quality in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mantikou

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve embryo quality in assisted reproductive technologies by gaining more insight into human preimplantation embryo development and by improving in vitro culture conditions. To do so, we investigated an intriguing feature of the human preimplantation embryo, i.e. it

  6. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Phthalates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyche, J.L.; Gutleb, A.C.; Bergman, A.; Eriksen, G.S.; Murk, A.J.; Ropstad, E.; Saunders, M.; Skaare, J.U.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubi

  7. Dependency and Education: Reproduction or Conspiracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Jacques

    1985-01-01

    The origins and meaning of dependency are examined, how the dependency approach as an analytical tool can be used to advance research in comparative education is illustrated, and two issues raised by the critics of dependency--the issues of reproduction and of conspiracy--are discussed. (RM)

  8. Kisspeptins: bridging energy homeostasis and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Mikkelsen, Jens D;

    2010-01-01

    Body energy reserves and metabolic state are relevant modifiers of puberty onset and fertility; forms of metabolic stress ranging from persistent energy insufficiency to morbid obesity are frequently linked to reproductive disorders. The mechanisms for such a close connection between energy balan...

  9. Vitamin D in Reproductive Health and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Aya; Abell, Sally; Scragg, Robert; de Courten, Barbora

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin D has been primarily known for its role in maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and promoting healthy bone mineralization. Emerging evidence suggests that vitamin D may have a plethora of other functions including cardiometabolic and immunological effects and a role in modulating human reproductive processes. Despite this, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) remains highly prevalent worldwide due to the limited availability of foods that are naturally high or fortified with vitamin D, increased sun avoidance behaviors and use of sunscreen due to fear of skin cancer, and increased sedentary indoor lifestyles, especially among those of reproductive age. This review examines current and emerging evidence for the role of vitamin D in reproductive health including in fertility, conception, and pregnancy outcomes, and outlines areas for future research. We found that existing evidence is based primarily on animal models and in vitro studies with some recent support from observational studies in humans. While these studies indicate that VDD may be a risk factor for adverse fertility and pregnancy outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to establish causality. Future efforts to clarify the benefits of vitamin D in reproductive health may bring about practical, simple, and cost-effective means of improving fertility and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27228115

  10. CRITICAL WINDOWS FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This workgroup report addresses the central question: what are the critical windows during development (pre-conception through puberty) when exposure to xenobiotics may have the greatest adverse impact on subsequent reproductive health. The reproductive system develops in stages...

  11. Journal of Reproduction and Contraception (English Edition)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Journal of Reproduction and Contraception (English Edition), sponsored hy the Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, WHO Callaborating Center for Reseasch in Human Reproduction and the State Family Planning Commission, People's Republic of China,

  12. Journal of Reproduction and Contraception (English Edition)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Journal of Reproduction and Contraception (English Edition), sponsored by.the Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, WHO Callaborating Center for Reseasch in Human Reproduction and the State Family Planning Commission, People's Republic of China,

  13. Pleiotropic effects of juvenile hormone in ant queens and the escape from the reproduction-immunocompetence trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamminger, Tobias; Treanor, David; Hughes, William O H

    2016-01-13

    The ubiquitous trade-off between survival and costly reproduction is one of the most fundamental constraints governing life-history evolution. In numerous animals, gonadotropic hormones antagonistically suppressing immunocompetence cause this trade-off. The queens of many social insects defy the reproduction-survival trade-off, achieving both an extraordinarily long life and high reproductive output, but how they achieve this is unknown. Here we show experimentally, by integrating quantification of gene expression, physiology and behaviour, that the long-lived queens of the ant Lasius niger have escaped the reproduction-immunocompetence trade-off by decoupling the effects of a key endocrine regulator of fertility and immunocompetence in solitary insects, juvenile hormone (JH). This modification of the regulatory architecture enables queens to sustain a high reproductive output without elevated JH titres and suppressed immunocompetence, providing an escape from the reproduction-immunocompetence trade-off that may contribute to the extraordinary lifespan of many social insect queens. PMID:26763704

  14. Innovative non-animal testing strategies for reproductive toxicology: the contribution of Italian partners within the EU project ReProTect

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Lorenzetti; Ilaria Altieri; Sabina Arabi; Donatella Balduzzi; Nicoletta Bechi; Eugenia Cordelli; Cesare Galli; Francesca Ietta; Modina, Silvia C.; Laura Narciso; Francesca Pacchierotti; Paola Villani; Andrea Galli; Giovanna Lazzari; Alberto Maria Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive toxicity, with its many targets and mechanisms, is a complex area of toxicology; thus, the screening and identification of reproductive toxicants is a main scientific challenge for the safety assessment of chemicals, including the European Regulation on Chemicals (REACH). Regulatory agencies recommend the implementation of the 3Rs principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) as well as of intelligent testing strategies, through the development of in vitro methods and the use of...

  15. [From a capitalist to a Socialist type of population reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speigner, W

    1982-10-01

    This paper is a Marxist contribution to demographic transition theory, with emphasis on the need to distinguish between a Socialist and a capitalist type of population reproduction. A theoretical outline of different types of population reproduction and reproductive behavior is presented, and the possibilities for interdisciplinary research combining the perspectives of demography and sociology are discussed. The extent to which the German Democratic Republic has undergone a transition to a Socialist type of population reproduction is then considered. PMID:12339052

  16. Viewpoints on apornictic and sexual reproduction in angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Asker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gametophytic apomixis implies different changes of the reproductive cycle of sexual plants. Each of these "elements of apomixis" occurs in sexual plants, which may even display functional diploid parthenogenesis. Thus, apomixis, like vegetative reproduction, is part of the reproductive behaviour of sexual plants, becoming important when sexual reproduction is impaired. The elements of apomixis are probably to a large extent under polygenic control.

  17. Endocrine Disruptors in Domestic Animal Reproduction: A Clinical Issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Ulf; Persson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Contents The objective of this review was to discuss whether endocrine disruption is a clinical concern in domestic animal reproduction. To that end, we firstly summarize the phenomenon of endocrine disruption, giving examples of the agents of concern and their effects on the mammalian reproductive system. Then there is a brief overview of the literature on endocrine disruptors and domestic animal reproduction. Finally, the clinical implications of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive sys...

  18. Environmental color affects Nile tilapia reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpato G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of environmental color on the reproductive behavior of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Two environmental colors were tested by covering the aquarium (60 x 60 x 40 cm with white (12 groups or blue (13 groups cellophane and observing reproductive behavior in groups of 2 males (10.27 ± 0.45 cm and 3 females (10.78 ± 0.45 cm each. After assignment to the respective environmental color (similar luminosity = 100 to 120 Lux, the animals were observed until reproduction (identified by eggs in the female's mouth or up to 10 days after the first nest building. Photoperiod was from 6:00 h to 18:00 h every day. Food was offered in excess once a day and water quality was similar among aquaria. Daily observations were made at 8:00, 11:00, 14:00 and 17:00 h regarding: a latency to the first nest, b number of nests, c gravel weight removed (the male excavates the nest in the bottom of the aquarium, d nest area, and e mouthbrooding incubation (indication of reproduction. The proportion of reproducing fish was significantly higher (6 of 13 in the group exposed to the blue color compared the group exposed to the white color (1 of 12; Goodman's test of proportions. Moreover, males under blue light removed significantly larger masses of gravel (blue = 310.70 ± 343.50 g > white = 130.38 ± 102.70 g; P = 0.01 and constructed wider nests (blue = 207.93 ± 207.80 cm² > white = 97.68 ± 70.64 cm²; P = 0.03 than the control (white. The other parameters did not differ significantly between light conditions. We concluded that reproduction in the presence of blue light was more frequent and intense than in the presence of white light.

  19. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Developmental programming of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L P; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Triennial Reproduction Symposium focused on developmental programming of fertility. The topics covered during the morning session included the role of the placenta in programming of fetal growth and development, effects of feeding system and level of feeding during pregnancy on the annual production cycle and lifetime productivity of heifer offspring, effects of litter size and level of socialization postnatally on reproductive performance of pigs, effects of postnatal dietary intake on maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and onset of puberty in heifers, effects of housing systems on growth performance and reproductive efficiency of gilts, and effects of energy balance on sexual differentiation in rodent models. The morning session concluded with presentation of the American Society of Animal Science L. E. Casida Award for Excellence in Graduate Education to Dr. Michael Smith from the University of Missouri, Columbia, who shared his philosophy of graduate education. The afternoon session included talks on the role of epigenetic modifications in developmental programming and transgenerational inheritance of reproductive dysfunction, effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on fetal development and long-term physiology of the individual, and potential consequences of real-life exposure to environmental contaminants on reproductive health. The symposium concluded with a summary talk and the posing of 2 questions to the audience. From an evolutionary standpoint, programming and epigenetic events must be adaptive; when do they become maladaptive? If there are so many environmental factors that induce developmental programming, are we doomed, and if not, what is or are the solution or solutions? PMID:27482657

  20. Inflammatory bowel diseases and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoszko-Bilska, Agnieszka; Sobkiewicz, Slawomir; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) constitute a group of chronic intestinal diseases, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which typically involve patients of reproductive age and may influence several features of human reproduction. There are many concerns regarding the interactions between the course of IBD, applied treatment (pharmacological or surgical), and fertility, reproductive outcomes, and also neonatal outcomes. To review the literature describing fertility in IBD patients (separately for female and male), and possible infertility treatment in this group of patients, a PubMed search for English only publications (articles and/or abstracts) was conducted. Initially, the titles of publications and their abstracts were screened, and the most appropriate articles were selected and reviewed. Overall, in patients with quiescent IBD, fertility is almost identical to the general population, but particular subgroups of patients (with active disease, on pharmacological treatment, and after pelvic or abdominal surgery) may be affected by reduced fertility. Additionally, patients with IBD have fewer children than the general population, mainly as a result of voluntary childlessness. The main objectives for successful reproductive outcomes in IBD patients are proper guidance and also optimal treatment for achieving and maintaining disease remission. Recently, the European Evidence-Based Consensus on Reproduction and Pregnancy in IBD (the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization Guidelines) has been established to optimize preconceptional counseling and to promote an appropriate clinical management for patients planning to conceive. However, further studies are needed regarding the preservation of fertility in IBD patients and introduction of optimal infertility treatment in this group of patients. PMID:27117378

  1. Reproductive and Sexual Health of Chinese Migrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-fang ZHOU; Joanna E Mantell; Xiao-mei RU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the reproductive and sexual health situation,including knowledge,attitudes,and behaviors,among a population-based sample of internal migrant workers in China.Methods A cross-sectional survey of 4 900 rural-to-urban migrants in 6 provinces of China was conducted.Participants completed a 30-min semi-structured questionnaire about contraceptive practices,sexual behavior,and HIV-related knowledge.Results Migrants lacked knowledge of reproductive and sexual health issues.Among those who had heard any sexually transmitted infections(STIs),only 79.1%,46.2%,86.1%,14.5% and 82.2%,respectively,knew that gonorrhea,condyloma,syphilis,chancroid,and AIDS were STIs.About three-quarters of participants had not used any contraceptive method at sexual debut.Among current users of contraceptive methods,85.5% indicated that they were satisfied with the method.Before adoption of a contraceptive method,46.6% of the migrant workers were unaware of the advantages/disadvantages of the method and 75.3% had no knowledge of emergency contraception.Nearly one-quarter(23.4%)reported that they had premarital sex.Among migrants who were sexually active one month prior to the survey,only 14.0% reported that they had used condoms.Conclusion The limited sexual and reproductive health knowledge and unmet reproductive health services of migrant workers in China underscore the need for a comprehensive package of sexual and reproductive health interventions that combine cognitive and behavioral skills training and target both migrants and health care providers.

  2. Reproductive biology and its impact on body size: comparative analysis of mammalian, avian and dinosaurian reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Werner

    Full Text Available Janis and Carrano (1992 suggested that large dinosaurs might have faced a lower risk of extinction under ecological changes than similar-sized mammals because large dinosaurs had a higher potential reproductive output than similar-sized mammals (JC hypothesis. First, we tested the assumption underlying the JC hypothesis. We therefore analysed the potential reproductive output (reflected in clutch/litter size and annual offspring number of extant terrestrial mammals and birds (as "dinosaur analogs" and of extinct dinosaurs. With the exception of rodents, the differences in the reproductive output of similar-sized birds and mammals proposed by Janis and Carrano (1992 existed even at the level of single orders. Fossil dinosaur clutches were larger than litters of similar-sized mammals, and dinosaur clutch sizes were comparable to those of similar-sized birds. Because the extinction risk of extant species often correlates with a low reproductive output, the latter difference suggests a lower risk of population extinction in dinosaurs than in mammals. Second, we present a very simple, mathematical model that demonstrates the advantage of a high reproductive output underlying the JC hypothesis. It predicts that a species with a high reproductive output that usually faces very high juvenile mortalities will benefit more strongly in terms of population size from reduced juvenile mortalities (e.g., resulting from a stochastic reduction in population size than a species with a low reproductive output that usually comprises low juvenile mortalities. Based on our results, we suggest that reproductive strategy could have contributed to the evolution of the exceptional gigantism seen in dinosaurs that does not exist in extant terrestrial mammals. Large dinosaurs, e.g., the sauropods, may have easily sustained populations of very large-bodied species over evolutionary time.

  3. Just another reproductive technology? The ethics of human reproductive cloning as an experimental medical procedure

    OpenAIRE

    D. Elsner

    2006-01-01

    Human reproductive cloning (HRC) has not yet resulted in any live births. There has been widespread condemnation of the practice in both the scientific world and the public sphere, and many countries explicitly outlaw the practice. Concerns about the procedure range from uncertainties about its physical safety to questions about the psychological well‐being of clones. Yet, key aspects such as the philosophical implications of harm to future entities and a comparison with established reproduct...

  4. Manipulating reproductive effort leads to changes in female reproductive scheduling but not oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Aloise King, Edith D; Garratt, Michael; Brooks, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The trade-off between reproductive investment and lifespan is the single most important concept in life-history theory. A variety of sources of evidence support the existence of this trade-off, but the physiological costs of reproduction that underlie this relationship remain poorly understood. The Free Radical Theory of Ageing suggests that oxidative stress, which occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of damaging Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and protective antioxidants, m...

  5. Sexin’ Work: The Politics of Prostitution Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Grant

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores regulation in both the institutionalized and discursive production of prostitution control. The contemporary regulation of prostitution in Canadian and international contexts are explored to show that prostitution was never seriously targeted for elimination; the case of street sex work in Winnipeg is used to illustrate this phenomenon. I argue that prostitution is a cultural and political necessity deployed by nation-states to discipline women, regulate their bodies, and ensure they uphold reproductive normativity. The purpose of such regulatory projects is underwritten by the drive to strengthen national/ ethnic/racial/class identities within normative forms of gender and sexuality.

  6. Reproductive Allocation Patterns in Different Density Populations of Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Gen-Xuan Wang; Liang Wei; Chun-Ming Wang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Increased intraspecific competition on size hierarchies (size inequality) and reproductive allocation were investigated in populations of the annual plant, spdng wheat (Triticum aestivum). A series of densities (100, 300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2) along a gradient of competition intensity were designed in this experiment. The results showed that average shoot biomass decreased with increased density. Reproductive allocation was negatively correlated to Gini coefficient (R2=0.927), which suggested that reproductive allocation is inclined to decrease as size inequality increases. These results suggest that both vegetative and reproductive structures were significantly affected by intensive competition. However, results also indicated that there were different relationships between plant size and reproductive allocation pattern in different densities. In the lowest density population, lacking competition (100 plants/m2), individual reproductive allocation was size independent but, in high density populations (300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2), where competition occurred, individual reproductive allocation was size dependent: the small proportion of larger individuals were winners In competition and got higher reproductive allocation (lower marginal reproductive allocation; MRA), and the larger proportion of smaller individuals were suppressed and got lower reproductive allocation (higher MRA). In conclusion, our results support the prediction that elevated intraspecific competition would result in higher levels of size inequality and decreased reproductive allocation (with a negative relationship between them). However, deeper analysis indicated that these frequency- and size-dependent reproductive strategies were not evolutionarily stable strategies.

  7. Histological Study on Reproductive Organ of Rana Temporaria Chensinesis David

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG He; TIAN Yaguang; NING Fangyong; BAI Xiujuan; ZHANG Guixue

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the histology of reproductive organ of Rana temporaria chensinesis David in reproductive season and dereproductive season, The results displayed that the sexual gland weight and oviduct weight of the Rana temporaria chensinesis David were significantly different between reproductive season and dereproductive season.

  8. 21 CFR 884.6140 - Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication... Devices § 884.6140 Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication devices are instruments intended to pull, bevel, or forge...

  9. Apparatus for storage and reproduction of image data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Geer, M.J.; Vrooman, H.A.; Freudenthal, A.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for storage and reproduction of image data, comprising a computer, a memory controlled by the computer and an image minotor connected to the computer and suitable for reproduction of image data stored in the memory, or for real-time reproduction of such image da

  10. 21 CFR 884.6180 - Reproductive media and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproductive media and supplements. 884.6180 Section 884.6180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Reproductive media and supplements. (a) Identification. Reproductive media and supplement are products that...

  11. Pairs of extreme avian personalities have highest reproductive success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C; Dingemanse, NJ; Drent, PJ; Tinbergen, JM; Drent, Piet J.

    2005-01-01

    1. Intraspecific variation in reproductive decisions is generally considered as a reaction to environmental circumstances. We show that variation in reproductive parameters also covaries with intraspecific variation in personality. 2. During 4 years, we studied reproductive parameters in a natural p

  12. Phthalates, perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines and reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Smit, Lidwien A M;

    2015-01-01

    than 70% of blood samples, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines. Twenty-two reproductive biomarkers were assessed, including serum levels of reproductive hormones, markers of semen quality, sperm chromatin...... provides further indications that some organochlorines and phthalates adversely affect some parameters of male reproductive health....

  13. [Role of leptin in human reproduction (anorexia, bulimia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilka, L; Rumpík, D; Pilka, R

    2012-12-01

    Leptin may act as the critical link between adipose tissue and the reproductive system, indicating whether adequate energy reserves are presenting for normal reproductive functions. Future interventional studies involving leptin administration are excepted to further clarify this role of leptin and may provide new therapeutic options for the reproductive dysfunctions associated with states of relative leptin deficiency or resistance.

  14. 21 CFR 884.6200 - Assisted reproduction laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction laser system. 884.6200... Assisted reproduction laser system. (a) Identification. The assisted reproduction laser system is a device that images, targets, and controls the power and pulse duration of a laser beam used to ablate a...

  15. How contemporary human reproductive behaviors influence the role of fertility-related genes: the example of the p53 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Corbo

    Full Text Available Studies on human fertility genes have identified numerous risk/protective alleles involved in the occurrence of reproductive system diseases causing infertility or subfertility. Investigations we carried out in populations at natural fertility seem to suggest that the clinical relevance that some fertility genes are now acquiring depends on their interaction with contemporary reproductive behaviors (birth control, delayed childbearing, and spacing birth order, among others. In recent years, a new physiological role in human fertility regulation has emerged for the tumor- suppressor p53 gene (P53, and the P53 Arg72Pro polymorphism has been associated with recurrent implantation failure in humans. To lend support to our previous observations, we examined the impact of Arg72Pro polymorphism on fertility in two samples of Italian women not selected for impaired fertility but collected from populations with different (premodern and modern reproductive behaviors. Among the women at near-natural fertility (n = 98, the P53 genotypes were not associated with different reproductive efficiency, whereas among those with modern reproductive behaviors (n = 68, the P53 genotypes were associated with different mean numbers of children [Pro/Pro = 0.75reproductive patterns and might therefore be associated with reduced reproductive success. Set within an evolutionary framework, this change could lead to the selection of a set of gene variants fitter to current reproductive behaviors as the

  16. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  17. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  18. Distribution and variation in gonadotropin releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) immunoreactive neurons in the brain of the native Thai chicken during the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartsoongnoen, Natagarn; Prakobsaeng, Nattiya; Kosonsiriluk, Sunantha; Chaiyachet, Orn-anong; Chokchaloemwong, Duangsuda; Halawani, Mohamed El; Chaiseha, Yupaporn

    2012-09-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) is known to regulate the avian reproductive system. We investigated the roles of GnRH-I in the regulation of the reproductive system of the native Thai chicken. The distribution of GnRH-I neurons and changes in GnRH-I-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons throughout the reproductive stages and between incubating and nest-deprived hens were analyzed utilizing immunohistochemical techniques. The results revealed that GnRH-I-ir neurons were distributed in a discrete region lying close to the third ventricle from the level of preoptic area through the anterior hypothalamus, with the greatest abundance found within the nucleus commissurae pallii (nCPa). The number of GnRH-I-ir neurons in the nCPa was highest in laying hens when compared with that in the other reproductive stages. Nest deprivation caused an increase in the number of GnRH-I-ir neurons in the nCPa of nest-deprived hens when compared with incubating hens. These results indicate that GnRH-I expression is correlated with the reproductive state in the native Thai chicken and may be, in part, regulated by it. This study also confirms a pivotal role of GnRH-I in controlling avian reproduction of this non-seasonal breeding, equatorial species. PMID:21872303

  19. Morphology, Structure of Dimorphic Sperm, and Reproduction in the Hermaphroditic Commensal Bivalve Pseudopythina tsurumaru (Galeommatoidea: Kellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Jespersen, Åse; Takahashi, Tohru;

    2004-01-01

    Galeommatoide, commensal bivalve, reproduction, dimorphic sperm, sperm ultrastructure, spermatozeugma......Galeommatoide, commensal bivalve, reproduction, dimorphic sperm, sperm ultrastructure, spermatozeugma...

  20. Reproductive arrest and stress resistance in winter-acclimated Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxopeus, Jantina; Jakobs, Ruth; Ferguson, Laura V; Gariepy, Tara D; Sinclair, Brent J

    2016-06-01

    Overwintering insects must survive the multiple-stress environment of winter, which includes low temperatures, reduced food and water availability, and cold-active pathogens. Many insects overwinter in diapause, a developmental arrest associated with high stress tolerance. Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is an invasive agricultural pest worldwide. Its ability to overwinter and therefore establish in temperate regions could have severe implications for fruit crop industries. We demonstrate here that laboratory populations of Canadian D. suzukii larvae reared under short-day, low temperature, conditions develop into dark 'winter morph' adults similar to those reported globally from field captures, and observed by us in southern Ontario, Canada. These winter-acclimated adults have delayed reproductive maturity, enhanced cold tolerance, and can remain active at low temperatures, although they do not have the increased desiccation tolerance or survival of fungal pathogen challenges that might be expected from a more heavily melanised cuticle. Winter-acclimated female D. suzukii have underdeveloped ovaries and altered transcript levels of several genes associated with reproduction and stress. While superficially indicative of reproductive diapause, the delayed reproductive maturity of winter-acclimated D. suzukii appears to be temperature-dependent, not regulated by photoperiod, and is thus unlikely to be 'true' diapause. The traits of this 'winter morph', however, likely facilitate overwintering in southern Canada, and have probably contributed to the global success of this fly as an invasive species. PMID:27039032