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Sample records for affordable screening markers

  1. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  2. Rheumatic heart disease echocardiographic screening: approaching practical and affordable solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Bruno R; Nunes, Maria Carmo P; Lopes, Eduardo L V; Rezende, Vitória M L R; Landay, Taylor; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Sable, Craig; Beaton, Andrea Z

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) affects at least 32.9 million people worldwide and ranks as a leading cause of death and disability in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Echocardiographic screening has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for early RHD detection, and holds potential for global RHD control. However, national screening programmes have not emerged. Major barriers to implementation include the lack of human and financial resources in LMICs. Here, we focus on recent research advances that could make echocardiographic screening more practical and affordable, including handheld echocardiography devices, simplified screening protocols and task shifting of echocardiographic screening to non-experts. Additionally, we highlight some important remaining questions before echocardiographic screening can be widely recommended, including demonstration of cost-effectiveness, assessment of the impact of screening on children and communities, and determining the importance of latent RHD. While a single strategy for echocardiographic screening in all high-prevalence areas is unlikely, we believe recent advancements are bringing the public health community closer to developing sustainable programmes for echocardiographic screening. PMID:26891757

  3. Affordance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    This entry presents the concept of affordances as part of an ecological approach to understanding how agents interact with objects in their environment. It examines some of the central developments of the concept, from J. J. Gibson’s original definition within psychology and Donald Norman’s design...

  4. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

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    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  5. Use of faecal markers in screening for colorectal neoplasia: a European group on tumor markers position paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Several randomized controlled trials have shown that population-based screening using faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) can reduce mortality from colorectal neoplasia. Based on this evidence, a number of countries have introduced screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and high-risk adenoma and many others are considering its introduction. The aim of this article is to critically review the current status of faecal markers as population-based screening tests for these neoplasia. Most of the available faecal tests involve the measurement of either occult blood or a panel of DNA markers. Occult blood may be measured using either the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or a faecal immunochemical test (iFOBT). Although iFOBT may require a greater initial investment, they have several advantages over gFOBT, including greater analytical sensitivity and specificity. Their use results in improved clinical performance and higher uptake rates. Importantly for population screening, some of the iFOBTs can be automated and provide an adjustable cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. However, samples for iFOBT, may be less stable after collection than for gFOBT. For new centres undertaking FOBT for colorectal neoplasia, the European Group on Tumour Markers recommends use of a quantitative iFOBT with an adjustable cutoff point and high throughput analysis. All participants with positive FOBT results should be offered colonoscopy. The panel recommends further research into increasing the stability of iFOBT and the development of improved and affordable DNA and proteomic-based tests, which reduce current false negative rates, simplify sample transport and enable automated analysis.

  6. Maternal Serum Screening Markers and Adverse Outcome: A New Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Krantz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of studies evaluating the association of aneuploidy serum markers with adverse pregnancy outcome. More recently, the development of potential treatments for these adverse outcomes as well as the introduction of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA screening for aneuploidy necessitates a re-evaluation of the benefit of serum markers in the identification of adverse outcomes. Analysis of the literature indicates that the serum markers tend to perform better in identifying pregnancies at risk for the more severe but less frequent form of individual pregnancy complications rather than the more frequent but milder forms of the condition. As a result, studies which evaluate the association of biomarkers with a broad definition of a given condition may underestimate the ability of such markers to identify pregnancies that are destined to develop the more severe form of the condition. Consideration of general population screening using cffDNA solely must be weighed against the fact that traditional screening using serum markers enables detection of severe pregnancy complications, not detectable with cffDNA, of which many may be amenable to treatment options.

  7. The role of affordances in children's learning performance and efficiency when using virtual manipulative mathematics touch-screen apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Bullock, Emma K.; Shumway, Jessica F.; Tucker, Stephen I.; Watts, Christina M.; Westenskow, Arla; Anderson-Pence, Katie L.; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy; Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer; Gulkilik, Hilal; Jordan, Kerry

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on understanding the role that affordances played in children's learning performance and efficiency during clinical interviews of their interactions with mathematics apps on touch-screen devices. One hundred children, ages 3 to 8, each used six different virtual manipulative mathematics apps during 30-40-min interviews. The study used a convergent mixed methods design, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently to answer the research questions (Creswell and Plano Clark 2011). Videos were used to capture each child's interactions with the virtual manipulative mathematics apps, document learning performance and efficiency, and record children's interactions with the affordances within the apps. Quantitized video data answered the research question on differences in children's learning performance and efficiency between pre- and post-assessments. A Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test was used to explore these data. Qualitative video data was used to identify affordance access by children when using each app, identifying 95 potential helping and hindering affordances among the 18 apps. The results showed that there were changes in children's learning performance and efficiency when children accessed a helping or a hindering affordance. Helping affordances were more likely to be accessed by children who progressed between the pre- and post-assessments, and the same affordances had helping and hindering effects for different children. These results have important implications for the design of virtual manipulative mathematics learning apps.

  8. The Role of Affordances in Children's Learning Performance and Efficiency When Using Virtual Manipulative Mathematics Touch-Screen Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Bullock, Emma K.; Shumway, Jessica F.; Tucker, Stephen I.; Watts, Christina M.; Westenskow, Arla; Anderson-Pence, Katie L.; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy; Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer; Gulkilik, Hilal; Jordan, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on understanding the role that affordances played in children's learning performance and efficiency during clinical interviews of their interactions with mathematics apps on touch-screen devices. One hundred children, ages 3 to 8, each used six different virtual manipulative mathematics apps during 30-40-min interviews. The…

  9. Screening study on new tumor marker periplakin for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqin Dai; Wei Li; Mian Kong; Yuzhen Zheng; Shuying Chen; Junye Wang; Linquan Zang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use lung cancer targeting binding polypeptide ZS-9 to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer and obtain ZS-9 specific ligand to confirm tumor marker of non small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Artificially synthesize biotin labeled peptide ZS-9, anchored ZS-9 in the enzyme label plate coupled by avidin, used ZS-9 as probe to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer, after screening, obtained bacteriophage clone specifically binding with anchored polypeptide ZS-9. Extracted plasmid of bacteriophage and performed sequencing after amplified by PCR. Results: It was demonstrated by bioinformatic analysis on the sequence of ligand binded by lung cancer specific peptide ZS-9 that the ligand was the cytoskeletal protein periplakin on the surface of lung cancer cells, suggesting that periplakin might be a new marker for non-small-cell lung cancer in lung cancer. Conclusion: Use specific lung cancer binding peptide to screen new tumor marker periplakin in lung cancer and further studies on its biologic functions in genesis and development of lung cancer are still needed.

  10. Ultrasound screening of multifocal atherosclerosis: markers for coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lachezar Grozdinski; Mario Stankev; Alexander Doganov

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective The frequency of multifocal atherosclerosis (MFA) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) has not been thoroughly studied. The purpose of our study was to perform ultrasound screening for MFA in patients with coronary atherosclerosis and make evaluation of the sensitivity and significance of different atherosclerosis markers. Methods Using Color Dupplex Ultrasound (CDU), we studied 32 clinically healthy persons and 87 patients of the city of B with clinical data for CHD where we also performed coronarography. Results In patients with coronary atherosclerosis we found high frequency of carotid atherosclerosis (93%) and peripheral artery disease (PAD) (81%). We established verifiable thickening of the intima-media (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) and common femoral artery (CFA) in patients with CHD. There is a correlation between the frequency of carotid and femoral stenoses and CHD proven by coronarography. Patients with CHD had a high relative risk to develop carotid (RR = 5) and peripheral atherosclerosis (RR=3.5) and high frequency of asymptomatic stenoses and thromboses of the internal carotid artery (86.9%) and femoral artery (78.3%), as well as aneurisms of the abdominal aorta (8.1%). Markers for CAD with high sensitivity were the atherosclerotic plaques of ICA (0.93) and CFA (0.81) as well as IMT of the CFA (0.84). Conclusions MFA are common among patients with CHD. Ultrasound diagnosis is the method of choice for simultaneous non-invasive screening of carotid, peripheral and MFA and provides sensitive markers for coronary atherosclerosis. The most sensitive and specific markers for CHD are the combination of the IMT and atherosclerotic plaques of CCA, ICA and CFA (100% sensitivity and 0.92 specificity).

  11. A Multiple Survival Screening algorithm (MSS) for identifying high-quality cancer prognostic markers

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a Multiple Survival Screening algorithm (MSS) for identifying high-quality cancer prognostic markers from the gene expression profiles of cancer samples. By applying the MSS algorithm to breast cancer samples, we have identified several marker sets which showed ~90% predicting accuracy across 8 independent breast cancer cohorts. We realized that the algorithm could be used for finding other biomarkers including drug response markers. We are describing the protocol with some ...

  12. Multiple marker screening test: identification of fetal cystic hygroma, hydrops, and sex chromosome aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenstrom, K D; Boots, L R; Cosper, P C

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if the multiple marker screening test (maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, human chorionic gonadotrophin, and maternal age) detects fetal Turner syndrome or just cystic hygroma/hydrops. Multiple marker screening tests from 4 groups were compared: 1) Turner syndrome with hydrops/ hygroma group (n = 10) = fetuses with cystic hygroma/hydrops and a 45X karyotype, 2) Turner syndrome without hydrops/hygroma (n = 9) = sonographically unremarkable fetal Turner syndrome or Turner mosaic, 3) hydrops group (n = 8) = all cases of fetal cystic hygroma/hydrops excluding Turner syndrome, 4) sex chromosome aneuploidy group (n = 16) = other sonographically normal fetal sex chromosome aneuploidies. Positive screening tests (Down syndrome risk > or = 1:190 or MSAFP > or = 2.5 MOM) were found in 60% (6/10) of the Turner syndrome with hydrops/hygroma group, but only 11% (1/9) of the Turner syndrome without hydrops/hygroma group (P = .04). The incidence of positive screening tests in the Hydrops group was 75% (6/8), while it was only 12.5% (2/16) in the other sex chromosome aneuploidy group. We conclude that the multiple marker screening test identifies fetuses with cystic hygroma/hydrops, and may do so independently of the etiology of the hydrops. PMID:8796763

  13. Cancers Screening in an Asymptomatic Population by Using Multiple Tumour Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-Yao; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Wen, Chiao-Ni; Wen, Ying-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Background Analytic measurement of serum tumour markers is one of commonly used methods for cancer risk management in certain areas of the world (e.g. Taiwan). Recently, cancer screening based on multiple serum tumour markers has been frequently discussed. However, the risk–benefit outcomes appear to be unfavourable for patients because of the low sensitivity and specificity. In this study, cancer screening models based on multiple serum tumour markers were designed using machine learning methods, namely support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbour (KNN), and logistic regression, to improve the screening performance for multiple cancers in a large asymptomatic population. Methods AFP, CEA, CA19-9, CYFRA21-1, and SCC were determined for 20 696 eligible individuals. PSA was measured in men and CA15-3 and CA125 in women. A variable selection process was applied to select robust variables from these serum tumour markers to design cancer detection models. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, area under the curve, and Youden index of the models based on single tumour markers, combined test, and machine learning methods were compared. Moreover, relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction (ARR), and absolute risk increase (ARI) were evaluated. Results To design cancer detection models using machine learning methods, CYFRA21-1 and SCC were selected for women, and all tumour markers were selected for men. SVM and KNN models significantly outperformed the single tumour markers and the combined test for men. All 3 studied machine learning methods outperformed single tumour markers and the combined test for women. For either men or women, the ARRs were between 0.003–0.008; the ARIs were between 0.119–0.306. Conclusion Machine learning methods outperformed the combined test in analysing multiple tumour markers for cancer detection. However, cancer screening based solely on the application of multiple tumour

  14. The affordances of broken affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Martin Gielsgaard; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2015-01-01

    important: how users may (i) achieve their goals in the presence of such broken affordances, and may (ii) repurpose or otherwise interact with artefacts with broken affordances. We argue that (A) thorough analyses of breakdowns of affordances and their associated signifiers and feedbacks have implication...

  15. Molecular marker for screening yellow mosaic disease resistance in blackgram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Prasanthi, B.V.Bhaskara Reddy, B.Geetha, Ramya Jyothi and Abhishek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Yellow mosaic disease is a serious disease in blackgram which causes severe yield losses. Screening of 45 lines along with PU-31 and PU-19 resistant checks for YMD under field conditions with artificial inoculation, identified 19 lines having 1 score with no disease symptoms. PCR reactions using SCAR marker for screening the disease reaction with genomic DNA of these lines resulted in identification of 19 resistant sources with specific amplification for resistance to YMV at 532bp with SCAR 20F/20R developed from OPQ1 RARD primer linked to YMV disease. Considering the YMV reaction and resistance linked SCAR marker, it is possible to identify the new resistance sources in a short time and they can be utilized in breeding programme or for direct release.

  16. Approach To Lipid Screening As A Risk Marker For Cardiovascular Disease In Pediatric Patients With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    AnnaSpagnoli

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a well-known complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), and patients with DM are at an increased risk for early onset of CVD. Hyperglycemia is believed to be the primary mediator in premature development of atherosclerosis in patients with DM, but there are also derangements in cholesterol levels and inflammatory markers beyond the explanation of hyperglycemia. Although clinicians often screen for dyslipidemia as part of routine care for children and adolescents...

  17. Approach to Lipid Screening as a Risk Marker for Cardiovascular Disease in Pediatric Patients with Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Jennifer Rachel; Patel, Shipra; Spagnoli, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a well-known complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), and patients with DM are at an increased risk for early onset of CVD. Hyperglycemia is believed to be the primary mediator in premature development of atherosclerosis in patients with DM, but there are also derangements in cholesterol levels and inflammatory markers beyond the explanation of hyperglycemia. Although clinicians often screen for dyslipidemia as part of routine care for children and adolescents w...

  18. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating......This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...

  19. Umbilical cord blood units for public storage donors screening for markers of infectious agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Smolyaninov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The screening of 3515 cord blood samples which had entered bank for public use for presence of markers of infectious agents was carried out. It was established that majority of cord blood units contain markers of cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma (81% that is not a contraindication for storage and subsequent use of these samples. In 4.6% of cases umbilical cord blood units were subjected to disposal because of identification of viral hepatitis B and C, as well as Tr. pallidum markers, moreover, the largest share of the discarded units contained antibodies to HbscorAg – 71,3%. Inclusion of analysis on the presence of Anti-HBcor in the required laboratory screening of mothers-donors CB was proposed in order to reduce the percentage of discarded umbilical cord blood units for the public inventory.

  20. Approach To Lipid Screening As A Risk Marker For Cardiovascular Disease In Pediatric Patients With Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Rachel Law

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a well-known complication of diabetes mellitus (DM, and patients with DM are at an increased risk for early onset of CVD. Hyperglycemia is believed to be the primary mediator in premature development of atherosclerosis in patients with DM, but there are also derangements in cholesterol levels and inflammatory markers beyond the explanation of hyperglycemia. Although clinicians often screen for dyslipidemia as part of routine care for children and adolescents with DM, many do not feel comfortable treating this condition. Multiple guidelines exist to help clinicians with the prevention, screening, and treatment of CVD risk factors in pediatric patients with DM, but the guidelines do not always agree on screening intervals or medical treatment. Furthermore, the cost-effectiveness of medication use in this population has not been established. Research has advanced our understanding of the role of other biomarkers and radiologic studies of CVD risk, but these studies do not currently have a place in routine clinical practice. It is evident that the increased CVD risk in pediatric patients with DM is complex in origin and the optimal approach to managing dyslipidemia remains unclear. Therefore, an algorithm designed at the University of North Carolina, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, is presented to help guide clinicians through screening and treatment of dyslipidemia in youth with DM.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis for triple markers serum screening for Down′s syndrome in Thai setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down′s syndrome is an important congenital chromosomal disorder that can be seen around the world. The antenatal screening for this disorder is an important processing in present obstetrics. Objective: Due to the concept of first do no harm, the use of noninvasive test is recommended. The triple marker screening test has been introduced for a few years and acceptable for its effi cacy. Result: However, an important concern is on its cost-effectiveness. Here, the author analyze and present the cost-effectiveness of the triple markers serum screening for Down′s syndrome in Thai setting. Conclusion: According to this work, the cost per effectiveness of triple markers serum screening is slightly lower than standard amniocentesis test.

  2. Screening of Genes Specifically Expressed in Males of Fenneropenaeus chinensis and Their Potential as Sex Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The androgenic gland (AG, playing an important role in sex differentiation of male crustacean, is a target candidate to understand the mechanism of male development and to mine male-specific sex markers. An SSH library (designated as male reproduction-related tissues—SSH library, MRT-SSH library for short was constructed using cDNA from tissues located at the basal part of the 5th pereiopods, including AG and part of spermatophore sac, as tester, and the cDNA from the basal part of the 4th pereiopods of these male shrimp as driver. 402 ESTs from the SSH library were sequenced and assembled into 48 contigs and 104 singlets. Twelve contigs and 14 singlets were identified as known genes. The proteins encoded by the identified genes were categorized, according to their proposed functions, into neuropeptide hormone and hormone transporter, RNA posttranscriptional regulation, translation, cell growth and death, metabolism, genetic information processing, signal transduction/transport, or immunity-related proteins. Eleven highly expressed contigs in the SSH library were selected for validation of the MRT-SSH library and screening sex markers of shrimp. One contig, specifically expressed in male shrimp, had a potential to be developed as a transcriptomic sex marker in shrimp.

  3. Use of proteomics and HPLC to screen plasma for markers of millimeter wave overexposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent development of commercial and military technologies for communication, automotive, weapon detection, and non-lethal weapon applications has led to wider use of millimeter wave (MMW) generating sources, some of which utilize increasingly higher power outputs. As more of these systems are employed in the field, maintenance technicians and operators may face a greater risk of overexposure. Currently, no known markers exist for diagnosis of MMW exposure, particularly in cases with no overt thermal skin injury. The purpose of this study was to screen plasma proteins to determine the presence of unique markers of MMW heating. Rats were anesthetized and then either sham exposed or exposed to environmental heating (EH) or MMWs at 35-GHz until colonic temperatures reached 42 deg C. Animals were allowed to recover and plasma was collected at 6 and 24 hr after exposure. Plasma proteins were separated using 2-D gel electrophoresis and images of silver stained gels were analyzed manually to identify proteins that were up-regulated following MMW treatment. Comparison of the 2-D gels shows a pattern in which several protein spots increased in intensity at 24 hr post-exposure for MMW heating with the most obvious changes in the range of 30-50 kD. These changes were not observed in plasma from EH treated rats indicating the existence of MMW specific markers and different biological responses to these two forms of heating. In order to detect changes in the 6 hr post-exposure samples, size exclusion chromatography and reverse phase HPLC were also used to separate proteins into fractions ranging from 1-700 kD. Chromatograms show quantitative protein differences, particularly in the ranges of 40-50 kD and 180-200 kD. Final identification of these potential plasma markers is in progress and is expected to allow further development of targets for diagnosis and therapeutic interventions to improve standards for protection and treatment of personnel

  4. Relationship between arterial vascular calcifications seen on screening mammograms and biochemical markers of endothelial injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pidal, Diego [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain)], E-mail: dpidal@hotmail.com; Sanchez Vidal, M Teresa [Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: medicinainterna@hospitaldejove.com; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain); Servicio de Cirugia General, Hospital de Jove (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: investigacion@hospitaldejove.com; Corte, M Daniela [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: mdanielac@hotmail.com; Pravia, Paz [Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: radiologia@hospitaldejove.com; Guinea, Oscar [Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: oscarfguinea@seram.org; Pidal, Ivan [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain)], E-mail: ivanpida@hotmail.com; Bongera, Miguel [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain)], E-mail: mbchoppy@hotmail.com; Escribano, Damaso [Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: medicinainterna@hospitaldejove.com; Gonzalez, Luis O. [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain)], E-mail: lovidiog@telefonica.net; Diez, M Cruz [Servicio de Cirugia General, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: cirugiageneral@hospitaldejove.com; Venta, Rafael [Servicio de Analisis Clinicos, Hospital de San Agustin, Aviles (Spain); Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: rafael.venta@sespa.princast.es; Vizoso, Francisco J. [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain); Servicio de Cirugia General, Hospital de Jove (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: fjvizoso@telefonica.net

    2009-01-15

    To assess whether breast arterial calcifications (BAC) are associated with altered serum markers of cardiovascular risk, mammograms and records from 1759 women (age range: 45-65 years) screened for breast cancer were revised. One hundred and forty seven (8.36%) women showed BAC. A total of 136 women with BAC and controls (mean age: 57 and 55 years, respectively) accepted entering the study. There were no significant differences in serum levels of urea, glucose, uric acid, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, folic acid, vitamin B{sub 12}, TSH or cysteine, between both groups of patients. However, women with BAC showed higher serum levels of triglycerides (p = 0.006), homocysteine (p = 0.002) and hs-CRP (p = 0.003) than women without BAC. Likewise, we found a significantly higher percentage of cases with an elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (coronary risk index >2) amongst women with BAC than in women without BAC (56.7 and 38.2%, respectively; p = 0.04). Our results indicate that the finding of BAC identify women showing altered serum markers of cardiovascular risk.

  5. Genetically Engineered Protein Modules: Development and Applications in Anti-Viral Agent Screening and Cancer Marker Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Payal

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION Genetically Engineered Protein Modules: Development and Applications in Anti-Viral Agent Screening and Cancer Marker Detection byPayal BiswasDoctor of Philosophy Cell Molecular and Developmental Biology Graduate ProgramUniversity of California, Riverside, August 2010Dr. Wilfred Chen, ChairpersonOne of the most critical aspects in drug discovery is the bioactivity screening assay, by which compounds that most effectively inhibit the target are identified. During t...

  6. Prenatal ultrasound screening: false positive soft markers may alter maternal representations and mother-infant interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Viaux-Savelon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a "soft marker" (SM that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction. CONCLUSION: False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences.

  7. Diagnostic and Screening Utility of Biochemical Markers for Osteoporosis and Osteopenia in Saudi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ali Al-Zahrany, **Nihad A. El-Nashar, **Hala A. Mohamed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim of the work: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a major health problem worldwide and in Saudi Arabia as it leads to bone fragility and increased liability for fragile fractures, particularly in neck of femur and vertebrae. The present study was designed to determine the value of different screening tests to find out the most sensitive serum and urinary markers of osteoporosis among Saudi women and to clarify the relationship between E2 deficiency and these markers in peri-menopause, early or postmenopausal women without hormonal replacement therapy.Material and methods: This study included 37 Saudi women aged 40 to 60 years. They were categorized into 3 groups according to their bone mineral density (BMD: Group I: 15 Normal control (T-score up to -1.5, Group II: 12 Osteopenic women ( T-score between –1.5 to –2.5and Group III:10 Osteoporotic women ( T-score below –2.5. For all subjects, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA was performed. Osteocalcin (OC, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, free galactosyl hydroxylysine (Gal-Hyl, calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphorus (P and estradiol (E2 were measured in serum, whereas, deoxypyridinoline (Dpd and creatinine levels were measured in urine. Results: Simultaneously both osteopenic and osteoporotic groups showed significant decreases in BMD when compared to the controls. Osteocalcin, ALP and Gal-Hyl showed significant increase (p<0.0001 among the osteopenic and osteoporotic groups versus the control group. Significant decrease in E2 levels were obvious among the osteopenic (p<0.0001 and osteoporotic (p<0.0001 women when judged against the controls. Urinary Dpd was significantly increased in the osteopenic and osteoporotic groups (p<0.001. In osteoporotic group, significant negative correlations were observed between OC and BMD. Positive correlations were detected among the osteoporotic group between OC and ALP and between OC and Gal-Hyl. High significant negative correlations were confirmed

  8. Celiac disease markers in patients with liver diseases: A single center large scale screening study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pavel Drastich; Eva Honsová; Alena Lodererová; Marcela Jare(s)ová; Aneta Pekáriková; Iva Hoffmanová; Ludmila Tu(c)ková

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study the coincidence of celiac disease,we tested its serological markers in patients with various liver diseases.METHODS:Large-scale screening of serum antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG),and deamidated gliadin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum antibodies against endomysium using immunohistochemistry,in patients with various liver diseases (n =962) and patients who underwent liver transplantation (OLTx,n =523) was performed.The expression of tTG in liver tissue samples of patients simultaneously suffering from celiac disease and from various liver diseases using immunohistochemistry was carried out.The final diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed by histological analysis of small-intestinal biopsy.RESULTS:We found that 29 of 962 patients (3%) with liver diseases and 5 of 523 patients (0.8%) who underwent OLTx were seropositive for IgA and IgG anti-tTG antibodies.However,celiac disease was biopsy-diagnosed in 16 patients:4 with autoimmune hepatitis type Ⅰ,3 with Wilson's disease,3 with celiac hepatitis,2 with primary sclerosing cholangitis,1with primary biliary cirrhosis,1 with Budd-Chiari syndrome,1 with toxic hepatitis,and 1 with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.Unexpectedly,the highest prevalence of celiac disease was found in patients with Wilson's disease (9.7%),with which it is only rarely associated.On the other hand,no OLTx patients were diagnosed with celiac disease in our study.A pilot study of the expression of tTG in liver tissue using immunohistochemistry documented the overexpression of this molecule in endothelial cells and periportal hepatocytes of patients simultaneously suffering from celiac disease and toxic hepatitis,primary sclerosing cholangitis or autoimmune hepatitis type Ⅰ.CONCLUSION:We suggest that screening for celiac disease may be beneficial not only in patients with associated liver diseases,but also in patients with Wilson's disease.

  9. Combined first- and second-trimester screening for Down syndrome: an evaluation of proMBP as a marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Wøjdemann, Karen R; Shalmi, Anne-Cathrine;

    2003-01-01

    and their correlations, derived from our normal material and Down syndrome cases from the literature. RESULTS: Using a fixed screen-positive rate (SPR) of 5%, the first-trimester combined test [nuchal translucency (NT), PAPP-A and free beta-hCG] yielded a detection rate (DR) of 76%, and the integrated test (NT, PAPP......%. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that proMBP may be an important new marker in Down syndrome screening and, in particular, a good substitute for inhibin A....

  10. Antibody-Array-Based Proteomic Screening of Serum Markers in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Discovery Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianfu; Ding, Huihua; Han, Jie; Arriens, Cristina; Wei, Chungwen; Han, Weilu; Pedroza, Claudia; Jiang, Shan; Anolik, Jennifer; Petri, Michelle; Sanz, Ignacio; Saxena, Ramesh; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-07-01

    A discovery study was carried out where serum samples from 22 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and matched healthy controls were hybridized to antibody-coated glass slide arrays that interrogated the level of 274 human proteins. On the basis of these screens, 48 proteins were selected for ELISA-based validation in an independent cohort of 28 SLE patients. Whereas AXL, ferritin, and sTNFRII were significantly elevated in patients with active lupus nephritis (LN) relative to SLE patients who were quiescent, other molecules such as OPN, sTNFRI, sTNFRII, IGFBP2, SIGLEC5, FAS, and MMP10 exhibited the capacity to distinguish SLE from healthy controls with ROC AUC exceeding 90%, all with p serum markers were next tested in a cohort of 45 LN patients, where serum was obtained at the time of renal biopsy. In these patients, sTNFRII exhibited the strongest correlation with eGFR (r = -0.50, p = 0.0014) and serum creatinine (r = 0.57, p = 0.0001), although AXL, FAS, and IGFBP2 also correlated with these clinical measures of renal function. When concurrent renal biopsies from these patients were examined, serum FAS, IGFBP2, and TNFRII showed significant positive correlations with renal pathology activity index, while sTNFRII displayed the highest correlation with concurrently scored renal pathology chronicity index (r = 0.57, p = 0.001). Finally, in a longitudinal cohort of seven SLE patients examined at ∼3 month intervals, AXL, ICAM-1, IGFBP2, SIGLEC5, sTNFRII, and VCAM-1 demonstrated the ability to track with concurrent disease flare, with significant subject to subject variation. In summary, serum proteins have the capacity to identify patients with active nephritis, flares, and renal pathology activity or chronicity changes, although larger longitudinal cohort studies are warranted. PMID:27211902

  11. A SCREENING RESEARCH OF PLASMA BLOOD DONORS FOR MARKERS PARVOVIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassia Ya. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (PV B19 replicates predominantly in progenitor cells of human erythrocytes and is transmitted by an airborne, vertical through and through blood or infected tissues. At-risk are pregnant women, people with immunodeficiency of different nature and individuals who need blood transfusions or organ transplantation. The available data indicate a high risk of infection through transfusion of blood containing the DNA of parvovirus B19, with viral load 105 copies/ml and above (Hourfar M.K. et al., 2011. According to the requirements of national regulations, the production of therapeutic drugs from plasma assumes the use of raw materials, free from viruses or with minimal viral load (Filatova E.C. et al., 2011. In some foreign countries a study of donor blood for the presence of DNA PV B19 is required; in our country the need for such screening is discussed (Giburt E.B. et al., 2013. Due to the fact that parvovirus is resistant to the methods of blood products desinfection, it is especially important to assess the quality of donor blood. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of the two markers parvovirus infection (IgG and PV B19 DNA in blood samples from one of the blood centers at St. Petersburg. Plasma samples from 100 blood donors from Military Medical Academy blood centre were tested by ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies of parvovirus B19. Positive samples were tested by PCR for the DNA of parvovirus B19. ELISA test system recomWell Parvovirus B19 IgG (Microgen GmbH, Germany and diagnostic kits of Federal State Institution of Science «Central research Institute for epidemiology» of Rospotrebnadzor (Moscow, Russia which are approved for use in RF was used according to the manufacturers instructions. It was shown that 78 out of 100 donors aged 18 to 58 years had IgG-antibodies.76 positive blood plasma samples were investigated by PCR, with the 19 donors have found DNA of parvovirus B19 (25%. Viral load of one donor was 106

  12. MicroRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification obtained from microarray screening and quantitative RT-PCR confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Boersma, Anton W M; Choi, Ying; van Kuijk, Patricia F; Wiemer, Erik A C; Kayser, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-protein coding molecules with important regulatory functions; many have tissue-specific expression patterns. Their very small size in principle makes them less prone to degradation processes, unlike messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which were previously proposed as molecular tools for forensic body fluid identification. To identify suitable miRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification, we first screened total RNA samples derived from saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, and venous and menstrual blood for the expression of 718 human miRNAs using a microarray platform. All body fluids could be easily distinguished from each other on the basis of complete array-based miRNA expression profiles. Results from quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR; TaqMan) assays for microarray candidate markers confirmed strong over-expression in the targeting body fluid of several miRNAs for venous blood and several others for semen. However, no candidate markers from array experiments for other body fluids such as saliva, vaginal secretion, or menstrual blood could be confirmed by RT-PCR. Time-wise degradation of venous blood and semen stains for at least 1 year under lab conditions did not significantly affect the detection sensitivity of the identified miRNA markers. The detection limit of the TaqMan assays tested for selected venous blood and semen miRNA markers required only subpicogram amounts of total RNA per single RT-PCR test, which is considerably less than usually needed for reliable mRNA RT-PCR detection. We therefore propose the application of several stable miRNA markers for the forensic identification of blood stains and several others for semen stain identification, using commercially available TaqMan assays. Additional work remains necessary in search for suitable miRNA markers for other forensically relevant body fluids.

  13. ADAM 12 as a second-trimester maternal serum marker in screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael; Spencer, Kevin; Laigaard, Jennie;

    2007-01-01

    ADAM 12 is a placenta-derived glycoprotein that is involved in growth and differentiation. The maternal serum concentration of ADAM 12 is a potential first-trimester maternal serum marker of Down syndrome (DS). Here we examine the potential of ADAM 12 as a second-trimester maternal serum marker...

  14. The effect of a 'vanishing twin' on biochemical and ultrasound first trimester screening markers for Down's syndrome in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A C; Loft, A; Pinborg, Anja;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that 1 in 10 in vitro fertilization (IVF) singletons originates from a twin gestation. First trimester Down's syndrome screening markers are altered in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) pregnancies compared with spontaneously conceived pregnancies...

  15. Screening and identification of a microsatellite marker associated with sex in Wami tilapia, Oreochromis urolepis hornorum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HUAPING ZHU; ZHIGANG LIU; MAIXIN LU; FENGYING GAO; XIAOLI KE; DONGMEI MA; ZHANGHAN HUANG; IANMENG CAO; MIAO WANG

    2016-06-01

    In this study, primer pairs of 15 microsatellite markers associated with sex determination of tilapia were selected and amplified in Wami tilapia, Oreochromis urolepis hornorum. While one marker, UNH168, on linkage group 3 (LG3) was associated((P<0.001) with the phenotypic sex in the experimental population, nine genotypes were detected in both sexes. Only 99-bp allele was detected in the female samples, while 141, 149 and 157-bp alleles were present in both male and female samples. UNH168 was localized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the long arm of the largest tilapia chromosome pair (chromosome 1, equivalent to LG3). This sex-linked microsatellite marker could potentially be used for marker-assisted selection in tilapia breeding programmes to produce monosex male tilapia

  16. First trimester screening using ultrasound and serum markers in Panamanians : f0 actors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania T Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no published data on the association between serum biochemical and ultrasonographic markers and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies using ultrasound and maternal serum markers during the first trimester in Panamanians. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of 468 first trimester singleton pregnancies conducted over a 7-year period. All women attending a prenatal screening clinic during the study period were informed of the study and the option to participate. Two maternal serum markers, free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, and four fetal ultrasound markers, nuchal translucency thickness, nasal bone, flow across the tricuspid valve, and flow in the ductus venosus (DV, were measured by certified maternal fetal medicine specialists. Adverse outcomes included miscarriage, major structural defects, genetic disorders, and major fetal cardiac defects. Results: A total of 454 (97% pregnancies were unaffected. Median maternal age was 31.5 years (range: 18-50. Maternal age was significantly greater in cases of adverse outcome (P = 0.007. The number of adverse outcomes associated with an absent or hypoplastic nasal bone, tricuspid valve regurgitation, and abnormal flow in the DV were significantly greater relative to unaffected pregnancies (Ps < 0.001. No differences were found in fetal crown-rump length or maternal serum levels of β-hCG or PAPP-A. Conclusion: Abnormal ultrasound markers are associated with adverse outcomes. Women with normal ultrasound and serum markers should be reassured of low risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  17. A screening of skin changes, with special emphasis on neurochemical marker antibody evaluation, in patients claiming to suffer from "screen dermatitis" as compared to normal healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, O; Hilliges, M; Han, S W

    1996-10-01

    In the present study, facial skin from so-called "screen dermatitis" patients were compared with corresponding material from normal healthy volunteers. The aim of the study was to evaluate possible markers to be used for future double-blind or blind provocation investigations. Differences were found for the biological markers calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin (SOM), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY), protein S-100 (S-100), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). The overall impression in the blind-coded material was such that it turned out easy to blindly separate the two groups from each other. However, no single marker was 100% able to pin-point the difference, although some were quite powerful in doing so (CGRP, SOM, S-100). However, it has to be pointed out that we cannot, based upon the present results, draw any definitive conclusions about the cause of the changes observed. Whether this is due to electric or magnetic fields, a surrounding airborne chemical, humidity, heating, stress factors, or something else, still remains an open question. Blind or double-blind provocations in a controlled environment are necessary to elucidate possible underlying causes for the changes reported in this investigation. PMID:8981027

  18. Immunohistochemical screening for neurochemical markers in uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, O; Hilliges, M; Han, S W; Ståhle-Bäckdahl, M; Hägermark, O

    1988-01-01

    The epidermis and dermis of 12 uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis were investigated utilizing the indirect immunofluorescence technique as a tool to study the distribution of neurochemical markers, such as neuropeptides. No differences between controls and the patients were revealed. PMID:3078417

  19. First-trimester screening markers are altered in pregnancies conceived after IVF/ICSI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A C; Loft, A; Pinborg, A;

    2009-01-01

    was performed retrospectively based on the screening parameters to avoid bias due to the use of different algorithms of risk calculation. RESULTS: In chromosomally normal pregnancies conceived after in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), the pregnancy-associated plasma protein.......0%). CONCLUSIONS: It seems advisable to use a population of IVF/ICSI pregnancies to establish median curves for the first-trimester serum screening parameters and perhaps also for nuchal translucency thickness. However, care must be taken, as different ART treatment methods and aspects of medical history seem...

  20. A PCR-based forward genetics screening, using expression domain-specific markers, identifies mutants in endosperm transfer cell development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Muñiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutant collections are an invaluable source of material on which forward genetic approaches allow the identification of genes affecting a wide variety of biological processes. However, some particular developmental stages and morphological structures may resist analysis due to their physical inaccessibility or to deleterious effects associated to their modification. Furthermore, lethal mutations acting early in development may escape detection. We have approached the characterisation of 101 maize seed mutants, selected from a collection of 27500 visually screened Mu-insertion lines, using a molecular marker approach based on a set of genes previously ascribed to different tissue compartments within the early developing kernel. A streamlined combination of qRT-PCR assays has allowed us to preliminary pinpoint the affected compartment, establish developmental comparisons to WT siblings and select mutant lines with alterations in the different compartments. Furthermore, clusters of markers co-affected by the underlying mutation were identified. We have analysed more extensively a set of lines presenting significant variation in transfer cell-associated expression markers, and have performed morphological observations, and immunolocalization experiments to confirm the results, validating this approach as an efficient mutant description tool.

  1. Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a federal statute enacted with a goal of increasing the quality and affordability of health insurance. Through a web service, CMS...

  2. Tumor Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guidelines on a variety of topics, including tumor markers for breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and others. The ... of recurrence 70-Gene signature (Mammaprint®) Cancer type: Breast ... Can tumor markers be used in cancer screening? Because tumor markers ...

  3. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  4. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  5. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor as a prognostic marker in men participating in prostate cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellman, A; Akre, O; Gustafsson, O;

    2011-01-01

    with prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality. METHODS: Using time-resolved fluorescence immunoassays, we measured intact suPAR [suPAR(I-III)] and intact plus cleaved suPAR [suPAR(I-III) + suPAR(II-III)] and thus calculated the amount of suPAR(II-III) in serum samples from 375 men participating...... in a prostate cancer screening trial. A total of 312 men were free of prostate cancer and 63 men had prostate cancer diagnosed at the time of screening. The cohort was followed for 15 years. We assessed survival using Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: The mean age...... at blood sampling was 64 years. In total, 152 men died during follow-up. SuPAR(I-III) and suPAR(II-III) were significantly positively associated with mortality (P = 0.001 and P prostate cancer status, an increase in su...

  6. Canonical affordances in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Costall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available James Gibson’s concept of affordances was an attempt to undermine the traditional dualism of the objective and subjective. Gibson himself insisted on the continuity of “affordances in general” and those attached to human artifacts. However, a crucial distinction needs to be drawn between “affordances in general” and the “canonical affordances” that are connected primarily to artifacts. Canonical affordances are conventional and normative. It is only in such cases that it makes sense to talk of the affordance of the object. Chairs, for example, are for sitting-on, even though we may also use them in many other ways. A good deal of confusion has arisen in the discussion of affordances from (1 the failure to recognize the normative status of canonical affordances and (2 then generalizing from this special case.

  7. A rational utilization of high-throughput screening affords selective, orally bioavailable 1-benzyl-3-carboxyazetidine sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jeffrey J; Lynch, Christopher L; Neway, William; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol Ann; Rosenbach, Mark J; Milligan, James A; Shei, Gan-Ju; Parent, Stephen A; Chrebet, Gary; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Ferrer, Marc; Hodder, Peter; Strulovici, Berta; Rosen, Hugh; Mandala, Suzanne

    2004-12-30

    Moderately potent, selective S1P(1) receptor agonists identified from high-throughput screening have been adapted into lipophilic tails for a class of orally bioavailable amino acid-based S1P(1) agonists represented by 7. Many of the new compounds are potent S1P(1) agonists that select against the S1P(2), S1P(3), and S1P(4) (although not S1P(5)) receptor subtypes. Analogues 18 and 24 are highly orally bioavailable and possess excellent pharmacokinetic profiles in the rat, dog, and rhesus monkey.

  8. Non-specific biological markers as a screening test for diagnostic of extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanovic G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum concentrations of adenosine deaminase were determined in 223 febrile patients. In 62, we discovered extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Serum levels of immunoglobulin G were monitored in 287 febrile patients, and 68 had extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Serum concentrations of adenosine deaminase were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared to other patients with fever of unknown origin. Serum concentrations declined during antituberculosis therapy. A correlation with the localization of infection was not found. Levels of immunoglobulin G were higher in patients with tuberculosis. Both tests had high sensitivity and specificity and could therefore be used for screening extrapulmonary tuberculosis; however, they can only be interpreted adequately following a full clinical investigation.

  9. Identification of markers of cancer in urban sewage through the use of a suspect screening approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Reid, Malcolm J; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-09-10

    The administration of anticancer drugs during chemotherapy treatments has increased considerably in recent years, and based on the growing incidence of cancer worldwide there is a foreseen increase in their use over the coming years. Many anticancer drugs are not removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and can therefore reach the aquatic environment and potentially threaten aquatic life. The objective of this work was to apply a suspect screening methodology to detect chemotherapy and radiotherapy drugs and their related compounds such metabolites and/or biomarkers in wastewater. The use of logical pre-determined criteria to refine the suspect list down to a relatively small number of relevant compounds greatly improved the efficiency of the analysis. Mass accuracy, isotopic patterns and predicted retention time were used to tentatively identify the suspects. Successful identification of cancer-related suspects included two antineoplastic hormones, two X-ray contrast agents and a pyrrolizidine alkaloid related to an herbal medicine. This is the first time that a suspect screening paradigm has been successfully applied to the identification of pharmaceuticals and biomarkers related to chemotherapy in wastewater. PMID:27509233

  10. Repellent plants provide affordable natural screening to prevent mosquito house entry in tropical rural settings--results from a pilot efficacy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Mng'ong'o

    Full Text Available Sustained malaria control is underway using a combination of vector control, prompt diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases. Progress is excellent, but for long-term control, low-cost, sustainable tools that supplement existing control programs are needed. Conventional vector control tools such as indoor residual spraying and house screening are highly effective, but difficult to deliver in rural areas. Therefore, an additional means of reducing mosquito house entry was evaluated: the screening of mosquito house entry points by planting the tall and densely foliated repellent plant Lantana camara L. around houses. A pilot efficacy study was performed in Kagera Region, Tanzania in an area of high seasonal malaria transmission, where consenting families within the study village planted L. camara (Lantana around their homes and were responsible for maintaining the plants. Questionnaire data on house design, socioeconomic status, malaria prevention knowledge, attitude and practices was collected from 231 houses with Lantana planted around them 90 houses without repellent plants. Mosquitoes were collected using CDC Light Traps between September 2008 and July 2009. Data were analysed with generalised negative binomial regression, controlling for the effect of sampling period. Indoor catches of mosquitoes in houses with Lantana were compared using the Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR relative to houses without plants in an adjusted analysis. There were 56% fewer Anopheles gambiae s.s. (IRR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.68, p<0.0001; 83% fewer Anopheles funestus s.s. (IRR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09-0.32, p<0.0001, and 50% fewer mosquitoes of any kind (IRR 0.50, 95% CI 0.38-0.67, p<0.0001 in houses with Lantana relative to controls. House screening using Lantana reduced indoor densities of malaria vectors and nuisance mosquitoes with broad community acceptance. Providing sufficient plants for one home costs US $1.50 including maintenance and labour costs, (30 cents per person. L

  11. Screening of Molecular Virulence Markers in Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Clinical Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Lazar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus (S. aureus and Pseudomonas (Ps. aeruginosa are two of the most frequently opportunistic pathogens isolated in nosocomial infections, responsible for severe infections in immunocompromised hosts. The frequent emergence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains has determined the development of new strategies in order to elucidate the different mechanisms used by these bacteria at different stages of the infectious process, providing the scientists with new procedures for preventing, or at least improving, the control of S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular markers of virulence in S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains isolated from different clinical specimens. We used multiplex and uniplex PCR assays to detect the genes encoding different cell-wall associated and extracellular virulence factors, in order to evaluate potential associations between the presence of putative virulence genes and the outcome of infections caused by these bacteria. Our results demonstrate that all the studied S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains synthesize the majority of the investigated virulence determinants, probably responsible for different types of infections.

  12. First Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Using Biochemical Markers PAPP-A and Free β-hCG for Down Syndrome, Patau Syndrome and Edward Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shiefa, S.; Amargandhi, M.; Bhupendra, J.; Moulali, S.; Kristine, T.

    2012-01-01

    The first trimester screening programme offers a noninvasive option for the early detection of aneuploidy pregnancies. This screening is done by a combination of two biochemical markers i.e. serum free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (free β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), maternal age and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness at 11 + 0–13 + 6 weeks of gestation. A beneficial consequence of screening is the early diagnosis or trisomies 21, 18 and 13. At 11 + 0–13 +...

  13. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial Etiologic and Early Marker Studies (EEMS), 2016 Winter Review Cycle Has New Website | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial Etiologic and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) has a new application process for specimen requests. Researchers planning to submit a grant application in response to the Funding Opportunity Announcement PAR-15-297 must use a new website to submit applications. |

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Relation to Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Hormone and Protein Markers from Prenatal Screening in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, Gayle C.; Lyall, Kristen; Anderson, Meredith; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We examined prenatal screening markers and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using California statewide data on singleton births in 1996 and 2002. Second trimester levels of unconjugated estriol (uE3), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) were compared between mothers of children with ASD…

  15. Development of microsatellite markers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) based on screening of non-enriched, small-insert genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Torres, Monica Muñoz; Pedraza, Fabio; Giraldo, Martha C; Buendía, Hector F; Hurtado, Natalia

    2009-09-01

    Microsatellite markers are useful genetic tools for a wide array of genomic analyses although their development is time-consuming and requires the identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from genomic sequences. Screening of non-enriched, small-insert libraries is an effective method of SSR isolation that can give an unbiased picture of motif frequency. Here we adapt high-throughput protocols for the screening of plasmid-based libraries using robotic colony picking and filter preparation. Seven non-enriched genomic libraries from common bean genomic DNA were made by digestion with four frequently cutting restriction enzymes, double digestion with a frequently cutting restriction enzyme and a less frequently cutting restriction enzyme, or sonication. Library quality was compared and three of the small-insert libraries were selected for further analysis. Each library was plated and picked into 384-well plates that were used to create high-density filter arrays of over 18 000 clones each, which were screened with oligonucleotide probes for various SSR motifs. Positive clones were found to have low redundancy. One hundred SSR markers were developed and 80 were tested for polymorphism in a standard parental survey. These microsatellite markers derived from non-SSR-enriched libraries should be useful additions to previous markers developed from enriched libraries. PMID:19935925

  16. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  17. Prospective evaluation of first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using a double set of the maternal serum markers PAPP-A and free β-hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Wright, Dave; Ball, Susan;

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate the screening performance of first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using a double set of biochemical markers Methods: Three fetal medicine departments in Denmark participated in the study. Screening for trisomy 21 was set up as a two-step approach...... with an early blood sample taken prior to the NT scan, and another blood sample taken at the time of the NT scan. PAPP-A and free β-hCG were measured on both the early and the late samples, and Multiples of the Median (MoM) values were calculated in addition to the corresponding trisomy 21 risk. Using...... statistical modelling we estimated detection rates (DR) and false positive rates (FPR) when using early sampling, late sampling or combinations of early and late sampling. Results: We collected two blood samples in 25 pregnancies affected by trisomy 21 and in 3942 control pregnancies. The early samples were...

  18. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver;

    2011-01-01

    We address the issue of learning and representing object grasp affordance models. We model grasp affordances with continuous probability density functions (grasp densities) which link object-relative grasp poses to their success probability. The underlying function representation is nonparametric...... these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success...... and relies on kernel density estimation to provide a continuous model. Grasp densities are learned and refined from exploration, by letting a robot “play” with an object in a sequence of graspand-drop actions: The robot uses visual cues to generate a set of grasp hypotheses; it then executes...

  19. Screening for markers of frailty and perceived risk of adverse outcomes using the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Caoimh, Rónán

    2014-09-19

    Functional decline and frailty are common in community dwelling older adults, increasing the risk of adverse outcomes. Given this, we investigated the prevalence of frailty-associated risk factors and their distribution according to the severity of perceived risk in a cohort of community dwelling older adults, using the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC).

  20. Screening and optimizing the lung cancer related tumor markers from multi-tumor marker protein chip%肿瘤标志物蛋白芯片中肺癌相关指标的筛选优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵顺林; 胡卫东; 徐闻博; 刘越; 吴洲清

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To screen and optimize the lung cancer related tumor markers from multi-tumor marker protein chip. Methods: With the multi-tumor marker protein chip,the sera of 311 patients with lung cancer were detected for multi-tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA),alpha fetoprotein(AFP),carbohydrate antigen 199(CA199),cancer antigen 153(CA153),cancer antigen 125(CA125),prostate specific antigen(PSA),free-PSA,and ferritin. Lung cancer related parameters were analyzed by Kappa test and cost-effectiveness analysis. Results:There were four kinds of tumor markers which were apparently increased in the serum among the 311 lung cancer patients;CEA(41.5%) ,CA153(15.2%) ,CA199(20.9%),and CA125(37.0%). Five tumor marker combinations were found to be strongly consistent with the results of multi -tumor marker protein chip by Kappa test,and the combination of CEA with CA125 was proved to be the best by cost-effectiveness analysis. Conclusion:The combined detection of sera CEA and CA125 is helpful to diagnose lung cancer, which is consistent with the positive rate of diagnosis by using multi-tumor marker protein chip and the two combination test can cut down the cost of diagnosis of lung cancer.%目的:分析多种肿瘤标志物(Tumor marker,TM)与肺癌的相关性,筛选相关指标,为建立检测肺癌的小型蛋白芯片提供依据.方法:使用TM蛋白芯片系统,检测311例肺癌患者血清中多种TM:癌抗原125(Cancer antigen 125,CA125)、癌抗原153(Cancer antigen 153,CA153)、糖链抗原199 (Carbohydrate antigen,CA199)、癌胚抗原(Carcinoembryonic antigen,CEA)、甲胎蛋白(Alpha fetoprotein,AFP)、铁蛋白(Ferritin,FER)、游离型前列腺特异性抗原(Free prostate specific antigen,free-PSA)及前列腺特异性抗原(Prostate specific antigen,PSA)的水平.筛选出肺癌中阳性率高的的指标,采用Kappa检验比较其与TM蛋白芯片系统检测结果的一致性,寻找最佳联检组合.结果:311例肺癌

  1. Screen time, adiposity and cardiometabolic markers : mediation by physical activity, not snacking, among 11-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N. E.; Smit, H. A.; van Rossem, L.; Gehring, U.; Kerkhof, M.; Postma, D. S.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Wijga, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence for a relation of TV viewing with adiposity and increased cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. It is unclear to what extent this relation is mediated by snacking and lack of physical activity. We determined whether associations of screen time with a

  2. Screen time, adiposity and cardiometabolic markers: mediation by physical activity, not snacking, among 11-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendtzen, N.E.; Smit, H.A.; Rossem, van L.; Gehring, U.; Kerkhof, van de M.; Postma, D.S.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background:There is evidence for a relation of TV viewing with adiposity and increased cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. It is unclear to what extent this relation is mediated by snacking and lack of physical activity. We determined whether associations of screen time with ad

  3. Performance of Circulating Placental Growth Factor as A Screening Marker for Diagnosis of Ovarian Endometriosis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Zucchini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to compare the circulating placental growth factor (PlGF concentration in women with and without endometrioma to verify the performance of this marker to diagnose the disease. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, thirteen women with histological diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis were compared with women without endometriosis disease. PlGF plasma levels of endometriotic patients and controls were investigated using a fluorescence immunoassay technique. Results: PlGF showed a direct correlation with body mass index (BMI only in the control group (P=0.013. After adjustment for BMI values, PlGF median value in endometriosis group (14.7 pg/mL resulted higher than in control group (13.8 pg/ mL, P=0.004. Conclusion: PlGF is a promising peripheral blood marker that can discriminate between patients with and without ovarian endometriosis.

  4. First trimester screening for trisomy 21 in gestational week 8-10 by ADAM12-S as a maternal serum marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guitton Marie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12-S has previously been reported to be significantly reduced in maternal serum from women with fetal aneuploidy early in the first trimester and to significantly improve the quality of risk assessment for fetal trisomy 21 in prenatal screening. The aim of this study was to determine whether ADAM12-S is a useful serum marker for fetal trisomy 21 using the mixture model. Method In this case control study ADAM12-S was measured by KRYPTOR ADAM12-S immunoassay in maternal serum from gestational weeks 8 to 11 in 46 samples of fetal trisomy 21 and in 645 controls. Comparison of sensitivity and specificity of first trimester screening for fetal trisomy 21 with or without ADAM12-S included in the risk assessment using the mixture model. Results The concentration of ADAM12-S increased from week 8 to 11 and was negatively correlated with maternal weight. Log MoM ADAM12-S was positively correlated with log MoM PAPP-A (r = 0.39, P Conclusion The data show moderately decreased levels of ADAM12-S in cases of fetal aneuploidy in gestational weeks 8-11. However, including ADAM12-S in the routine risk does not improve the performance of first trimester screening for fetal trisomy 21.

  5. First Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Using Biochemical Markers PAPP-A and Free β-hCG for Down Syndrome, Patau Syndrome and Edward Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiefa, S; Amargandhi, M; Bhupendra, J; Moulali, S; Kristine, T

    2013-01-01

    The first trimester screening programme offers a noninvasive option for the early detection of aneuploidy pregnancies. This screening is done by a combination of two biochemical markers i.e. serum free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (free β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), maternal age and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness at 11 + 0-13 + 6 weeks of gestation. A beneficial consequence of screening is the early diagnosis or trisomies 21, 18 and 13. At 11 + 0-13 + 6 weeks, the relative prevalence of trisomies 18 and 13 to trisomy 21 are found to be one to three and one to seven, respectively. All three trisomies are associated with increased maternal age, increased fetal NT and decreased PAPP-A, but in trisomy 21 serum free β-hCG is increased whereas in trisomies 18 and 13 free β-hCG is decreased. PMID:24381414

  6. A high-throughput SNP marker system for parental polymorphism screening, and diversity analysis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Cortés, Andrés J; Penmetsa, R Varma; Farmer, Andrew; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Cook, Doug R

    2013-02-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection has become a marker system of choice, because of the high abundance of source polymorphisms and the ease with which allele calls are automated. Various technologies exist for the evaluation of SNP loci and previously we validated two medium throughput technologies. In this study, our goal was to utilize a 768 feature, Illumina GoldenGate assay for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed from conserved legume gene sequences and to use the new technology for (1) the evaluation of parental polymorphisms in a mini-core set of common bean accessions and (2) the analysis of genetic diversity in the crop. A total of 736 SNPs were scored on 236 diverse common bean genotypes with the GoldenGate array. Missing data and heterozygosity levels were low and 94 % of the SNPs were scorable. With the evaluation of the parental polymorphism genotypes, we estimated the utility of the SNP markers in mapping for inter-genepool and intra-genepool populations, the latter being of lower polymorphism than the former. When we performed the diversity analysis with the diverse genotypes, we found Illumina GoldenGate SNPs to provide equivalent evaluations as previous gene-based SNP markers, but less fine-distinctions than with previous microsatellite marker analysis. We did find, however, that the gene-based SNPs in the GoldenGate array had some utility in race structure analysis despite the low polymorphism. Furthermore the SNPs detected high heterozygosity in wild accessions which was probably a reflection of ascertainment bias. The Illumina SNPs were shown to be effective in distinguishing between the genepools, and therefore were most useful in saturation of inter-genepool genetic maps. The implications of these results for breeding in common bean are discussed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the GoldenGate system for SNP detection.

  7. Advance in analysis techniques of screening tumor protein marker%肿瘤蛋白标志物分析技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹攀; 杨鑫; 王静; 张艳欣; 张敏; 杜鹏飞

    2016-01-01

    目前,我国的肿瘤发病率为285.91/10万,平均每分钟有6人被诊断为恶性肿瘤,因此肿瘤的早期诊断的重要性显而易见。随着分子生物学、免疫学诊断技术的飞速发展,寻找肿瘤诊断和预后的特异性标志物已成为近期研究的热点。蛋白质是生命活动中多项功能的执行者,可以直接反映基因给予的信息。相比于基因,蛋白质的表达谱更可以直接地反映功能机制。针对蛋白质的生物特性,本文总结了目前临床中筛查肿瘤蛋白标志物分析技术,如双向凝胶电泳、基质辅助激光解吸/电离⁃飞行时间质谱、表面增强激光解吸/电离⁃飞行时间质谱、蛋白质芯片技术,并对未来肿瘤蛋白标志物筛查提出新的展望。%Nowadays, tumor incidence is high up to 285. 91 in one hundred thousand, and six patients are diagnosed with malignant tumor every minute. Therefore, the early tumor diagnosis becomes more and more important. With the development of molecular biology and immune diagnosis technology, researchers pay more attention to specific marker screening for tumor diagnosis and prognosis. As the executant of many biological functions in vital movements, protein can reflect hereditary information directly, and protein expression profile is much clearer than gene expression profiling in reporting biological function mechanisms. According to the biological traits of protein, we summarized several techniques of tumor protein marker in clinical screening, including 2⁃D gel electrophoresis, matrix⁃assisted laser desorption/ionization⁃time⁃of⁃flight⁃mass⁃spectrometry, surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization⁃time⁃of⁃flight⁃mass⁃spectrometry and protein chip. At last, we put forward expectations of tumor protein marker screening.

  8. Serum screening with Down's syndrome markers to predict pre-eclampsia and small for gestational age: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langejans Marloes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable antenatal identification of pre-eclampsia and small for gestational age is crucial to judicious allocation of monitoring resources and use of preventative treatment with the prospect of improving maternal/perinatal outcome. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the accuracy of five serum analytes used in Down's serum screening for prediction of pre-eclampsia and/or small for gestational age. Methods The data sources included Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, Medion (inception to February 2007, hand searching of relevant journals, reference list checking of included articles, contact with experts. Two reviewers independently selected the articles in which the accuracy of an analyte used in Downs's serum screening before the 25th gestational week was associated with the occurrence of pre-eclampsia and/or small for gestational age without language restrictions. Two authors independently extracted data on study characteristics, quality and results. Results Five serum screening markers were evaluated. 44 studies, testing 169,637 pregnant women (4376 pre-eclampsia cases and 86 studies, testing 382,005 women (20,339 fetal growth restriction cases met the selection criteria. The results showed low predictive accuracy overall. For pre-eclampsia the best predictor was inhibin A>2.79MoM positive likelihood ratio 19.52 (8.33,45.79 and negative likelihood ratio 0.30 (0.13,0.68 (single study. For small for gestational age it was AFP>2.0MoM to predict birth weight th centile with birth There were methodological and reporting limitations in the included studies thus studies were heterogeneous giving pooled results with wide confidence intervals. Conclusion Down's serum screening analytes have low predictive accuracy for pre-eclampsia and small for gestational age. They may be a useful means of risk assessment or of use in prediction when combined with other tests.

  9. Assessment of Environmental and Hereditary Influence on Development of Pituitary Tumors Using Dermatoglyphic Traits and Their Potential as Screening Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradiser, Marina; Matovinovic Osvatic, Martina; Dilber, Dario; Bilic-Curcic, Ines

    2016-03-17

    The aim of this study was to assess environmental and hereditary influence on development of pituitary tumors using dermatoglyphic traits. The study was performed on 126 patients of both genders with pituitary tumors (60 non-functional and 66 functional pituitary tumor patients) in comparison to the control group of 400 phenotypically healthy individuals. Statistical analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits of digito-palmar dermatoglyphics was performed, and hormonal status was determined according to the standard protocols. Although we did not find markers that could specifically distinguish functional from non-functional tumors, we have found markers predisposing to the development of tumors in general (a small number of ridges between triradius of both hands, a smaller number of ridges between the triradius of c-d rc R), those for endocrine dysfunction (increased number of arches and reduced number of whorls, difference of pattern distribution in the I3 and I4 interdigital space), and some that could potentially be attributed to patients suffering from pituitary tumors (small number of ridges for variables FRR 5, smaller number of ridges in the FRL 4 of both hands and difference of pattern distribution at thenar of I1 and I2 interdigital space). The usage of dermatoglyphic traits as markers of predisposition of pituitary tumor development could facilitate the earlier detection of patients in addition to standard methods, and possibly earlier treatment and higher survival rate. Finally, our results are consistent with the hypothesis about multifactorial nature of pituitary tumor etiology comprised of both gene instability and environmental factors.

  10. Hypervariable spacer regions are good sites for developing specific PCR-RFLP markers and PCR primers for screening actinorhizal symbionts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajani Varghese; Vineeta S Chauhan; Arvind K Misra

    2003-06-01

    While the ribosomal RNA like highly conserved genes are good molecular chronometers for establishing phylogenetic relationships, they can also be useful in securing the amplification of adjoining hyper-variable regions. These regions can then be used for developing specific PCR primers or PCR-RFL profiles to be used as molecular markers. We report here the use of ITS region of rrn operon of Frankia for developing PCR-RFL profiles capable of discriminating between closely related frankiae. We have also made use of the ITS1 region of the nuclear rrn operon of Alnus nepalensis (D Don) for designing a PCR primer for specific amplification of nuclear DNA of this tree.

  11. The Concept of Disciplinary Affordance

    OpenAIRE

    Airey, John; Eriksson, Urban; Fredlund, Tobias; Linder, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction by Gibson (1979) the concept of affordance has been discussed at length by a number of researchers. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al (2001) claim th...

  12. Osteoporosis markers on low-dose lung cancer screening chest computed tomography scans predict all-cause mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckens, C.F. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Radiology Department, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Y. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verkooijen, H.M.; Mali, W.P.; Jong, P.A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Radiology Department, Utrecht (Netherlands); Isgum, I.; Mol, C.P. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaar, H.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, R.; Oudkerk, M. [Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aalst, C.M. van; Koning, H.J. de [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Further survival benefits may be gained from low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by assessing vertebral fractures and bone density. We sought to assess the association between CT-measured vertebral fractures and bone density with all-cause mortality in lung cancer screening participants. Following a case-cohort design, lung cancer screening trial participants (N = 3,673) who died (N = 196) during a median follow-up of 6 years (inter-quartile range: 5.7-6.3) were identified and added to a random sample of N = 383 from the trial. We assessed vertebral fractures using Genant and acute;s semiquantative method on sagittal reconstructions and measured bone density (Hounsfield Units (HU)) in vertebrae. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine if vertebral fractures or bone density were independently predictive of mortality. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 35 % (95 % confidence interval 30-40 %) among survivors and 51 % (44-58 %) amongst cases. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, pack years smoked, coronary and aortic calcium volume and pulmonary emphysema, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for vertebral fracture was 2.04 (1.43-2.92). For each 10 HU decline in trabecular bone density, the adjusted HR was 1.08 (1.02-1.15). Vertebral fractures and bone density are independently associated with all-cause mortality. (orig.)

  13. A prospective study evaluating the performance of first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using repeated sampling of the maternal serum markers PAPP-A and free β-hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Wright, Dave; Ball, Susan;

    2012-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using the biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) obtained before and at the time of the nuchal translucency (NT) scan....

  14. Preoperative serum tetranectin, CA125 and menopausal status used as single markers in screening and in a risk assessment index (RAI) in discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, F D; Høgdall, E; Kjaer, S K;

    2009-01-01

    of the markers to discriminate between the four groups (208 benign ovarian tumor, 153 borderline ovarian tumor (BOT), 445 OC and 1333 age matched controls) in OC screening was examined. We also constructed a risk assessment index (RAI) for discrimination between tumor groups based on these variables...

  15. Affordances theory in multilingualism studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Aronin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of affordances originating in Gibson’s work (Gibson, 1977 is gaining ground in multilingualism studies (cf. Aronin and Singleton, 2010; Singleton and Aronin, 2007; Dewaele, 2010. Nevertheless, studies investigating affordances in respect of teaching, learning or using languages are still somewhat rare and tend to treat isolated aspects of multilingualism. This is despite the fact that the theory of affordances can actually provide a valuable, supplementary, up-to-date framework within which a clearer, sharper description and explication of the intriguing range of attributes of multilingual communities, educational institutions and individuals, as well as teaching practices, become feasible. It is important that not only researchers and practitioners (teachers, educators, parents, community and political actors but also language users and learners themselves should be aware of how to identify or, if necessary, design new affordances for language acquisition and learning. The aim of this article is to adapt the concept of affordances to multilingualism studies and additional language teaching, and in so doing advance theoretical understanding in this context. To this end the article contains a brief summary of the findings so far available. The article also goes further into defining the ways of how affordances work in relation to multilingualism and second language teaching and puts forward an integrated model of affordances.

  16. Affordable Access to Space (AAS): Affordable Vehicle Avionics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA) is being developed at NASA Ames Research Center and is sponsored by Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing...

  17. Low estriol levels in the maternal marker screen as a predictor of X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durković Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC is a rare cause of adrenocortical insufficiency. Early postnatal diagnosis may prevent severe hypoglycemia, Addisonian crises and death. Low maternal estriol (E3 levels in the second trimester of pregnancy could indicate the possibility that the fetus suffers from a disorder that causes adrenal insufficiency. Suspicion is based on the fact that E3 originates from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA synthesized in the fetal adrenals. In case of adrenal insufficiency, the impaired production of fetal DHEA leads to a subsequent reduction of E3 concentrations in maternal serum. There are only a few reports of AHC suspected prenatally due to low maternal E3 levels. Case Outline. We describe two brothers with adrenal insufficiency due to AHC. The older brother was admitted to the hospital at the age of 33 days due to failure to thrive, vomiting, and dehydration. Genetic analysis revealed a hemizygous mutation in DAX-1 gene, thus confirming the diagnosis of ACH. The same mutation was detected in his mother. In the second pregnancy, E3 concentrations were determined from maternal serum. Estriol levels during the second trimester were extremely low suggesting the diagnosis of AHC. The diagnosis was confirmed during the neonatal period by genetic testing, and replacement therapy was started at the age of 10 days. This boy never experienced an adverse episode such as hypoglycemia or adrenal crises. Conclusion. Since determination of E3 is a simple, sensitive, noninvasive and cheap method, its use as an obligatory prenatal screening test should be accepted as a standard practice in Serbia.

  18. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  19. 鼠疫菌质粒上标识基因的筛选%Screening of marker gene in Yersinia pestis plasmid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董珊珊; 郭英; 王鹏; 宋志忠

    2012-01-01

    目的 筛选鼠疫菌质粒上保守、稳定、特异的DNA标识序列.方法 选择32条源于鼠疫菌质粒上DNA序列,采用常规PCR技术,对云南家、野鼠两型共40株鼠疫菌、47株非鼠疫菌、鼠疫菌疫苗株EV76(阳性对照),进行了特异性验证试验和稳定性鉴定试验.结果 筛选出4对相对保守、稳定、特异的DNA标识序列:YPMT1.05c,YPMT1.03c,YPMT1.42及YPMT1.04c.结论 所筛选的4对鼠疫菌DNA标识序列,可用于鼠疫快速诊断.%Objective To screen the conservative,stable and specific DNA signature sequence in the plasmid of Yersinia pestis.Methods Specific validation trials and stability of the qualification test were carried out to 40 strains of Yersinia pestis,47 strains of non-Yersinia pestis of home and wild types of rodent in Yunnan,by using 32 DNA sequences derived from Yersinia pestis in the plasmid and conventional PCR technology,and Yersinia pestis vaccine strain EV76 as a positive control.Results Four pairs of relatively conservative,stable and specific DNA marker genes were screened:YPMT1.05c,YPMT1.03c,YPMT1.42 and YPMT1.04c.Conclusions The 4 pairs of Yersinia pestis DNA signature sequences can be used for rapid diagnosis of plague.

  20. Screening the RAPD Marker Linked to Self-biting Disease of Blue Fox%蓝狐自咬症RAPD标记的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任二军; 刘宗岳; 张铁涛; 邢秀梅; 杨福合

    2011-01-01

    Blue fox is a precious fur-bearing animal. The self-biting disease of blue foxes can cause serious problem on their growth and the pelt-quality, eventually cause considerable economic losses in blue fox farming industry. In order to identify the genetic marker linked to self-biting disease, RAPD was used to analyze molecular marker of the healthy and self-biting blue foxes. 6 primers amplified specific fragments in healthy foxes and self-biting ones were screened from 120 random primers by RAPD, they were S77、S79、S88、S472、S474、 S485 respectively. Detected by individuals, the numbers with specific fragments amplified by primer S472 and primer S485 in the healthy foxes and self-biting foxes showed significantly difference (P<0.01), theses two primers could be used as molecular marker of self-biting disease. The results provided theoretical basis for further study on the self-biting disease of blue foxes.%蓝狐是一种珍贵的毛皮动物,自咬症的发生严重影响了蓝狐的生长发育和毛皮质量,给蓝狐养殖业带来了巨大的经济损失.为了寻找与蓝狐自咬症紧密连锁的遗传标记,采用RAPD技术对健康和自咬蓝狐分子标记进行筛选.从120条随机引物中筛选出在健康监狐和自咬蓝狐中扩增出差异条带的6条引物,分别为S77、S79、S88、S472、S474、S485.经个体验证,S472、S4852条随机引物在健康蓝狐和自咬蓝狐出现特异条带的个体数量差异达极显著水平(P<0.01),可作为蓝狐自咬症的分子标记,为蓝狐自咬症的深入研究奠定了基础.

  1. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  2. Malaysian Affordability Housing Policies Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Diwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing has always been a significant aspiration of family expression and distinctly priciest investment by household. It plays a momentous role in the country’s economy and so central to the societal well-being that is emplaced in the United Nation Universal declaration of Human rights. Yet in developed and developing world alike, cities struggle to provide decent housing for lower and middle income population. The provision of affordable housing is a major policy concern around the world with Malaysia being no exception; rising income hardly keep pace with price hike of housing unit and housing interventions has majorly concentrated on demand side leading to a non-responsive supply sector. Therefore, this paper highlights affordable housing issues pertaining Malaysia. It formulates Malaysian Map of affordability and conducts an evaluation of global housing schemes to better identify policy priorities for Malaysia. It’s significant to harmonize supply and demand side factors in the housing market to ensure that housing supply fits the needs of citizens based on the location, price and target group. In case of Malaysia supply oriented initiative are of urgency in short and medium run. This must be supported by long term demand side schemes in parallel. Convergence of these two factors is essential for a balanced equilibrium and obtaining affordability.

  3. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  4. Optics learning through affordable kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, Anusha N.; Shaji, Chitra; Sharan, Alok

    2014-10-01

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  5. Optics learning through affordable kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit

  6. Optics learning through affordable kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P, Anusha N, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com; Shaji, Chitra, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com; Sharan, Alok, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  7. Screening of AFLP markers related to growth traits in Tegillarca granosa%泥蚶生长性状相关AFLP分子标记的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董迎辉; 姚韩韩; 林志华; 肖国强; 柴雪良

    2012-01-01

    The bloody clam, Tegillarca granosa, is an important commercial bivalve which is extensively cultured from South Korea to Malaysia. Due to its economic value, it is important to cultivate rapid growth strains for the sustainable development of aquaculture industry of T. granosa. The emergence of molecular markers provides a rich theoretical basis for the rapid cultivation varieties. By the method of group selection, the rapid growth strains of T. granosa were bred though two generations. According to the comparison test, the rapid growth strains showed significant advantages in shell length, shell height, shell width and total weight than control group under the same environmental conditions. AFLP marker was applied in this study to evaluate the genetic variation of the rapid growth strains, and to screen the molecular markers associated with the traits of growth. A total of 2180 bands were amplified from 64 individuals of the rapid growth strain and control group by 40 primer combinations. The analysis of Nei's genetic diversity index and Shannon's genetic information index of two groups indicated that the genetic diversity of breeding group was slightly higher than the control group. The genetic distance between two groups was about 0.011 3, the value of GSt was 0.022 4 and Nm was 22.281 1, from which we concluded that there is a little genetic differentiation after selection. Of all amplified bands, 7 bands showed significant differences in frequency between two groups. 2 bands of all were only found in rapid growth strains, with the frequency of 0.812 5 and 0.343 8, respectively. And 2 bands showed significantly higher frequencies in rapid growth strains, while 3 bands showed significantly higher frequencies in control group. The bands with higher frequencies in rapid growth strains may be associated with the traits of growth. The unique AFLP markers associated with growth traits would be useful for growth-related gene cloning, quantitative trait locus (QTL

  8. Evaluation of a second trimester triple marker screening test for fetal status using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Seong Young; Kim, Jong Ho; Choi, Seung Hun [Chung Ang Gil Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Our purpose was to assess the utility of maternal serum triple-marker screening test using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated Estriol (uE{sub 3}) for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. 1,767 venous blood samples (4ml) between 15 and 20 week's gestation for maternal serum screening from January to October 1996, were tested with Kodak Amerix-M triple marker radioimmunoassay kits. Risk analysis was achieved with interpretive software such as Alpha (LMS, Kodak Clinical Diagnostics). Marker levels are transformed into multiples of median (MOM), which represent an interpretation of (weight regressed) patient marker levels relative to regressed median levels for stated gestation. By multivariate anaysis, the three MOM values are combined to generate a liklihood ratio. Calculation of a patient, risk is the product of liklihood ratio and age-related risk. Risk assessment is weight for maternal age. The median values of aFP, hCG and uE{sub 3} were well correlated with gestational age, respectively (r=0.94, p=0.003; r=-0.97, p=0.029; r=0.99, p<0.001, respectively). The median value of hCG were correlated withmateral age (r=0.13, p=0.04) but those of aFP and eU{sub 3} weren't (r=-0.17, p=0.22; r=0.36, p=0.09, respectively). The values of aFP, CG and uE{sub 3} between pregnancy younger than 35 years-old (n=87) and older than that (n=1640) were 51.67{+-}27.44, vs 54.65{+-}126.36, 46.45{+-}30.08 vs 51.33{+-}38.50 and 8.01{+-}11.01 vs 6.68{+-}7.23, respectively but all of them failed to show significant differences. A second-trimester risk for trisomy 21 > or = 1:270 was considered screen positive. Patients were screen positive for trisomy 21 if aFP < or 0.7 multiples of median (MOM), hCG> or 2.1 MOM and E{sub 3} < or 0.7 MOM. Patients were screen positive for neural tube defect if aFP >2.5 MOM. The initial screen-positive rate for both Down' syndrome and neural tube defect were 1.46% (26/1767); 0.73% (13/1767) with each other

  9. Affordable immersive projection system for 3d interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Andújar Gran, Carlos Antonio; Fairén González, Marta; Brunet Crosa, Pere

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an affordable Virtual Reality system designed and developed by a group of researchers at the Polytechnic University of Catalunya (UPC). The system allows direct selection and manipulation of virtual 3D objects. The interaction is based on stereoscopic images projected over the user’s working space and on devices tracking the user’s natural movements. The system includes a screen being adjustable both in orientation and height, sensors tracking the head and hand movemen...

  10. Fisiognomica emozionale. Affordances, estasi, atmosfere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonino Griffero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Through an atmospherological approach, primarily inspired by the so-called Aisthetik or New Aesthetics (Gernot Böhme and the New Phenomenology (Hermann Schmitz, the paper defines the atmospheric perception as a first pathemic impression and investigates the relationship between this kind of perception and the expressive qualities of the surrounding spaces. The aim is to understand atmospheres as (amodal, transmodal, sinaesthetic affordances that permeate the lived space, namely as ‘ecological’ and affective invites or meanings which are ontologically rooted in things and quasi-things.

  11. Affordable Housing: An Economic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    John F. McDonald

    2015-01-01

    The economist's approach to social problems has two interrelated parts, consistent measurement and use of a cost-benefit test to assess alternative policies. This essay examines both parts of the economist's method, primarily in the context of the United States but with attention paid to the United Kingdom also. It will seek to demonstrate that the problem of affordable housing can be measured and is large, even in the U. S. Furthermore, it will suggest that the problem primarily is one of po...

  12. Investigation of ultrasound markers in screening fetal trisomy 21%超声软指标在筛查胎儿21三体综合征中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晓梅; 方群; 陈宝江; 谢红宁; 谢英俊; 陈筠虹; 吴坚柱

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of ultrasound markers in screening fetal trisomy 21.Methods From Jan.2001 to Dec.2011,a retrospective study about sonographic information of 138 fetuses diagnosed as trisomy 21 was taken in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.All fetuses were divided into 3 groups:isolated ultrasound markers,non-isolated ultrasound markers,and isolated structural malformations or other abnormalities.The relationship between trisomy 21 and ultrasound markers as well as structural anomalies or other abnormalities was analyzed.Results Sonographic anomalies were detected in 132 fetuses(95.7%,132/138),including ultrasound markers and structural malformations or other abnormalities.One hundred and twenty cases(87.0%,120/138)had ultrasound markers,38(31.7%,38/120)had one marker and 82(68.3%,82/120)had more than one marker (P < 0.01).Fifty-one fetuses(37.0%,51/138)had isolated ultrasound markers and non-isolated markers were found in 69 fetuses(50.0%,69/138).Only 12 fetuses(8.7%,12/138)had isolated structural malformations or other abnormalities.In 20 fetuses on whom the first-trimester ultrasound screening were performed,all had ultrasound markers,95%(19/20)had thickened nuchal translucency and 55% (11/20)had nasal bone hypoplasia.The most common ultrasound markers on the second-trimester screening were nasal bone hypoplasia,which accounted for 41.9%(52/124)cases,followed by thickened nuchal fold (25.0%,31/124),short fenurs and humerus(24.2%,30/124),echogenic intracardiac focus(16.1%,20/124),mild ventriculomegaly(15.3%,19/124),hyperechoic bowel(12.9%,16/124),mild renal pyelectasis(12.1%,15/124).Furthermore,thc common structural malformations or other abnormalities were as follows:cardiac defects(33.1%,41/124),digestive system(26.6%,33/124).Condusions Ultrasound markers are valuable for screening fetal trisomy 21.The fetuses of trisomy 21 usually had more than one ultrasound markers or

  13. Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

    2008-01-01

    Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

  14. High-content, high-throughput screening for the identification of cytotoxic compounds based on cell morphology and cell proliferation markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Martin

    Full Text Available Toxicity is a major cause of failure in drug discovery and development, and whilst robust toxicological testing occurs, efficiency could be improved if compounds with cytotoxic characteristics were identified during primary compound screening. The use of high-content imaging in primary screening is becoming more widespread, and by utilising phenotypic approaches it should be possible to incorporate cytotoxicity counter-screens into primary screens. Here we present a novel phenotypic assay that can be used as a counter-screen to identify compounds with adverse cellular effects. This assay has been developed using U2OS cells, the PerkinElmer Operetta high-content/high-throughput imaging system and Columbus image analysis software. In Columbus, algorithms were devised to identify changes in nuclear morphology, cell shape and proliferation using DAPI, TOTO-3 and phosphohistone H3 staining, respectively. The algorithms were developed and tested on cells treated with doxorubicin, taxol and nocodazole. The assay was then used to screen a novel, chemical library, rich in natural product-like molecules of over 300 compounds, 13.6% of which were identified as having adverse cellular effects. This assay provides a relatively cheap and rapid approach for identifying compounds with adverse cellular effects during screening assays, potentially reducing compound rejection due to toxicity in subsequent in vitro and in vivo assays.

  15. 超声对胎儿遗传标志物的筛查作用研究%Research of effect of ultrasound on screening of fetal genetic markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱海芬

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To further explore the screening role of ultrasound for fetal genetic markers. Methods: The related data of 3 623 pregnant women from the hospital from November 2007 to January 2012 were selected as research objects. The results of prenatal screening were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Among 3 623 pregnant women, 286 cases with various types of genetic marker were detected, the detection rate was 7. 89%. The detected 286 cases of genetic markers contained mild cerebral ventriculomegaly, neck transparent layer thickening, choroid plexus cysts, single umbilical artery, and mild renal pelvis broadening, the proportions were 4. 58% , 0. 33% ,0. 86% , 0. 52% , 1. 60% , and 7. 89% , respectively. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 31 cases, the proportion was 10. 84%. According to different types of genetic markers, the proportions of mild cerebral ventriculomegaly, neck transparent layer thickening, choroid plexus cysts, single umbilical artery, and mild renal pelvis broadening were 5. 42% , 58. 33% , 9. 68% , 42. 11%, and 6. 90% , respectively. Conclusion: Evaluating fetal genetic markers correctly has important significance and effect, most genetic markers are non - specific and short - term. Other related inspections can be conducted simultaneously in the course of conducting screening of fetal genetic markers according to specific circumstances and screening results.%目的:进一步探讨超声对胎儿遗传标志物的筛查作用.方法:选取该院2007年11月~2012年1月间的3 623例孕妇的相关资料为研究对象,回顾性地分析了产前筛查结果.结果:①3 623例孕妇中共检出各类遗传标志物286例,检出比例为7.89%.检出的286例遗传标志物包含:侧脑室轻度增宽、颈项透明层增厚、脉络丛囊肿、单脐动脉、轻度肾盂增宽等情况,所占比例分别为4.58%、0.33%、0.86%、0.52%、1.60%、7.89%.②其中染色体异常共发生了31例,染色体异常总比例为10

  16. Marker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  17. Dopamine, affordance and active inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Friston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level.

  18. The concept of a structural affordance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Alsmith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I provide an analysis of the concept of an “affordance” that enables one to conceive of “structural affordance” as a kind of affordance relation that might hold between an agent and its body. I then review research in the science of humanoid bodily movement to indicate the empirical reality of structural affordance.

  19. The concept of a structural affordance

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Alsmith

    2012-01-01

    I provide an analysis of the concept of an “affordance” that enables one to conceive of “structural affordance” as a kind of affordance relation that might hold between an agent and its body. I then review research in the science of humanoid bodily movement to indicate the empirical reality of structural affordance.

  20. Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration

  1. Improved method for screening mitochondrial cytochrome b markers to identify regional populations of the Old World screwworm fly and other myiasis agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, P D; Wardhana, A H; Adams, Z J O; Sotiraki, S; Hall, M J R

    2014-10-01

    A new protocol was developed to overcome obstacles to the high-throughput sequence analysis of the 716-717 nucleotides at the carboxyl terminal of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (cyt b) of the myiasis flies Chrysomya bezziana and Wohlfahrtia magnifica. For both of these obligate parasites, cyt b haplotypes provide diagnostic markers for phylogeographic populations, markers that identify the origins of emerging populations causing economically important myiasis in livestock and, in the case of C. bezziana (Old World screwworm fly), could help select reproductively-compatible populations for use in the Sterile insect technique as part of area wide integrated pest management. High sequence quality is important for unambiguously detecting the few mutations that are diagnostic for regional cyt b haplotypes and their lineages. A key innovation is the design of a new forward primer for the specific PCR amplification and high-quality sequencing of cyt b. The improved protocol will facilitate the use of this established comparative cyt b sequence analysis, not only by teams lacking the resources for whole genome sequencing (WGS) but also by those requiring reference sequences for developing comparative mitogenomics based on WGS. PMID:25016294

  2. Midbrain Gene Screening Identifies a New Mesoaccumbal Glutamatergic Pathway and a Marker for Dopamine Cells Neuroprotected in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereckel, Thomas; Dumas, Sylvie; Smith-Anttila, Casey J. A.; Vlcek, Bianca; Bimpisidis, Zisis; Lagerström, Malin C.; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of the midbrain are associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD), schizophrenia, mood disorders and addiction. Based on the recently unraveled heterogeneity within the VTA and SNc, where glutamate, GABA and co-releasing neurons have been found to co-exist with the classical dopamine neurons, there is a compelling need for identification of gene expression patterns that represent this heterogeneity and that are of value for development of human therapies. Here, several unique gene expression patterns were identified in the mouse midbrain of which NeuroD6 and Grp were expressed within different dopaminergic subpopulations of the VTA, and TrpV1 within a small heterogeneous population. Optogenetics-coupled in vivo amperometry revealed a previously unknown glutamatergic mesoaccumbal pathway characterized by TrpV1-Cre-expression. Human GRP was strongly detected in non-melanized dopaminergic neurons within the SNc of both control and PD brains, suggesting GRP as a marker for neuroprotected neurons in PD. This study thus unravels markers for distinct subpopulations of neurons within the mouse and human midbrain, defines unique anatomical subregions within the VTA and exposes an entirely new glutamatergic pathway. Finally, both TRPV1 and GRP are implied in midbrain physiology of importance to neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27762319

  3. Rethinking Affordable Housing Delivery: An Analytical Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Abdullateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia currently has a housing shortage of 12 million units. Towards the year 2020, this would require an annual supply of a minimum of 2 million homes. With the current production rate, the deficits will remain over the next 100 years. The crisis will lead to poor standards of living, un-affordable rental price, high mortgage payment, abandonment, and dilapidation of the existing housing stock. Lack of affordable housing is already a source of concern among many Malaysians. The middle and lower income earners spend more than 30% of their income on rent or for mortgage payment. Housing rent or mortgage is a basic need like foods, education, clothing and health. The government has introduced various measures to address the housing deficit. Despite these measures, the housing supply and distribution gaps continue to grow. To better understand the issues, there is a need to examine how the procurement planning in the affordable housing delivery supply chain and market is formulated, explore how cost of affordable housing would be reduced, identify the user value systems in affordable housing, and identify the criteria in the current regulatory framework? For these purposes, this paper reviews the relevant literature to reach preliminary findings on the stated issues. Among the factors found accounting for housing shortages, the overwhelming factors were that of poor policies, strategies, practice, management, and finance. The findings are meaningful in framing an affordable housing delivery model. It could also be useful to stakeholders involved in affordable housing delivery in Malaysia and elsewhere.

  4. Chemical inducible promoter used to obtain transgenic plants with a silent marker and organisms and cells and methods of using same for screening for mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jianru; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2007-06-12

    Disclosed is a chemically inducible promoter for transforming plants or plant cells with genes which are regulatable by adding the plants or cells to a medium containing an inducer or by removing them from such medium. The promoter is inducible by a glucocorticoid, estrogen or inducer not endogenous to plants. Such promoters may be used with any plant genes that can promote shoot regeneration and development to induce shoot formation in the presence of a glucocorticoid, estrogen or inducer. The promoter may be used with antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes or other genes which are regulatable by the presence or absence of a given inducer. Also presented are organisms or cells comprising a gene wherein the natural promoter of the gene is disrupted and the gene is placed under the control of a transgenic inducible promoter. These organisms and cells and their progeny are useful for screening for conditional gain of function and loss of function mutations.

  5. A panel of kallikrein markers can reduce unnecessary biopsy for prostate cancer: data from the European Randomized Study of Prostate Cancer Screening in Göteborg, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scardino Peter T

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is widely used to detect prostate cancer. The low positive predictive value of elevated PSA results in large numbers of unnecessary prostate biopsies. We set out to determine whether a multivariable model including four kallikrein forms (total, free, and intact PSA, and human kallikrein 2 (hK2 could predict prostate biopsy outcome in previously unscreened men with elevated total PSA. Methods The study cohort comprised 740 men in Göteborg, Sweden, undergoing biopsy during the first round of the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. We calculated the area-under-the-curve (AUC for predicting prostate cancer at biopsy. AUCs for a model including age and PSA (the 'laboratory' model and age, PSA and digital rectal exam (the 'clinical' model were compared with those for models that also included additional kallikreins. Results Addition of free and intact PSA and hK2 improved AUC from 0.68 to 0.83 and from 0.72 to 0.84, for the laboratory and clinical models respectively. Using a 20% risk of prostate cancer as the threshold for biopsy would have reduced the number of biopsies by 424 (57% and missed only 31 out of 152 low-grade and 3 out of 40 high-grade cancers. Conclusion Multiple kallikrein forms measured in blood can predict the result of biopsy in previously unscreened men with elevated PSA. A multivariable model can determine which men should be advised to undergo biopsy and which might be advised to continue screening, but defer biopsy until there was stronger evidence of malignancy.

  6. Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160501.html Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All: Study Secondhand ... housing properties in Minnesota. All the properties prohibited smoking indoors and three also banned smoking on the ...

  7. The analyse on unquanlified screening results of blood donors′ infectious markers in Chongqing City%重庆市无偿献血者传染标志物筛查不合格结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀琳; 尹丹; 毕蕾静; 张巧琳; 雷明; 李维

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the unquanlified screening results of blood donors′ infectious markers in this center ,de-velop a scientific blood screening policy and provide a basis for assessing the efficiency of blood screening reagent .Methods un-quanlified screening results of blood donors′ infectious markers in this center were analyzed from July 2014 to June 2015 ,and the distribution of detection reagents were also detected .Results 120 756 samples were detected in Chongqing blood center ;among 2 854 cases of unquanlified samples ,there were 768 cases of ELISA + /NAT + ,38 cases of NAT + /ELISA - 3 (111 cases NAT were i-dentified as HBV) ;unqualified specimens of anti-TP ,HBsAg ,anti-HIV ,anti-HCV were 895 ,1 012 ,276 and 444 cases respectively ;Double ELISA reagent unqualified rate were 78 .6% ,77 .3% ,30 .8% ,26 .1% respectively .The main unqualified results of NAT were HBV ,the blood donors that were reactive in only HBsAg single reagent of ELISA also reactive for HBV in differential NAT . Conclusion On the condition that comply with laws and operations specification ,the blood screening strategy of selecting once ELISA and once NAT rationally is feasible .%目的:研究该中心无偿献血传染标志物筛查不合格结果,为科学合理制订血液筛查策略,评估血液筛查试剂的检测效率提供依据。方法统计该中心2014年7月至2015年6月无偿献血传染标志物筛查不合格结果及检测试剂分布。结果该中心2014年7月至2015年6月共检测标本120756例,筛查出不合格标本共2854例,其中 ELISA 阳性/病毒核酸检测阳性(ELISA +/NAT +)标本768例,ELISA +/NAT -标本1748例,ELISA -/NAT +标本338例(111例 NAT 鉴别结果为 HBV);抗-TP 、HBsAg 、抗-HIV 、抗-HCV 不合格标本分别为895、1012、276和444例,ELISA 双试剂不合格率依次为78.6%、77.3%、30.8%、26.1%。 NAT 检测不合格以 HBV 检出为主,仅 HBsAg

  8. Reaction of ISSR Molecular Marker Primers Screening for Saline-alkali Tolerant Flax%亚麻耐盐碱ISSR标记引物筛选的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东升

    2013-01-01

      为选育耐盐碱亚麻品种,探讨亚麻耐盐碱分子辅助育种手段,以亚麻耐盐碱材料7000 ha-1和不耐盐碱材料原05-10为材料,对100条ISSR引物进行了筛选。结果表明:筛选出25条在两个品种间有特异性的引物,为进一步ISSR标记应用于亚麻群体分析奠定基础。%In order to breed saline-alkali tolerant flax varieties for saline-alkali tolerant molecular assisted breed-ing means of flax .Taking two saline-alkali tolerant flax varieties 7 000 ha-1 and 05-10 as materials ,100 pairs of ISSR primers were screened .The results showed that 25 pairs of primers had specific between two varieties and that would be a foundation for analyzing groups of flax .

  9. Neuroblastoma Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Neuroblastoma Treatment Neuroblastoma Screening Research Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to Health Professional Version Screening is looking ...

  10. New marker using bioimpedance technology in screening for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children as an adjunct to conventional diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudal F

    2011-08-01

    80% and P = 0.0001 (95% confidence interval with a cutoff value at 7.4 mS.Conclusion: The EIS marker related to the conductivity measurements of the forehead pathway has a high specificity and high sensitivity and use of this could provide practitioners with a noninvasive, low-cost system that is easy to use in the office and could offer an adjunct to the conventional diagnosis of ADHD children. It could also assist in treatment monitoring, and allow for earlier intervention.Keywords: ADHD, children, electro interstitial scan (EIS, bioimpedance, conductivity measurements

  11. RT-PCR Analysis of ED-A,ED-B, and IIICS Fibronectin Domains: A New Screening Marker For Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadi Javid

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibronectin seems to play a very important role in the progression and invasion of bladder cancer. EDA, EDB, and IIICS domains of fibronectin are not expressed in the adult persons but they’re expressed in different cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the mRNA of fibronectin in transitional carcinoma cells (TCC of bladder to study these domains. Methods: A total of 20 patients with known bladder cancer were studied. Two of them excluded since their excised tissues were not enough for both the pathological examination and RNA study. Another 20 (control group were normal volunteers who needed bladder operations. The excised tissue was immediately transferred to RNAlater (Ambion,TX. RNA was extracted via RNAWIZ (Ambion, TX. cDNA was made via RevertAid First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Fermentas. PCR of the cDNAs was performed using primers for EDA, EDB, and IIICS (Eurogentec,Belgium. Results: For the first time, we present the expression of the oncofetal fibronectin mRNA in the transitional cell carcinoma of bladder. The high grade muscle invasive (G3T2 tumor, expressed ED-A, ED-B, and IIICS. Expression of ED-A, ED-B, and IIICS was confirmed in the two patients with G3T1 TCC. The four patients with G2Ta and G3Ta expressed both ED-A and ED-B. The four patients with G1T1 tumor expressed ED-A only, similar to the nine patients with G1Ta tumor. None of the normal volunteers expressed the oncofetal extra domains. The sensitivity of ED-A positive fibronectin RNA for detecting TCC of any kind is 100%, and of ED-B was only 35%. The specificity of ED-B positive fibronectin RNA for the high grade TCC is 100%. Conclusion: ED-A, ED-B, and IIICS could be used as useful markers for the diagnosis and following up of bladder carcinoma. Keywords: Transitional Cell Carcinoma, bladder cancer, fibronectin, RT-PCR, oncofetal.

  12. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.;

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  13. Affordances for robots: a brief survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Horton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the influence of Gibson's affordance theory on the design of robotic agents. Affordance theory (and the ecological approach to agent design in general has in many cases contributed to the development of successful robotic systems; we provide a brief survey of AI research in this area. However, there remain significant issues that complicate discussions on this topic, particularly in the exchange of ideas between researchers in artificial intelligence and ecological psychology. We identify some of these issues, specifically the lack of a generally accepted definition of "affordance" and fundamental differences in the current approaches taken in AI and ecological psychology. While we consider reconciliation between these fields to be possible and mutually beneficial, it will require some flexibility on the issue of direct perception.

  14. Affordances and the musically extended mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of "musicking" grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of "musical affordances" and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances - via soliciting different forms of entrainment - enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

  15. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Gjøsæter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented reality content, as well as more complex affordances rising from conventions from media content, AR and the traditional WIMP paradigm. We find that remediation of traditional newspaper content through the MAR medium can provide engaging, pleasing and exciting user experiences. However, the some of the content still suffers from being shoveled onto the MAR platform without adapting it properly. Finally, we discuss what content was most successfully mediated to the user and how the content impacts the user experience.

  16. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  17. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.)

  18. Affordance Templates for Shared Robot Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template framework used to supervise task behaviors on the NASA-JSC Valkyrie robot at the 2013 DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Trials. This framework provides graphical interfaces to human supervisors that are adjustable based on the run-time environmental context (e.g., size, location, and shape of objects that the robot must interact with, etc.). Additional improvements, described below, inject degrees of autonomy into instantiations of affordance templates at run-time in order to enable efficient human supervision of the robot for accomplishing tasks.

  19. An activity theory approach to affordance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentsen, Klaus B.; Trettvik, J.

    2002-01-01

    the notion. Specifically we will suggest the inclusion of the ecological theory of perception in the paradigm of cultural historical psychology and activity theory developed in the former Soviet Union by most notably Lev Vygotsky, S. L. Rubinshtein, A. N. Leontjev and others. It will be suggested, that much...... of the confusion in HCI concerning the concept of affordance is a consequence of the attempt of using it inside a theoretical paradigm that is unable to capture and encompass one of the most essential aspect of Gibsons concept of affordance, that is its foundation in activity...

  20. Learning to grasp and extract affordances: the Integrated Learning of Grasps and Affordances (ILGA) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaiuto, James; Arbib, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The activity of certain parietal neurons has been interpreted as encoding affordances (directly perceivable opportunities) for grasping. Separate computational models have been developed for infant grasp learning and affordance learning, but no single model has yet combined these processes in a neurobiologically plausible way. We present the Integrated Learning of Grasps and Affordances (ILGA) model that simultaneously learns grasp affordances from visual object features and motor parameters for planning grasps using trial-and-error reinforcement learning. As in the Infant Learning to Grasp Model, we model a stage of infant development prior to the onset of sophisticated visual processing of hand-object relations, but we assume that certain premotor neurons activate neural populations in primary motor cortex that synergistically control different combinations of fingers. The ILGA model is able to extract affordance representations from visual object features, learn motor parameters for generating stable grasps, and generalize its learned representations to novel objects.

  1. 孕中期血清标记物二联筛查用于染色体异常产前筛查%Prenatal screening for chromosome abnormalities with double serum markers in the second-trimester of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春; 秦胜芳; 李运星; 邓艺; 伍志灵; 曾兰; 魏萍; 汪雪雁; 席娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the clinical value of double test with α-fetal protein (AFP) and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) as serum markers for prenatal screening of fetal chromosome abnormalities in the second-trimester of pregnancy.Methods Serum concentrations of AFP and Free β-HCG were examined by DELFLA.The laboratory results were combined with information on pregnant woman' s age,gestational weeks,weight,and ultrasonographic findings to calculate the probability of having a fetus with chromosome abnormalities by risk evaluation software.Woman having a fetus with a high risk was referred to amniotic chromosomal karyotyping.Results Among the 43 067 pregnant women screened,6 214 had a high risk of Down Syndrome or Edwards'Syndrome,aged ≥35 years,or had an AFP value of MOM ≤0.4 or β-hCG value of MOM ≤0.3 or ≥2.5.Of the 1 735 pregnant women received prenatal diagnosis,23 fetuses were diagnosed with chromosome abnormalities.Conclusion The double test with AFP and free β-HCG as serum markers in the screening for chromosome abnormalities in the second-trimester of pregnancy has important clinical implications.%目的 结合四川省实际情况,探讨孕中期血清标记物二联筛查(AFP+游离β-hCG)在胎儿染色体异常产前筛查中的临床价值. 方法 应用时间分辨荧光法检测孕妇血清中的甲胎蛋白(AFP)和游离人绒毛膜促性腺激素β亚单位(游离β-hCG)的含量,结合孕妇的年龄、孕周、体重、B超结果等资料,经过风险软件计算后,来筛查胎儿染色体的异常,并以羊水染色体核型分析后的结果来最终诊断. 结果 筛查的43 067名孕妇中,21-三体高风险、18-三体高风险、预产年龄≥35岁及AFP MOM值≤0.4、β-hCG MOM值≤0.3或≥2.5的人次,共计6 214例,1 735名孕妇接受了羊水细胞染色体检查.共检出染色体异常23例. 结论 孕中期血清标记物二联筛查对减少四川地区染色体异常患儿的出生,有着重要的现实意义.

  2. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  3. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

  4. Effects of broken affordance on visual extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Melanie; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual extinction can be reduced if two objects are positioned to "afford" an action. Here we tested if this affordance effect was disrupted by "breaking" the affordance, i.e., if one of the objects actively used in the action had a broken handle. We assessed the effects of broken affordance on recovery from extinction in eight patients with right hemisphere lesions and left-sided extinction. Patients viewed object pairs that were or were not commonly used together and that were positioned for left- or right-hand actions. In the unrelated pair conditions, either two tools or two objects were presented. In line with previous research (e.g., Riddoch et al., 2006), extinction was reduced when action-related object pairs and when unrelated tool pairs were presented compared to unrelated object pairs. There was no significant difference in recovery rate between action-related (object-tool) and unrelated tool pairs. In addition, performance with action-related objects decreased when the tool appeared on the ipsilesional side compared to when it was on the contralesional side, but only when the tool handle was intact. There were minimal effects of breaking the handle of an object rather than a tool, and there was no effect of breaking the handle on either tools or objects on single item trials. The data suggest that breaking the handle of a tool lessens the degree to which it captures attention, with this attentional capture being strongest when the tool appears on the ipsilesional side. The capture of attention by the ipsilesional item then reduces the chance of detecting the contralesional stimulus. This attentional capture effect is mediated by the affordance to the intact tool.

  5. Effects of broken affordance on visual extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eWulff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that visual extinction can be reduced if two objects are positioned to afford an action. Here we tested if this affordance effect was disrupted by breaking the affordance – if one of the objects actively used in the action had a broken handle. We assessed the effects of broken affordance on recovery from extinction in eight patients with right hemisphere lesions and left-sided extinction. Patients viewed object pairs that were or were not commonly used together and that were positioned for left- or right-hand actions. In the unrelated pair conditions, either two tools or two objects were presented. In line with previous research (e.g., Riddoch et al., 2006, extinction was reduced when action-related object pairs and when unrelated tool pairs were presented compared to unrelated object pairs. There was no significant difference in recovery rate between action-related (object-tool and unrelated tool-tool pairs. In addition, performance with action-related objects decreased when the tool appeared on the ipsilesional side compared to when it was on the contralesional side, but only when the tool handle was intact. There were minimal effects of breaking the handle of an object rather than a tool, and there was no effect of breaking the handle on either tools or objects on single item trials. The data suggest that breaking the handle of a tool lessens the degree to which it captures attention, with this attentional capture being strongest when the tool appears on the ipsilesional side. The capture of attention by the ipsilesional item then reduces the chance of detecting the contralesional stimulus. This attentional capture effect is mediated by the affordance to the intact tool.

  6. Aneuploidy Screening in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashe, Jodi S

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal aneuploidy screening has changed dramatically in recent years with increases in the types of chromosomal abnormalities reliably identified and in the proportion of aneuploid fetuses detected. Initially, screening was available only for trisomies 21 and 18 and was offered only to low-risk pregnancies. Improved detection with the quadruple- and first-trimester multiple marker screens led to the option of aneuploidy screening for women 35 years of age and older. Cell-free DNA tests now screen for common autosomal trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies. Cell-free DNA screening is particularly effective in older women because of higher positive predictive values and lower false-positive rates. Integrated first- and second-trimester multiple marker tests provide specific risks for trisomies 21, 18, and possibly 13, and may detect an even wider range of aneuploidies. Given current precision in risk assessment, based on maternal age and preferences for screening or diagnostic tests, counseling has become more complex. This review addresses the benefits and limitations of available aneuploidy screening methods along with counseling considerations when offering them. PMID:27275786

  7. Affordability for sustainable energy development products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Clean cookstoves that also generate electricity improve affordability. • Excel spreadsheet model to assist stakeholders to choose optimum technology. • Presents views for each stakeholder villager, village and country. • By adding certain capital costs, affordability and sustainability are improved. • Affordability is highly dependent on carbon credits and social understandings. - Abstract: Clean burning products, for example cooking stoves, can reduce household air pollution (HAP), which prematurely kills 3.5 million people each year. By careful selection of components into a product package with micro-finance used for the capital payment, barriers to large-scale uptake of products that remove HAP are reduced. Such products reduce smoke from cooking and the lighting from electricity produced, eliminates smoke from kerosene lamps. A bottom-up financial model, that is cognisant of end user social needs, has been developed to compare different products for use in rural areas of developing countries. The model is freely available for use by researchers and has the ability to assist in the analysis of changing assumptions. Business views of an individual villager, the village itself and a country view are presented. The model shows that affordability (defined as the effect on household expenses as a result of a product purchase) and recognition of end-user social needs are as important as product cost. The effects of large-scale deployment (greater that 10 million per year) are described together with level of subsidy required by the poorest people. With the assumptions given, the model shows that pico-hydro is the most cost effective, but not generally available, one thermo-acoustic technology option does not require subsidy, but it is only at technology readiness level 2 (NASA definition) therefore costs are predicted and very large investment in manufacturing capability is needed to meet the cost target. Thermo-electric is currently the only

  8. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Exhibitions are the primary medium for the public communication of science in museums. Recently, there has been an interest in explaining the educational mechanisms of exhibitions in terms of meaning making, interaction and space; however these concepts have not yet been integrated into one...... consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  9. Refining Grasp Affordance Models by Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Buch, Anders Glent;

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for learning object grasp affordance models in 3D from experience, and demonstrate its applicability through extensive testing and evaluation on a realistic and largely autonomous platform. Grasp affordance refers here to relative object-gripper configurations that yield stable...... visual model of the object they characterize. We explore a batch-oriented, experience-based learning paradigm where grasps sampled randomly from a density are performed, and an importance-sampling algorithm learns a refined density from the outcomes of these experiences. The first such learning cycle is...... bootstrapped with a grasp density formed from visual cues. We show that the robot effectively applies its experience by downweighting poor grasp solutions, which results in increased success rates at subsequent learning cycles. We also present success rates in a practical scenario where a robot needs to...

  10. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eKrueger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of musicking grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of musical affordances and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances—via soliciting different forms of entrainment—enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I suggest that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  11. Heavy fuel oil: acceptable? available? affordable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly stringent environmental legislation on emissions limits poses problems for large industrial energy users, causing them to re-examine their choice of fuel source. Choice of fuel must be made flexibly, preferably in the form of a dual fuel strategy, it is argued here. This article examines the relationship between the 1995 Environment Act, the 1990 Environmental Protection Act, and the likely future of heavy fuel oils in terms of acceptability, availability and affordability. (UK)

  12. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  13. 电子标记辅助虹鳟家系建立及快速生长家系筛选%PIT marker assisted family establishment in rainbow trout and rapid growth families screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    户国; 谷伟; 王鹏; 白庆利; 王炳谦

    2012-01-01

    以中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所选育的虹鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss)优良品系G1世代为基础群体,开展了电子标记辅助的大规模虹鳟家系构建工作,建立了G2世代全同胞家系72组,并初步进行了快速生长家系的筛选工作.对不同家系鱼种进行电子芯片植入后放在同池进行生长比较,本研究中虹鳟上市日龄(约为850日龄)体质量、体长的总体家系效应都达到了极显著水平(P<0.0001);通过对不同家系间850日龄体质量和体长的家系效应显著性检验与最小二乘均值的多重比较分析,获得了682BABB、6717B7A、6828308、682A50A、6829C24、6829DC7、682A382、68284DA这8个体质量和体长性能优良的家系.上述家系将作为优先入选家系进入组建G3世代的储备亲本群体.本研究结果可以与本课题组先期开展的基于个体育种值BLUP分析的多性状复合育种工作相互印证.这将有助于提高对虹鳟生长性状进行遗传选择的准确性,同时对其他水生动物数量性状的遗传选育研究也具有借鉴意义.%Cold-water fish culture first began in China in 1959 with a shipment of eyed eggs and fry of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Since then, rainbow trout culture has expanded rapidly into more than 22 provinces. However, further advances depend on accelerating the process of selective breeding and preventing the genetic degeneration of this species. We evaluated the utility of PIT marker assisted selection using a generation one (Gl) of a rainbow trout superior strain population which was being selectively bred by the Heilongjiang River Fishery Research Institute (HRFRI) of the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (CAFS). We developed 72 rainbow trout families using PIT marker assisted technology. All pedigreed fry were implanted with PIT markers and cultured in the same pond. Body weight and body length were measured for all the

  14. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  15. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer vision screening programs for children. At what age should a child have his or her vision screened? Vision screening ... a child fails a vision screening at any age, the child should be referred for a comprehensive eye examination. ...

  16. Active Affordance Learning in Continuous State and Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Hindriks, K.V.; Babuska, R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning object affordances and manipulation skills is essential for developing cognitive service robots. We propose an active affordance learning approach in continuous state and action spaces without manual discretization of states or exploratory motor primitives. During exploration in the action

  17. 妊娠中期血清标记物检测在唐氏综合症产前筛查中的探讨%To investigate the serum marker pregnancy detection in prenatal screening for Down syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晃堆

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the analysis of second trimester maternal serum marker for prenatal screening of Down's syndrome and the significance. Methods:The selection of 2012.10-2013.10 in our hospital during the application of resolution immunofluorescence assay was used to detect 2468 cases of 15-20+6 weeks pregnant women were detected serum Free-, P-HCG, AFP markers and content, combined with maternal age, gestational weeks, single twins, smoking history, body mass, whether patients with diabetes, previous factors without abnormal pregnancy history, the use of Life Cycle 3 version of the system risk assessment.Results:The 2468 cases of pregnant women, screening out the abnormal chromosome 138 cases of pregnant women with high risk pregnancy, including 34 cases of pregnant women were amniocentesis antenatal examination, diagnosis of Down syndrome (English referred to as DS) in 8 cases, 1 cases of trisomy 18-syndrome, 4 cases of other fetal chromosomal abnormalities. DS maternal fetal blood AFP, free three female alcohol content was significantly lower than that in normal pregnant women;Free-beta-HCG was significantly higher than that of normal pregnant women, the difference was statistical y significant P<0.05. Trisomy 18-fetal maternal blood AFP, free three female alcohol, Free-beta-HCG was obviously lower than that of normal pregnant women, the difference was statistical y significant P<0.05. Conclusions:The second trimester serum marker examination can be used as an important index prediction of fetal chromosomal abnormalities, and take effective measures in a timely manner through the prenatal diagnosis, can significantly reduce the birth defects, to help students work.%目的:研究分析妊娠中期血清标记物在产前筛查唐氏综合症的意义。方法:择取2012.10-2013.10期间在我院应用实践分辨免疫荧光法检测的2468例孕15-20+6周的孕妇,均进行血清Free-β-HCG、AFP标记物含量检测,并结合孕妇的年龄、孕周

  18. Price, availability and affordability of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda S. Mhlanga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability.Aim: To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland.Setting: Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland.Methods: The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs. Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker.Results: Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%. Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day’s wage.Conclusion: Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population.

  19. Dignity for all: affordable assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeski, James F; Pruchnicki, Alec

    2006-01-01

    In 2026, the first of the baby boomers, including Presidents Clinton and Bush, will reach the age of 80, the average age of residents currently in assisted living facilities. In her book The Denial of Aging: Perpetual Youth, Eternal Life, and Other Dangerous Fantasies, Muriel Gillick proposes that the baby boomers will seek assisted living as an alternative to nursing home care. But what about that portion of the population not able to afford the high cost of private assisted living? What option will be available to the low-asset/low-income population in lieu of nursing home care? PMID:17214248

  20. Immunologic protection afforded by sunscreens in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, V; Morris, J F; Chu, A C

    1997-06-01

    Several studies have suggested a lack of correlation between sunscreen sun protection factor and protection of the skin immune system, potentially allowing greater damage to the skin by removing the natural protective erythemal response to sun exposure. Despite this, routine testing of immune protection afforded by sunscreens is not performed by industry. Current laboratory methods for investigating the efficacy of sunscreen protection of epidermal immune function use the induction of contact hypersensitivity or epidermal cell alloantigen presentation. Animal models, cell culture systems, and in vivo human studies are commonly employed, but all these systems have significant drawbacks for use in routine testing. The purpose of this study was to develop an in vitro system for testing the immunologic protection afforded by sunscreens in human skin. Five test sunscreens plus a vehicle control were tested in a "blind" fashion for their in vitro level of immune protection. Creams were applied in a standard manner to human whole skin explants and were irradiated over a range of physiologic doses using an Oriel solar simulator. A mixed epidermal lymphocyte reaction was used to quantify epidermal alloantigen-presenting capacity, in the presence or absence of test cream, for five explants. Results consistently demonstrated that all the test sunscreens protected beyond their designated sun protection factors, whereas the vehicle conferred no protection. The explant-mixed epidermal lymphocyte reaction system gave consistent, reproducible results and may prove useful for the allocation of an immune protection factor to all sunscreens. PMID:9182811

  1. 胸部CT及血清肿瘤标志物检测对肺癌筛查的价值%Chest computer tomography and serum tumor markers for lung cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺媛; 王维民; 冯丹; 曾强

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价胸部CT和肿瘤标志物检测对体检人群肺癌早期筛查的价值.方法 对88 596例参加健康体检的人群,依据所选套餐应用胸部CT、胸部DR、肿瘤标志物等检测项目,肺癌患者由专业医生依据阳性结果进行综合判断,并采用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC)评价肿瘤标志物对肺癌的诊断价值.结果 2007年至2011年五年间,体检中心肺癌的平均检出率为59.8/10万,男性为42.9/10万,女性为92.2/10万.肺癌的检出率随年龄增加而增加,女性肺癌的检出率总体高于男性.胸部CT的阳性检出率约为94.3%,约为胸部DR的2倍,且癌胚抗原CEA检测作为辅助手段对肺癌的早期诊断具有较高的灵敏度(73.6%)和特异度(57.1%).结论 体检中心应重视高危人群筛查,不断采用新技术提高早期肺癌的诊断.%Objective To assess the value of chest computer tomography (CT) and serum tumor marker in lung cancer screening among health check-up populations.Methods A total of 88 596 adults who had a medical check-up (including chest CT,chest DR,and tumor biomarkers test) in our center were enrolled in this investigation.Clinical diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed by three professional doctors.Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the relationship between serum level of tumor biomarkers and lung cancer.Results The average detection rate of lung cancer was 59.8/100 000 in our center during 2007 and 2011 (men 42.9/100 000,women 92.2/100 000).Rate of positive results of chest CT was 94.3%,which was approximately 2 times of chest DR.Moreover,carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) testing was effective in early diagnosis of lung cancer with higher sensitivity (73.6%) and specificity (57.1%).Conclusion This study suggests that health checkup centers should pay more attention to lung cancer screening in high risk populations,and new technologies might be used to facilitate the early diagnosis of lung cancer.

  2. Social affordances and the possibility of ecological linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    This paper includes an effort to extend the notion of affordance from a philosophical point of view the importance of ecological approach for social psychology, ethics, and linguistics. Affordances are not always merely physical but also interpersonal and social. I will conceptualize affordance in general and social affordance in particular, and will elucidate the relation between intentional action and affordances, and that between affordances and free will. I will also focus on the relation between social institution and affordance. An extended theory of affordances can provide a way to analyze in concrete ways how social institution works as an implicit background of interpersonal interactions. Ecological approach considers social institution as the producer and maintainer of affordances. Social institutions construct the niches for human beings. Finally, I will argue the possibility of the ecological linguistics. Language is a social institution. The system of signs is the way to articulate and differentiate interpersonal affordances. Language acquires its meaning, i.e. communicative power in the interpersonal interactions, and interpersonal interactions, in turn, develop and are elaborated through the usage of signs. Communication is seen as never aimed to transmit inner ideas to others, but to guide and adjust the behaviors of others thorough articulating the affordance of responsible-ness.

  3. Hierarchical nesting of affordances in a tool use task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Caputo, Sarah E; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    In studying the perception of affordances, researchers have typically identified a single affordance and designed experiments to evaluate the perception of that affordance. Yet in daily life, multiple affordances always exist. One consequence of this is that there may be higher order, means-ends relations between different affordances. In 4 experiments, we created situations in which lower order, subordinate affordances could affect the realization of higher order, superordinate affordances, and we asked whether participants were sensitive to these hierarchical, nested relations. Participants wielded tools that varied in length, mass, and mass distribution. In Experiments 1 and 2, we asked them to evaluate these tools in terms of their suitability for executing specific interactions with target objects (striking vs. poking) that were positioned at different distances. In Experiments 3 and 4, we asked participants to select rods and masses and then to assemble them into tools that could be used to execute specific interactions with target objects at different distances. The results were compatible with the hypothesis that participants were simultaneously sensitive to affordances for tool assembly and affordances for tool use. We argue that the nesting of affordances is characteristic of many situations in daily life and that, consequently, sensitivity to hierarchical, means-ends relations among affordances may be an essential characteristic of perceptually guided action. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27668424

  4. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  5. Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier to treat. You can get some screenings in your doctor's office. Others need special equipment, ...

  6. 卵巢癌肿瘤标志的优化筛选与临界值确定%Screening and optimization of tumor markers and determination of cutoff value in ovarian cancer pa-tients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周广政

    2014-01-01

    目的:筛选卵巢癌实验诊断比较适合的肿瘤标志,进一步探究其临界值。方法将研究对象分为卵巢癌组、卵巢良性肿瘤组和健康体检组,采用电化学发光法检测CA153、CA724、CA125、人附睾蛋白4(human epididymis protein 4,HE4)等项目的浓度,并以文献报道的方法计算卵巢恶性肿瘤风险模型(risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm,ROMA);以SPSS软件分析研究对象肿瘤标志的表达差异,并分析它们的诊断指数(灵敏度+特异性);根据受试者工作特征曲线(receiver operating characteristics, ROC),试确定各肿瘤标志的最佳临界值。结果三组的肿瘤标志表达水平存在显著差异(P<0.05);ROMA的诊断能力最佳(诊断指数1.94,灵敏度0.94、特异性1.00),其它依次是HE4(诊断指数1.86,灵敏度0.89、特异性0.97)、CA125(诊断指数1.75,灵敏度0.83、特异性0.91);依据曲线下面积(area un-der the curve,AUC),诊断卵巢癌能力大小的肿瘤标志(或项目)分别是:ROMA、HE4、CA125、CA153、CA724。结论诊断卵巢癌应优先考虑CA125、HE4和ROMA等项目,相应临界值可拟定为90.96 U/ml、81.38 pmol/l和37.22%。%Objective The aim of this work is to screen suitable tumor markers (TMs)and to determine their cutoff values in patients with ovarian cancer. Methods Serum samples of 179 women,including 77 ovari-an cancer(group A),62 ovarian benign cysts(group B),and 40 healthy controls(group C),were tested for CA153,CA724,CA125 and Human Epididymis Protein 4(HE4)using fully automated instruments (Roche Elecsys cobas E). Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm(ROMA)values were calculated according to refer-ences. Differences of tumor marker concentration among three groups were evaluated by SPSS software. Using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC)curve,the cutoff values of tumor markers were determined. Results

  7. Affordable Hybrid Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butterfield, Andrew [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Caldwell, Dustin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crook, Alexander [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency over heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.

  8. Achieving affordable housing through energy efficiency strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperation between public and private sector has achieved a remarkable widespread, in the Italian context, over the last two decades. Nevertheless, the increasing difficulty in accessing the capital market and the rising cost of funding sources, both noticeable over the past few years, led to a slowdown of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives. Meanwhile, the community is expressing new needs to be satisfied, such as the conversion of brownfields, the recovery of housing stock dating back to former times, as well as the refurbishment of public offices or schools. Emerging priorities include the supply of affordable dwellings for low to medium income households. This essay aims to examine a case study in which PPP and buildings energy efficiency have been successfully combined, in order to jointly contribute to the achievement of a social housing settlement. Thanks to energy efficiency measures—concerning building envelope insulation, heating system and other installations—the agreed rent results far higher than social rent of protected tenancies, and furthermore above the range of fair rents characterising other regulated tenancies, but mildly lower than market rents. All this allows to achieve an equity yield rate satisfying from the perspective of a venture philanthropy investment. -- Highlights: •Provision of affordable dwellings is an emerging priority within Italian context. •Lack of public funds leads to promote Public–Private Partnership schemes. •Without public grants the adoption of a venture philanthropy approach is needed. •The examined case study allows to explain the role of buildings energy efficiency. •Buildings energy efficiency may boost feasibility of social housing transactions

  9. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Brooks, Durado; Cokkinides, Vilma; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W

    2013-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its recommendations for early cancer detection, a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, current ACS cancer screening guidelines are summarized, as are updated guidelines on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening with low-dose helical computed tomography. The latest data on the use of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey also are described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.

  10. Learners with Dyslexia: Exploring their experiences with different online reading affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwen Jen Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To date, empirically derived guidelines for designing accessible online learning environments for learners with dyslexia are still scarce. This study aims to explore the learning experience of learners with dyslexia when reading passages using different online reading affordances to derive some guidelines for dyslexia-friendly online text. The study employed a multiple-case qualitative approach and key themes were interpreted based on these learners’ perceived learning, engagement and satisfaction. The study concludes that the use of screen reader for online reading should be optional, adequate control of screen reader should be provided and screen reader is more beneficial when online text is written in a language that the learner is not proficient. Results from this study also provide empirical support of the appropriateness of some existing web accessibility guidelines.

  11. 孕11~13周+6胎儿多个超声指标联合母血清学指标在筛查染色体异常胎儿中的价值%Study on several ultrasound markers combined maternal serum biochemical markers to screen fetal chromosomal aneuploidy at 11 to 13+6 weeks of gestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈叙; 常颖; 崔洪艳; 任晨春; 于炳颖

    2013-01-01

    reverse.Two cases in 4 cases of 45X had venous ductus a wave flow reverse.There were 8 cases (0.16%) nasal bone absence in 4983 cases of normal karyotype fetus,48 cases (0.96%) of tricuspid regurgitation and 44 cases (0.88%) of venous ductus a wave flow reverse.Thirty-two cases in 40 cases (80%) of fetal congenital heart disease were tricuspid regurgitation,30 cases of venous ductus a wave flow reverse (75%).Eight cases of nasal bone absence normal karyotype fetus were found the nasal bone at 20 weeks gestation.Conclusion Combination screening of nuchal translucency with serum markers in the first trimester were high detection rate and low false positive rate; a wave reversion and fetal nasal bone absence accompanied by tricuspid regurgitation can improve the detection rate of abnormal karyotype; abnormalities ultrasound marker may be associated with fetal congenital heart disease at 11-13 +6 weeks of pregnancy.%目的 探讨孕11 ~13周+6胎儿多个超声指标联合母血清学指标在筛查染色体异常胎儿中的临床效果.方法 选择2010年1月1日至2011年12月31日天津市中心妇产科医院进行联合筛查的单胎孕妇5000例(筛查孕周为11 ~13周+6).采用超声仪对胎儿颈项透明层(NT)厚度,鼻骨缺失与否,静脉导管a波血流反向及三尖瓣反流情况进行检测;同时检测孕妇血清妊娠相关蛋白A(PAPP-A)和游离β绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-hCG)水平.将NT值和β-hCG及PAPP-A水平输入计算机,计算风险值(≥1∶270).联合筛查的5000例孕妇中筛查出高风险204例,对这204例孕妇进行绒毛组织活检,检测胎儿染色体核型,对染色体异常胎儿的超声特征进行分析.结果 (1) 5000例单胎孕妇中,正常染色体核型胎儿4983例,活产儿4938例,62例胎儿因各种原因于孕中期引产,其中40例染色体核型正常但伴先天性心脏病,17例为染色体异常(其中21三体9例、18三体2例、13 三体1例、45X 4例),2例脊柱裂,2

  12. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Nor Haniza; Mohd Ariffin Ati Rosemary; Sulaiman Raha; Mohd Zailani Muhammad Najib

    2016-01-01

    Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious...

  13. Review of the Methods for Developing SSR Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xue; CHANG Wei; HAN Yingpeng; LI Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    Microsatellite marker (or Simple Sequence Repeate,SSR) is a marker technology based on DNA molecular length polymorphism.It is also one of the most commonly used molecular markers.Traditional SSR marker development methods are relatively time-consuming and mostly relying on the known genome sequence information while recently developed methods of SSR marker based on RAPD,ISSR-PCR SSR,the use of hybrid options, sequence tag SSR library access and screening EST-SSR have been widely used.This paper gave an overview of the methods mentioned above for the development of SSR markers.

  14. Empathy and the responsiveness to social affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiverstein, Julian

    2015-11-01

    The direct perception theory of empathy claims that we can immediately experience a person's state of mind. I can see for instance that my neighbour is angry with me in his bodily countenance. I develop a version of the direct perception theory of empathy which takes this perceptual capacity to depend upon recognising in what way the other person is responsive to the affordances the environment provides. By recognising which possibilities for action are relevant to a person, I can thereby understand something about the meaning they give to the world. I come to share something of their perspective on the world, and this allows me to grasp based on my perception of them something about their current state of mind. I argue that shared affect plays a central role in this perceptual capacity. Shared affect allows me to orient my attention to possibilities for action that matter to the other person. I end by briefly discuss the implications of this view of empathy for the disturbances in so-called "cognitive empathy" that are found in people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

  15. Robust, affordable, semi-direct Mars mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    A new architecture is proposed for the first manned Mars mission, based on current NASA developments (SLS and Orion), chemical propulsion for interplanetary transit, aerocapture for all vehicles, a split strategy, and a long stay on the surface. Two important choices make this architecture affordable and appropriate for the first mission. The first is splitting the Earth return vehicle into two parts that are launched separately and dock in Mars orbit. This is necessary to make aerocapture feasible and efficient, which considerably reduces mass. The second is reducing the crew to 3 astronauts. This simplifies the mission and reduces the SLS payload mass under the 45-metric ton limit for a direct TMI (trans-Mars injection) burn without LEO assembly. Only 4 SLS launches are required. The first takes the Mars ascent vehicle and in situ resource utilization systems to the planet's surface. The second takes the first part of the Earth return vehicle, the habitat, into Mars orbit. Two years later, two further SLS launches take a dual-use habitat (outbound trip and surface), Orion, and an enhanced service module to LEO, and then into Mars orbit, followed by the landing of the habitat on the surface. Transit time is demonstrated to be easily reduced to less than 6 months, with relatively low impact on propellant mass and none at all on the architecture.

  16. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  17. Empathy and the responsiveness to social affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiverstein, Julian

    2015-11-01

    The direct perception theory of empathy claims that we can immediately experience a person's state of mind. I can see for instance that my neighbour is angry with me in his bodily countenance. I develop a version of the direct perception theory of empathy which takes this perceptual capacity to depend upon recognising in what way the other person is responsive to the affordances the environment provides. By recognising which possibilities for action are relevant to a person, I can thereby understand something about the meaning they give to the world. I come to share something of their perspective on the world, and this allows me to grasp based on my perception of them something about their current state of mind. I argue that shared affect plays a central role in this perceptual capacity. Shared affect allows me to orient my attention to possibilities for action that matter to the other person. I end by briefly discuss the implications of this view of empathy for the disturbances in so-called "cognitive empathy" that are found in people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:26021190

  18. Ethics of dental health screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Chandrashekar; Taha, Farheen

    2016-01-01

    Screening is the detection of disease at a point in its natural history when it is not yet symptomatic. In the natural history of dental caries, for example, the incipient lesions are at a reversible stage, which is a pre-symptomatic or an unrecognised symptomatic disease. Ideally, this is the stage during which screening should identify the risk of dental caries; however, presently, the so-called dental screening employed identifies the clinical cavitation of the tooth, which is very obvious to the individual. The individual already knows that he/she has dental caries and needs treatment, which the screening personnel (dental doctor) explains again during the screening procedure. Is it ethical to call such an event screening? The mushrooming of dental teaching hospitals has promoted regular screening of dental diseases among the communities and schoolchildren through their community dentistry-related activities. More often, it is a dental "check-up" that is carried out on the pretext of screening for dental diseases. Though the basic intention of this activity is to promote awareness of dental diseases and promote good health, there is also a hidden agenda to it. An artificial demand for dental care is created that is easily capitalised on by the dental teaching institutions to enhance its clinical activity. Dental screening is doing more harm than good as patients are made aware of the diseases for which they may not be able to afford treatment. This narrative review gives an account of the scientific evidence on screening for oral diseases, the current practices in screening and the ethical dilemmas of dental screening programmes. PMID:27474698

  19. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  20. Commercial Platforms Allow Affordable Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    At an altitude of about 240 miles, its orbital path carries it over 90 percent of the Earth s population. It circles the Earth in continuous free fall; its crew of six and one Robonaut pass the days, experiencing 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets every 24 hours, in microgravity, an environment in which everything from bodily functions to the physical behavior of materials changes drastically from what is common on the ground. Outside its shielded confines, temperatures cycle from one extreme to the other, radiation is rampant, and atomic oxygen corrodes everything it touches. A unique feat of engineering, the International Space Station (ISS) also represents the most remarkable platform for scientific research ever devised. In 2005, anticipating the space station s potential for NASA and non-NASA scientists alike, the NASA Authorization Act designated the US segment of the ISS as a national laboratory, instructing the Agency to "increase the utilization of the ISS by other Federal entities and the private sector." With the ISS set to maintain operations through at least 2020, the station offers an unprecedented long-term access to space conditions, enabling research not previously possible. "There will be new drug discoveries, new pharmaceuticals, a better understanding of how we affect the planet and how we can maintain it," says Marybeth Edeen, the ISS National Laboratory manager, based at Johnson Space Center. The ISS, she says, represents a major example of the government s role in making such advancements possible. "The government is key in that researchers cannot afford to build the kind of infrastructure that the government can provide. But we then have to make that infrastructure available at a reasonable cost." Enter Jeff Manber, who saw in the ISS National Lab an extraordinary opportunity to advance science, education, and business in ways never before seen.

  1. Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

  2. Facilitating investment in affordable housing: towards an Australian model. Draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, J.M.; Berry, M.; Milligan, V.; Yates, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that sustainable and affordable finance provides a crucial pillar to support the provision of affordable housing in the long term. This finance can take on a variety of forms, comprising grants, public loans, commercial loans as well as shareholder equity. It can be facilitated by

  3. Nurturing Opportunities for Educational Leadership: How Affordance and Leadership Interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic study focused on the affordances that facilitated the emergence of leadership, capturing a range of perspectives on leadership and leadership development of four groups: district superintendents; teacher-educators; mentor-teachers and graduates. The term "affordances" implies a reciprocal relationship…

  4. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-i as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blijdorp (Karin); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); R. Pieters (Rob); A.M. Boot (Annemieke); J.P. Sluimer (Johanna); A. van der Lelij (Allegonda); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. Proc

  5. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-i as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdorp, Karin; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Pieters, Rob; Boot, Annemieke; Sluimer, Johanna; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. Procedure We anal

  6. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  7. Utility payments in Ukraine: Affordability, subsidies and arrears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, Samuel [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Rodionova, Yulia [School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, 16 Taviton street, London WC1H 0BW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: y.rodionova@ssees.ucl.ac.uk; Falcetti, Elisabetta [European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The transition from a planned economy to a market economy has caused considerable hardship for the people of Eastern Europe. One important aspect of the social costs of transition is access to, and the affordability of, basic services like electricity, heat and water, which under communism had been supplied fairly cheaply and abundantly. This paper provides evidence on this issue from the Ukraine Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS). The paper identifies considerable differences in both access and affordability between different localities in Ukraine. Social protection measures can help to alleviate affordability constraints, but the analysis finds that social support is not well targeted. The currently low tariffs prevent an escalation of affordability problems but constraints nevertheless exist. Many households have accumulated substantial arrears as a consequence, although non-payment is a complex issue and not solely a function of affordability.

  8. Utility payments in Ukraine. Affordability, subsidies and arrears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, Samuel [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Rodionova, Yulia [School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, 16 Taviton street, London WC1H 0BW (United Kingdom); Falcetti, Elisabetta [European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The transition from a planned economy to a market economy has caused considerable hardship for the people of Eastern Europe. One important aspect of the social costs of transition is access to, and the affordability of, basic services like electricity, heat and water, which under communism had been supplied fairly cheaply and abundantly. This paper provides evidence on this issue from the Ukraine Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS). The paper identifies considerable differences in both access and affordability between different localities in Ukraine. Social protection measures can help to alleviate affordability constraints, but the analysis finds that social support is not well targeted. The currently low tariffs prevent an escalation of affordability problems but constraints nevertheless exist. Many households have accumulated substantial arrears as a consequence, although non-payment is a complex issue and not solely a function of affordability. (author)

  9. MRSA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance Test ...

  10. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  11. SSR Inheritance Analysis and Screening for Linked Marker of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.)%黄瓜白粉病抗性遗传分析与连锁标记筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂京涛; 潘俊松; 何欢乐; 司龙亭; 蔡润

    2011-01-01

    In order to accelerate molecular marker assisted breeding process of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) , in this paper, high susceptible cucumber inbred line M 12,abd high resistant inbred line M3 to powdery mildew were taken as parent and their hybrid, F2 populations and BC1 populations were used as experimental materials.We identified the seedlings inoculated with powdery mildew fungus and probed into the genetic regulation of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber.Combing with BSA method and SSR technology, SSR markers linked to the major resistant gene of powdery mildew in cucumber was obtained.The results showed that the resistance to powdery mildew was mainly controlled by a single recessive gene.By analyzing F2 single plant with SSR technique, a marker SSR15592 linked to the resistant gene was identified.The genetic distance between this marker and resistant gene was 7.62 cM.%以黄瓜高感、高抗白粉病自交系M12、M3为亲本组合得到的F2群体和BC1群体为试材,采用苗期接种鉴定,探讨了黄瓜白粉病抗性的遗传规律;结合BSA法和SSR技术,获得了与黄瓜白粉病抗性主效基因连锁的SSR标记.结果表明,供试亲本间白粉病抗性主要受一隐性单基因控制.对F2单株进行SSR分析,鉴定出1个与黄瓜白粉病抗性基因连锁的标记SSR15592,该标记与抗性基因间的遗传距离为7.62 cM.

  12. Criteria for Affordable Housing Performance Measurement: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esruq-Labin A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A home is one of the basic human needs, thus a new concept known as Grow Home has risen. This concept was established to encourage more families to buy their own houses. The Grow Home concept is based on the notion of affordable housing. This paper aims to explore a proposal for affordable housing measurement with six assessment components. In other words, this work intends to study factors that can affect affordable housing assessment. In this paper, we investigated the 20 criteria for affordable housing assessment given by Mulliner and Maliene in their study. Then, we rearranged these criteria into five components, and added the Grow Home component. Each component has different criteria. Finally, six affordable housing measurement components are identified, namely, income ratios, loans and accommodations, facilities and services, safety and comfort, quality management, and Grow Home. These components are also considered as main factors that directly affect affordable housing. This study aspires to contribute to existing literature by proposing six assessment components as a measurement of affordable housing.

  13. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2009-01-01

    -technical aspects alike, while Sierra uses a CAD-system to support joint-development crossing organisational boundaries. The cases share features such as triadic relations; customer's problem, product designers and artefact. For example, a wheelchair is presented to Sierra, the result of NPD-activities carried out...... by a profes-sional golfer. Two product designers interpret the affordance of the wheelchair and com-pare it with the intended functionality explained by the golfer - we denote it intended af-fordance; the identified gap is used to rewrite the design. Next, the affordance of both pro-posals is discussed...

  14. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    to negotiate technical and non-technical aspects alike, while Sierra uses a CAD-system to support joint-development crossing organisational boundaries. The cases share features such as triadic relations; customer’s problem, product designers and artefact. For example, a wheelchair is presented to Sierra......, the result of NPD-activities carried out by a professional golfer. Two product designers interpret the affordance of the wheelchair and compare it with the intended functionality explained by the golfer – we denote it intended affordance; the identified gap is used to rewrite the design. Next, the affordance...

  15. The Dianosis Value of Prenatal Ultrasound Screening Combined with Prenatal Maternal Serum Markers Detecting in Trimester Pregnancy for the 21 - trisomy Syndrome%中孕B超产前检查联合母血清标记物对21-三体综合征的临床诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 陈大雁; 胡桂朗; 荆志敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility, effectiveness and necessity of the prenatal ultrasound screenings,combined with the content inspection of the mothers' prenatal maternal serum markers:in trimester pregnancy Alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP), free estriol ( uE3 ), total serum β human chorionic gonadotropin ( hCG) in the 21 -trisomy syndrome. Method: We summarized the detection rate of the 21 -trisomy syndrome by prenatal ultrasound screening and the prenatal maternal serum markers. Result: The detection rate in terms of the positive signs of the prenatal ultrasound screening in trimester pregnancy combined with the prenatal maternal serum markers in the 21-trisomy syndrome diagnosis was 80%-90%. Conclusion:The prenatal ultrasound screening in trimester pregnancy combined with prenatal maternal serum markers in the 21trisomy syndrome diagnosis is a non-invasive checking method, not only can reduce the abnormal or deformed children are born, can also reduce the invasive inspection; It has the davantage of clinically simple,application and testing of a wide range of safe and effective, cost-effective, with higher screening detection rate, and reduce the intrusion caused by the check normal fetal abortion rate.%目的:探讨中孕B超产前检查出现阳性征,及联合母体血清标记物指标:甲胎蛋白(AFP)、游离雌三醇(uE3)、血清总β绒毛膜促性腺激素(hCG)的含量检查对21-三体综合征的产前筛查和诊断的可行性、有效性和必要性.方法:回顾了中孕B超产前检查联合母血清标记物对21-三体综合征检出率.结果:中孕B超产前检查的阳性征,联合母体血清标记物检查指标对21三体综合征检出率高达80%-90%.结论:中孕超声检查,及联合母血清标记物进行唐氏综合征胎儿筛查是一种非侵入性的检查方法,不但可以减少异常或畸型儿童出生,提高人口素质,也可以减少侵入性的检查;且具有临床操作简便、应用范围和检验范围面广

  16. Can consumers make affordable care affordable? The value of choice architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric J; Hassin, Ran; Baker, Tom; Bajger, Allison T; Treuer, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Tens of millions of people are currently choosing health coverage on a state or federal health insurance exchange as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. We examine how well people make these choices, how well they think they do, and what can be done to improve these choices. We conducted 6 experiments asking people to choose the most cost-effective policy using websites modeled on current exchanges. Our results suggest there is significant room for improvement. Without interventions, respondents perform at near chance levels and show a significant bias, overweighting out-of-pocket expenses and deductibles. Financial incentives do not improve performance, and decision-makers do not realize that they are performing poorly. However, performance can be improved quite markedly by providing calculation aids, and by choosing a "smart" default. Implementing these psychologically based principles could save purchasers of policies and taxpayers approximately 10 billion dollars every year. PMID:24367484

  17. Practical measurement of affordability: An application to medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Niëns (Laurens); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); A. Cameron; M. Ewen; R. Laing; W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To develop two practical methods for measuring the affordability of medicines in developing countries. Methods The proposed methods - catastrophic and impoverishment methods - rely on easily accessible aggregated expenditure data and take into account a country's income distri

  18. Developing an Assessment Framework for Affordable and Sustainable Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pullen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable housing has been subject to research, practice and policy making for some considerable time. More recently attention has been drawn to the separate problem of declining affordability in housing. This paper describes research aimed at developing an assessment framework for both affordability and sustainability as part of the effort to incorporate both of these features into new housing projects. The research has a particular focus on developments aimed at urban densification. Background literature on both affordability and sustainability is reviewed as well as emerging schemes aimed at dealing with both aspects of housing developments. Performance indicators are identified and these are incorporated in an interim assessment framework which is tested using a group of industry experts. The research has highlighted areas where further development is required to attain quantitative assessments of affordable and sustainable housing developments

  19. Learning Basic Object Affordances in a Robotic System

    OpenAIRE

    Ridge, Barry

    2014-01-01

    One of the fundamental enabling mechanisms of human and animal intelligence, and equally, one of the great challenges of modern day autonomous robotics is the ability to perceive and exploit environmental affordances. To recognise how you can interact with objects in the world, that is to recognise what they afford you, is to speak the language of cause and effect, and as with most languages, practice is one of the most important paths to understanding. This is clear from early childhood deve...

  20. Facilitating investment in affordable housing: towards an Australian model. Draft

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, J. M.; Berry, M; Milligan, V.; Yates, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that sustainable and affordable finance provides a crucial pillar to support the provision of affordable housing in the long term. This finance can take on a variety of forms, comprising grants, public loans, commercial loans as well as shareholder equity. It can be facilitated by various forms of collateral, government guarantees, mortgage insurance and tax privileges, often involving a specialist financial intermediary. Importantly, how this pillar is constructed influence...

  1. Direct subsidies and housing affordability in Australian private rental markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin A Wood; Matthew Forbes; Kenneth Gibb

    2005-01-01

    Many countries have undergone a broad retreat from the use of indirect (supply) subsidies to meet low-income housing-affordability problems, shifting to direct subsidies often linked to means-tested income-maintenance systems. Although the reasons for this change of direction are well documented, the efficacy of direct housing subsidies in terms of tackling affordability remains in question. The authors examine in detail one such system, Australia’s Rent Assistance (RA) programme, making use ...

  2. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  3. Screening CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramírez, A.; Hagedoorn, S.; Kramers, L.; Wildenborg, T.; Hendriks, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to screen and rank Dutch reservoirs suitable for long-term large scale CO2 storage. The screening focuses on off- and on-shore individual aquifers, gas and oil fields. In total 176 storage reservoirs have been taken int

  4. Recent advances in maternal serum screening for Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerlian, Geralyn M; Canick, Jacob A

    2002-12-01

    For the past 15 years, addition of serum markers to screening for Down syndrome has enhanced the ability to identify affected pregnancies. During the 1990s, incremental improvements in screening have been tested and implemented, first with the addition of a fourth biochemical marker, inhibin A, to second trimester screening protocols, and second with the development of combined first trimester serum and ultrasound screening. With the new century, we are on the verge of a major breakthrough in the performance of prenatal screening for Down syndrome, with the opportunity to spare almost all pregnant women the risk of amniocentesis and CVS, yet attain levels of detection approaching 90%. PMID:12593353

  5. Screening for SSR markers linked to wheat powdery mildew resistance gene Pm2%小麦抗白粉病基因Pm2的SSR标记筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎明; 朱玉丽; 李兴锋; 王洪刚

    2011-01-01

    为筛选与小麦抗白粉病基因Pm2紧密连锁的分子标记,将感病品种Chancellor与Pm2的近等基因系杂交,获得F1、F2分离群体,采用分离群体分组法对Pm2进行了微卫星(microsatellite,又称simple sequence repeats,SSR)标记分析.结果表明,定位于小麦5D染色体上的71对SSR引物中有12对引物能在Pm2的近等基因系、Chancellor间稳定地揭示出多态性差异,7对引物Xcfd189、Xcfd29、Xcfd8、Xcfd102、Xcfd7、Xcfd57和Xgwm190分别能在抗病、感病池间和F2分离群体的抗病、感病单株间稳定地扩增出特异性产物.7对引物所扩增的特异谱带分别为:Xcfd189360、Xcfd29190、Xcfd8160、Xcfd102250、Xcfd7200、Xcfd57245和Xgwm190210,它们与Pm2基因间的遗传距离分别为0、1.5、2.3、5.4、10.2、31.5和54.3 cM,其中标记Xcfd189360与Pm2共分离,标记Xcfd29190、Xcfd8160和Xcfd102250与Pm2紧密连锁,可用于Pm2的标记辅助选择.%To detect molecular markers linked to wheat powdery mildew resistance gene Pni2, microsatel-lite (simple sequence repeats, SSR) markers and bulked segregant analysis (BSA) method were used in the F2 segregation population derived from the F, of between common wheat susceptible cultivar Chancellor and Pm2 near-isogonics line ( NIL). The polymorphisms were revealed by 12 from 71 pairs SSR primers originally assigned to chromosome 5D of wheat between NIL of Pm2 and Chancellor. The polymorphic bands were found by 7 of these 12 SSR primers between the resistant and susceptible DNA pools, and the resistant and susceptible plants of the F2 population, respectively. These specific DNA bands were designated as Xcfd 189360, Xcfd29190, Xcfd8160, XcfdlO22JO, Xcfd, Xcfd57245 and Xgwml90210, respectively. The genetic distance between these marks and Pm2 was 0, 1.5, 2. 3, 5.4, 10. 2, 31.5 and 54. 3 cM, respectively. On the genetic linkage map of Pm2, Xcfdl89360 was shown to co-segregate with the Pm2 gene, and markers Xcfd29190, Xcfd8l60 and Xcfdl02j50

  6. Ceramic subsurface marker prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, C.E. [Rockwell International Corp., Richland, WA (United States). Rockwell Hanford Operations

    1985-05-02

    The client submitted 5 sets of porcelain and stoneware subsurface (radioactive site) marker prototypes (31 markers each set). The following were determined: compressive strength, thermal shock resistance, thermal crazing resistance, alkali resistance, color retention, and chemical resistance.

  7. Parental Optimism and Progeny Choice: When is Screening for Offspring Quality Affordable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes; Mock

    1998-05-01

    Three general classes of fitness incentives have been proposed for parental overproduction of offspring: (1) tracking environmental variation; (2) developmental facilitation; and (3) replacements for failed or defective members of the core brood. In one version of this last category, called the progeny choice hypothesis, parents are seen as creating an enlarged array of offspring from which a genetically superior subset is chosen for full investment. In the selection process, parents may eliminate the victims either through personal effort (filial infanticide) or by proxy (by allowing or even encouraging fatal sibling rivalry). Because the culling process is non-random, it can elevate average offspring quality. Progeny choice, however, is only cost-effective if the expenses of early overproduction (including elevated levels of sibling competition) do not outweigh the eventual upgrade in offspring quality. A fair competition within the offspring "arena" offers the greatest potential for discriminating on the basis of intrinsic quality, but may be overwhelmed by high costs of sibling rivalry. Conversely, while parentally managed competition (conferring handicaps to some and advantages to others) can discount those rivalry costs, it simultaneously diminishes the system's capacity for distinguishing good offspring from bad. Ceteris paribus, one would expect to find progeny choice mechanisms in species with cheap sibling rivalry, large cohorts of evenly matched offspring, and exaggerated variation in offspring genetic quality. Conversely, this class of incentives of parental overproduction seems least suited to taxa in which parents dole out marked advantages or handicaps to various concurrent offspring (e.g. asynchronously hatching birds).Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited PMID:9628835

  8. Mass scale screening of common arboviral infections by an affordable, cost effective RT-PCR method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debjani Taraphdar; Arindam Sarkar; Shyamalendu Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To develop a rapid, cost effective RT-PCR method for the mass scale diagnosis of such diseases at the viremia stage to find out the actual disease burden in that area. Methods:For this purpose, cases with the history of only short febrile illness were considered. Thus 157 samples with the history of dengue/chikungunya like illness and only 58 samples with a history of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) were selected. Results:Out of 157 samples, 42 and 74 were detected as dengue and chikungunya, respectively and out of 58 AES cases only 23 could be detected as Japanese encephalitis by this RT-PCR method. Conclusions:This cost effective RT-PCR method can detect the total positive cases that remain undetected by ELISA method. Moreover, this method is capable to detect the viral RNA from patients’ sera even after the appearance of IgM antibody at one fifth costs as compared with the other commercially available kits.

  9. Abel model: Evaluates claims of inability to afford penalties and compliance costs, version 2.6 (for microcomputers). Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The easy-to-use ABEL software evaluates for-profit company claims of inabiltiy to afford penalties, clean-up costs, or compliance costs. Violators raise the issue of inability to pay in most of EPA`s enforcement actions regardless of whether there is any hard evidence pay in most of EPA`s enforcement actions regardless of whether there is any hard evidence supporting those claims. The program enables Federal, State and local enforcement professionals to quickly determine if there was any validity to those claims. ABEL is a tool that promotes quick settlements by performing screening analyses of defendants and potentially responsible parties (PRP`s) to determine their financial capacity. If ABEL indicates the firm can afford the full penalty, compliance of clean-up cost, then EPA makes no adjustments for inability to pay. If it indicates that the firm cannot afford the full amount, it directs the enforcement personnel to review other financial reports before making any adjustments. After analyzing some basic financial ratios that reflect a company`s solvency, ABEL assesses the firm`s ability to pay by focusing on projected cash flows. The model explicitly calculates the value of projected, internally generated cash flows from historical tax information, and compares these cash flows to the prosposed environmental expenditure(s). The sofware is extremely easy to use. Users are taken through a series of prompts to enter specified data. On screen `help` information is available at any time.

  10. Newborn screening for MCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, Gabriella A; Davidson, A G F; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia G;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation, with potential fatal outcome. MCAD deficiency is diagnosed by acylcarnitine analysis on newborn screening blood spot cards by tandem mass spectrometry. Early diagnosis...... of MCAD and presymptomatic treatment can potentially reduce morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate incidence, clinical outcome, biochemical and molecular phenotype of MCAD cases detected in the first three years of newborn screening in British Columbia (BC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Medium chain...... is comparable to reports from other newborn screening programs. Persistence of elevated C8 levels and C8/C10 ratios in confirmed MCAD cases suggest that these are sensitive markers for newborn screening. Early detection and treatment have successfully prevented adverse health outcomes in patients with MCAD....

  11. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  12. How much can the NHS afford to spend to save a life or avoid a severe disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C J; Farrow, S C; Charny, M C

    1985-01-12

    A measure termed the "benefit:premium ratio" is proposed to determine whether certain screening programs or high technology procedures are too expensive for Britain's National Health Service (NHS). Given that the NHS budget is finite, some programs, though proven effective, violate the principle of equity and reduce the benefits available to all subscribers. Since programs such as cervical and breast cancer screening, and routine preoperative chest X-rays, are aimed at eliminating infrequent risks, their cost is higher than warranted for an insurance-based system of health care. On the other hand, procedures such as renal transplantation, blood pressure screening, and open heart surgery are affordable according to the benefit:premium formula.

  13. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition. PMID:27327864

  14. Exploring Affordances of Social Media Use in Election Campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Signe; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    In recent years, social media have become omnipresent and highly important for social networking and content sharing. Lately we have witnessed how also political parties adopt social media as part of their political campaign strategy. The purpose of this work-in-progress paper is to investigate...... this tendency by posing two research questions: 1) what do political parties perceive as affordances of social media use in their campaign strategy? And 2) how are these affordances reflected in the political parties’ actual actions during the campaign? To address the two questions, we conducted a qualitative...... interaction and involvement is limited by their actions as most of them do not engage with the users’ posts and comments. The tensions between perceived affordances and actual use prompt further investigation of what political parties should consider when engaging in social media activities as part...

  15. The role of affordances in Libras acquisition as second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Puhl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Libras is a visual-spatial language used by the Brazilian deaf community. Following the principles of spatiality and vision, the user of the sign language resorts more easily to stimuli from the environment than the user of the oral language. Thus, the hypothesis of this research is that the affordances (environmental properties that enable psychologically possible actions would be a facilitator element in the process of Libras acquisition. In this paper we use the narrative and interpretive-qualitative research to discuss the role of affordances in the listener perception, interpretation and action cycle in Libras acquisition as second language. Results show that the Libras’ iconic signs can be considered important affordances in the early stages of the acquisition. It is also observed the importance of the permanence in the niche where Libras is used for the sign language development.

  16. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction. PMID:27606585

  17. Are adjunctive markers useful in routine cervical cancer screening? Application of p16(INK4a) and HPV-PCR on ThinPrep samples with histological follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schledermann, D; Andersen, B T; Bisgaard, K;

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate 1) the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of p16(INK4a) as a marker for high-grade cervical lesions, 2) the results of a real-time polymerase chain reaction detecting high-risk human papillomavirus, and 3) the interobserver variability of the p16(INK......4a) interpretation.A total of 232 ThinPrep samples were stained for p16(INK4a), and HPV-DNA PCR was performed on 107 specimens with inclusion of both benign and abnormal cytology. Histological follow-up information was collected.The diagnostic sensitivity of ASC+ with CIN2+ in histology as endpoint...... was 96% for p16(INK4a) and 100% for HR-HPV DNA PCR, and the diagnostic specificity was 41% and 27%, respectively. If p16(INK4a) had been used for triage of the ASC samples, then 18 patients (42%) could have been spared unnecessary follow-up procedures compared to six patients (21%) with the HR-HPV DNA...

  18. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  19. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ionizing radiation for security screening individuals [online]. Health Physics Society Position Statement. 2009. Available at http: / / hps. org/ documents/ securityscreening_ ps017- 1. pdf. Accessed 7 January 2011. Interagency Steering Committee on ...

  20. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  1. Affordable housing and urban regeneration in Portugal: a troubled tryst?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branco, Rosa; Alves, Sonia

    demographic trajectory over recent decades. Despite some signs of sporadic residential gentrification, the local social fabric continues to be characterized by an ageing population and weak educational and socio-economic capital. In the current phase of economic and social crisis, it is critical to consider...... in the analysis of the sustainability and social relevance of current strategies....... whether and how the new agents of urban regeneration, in particular the Urban Rehabilitation Societies, are providing affordable housing in these areas. In this context, it makes sense to discuss the meaning of concepts and models of social and affordable housing in Portugal since they are key elements...

  2. Lung cancer screening: the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giulia

    2015-05-01

    European studies have contributed significantly to the understanding of lung cancer screening. Smoking within screening, quality of life, nodule management, minimally invasive treatments, cancer prevention programs, and risk models have been extensively investigated by European groups. Mortality data from European screening studies have not been encouraging so far, but long-term results of the NELSON study are eagerly awaited. Investigations on molecular markers of lung cancer are ongoing in Europe; preliminary results suggest they may become an important screening tool in the future.

  3. 大麻雄性基因连锁AFLP分子标记的筛选及鉴定%Screening and Identification of AFLP Markers Linked to Male Gene in Cannabis sativa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽; 张海军; 王明泽; 车野; 刘德泉; 陈井生; 刘德福; 于吉东; 吴耀坤

    2015-01-01

    为建立一种大麻早期性别筛选及鉴定方法,利用 AFLP 标记技术,筛选了64对EcoRI-NNN/MseI-NNN引物组合,对11个不同大麻品种雌﹑雄植株的混合DNA池进行了性别连锁特异性条带的筛选。结果表明,6对引物组合表现出多态性,其中, EcoRI-ACA/MseI-CTG在雄性DNA池中扩增出1条特异条带,经各品种单株DNA验证,该条带只在雄性单株稳定出现,回收﹑克隆﹑测序后获得1条可用于大麻早期田间性别鉴定的734 bp雄性特异条带。%64 pairs of AFLP primer combinations of 8 pairs of EcoRI-NNN and MseI-NNN prim-ers were used to find the polymorphisms between mixed DNA pools of Cannabis sativa L. varieties. Six pairs of sixty -four primer combinations showed polymorphism between male and female DNA pools. 700 bp specific fragments were amplified in the primer combination of EcoRI-ACA and MseI-CTG in male DNA pool. This marker was testified with individual DNA of 11 varieties, and the fragment could only be amplified in male plants. The male-specific fragment of 734bp was recovered, cloned and se-quenced.

  4. Children's Learning from Touch Screens: A Dual Representation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Kelly J; Uttal, David H

    2016-01-01

    Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium - that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog) while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog). Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children's learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children's ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children's developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children's ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children's cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium. PMID:27570516

  5. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  6. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  7. Material Affordances: The Potential of Scrapbooks in the Composition Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kara Poe

    2013-01-01

    A multiliteracies pedagogy has renewed our interest in materiality, or how the physical text interacts with the author's choices and the context to contribute to the message, yet little attention has been paid to materiality in analog texts, such as the scrapbook, even though this medium contains affordances (capabilities and limitations) that…

  8. Affordance, Learning Opportunities, and the Lesson Plan Pro Forma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the most commonly used lesson plan pro formas in language teacher education are inappropriately premised on an outcomes-based approach to teaching, one that is in conflict with what we know about how languages are learnt and how experienced teachers teach. It proposes an alternative, affordance-based approach to lesson…

  9. Learning Affordances of Language and Communication National Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the learning affordances of different language and communication curricula in the world. For reasons of space, only two national education systems (Finland and Singapore) and their language and communication curricula are referred to. The accounts of national education systems consist of the identification of mechanisms…

  10. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  11. 78 FR 39644 - Information Reporting for Affordable Insurance Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Marketplaces). Section 1401 of the Affordable Care Act enacted section 36B, allowing a refundable premium tax... of the advance payment with the amount of the premium tax credit computed on the taxpayer's income... payments also may claim the premium tax credit on the income tax return. Section 36B(f)(3)...

  12. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-12-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs could be introduced and used to support students' engagement in scientific processes and develop competent scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning investigations, and analyzing data). Additionally, little is understood about complex interactions among scientific processes and affordances of MERs. Therefore, this article focuses on pedagogical affordances of MERs in learning environments that engage students in various scientific processes. By reviewing literature in science education and cognitive psychology and integrating multiple perspectives, this article aims at exploring (1) how MERs can be integrated with science processes due to their different affordances, and (2) how student learning with MERs can be scaffolded, especially in a classroom situation. We argue that pairing representations and scientific processes in a principled way based on the affordances of the representations and the goals of the activities is a powerful way to use MERs in science education. Finally, we outline types of scaffolding that could help effective use of MERs including dynamic linking, model progression, support in instructional materials, teacher support, and active engagement.

  13. Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A; Mhurchu, C N; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S; Hawkes, C; L'abbé, M; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. PMID:24074213

  14. Lean, Mean and Green: An Affordable Net Zero School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    From its conception, Richardsville Elementary was designed to be an affordable net zero facility. The design team explored numerous energy saving strategies to dramatically reduce energy consumption. By reducing energy use to 19.31 kBtus annually, the net zero goal could be realized through the implementation of a solar array capable of producing…

  15. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (b) Use or commitment of funds. Approval of applications for AHP subsidies... year-end are deemed to be used or committed if, in combination with AHP subsidies that have been... highest scoring AHP application in the Bank's final funding period of the year for its...

  16. Energy affordability and the benefits system in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we discuss a number of ways to define and measure the affordability of energy consumption, and we examine the emergence of energy poverty in Italy in the period from 1998 to 2011. The paper examines the eligibility criteria for claiming the benefits available to support energy consumption for vulnerable families and it identifies the potential beneficiaries. The study assesses the appropriateness of the eligibility criteria by comparing the population targeted by the policy with the population actually facing affordability problems. A simulation exercise, using the hypothetical scenario most likely to result in energy benefits being made available, shows that, regardless of the affordability index adopted, the provision of state energy benefits has little impact on fuel poverty. - Highlights: • The paper provides a discussion of alternative measure of energy affordability. • We examine the emergence of fuel poverty in Italy from 1998 to 2011. • We assess the appropriateness of the Italian energy benefits eligibility criteria. • A simulation shows that the energy benefits have little impact on fuel poverty

  17. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Tânia Maria de Almeida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

  18. Early Visual Perception Potentiated by Object Affordances: Evidence From a Temporal Order Judgment Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Yamani, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Perceived objects automatically potentiate afforded action. Object affordances also facilitate perception of such objects, and this occurrence is known as the affordance effect. This study examined whether object affordances facilitate the initial visual processing stage, or perceptual entry processes, using the temporal order judgment task. The onset of the graspable (right-handled) coffee cup was perceived earlier than that of the less graspable (left-handled) cup for right-handed participants. The affordance effect was eliminated when the coffee cups were inverted, which presumably conveyed less affordance information. These results suggest that objects preattentively potentiate the perceptual entry processes in response to their affordances.

  19. Screening of genetic markers associated with lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer%结直肠癌淋巴结转移相关基因标志物的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雨江; 谢妮; 刘丽桃; 李仲航; 万丽丽; 朱婷

    2015-01-01

    [ABSTRACT]OBJECTIVE:Try to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs),copy number variation (CNVs) and mRNA expression from the genetic or tumor markers that areassociated with lymph node metastases in colorectal cancer.METHODS:Targeted next-generation sequencing(Illumina Hiseq) was applied to capture SNPs and CNVs in tumor-related candidate genes of tumor tissues and paired normal tissues adjacent to the tumors from 25 colorectal cancer specimens;real time-PCR was used to detect specific mRNA expression of tumor-related candidate genes (VEGFC, CCNA2,IL2,ABCG2,EGF andNFKB1) on chromosome 4 of 39 colorectal cancer patient specimens.RESULTS:The SNPs in SLC28A3,BRCA1,RRM2,PMS2,CDA,EPHX1,RALY,CD33,BCL10,ETV1,MST1R, KMT2B,BCL2,LSM3,TTF1,MAP3K1 genes were significantly correlated with lymphatic metastasis risk (P0.05). Compared with non lymph node metastasis group,mRNA expressions ofEGF andNFKB1 were both down-regulated in the lymph node metastasis group,and the difference was statistically significant(P0.05);与无淋巴结转移组相比,EGF和NFKB1基因的mRNA表达量在淋巴结转移组中降低,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:SLC28A3、BRCA1、RRM2、PMS2、CDA、EPHX1、RALY、CD33、BCL10、ETV1、MST1R、KMT2B、BCL2、LSM3、TTF1、MAP3K1基因的SNPs以及EGF、NFKB1基因表达下调可能与结直肠癌淋巴结转移有关,为结直肠癌淋巴结转移的潜在分子标志。本实验未发现候选基因CNVs与结直肠癌病人的淋巴结转移相关。

  20. 结直肠癌淋巴结转移相关基因标志物的筛选%Screening of genetic markers associated with lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雨江; 谢妮; 刘丽桃; 李仲航; 万丽丽; 朱婷

    2015-01-01

    [ABSTRACT]OBJECTIVE:Try to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs),copy number variation (CNVs) and mRNA expression from the genetic or tumor markers that areassociated with lymph node metastases in colorectal cancer.METHODS:Targeted next-generation sequencing(Illumina Hiseq) was applied to capture SNPs and CNVs in tumor-related candidate genes of tumor tissues and paired normal tissues adjacent to the tumors from 25 colorectal cancer specimens;real time-PCR was used to detect specific mRNA expression of tumor-related candidate genes (VEGFC, CCNA2,IL2,ABCG2,EGF andNFKB1) on chromosome 4 of 39 colorectal cancer patient specimens.RESULTS:The SNPs in SLC28A3,BRCA1,RRM2,PMS2,CDA,EPHX1,RALY,CD33,BCL10,ETV1,MST1R, KMT2B,BCL2,LSM3,TTF1,MAP3K1 genes were significantly correlated with lymphatic metastasis risk (P0.05). Compared with non lymph node metastasis group,mRNA expressions ofEGF andNFKB1 were both down-regulated in the lymph node metastasis group,and the difference was statistically significant(P0.05);与无淋巴结转移组相比,EGF和NFKB1基因的mRNA表达量在淋巴结转移组中降低,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:SLC28A3、BRCA1、RRM2、PMS2、CDA、EPHX1、RALY、CD33、BCL10、ETV1、MST1R、KMT2B、BCL2、LSM3、TTF1、MAP3K1基因的SNPs以及EGF、NFKB1基因表达下调可能与结直肠癌淋巴结转移有关,为结直肠癌淋巴结转移的潜在分子标志。本实验未发现候选基因CNVs与结直肠癌病人的淋巴结转移相关。

  1. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self- ...

  2. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  3. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  4. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Ma; Liang Li; Wenxiu Zhao; Xiang Ji; Fangfang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other type...

  5. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  6. 低剂量CT与4肿瘤标记物联合检测对肺癌高危人群筛查的研究%Low-dose spiral CT combined tumor markers for lung cancer screening high-risk groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丰章; 邹南安; 胡含明; 巫启恒; 欧阳良

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价低剂量螺旋CT(low dose spiral computed tomography,LDCT)扫描联合4种肺癌肿瘤标记物(人多效蛋白PTN、神经元特异烯醇化酶NSE、细胞角质蛋白Cyfra21-1及癌胚抗原CEA)检测对肺癌高危人群早期肺癌筛查的阳性率及特异性。方法分析及统计2011年-2013年进行LDCT扫描及肿瘤标志物联合筛查肺癌高危人群体的检查结果,并与常规早期肺癌筛查研究结果进行比较分析。结果 LDCT与常规剂量CT扫描肺部阳性检出率及病变影像学表现基本一致,无统计学差异(P>0.05),而辐射剂量明显下降,是常规剂量的6.38%(P0.05),and radiation dose decreased obviously,it was regular doses of 6.38%(P<0.05);Four types of lung cancer tumor markers combined de-tection sensitivity about 95%,specificity about 80% of lung cancer,was of great significance for early diagnosis of lung cancer,4 kinds of this experimental lung cancer tumor markers positive rate was 1.58%(6 cases),ultimately determine the early lung cancer was 1.05%(4 cases),LDCT to detect lesions positive rate was 12.1%in this group (46 cases),of which 8 cases of imaging diagnosis of early lung cancer (2.11%),and finally only 4 cases (1.05%) diagnosed with lung cancer early,imaging in the diagnosis of false positives. To participate in this study,a total of 759 people,of whom LDCT and tumor markers combined test group(379,female:379 people,average age 54.3 years,7 patients with copd;male:203,the average age of 57.6 years,26 patients with copd screening lung were 12.1%(46 people with lung CT positive performance,6 people joint inspection tumor markers were positive,4 cases were diagnosed with lung cancer). Conclusion LDCT two inspection methods and lung cancer tumor markers have complementary ad-vantages,early lung cancer detection rate was 1.05%,avoid single check false positive events,joint detection more conducive to early detection and qualitative diagnosis of early lung cancer.

  7. Current screens

    OpenAIRE

    Cubitt, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of screen design, including LCD, LED and DLP projection, is analysed in terms of the political economy and their aesthetics and phenomenological impacts, in association with the use of codecs as constraining as well as enabling tools in the control and management of visual data transmission.

  8. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  9. Affordances and synchronization in collective creative construction tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    to the affordances of the task at hand. We also show that during collective, but not individual tasks, within group synchronization grows over time. Finally, we discuss how these measures of synchronization relate to the participants’ engagement in the tasks at hand and to the end products (LEGO models......: the affordances of the task at hand and the gradual consolidation of collaborative practices. Six groups of participants were instructed to construct LEGO models of six abstract notions (“responsibility”, “knowledge”, “justice” etc.), both individually and in groups. We combine video analysis and heart rate...... measurements and employ recurrence analysis techniques to quantify the mutual adaptability of heart rates among the participants in the different tasks. We show that during individual tasks individual heart rates synchronize both within and between groups (but not with controls) plausibly due...

  10. Learning Objects and Grasp Affordances through Autonomous Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Detry, Renaud; Pugeault, Nicolas;

    2009-01-01

    We describe a system for autonomous learning of visual object representations and their grasp affordances on a robot-vision system. It segments objects by grasping and moving 3D scene features, and creates probabilistic visual representations for object detection, recognition and pose estimation......, which are then augmented by continuous characterizations of grasp affordances generated through biased, random exploration. Thus, based on a careful balance of generic prior knowledge encoded in (1) the embodiment of the system, (2) a vision system extracting structurally rich information from stereo...... image sequences as well as (3) a number of built-in behavioral modules on the one hand, and autonomous exploration on the other hand, the system is able to generate object and grasping knowledge through interaction with its environment....

  11. Self-Supervised Online Learning of Basic Object Push Affordances

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Ridge; Aleš Leonardis; Aleš Ude; Miha Deniša; Danijel Skočaj

    2015-01-01

    Continuous learning of object affordances in a cognitive robot is a challenging problem, the solution to which arguably requires a developmental approach. In this paper, we describe scenarios where robotic systems interact with household objects by pushing them using robot arms while observing the scene with cameras, and which must incrementally learn, without external supervision, both the effect classes that emerge from these interactions as well as a discriminative model for predicting the...

  12. The Affordable Care Act and the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Aaronson, Daniel; Lubotsky, Darren

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Congress passed the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the largest expansion of health insurance since the advent of Medicaid and Medicare roughly a half century ago. Because the law is being phased in slowly and many provisions are still years away from being launched, the law’s impact on employment, wages, job mobility, retirement, self-employment, economic efficiency, and overall well-being remains contentious.

  13. Promoting Prevention Through the Affordable Care Act: Workplace Wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Anderko, Laura; Roffenbender, Jason S.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Millard, Francois; Wildenhaus, Kevin; DeSantis, Charles; Novelli, William

    2012-01-01

    Public health in the United States can be improved by building workplace “cultures of health” that support healthy lifestyles. The Affordable Care Act (ACA), which includes the Prevention and Public Health Fund, will support a new focus on prevention and wellness, offering opportunities to strengthen the public’s health through workplace wellness initiatives. This article describes the opportunity the ACA provides to improve worker wellness.

  14. The Affordable Care Act and implications for young adult health

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    In the USA, young adults are most likely to be uninsured and least likely to report a usual source of medical care than any age group. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) recognizes the critical need for expanded insurance coverage for this age group, and multiple provisions of the ACA address insurance coverage and health care utilization in young adults. This paper presents a brief overview of the challenges of maintaining health insurance coverage and accessing health care...

  15. Affordability in Health Care: Operationalizations and Applications in Different Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Niëns, Laurens

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Over the last decades, total health expenditures have increased significantly (Meltzer, 2001; Folland et al., 2004). Governments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as well as in high-income countries face the difficult challenge of ensuring that necessary interventions are accessible for those who need them, while keeping care affordable. Since good quality health care and new medical interventions can be expensive, the process of balancing the goals of e...

  16. Can Low-Income Americans Afford a Healthy Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Drewnowski, Adam; Eichelsdoerfer, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Many nutritional professionals believe that all Americans, regardless of income, have access to a nutritious diet of whole grains, lean meats, and fresh vegetables and fruit. In reality, food prices pose a significant barrier for many consumers who are trying to balance good nutrition with affordability. The Thrifty Food Plan (TFP), commonly cited as a model of a healthy low-cost diet, achieves cost goals by relaxing some nutrition constraints and by disregarding the usual eating habits of th...

  17. Monolithic QCL design approaches for improved reliability and affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many advances have been made recently in mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) technologies, and there is an increasing demand for these laser sources for ever expanding Naval, DoD and homeland security applications. We will discuss in this paper a portfolio of various Naval Air Warfare Weapons Division's current and future small business innovative research programs and efforts on significantly improving QCLs' performance, affordability, and reliability.

  18. Affordance-based individuation of junctions in Open Street Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Scheider

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an algorithm that can be used to identify automatically the subset of street segments of a road network map that corresponds to a junction. The main idea is to use turn-compliant locomotion affordances, i.e., restricted patterns of supported movement, in order to specify junctions independently of their data representation, and in order to motivate tractable individuation and classification strategies. We argue that common approaches based solely on geometry or topology of the street segment graph are useful but insufficient proxies. They miss certain turn restrictions essential to junctions. From a computational viewpoint, the main challenge of affordance-based individuation of junctions lies in its complex recursive definition. In this paper, we show how Open Street Map data can be interpreted into locomotion affordances, and how the recursive junction definition can be translated into a deterministic algorithm. We evaluate this algorithm by applying it to small map excerpts in order to delineate the contained junctions.

  19. Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for creating space transportation architectures that are affordable, productive, and sustainable. The architectural scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive, and also affordable throughout its life cycle. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper follows up previous work by using a structured process to derive examples of conceptual architectures that integrate a number of advanced concepts and technologies. The examples are not intended to provide a near-term alternative architecture to displace current near-term design and development activity. Rather, the examples demonstrate an approach that promotes early investments in advanced system concept studies and trades (flight and ground), as well as in advanced technologies with the goal of enabling highly affordable, productive flight and ground space transportation systems.

  20. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  1. Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: a review of current American cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brooks, Durado; Doroshenk, Mary; Fedewa, Stacey; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection along with a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines. The latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) also is described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Affordable Care Act, including the expansion of the Medicaid program.

  2. 孕早、中期血清标志物筛查和介入性产前诊断的临床应用与分析%Clinical application and analysis on serum markers screening during the first and second trimester of pregnancy and interventional prenatal diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐两蒲; 林元; 范向群; 郑琳; 吴小青; 黄海龙; 何德钦; 李英; 林娜; 王林铄

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical application values of prenatal screening during the first and second trimester of pregnancy and prenatal diagnosis in preventing and reducing chromosomal diseases and congenital birth defect, further promote the increase of the work. Methods; Time - resolved immunoflourometric assay was used to detect double serum markers of pregnancy associated plasma protein A ( PAPP - A) and free β - human chorionic gonadotropin ( HCG) among the pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy (9-13 gestational weeks) , triple serum markers of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) , free β - HCC and unconjugated estriol among the pregnant women during the second trimester of pregnancy (15-20 gestational weeks) ; the pregnant women with high risk of prenatal screening and other high risk indications received interventional prenatal diagnosis, including fetal chromosomal analysis of villi, amniotic fluid and umbilical blood; the pregnant women with high risk of patent neural tube defect (NTD) were diagnosed definitely by color Doppler ultrasound. Results; A-mong 66 852 patients receiving prenatal serum screening, the total positive rate of high risk was 6.1%. Among 4 427 patients receiving interventional prenatal diagnosis, the abnormal rate was 5.0%. Among 324 patients with high risk of NTD who were diagnosed definitely by color Doppler ultrasound, the confirmed diagnosis rate was 8.3%. 48 patients were found with trisomy 21 syndrome, 33 patients were found with trisomy 18 syndrome, 12 patients were found with trisomy 13 syndrome, 27 patients were found with NTD and 127 patients were found with other numerical abnormalities of chromosomes and structural abnormalities of chromosomes. Among various indications of prenatal diagnosis, the detection rates of chromosomal diseases in chromosomal abnormality carriers group, trisomy 18 syndrome high risk group and B -ultrasound indicated fetal anomaly group were significantly higher than those in the other

  3. Autism Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Screening and Diagnosis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... two steps: Developmental Screening Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation Developmental Screening Developmental screening is a short test to tell ...

  4. SCREENING FOR OVARIAN CANCER: REALITY AND PROSPECTS. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Gerfanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A review article presents the modern methods of screening and early diagnosis of primary ovarian cancer (OC. This issue is still relevant in view of the continuing upward trend in incidence rate ratios along with a slight decrease in mortality and 5-year survival rate, as well as the lack of clear definition of the concept of pathogenesis. The diagnostic value of tumor markers and their potential, advantages and disadvantages are discussed. In light of this the need becomes evident for combination of tumor markers with radiological method of imaging, such as transvaginal sonography as the most affordable, safe and multi-reproducible method enabling to most accurately determine the nature of the process, its nosology belonging, as well as to carry out the required dynamic monitoring within a short time. More advanced imaging techniques such as computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging proved too expensive for widespread use in view of their limited sensitivity and specificity. Attempt to assess the performance of marker screening on the base of CA-125 in groups, divided by clinical and pathogenic way of OC development also proved to be ineffective. Currently, none of the presented algorithms can meet the criteria of economic efficiency, even in the most developed countries. In view of the above, possible options to enhance their performance by developing reliable multimarker panels, the use of ultrasound color power doppler mapping, and others are considered. In addition, the feasibility and application prospects of ultrasound elastometry, mass-spectrometry, IVDMIA tests, OVA dx-test as part of screening programs are discussed. The data of recent studies on the direct comparison of diagnostic tests is given. The importance of genetic counseling for persons at high risk of cancer development process is noted. In case of mutation detection in the BRCA1, BRCA2 genes, in some countries a wide range of preventive activities is recommended

  5. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  6. A Bootstrap Approach to an Affordable Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential to build an affordable sustainable exploration program by adopting an approach that requires investing in technologies that can be used to build a space infrastructure from very modest initial capabilities. Human exploration has had a history of flight programs that have high development and operational costs. Since Apollo, human exploration has had very constrained budgets and they are expected be constrained in the future. Due to their high operations costs it becomes necessary to consider retiring established space facilities in order to move on to the next exploration challenge. This practice may save cost in the near term but it does so by sacrificing part of the program s future architecture. Human exploration also has a history of sacrificing fully functional flight hardware to achieve mission objectives. An affordable exploration program cannot be built when it involves billions of dollars of discarded space flight hardware, instead, the program must emphasize preserving its high value space assets and building a suitable permanent infrastructure. Further this infrastructure must reduce operational and logistics cost. The paper examines the importance of achieving a high level of logistics independence by minimizing resource consumption, minimizing the dependency on external logistics, and maximizing the utility of resources available. The approach involves the development and deployment of a core suite of technologies that have minimum initial needs yet are able expand upon initial capability in an incremental bootstrap fashion. The bootstrap approach incrementally creates an infrastructure that grows and becomes self sustaining and eventually begins producing the energy, products and consumable propellants that support human exploration. The bootstrap technologies involve new methods of delivering and manipulating energy and materials. These technologies will exploit the space environment, minimize dependencies, and

  7. Affordable Housing Policy: Integration of Land Use Tools and the Role of State Growth Management

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Melissa Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Affordable housing is recognized as a problem in many localities throughout the United States. Local governments have the power to influence housing affordability through land use policies. Land use tools exist to address affordable housing.. However, these tools are primarily used to address other environmental, economic, and social issues. When implemented to serve other land use objectives, these tools can have a negative impact on affordable housing. This paper will describe the link ...

  8. Quality assessment in prospective nuchal translucency screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Christiansen, M; Sundberg, K;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and apply a quality control system in a Down syndrome screening study using nuchal translucency as an interventional marker. METHODS: In a prospective Down syndrome screening study fetal nuchal translucency thickness was measured in 9236 of the 10 045 examined pregnancies...

  9. First trimester combined screening - focus on early biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels

    2016-01-01

    First trimester combined screening (cFTS) for foetal trisomy 21 has become an established method in many countries. The screening is based on a combination of maternal-age-related risk, ultrasound (nuchal translucency) and two maternal serum biochemical markers, free beta human chorionic gonadotr...

  10. The Reader's Devices: The affordances of ebook readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather MacFadyen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Print books and ebook devices now co-exist in a reading eco-system. The ways in which readers understand and describe their experience of reading on ebook devices is shaped by long-established cultural expectations about the abstract as well as the physical affordances of the print book. Ebook devices cannot help but challenge those expectations. A review of readers’ reactions to the emergence of ebook devices offers a glimpse into the complex cultural position of both the idea and the experience of reading.

  11. The affordances and use of green citizen engagement web tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Scheele, Christian Elling

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse if and how three different green web applications create the basis for different levels of environmental citizen participation. This is relevant in both an e-governance context and an environmental policy context, as it is normally assumed that ICT...... that differences in affordance translates into differences in use. Theoretically, the paper departs from Contextual New Medium Theory. This theory focuses on technological practices, and demonstrates how these are created in interplay between technology, policy ideas and actor skills. Empirically, the paper...

  12. Housing Affordability in New Zealand: Evidence from Household Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    David Law; Lisa Meehan

    2013-01-01

    Housing affordability has been a topic of much interest in New Zealand over recent years with the median house price increasing by over 50% between 2004 and 2008. The aim of this paper is to inform debate by drawing out evidence from two surveys: the Household Economic Survey (HES); and the Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE). In particular, the paper examines how patterns of house prices, expenditures, and home ownership have changed over time and across groups. A model which may...

  13. On possibilities for action: The past, present and future of affordance research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert-Jan Pepping

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We give a historical overview of the development of almost 50 years of empirical research on the affordances in the past and in the present. Defined by James Jerome Gibson in the early development of the Ecological Approach to Perception and Action as the prime of perception and action, affordances have become a rich topic of investigation in the fields of human movement science and experimental psychology. The methodological origins of the empirical research performed on affordances can be traced back to the mid 1980’s and the works of Warren (1984, 1988 and Michaels (1988. Most of the research in Ecological Psychology performed since has focused on the actualization of discretely defined actions, the perception of action boundaries, the calculation of pi-numbers, and the measurement of response times. The research efforts have resulted in advancements in the understanding of the dynamic nature of affordances, affordances in a social context and the importance of calibration for perception of affordances. Although affordances are seen as an instrumental part of the control of action most studies investigating affordances do not pay attention to the control of the action. We conclude that affordances are still primarily treated as a utility to select behaviour, which creates a conceptual barrier that hinders deeper understanding of affordances. A focus on action-boundaries has largely prevented advancement in other aspects of affordances, most notably an integrative understanding of the role of affordances in the control of action.

  14. 75 FR 29877 - Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... 2590-AA04 Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority... Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) until July 30, 2010, to use Affordable Housing Program (AHP) homeownership..., 2798. B. The Banks' Affordable Housing Program Section 10(j) of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act...

  15. Evaluation of complement proteins as screening markers for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Line; Christensen, Ib J; Jensenius, Jens C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Lack of symptoms results in late detection and increased mortality. Inflammation, including complement activation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The concentrations of nine proteins...... of the lectin pathway of the complement system were determined using time-resolved immunofluorometric assays. The first cohort investigated comprised a matched case-control study of 95 patients with CRC, 48 patients with adenomas and 48 individuals without neoplastic findings. Based on the results, Collectin...

  16. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses.

  17. Interaction between affordance and handedness recognition: a chronometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Lameira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The visualization of tools and manipulable objects activates motor-related areas in the cortex, facilitating possible actions toward them. This pattern of activity may underlie the phenomenon of object affordance. Some cortical motor neurons are also covertly activated during the recognition of body parts such as hands. One hypothesis is that different subpopulations of motor neurons in the frontal cortex are activated in each motor program; for example, canonical neurons in the premotor cortex are responsible for the affordance of visual objects, while mirror neurons support motor imagery triggered during handedness recognition. However, the question remains whether these subpopulations work independently. This hypothesis can be tested with a manual reaction time (MRT task with a priming paradigm to evaluate whether the view of a manipulable object interferes with the motor imagery of the subject's hand. The MRT provides a measure of the course of information processing in the brain and allows indirect evaluation of cognitive processes. Our results suggest that canonical and mirror neurons work together to create a motor plan involving hand movements to facilitate successful object manipulation.

  18. Affordance-controlled bifurcations of action patterns in martial arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Robert; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte

    2006-10-01

    Effects of participant-target distance and perceived handstriking efficiency on emergent behavior in the martial art of boxing were investigated, revealing affordance-controlled nonlinear dynamical effects (i.e. bifurcations) within the participant--target system. Results established the existence of critical values of scaled distances for emergence of first time excitations and annihilations of a diverse range of boxing actions i.e. on the appearance and dissolution of jabs, hooks and uppercuts. Reasons for the action diversity were twofold: (a) topological discontinuous changes (bifurcations) in the number of possible handstrikes, i.e. motor solutions to the hitting task; (b) fine modification of probabilities of emergence of striking patterns. Exploitation of a 'strikeability' affordance available in scaled distance-to-target information by boxers led to a diversity of emergent actions through a cascade of bifurcations in the task perceptual-motor work space. Data suggested that perceived efficiency (E) of an action changed as a function of scaled distance (D) and was correlated with the probability of occurrence of action patterns (P), exhibiting the following dependence P = P(E(D)). The implication is that probability of occurrence (P) depends on efficiency (E), which in turn depends on scaled distance (D) to the target. Accordingly, scaled distance-dependent perceived efficiency seems a viable candidate for a contextual (control) parameter to describe the nonlinear dynamics of striking actions in boxing.

  19. Architecture & Design of Affordable and Highly Available Enterprise Cloud Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi Prasad Padhy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a way to increase capacity or add capabilities on the fly without investing in additional infrastructure, licensing additional software or training new personnel. Enterprises must embrace this bleeding edge real-time business model in order to compete in the current marketplace. Deployment of enterprise applications in public cloud can reduce investment on IT infrastructure both in terms of hardware and software, whenever new services are to be provisioned. Furthermore, cloud services are quite attractive to business because of its dynamic scalability, privacy, performance and ability to handle heterogeneous environments. Instead of spending a lot of time in figuring out server setup and working on routers, it is judicious to subscribe cloud based 24/7 support and affordable services. It’s an extremely important consideration to subscribe to at least two cloud vendors for smooth running of applications and ensure application availability by switching from one provider to another with minimal management effort. In this article we have proposed an architecture and design of a cost affordable online enterprise cloud application that subscribes to two public cloud vendors with respect to cost and availability parameters. We also present the reasons for the current trend of enterprises moving towards 24/7 online business cloud services.

  20. Newer markers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Jorge A; Lok, Anna S F

    2004-11-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing worldwide; the overall survival of patients with HCC is grim because most patients are diagnosed late, when curative treatment is not possible. Cirrhosis is the strongest risk factor for the development of HCC. HCC surveillance with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography has been recommended for persons with cirrhosis. However, AFP level is insensitive for the early detection of HCC, and ultrasonography is expensive and operator dependent. Clearly, there is a need for novel strategies for the early detection of HCC. The ideal biomarker assay for HCC would be sensitive, specific, noninvasive, reproducible, inexpensive, and acceptable to patients. The Early Detection Research Network of the National Cancer Institute has proposed 5 phases for biomarker validation: preclinical exploratory studies, clinical assay development for disease, retrospective longitudinal study to detect preclinical disease, prospective screening study, and cancer control studies. Several biomarkers, such as des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP, human hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1, are promising, but none of these markers has been validated for clinical use. Limitations of the current literature include inadequate sample size, heterogeneity in biomarker assay methods and result reporting, limited analysis of demographics and cause of liver disease as covariates in the expression of these markers, and a scarcity of longitudinal studies evaluating the ability of biomarkers to detect preclinical disease. There is an urgent need for novel biomarkers for the detection of early HCC; the National Cancer Institute proposal provides a framework for future validation studies. PMID:15508074

  1. Social Media, Privacy, and Self-Disclosure: The Turbulence Caused by Social Media’s Affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Trepte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The struggle we currently perceive in terms of social media privacy may be the result of the incompatible natures of “warm” and “cold” affordances. Whereas social media’s warm affordances reflect long-standing privacy routines and expectations, cold affordances seem to challenge and sometimes violate them. Sharing under the realm of warm affordances means sharing according to the routines and habits we know. Sharing under the realm of cold affordances means understanding social media’s terms and conditions and how they reflect on our relationships and experiences - similar to assimilating to a new culture that seems opaque and constantly in flux.

  2. Generation and application of SSR markers in avocado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) DNA markers were generated and applied to avocado. An SSR marker is based on a pair of primers which are synthesized on the basis of DNA sequences flanking a micro satellite. These markers are PCR based, quite polymorphic and abundant in several species. These are the markers, of choice in the human genome. The number of SSR markers in the avocado genome was calculated to be about 45,000, with the A/T micro satellite being the most frequent (1 in 40 kb). SSR markers are quite expensive to generate due to the required multi-step procedure; Screening a genomic library, about 66% of the positive clones turned out after sequencing to be SSR containing clones. In only about 55% of these, was it possible to synthesize primers and, of this group, only about 50% of the markers were useful for typing a specific family. Typing of five avocado cultivars using 59 SSR markers results in one to eight alleles per locus, mean heterozygosity ranging between 0.51 and 0.66 and gene diversity ranging between 0.42 and 0.66. The SSR markers were used to estimate the genetic relationships between various Persea species. The number of alleles in these species ranged between five and twelve with heterozygosity levels between 0.11-0.78 and gene diversity between 0.69-0.89. A preliminary genetic map, based on these SSR markers together with some DNA fingerprints (DFP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, was drawn. The map consists of 12 linkage group having two to five markers each. Linkage analysis with several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was performed by genetic typing and phenotypic assessment of the progeny of a controlled cross. The results of the interval mapping suggest that the gene(s) coding for the existence of fibers in the flesh, are probably linked to linkage group 3. (author)

  3. Markers of pancreatic cancer: Working towards early detection

    OpenAIRE

    Goggins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Because early detection of pancreatic cancer is the best way to cure this disease, investigators continue to try and identify accurate markers of early pancreatic cancer. Since early-stage pancreatic cancer is generally asymptomatic, the only reliable way to detect it is by targeting individuals at increased risk for pancreatic screening.

  4. Sexing birds using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Mateman, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to sex birds from small tissue (usually blood) samples. Arbitrarily chosen 10-mer PCR primers were screened with DNA from known-sex individuals for the production of a bright female-specific band. Suitable primers were found for seven bird spec

  5. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dainat

    Full Text Available Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  6. Pancreatic cancer screening: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Helmstädter, Lars; Riemann, Jürgen F

    2009-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with a median survival of approximately 6 months after diagnosis. Many factors are associated with a worse outcome; examples include late diagnosis, low resection rate, aggressive tumor behavior and a lack of an effective chemotherapy regimen. Owing to the low prevalence of pancreatic cancer relative to the diagnostic accuracy of present detection methods and the absence of promising treatment modalities, even in early stages, it is currently neither advisable nor cost effective to screen the general population. Efforts are focused on early screening of selected high-risk-cohorts, who account for approximately 10% of patients with pancreatic cancer. These include patients with chronic pancreatitis, individuals with a family history of pancreatic cancer, patients with hereditary pancreatitis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, cystic fibrosis or familial atypical multiple mole melanoma. At present, a multimodal-screening approach of endoscopic ultrasound, computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography appears to be the most effective method to screen for pancreatic cancer in high-risk patients. Continued efforts are needed to elucidate effective testing to identify patients with nonhereditary risk factors who will benefit from screening protocols. A combined approach of serum markers, genetic markers and specific imaging studies may prove to be the future of pancreatic screening. PMID:19210116

  7. Health Care Affordability: How to Make It a Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Liberman, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Health care is a big business. US health care expenditures reached $2.9 trillion in 2013. Patient spending accounted for 28% of the total, which means patients spent approximately $810 billion in 2013 for insurance premiums, deductibles, copays, coinsurance, and noncovered health care services. How are patients expected to pay almost a trillion dollars in health care expenses? There is a need to find a health care financing methodology that will make health care affordable for all patients and families. An alternative method for funding health care is discussed that includes creating a government-funded annuity during the first decade of one's life. When this annuity matures later in life, many individuals will have amassed a large pot of money with which to pay for their (and their family's) health care treatment and products.

  8. Medical loss ratio regulation under the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    The minimum medical loss ratio (MLR) regulations in the Affordable Care Act guarantee that a specific percentage of health insurance premiums is spent on medical care and specified activities to improve health care quality. This paper analyzes the regulations' potential unintended consequences and incentive effects, including: higher medical costs and premiums for some insurers; less innovation to align consumer, provider, and health plan incentives, less consumer choice and increased market concentration; and the risk that insurers will pay rebates if claim costs are lower than projected when premiums are established, despite the regulations' permitted "credibility adjustments." The paper discusses modifications and alternatives to the MLR regulations to help achieve their stated goals with less potential for adverse effects. PMID:23720876

  9. Strategic options towards an affordable high-performance infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduor, Patrick; Mizuno, Genki; Dutta, Achyut K.; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2016-05-01

    The promise of infrared (IR) imaging attaining low-cost akin to CMOS sensors success has been hampered by the inability to achieve cost advantages that are necessary for crossover from military and industrial applications into the consumer and mass-scale commercial realm despite well documented advantages. Banpil Photonics is developing affordable IR cameras by adopting new strategies to speed-up the decline of the IR camera cost curve. We present a new short-wave IR (SWIR) camera; 640x512 pixel InGaAs uncooled system that is high sensitivity low noise ( 500 frames per second (FPS)) at full resolution, and low power consumption (security imaging adoption. Among the strategic options presented include new sensor manufacturing technologies that scale favorably towards automation, multi-focal plane array compatible readout electronics, and dense or ultra-small pixel pitch devices.

  10. Community-specific evaluation of tool affordances in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Muller, Martin N; Reynolds, Vernon; Wrangham, Richard; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The notion of animal culture, defined as socially transmitted community-specific behaviour patterns, remains controversial, notably because the definition relies on surface behaviours without addressing underlying cognitive processes. In contrast, human cultures are the product of socially acquired ideas that shape how individuals interact with their environment. We conducted field experiments with two culturally distinct chimpanzee communities in Uganda, which revealed significant differences in how individuals considered the affording parts of an experimentally provided tool to extract honey from a standardised cavity. Firstly, individuals of the two communities found different functional parts of the tool salient, suggesting that they experienced a cultural bias in their cognition. Secondly, when the alternative function was made more salient, chimpanzees were unable to learn it, suggesting that prior cultural background can interfere with new learning. Culture appears to shape how chimpanzees see the world, suggesting that a cognitive component underlies the observed behavioural patterns. PMID:22355645

  11. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward. PMID:26390473

  12. Collaborative Affordances of Hybrid Patient Record Technologies in Medical Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houben, Steven; Frost, Mads; Bardram, Jakob E

    2015-01-01

    The medical record is a central artifact used to organize, communicate and coordinate information related to patient care. Despite recent deployments of electronic health records (EHR), paper medical records are still widely used because of the affordances of paper. Although a number of approaches...... explored the integration of paper and digital technology, there are still a wide range of open issues in the design of technologies that integrate digital and paper-based medical records. This paper studies the use of one such novel technology, called the Hybrid Patient Record (HyPR), that is designed...... to digitally augment a paper medical record. We report on two studies: a field study in which we describe the benefits and challenges of using a combination of electronic and paper-based medical records in a large university hospital and a deployment study in which we analyze how 8 clinicians used the Hy...

  13. Design and construction of an optical compact and affordable tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following paper presents a new design allowing a reduction on the amount of required optical elements for the construction of the optical tweezers, which results in a compact and affordable system. The latter is composed by a 40 mW Nd: YAG (532 nm) laser and commercially available optics and mounts. A virtual instrument, developed using Lab View 8.0, controls both a XYZ table and a web camera for visualizing. The quality of the laser beam at the end of optical system was characterized using the knife-edge method, resulting in a Gaussian shaped (TEM00) intensity profile. It is presented as well the necessary information to align and calibrate each optical element. (Author)

  14. CA 19-9 as a serum marker in urothelial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahander Pall

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Serum CA19-9 is a marker of aggressiveness of urothelial carcinoma and is almost invariably raised in patients with metastatic disease. Thus, it may be used as a prognostic marker but not as a screening tool due to its low sensitivity.

  15. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent assessments have confirmed the results of several earlier studies that Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a leading technology for human exploration of Mars. It is generally acknowledged that NTP provides the best prospects for the transportation of humans to Mars in the 2030's. Its high Isp coupled with the high thrusts achievable, allow reasonable trip times, thereby alleviating concerns about space radiation and "claustrophobia" effects. NASA has embarked on the latest phase of the development of NTP systems, and is adopting an affordable approach in response to the pressure of the times. The affordable strategy is built on maximizing the use of the large NTP technology base developed in the 1950's and 60's. The fact that the NTP engines were actually demonstrated to work as planned, is a great risk reduction feature in its development. The strategy utilizes non-nuclear testing to the fullest extent possible, and uses focused nuclear tests for the essential qualification and certification tests. The perceived cost risk of conducting the ground tests is being addressed by considering novel testing approaches. This includes the use of boreholes to contain radioactive effluents, and use of fuel with very high retention capability for fission products. The use of prototype flight tests is being considered as final steps in the development prior to undertaking human flight missions. In addition to the technical issues, plans are being prepared to address the institutional and political issues that need to be considered in this major venture. While the development and deployment of NTP system is not expected to be cheap, the value of the system will be very high, and amortized over the many missions that it enables and enhances, the imputed costs will be very reasonable. Using the approach outlined, NASA and its partners, currently the DOE, and subsequently industry, have a good chance of creating a sustained development program leading to human

  16. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan; Kibbey, Tim; Lampton, Pat; Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, risk tolerant university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed. A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with new propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial "valley of death" that lies between

  17. The Swift Turbidity Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2011-01-01

    The Swift Turbidity Marker is an optical instrument developed to measure the level of water turbidity. The components and configuration selected for the system are based on common turbidity meter design concepts but use a simplified methodology to produce rapid turbidity measurements. This work is aimed at high school physics students and is the…

  18. Magik Markers Trehvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel, kontsert 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv, vt. www.magikmarkers.audiosport.org.)

  19. ABEL model: Evaluates claims of inability to afford penalities and compliance costs (version 2.8) (for microcomputers). Model-Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The easy-to-use ABEL software evaluates for-profit company claims of inability to afford penalties, clean-up costs, or compliance costs. Violators raise the issue of inability to pay in most of EPA`s enforcement actions regardless of whether there is any hard evidence supporting those claims. The program enables Federal, State and local enforcement professionals to quickly determine if there was any validity to those claims. ABEL is a tool that promotes quick settlements by performing screening analyses of defendants and potentially responsible parties (PRP`s) to determine their financial capacity. If ABEL indicates the firm can afford the full penalty, compliance or clean-up costs, then EPA makes no adjustments for inability to pay. If it indicates that the firm cannot afford the full amount, it directs the enforcement personnel to review other financial reports before making any adjustments. After analyzing some basic financial ratios that reflect a company`s solvency, ABEL assesses the firm`s ability to pay by focusing on projected cash flows. The model explicitly calculates the value of projected, internally generated cash flows from historical tax information, and compares these cash flows to the proposed environmental expenditure(s). The software is extremely easy to use. Users are taken through a series of prompts to enter specified data. On screen `help` information is available at any time.

  20. Estimating linkage disequilibrium between a polymorphic marker locus and a trait locus in natural populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Z. W.; Suhai, S.

    1999-01-01

    Positional cloning of gene(s) underlying a complex trait requires a high-resolution linkage map between the trait locus and genetic marker loci. Recent research has shown that this may be achieved through appropriately modeling and screening linkage disequilibrium between the candidate marker locus and the major trait locus. A quantitative genetics model was developed in the present study to estimate the coefficient of linkage disequilibrium between a polymorphic genetic marker locus and a lo...

  1. Genetic confirmation of mungbean (Vigna radiata) and mashbean (Vigna mungo) interspecific recombinants using molecular markers

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam eAbbas; Amjad eHameed; Muhammad eRizwan; Muhammad eAhsan; Muhammad Jawad eAsghar; Nayyer eIqbal

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim to investigate recombination between mungbean (female) and mashbean (male) interspecific crosses using molecular markers i.e., URP (Universal Rice Primers), RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats). As a first step parental screening was performed and polymorphic markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombinations were then confirmed through polymorphic DNA markers in many of the hybrids. The N...

  2. A study on the association between preeclampsia and the related screening markers during the first and second trimester%早中孕期有关血清筛查指标与子痫前期的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张檀; 程显

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究早中孕期产前筛查血清指标浓度水平与子痫前期发生的相关性。方法对纳入本次研究的孕妇检测早孕期血清中妊娠相关性血浆蛋白 A(PAPP - A)、游离β绒毛膜促性腺激素(Freeβ- hCG),中孕期甲胎蛋白(AFP)、Freeβ- hCG 和游离雌三醇(uE3);并比较子痫前期孕妇与正常孕妇上述筛查指标的水平差异。结果调查产前筛查和妊娠结局完整的孕妇7674人,妊娠期高血压疾病发生率为8.70%,子痫前期发生率为3.39%。子痫前期孕妇早孕期 PAPP - A 和 Freeβ- hCG 水平均低于正常孕妇(P <0.05),尤其早发型子痫前期孕妇早孕期 PAPP - A 水平明显低于同期正常孕妇的水平,其在早孕期诊断早发型子痫前期的准确性在 ROC 曲线下面积达0.823;中孕期 AFP、Freeβ- hCG 和 uE3在子痫前期与正常孕妇间差异均无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论早孕期 PAPP - A 水平对诊断早发型子痫前期有一定价值,中孕期血清筛查指标对子痫前期无明显临床价值。%Objective To explore the association between preeclampsia and the level of related screening markers during the first and second trimester. Methods The concentration of PAPP - A,free β - hCG of the pregnant women in the first trimester(from 10th to 13 + 6 th weeks)were detected. The concentration of AFP,free β - hCG and uE3 were detected by the same method in the second trimester(from 14th to 19 + 6 th weeks). Protein in the urine and blood pressure of the pregnant women was closely monitored during pregnancy,and the late pregnancy outcomes were followed up. The difference of the concentration of PAPP - A,free β - hCG in the first trimester and free β - hCG,AFP,uE3 in the second trimester between women with pregnancy hypertension and those without were analyzed. Results A total of 7 476 women accepted prenatal screening. There were 668 women developed pregnancy hypertension and the

  3. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  5. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  6. Validation and use of DNA markers for sex determination in papaya (Carica papaya)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profitable papaya production requires female and hermaphrodite plants in higher number than male plants. This is only possible if sex of plants is determined at an early growth stage. The present study was conducted to validate sex-linked DNA markers using plants from two Pakistani papaya varieties and subsequently utilize them for determination of sex in juvenile papaya plants. One hundred and five plants (including 49 male and 56 female) of two Pakistani Papaya varieties at flowering stage were screened with six DNA markers viz., W-11, T12, SDP, Napf-76Napf-76, PKBT4 and PKBT5. All male plants exhibited amplification of sex-linked alleles with markers T12 and W11, whereas, 96% and 95% of female plants showed the absence of sex-linked allele with these markers, respectively. Markers SDP, PKBT5 and Napf-76 showed the presence of sex-linked alleles in 98%, 96% and 93% of male plants, respectively, whereas the same markers showed the absence of sex-linked alleles in 100%, 96% and 94% of female plants. One marker, PKBT4 could not produce expected PCR amplification reported previously. The five DNA markers were further used to screen 171 papaya seedlings. These markers clearly differentiated male and female sex types in the studied papaya plants. Results of our study are likely to facilitate Pakistani papaya breeders and growers to incorporate DNA based screening at juvenile stage to determine sex at early stage and to ensure profitable papaya production. (author)

  7. Serum Tumor Markers in Pancreatic Cancer—Recent Discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low prevalence of pancreatic cancer remains an obstacle to the development of effective screening tools in an asymptomatic population. However, development of effective serologic markers still offers the potential for improvement of diagnostic capabilities, especially for subpopulations of patients with high risk for pancreatic cancer. The accurate identification of patients with pancreatic cancer and the exclusion of disease in those with benign disorders remain important goals. While clinical experience largely dismissed many candidate markers as useful markers of pancreatic cancer, CA19-9 continues to show promise. The present review highlights the development and the properties of different tumor markers in pancreatic cancer and their impact on the diagnostic and treatment of this aggressive disease

  8. Affordance estimation for vision-based object replacement on a humanoid robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail; Wächter, Mirko; Szedmak, Sandor;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of finding replacements of missing objects, involved in the execution of manipulation tasks. Our approach is based on estimating functional affordances for the unknown objects in order to propose replacements. We use a vision-based affordance estimation system...... large-scale datasets. The results indicate that the system is able to successfully predict the affordances of novel objects. We also implement our system on a humanoid robot and demonstrate the affordance estimation in a real scene....... utilizing object-wise global features and a multi-label learning method. This method also associates confidence values to the estimated affordances. We evaluate our approach on kitchen-related manipulation affordances. The evaluation also includes testing different scenarios for training the system using...

  9. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  10. Lipoprotein marker for hypertriglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubicciotti, Roger S.; Karu, Alexander E.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    1986-01-01

    Methods and compositions are provided for the detection of a particular low density lipoprotein which has been found to be a marker for patients suffering from type IV hypertriglyceridemia. A monoclonal antibody capable of specifically binding to a characteristic epitopic site on this LDL subspecies can be utilized in a wide variety of immunoassays. Hybridoma cell line SPL.IVA5A1 was deposited at the American Type Culture Collection on Mar. 29, 1984, and granted accession no. HB 8535.

  11. 妊娠中期血清学三联筛查指标异常对孕妇发生不良妊娠结局的预测价值%Predictive value of abnormal second-trimester maternal serum triple screening markers for adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祝明; 刘祥印; 李琳琳; 贾春澍; 李德军; 刘睿智

    2014-01-01

    孕妇的预产年龄、体质量和血清学三联筛查指标MoM值分别进行比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).(4)不良妊娠结局组孕妇血清学AFP MoM值>2.0、F-β-hCG MoM值>2.0、uE3 MoM值<0.5的发生率分别为7.95%(19/239)、23.85%(57/239)和4.18%(10/239);仅有两项指标MoM值异常的发生率为5.02%(12/239)、三联指标MoM值均异常的发生率为0.84%(2/239);健康孕妇组孕妇三联指标中仅有两项指标MoM值异常的发生率为0.14%(11/7 760)、三联指标MoM值均为异常的发生率为0.两组孕妇血清学三联筛查各指标MoM值异常发生率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 孕中期孕妇血清学三联筛查指标异常与不良妊娠结局发生有一定的相关性,孕中期血清学三联筛查对21三体、18三体和ONTD的检出有较高的实用价值.%Objective To investigate the predictive value of abnormal multiples of the median (MoM) of second trimester maternal serum triple screening (STMSTS) markers for adverse pregnancy outcomes.Methods 16 000 singleton pregnancies at 15+0 to 20+6 weeks' gestation who underwent STMSTS between July 2010 and January 2013 in the First Hospital of Jilin University were recruited.Maternal serum AFP,free β-hCG (F-β-hCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE3) levels were measured using time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay,and then convened to MoM.LifeCycle 3.2 software was used to calculate risk,and a risk value greater than 1 in 270 or 1 in 350 was considered as high risk for trisomy 21 syndrome (Down syndrome,DS) and trisomy 18 syndrome (Edwards syndrome,ES),respectively.MoM of AFP more than 2.5was considered high risk for open neural tube defect (ONTD).Amniocentesis and karyotyping,ultrasound screening were advised for high risk women.AFP,F-β-hCG higher than 2.0 MoM or uE3 lower than 0.5MoM was considered as abnormal,respectively.The MoM of STMSTS marker between women with adverse pregnancy outcome and with normal outcome was

  12. Eye-screen distance monitoring for computer use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood-Sutherland, Caillin; Gale, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    The extended period many people now spend looking at computer screens is thought to affect eyesight over the long term. In this paper we are concerned with developing and initial evaluation of a wireless camera-based tracking system providing quantitative assessment of computer screen interaction. The system utilizes a stereo camera system and wireless XBee based infrared markers and enables unobtrusive monitoring. Preliminary results indicate that the system is an excellent method of monitoring eye-screen distance. This type of system will enable future studies of eye-screen distance for computer users. PMID:22254767

  13. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T;

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  14. Innovative Processing Methods for the Affordable Manufacture of Multifunctional High Temperature Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed to investigate the feasibility of using advanced manufacturing techniques to enable the affordable application of multi-functional high...

  15. Understanding affordances: history and contemporary development of Gibson’s central concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobromir G. Dotov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibson developed the affordance concept to complement his theory of direct perception that stands in sharp contrast with the prevalent inferential theories of perception. A comparison of the two approaches shows that the distinction between them also has an ontological aspect. We trace the history and newer formalizations of the notion of affordance and discuss some competing opinions on its scope. Next, empirical work on the affordance concept is reviewed in brief and the relevance of dynamical systems theory to affordance research is demonstrated. Finally, the striking but often neglected convergence of the ideas of Gibson and those of certain Continental philosophers is discussed.

  16. Delivery of affordable and equitable cancer care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramesh, C S; Badwe, Rajendra A; Borthakur, Bibhuti B; Chandra, Madhu; Raj, Elluswami Hemanth; Kannan, T; Kalwar, Ashok; Kapoor, Sanjay; Malhotra, Hemant; Nayak, Sukdev; Rath, Goura K; Sagar, T G; Sebastian, Paul; Sarin, Rajiv; Shanta, V; Sharma, Suresh C; Shukla, Shilin; Vijayakumar, Manavalan; Vijaykumar, D K; Aggarwal, Ajay; Purushotham, Arnie; Sullivan, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The delivery of affordable and equitable cancer care is one of India's greatest public health challenges. Public expenditure on cancer in India remains below US$10 per person (compared with more than US$100 per person in high-income countries), and overall public expenditure on health care is still only slightly above 1% of gross domestic product. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for more than three-quarters of cancer expenditures in India, are one of the greatest threats to patients and families, and a cancer diagnosis is increasingly responsible for catastrophic expenditures that negatively affect not only the patient but also the welfare and education of several generations of their family. We explore the complex nature of cancer care systems across India, from state to government levels, and address the crucial issues of infrastructure, manpower shortages, and the pressing need to develop cross-state solutions to prevention and early detection of cancer, in addition to governance of the largely unregulated private sector and the cost of new technologies and drugs. We discuss the role of public insurance schemes, the need to develop new political mandates and authority to set priorities, the necessity to greatly improve the quality of care, and the drive to understand and deliver cost-effective cancer care programmes. PMID:24731888

  17. Affordable spectroscopy for 1m-class telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Csák, B; Szabó, Gy M; Kiss, L L; Dózsa, Á; Sódor, Á; Jankovics, I

    2014-01-01

    Doppler observations of exoplanet systems have been a very expensive technique, mainly due to the high costs of high-resolution stable spectrographs. Recent advances in instrumentation enable affordable Doppler planet detections with surprisingly small optical telescopes. We investigate the possibility of measuring Doppler reflex motion of planet hosting stars with small-aperture telescopes that have traditionally been neglected for this kind of studies. After thoroughly testing the recently developed and commercially available Shelyak eShel echelle spectrograph, we demonstrated that it is routinely possible to achieve velocity precision at the $100 \\mathrm{m\\,s}^{-1}$ level, reaching down to $\\pm 50~\\mathrm{m\\,s}^{-1}$ for the best cases. We describe our off-the-shelf instrumentation, including a new 0.5m RC telescope at the Gothard Astrophysical Observatory of Lor\\'and E\\"otv\\"os University equipped with an intermediate resolution fiber-fed echelle spectrograph. We present some follow-up radial velocity mea...

  18. Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS): An affordable large lander system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotkin, J.; Masten, D.; Powers, J.; O'Konek, N.; Kutter, B.; Stopnitzky, B.

    The Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS) offers a path to reduce costs and development time to sustainable activity beyond LEO by equipping existing large cryogenic propulsion stages with MSS VTVL propulsion and GNC to create a large, multi-thrust axis lander. Conventional lander designs have been driven by the assumption that a single, highly reliable, and efficient propulsion system should conduct the entire descent, approach, and landing. Compromises in structural, propulsion, and operational efficiency result from this assumption. System reliability and safety also suffer. The result is often an iterative series of optimizations, making every subsystem mission-unique and expensive. The XEUS multi-thrust axis lander concept uniquely addresses the programmatic and technical challenges of large-mass planetary landing by taking advantage of proven technologies and decoupling the deorbit and descent propulsion system from the landing propulsion system. Precise control of distributed, multi-thrust axis landing propulsion units mounted on the horizontal axis of a Centaur stage will ultimately enable the affordable deployment of large planetary rovers, uncrewed base infrastructure and manned planetary expeditions. The XEUS lander has been designed to offer a significantly improved mass fraction and mass to surface capability over conventional lander designs, while reducing airlock/payload to surface distances and distributing plume effects by using multiple gimbaled landing thrusters. In utilizing a proven cryogenic propulsion stage, XEUS reduces development costs required for development of new cryogenic propulsion stages and fairings and builds upon the strong heritage of successful Centaur and MSS RLV flights.

  19. Developing affordable multi-touch technologies for use in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mark; Ilie, Carolina; Schofield, Damian; Vampola, David

    2012-02-01

    Physics is one of many areas which has the ability to benefit from a number of different teaching styles and sophisticated instructional tools due to it having both theoretical and practical applications which can be explored. The purpose of this research is to develop affordable large scale multi-touch interfaces which can be used within and outside of the classroom as both an instruction technology and a computer supported collaborative learning tool. Not only can this technology be implemented at university levels, but also at the K-12 level of education. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style [1]. Through the use of these types of multi-touch tools and teaching methods which incorporate them, the classroom can be enriched to allow for better comprehension and retention of information. This is due in part to a wider range of learning styles, such as kinesthetic learning, which are being catered to within the classroom. [4pt] [1] Wieman, C.E, Perkins, K.K., Adams, W.K., ``Oersted Medal Lecture 2007: Interactive Simulations for teaching physics: What works, what doesn't and why,'' American Journal of Physics. 76 393-99.

  20. The NAO humanoid: a combination of performance and affordability

    CERN Document Server

    Gouaillier, David; Blazevic, Pierre; Kilner, Chris; Monceaux, Jerome; Lafourcade, Pascal; Marnier, Brice; Serre, Julien; Maisonnier, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the design of the autonomous humanoid robot called NAO that is built by the French company Aldebaran-Robotics. With its height of 0.57 m and its weight about 4.5 kg, this innovative robot is lightweight and compact. It distinguishes itself from its existing Japanese, American, and other counterparts thanks to its pelvis kinematics design, its proprietary actuation system based on brush DC motors, its electronic, computer and distributed software architectures. This robot has been designed to be affordable without sacrificing quality and performance. It is an open and easy-to-handle platform where the user can change all the embedded system software or just add some applications to make the robot adopt specific behaviours. The robot's head and forearms are modular and can be changed to promote further evolution. The comprehensive and functional design is one of the reasons that helped select NAO to replace the AIBO quadrupeds in the 2008 RoboCup standard league.

  1. Essential drugs in AIDS care: issues of availability and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, S R

    1996-01-01

    Several antiretroviral drugs against HIV/AIDS have been developed in recent years. These drugs, reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, inhibit the reproduction of HIV, but do not eliminate the presence of HIV in the body. The cost of drugs to treat one person with HIV/AIDS easily runs into the thousands of US dollars per year. These new drugs are therefore routinely used in developed countries, but not among the masses in developing countries. Many of the drugs needed to treat the opportunistic infections present during advanced HIV infection and AIDS are also prohibitively expensive for both developing countries and most individuals in those countries. The imposition of World Bank and International Monetary Fund structural adjustment programs together with decreased household purchasing power during the 1990s has led to increased demand for public sector services amid reduced public expenditure. The private sector is increasingly taking over the drug supply in developing countries, driving the cost of drugs out of the range of affordability for the vast majority of the poor. One strategy to contain the cost of drugs is for governments to develop and implement an integrated national drug policy based upon the concept of essential drugs and their rational use. PMID:12292110

  2. Tagging Salt Tolerant Gene Using PCR Markers in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bei; QIU Li-juan; SHAO Gui-hua; CHANG Ru-zhen; LIU Li-hong; XU Zhan-you; LI Xiang-hua; SUN Jian-ying

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to screen and identify PCR markers associated with salt tolerant gene in soybean( Glycine soja L. ) so that salt tolerance can be identified efficiently and accurately. Between these tolerant and sensitivity to salt and three crosses were tested in this experiment. By BSA method, two codominant PCR markers were identified through the salt tolerant (sensitive) cuitivars bulks and the salt tolerant (sensitive) individual bulks of a F2 population. There was a 600bp band in the sensitive individuals and a 700bp band or two 700bp/600bp bands in the tolerant individuals. The markers were closely linked with salt tolerant/sensitive alleles. Moreover the markers were tested in the other two F2 populations from "salt tolerant cultivar × sensitive cuitivar" and confirmed by 12 salt tolerance cultivars and 13 salt sensitive cultivars with different genetic background. It indicated that the markers (700bp and 600bp) could be applied in salt tolerant identification of the soybean germplasm resources, and markers-assisted selection in salt tolerant breeding of soybean. The markers, its obtained method and application were patented for invention in 1998.

  3. Genetic markers: Potential candidates for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Riyaz Ahmad; Dhawan, Veena

    2016-10-01

    The effective prevention of cardiovascular disease depends upon the ability to recognize the high-risk individuals at an early stage of the disease or long before the development of adverse events. Evolving technologies in the fields of proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics have played a significant role in the discovery of cardiovascular biomarkers, but so far these methods have achieved the modest success. Hence, there is a crucial need for more reliable, suitable, and lasting diagnostic and therapeutic markers to screen the disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Gene polymorphisms associated with the cardiovascular disease play a decisive role in the disease onset. Therefore, the genetic marker evaluation to classify high-risk patients from low-risk patients trends an effective approach to patient management and care. Currently, there are no genetic markers available for extensive adoption as risk factors for coronary vascular disease, yet, there are numerous promising, biologically acceptable candidates. Many of these gene biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play an essential role in the prediction of cardiovascular risk. The present review highlights some putative emerging genetic biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVD. This review also briefly describes few technological approaches employed in the biomarker search. PMID:27416153

  4. Exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC markers as a tool for ant phylogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia R. Ströher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC markers as a tool for ant phylogeography. Due to their local abundance, diversity of adaptations and worldwide distribution, ants are a classic example of adaptive radiation. Despite this evolutionary and ecological importance, phylogeographical studies on ants have relied largely on mitochondrial markers. In this study we design and test exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC markers, which can be widely used to uncover ant intraspecific variation. Candidate markers were obtained through screening the available ant genomes for unlinked conserved exonic regions interspersed with introns. A subset of 15 markers was tested in vitro and showed successful amplification in several phylogenetically distant ant species. These markers represent an important step forward in ant phylogeography and population genetics, allowing for more extensive characterization of variation in ant nuclear DNA without the need to develop species-specific markers.

  5. Suppressor Screens in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2016-01-01

    Genetic screens have proven to be a useful tool in the dissection of biological processes in plants. Specifically, suppressor screens have been widely used to study signal transduction pathways. Here we provide a detailed protocol for ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis used in our suppressor screens in Arabidopsis and discuss the basic principles behind suppressor screen design and downstream analyses. PMID:26577776

  6. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  7. Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) is a component of the PLCO Trial. By collecting biologic materials and risk factor information from trial participants before the diagnosis of disease, PLCO EEMS adds substantial value to the trial, providing a resource for cancer research, focused, in particular, on cancer etiology and early markers. Etiologic studies investigate the environmental, biochemical and genetic risk factors for cancer. Early detection studies aim to develop reproducible, diagnostics-ready biomarkers of early disease. | Risk factor data and biospecimens collected before the diagnosis of disease from participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial.

  8. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  9. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a concept which uses a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant to high temperatures without combustion and can achieve significantly greater specific impulse than chemical engines. NTP has been considered many times for human and cargo missions beyond low earth orbit. A lot of development and technical maturation of NTP components took place during the Rover/NERVA program of the 60's and early 70's. Other NTP programs and studies followed attempting to further mature the NTP concept and identify a champion customer willing to devote the funds and support the development schedule to a demonstration mission. Budgetary constraints require the use of an affordable development and qualification strategy that takes into account all the previous work performed on NTP to construct an existing database, and include lessons learned and past guidelines followed. Current guidelines and standards NASA uses for human rating chemical rocket engines is referenced. The long lead items for NTP development involve the fuel elements of the reactor and ground testing the engine system, subsystem, and components. Other considerations which greatly impact the development plans includes the National Space Policy, National Environmental Policy Act, Presidential Directive/National Security Council Memorandum #25 (Scientific or Technological Experiments with Possible Large-Scale Adverse Environmental Effects and Launch of Nuclear Systems into Space), and Safeguards and Security. Ground testing will utilize non-nuclear test capabilities to help down select components and subsystems before testing in a nuclear environment to save time and cost. Existing test facilities with minor modifications will be considered to the maximum extent practical. New facilities will be designed to meet minimum requirements. Engine and test facility requirements are based on the driving mission requirements with added factors of safety for better assurance and reliability

  10. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26929386

  11. Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Rating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenifer Marchesi Redouane Begag; Je Kyun Lee; Danny Ou; Jong Ho Sonn; George Gould; Wendell Rhine

    2004-10-15

    During the performance of contract DE-FC26-00-NT40998, entitled ''Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Value'', research was conducted at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. to develop new transparent aerogel materials suitable for window insulation applications. The project requirements were to develop a formulation or multiple formulations that have high transparency (85-90%) in the visible region, are hydrophobic (will not opacify with exposure to water vapor or liquid), and have at least 2% resiliency (interpreted as recoverable 2% strain and better than 5% strain to failure in compression). Results from an unrelated project showed that silica aerogels covalently bonded to organic polymers exhibit excellent mechanical properties. At the outset of this project, we believed that such a route is the best to improve mechanical properties. We have applied Design of Experiment (DOE) techniques to optimize formulations including both silica aerogels and organically modified silica aerogels (''Ormosils''). We used these DOE results to optimize formulations around the local/global optimization points. This report documents that we succeeded in developing a number of formulations that meet all of the stated criteria. We successfully developed formulations utilizing a two-step approach where the first step involves acid catalyzed hydrolysis and the second step involves base catalyzed condensation to make the gels. The gels were dried using supercritical CO{sub 2} and we were able to make 1 foot x 1 foot x 0.5 inch panels that met the criteria established.

  12. Teaching radio astronomy with Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra

    A simple, easy to build and portable radio telescope, called Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT), has been developed by the Radio Physics Laboratory (RPL), a radio astronomy teaching unit associated with the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (TIFR) and Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), which are two premier astronomy institutes in India. ASRT consists of off-the-shelf available Direct to Home television dishes and is easy to assemble. Our design is scalable from simple very low cost telescope to more complex yet moderately costing instrument. ASRT provides a platform for demonstrating radio physics concepts through simple hands-on experiment as well as for carrying out solar monitoring by college/University students. The presentation will highlight the concept of ASRT and the different experiments that can be carried out using it. The solar monitoring observations will be discussed along-with details of methods for calibrating these measurements. The pedagogical usefulness of ASRT in introducing undergraduatephysics students to astrophysics, measurements and analysis methods used in radio astronomy will also be discussed. Use of ASRT in the last three years in the programs of RPL, namely the annual Radio Astronomy Winter School for College students (RAWSC) and Pulsar Observing for Students (POS) is also presented. This year a new program was initiated to form a virtual group of an ASRT community, which will not only share their measurements, but also think of improving the pedagogical usefulness of ASRT by innovative experiments. This initiative is presented with the best practices drawn from our experience in using ASRT as a tool for student training in space sciences. The talk will also point out future ideas in involving a larger body of students in simple radio astronomy experiments with the ASRT, which RPL is likely to nucleate as part of its mandate.

  13. A global need for affordable neonatal jaundice technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Tina M; Zipursky, Alvin; Bhutani, Vinod K

    2011-06-01

    Globally, health care providers worldwide recognize that severe neonatal jaundice is a "silent" cause of significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Untreated neonatal jaundice can lead to death in the neonatal period and to kernicterus, a major cause of neurologic disability (choreo-athetoid cerebral palsy, deafness, language difficulty) in children who survive this largely preventable neonatal tragedy. Appropriate technologies are urgently needed. These include tools to promote and enhance visual assessment of the degree of jaundice, such as simpler transcutaneous bilirubin measurements and readily available serum bilirubin measurements that could be incorporated into routine treatment and follow-up. Widespread screening for glucose-6-phoshate dehydrogenase deficiency is needed because this is often a major cause of neonatal jaundice and kernicterus worldwide. Recognition and treatment of Rh hemolytic disease, another known preventable cause of kernicterus, is critical. In addition, effective phototherapy is crucial if we are to make kernicterus a "never-event." Finally it is essential that we conduct appropriate population-based studies to accurately elucidate the magnitude of the problem. However, knowledge alone is not sufficient. If we are to implement these and other programs and technologies to relegate severe neonatal jaundice and its sequelae to the history books, screening and interventions must be low cost and technologically appropriate for low and middle income nations. PMID:21641493

  14. Development and validation of new SSR markers from expressed regions in the garlic genome

    OpenAIRE

    Meryem Ipek; Nihan Sahin; Ahmet Ipek; Asuman Cansev; Simon, Philipp W

    2015-01-01

    Only a limited number of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers is available for the genome of garlic (Allium sativum L.) despite the fact that SSR markers have become one of the most preferred DNA marker systems. To develop new SSR markers for the garlic genome, garlic expressed sequence tags (ESTs) at the publicly available GarlicEST database were screened for SSR motifs and a total of 132 SSR motifs were identified. Primer pairs were designed for 50 SSR motifs and 24 of these primer pairs we...

  15. Understanding social engagement in autism: being different in perceiving and sharing affordances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellendoorn, Annika

    2014-01-01

    In the current paper I will argue that the notion of affordances offers an alternative to theory of mind (ToM) approaches in studying social engagement in general and in explaining social engagement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically. Affordances are the possibilities for action offered

  16. Educational Affordances of a Ubiquitous Learning Environment in a Natural Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Lin, Min-Sheng; Chu, Yu-Ling; Liu, Tsung-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Educational affordances are worthy of being explored because the affordances of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) provide the pedagogical effects for promoting cognitive acceleration, increasing the self-management of students, facilitating data collection, and presentation in science learning. This study aims to explore educational…

  17. The Role of Affordances in the Evolutionary Process Reconsidered A Niche Construction Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; van Wermeskerken, Margot

    2010-01-01

    Gibson asserted that affordances are the primary objects of perception. Although this assertion is especially attractive when considered in the context of evolutionary theory, the role that affordances play in the evolution of animals' perceptual and action systems is still unclear. Trying to combin

  18. California Community Colleges: Making Them Stronger and More Affordable. National Center Report #07-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumeta, William; Frankle, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This report highlights the affordability gaps faced by California's community colleges. Despite the lowest tuition in the country and tuition waivers for the lowest-income students, many California students struggle to afford the total cost of education, which includes housing, food, health care, and textbooks. And although California students are…

  19. An Exploratory Study of Emotional Affordance of a Massive Open Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jeremy C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examines emotional affordance of a massive open online course (MOOC). Postings in a discussion forum of a MOOC in computer science are analysed following a research design informed by virtual ethnography. Emotional affordance is investigated, focusing on non-achievement emotions which are not directly linked to achievement…

  20. Affordance of Braille Music as a Mediational Means: Significance and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyu-Yong; Kim, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Affordance refers to the properties or designs of a thing that offer the function of the thing. This paper discusses the affordance of Braille music in terms of three notions: mediational means, mastery and appropriation, and focuses on answering the following three questions: (i) How do musicians with visual impairments (MVI) perceive Braille…

  1. Towards a Representational Model of Social Affordances from an Institutional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Sileno; A. Boer; T. van Engers

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the connection of the concept of affordance with the concept of institution, fundamental in social sciences and in legal theory, with the purpose of delineating a working definition of social affordance. This hybrid concept enriches the representation tools to be used with age

  2. A Prototype using Territories and an Affordance Tree for Social Simulation Gameplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geishauser, Tilman; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Nelson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    so- cial simulation using smart objects. We extend the concept of smart objects to include a model of human behavior with regard to territoriality. To manage complexity in worlds with many such objects we employ a tree structure, which we call an Affordance Tree. The Affordance Tree allows...

  3. Affordance as a Key Aspect in the Creation of New learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to highlight how different places and spaces in undergraduate teacher education afford student learning and the development of certain types of knowledge related. The questions this article addresses are: a) What is the affordance of different learning spaces in an undergraduate...

  4. Affordances and Cognitive Walkthrough for Analyzing Human-Virtual Human Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; Akker, op den H.J.A.; Esposito, A.; Bourbakis, N.; Avouris, N.; Hatzilygeroudis, I.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how the psychological notion of affordance, known from human computer interface design, can be adopted for the analysis and design of communication of a user with a Virtual Human (VH), as a novel interface. We take as starting point the original notion of affordance, used to

  5. Affordances of ICT in science learning: implications for an integrated pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Mary E.

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of how affordances of ICT-rich environments identified from a recent review of the research literature can support students in learning science in schools within a proposed framework for pedagogical practice in science education. Furthermore other pedagogical and curriculum innovations in science education (promoting cognitive change, formative assessment and lifelong learning) are examined to see how they may be supported and enhanced by affordances of ICT-rich environments. The affordances that I have identified support learning through four main effects: promoting cognitive acceleration; enabling a wider range of experience so that students can relate science to their own and other real-world experiences; increasing students' self-management; and facilitating data collection and presentation. ICT-rich environments already provide a range of affordances that have been shown to enable learning of science but integrating these affordances with other pedagogical innovations provides even greater potential for enhancement of students' learning.

  6. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop on Sustainable Initial Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. J.; Cooke, Doug; Hopkins, Joshua; Perino, Maria A.; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget assumptions and with sustained international participation. In response to this idea, a distinguished group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December, 2013. Participants reviewed and discussed scenarios for affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station over the coming decade as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and a usable definition of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop.

  7. Screening of early marker proteins for acute myocardial infarction by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry%应用蛋白质组学技术筛选急性心肌梗死早期标志蛋白的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 谢建洪; 劳迪波; 郦卫星; 陈莹

    2014-01-01

    目的检测急性心肌梗死早期(发病到就诊时间<2h)患者血清中的蛋白表达谱,筛选并鉴定出特异的标志蛋白。方法选取20例急性心肌梗死早期患者(早期急性心肌梗死组)和40例稳定性心绞痛患者(稳定性心绞痛组),采用激光解析电离飞行时间质谱技术,检测两组患者血清中的蛋白峰强度,寻找差异表达蛋白并建立蛋白分类模式,确定诊断的特异度和敏感度。采用液相质谱技术进一步鉴定已筛选出来的蛋白。结果早期急性心肌梗死组有5个蛋白显著高表达,质荷比分别为1530.32、4301.46、8683.44、23386.1、23625.5Da,与稳定性心绞痛组患者比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。建立决策树,早期诊断急性心肌梗死的敏感度为93.33﹪,特异度为85.00%,阳性预测值为93.33%。经过鉴定,phosphoglycerate mutase 1在急性心肌梗死早期患者中高表达。结论通过蛋白质组学技术可以早期发现急性心肌梗死,phosphoglycerate mutase 1为早期特异表达蛋白。%Objective To screen early serum protein markers for acute myocardial infarction by SELDI- TOF mass spec-trometry. Methods Twenty patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted within 2h after onset of symptoms, and 40 patients with stable angina pectoris were enrol ed in this study. Serum protein profile was analyzed by surface enhanced laser desorption ionization- time of flight- mass spectrometry (SELDI- TOF- MS). The differential y expressed proteins were identified by high per-formance 1iquid chromatography- electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC- MS). Results Compared to stable angina pectoris, 5 proteins were significantly over- expressed in acute myocardial infarction(P<0.01): 1 530.32, 4 301.46, 8 683.44, 23 386.1, 23 625.5Da. Based on differential y expressed proteins a diagnosis model for acute myocardial infarction was con-structed. The sensitivity, specificity and

  8. Understanding the adoption dynamics of medical innovations: affordances of the da Vinci robot in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishami, Payam; Boer, Albert; Horstman, Klasien

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the rather rapid adoption of a new surgical device - the da Vinci robot - in the Netherlands despite the high costs and its controversial clinical benefits. We used the concept 'affordances' as a conceptual-analytic tool to refer to the perceived promises, symbolic meanings, and utility values of an innovation constructed in the wider social context of use. This concept helps us empirically understand robot adoption. Data from 28 in-depth interviews with diverse purposively-sampled stakeholders, and from medical literature, policy documents, Health Technology Assessment reports, congress websites and patients' weblogs/forums between April 2009 and February 2014 were systematically analysed from the perspective of affordances. We distinguished five interrelated affordances of the robot that accounted for shaping and fulfilling its rapid adoption: 'characteristics-related' affordances such as smart nomenclature and novelty, symbolising high-tech clinical excellence; 'research-related' affordances offering medical-technical scientific excellence; 'entrepreneurship-related' affordances for performing better-than-the-competition; 'policy-related' affordances indicating the robot's liberalised provision and its reduced financial risks; and 'communication-related' affordances of the robot in shaping patients' choices and the public's expectations by resonating promising discourses while pushing uncertainties into the background. These affordances make the take-up and use of the da Vinci robot sound perfectly rational and inevitable. This Dutch case study demonstrates the fruitfulness of the affordances approach to empirically capturing the contextual dynamics of technology adoption in health care: exploring in-depth actors' interaction with the technology while considering the interpretative spaces created in situations of use. This approach can best elicit real-life value of innovations, values as defined through the eyes of (potential) users. PMID

  9. Encapsulating the delivery of affordable housing: An overview of Malaysian practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Nor Baizura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban population increases much faster than other geographical areas and this brings huge challenges to Malaysian government especially those responsible for the provision of housing. Moreover, the rise of living cost and pressure towards the current economic situation had inevitably led to huge demands for affordable housing. Thus, affordability and inaccessibility of people in owning a house has become one of the major issues in Malaysia. These issues are not only faced by the low-income group but mostly experienced by urban dwellers including the middle-income group whom are not eligible to apply for low-cost housing delivered by the government, yet cannot afford to buy a house. Hence, the Malaysian government had therefore established the Perumahan Rakyat 1 Malaysia (PR1MA as the catalyst in providing adequate, quality and affordable houses. Furthermore, the Syarikat Perumahan Negara Berhad (SPNB and the state governments also play their big role in providing affordable house at the state level. In trying to ensure smooth delivery of affordable housing, a systematic approach is required. This paper intends to examine the delivery of affordable housing in Malaysia. The objective was to assess the parties involved, and the various stages of the process. The methodology adopted for this study includes in-depth interviews with affordable housing agencies. Investigation showed that the major problem relates to a mismatch in the delivery of affordable housing. Moreover, the political and economic aspects, as well as the organization situation had also influenced the inefficiency of affordable housing delivery system. Additionally, the significant of this paper is expected to formulate an improved strategy and guidance in delivery system, thus ensuring that the method of practice is applicable throughout the country.

  10. Development and validation of new SSR markers from expressed regions in the garlic genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Ipek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Only a limited number of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers is available for the genome of garlic (Allium sativum L. despite the fact that SSR markers have become one of the most preferred DNA marker systems. To develop new SSR markers for the garlic genome, garlic expressed sequence tags (ESTs at the publicly available GarlicEST database were screened for SSR motifs and a total of 132 SSR motifs were identified. Primer pairs were designed for 50 SSR motifs and 24 of these primer pairs were selected as SSR markers based on their consistent amplification patterns and polymorphisms. In addition, two SSR markers were developed from the sequences of garlic cDNA-AFLP fragments. The use of 26 EST-SSR markers for the assessment of genetic relationship was tested using 31 garlic genotypes. Twenty six EST-SSR markers amplified 130 polymorphic DNA fragments and the number of polymorphic alleles per SSR marker ranged from 2 to 13 with an average of 5 alleles. Observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC of the SSR markers were between 0.23 and 0.88, and 0.20 and 0.87, respectively. Twenty one out of the 31 garlic genotypes were analyzed in a previous study using AFLP markers and the garlic genotypes clustered together with AFLP markers were also grouped together with EST-SSR markers demonstrating high concordance between AFLP and EST-SSR marker systems and possible immediate application of EST-SSR markers for fingerprinting of garlic clones. EST-SSR markers could be used in genetic studies such as genetic mapping, association mapping, genetic diversity and comparison of the genomes of Allium species.

  11. Non-heme iron catalysts for the benzylic oxidation : a parallel ligand screening approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopstra, M; Hage, R; Kellogg, R.M.; Feringa, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Ethylbenzene and 4-ethylanisole were used as model substrates for benzylic oxidation with H2O2 or O-2 using a range of non-heme iron catalysts following a parallel ligand screening approach. Effective oxidation was found for Fe complexes based on tetra- and pentadentate nitrogen ligands affording th

  12. Multiplex screening of persistent organic pollutants in fish using spectrally encoded microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are food contaminants of global public health concern and known to be carcinogenic and endocrine disruptors. Their monitoring is essential and an easy-to-use, rapid and affordable multi-analyte screening method with simplified sample preparation can be a valuable...

  13. Standardization of tumor markers - priorities identified through external quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Tumor markers are often heterogeneous substances that may be present in elevated concentrations in the serum of cancer patients. Typically measured by immunoassay, they contribute to clinical management, particularly in screening, case-finding, prognostic assessment, and post-treatment monitoring. Data both from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes and clinical studies demonstrate significant variation in tumor marker results obtained for the same specimen using different methods. Between-method between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CV) reported by EQA schemes generally reflect the complexity of the measurand, ranging from 25% for the complex mucinous cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Improving the standardization of tumor marker measurements is particularly important for three reasons. The primary use of tumor markers is in monitoring cancer patients over long periods of time. Clinical interpretation of trends may consequently be affected if results are obtained in different laboratories using different methods or if a laboratory has to change method. Differences in results may have major implications for adoption of area-wide decision cut-offs and make implementation of these difficult. Method-related differences also make it difficult to compare clinical studies. Improving comparability of tumor marker results requires broad international agreement about which molecular forms of the measurand have clinical utility, identifying and adopting pure molecular forms as calibrants, and defining antibody specificities for their optimal detection. These aims have been achieved to varying extents for the most frequently measured serum tumor markers as described in this paper. PMID:27542005

  14. [A Method for Selecting Self-Adoptive Chromaticity of the Projected Markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shou-bo; Zhang, Fu-min; Qu, Xing-hua; Zheng, Shi-wei; Chen, Zhe

    2015-04-01

    The authors designed a self-adaptive projection system which is composed of color camera, projector and PC. In detail, digital micro-mirror device (DMD) as a spatial light modulator for the projector was introduced in the optical path to modulate the illuminant spectrum based on red, green and blue light emitting diodes (LED). However, the color visibility of active markers is affected by the screen which has unknown reflective spectrum as well. Here active markers are projected spot array. And chromaticity feature of markers is sometimes submerged in similar spectral screen. In order to enhance the color visibility of active markers relative to screen, a method for selecting self-adaptive chromaticity of the projected markers in 3D scanning metrology is described. Color camera with 3 channels limits the accuracy of device characterization. For achieving interconversion of device-independent color space and device-dependent color space, high-dimensional linear model of reflective spectrum was built. Prior training samples provide additional constraints to yield high-dimensional linear model with more than three degrees of freedom. Meanwhile, spectral power distribution of ambient light was estimated. Subsequently, markers' chromaticity in CIE color spaces was selected via maximization principle of Euclidean distance. The setting values of RGB were easily estimated via inverse transform. Finally, we implemented a typical experiment to show the performance of the proposed approach. An 24 Munsell Color Checker was used as projective screen. Color difference in the chromaticity coordinates between the active marker and the color patch was utilized to evaluate the color visibility of active markers relative to the screen. The result comparison between self-adaptive projection system and traditional diode-laser light projector was listed and discussed to highlight advantage of our proposed method.

  15. Novel Biochemical Markers of Psychosocial Stress in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Asberg; Ake Nygren; Rosario Leopardi; Gunnar Rylander; Ulla Peterson; Lukas Wilczek; Håkan Källmén; Mirjam Ekstedt; Torbjörn Akerstedt; Mats Lekander; Rolf Ekman

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL) 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thyroid stimulating hormone (T...

  16. POPULAR MOLECULAR MARKERS IN BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Weilong, Liu; Lv, Li; MD. ASADUZZAMAN KHAN AND FEIZHOU ZHU

    2012-01-01

    Molecular markers are defined as the fragments of DNA sequence associated with a genome, which are used to identify a particular DNA sequence. Nowadays, with the explosive growth of genetic research and bacterial classification, molecular marker is an important tool to identify bacterial species. Taking account to its significant roles in clinic, medicine and food industry, in this review article, we summarize the traditional research and new development about molecular markers (also called g...

  17. Development of DArT-based PCR markers for selecting drought-tolerant spring barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiust, Anna; Rapacz, Marcin; Wójcik-Jagła, Magdalena; Tyrka, Mirosław

    2015-08-01

    The tolerance of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars to spring drought is an important agronomic trait affecting crop yield and quality in Poland. Therefore, breeders require new molecular markers to select plants with lower spring drought susceptibility. With the advent of genomic selection technology, simple molecular tools may still be applicable to screen material for markers of the most important traits and in-depth genome scanning. In previous studies, diversity arrays technology (DArT)-based genetic maps were constructed for F2 populations of Polish fodder and malt barley elite breeding lines, and 15 and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to spring drought tolerance were identified, respectively. In this paper, we show the results of a conversion of 30 DArT markers corresponding to 11 QTLs into simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence tagged site (STS) markers. Twenty-two polymorphic markers were obtained, including 13 DArT-based SSRs. Additionally, 31 SSR markers, located in close proximity to the DArT markers, were selected from the GrainGenes database and tested. Further analyses of 24 advanced breeding lines with different drought tolerances confirmed that five out of the 30 converted markers, as well as three out of the 31 additional SSR markers, were effective in marker-assisted selection for drought tolerance. The possible function of clones related to these markers in drought tolerance is discussed. PMID:25716655

  18. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  19. Screening for hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomson, P R V

    1983-01-01

    In an open access screening campaign for hypertension lasting six weeks 6259 individuals were screened with a Vita-Stat blood pressure computer and an estimated 4.2% to 5.4% of new cases were detected.

  20. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  1. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... called the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA test (sDNA). Sigmoidoscopy : This test uses a small flexible ...

  2. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  3. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  4. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  6. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Redirect CDC - Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You are being redirected to the HPV Cancer Screening page. Please update your bookmarks to the link ...

  7. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  8. Americans' Experiences with ACA Marketplace Coverage: Affordability and Provider Network Satisfaction: Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, February--April 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunja, Munira Z; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    For people with low and moderate incomes, the Affordable Care Act's tax credits have made premium costs roughly comparable to those paid by people with job-based health insurance. For those with higher incomes, the tax credits phase out, meaning that adults in marketplace plans on average have higher premium costs than those in employer plans. The law's cost-sharing reductions are reducing deductibles. Lower-income adults in marketplace plans were less likely than higher-income adults to report having deductibles of $1,000 or more. Majorities of new marketplace enrollees and those who have changed plans since they initially obtained marketplace coverage are satisfied with the doctors participating in their plans. Overall, the majority of marketplace enrollees expressed confidence in their ability to afford care if they were to become seriously ill. This issue brief explores these and other findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, February--April 2016. PMID:27400465

  9. Molecular cladistic markers in New World monkey phylogeny (Platyrrhini, Primates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Silke S; Schmitz, Jürgen; Schwiegk, Claudia; Zischler, Hans

    2003-03-01

    Transpositions of primate-specific Alu elements were applied as molecular cladistic markers in a phylogenetic analysis of South American primates. Seventy-four human and platyrrhine loci containing intronic Alu elements were PCR screened in various New World monkeys and the human outgroup to detect the presence of orthologous retrotransposons informative of New World monkey phylogeny. Six loci revealed size polymorphism in the amplification pattern, indicating a shared derived character state due to the presence of orthologous Alu elements confirmed by subsequent sequencing. Three markers corroborate (1) New World monkey monophyly and one marker supports each of the following callitrichine relationships: (2) Callithrix and Cebuella are more closely related to each other than to any other callitrichine, (3) the callitrichines form a monophyletic clade including Callimico, and (4) the next living relatives to the callitrichines are Cebus, Saimiri, and Aotus.

  10. Instagram photos reveal predictive markers of depression

    CERN Document Server

    Reece, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Using Instagram data from 166 individuals, we applied machine learning tools to successfully identify markers of depression. Statistical features were computationally extracted from 43,950 participant Instagram photos, using color analysis, metadata components, and algorithmic face detection. Resulting models outperformed general practitioners' average diagnostic success rate for depression. These results held even when the analysis was restricted to posts made before depressed individuals were first diagnosed. Photos posted by depressed individuals were more likely to be bluer, grayer, and darker. Human ratings of photo attributes (happy, sad, etc.) were weaker predictors of depression, and were uncorrelated with computationally-generated features. These findings suggest new avenues for early screening and detection of mental illness.

  11. Genetic confirmation of mungbean (Vigna radiata and mashbean (Vigna mungo interspecific recombinants using molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam eAbbas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the aim to investigate recombination between mungbean (female and mashbean (male interspecific crosses using molecular markers i.e., URP (Universal Rice Primers, RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats. As a first step parental screening was performed and polymorphic markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombinations were then confirmed through polymorphic DNA markers in many of the hybrids. The NM 2006 × Mash 88 was found to be most successful interspecific cross as many of true recombinants, confirmed by molecular markers, belonged to this cross combination. The SSR markers were more efficient in detecting genetic variability and recombinations with reference to specific chromosomes and particular loci, while SSR (RIS and RAPD identified variability dispersed throughout the genome. The DNA based marker assisted approach provided evidence for genetic confirmation of mungbean and mashbean interspecific recombinants and escalated the authenticity of selection in mungbean improvement programme.

  12. Dissociating between object affordances and spatial compatibility effects using early response components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal eWilf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Perception and action are tightly linked: objects may be perceived not only in terms of visual features, but also in terms of possibilities for action. Previous studies showed that when a centrally located object has a salient graspable feature (e.g., a handle, it facilitates motor responses corresponding with the feature's position. However, such so-called affordance effects have been criticized as resulting from spatial compatibility effects, due to the visual asymmetry created by the graspable feature, irrespective of any affordances. In order to dissociate between affordance and spatial compatibility effects, we asked participants to perform a simple reaction-time task to typically graspable and non-graspable objects with similar visual features (e.g., lollipop and stop sign. Responses were measured using either electromyography (EMG on proximal arm muscles during reaching-like movements, or with finger key-presses. In both EMG and button press measurements, participants responded faster when the object was either presented in the same location as the responding hand, or was affordable, resulting in significant and independent spatial compatibility and affordance effects, but no interaction. Furthermore, while the spatial compatibility effect was present from the earliest stages of movement preparation and throughout the different stages of movement execution, the affordance effect was restricted to the early stages of movement execution. Finally, we tested a small group of unilateral arm amputees using EMG, and found residual spatial compatibility but no affordance, suggesting that spatial compatibility effects do not necessarily rely on individuals’ available affordances. Our results show dissociation between affordance and spatial compatibility effects, and suggest that rather than evoking the specific motor action most suitable for interaction with the viewed object, graspable objects prompt the motor system in a general, body

  13. A four-gene methylation marker panel as triage test in high-risk human papillomavirus positive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsink, J. J. H.; Lendvai, A.; Deregowski, V.; Klip, H. G.; Verpooten, G.; Dehaspe, L.; de Bock, G. H.; Hollema, H.; van Criekinge, W.; Schuuring, E.; van der Zee, A. G. J.; Wisman, G. B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical neoplasia-specific biomarkers, e.g. DNA methylation markers, with high sensitivity and specificity are urgently needed to improve current population-based screening on (pre)malignant cervical neoplasia. We aimed to identify new cervical neoplasia-specific DNA methylation markers and to desi

  14. FCJ-178 Network Affordances: The unpredictable parameters of a Hong Kong SPEED SHOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Samson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. We expand on the notion of affordances, (Gibson, 1977; Gaver, 1996 to include ecological and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibition, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong (2013. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parametric relations (Parisi, 2013 of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experience of tension arising from the (visible symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences.

  15. Coverage, access, and affordability under health reform: learning from the Massachusetts model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sharon K; Stockley, Karen; Nordahl, Kate Willrich

    While the impacts of the Affordable Care Act will vary across the states given their different circumstances, Massachusetts' 2006 reform initiative, the template for national reform, provides a preview of the potential gains in insurance coverage, access to and use of care, and health care affordability for the rest of the nation. Under reform, uninsurance in Massachusetts dropped by more than 50%, due, in part, to an increase in employer-sponsored coverage. Gains in health care access and affordability were widespread, including a 28% decline in unmet need for doctor care and a 38% decline in high out-of-pocket costs.

  16. Affordable Care Organizations and Bundled Pricing: A New Philosophy of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinaga, Gonzalo; Chambers, Monique C; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Siegrist, Richard B; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-10-01

    Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Innovation was chartered to develop new models of health care delivery. The changes meant a drastic need to restructure the health care system. To minimize costs and optimize quality, new laws encourage continuity in health care delivery within an integrated system. Affordable care organizations provided a model of high-quality care while reducing costs. Bundled payments can have a substantial effect on the national expenditures. This article examines new developments in bundle payments, affordable care organizations, and gainsharing agreements as they pertain to arthroplasty. PMID:27637657

  17. Development of Microsatellite Markers Derived from Expressed Sequence Tags of Polyporales for Genetic Diversity Analysis of Endangered Polyporus umbellatus

    OpenAIRE

    Yuejin Zhang; Yuanyuan Chen; Ruihong Wang; Ailin Zeng; Deyholos, Michael K; Jia Shu; Hongbo Guo

    2015-01-01

    A large scale of EST sequences of Polyporales was screened in this investigation in order to identify EST-SSR markers for various applications. The distribution of EST sequences and SSRs in five families of Polyporales was analyzed, respectively. Mononucleotide was the most abundant type, followed by trinucleotide. Among five families, Ganodermataceae occupied the most SSR markers, followed by Coriolaceae. Functional prediction of SSR marker-containing EST sequences in Ganoderma lucidum obtai...

  18. Walker Prize Lecture, 1977. Choriocarcinoma: can we afford to cure cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshawe, K. D.

    1978-01-01

    The way the management of patients with trophoblastic tumours has depended on the acquisition of new knowledge and new drugs is demonstrated. Emphasis is put on the ability to detect early disease by biochemical markers and on the ability to define on a multifactorial basis the resistance potential of the tumours. This provides a basis for stratification of treatment and the use of prophylactic chemotherapy to prevent cerebral metastases in certain patients. Although chemotherapy is often intensive and prolonged, there has so far been little evidence of long-term effects and many women have had normal pregnancies subsequently, but the limitations of present data are discussed. The difficulties of matching available resources to society's needs in the cancer field make it necessary to consider whether such treatment is unjustifiably expensive. It is shown that for these tumours early diagnosis not only proves effective in therapeutic terms but provides substantial financial savings. It is suggested that screening programmes for cancer cannot be accepted or rejected on principle. In judging them on their individual merits it is appropriate to anticipate interaction between earlier diagnosis and more effective drug treatment. PMID:626471

  19. Walker Prize Lecture, 1977. Choriocarcinoma: can we afford to cure cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshawe, K D

    1978-01-01

    The way the management of patients with trophoblastic tumours has depended on the acquisition of new knowledge and new drugs is demonstrated. Emphasis is put on the ability to detect early disease by biochemical markers and on the ability to define on a multifactorial basis the resistance potential of the tumours. This provides a basis for stratification of treatment and the use of prophylactic chemotherapy to prevent cerebral metastases in certain patients. Although chemotherapy is often intensive and prolonged, there has so far been little evidence of long-term effects and many women have had normal pregnancies subsequently, but the limitations of present data are discussed. The difficulties of matching available resources to society's needs in the cancer field make it necessary to consider whether such treatment is unjustifiably expensive. It is shown that for these tumours early diagnosis not only proves effective in therapeutic terms but provides substantial financial savings. It is suggested that screening programmes for cancer cannot be accepted or rejected on principle. In judging them on their individual merits it is appropriate to anticipate interaction between earlier diagnosis and more effective drug treatment.

  20. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  1. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    in curating has emerged from a critical discourse in response to a particular "screen topos", which has relied on a Foucauldian, apparatus-theoretical mechanism of the screen as a broadcasting medium of mass entertainment. This topos, I argue, has transferred the dispositif of the screen apparatus...... to the dispositif of screen practice in curating, resulting in a medium-based curatorial discourse. With reference to the nomadic exhibition project Nordic Outbreak that I co-curated with Nina Colosi in 2013 and 2014, I suggest that the topos of the defined visual display area, frequently still known as "the screen...

  2. Markers of renal function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaraj Gowda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The markers of renal function test assess the normal functioning of kidneys. These markers may be radioactive and non radioactive. They indicate the glomerular filtration rate, concentrating and diluting capacity of kidneys (tubular function. If there is an increase or decrease in the valves of these markers it indicates dysfunction of kidney. Aim: The aim of this review is to compare and analyze the present and newer markers of renal function tests which help in diagnosis of clinical disorders. Material & Methods: An extensive literature survey was done aiming to compare and compile renal function tests makers required in diagnosis of diseases. Results: Creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes are makers for routine analysis whereas several studies have confirmed and consolidated the usefulness of markers such as cystatin C and β-Trace Protein. Conclusion: We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these biomarkers in terms of usefulness in assessing renal function.

  3. 77 FR 4564 - Request for Information Regarding the Reinsurance Program Under the Affordable Care Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 41930). The Affordable Care Act instructs each State to establish or contract with an... hotlines, helpdesk)? 21. Are your support systems compliant or have the capability of being Section...

  4. 77 FR 19750 - Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy; Small... of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Office of Domestic Finance, Small... be directed to the Office of Domestic Finance, Small Business Lending Fund; Daniel Rourke;...

  5. 77 FR 42831 - Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy; Small... INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information should be directed to the Office of Domestic...

  6. Are Housing Markets Decoupled? A Case Study of Residential Real Estate Affordability in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian PHILIPP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real estate arguably forms the most important asset to most households and the basis for their wealth. Around this context a model has been set up testing the relative affordability of real estate for the median household in Austria and the consequences of lower borrowing costs between 2004 and 2013 by vintage year. In this paper the hypothesis that the significant decline in base interest rates is not sufficient to offset the relative affordability loss caused by declining net household incomes and the simultaneous increase of real estate prices. To test this hypothesis a model has been set up comparing two different Housing Affordability Indices – one including and one excluding financing effects, having been compared via a multi factor model. Based on this calculation the author finds decreased base interest rates to offset relative affordability losses by only approximately 50%, verifying the hypothesis. The paper therefore argues for a potential decoupling of the residential housing market in Austria.

  7. What can be done with an egg? Creativity, material objects and the theory of affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a reflection on the role of material objects in the creative process and explores the potential links between creativity and the theory of affordances (Gibson, ), conceptualized from a sociocultural perspective. From this standpoint, creativity can be defined as a process...... of perceiving, exploiting, and “generating” novel affordances during socially and materially situated activities. Illustrations are offered for each of the above from a research project investigating traditional Easter egg decoration activities in rural Romania. This brief case study exemplifies the discovery...... of existing action potentials, the generation of objects with novel affordances, and the transgression of conventional procedures, all resulting in creative forms of expression. In the end, some conclusions are drawn regarding the ways in which an affordance theory of creativity can enrich our understanding...

  8. Health Migration: Crossing Borders for Affordable Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Miller-Thayer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 45.7 million people in the United States are uninsured and unknown numbers of this population are underinsured, severely limiting their access to medical care. To address this problem, people use innovative strategies to increase their access through cross-border care options. The U.S.-Mexico border provides unique challenges and opportunities for health care in this context. The lower cost of medical and dental procedures and medications in Mexico makes that country an attractive alternative for low-income populations in the United States. Thus segments of the U.S. population practice transnational medical consumerism in an attempt to optimize their health by using the resources available in both countries. This practice has economic benefits for the people who access health care at an affordable rate and for the medical markets of the country providing the care. Drawing on data collected in the field in 2002, 2004, and 2005, this paper presents some of the complexities and dynamics of medical pluralism occurring at the U.S.-Mexico border.Environ 45,7 millions de personnes vivant aux Etats-Unis n’ont pas de couverture sociale et nombreux sont celles à être sous-assurées, ce qui limite considérablement leur accès aux soins. Face à ce problème, les Américains font preuve d'ingéniosité pour améliorer leur accès aux soins : ils se font soigner au-delà des frontières. Dans ce contexte, la frontière entre les Etats-Unis et le Mexique offre des opportunités uniques de soins. Le Mexique constitue en effet une alternative séduisante pour les Américains à faible revenu, car les tarifs des actes médicaux et dentaires, et des médicaments, sont nettement inférieurs à ceux en vigueur aux Etats-Unis. Ainsi, certains Américains pratiquent le consumérisme médical transnational et recourent aux ressources disponibles dans les deux pays afin d’optimiser leur santé. Cette pratique présente des avantages économiques

  9. CT Lung Cancer Screening Program Development: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Teri

    2015-01-01

    Radiology administrators must use innovative strategies around clinical collaboration and marketing to ensure that patients access the service in sufficient numbers. Radiology Associates of South Florida in collaboration with Baptist Health South Florida have developed a successful lung cancer screening program. The biggest factors in their success have been the affordability of their service and the quality of the program. Like mammography, lung cancer screening programs serve as an entry point to other services that generate revenue for the hospital. Patients may require further evaluation in the form of more imaging or surgical services for biopsy. Part 1 provided background and laid out fundamentals for starting a program. Part 2 focuses on building patient volume, marketing, and issues related to patient management after the screen is performed. PMID:26314180

  10. Chamberlain Heights Redevelopment: A Large Scale, Cold Climate Study of Affordable Housing Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, K. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mahle, M. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The City of Meriden Housing Authority (MHA) collaborated with affordable housing developer Jonathon Rose Companies (JRC) to complete a gut renovation of 124 residential units in the Chamberlain Heights retrofit project. The affordable housing community is made up of 36 buildings in duplex and quad configurations located on 22 acres within two miles of downtown Meriden, CT. The final post-retrofit analysis showed 40-45% source energy savings over the existing pre-retrofit conditions.

  11. Mathematical Learning Opportunities in Kindergarten through the Use of Digital Tools: Affordances and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Carlsen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at scrutinising the mathematical learning opportunities of children engaging with digital tools and the emerging affordances and constraints faced in such settings. By adopting a sociocultural perspective on learning and development, the multimodal analysis of the adult–child interaction shows that the children are participants in processes of appropriating the mathematical concepts of sorting and counting. Affordances are taken advantage of by the adults and constraints causing didactical dissonance are overcome and transformed into didactical harmony.

  12. Using task dynamics to quantify the affordances of throwing for long distance and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew D; Weightman, Andrew; Bingham, Geoffrey P; Zhu, Qin

    2016-07-01

    In 2 experiments, the current study explored how affordances structure throwing for long distance and accuracy. In Experiment 1, 10 expert throwers (from baseball, softball, and cricket) threw regulation tennis balls to hit a vertically oriented 4 ft × 4 ft target placed at each of 9 locations (3 distances × 3 heights). We measured their release parameters (angle, speed, and height) and showed that they scaled their throws in response to changes in the target's location. We then simulated the projectile motion of the ball and identified a continuous subspace of release parameters that produce hits to each target location. Each subspace describes the affordance of our target to be hit by a tennis ball moving in a projectile motion to the relevant location. The simulated affordance spaces showed how the release parameter combinations required for hits changed with changes in the target location. The experts tracked these changes in their performance and were successful in hitting the targets. We next tested unusual (horizontal) targets that generated correspondingly different affordance subspaces to determine whether the experts would track the affordance to generate successful hits. Do the experts perceive the affordance? They do. In Experiment 2, 5 cricketers threw to hit either vertically or horizontally oriented targets and successfully hit both, exhibiting release parameters located within the requisite affordance subspaces. We advocate a task dynamical approach to the study of affordances as properties of objects and events in the context of tasks as the future of research in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26766510

  13. Mortgaging the Future: the Financialization of Affordable Housing in Canada, 1984-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford, Brian Keith

    2014-01-01

    This project provides a policy history of the ideological and structural factors that underpinned the transformation of federal affordable housing policy in Canada from 1984 to 2008. Emerging out the subsidy-based Keynesian housing programs of the 1970s, the federal government began to construct a new ‘financialized’ approach to affordable housing in the 1980s centered on the mortgage insurance and securitization operations of the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Canada’s federal hous...

  14. The low-income single-family house and the effectiveness of architects in affecting affordability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Dulaney Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Architects are increasingly engaged in efforts to provide affordable, owner-occupied housing in the United States. Yet architects’ roles in broadly addressing affordable housing remain marginal as was anecdotally evident by the absence of architects at a recent university-sponsored affordable housing workshop. Apparently, the potential contributions of architects in “the development of innovative approaches and best practices” related to affordable, owner-occupied housing is not always valued to housing policymakers and planners such as those who organized this workshop. This paper speculatively explores the gap between the potential value of architects and their actual effectiveness at realizing widespread relevancy, innovation, and change in improving the quality and attainability of affordable, owner occupied housing and how this gap may contribute to the undervaluation and marginalization of architects’ efforts to address affordable housing needs in the United States. Case studies of several recent U.S. house design competitions exemplify these gaps. Potential strategies for closing these gaps and thus appreciating the value of architects’ efforts in this endeavor are identified.To become central in providing much-needed affordable, owner-occupied housing, architects must make the value of their potential contributions evident. This requires a clear definition of design goals, a rigorous assessment of built projects, and the thorough dissemination of findings and methodologies. Architects must engage those fields to which they have, in the U.S., long relinquished affordable, single-family housing. Architects must demonstrate that qualitative design improvements are not just possible within the frameworks and agendas of those other fields but that good design will better enable the achievement of those extra-disciplinary goals.

  15. Food Access, Availability, and Affordability in 3 Los Angeles Communities, Project CAFE, 2004-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Vallianatos, Mark; Azuma, Andrea Misako; Gilliland, Susan; Gottlieb, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Racial/ethnic minority communities are at increasingly high risk for chronic diseases related to obesity. Access to stores that sell affordable, nutritious food is a prerequisite for adopting a healthful diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate food access, availability, and affordability in 3 nonoverlapping but similar low-income communities in urban Los Angeles, California. Methods Using a community-based participatory research approach, we trained community members to...

  16. Children in outdoor contexts : affordances and independent mobility in the assessment of environmental child friendliness

    OpenAIRE

    Kyttä, Marketta

    2003-01-01

    According to James J. Gibson, the concept of the affordance refers to the functionally significant properties of the environment, and provides a psychologically relevant means to analyze evolving child-environment relationships. Affordances operationalize the transactional approach. Thus the concept allows researchers to bring the material environment back into the realm of environmental psychology. The framework of ecological perceptual psychology, and in particular the concept of the af...

  17. The shaping of environmental information in social media : affordances and technologies of self-control.

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    This article studies environmental information as it circulates in social media, specifically in personal blogs and microblogs. It rests on a thematic analysis of a selection of Swedish language, personal, everyday life environment blogs active during 2011 and 2012 and the social media applications connected to these blogs. Gibson’s concept of affordances and Foucault's notion of governmentality are brought together to work out how material and technological affordances of social media an...

  18. MarkerSet: a marker selection tool based on markers location and informativity in experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeure Olivier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent sequencing of full genomes has led to the availability of many SNP markers which are very useful for the mapping of complex traits. In livestock production, there are still no commercial arrays and many studies use home-made sets of SNPs. Thus, the current methodologies for SNP genotyping are still expensive and it is a crucial step to select the SNPs to use. Indeed, the main factors affecting the power of the linkage analyses are the density of the genetic map and the heterozygosity of markers in tested animal parents. Findings This is why we have developed a PERL program selecting a defined number of markers based on their locations on the genome and their informativity in specific experimental designs. As an option, different experimental designs can be combined in order to select the best possible common marker set. The program has been tested using different conditions of marker informativity and density with both real and simulated datasets. The results show the efficiency of our program to select the most informative markers even if there is a wide range of informativity for whole genome scan mapping analyses. In case of combination of different experimental crosses, the multidesign mode can optimize the SNP markers selection. Conclusion Written in PERL, it assures a maximum portability to other operating systems (OS and the source code availability for user modifications. Except for the simulation mode which could be time consuming, MarkerSet can compute results in a very short time.

  19. Characterization of 10 microsatellite markers for the understorey Amazonian herb Heliconia acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, M C; Gowda, V; Kress, W J; Bruna, E M; Uriarte, M

    2009-07-01

    We characterized 10 microsatellite loci for the plant Heliconia acuminata from the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (Manaus, Brazil). Markers were screened in 61 individuals from one population and were found to be polymorphic with an average of eight alleles per locus. We found moderate to high levels of polymorphic information content, and observed and expected heterozygosities. All 10 markers are suitable for spatial genetic structure and parentage analyses and will be used for understanding H. acuminata dynamics across a fragmented landscape.

  20. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  1. ADAM12: a novel first-trimester maternal serum marker for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laigaard, Jennie; Sørensen, Tina; Fröhlich, Camilla;

    2003-01-01

    /L at week 8 of pregnancy to 670 micro g/L at 16 weeks, and reached 12 000 micro g/L at term. In 18 first-trimester Down syndrome pregnancies, the concentration of ADAM12 was decreased, thus the median multiple of mean (MoM) value was 0.14 (0.01-0.76). A detection rate for foetal Down syndrome of 82......% for a screen-positive rate of 3.2% and a 1:400 risk cut-off was found by Monte Carlo estimation using ADAM12 and maternal age as screening markers. CONCLUSION: ADAM12 is a promising marker for Down syndrome....

  2. Screening in liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Del Poggio; Marzio Mazzoleni

    2006-01-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines,although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors,such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction,is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation.

  3. Screening in liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Poggio, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Marzio

    2006-09-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254

  4. SSR Markers for Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTLs in Three Wheat Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Li-juan; SHEN Xiao-rong; ZHOU Miao-ping; ZHANG Xu; MA Hong-xiang; LU Wei-zhong; Paul Nichoson

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research is to identify DNA markers linked to QTLs controlling FHB resistance in wheat, and to compare if the QTLs in three resistant germplasm are common. Three wheat recombinant inbred populations derived from the crosses between Alondra (susceptible) and three resistant lines, Wangshuibai, Sumai3, and 894037, respectively, were evaluated for reaction to Fusarium graminearum in greenhouse and in field conditions over years. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were screened in the populations and regression analysis was used to identify markers associated with FHB resistance. For the population of Sumai3 (resistant)/Alondra (susceptible), which contained 161 recombinant inbred lines, two SSR markers located on chromosome 3B were found to be associated with resistant QTLs. These markers accounted for 2.6-6.7% phenotypic variation. The 894037 (resistant)/Alondra (susceptible) population was consisted of 147 recombinant inbred lines. A total of 59 SSR primers were screened in this population and seven of them were linked to resistant QTLs. The QTLs on chromosome 3B accounted for 47.4% phenotypic variation. Minor QTLs were also located on 2D, 7A, 6B, and 4B chromosomes, and the resistant QTLs on 2D and 4B chromosomes were from Alondra. The last population of 80 recombinant inbred lines was from the cross Wangshuibai (resistant)/Alondra (susceptible). A total of 120 SSR primers were screened in this population, eight of which were linked to resistant QTLs. These markers were located on 3B, 4B, 2D, 4D, and 6D (uncertain) chromosomes respectively. The QTLs on chromosome 3B accounted for 8.9-27.0% phenotypic variation. The resistant QTLs on chromosomes 4B and 6D (uncertain) were from Alondra. The other QTLs were from Wangshuibai. SSR markers linked to resistant QTLs on chromosome 3B were found in all three populations, and account for higher phenotypic variation. So these markers should be useful in marker-assisted selection.

  5. Diabetes Screening Among Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Creatore, Maria I.; Gillian L Booth; Manuel, Douglas G.; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine diabetes screening, predictors of screening, and the burden of undiagnosed diabetes in the immigrant population and whether these estimates differ by ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based retrospective cohort linking administrative health data to immigration files was used to follow the entire diabetes-free population aged 40 years and up in Ontario, Canada (N = 3,484,222) for 3 years (2004–2007) to determine whether individuals were screened for diabe...

  6. The Kondo Screening Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Affleck, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Renormalization group theory of the Kondo effect predicts that an impurity spin is screened by a conduction electron spread over a large distance of order >.1 to 1 micron. This review has the following sections: 1. The Kondo effect and the screening cloud, 2. Non-observation of the Kondo cloud in conventional experiments, 3. Kondo effect in transmission through a quantum dot, 4. Observing the screening cloud in persistent current experiments, 5. Side-coupled quantum dot, 6. Conclusions

  7. In-bead screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  8. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  9. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David

    2008-01-01

    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  10. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality, but it...... is not possible to evaluate the effect on mortality until several years later, and continuously monitoring of the quality of all aspects of a screening programme is necessary. Based on other European guidelines, 11 quality indicators have been defined, and guidelines concerning organizational...... requirements for a Danish screening programme as well as recommendations for the radiographic and radiological work have been drawn up....

  11. [Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Ryosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Shiina, Shuichiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Three tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are available in Japan: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II (PIVKA-II), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3). Although AFP has drawbacks in its specificity, it is widely utilized in treatment evaluation and prognosis prediction. PIVKA-II is a unique marker that does not correlate with AFP value and can predict microvascular invasion. AFP-L3 is a highly specific marker and strong predictor of poor prognosis. These three markers are indispensable in every aspect of clinical practice of hepatocellular carcinoma including surveillance, diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction.

  12. Study on the sex-related AFLP marker of the Yangtze finless porpoise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The sex-related molecular marker of the Yangtze finless porpoise was screened using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique combined with the bulked segregant analysis. Totally 36 AFLP primer combinations were used to detect the genome DNA bulks of the female and male porpoises, and one sex-related AFLP marker was finally obtained. The marker can be applied to sex identification, and provides a base for further cloning of sex-related genes and analyzing of Y chromosome haplotypes of the Yangtze finless porpoise.

  13. Joint breast and colorectal cancer screenings in medically underserved women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terry C; Arnold, Connie L; Wolf, Michael S; Bennett, Charles L; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast and colon cancer screening in rural community clinics is underused. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative interventions designed to promote simultaneous screening for breast and colon cancer in community clinics. Methods A 3-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted during May 2008-August 2011 in 8 federally qualifed health clinics in predominately rural Louisiana. Baseline screening rates reported by the clinics was <10% for breast cancer (using mammography) and 1%-2% for colon cancer (using the fecal occult blood test [FOBT]). 744 women aged 50 years or older who were eligible for routine mammography and an FOBT were recruited. The combined screening efforts included: enhanced care; health literacy-informed education (education alone), or health literacy-informed education with nurse support (nurse support). Results Postintervention screening rates for completing both tests were 28.1% with enhanced care, 23.7% with education alone, and 38.7% with nurse support. After adjusting for age, race, and literacy, patients who received nurse support were 2.21 times more likely to complete both screenings than were those who received the education alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-4.38; P = .023). The incremental cost per additional woman completing both screenings was $3,987 for education with nurse support over education alone, and $5,987 over enhanced care. Limitations There were differences between the 3 arms in sociodemographic characteristics, literacy, and previous screening history. Not all variables that were significantly different between arms were adjusted for, therefore adjustments for key variables (age, race, literacy) were made in statistical analyses. Other limitations related generalizability of results. Conclusions Although joint breast and colon cancer screening rates were increased substantially over existing baseline rates in all 3 arms, the completion rate for both tests was

  14. Serum Markers of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Malaguarnera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is a relatively rare type of primary liver cancer that originates in the bile duct epithelium. It is an aggressive malignancy typified by unresponsiveness to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Despite advances in radiologic techniques and laboratory diagnostic test, the diagnosis of CCA remains highly challenging. Development in molecular techniques has led to go into the possible use of serum markers in diagnosing of cholangiocarcinoma. This review summarizes the principal characteristics of serum markers of cholangiocarcinoma. The tumour markers used frequently such as Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9, Carcinogenic Embryonic antigen (CEA, and Cancer Antigen 125 have shown sufficient sensitivity and specificity to detect and monitor CCA. In particular, the combination of these tumour markers seems to increase their efficiency in diagnosing of cholangiocarcinoma. New markers such as Soluble fragment of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA 21-1 Mucins, Tumour Markers2- pyruvate-Kinase (TuM2- PK and metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7 have been recently shown to help in the diagnosis of CCA, with in some cases a prognostic value.

  15. [Cloning and analyzing of the female-specific marker in the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Long Dou; Li, Rui Li; Gao, Wu Jun; Deng, Chuan Liang; Wang, Lian Jun

    2006-06-01

    Sex-linked molecular markers are being obtained, which would be essential to be used in the screening of different sex of dioecious plants at the seedling stage. Furthermore, it is important in cloning the gene related to the sex. In this study the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed with the objective to find markers linked to sex determination in Asparagus. A total of 100 primers were tested with the same PCR cycling procedure. A female-associated fragment with a length of about 867bp was generated with S12 primer. The fragment was cloned and sequenced, showing it is abundant in AT and contains 2 shorter open reading frames. In order to convert the RAPD marker into SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) marker, 24bp specific primers were constructed and used for PCR amplifying. The female-linked dominant SCAR marker was obtained, which would be efficient to identify the different sex of Asparagus officinalis L. PMID:16944605

  16. Can poor consumers pay for energy and water? An affordability analysis for transition countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-income households spend a substantial share of their income on utility services such as electricity, heating and water. The difficulty of these socially vulnerable consumers to absorb further price increases is often used as an argument against tariff reform. However, detailed quantitative information on the affordability of tariff adjustments for low-income consumers is actually quite scarce. Much of the available information is based on households. This paper takes a more detailed look at the affordability of electricity, district heating and water for low-income consumers in transition countries. While the available data are incomplete, the paper finds that affordability is a problem for low-income consumers in most countries, in particular in the water sector and in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The affordability consequences of tariff reform ultimately depend on the speed of tariff adjustments relative to the growth in household income, the level of tariffs needed for cost recovery, the level of effective tariffs at the outset (tariffs adjusted for non-payment) and the demand response to the tariff increase. The paper finds that delaying tariff reform by a few years makes little difference to affordability constraints, and may therefore not be an effective way to mitigate the social impact of utility reform

  17. Can poor consumers pay for energy and water? An affordability analysis for transition countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-income households spend a substantial share of their income on utility services such as electricity, heating and water. The difficulty of these socially vulnerable consumers to absorb further price increases is often used as an argument against tariff reform. However, detailed quantitative information on the affordability of tariff adjustments for low-income consumers is actually quite scarce. Much of the available information is based on households. This paper takes a more detailed look at the affordability of electricity, district heating and water for low-income consumers in transition countries. While the available data are incomplete, the paper finds that affordability is a problem for low-income consumers in most countries, in particular in the water sector and in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The affordability consequences of tariff reform ultimately depend on the speed of tariff adjustments relative to the growth in household income, the level of tariffs needed for cost recovery, the level of effective tariffs at the outset (tariffs adjusted for non-payment) and the demand response to the tariff increase. The paper finds that delaying tariff reform by a few years makes little difference to affordability constraints, and may therefore not be an effective way to mitigate the social impact of utility reform. (author)

  18. Learning outcomes afforded by self-assessed, segmented video–print combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Koumi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning affordances of video and print are examined in order to assess the learning outcomes afforded by hybrid video–print learning packages. The affordances discussed for print are: navigability, surveyability and legibility. Those discussed for video are: design for constructive reflection, provision of realistic experiences, presentational attributes, motivational influences and teacher personalisation. The video affordances are examined through a framework of pedagogic design principles and a set of pedagogic roles that video is outstandingly capable of yielding. The paper first discusses the learning outcomes afforded through video alone, then through print alone, and finally through three versions of video–print combinations. One version involves non-segmented video, complemented with print material. In the other two versions the videos are divided into short segments, one version having narration, while the other has only printed commentary. All three versions include self-assessment questions after each segment. The learning outcomes posited by the paper for each of the three video–print versions are categorised using the Revision of Bloom’s Learning Taxonomy. This categorisation can help teachers to assess whether the outcomes they intend for a lesson can be advanced by one of the three versions. This is particularly relevant for teachers who are flipping classrooms or developing massive open online courses (MOOCs.

  19. Affordability of population towards dental care in Mathura City—A household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Kundan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the factors of affordability towards dental care in Mathura city. Material and Methods The present study included 100 households from which 100 persons were interviewed above the age group of 25 years. Data was collected with the help of structured Questionnaires & Face interviews. Information was collected regarding Socio-demographic variables & attitudes of the subjects towards the utilization of dental service and the affordability of the dental services. The data was then statistically analyzed using chi square test. Results In the present study it was found that the income and education were significantly associated with the affordability of the dental services. Individuals having an income of above Rs 20, 000/ were found to afford the available dental care. Individuals having educational qualification of graduate and above were utilizing the dental services better than others. Conclusion Within the limitation of this study, we can conclude that the utilization of dental services is not very high among Mathura city population. The affordability factor such as income, education and occupation were identified as the major factor towards utilization of dental services. However place of visit differs according to income, education and occupation.

  20. Development of a SCAR (sequence-characterised amplified region) marker for acid resistance-related gene in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Wen; Li, Kai; Yang, Shi-Ling; Tian, Shu-Fen; He, Ling

    2015-03-01

    A sequence characterised amplified region marker was developed to determine an acid resistance-related gene in Lactobacillus plantarum. A random amplified polymorphic DNA marker named S116-680 was reported to be closely related to the acid resistance of the strains. The DNA band corresponding to this marker was cloned and sequenced with the induction of specific designed PCR primers. The results of PCR test helped to amplify a clear specific band of 680 bp in the tested acid-resistant strains. S116-680 marker would be useful to explore the acid-resistant mechanism of L. plantarum and to screen desirable malolactic fermentation strains.

  1. Leveraging The Affordable Care Act To Enroll Justice-Involved Populations In Medicaid: State And Local Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Sachini N; Huskamp, Haiden A; Riedel, Lauren E; McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel; Toone, Robert E; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act provides an unprecedented opportunity to enroll criminal justice-involved populations in health insurance, particularly Medicaid. As a result, many state and county corrections departments have launched programs that incorporate Medicaid enrollment in discharge planning. Our study characterizes the national landscape of programs enrolling criminal justice-involved populations in Medicaid as of January 2015. We provide an overview of sixty-four programs operating in jails, prisons, or community probation and parole systems that enroll individuals during detention, incarceration, and the release process. We describe the variation among the programs in terms of settings, personnel, timing of eligibility screening, and target populations. Seventy-seven percent of the programs are located in jails, and 56 percent use personnel from public health or social service agencies. We describe four practices that have facilitated the Medicaid enrollment process: suspending instead of terminating Medicaid benefits upon incarceration, presuming that an individual is eligible for Medicaid before the process is completed, allowing enrollment during incarceration, and accepting alternative forms of identification for enrollment. The criminal justice system is a complex one that requires a variety of approaches to enroll individuals in Medicaid. Future research should examine how these approaches influence health and criminal justice outcomes. PMID:26643624

  2. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  3. Mammography screening in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse Merete Munk; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  4. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  5. Scoliosis Screening in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

    The booklet outlines New York state school policy and procedures for screening students for scoliosis, lateral curvature of the spine. It is explained that screening is designed to discover spinal deformities early enough to prevent surgery. Planning aspects, including organizing a planning team for the school district, are discussed. Among…

  6. EIA screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2005-01-01

    The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits.......The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits....

  7. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  8. 紫扇贝与海湾扇贝通用SSR的检测及其在杂交子代鉴定中的应用%Screening of Transferable SSR Markers in the Peruvian Scallop and the Bay Scallops and Progeny Identification in the Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓; 李琪; 何庆国; 林国明; 王春德

    2012-01-01

    以紫扇贝DNA为模板,用已开发的147个海湾扇贝微卫星标记引物扩增,结果表明100个微卫星标记能成功扩增,其中有47个表现出多态性,等位基因数目从2到9不等.观测杂合度范围为0.1280~1.0000(平均0.6604),期望杂合度范围为0.5031~0.8621(平均0.6719),有6个位点偏离Hardy-Weinberg平衡(P<0.05).用7对引物分别对紫扇贝、海湾扇贝及其种间正反杂交F1各30个个体进行PCR扩增,发现它们可明确区分紫扇贝与海湾扇贝,且所检测60个杂交子代均同时含海湾扇贝与紫扇贝的相应种特异性条带,证明全部为种间杂交子代.将该7对引物的扩增产物克隆测序,发现这些位点在两种扇贝中的序列同源率为40.22%~91.95%,其中3个位点在紫扇贝中的扩增产物仍然含有微卫星.%In order to investigate transferability of microsatellite markers in genus Argopecten, 147 mi-crosatellite markers developed from the bay scallop (A. irradians), were amplified in 30 Peruvian scallop (A. purpuratus) individuals. One hundred loci can be amplified in the Peruvian scallop, of which 47 loci were found to be polymorphic with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 2 to 9. The observed heterozygos-ity (Ho) of these loci ranged from 0.128 0 to 1.000 0 (with an average of 0.660 4) while the expected het-erozygosity (He) ranged from 0.503 1 to 0.862 1 (with an average of 0.671 9). Six loci were found to be significantly departed from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. Seven loci were selected for progeny identification in the Peruvian scallops, the bay scallops and their hybrids. The results showed that these SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers are able to distinguish between the Peruvian and the bay scallops. Amplification with these SSR markers in 60 hybrids displayed bands from both parents, indicating that these animals were true hybrids. Sequencing of these 7 loci in the Peruvian scallop showed they have 40.22%~91.95% identity with their

  9. Screening for abdominalt aortaaneurisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J S; Juul, Svend; Henneberg, E W;

    1997-01-01

    In spite of increasing number of elective resections of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) the mortality or ruptured AAA is increasing. The advantages of elective operations are obvious; the lethality is 2-6% while the lethality of ruptured AAA is 75-95%. However, AAA seldom causes symptoms before...... rupture. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA takes 10 minutes per scan, and the sensitivity and specificity are high. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA is a reliable, safe and inexpensive method for screening, and screening for AAA is discussed worldwide. One point four percent of deaths among men from 65...... to 80 year of age are caused by ruptured AAA. Screening men over 65 for AAA can theoretically prevent a substantial number of deaths. Our calculations predict one prevented AAA-death per 200-300 scans for a cost of about 4000 DKK per saved year of life. However, cost-benefit analyses are based...

  10. Biochemical Markers of Myocardial Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Geza S

    2016-04-01

    Heart diseases, especially coronary artery diseases (CAD), are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Effective therapy is available to ensure patient survival and to prevent long term sequelae after an acute ischemic event caused by CAD, but appropriate therapy requires rapid and accurate diagnosis. Research into the pathology of CAD have demonstrated the usefulness of measuring concentrations of chemicals released from the injured cardiac muscle can aid the diagnosis of diseases caused by myocardial ischemia. Since the mid-1950s successively better biochemical markers have been described in research publications and applied for the clinical diagnosis of acute ischemic myocardial injury. Aspartate aminotransferase of the 1950s was replaced by other cytosolic enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and their isoenzymes that exhibited better cardiac specificity. With the availability of immunoassays, other muscle proteins, that had no enzymatic activity, were also added to the diagnostic arsenal but their limited tissue specificity and sensitivity lead to suboptimal diagnostic performance. After the discovery that cardiac troponins I and T have the desired specificity, they have replaced the cytosolic enzymes in the role of diagnosing myocardial ischemia and infarction. The use of the troponins provided new knowledge that led to revision and redefinition of ischemic myocardial injury as well as the introduction of biochemicals for estimation of the probability of future ischemic myocardial events. These markers, known as cardiac risk markers, evolved from the diagnostic markers such as CK-MB or troponins, but markers of inflammation also belong to these groups of diagnostic chemicals. This review article presents a brief summary of the most significant developments in the field of biochemical markers of cardiac injury and summarizes the most recent significant recommendations regarding the use of the cardiac markers in

  11. Imaging markers for Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchetta, Martina; Chételat, Gael; Rabinovici, Gil D.; de Leon, Mony J.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Reiman, Eric M.; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Black, Sandra E.; Brooks, David J.; Carrillo, Maria C.; Fox, Nick C.; Herholz, Karl; Nordberg, Agneta; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Rowe, Christopher C.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Thies, William; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Weiner, Michael W.; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; DeCarli, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Revised diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD) acknowledge a key role of imaging biomarkers for early diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy depends on which marker (i.e., amyloid imaging, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG]-PET, SPECT, MRI) as well as how it is measured (“metric”: visual, manual, semiautomated, or automated segmentation/computation). We evaluated diagnostic accuracy of marker vs metric in separating AD from healthy and prognostic accuracy to predict progression in mild cognitive impairment. The outcome measure was positive (negative) likelihood ratio, LR+ (LR−), defined as the ratio between the probability of positive (negative) test outcome in patients and the probability of positive (negative) test outcome in healthy controls. Diagnostic LR+ of markers was between 4.4 and 9.4 and LR− between 0.25 and 0.08, whereas prognostic LR+ and LR− were between 1.7 and 7.5, and 0.50 and 0.11, respectively. Within metrics, LRs varied up to 100-fold: LR+ from approximately 1 to 100; LR− from approximately 1.00 to 0.01. Markers accounted for 11% and 18% of diagnostic and prognostic variance of LR+ and 16% and 24% of LR−. Across all markers, metrics accounted for an equal or larger amount of variance than markers: 13% and 62% of diagnostic and prognostic variance of LR+, and 29% and 18% of LR−. Within markers, the largest proportion of diagnostic LR+ and LR− variability was within 18F-FDG-PET and MRI metrics, respectively. Diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of imaging AD biomarkers is at least as dependent on how the biomarker is measured as on the biomarker itself. Standard operating procedures are key to biomarker use in the clinical routine and drug trials. PMID:23897875

  12. Understanding Structures and Affordances of Extended Teams in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali Babar, Muhammad; Zahedi, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Growing popularity of Global Software Development (GSD) has resulted in an increasing number of cross-organizational teams that are formed according to Extended Team Model (ETM). There is little known about the structures (work, social, and communication) that may exist in ETM and what affordances...... those structures provide to support collaboration and coordination. This paper reports a case study that has studied the structures of an ETM in GSD and how those structures provide affordances for dealing with known GSD challenges. This study has revealed that whilst the current structures...... in the studied team help deal with different GSD challenges, these structures appear to have certain challenges inherent in them and the affordances they provide. We make a few recommendations for improving the current structures to deal with the observed challenges. Our findings are expected to provide insights...

  13. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: Promoting Competition in the Individual Marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, David; Lucia, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    A main goal of the Affordable Care Act is to provide Americans with access to affordable coverage in the individual market, achieved in part by pro­moting competition among insurers on premium price and value. One primary mechanism for meeting that goal is the establishment of new individual health insurance marketplaces where consumers can shop for, compare, and purchase plans, with subsidies if they are eligible. In this issue brief, we explore how the Affordable Care Act is influencing competition in the individual marketplaces in four states--Kansas, Nevada, Rhode Island, and Washington. Strategies include: educating consumers and providing coverage information in one place to ease decision-making; promoting competition among insurers; and ensuring a level playing field for premium rate development through the rate review process. PMID:26910926

  14. When creating new learning spaces, the affordance is a key study aspect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to highlight, how different places and spaces in undergraduate education afford students learning, and development of certain types of knowledge. The question, that this paper address is: What is the affordance of different learning spaces in flexible undergraduate education...... to sociality, identity, referential embodied experiences as having huge influence on students’ preferences and learning activity. The results are addressed to learning and knowledge development. It´s concluded, that individual as well as social constructed learning make influence, and are influenced...... in learning spaces. The students embodied interaction is both in references to past experiences, as well as under development towards a fictive future, which is both a result of their preferences and of their engagement. On the basis of the concept of affordance, and the frame of social-cultural theory...

  15. Tumour markers in gastrointestinal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamerz, R.

    1988-02-01

    For non-endocrine gastrointestinal tumours the following tumour markers are of clinical interest: For esophageal cancer CEA (sensitivity, s: 40-60%) and SCC (squamous cell carcinoma antigen, x: 20-50%); for gastric cancer CEA (s: 30-40%) as well as CA 19-9 (s: 30-40%) because of complementary results (additive s: 50-60); for hepatocellular cancer AFP (first choice, s: 70-90%; second choice CA 19-9, s: 50-70%); for cholangiocellular cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%); for secondary liver cancer in general CEA; for biliary tract cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%) as well as for excretory pancreatic cancer (s: 70-90%); for colorectal cancer CEA (s: 40-70%) as a first choice marker, and CA 19-9 (s: 20-60%) as a second choice marker, and for anal cancer SCC. The frequency of tumour marker determinations depends on follow-up care recommendations for different tumour diseases (e.g. 1-3 monthly during the 1st and 2nd postoperative year, following chemotherapy courses, on change of therapy, on restaging and at unclear alteration of the clinical state). Tumour markers are only valuable adjuncts to the medical care of tumour patients and therefore useless as solitary findings or on missing therapeutic consequence.

  16. Self-organization, free energy minimization, and optimal grip on a field of affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle eBruineberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we set out to develop a theoretical and conceptual framework for the new field of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience. This framework should be able to integrate insights from several relevant disciplines: theory on embodied cognition, ecological psychology, phenomenology, dynamical systems theory, and neurodynamics. We suggest that the main task of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience is to investigate the phenomenon of skilled intentionality from the perspective of the self-organization of the brain-body-environment system, while doing justice to the phenomenology of skilled action. In previous work, we have characterized skilled intentionality as the organism’s tendency towards an optimal grip on multiple relevant affordances simultaneously. Affordances are possibilities for action provided by the environment. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the notion of skilled intentionality and the phenomenon of responsiveness to a field of relevant affordances. Second, we use Friston’s work on neurodynamics, but embed a very minimal version of his Free Energy Principle in the ecological niche of the animal. Thus amended, this principle is helpful for understanding the embeddedness of neurodynamics within the dynamics of the brain-body-environment system. Next, we show how we can use this adjusted principle to understand the neurodynamics of selective openness to the environment: interacting action-readiness patterns at multiple timescales contribute to the organism’s selective openness to relevant affordances. In the final part of the paper, we emphasize the important role of metastable dynamics in both the brain and the brain-body-environment system for adequate affordance-responsiveness. We exemplify our integrative approach by presenting research on the impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on affordance responsiveness of OCD patients.

  17. Children’s Learning from Touch Screens: A Dual Representation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Kelly J.; Uttal, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium – that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog) while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog). Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children’s learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children’s ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children’s developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children’s ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children’s cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium.

  18. RAPD Marker Conversion into a SCAR Marker for Rapid Identification of Johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L. Pers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenju ZHANG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L. Pers.] is a malignant weed in the world, threatening biodiversity at invaded habitats in more than 50 countries. Because of similarity in morphological characters, S. halepense and its relatives, S. almum, S. nitidum, S. propinquum, S. sudanense, and S. bicolor, etc. was difficult to identify. As a supplementary methodolgy for morphology identification, a molecular detection method was established. Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions (SCAR marker is a recent established, reliabile, and stable molecular marker based on RAPD maker, an effective way for germplasm identification. In this study, one specific band of S.halepense was screened by 163 pairs of RAPD primers. According to the sequences of the band, a pair of special SCAR primers SH1/SH2 was designed and verified by 65 Sorghum DNA samples from all over the world. The results showed SCAR primers SH1/SH2 can be used to distinguish S.halepense and its relatives rapidly with three exceptions of Australia geotypes.

  19. On the relevance of Gibson's affordance concept for geographical information science (GISc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed.

  20. Can Canada afford a truly pan-Canadian approach to elder care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This commentary is about Canada's ability to afford a comprehensive pan-Canadian approach to elder care. In redefining the universal public system, a broad and more comprehensive definition of universal public care is needed for those whose physical or mental abilities are impaired. The Scandinavian model affirms that this is both effective and affordable. Comparisons of Canada with other nations in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development on taxation and spending levels reveal that there is room for Canada to increase taxation to fund a Scandinavian model while still having competitive tax and spending rates. PMID:21593614

  1. Mutuality in the perception of affordances and the control of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carello, Claudia; Wagman, Jeffrey B

    2009-01-01

    James Gibson introduced the concept of affordance to emphasize the importance of behavior in constraining perception. In this view, perception is not judged in terms of sensitivities to properties that are measured by physical instruments (photometers for brightness, scales for weight, etc.) but in terms of properties that matter to behaving systems (whether an object is appropriate to carry out some task). The affordance notion is brought to bear on understanding and motivating a variety of experimental phenomena in the study of dynamic touch, the domain of touch most concerned with using objects and interacting with surfaces.

  2. Estimated 2nd Trimester Maternal Serum Markers AFP & HCG Moms for Down'S Syndrome Screening in Macao%第二妊娠期母血清甲胎球蛋白及人類絨毛膜促性腺激素篩選唐氏綜合症標記

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王強; 梁敏慧; 林勇行

    2001-01-01

    目的進行第二妊娠期母血清甲胎球蛋白及人類絨毛膜促性腺激素篩選唐氏綜合症標記的測定.方法從1998年8月起,對澳門35歲以下,懷孕期在14至20孕週,單胎懷孕並且無明顯家族及染色體遺傳史的孕婦,通過産前診斷咨詢門診,利用電子計算機軟件程式,分別對孕婦的年齡、身高、體重、以及甲胎球蛋白及人類絨毛膜促性腺激素進行運算,得出有關的數值.所有數值如大於1/250者將被視爲陽性.其後,有關孕婦將被轉介作羊水檢驗以確診之.結果其中有三例羊水檢驗證實爲唐氏綜合症胎兒.該項檢驗的假陽性率爲1/17.但其中一例出現假陰性(高齡孕婦,同時接受了羊水檢驗並確診).該母血篩選檢查的準確性約60%.結論該項35歲以下,懷孕期在14至20週唐氏綜合症檢驗在澳門中國婦女人口中是可行的及可接受的.%Objective Offered second-trimester serum AFP and hCG screening study to pregnant women younger than 3 5 years should be offered maternal serum screening at 16 to 18 weeks of gestation and without other risk factors for chromosomal abnormalities. Materials Between August 1998 and January 2001, we Each woman was assigned a risk of having a Downis syndrome term pregnancy by using a computer software program that took into account her age, weight, AFP and hCG MoMs. All those with a risk of one in 250 or greater were designated screen-positive, subject to the revision of gestation by ultrasound examination. Results After revision of the gestation by ultrasound examination, 89 of them (97 per cent) accepted the offer of amniocentesis. Downis syndrome and all the women elected pregnancy termination affected two of these pregnancies. The odds of being affected, given a positive screening result, were one in 17. The screening programmed missed one Downis syndrome pregnancy. The detection rate was 60 per cent. Conclusion The study showed that second-trimester serum screening for

  3. Sonographic markers for early diagnosis of fetal malformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria; Daniela; Renna; Paola; Pisani; Francesco; Conversano; Emanuele; Perrone; Ernesto; Casciaro; Gian; Carlo; Di; Renzo; Marco; Di; Paola; Antonio; Perrone; Sergio; Casciaro

    2013-01-01

    Fetal malformations are very frequent in industrialized countries.Although advanced maternal age may affect pregnancy outcome adversely,80%-90%of fetal malformations occur in the absence of a specific risk factor for parents.The only effective approach for prenatal screening is currently represented by an ultrasound scan.However,ultrasound methods present two important limitations:the substantial absence of quantitative parameters and the dependence on the sonographer experience.In recent years,together with the improvement in transducer technology,quantitative and objective sonographic markers highly predictive of fetal malformations have been developed.These markers can be detected at early gestation(11-14 wk)and generally are not pathological in themselves but have an increased incidence in abnormal fetuses.Thus,prenatal ultrasonography during the second trimester of gestation provides a"genetic sonogram",including,for instance,nuchal translucency,short humeral length,echogenic bowel,echogenic intracardiac focus and choroid plexus cyst,that is used to identify morphological features of fetal Down’s syndrome with a potential sensitivity of more than 90%.Other specific and sensitive markers can be seen in the case of cardiac defects and skeletal anomalies.In the future,sonographic markers could limit even more the use of invasive and dangerous techniques of prenatal diagnosis(amniocentesis,etc.).

  4. Non-invasive markers for early diagnosis and determination of the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, G.; Derikx, J.P.; Wijck, K. van; Zimmermann, L.J.; Degraeuwe, P.L.J.; Mulder, T.L.; Zee, D.C. van der; Brouwers, H.A.A.; Verhoeven, B.H.; Heurn, L.W.E. van; Kramer, B.W.; Buurman, W.A.; Heineman, E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To improve diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by noninvasive markers representing gut wall integrity loss (I-FABP and claudin-3) and gut wall inflammation (calprotectin). Furthermore, the usefulness of I-FABP to predict NEC severity and to screen for NEC was evaluated. METHODS:

  5. Non-Invasive Markers for Early Diagnosis and Determination of the Severity of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, Geertje; Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Wijck, Kim; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.; Degraeuwe, Pieter L.; Mulder, Twan L.; Van der Zee, David C.; Brouwers, Hens A. A.; Verhoeven, Bas H.; van Heurn, L. W. Ernest; Kramer, Boris W.; Buurman, Wim A.; Heineman, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To improve diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by noninvasive markers representing gut wall integrity loss (I-FABP and claudin-3) and gut wall inflammation (calprotectin). Furthermore, the usefulness of I-FABP to predict NEC severity and to screen for NEC was evaluated. Methods:

  6. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for Melastoma dodecandrum (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Melastoma dodecandrum to investigate the genetic diversity of this species and to detect hybridization and introgression in Melastoma. Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite loci were characterized by screening primers developed using two simple sequence repeat (SSR—enriched libraries. Based on the genotyping of two natural populations, 13 loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 15. The observed and expected heterozygosities for the 13 loci ranged from 0.235 to 0.941 and 0.219 to 0.922, respectively. Cross-species amplification was successful for all 14 loci in each of two congeneric species, M. candidum and M. sanguineum. Conclusions: These polymorphic SSR markers could be used as multilocus molecular makers to study the population genetics of M. dodecandrum, as well as hybridization and introgression among Melastoma species.

  7. Development of Microsatellite Markers for Isodon longitubus (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Yamashiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Isodon longitubus to study the natural hybridization of the species and its congeners. Methods and Results: A total of 10 primer sets were developed for I. longitubus. From the initial screening, all of 10 loci were polymorphic with five to 19 alleles per locus in the Mt. Ishizuchi population, whereas nine loci were polymorphic with two to 12 alleles per loci in the Toon population. Although one locus was monomorphic at one population, the observed and expected heterozygosity values estimated from 34 I. longitubus samples ranged from 0.273 to 1.000 and from 0.483 to 0.918, respectively. Six primer sets could amplify all three species examined in this study (I. inflexus, I. japonicus, and I. shikokianus. Conclusions: The 10 microsatellite markers developed here will be useful in analyzing the population genetic structure of I. longitubus and in studying the natural hybridization between Isodon species.

  8. RAPD markers related to sex locus in Populus tomentosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanwei HOU; Junfeng FAN; Feimei ZHOU; Shufang ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    By using the methods of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and bulked segregate analysis (BSA), we identified markers that are linked to the sex determination in the dioecious Populus tomentosa. Male and female bulks were created through rough mixing equal amounts of its five individual DNA. A total of 88 primers were screened. Twelve primers produced clear patterns with at least one band that appeared to be polymorphic between the two bulks. Subsequently, five male and female individuals were analyzed with those 12 primers, and only S60 (ACCCGGTCAC) could generate a common 1800bp DNA fragment in all five male individuals and male pool but not in any female individuals. It can be concluded that the gender of P. tomentosa is most likely connected to the S60-1800bp DNA fragment and RAPD markers. S60, therefore, can be used for selecting the gender of P. tomentosa.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Beilschmiedia roxburghiana (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Although there are as many as 250 species in the genus Beilschmiedia, their genetic diversity has been poorly investigated. Our objective was to develop microsatellite markers for B. roxburghiana to study its genetic diversity for the sustainable management of this species. Methods and Results: Using the microsatellite-enriched library and PCR-based screening method, 22 microsatellite markers were developed and 10 showed high polymorphism in a population. The number of alleles per locus for these 10 microsatellites ranged from five to 19. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.298 to 1.000 and from 0.314 to 0.878, respectively. Conclusions: Our results from the 10 highly polymorphic microsatellites indicate that the principal reproductive mode of B. roxburghiana is clonal in the studied population. These microsatellites will facilitate further studies on genetic diversity and structure in B. roxburghiana.

  10. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette;

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...... on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings...

  11. Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries. PMID:27535387

  12. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... Task Force. Final Update Summary: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening. July 2015. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/ ...

  13. Lung cancer screening: radiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Lung Cancer Screening: Radiological Aspects Multiple lung cancer screening studies are currently being conducted to study whether lung cancer screening with Computed Tomography (CT) can decrease lung cancer mortality. This thesis addresses radiological methods that can increase efficacy and efficien

  14. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  15. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  16. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  17. Screening for Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keita; Takaori, Kyoichi; Traverso, L William

    2015-10-01

    Neither extended surgery nor extended indication for surgery has improved survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. According to autopsy studies, presumably 90% are metastatic. The only cure is complete removal of the tumor at an early stage before it becomes a systemic disease or becomes invasive. Early detection and screening of individuals at risk is currently under way. This article reviews the evidence and methods for screening, either familial or sporadic. Indication for early-stage surgery and precursors are discussed. Surgeons should be familiar with screening because it may provide patients with a chance for cure by surgical resection.

  18. Chemical Screening in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Colleen A; Rennekamp, Andrew J; Peterson, Randall T

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic small molecule screens in zebrafish have gained popularity as an unbiased approach to probe biological processes. In this chapter we outline basic methods for performing chemical screens with larval zebrafish including breeding large numbers of embryos, plating larval fish into multi-well dishes, and adding small molecules to these wells. We also highlight important considerations when designing and interpreting the results of a phenotypic screen and possible follow-up approaches, including popular methods used to identify the mechanism of action of a chemical compound. PMID:27464797

  19. Screening for asbestbetingede sygdomme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Charlotte; Baandrup, Ulrik; Jacobsen, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs in...... asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  20. Content adaptive screen image scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Yao; Wang, Qifei; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient content adaptive screen image scaling scheme for the real-time screen applications like remote desktop and screen sharing. In the proposed screen scaling scheme, a screen content classification step is first introduced to classify the screen image into text and pictorial regions. Afterward, we propose an adaptive shift linear interpolation algorithm to predict the new pixel values with the shift offset adapted to the content type of each pixel. The shift offse...

  1. Application of molecular markers in livestock improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Teneva A.; Petrović M.P.

    2010-01-01

    With recent developments in DNA technologies, a large number of genetic polymorphisms at DNA sequence level has been introduced over the last decades as named DNA-based markers. The discovery of new class of DNA profiling markers has facilitated the development of marker-based gene tags, mapbased cloning of livestock important genes, variability studies, phylogenetic analysis, synteny mapping, marker-assisted selection of favourable genotypes, etc. The most commonly used DNA-based markers hav...

  2. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  3. [Screening for coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic diabetics. How to and in whom to screen?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Screening for coronary artery disease (CAD) in the asymptomatic diabetic patient is controversial with respect to both patient selection and rational choice of screening methods. Epidemiological studies in the real world and improved knowledge on risk markers have changed the criteria that help refine global risk stratification in a patient population that is per se high risk. Over the past years, it is likely that we have been overestimating the risk when using the classical risk factors. This review highlights the role of novel risk markers in the global assessment of diabetic patients, and identifies the best diagnostic approaches to select those patients who might benefit most from revascularization procedures or more aggressive treatment goals, despite the absence of symptoms. Factors such as the presence of kidney disease, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy or atherosclerotic disease in other arterial territories, may exponentially increase the risk of poor outcomes in diabetic patients. With the aim of rationalizing the use of diagnostic procedures, we propose a sequential approach that combines anatomic and functional data with the coronary calcium score. This approach may serve as a filter to select patients for further assessment with more expensive and less available tests so as to optimize the cost-benefit ratio of screening. PMID:23721974

  4. Development of simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers of ramie and comparison of SSR and inter-SSR marker systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jianlin; JIE Yucheng; JIANG Yanbo; ZHONG Yingli; LIU Yunhai; ZHANG Jian

    2005-01-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. ) is an important bast fiber crop. To study genetic background of this species, we isolated and characterized microsatellite markers of ramie. A genomic library containing inserts of rapid amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)fragments was constructed, and screened by PCR amplification using anchored simple sequence repeats as primers. A total of 26 clones were identified as positives, and 13 microsatellite loci were found after sequencing. The polymorphism of these 13 microsatellite loci was examined and the utility of simple sequence repeats (SSR) and inter-SSR (ISSR) marker systems for genetic characterization compared using 19 selected ramie cultivars. Both approaches successfully discriminated the 19 cultivars which differed in the amount of polymorphism detected. The level of polymorphism detected by SSR was 95.0 %, higher than that by ISSR (72.3 % ), but the average polymorphism information content (PIC) of ISSR (0. 651) was higher than that of SSR (0. 441). The higher PIC value of ISSR suggests that ISSR is more efficient for fingerprinting ramie cultivars than SSR markers. However, because the SSR loci are codominant, they are more suitable for determining the homozygosity levels of ramie, constructing linkage map, quantitative trait loci study of complex traits and marker-as-sisted selection.

  5. Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena P Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sporadic congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common cause of hypothyroidism infancy early childhood in iodine sufficient region. Screening for neonatal CH began in 1970s. The rationale and reason for neonatal screening for CH (NSCH are well established. It is mandatory in most developed countries along with the screen for metabolic disorder. The possibility of measuring TSH and thyroid hormones in cord blood paved the way for newborn screening (NS for CH. Worldwide it is estimated that 25% of the live born population of 130 million babies undergo NSCH. Klein et al., by 1972 had shown improved CNS prognosis in CH treated by age 3 months. NSCH has largely eradicated the severe irreversible neurodevelopmental damage and reversed the chances of growth failure in infancy and early childhood.

  6. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absolute reduction in mortal- ity. Preliminary results from PIVOT (Prostate Cancer In- tervention Versus Observation Trial), in ... early PSA screening era, prelim- inary findings from PIVOT show that, after 12 years, in- tention to ...

  7. Screening for Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t know which people with early signs of disease will develop serious vision problems or blindness. There are two major ... for advice about glaucoma screening. Glaucoma is a serious disease that affects the health and quality of life ...

  8. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  9. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  10. Health Screenings at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blackboard may not know that she is seeing differently from anyone else. Nevertheless, even mild deficiencies of sight can significantly affect a child's ability to learn. In some states these screening tests are mandated ...

  11. Screening for autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J; Belhage, B; Ashenden, M;

    2009-01-01

    The ratio between the amount of hemoglobin in the mature erythrocyte population and the reticulocytes (RBCHb:RetHb ratio) has previously been suggested as a marker to screen for EPO-abuse. We speculated that the reinfusion of blood would lead to a marked increase in this ratio, making it a valuable....... Different erythrocyte parameters were measured on a hematological analyzer serially throughout and during a 4 week wash-out period. By using RBCHb:RetHb ratio cut-off limits of 145.7 (1:100) ('suspicious') and 182.9 (1:1000) ('positive'), 35.4% (-80 T) and 19.6% (+4 T) of all samples obtained during a 4...... week wash-out period were identified as 'suspicious', and 18.8% (-80 T) and 4.3% (+4 T) as 'positive'. In total, 7 out of 16 (43.8%) subjects had at least one sample exceeding 182.9. Compared to the currently used indirect parameters, the RBCHb:RetHb ratio is the best indicator of autologous blood...

  12. Screening efficiency and screen length of a linear vibrating screen using DEM 3D simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guifeng; Tong Xin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of screen length on the screening efficiency of particles is studied under various single parameter conditions including frequency,amplitude,vibration angle,and screen inclination.The Discrete Element Method (DEM) has been used to simulate the screening process.A functional relationship between screening efficiency and screen length is established.It is shown that screening efficiency and screen length have a complicated exponential relationship.Relationships between them are profoundly discussed and conclusions are easily drawn:low values of the parameters do not benefit screening; screening efficiency generally increases with screen length; screening efficiency reaches a plateau when these parameters are in range frequently encountered in practical applications.

  13. Robust High Temperature Environmental Barrier Coating System for Ceramic Matrix Composite Gas Turbine Components using Affordable Processing Approach Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed to demonstrate the use of advanced manufacturing techniques to enable the affordable application of multi-functional thermal / environmental...

  14. Clinical Evaluation and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Serum Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of serum tumor markers is valuable for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Tumor markers are frequently used for the management of cancer patients. However, single markers are less efficient but marker combinations increase the cost, which is troublesome for clinics. To find an optimal serum marker combination panel that benefits the patients and the medical management system as well, four routine lung cancer serum markers (SCCA, NSE, CEA, and CYFRA21-1 were evaluated individually and in combination. Meanwhile, the costs and effects of these markers in clinical practice in China were assessed by cost-effectiveness analysis. As expected, combinations of these tumor markers improved their sensitivity for lung cancer and different combination panels had their own usefulness. NSE + CEA + CYFRA21-1 was the optimal combination panel with highest Youden’s index (0.64, higher sensitivity (75.76%, and specificity (88.57%, which can aid the clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. Nevertheless, the most cost-effective combination was SCCA + CEA, which can be used to screen the high-risk group.

  15. 77 FR 36272 - SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... areas of technology, education and science. The $10 million SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop Solar challenges the ingenuity of America's businesses and communities to make it faster, easier... using innovative, verifiable processes and business practices. Today's notice announces the...

  16. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC SUBSTANTIATION OF PROJECTS OF THE AFFORDABLE HOUSING CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRAVCHUNOVSKA T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. The development of inhabitant locality of Ukraine is characterized by significant differences in levels of socio and economic development. An excessive concentration of population and industry in large cities, inefficient, slow development of most medium and small cities, towns and villages, considerable territorial disproportions of economic development of the country, considerable shortcomings in the territorial organization of society are observed. At the same time the tendency of the total area of increasing of inhabitant locality. The lands are used inefficiently. Among the most common problems of inhabitant locality is the housing problem. When making a decision on the design of affordable housing construction is one of the most important stages in the development of the technique and economic substantiation of the project is determination of the advisability and effectiveness of construction. The substantiation of advisability and effectiveness of affordable housing based on the definition of technical and economic indicators of projects, one of the most important among them is the cost, in its calculation is necessary to take into account the influence of organizational and technological factors, reflecting the features of construction in condition of compacted construction. Purpose. Development of methodical recommendations on substantiation of cost construction of affordable housing in the conditions of compacted construction. Conclusion. To provide a processing and the analysis of data is necessary development of the applied software on the basis of the developed block scheme of justification of cost construction of affordable housing.

  17. 78 FR 41074 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student Competition AGENCY: Office of Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD is seeking approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the...

  18. Developing and Implementing a Simple, Affordable Hydrogen Fuel Cell Laboratory in Introductory Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klara, Kristina; Hou, Ning; Lawman, Allison; Wu, Liheng; Morrill, Drew; Tente, Alfred; Wang, Li-Qiong

    2014-01-01

    A simple, affordable hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell laboratory was developed through a collaborative effort between faculty and undergraduate students at Brown University. It has been incorporated into the introductory chemistry curriculum and successfully implemented in a class of over 500 students per academic year for over 3…

  19. A Teachable-Agent-Based Game Affording Collaboration and Competition: Evaluating Math Comprehension and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, Lena; Haake, Magnus; Lindstrom, Paulina; Sjoden, Bjorn; Gulz, Agneta

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an educational game in mathematics based on an apprenticeship model using a teachable agent, as well as an evaluative study of how the game affects (1) conceptual understanding and (2) attitudes towards mathematics. In addition, we discuss how collaborative and competitive affordances of the game may affect understanding and…

  20. Affordances and Constraints of Using the Socio-Political Debate for Authentic Summative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker-Hansen, Jens; Andrée, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article reports from an empirical study on the affordances and constraints for using staged socio-political debates for authentic summative assessment of scientific literacy. The article focuses on conditions for student participation and what purposes emerge in student interaction in a socio-political debate. As part of the research project,…

  1. Completing the Affordability Picture: The Need for More Data on Financial Aid. Report 09-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jessika

    2009-01-01

    The Commission adopted two affordability reports in 2008. One report examined costs for students at a four-year public university who live on campus. The other examined costs for students living in their parent's home while studying at a community college. Costs were compared to trends in family income over the past 30 years. The resulting report…

  2. 77 FR 20615 - DAU Industry Day: “Affordability, Efficiency, and the Industrial Base”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... of the Secretary DAU Industry Day: ``Affordability, Efficiency, and the Industrial Base'' AGENCY..., efficiency, and the industrial base. After a variety of presenters, the session will conclude with Mr. Frank... maintaining a healthy industrial base. Following the plenary session, each company will have the...

  3. Effects of response task on reaction time and the detection of affordances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, GJ; Li, FX

    2005-01-01

    Studies on affordance perception commonly report systematic errors; a finding that is at odds with the observation that everyday motor behavior is accurate. The present study investigated whether the means by which perceptual performance is measured could explain the reported errors. Perception of o

  4. Access to Affordable and Low-Income Housing in East Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, the housing sector plays a key role in local and national economies, and expanding access to housing can encourage more equitably shared economic growth. This report surveys current policy interventions designed to encourage affordable housing in East Asia and the Pacific (EAP). The purpose of this report is to provide a general overview of the recent trends in urbanizati...

  5. ICT-Based Learning Personalization Affordance in the Context of Implementation of Constructionist Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Natalija; Dagiene, Valentina; Kubilinskiene, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    How to enable students to create a personalized learning environment? What are the criteria of evaluation of the ICT-based learning process personalization affordance? These questions are answered by conducting multiple case study research of the innovative ICT-based learning process in iTEC (Innovative Technologies for Engaging Classrooms)…

  6. Family socioeconomic status and the provision of motor affordances in the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa C. B. Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES and stimulation provided in the home environment are influential factors in aspects of child well-being including motor development. Little is known regarding the influence of SES on specific aspects of the home environment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the availability of affordances in the home to promote infant motor development and family SES. METHOD : The sample consisted of 300 families with infants aged 3 to 18 months. SES was assessed according to family socioeconomic class, income and parental level of education. To evaluate motor affordances found at home, the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS was used. The AHEMD-IS was designed to assess dimensions of the home environment including Physical Space (outside and inside space, Daily Activities and Play Materials (fine-motor and gross-motor toys. RESULTS: SES indicators significantly influenced the availability of Physical Space and Play Materials. The Physical Space dimension was influenced by family economic class and income. The Play Materials dimension was influenced by all SES indicators. Daily Activities were not influenced by any of the SES indicators. Daily activities and play material were influenced by the infant's age. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SES indicators are influential with regard to the provision of motor affordances in the home environment for infants. However, daily activities, which represent an aspect of the environment that is highly dependent on parental generation of situations that are conducive to motor skill development, are independent of family SES.

  7. Technologies for Learning? An Actor-Network Theory Critique of "Affordances" in Research on Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steve; Parchoma, Gale

    2011-01-01

    How is the link between learner and technology made in mobile learning? What is the value of the concept of "affordances"? And how does research articulating this concept act to position mobile devices as "technologies for learning"? This literature review used both unstructured and structured search samples of published research on mobile…

  8. Affording Explicit-Reflective Science Teaching by Using an Educative Teachers' Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lieu, Sang-Chong; Chen, Sufen; Huang, Mao-Tsai; Chang, Wen-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers have achieved some success in effective nature of science (NOS) teaching, helping teachers teach NOS continues to be a great challenge. The development of an educative teachers' guide would provide support for NOS teaching. In this study, we explored the effects that a research-based guide had on affording elementary school…

  9. Mobile Service Affordability for the Needy, Addiction, and ICT Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper links communications and media usage to social and household economics boundaries. It highlights that in present day society, communications and media are a necessity, but not always affordable, and that they furthermore open up for addictive behaviours which raise additional

  10. Enabling Mobile Communications for the Needy: Affordability Methodology, and Approaches to Requalify Universal Service Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Francois PAU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper links communications and media usage to social and household economics boundaries. It highlights that in present day society, communications and media are a necessity, but not always affordable, and that they furthermore open up for addictive behaviors which raise additional financial and social risks. A simple and efficient methodology compatible with state-of-the-art social and communications business statistics is developed, which produces the residual communications and media affordability budget and ultimately the value-at-risk in terms of usage and tariffs. Sensitivity analysis provides precious information on bottom-up communications and media adoption on the basis of affordability. This approach differs from the regulated but often ineffective Universal service obligation, which instead of catering for individual needs mostly addresses macro-measures helping geographical access coverage (e.g. in rural areas. It is proposed to requalify the Universal service obligations on operators into concrete measures, allowing, with unchanged funding, the needy to adopt mobile services based on their affordability constraints by bridging the gap to a standard tariff. Case data are surveyed from various countries. ICT policy recommendations are made to support widespread and socially responsible communications access.

  11. Assessing Affordances of Selected Cloud Computing Tools for Language Teacher Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofemile, Abdulmalik Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that hoped to understand Teacher Educators' (TE) assessment of the affordances of selected cloud computing tools ranked among the top 100 for the year 2010. Research has shown that ICT and by extension cloud computing has positive impacts on daily life and this informed the Nigerian government's policy to…

  12. The Affordability of Housing in the Netherlands: An Increasing Income Gap Between Renting and Owning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Housing became more expensive in the Netherlands between 2002 and 2006, a trend which has been demonstrated using various measures of affordability. The expenditure-to-income ratios calculated for households confirm that the average cost of housing rose for tenants and homeowners, as well as for mos

  13. Understanding Enactivism: A Study of Affordances and Constraints of Engaging Practicing Teachers as Digital Game Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2012-01-01

    This study is intended to deepen our understanding of enactivism, an emergent theoretical paradigm, through empirical exploration of teacher undertakings as digital game creators. Specifically, it explores the affordances and constraints, two important enactivism concepts, of practicing teachers' experiences in designing and developing games for…

  14. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financing, refinancing or other debt if the PHA determines that the debt is unaffordable, or if the PHA... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Homeownership option: Financing...: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase. (a) The PHA may establish requirements for...

  15. Awareness, Perceptions, and Communication Needs about the Affordable Care Act across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Caroline D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Sisson, Diana C.; Tanner, Andrea; Kornegay, Vance L.; Owens, Otis L.; Weis, Megan A.; Patterson, Lee L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: By March 2014, all U.S. citizens were required to have health insurance according to the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Purpose: Study objectives were to explore individuals' opinions, perceptions, and communication sources and needs about the ACA and to assess differences by age group. Methods: In November 2013, 10 1-hour focus groups (5…

  16. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  17. A Policy Analysis of Child Care Subsidies: Increasing Quality, Access, and Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie-Dyer, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Changing family dynamics over the past four decades, including rises in the numbers of working mothers and single-parent families, have created an increased need for affordable child care. Government response to this need has involved a number of stop-and-start policy approaches, which have led to a fractured child care system that makes it…

  18. CD-ROM Multimodal Affordances: Classroom Interaction Perspectives in the Malaysian English Literacy Hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Sheena; Yaacob, Aizan

    2009-01-01

    CD-ROM affordances are explored in this article through participation in classroom interaction. CD-ROMs for shared reading of animated stories and language work were introduced to all Malaysian primary schools in 2003 for the Year 1 English Literacy Hour. We present classroom interaction extracts that show how the same CD-ROMs offer different…

  19. Cultural Affordances: Scaffolding Local Worlds Through Shared Intentionality and Regimes of Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstead, Maxwell J D; Veissière, Samuel P L; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we outline a framework for the study of the mechanisms involved in the engagement of human agents with cultural affordances. Our aim is to better understand how culture and context interact with human biology to shape human behavior, cognition, and experience. We attempt to integrate several related approaches in the study of the embodied, cognitive, and affective substrates of sociality and culture and the sociocultural scaffolding of experience. The integrative framework we propose bridges cognitive and social sciences to provide (i) an expanded concept of 'affordance' that extends to sociocultural forms of life, and (ii) a multilevel account of the socioculturally scaffolded forms of affordance learning and the transmission of affordances in patterned sociocultural practices and regimes of shared attention. This framework provides an account of how cultural content and normative practices are built on a foundation of contentless basic mental processes that acquire content through immersive participation of the agent in social practices that regulate joint attention and shared intentionality. PMID:27507953

  20. Affordability, Accessibility, and Accountability: Perceived Impacts of the Pre-Primary Education Vouchers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wong, Jessie Ming Sin; Wang, X. Christine

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong launched the "Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme" (PEVS) in 2007 to promote the "3A's" of early childhood education (ECE): affordability, accessibility, and accountability. The PEVS has three unique features: discriminating against profit kindergartens, promoting teacher professional development, and limiting parents' choice to only…

  1. 78 FR 54069 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...; Exchange Standards for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (March 27, 2012). \\2\\ Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment, 77 FR 17220 (March 23, 2012... and Amendments to the HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2014, 78 FR 15410 and...

  2. A New Inventory for Assessing "Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development ("AHEMD-SR")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

    2008-01-01

    A contemporary view of motor development considers environmental influences as critical factors in optimal growth and behavior, with the home being the primary agent. The intent of this communication is to introduce the "Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development Self-Report" ("AHEMD-SR") to early childhood practitioners. The…

  3. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Affordable Care Act. These programs will mitigate the impact of potential adverse selection and stabilize... (Fax) transmission. You may submit comments in one of four ways (please choose only one of the ways... State must establish a transitional reinsurance program to help stabilize premiums for coverage in...

  4. Understanding Presence, Affordance and the Time/Space Dimensions for Language Learning in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocchi, Susanna; Blin, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding their potential for novel approaches to language teaching and learning, Virtual Worlds (VWs) present numerous technological and pedagogical challenges that require new paradigms if the language learning experience and outcomes are to be successful. In this presentation, we argue that the notions of presence and affordance, together…

  5. Understanding and using technological affordances: a commentary on Conole and Dyke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Boyle

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper by Conole and Dyke sets the context by pointing to a number of problems that inhibit the widespread, effective use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT to support learning. They argue that this situation highlights the need to explore a theoretical basis for the use of ICT to support learning. The central argument of the paper is that the notion of affordances can make a significant contribution to this endeavour. The paper aims to articulate the potential impact of these affordances primarily through the development of a taxonomy. It draws on social constructivist theory to help understand and articulate the impact of these affordances. The concept of affordances is potentially both rich and provocative. Conole and Dyke provide a refreshing and diverse look at the theoretical basis for the use of ICT to support learning. We have structured our commentary around six questions that are provided by Conole and Dyke in their Discussion section. Whilst examining these questions we highlight various issues raised by the paper, which we believe, need further consideration and clarification.

  6. 78 FR 13327 - Request for Information Regarding an Initiative To Promote Student Loan Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... alternative repayment options for mortgage borrowers. The private student loan market might also benefit from... encourage the development of more affordable loan repayment mechanisms for private student loan borrowers... for residential mortgages. Private student loans are not secured by collateral and have...

  7. Songs in Our Hearts: The Affordances and Constraints of an Intergenerational Multimodal Arts Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydon, Rachel; O'Neill, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines the affordances and constraints of an intergenerational multimodal arts curriculum that was designed to expand communication and identity options for children and elder participants. The authors drew on actor-network theory to conceptualize curriculum as a network effect and refer to literature on multimodal…

  8. A multimodal dataset of spontaneous speech and movement production on object affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatakis, Argiro; Pastra, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    In the longstanding effort of defining object affordances, a number of resources have been developed on objects and associated knowledge. These resources, however, have limited potential for modeling and generalization mainly due to the restricted, stimulus-bound data collection methodologies adopted. To-date, therefore, there exists no resource that truly captures object affordances in a direct, multimodal, and naturalistic way. Here, we present the first such resource of 'thinking aloud', spontaneously-generated verbal and motoric data on object affordances. This resource was developed from the reports of 124 participants divided into three behavioural experiments with visuo-tactile stimulation, which were captured audiovisually from two camera-views (frontal/profile). This methodology allowed the acquisition of approximately 95 hours of video, audio, and text data covering: object-feature-action data (e.g., perceptual features, namings, functions), Exploratory Acts (haptic manipulation for feature acquisition/verification), gestures and demonstrations for object/feature/action description, and reasoning patterns (e.g., justifications, analogies) for attributing a given characterization. The wealth and content of the data make this corpus a one-of-a-kind resource for the study and modeling of object affordances. PMID:26784391

  9. Lung cancer screening: Computed tomography or chest radiographs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edwin; JR; van; Beek; Saeed; Mirsadraee; John; T; Murchison

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortalitydue to malignancy. The vast majority of cases of lung cancer are smoking related and the most effective way of reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality is by smoking cessation. In the Western world, smoking cessation policies have met with limited success. The other major means of reducing lung cancer deaths is to diagnose cases at an earlier more treatable stage employing screening programmes using chest radiographs or low dose computed tomography. In many countries smoking is still on the increase, and the sheer scale of the problem limits the affordability of such screening programmes. This short review article will evaluate the current evidence and potential areas of research which may benefit policy making across the world.

  10. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  11. Characterization of microsatellite DNA markers for the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii: Primer note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, J.C.; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Two trinucleotide and seven tetranucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated from an alligator snapping turtle Macrochelys temminckii. To assess the degree of variability in these nine microsatellite loci, we genotyped 174 individuals collected from eight river drainage basins in the southeastern USA. These markers revealed a moderate degree of allelic diversity (six to 16 alleles per locus) and observed heterozygosity (0.166-0.686). These polymorphic microsatellite loci provide powerful tools for population genetic studies for a species that is afforded some level of conservation protection in every state in which it occurs. ?? 2006 The Authors.

  12. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; Muller, E.E.; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  13. Literature Review of Discourse Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕴萱; 王孝伟

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to supplying theoretical foundation for discourse markers(DMs),introducing the relevant definitions as well as the previous classifications of DMs.The functions of discourse markers are also added so as to provide a deep insight into

  14. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a m...

  15. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav;

    2016-01-01

    Clone-MarkerFree. The integration of linearized expression cassettes into defined genomic loci is facilitated by CRISPR/Cas9. Cas9 is recruited to the chromosomal location by specific guide RNAs (gRNAs) expressed from a set of gRNA helper vectors. Using our genome engineering vector suite, single and triple insertions are obtained...

  16. Procalcitonin as a Marker of Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohmoud Hajiahmadi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and appropriate treatment decreases the mortality and morbidity of these infants. The aim of this study was to assess the role of procalcitonin (PCT as a marker in the early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of neonatal sepsis. Methods:Thirty-eight neonates with clinical (n=8, suspected (n=19 and proven sepsis (n=11 were evaluated. The PCT levels were measured by immunoluminoassay before and on day 5 of treatment. PTC levels of 0.5-2 ng/ml, 2.1-10 ng/ml and >10 ng/ml were considered as weakly positive, positive, and strongly positive, respectively. The sepsis screen tests and cultures of blood or other sterile body fluids in these three groups of infants were recorded. Findings:The levels of PCT in proven sepsis group were higher than that in other groups. Strongly positive PTC level was seen in none of 8 cases of clinical sepsis, 4 of 19 suspected and in 10 of 11 cases with proven sepsis. PCT levels were dramatically decreased in three groups on day 5 of treatment. Conclusion:The results show that the serum procalcitonin levels seem to be significantly increased in proven sepsis and decrease dramatically in all types of sepsis after appropriate treatment.

  17. [Circulating "tumor markers" in gastrointestinal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlinghaus, P; Lamerz, R

    1991-09-01

    Tumor markers (TM) of the neoplastic cell can be divided into non-shedded substances and antigens shedded in blood, urine or other body fluids. For clinicians circulating TM are more important. All relevant circulating TM are not useful in screening of asymptomatic patients because of insufficient sensitivity and specificity. With caution they are useful in the observation of risk groups. Circulating TM have their main significance as additional parameters in monitoring symptomatic patients with malignancies. Several follow up determinations are more important than one single measurement. During follow up of tumor patients TM should not be checked automatically if there are no diagnostic or therapeutical consequences. The clinically most important circulating TM in non-hormone secreting tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are the oncofetal antigens CEA and AFP and antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies e. g. CA 19-9 and CA 72-4. AFP is the primary TM in hepatocellular carcinoma, often elevated in hepatoblastoma and always normal in cholangiocellular carcinoma. CEA is the TM of first choice in patients with colorectal carcinomas and liver metastasis. CA 19-9 is TM of first choice in pancreatic carcinoma and additionally of diagnostic value in cholangiocellular carcinoma and tumors of the bile ducts. In cancer of the stomach CA 19-9 and CEA are secondary TM in combination with CA 72-4 as primary TM. Care should be taken that slight and moderate elevations of TM can be observed in benign diseases of liver, pancreas and bowel.

  18. Virtual learning environments in the light of the Complexity Paradigm: interface, affordances and equifinality Ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem à luz do Paradigma da Complexidade: interface, affordances e equifinalidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Virginia Soares Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have investigated, through the lens of the Complexity Paradigm, aligned with the premises of the Theory of General Systems and the concept of affordances, two virtual learning environments (VLEs, defining them as systems composed of digital genres, regarding a VLE as a complex adaptive system. These VLEs were reconfigured from the platforms TelEduc and Moodle and used to teach the discipline "Digital Literacy", in the course of Languages and Literature Teaching degree at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, during the second semester of 2007 and the second semester of 2008, respectively. The analyses have indicated that the textual production of the emerging online discourse communities was influenced by the coupling of different layers of the interface, the textual genres and the communicative and pedagogical purposes and, also, by the affordances which were perceived and acted upon by teachers and learners. The analyzed VLEs have portrayed the characteristic of equifinality, regardless of the possibilities and constraints offered by the platforms TelEduc and Moodle.Investigo, através da lente do Paradigma da Complexidade, juntamente com os pressupostos da Teoria Geral dos Sistemas e do conceito de affordances, dois ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem (AVAs, definindo-os como sistemas compostos por gêneros digitais, partindo do pressuposto de que um AVA é um sistema adaptativo complexo. Esses AVAs foram reconfigurados a partir das plataformas TelEduc e Moodle e utilizados para ministrar a disciplina "Letramento Digital", no curso de Letras da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG, nos semestres 2007-2 e 2008-2, respectivamente. As análises indicam que a produção textual das comunidades discursivas on-line emergentes nos AVAs foi influenciada pelo acoplamento aninhado de camadas distintas da interface, dos gêneros textuais e dos propósitos comunicativos e pedagógicos, e, ainda, pelas affordances percebidas e efetivadas

  19. Neonatal cytokines and chemokines and risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder: the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Yoshida, Cathleen; Grether, Judith K.; Van de Water, Judy; Ashwood, Paul; Delorenze, Gerald N; Hansen, Robin L.; Kharrazi, Marty; Croen, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Biologic markers of infection and inflammation have been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) but prior studies have largely relied on specimens taken after clinical diagnosis. Research on potential biologic markers early in neurodevelopment is required to evaluate possible causal pathways and screening profiles. Objective To investigate levels of cytokines and chemokines in newborn blood specimens as possible early biologic markers for autism. Methods We conducted a pop...

  20. Affordability as a discursive accomplishment in a changing National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jill; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2012-12-01

    Health systems worldwide face the challenges of rationing. The English National Health Service (NHS) was founded on three core principles: universality, comprehensiveness, and free at the point of delivery. Yet patients are increasingly hearing that some treatments are unaffordable on the NHS. We considered affordability as a social accomplishment and sought to explore how those charged with allocating NHS resources achieved this in practice. We undertook a linguistic ethnography to examine the work practices of resource allocation committees in three Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in England between 2005 and 2012, specifically deliberations over 'individual funding requests' (IFRs)--requests by patients and their doctors for the PCT to support a treatment not routinely funded. We collected and analysed a diverse dataset comprising policy documents, legal judgements, audio recordings, ethnographic field notes and emails from PCT committee meetings, interviews and a focus group with committee members. We found that the fundamental values of universality and comprehensiveness strongly influenced the culture of these NHS organisations, and that in this context, accomplishing affordability was not easy. Four discursive practices served to confer legitimacy on affordability as a guiding value of NHS health care: (1) categorising certain treatments as only eligible for NHS funding if patients could prove 'exceptional' circumstances; (2) representing resource allocation decisions as being not (primarily) about money; (3) indexical labelling of affordability as an ethical principle, and (4) recontextualising legal judgements supporting refusal of NHS treatment on affordability grounds as 'rational'. The overall effect of these discursive practices was that denying treatment to patients became reasonable and rational for an organisation even while it continued to espouse traditional NHS values. We conclude that deliberations about the funding of treatments at the margins of NHS