Sample records for affects saccade velocities

  1. Reaching affects saccade trajectories. (United States)

    Tipper, S P; Howard, L A; Paul, M A


    The pre-motor theory suggests that, when attention is oriented to a location, the motor systems that are involved in achieving current behavioural goals are activated. For example, when a task requires accurate reaching, attention to a location activates the motor circuits controlling saccades and manual reaches. These actions involve separate neural systems for the control of eye and hand, but we believe that the selection processes acting on neural population codes within these systems are similar and can affect each other. The attentional effect can be revealed in the subsequent movement. The present study shows that the path the eye takes as it saccades to a target is affected by whether a reach to the target is also produced. This effect is interpreted as the influence of a hand-centred frame used in reaching on the spatial frame of reference required for the saccade.

  2. Cognitive regulation of saccadic velocity by reward prospect. (United States)

    Chen, Lewis L; Hung, Leroy Y; Quinet, Julie; Kosek, Kevin


    It is known that expectation of reward speeds up saccades. Past studies have also shown the presence of a saccadic velocity bias in the orbit, resulting from a biomechanical regulation over varying eccentricities. Nevertheless, whether and how reward expectation interacts with the biomechanical regulation of saccadic velocities over varying eccentricities remains unknown. We addressed this question by conducting a visually guided double-step saccade task. The role of reward expectation was tested in monkeys performing two consecutive horizontal saccades, one associated with reward prospect and the other not. To adequately assess saccadic velocity and avoid adaptation, we systematically varied initial eye positions, saccadic directions and amplitudes. Our results confirmed the existence of a velocity bias in the orbit, i.e., saccadic peak velocity decreased linearly as the initial eye position deviated in the direction of the saccade. The slope of this bias increased as saccadic amplitudes increased. Nevertheless, reward prospect facilitated velocity to a greater extent for saccades away from than for saccades toward the orbital centre, rendering an overall reduction in the velocity bias. The rate (slope) and magnitude (intercept) of reward modulation over this velocity bias were linearly correlated with amplitudes, similar to the amplitude-modulated velocity bias without reward prospect, which presumably resulted from a biomechanical regulation. Small-amplitude (≤ 5°) saccades received little modulation. These findings together suggest that reward expectation modulated saccadic velocity not as an additive signal but as a facilitating mechanism that interacted with the biomechanical regulation.

  3. How Saccade Intrusions Affect Subsequent Motor and Oculomotor Actions (United States)

    Terao, Yasuo; Fukuda, Hideki; Tokushige, Shin-ichi; Inomata-Terada, Satomi; Ugawa, Yoshikazu


    In daily activities, there is a close spatial and temporal coupling between eye and hand movements that enables human beings to perform actions smoothly and accurately. If this coupling is disrupted by inadvertent saccade intrusions, subsequent motor actions suffer from delays, and lack of coordination. To examine how saccade intrusions affect subsequent voluntary actions, we used two tasks that require subjects to make motor/oculomotor actions in response to a visual cue. One was the memory guided saccade (MGS) task, and the other the hand reaction time (RT) task. The MGS task required subjects to initiate a voluntary saccade to a memorized target location, which is indicated shortly before by a briefly presented cue. The RT task required subjects to release a button on detection of a visual target, while foveating on a central fixation point. In normal subjects of various ages, inadvertent saccade intrusions delayed subsequent voluntary motor, and oculomotor actions. We also studied patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), who are impaired not only in initiating voluntary saccades but also in suppressing unwanted reflexive saccades. Saccade intrusions also delayed hand RT in PD patients. However, MGS was affected by the saccade intrusion differently. Saccade intrusion did not delay MGS latency in PD patients who could perform MGS with a relatively normal latency. In contrast, in PD patients who were unable to initiate MGS within the normal time range, we observed slightly decreased MGS latency after saccade intrusions. What explains this paradoxical phenomenon? It is known that motor actions slow down when switching between controlled and automatic behavior. We discuss how the effect of saccade intrusions on subsequent voluntary motor/oculomotor actions may reflect a similar switching cost between automatic and controlled behavior and a cost for switching between different motor effectors. In contrast, PD patients were unable to initiate internally guided MGS in

  4. Saccadic peak velocity and EEG as end-points for a serotonergic challenge test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsman, H.J.; Gerven, J.M.A. van; Verkes, R.J.; Schoemaker, R.C.; Pieters, M.; Pennings, E.J.; Hessing, T.J.; Cohen, A.


    We previously reported that a single dose of the serotonin receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine increased the peak velocity of saccadic eye movements and decreased low-frequency electroencephalographic activity. METHODS: We administered a single dose of the serotonin releaser dexfenfluramine

  5. Are there any left-right asymmetries in saccade parameters? Examination of latency, gain, and peak velocity. (United States)

    Vergilino-Perez, Dorine; Fayel, Alexandra; Lemoine, Christelle; Senot, Patrice; Vergne, Judith; Doré-Mazars, Karine


    Hemispheric specialization in saccadic control is still under debate. Here we examine the latency, gain, and peak velocity of reactive and voluntary leftward and rightward saccades to assess the respective roles of eye and hand dominance. Participants with contrasting hand and eye dominance were asked to make saccades toward a target displayed at 5°, 10°, or 15° left or right of the central fixation point. In separate sessions, reactive and voluntary saccades were elicited by Gap-200, Gap-0, Overlap-600, and Antisaccade procedures. Left-right asymmetries were not found in saccade latencies but appeared in saccade gain and peak velocity. Regardless of the dominant hand, saccades directed to the ipsilateral side relative to the dominant eye had larger amplitudes and faster peak velocities. Left-right asymmetries can be explained by naso-temporal differences for some subjects and by eye dominance for others. Further investigations are needed to examine saccadic parameters more systematically in relation to eye dominance. Indeed, any method that allows one to determine ocular dominance from objective measures based on saccade parameters should greatly benefit clinical applications, such as monovision surgery.

  6. Delayed saccadic eye movements in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjee R


    Full Text Available Raageen Kanjee,1 Yeni H Yücel,1,2 Martin J Steinbach,3,4 Esther G González,3,4 Neeru Gupta1,2,51Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, 2Keenan Research Centre at the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael's Hospital, 3Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, 4Centre for Vision Research, York University, 5Glaucoma and Nerve Protection Unit, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, CanadaPurpose: To determine whether saccadic eye movements are altered in glaucoma patients.Patients and methods: Sixteen patients with glaucoma and 21 control subjects were prospectively studied. Patients participated in a pro-saccade step task. Saccades were recorded using a noninvasive infrared oculometric device with head-mounted target projection. Medians of saccade reaction time, duration, amplitude, and peak velocity; frequency of express saccades; and percentage of trials with direction error were recorded. t-tests were used to compare the glaucoma and age-matched control groups. A correlation analysis of saccade parameters with visual field loss was also performed.Results: Median saccade reaction times were significantly prolonged in glaucoma patients compared with controls (220.9 ± 49.02 ms vs 192.1 ± 31.24 ms; t-test: P = 0.036. Median duration, median amplitude, and median peak velocity of saccades did not show significant differences between glaucoma and control groups (P > 0.05. Frequency of express saccades was significantly decreased in glaucoma patients compared with controls (1.75 ± 2.32 vs 7.0 ± 6.99; t-test: P = 0.007. Saccade parameters in glaucoma patients showed no significant correlation with visual field loss.Conclusion: Saccadic eye movements are significantly delayed in patients with early, moderate, or advanced glaucoma. Determination of median saccade reaction time may offer a novel functional test to quantify visual function in glaucoma

  7. Model simulation studies to clarify the effect on saccadic eye movements of initial condition velocities set by the Vestibular Ocular Reflex (VOR) (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Winters, J. M.; Stark, L.


    Voluntary active head rotations produced vestibulo-ocular reflex eye movements (VOR) with the subject viewing a fixation target. When this target jumped, the size of the refixation saccades were a function of the ongoing initial velocity of the eye. Saccades made against the VOR were larger in magnitude. Simulation of a reciprocally innervated model eye movement provided results comparable to the experimental data. Most of the experimental effect appeared to be due to linear summation for saccades of 5 and 10 degree magnitude. For small saccades of 2.5 degrees, peripheral nonlinear interaction of state variables in the neuromuscular plant also played a role as proven by comparable behavior in the simulated model with known controller signals.

  8. Differences in saccade dynamics between spinocerebellar ataxia 2 and late-onset cerebellar ataxias. (United States)

    Federighi, Pamela; Cevenini, Gabriele; Dotti, Maria T; Rosini, Francesca; Pretegiani, Elena; Federico, Antonio; Rufa, Alessandra


    and/or accurately as possible to peripheral targets by the two groups of cerebellar patients. Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia 2 maintained accuracy using slow saccades with longer duration. This reflects prevalent degenerative processes affecting the pontine burst generator and leading to saccade velocity failure. On the other hand, patients with late-onset cerebellar ataxia reached the target with a number of fast inaccurate, mostly hypometric saccades. Different degrees of cerebellar oculomotor vermis involvement may account for differences in optimizing the trade-off between velocity and accuracy in the two groups. In addition, as suggested by spinocerebellar patients having slow saccades that are no longer ballistic, visual feedback might be continuously available during the movement execution to guide the eye to its target.

  9. Redundant visual signals boost saccade execution. (United States)

    Turatto, Massimo; Betta, Elena


    The redundant signal effect (RSE) refers to the fact that human beings react more quickly to a pair of stimuli than to only one stimulus. In previous studies of the RSE in the oculomotor system, bimodal signals have been used as the goal of the saccade. In consistency with studies using manual response times (RTs), saccadic RTs have been shown to be shorter for redundant multimodal stimuli than for single unimodal stimuli. In the present experiments, we extended these findings by demonstrating an RSE in the saccadic system elicited only by unimodal visual stimuli. In addition, we found that shorter saccadic RTs were accompanied by an increased saccadic peak velocity. The present results are of relevance for neurophysiological models of saccade execution, since the boost of saccades was elicited by two visual transients (acting as a "go" signal) that were presented not at the goal of the saccade but at various other locations.

  10. Saccades improve postural control: a developmental study in normal children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Ajrezo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dual-task performance is known to affect postural stability in children. This study focused on the effect of oculomotor tasks like saccadic eye movements on postural stability, studied in a large population of children by recording simultaneously their eye movements and posture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-five healthy children from 5.8 to 17.6 years old were examined. All children were free of any vestibular, neurological, ophtalmologic and orthoptic abnormalities. Postural control was measured with a force platform TechnoConcept®, and eye movements with video oculography (MobilEBT®. Children performed two oculomotor tasks: fixation of a stable central target and horizontal saccades. We measured the saccade latency and the number of saccades during fixation as well as the surface, length and mean velocity of the center of pressure. RESULTS: During postural measurement, we observed a correlation between the age on the one hand and a decrease in saccade latency as well as an improvement in the quality of fixation on the other. Postural sway decreases with age and is reduced in the dual task (saccades in comparison with a simple task of fixation. DISCUSSION - CONCLUSION: These results suggest a maturation of neural circuits controlling posture and eye movements during childhood. This study also shows the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor system and the postural system. Engaging in oculomotor tasks results in a reduction of postural sway.

  11. Infantile-onset saccade initiation delay (congenital ocular motor apraxia). (United States)

    Salman, Michael S


    Infantile-onset saccade initiation delay, also known as congenital ocular motor apraxia, typically presents in early infancy with horizontal head thrusts once head control is achieved. Defective initiation of horizontal saccades and saccade hypometria with normal saccadic velocity are characteristic findings. Isolated impairment of vertical saccades is rare. Impaired smooth ocular pursuit may be seen. Other relatively common features include developmental delay, hypotonia, ataxia, or clumsiness. Brain MRI may be normal or show a diverse range of abnormalities, most commonly involving the cerebellum. Defective slow phases of the optokinetic response are commonly associated with brain MRI abnormalities. Isolated defect of vertical saccade initiation may indicate supratentorial brain abnormalities on MRI. Joubert syndrome, a developmental midbrain-hindbrain malformation, and ataxia telangiectasia are both commonly associated with defective volitional and reflexive saccade initiation, saccade hypometria, and head thrusts. Both horizontal and vertical saccades are impaired in these two disorders.

  12. Spatial consequences of bridging the saccadic gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yarrow, Kielan; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Rothwell, John C;


    with the post-saccadic image. We first demonstrate that this illusion holds for moving objects, implying that the perception of time, velocity, and distance traveled become discrepant. We then show that this discrepancy is partially resolved up to 500 ms after a saccade: the perceived offset position of a post...

  13. The fixation and saccade P3. (United States)

    Dandekar, Sangita; Ding, Jian; Privitera, Claudio; Carney, Thom; Klein, Stanley A


    Although most instances of object recognition during natural viewing occur in the presence of saccades, the neural correlates of objection recognition have almost exclusively been examined during fixation. Recent studies have indicated that there are post-saccadic modulations of neural activity immediately following eye movement landing; however, whether post-saccadic modulations affect relatively late occurring cognitive components such as the P3 has not been explored. The P3 as conventionally measured at fixation is commonly used in brain computer interfaces, hence characterizing the post-saccadic P3 could aid in the development of improved brain computer interfaces that allow for eye movements. In this study, the P3 observed after saccadic landing was compared to the P3 measured at fixation. No significant differences in P3 start time, temporal persistence, or amplitude were found between fixation and saccade trials. Importantly, sensory neural responses canceled in the target minus distracter comparisons used to identify the P3. Our results indicate that relatively late occurring cognitive neural components such as the P3 are likely less sensitive to post saccadic modulations than sensory neural components and other neural activity occurring shortly after eye movement landing. Furthermore, due to the similarity of the fixation and saccade P3, we conclude that the P3 following saccadic landing could possibly be used as a viable signal in brain computer interfaces allowing for eye movements.

  14. Survey of Saccadic Parameters Using Videonystagmography in Patients with Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease and Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hosseinabadi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Patients with Parkinson’s disease manifest oculomotor abnormalities. This is the consequence of basal ganglia impairment. The most common abnormalities include increased saccade latency, hypometric saccades and decreased saccade velocity. The purpose of this study was comparison of saccadic parameters using videonystagmography in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and normal subjects.Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, saccadic movements were investigated in thirty patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and thirty age matched subjects were 35-70 years old. Saccade latency, velocity and accuracy were quantitatively analyzed. Results: Results of this study indicated increased saccade latency, reduction of saccade velocity and accuracy in patients with Parkinson’s disease(P<0.001.Conclusion: This study showed that patients with Parkinson’s disease manifest saccadic deficits. This suggests dopaminergic control of these ocular movements.

  15. Attentional sensitivity and asymmetries of vertical saccade generation in monkey (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; King, W. M.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)


    The first goal of this study was to systematically document asymmetries in vertical saccade generation. We found that visually guided upward saccades have not only shorter latencies, but higher peak velocities, shorter durations and smaller errors. The second goal was to identify possible mechanisms underlying the asymmetry in vertical saccade latencies. Based on a recent model of saccade generation, three stages of saccade generation were investigated using specific behavioral paradigms: attention shift to a visual target (CUED paradigm), initiation of saccade generation (GAP paradigm) and release of the motor command to execute the saccade (DELAY paradigm). Our results suggest that initiation of a saccade (or "ocular disengagement") and its motor release contribute little to the asymmetry in vertical saccade latency. However, analysis of saccades made in the CUED paradigm indicated that it took less time to shift attention to a target in the upper visual field than to a target in the lower visual field. These data suggest that higher attentional sensitivity to targets in the upper visual field may contribute to shorter latencies of upward saccades.

  16. Time course of the effect of the Muller-Lyer illusion on saccades and perceptual judgments


    Brouwer, A.J. de; Brenner, E.; Medendorp, W. P.; Smeets, J. B. J.


    The amplitude of saccadic eye movements is affected by size illusions such as the Muller-Lyer illusion, but this effect varies highly between studies. Here we examine the origin of this variability by testing the influence of three temporal factors on the effect of the Muller-Lyer illusion: presentation time, response delay, and saccade latency. Subjects performed reflexive saccades, deferred saccades, and memory-guided saccades along the shaft of the illusion. We evaluated the time course of...

  17. Saccadic Alterations in Severe Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pensiero


    Full Text Available It is not sure if persons with dyslexia have ocular motor deficits in addition to their deficits in rapid visual information processing. A 15-year-old boy afflicted by severe dyslexia was submitted to saccadic eye movement recording. Neurological and ophthalmic examinations were normal apart from the presence of an esophoria for near and slightly longer latencies of pattern visual evoked potentials. Subclinical saccadic alterations were present, which could be at the basis of the reading pathology: (1 low velocities (and larger durations of the adducting saccades of the left eye with undershooting and long-lasting postsaccadic onward drift, typical of the internuclear ophthalmoplegia; (2 saccades interrupted in mid-flight and fixation instability, which are present in cases of brainstem premotor disturbances.

  18. Voluntary Saccadic Eye Movements Ride the Attentional Rhythm. (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze


    Visual perception seems continuous, but recent evidence suggests that the underlying perceptual mechanisms are in fact periodic-particularly visual attention. Because visual attention is closely linked to the preparation of saccadic eye movements, the question arises how periodic attentional processes interact with the preparation and execution of voluntary saccades. In two experiments, human observers made voluntary saccades between two placeholders, monitoring each one for the presentation of a threshold-level target. Detection performance was evaluated as a function of latency with respect to saccade landing. The time course of detection performance revealed oscillations at around 4 Hz both before the saccade at the saccade origin and after the saccade at the saccade destination. Furthermore, oscillations before and after the saccade were in phase, meaning that the saccade did not disrupt or reset the ongoing attentional rhythm. Instead, it seems that voluntary saccades are executed as part of an ongoing attentional rhythm, with the eyes in flight during the troughs of the attentional wave. This finding for the first time demonstrates that periodic attentional mechanisms affect not only perception but also overt motor behavior.

  19. The saccadic and neurological deficits in type 3 Gaucher disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Benko

    Full Text Available Our objective was to characterize the saccadic eye movements in patients with type 3 Gaucher disease (chronic neuronopathic in relationship to neurological and neurophysiological abnormalities. For approximately 4 years, we prospectively followed a cohort of 15 patients with Gaucher type 3, ages 8-28 years, by measuring saccadic eye movements using the scleral search coil method. We found that patients with type 3 Gaucher disease had a significantly higher regression slope of duration vs amplitude and peak duration vs amplitude compared to healthy controls for both horizontal and vertical saccades. Saccadic latency was significantly increased for horizontal saccades only. Downward saccades were more affected than upward saccades. Saccade abnormalities increased over time in some patients reflecting the slowly progressive nature of the disease. Phase plane plots showed individually characteristic patterns of abnormal saccade trajectories. Oculo-manual dexterity scores on the Purdue Pegboard test were low in virtually all patients, even in those with normal cognitive function. Vertical saccade peak duration vs amplitude slope significantly correlated with IQ and with the performance on the Purdue Pegboard but not with the brainstem and somatosensory evoked potentials. We conclude that, in patients with Gaucher disease type 3, saccadic eye movements and oculo-manual dexterity are representative neurological functions for longitudinal studies and can probably be used as endpoints for therapeutic clinical NCT00001289.

  20. Saccadic compression of symbolic numerical magnitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Binda

    Full Text Available Stimuli flashed briefly around the time of saccadic eye movements are subject to complex distortions: compression of space and time; underestimate of numerosity. Here we show that saccadic distortions extend to abstract quantities, affecting the representation of symbolic numerical magnitude. Subjects consistently underestimated the results of rapidly computed mental additions and subtractions, when the operands were briefly displayed before a saccade. However, the recognition of the number symbols was unimpaired. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a common, abstract metric encoding magnitude along multiple dimensions. They suggest that a surprising link exists between the preparation of action and the representation of abstract quantities.

  1. Pupil size influences the eye-tracker signal during saccades. (United States)

    Nyström, Marcus; Hooge, Ignace; Andersson, Richard


    While it is known that scleral search coils-measuring the rotation of the eye globe--and modern, video based eye trackers-tracking the center of the pupil and the corneal reflection (CR)--produce signals with different properties, the mechanisms behind the differences are less investigated. We measure how the size of the pupil affects the eye-tracker signal recorded during saccades with a common pupil-CR eye-tracker. Eye movements were collected from four healthy participants and one person with an aphakic eye while performing self-paced, horizontal saccades at different levels of screen luminance and hence pupil size. Results show that pupil-, and gaze-signals, but not the CR-signal, are affected by the size of the pupil; changes in saccade peak velocities in the gaze signal of more than 30% were found. It is important to be aware of this pupil size dependent change when comparing fine grained oculomotor behavior across participants and conditions.

  2. Saccadic adaptation in visually normal individuals using saccadic endpoint variability from amblyopia. (United States)

    Raashid, Rana Arham; Wong, Agnes M F; Blakeman, Alan; Goltz, Herbert C


    Saccadic adaptation is affected by the spatial variability of the adapting error signal. Recently, we have shown that saccadic adaptation is reduced in anisometropic amblyopia, possibly impacted by spatially imprecise saccades. Here, we tested this idea by quantifying the saccadic endpoint variability difference between people with anisometropic amblyopia and visually normal individuals. We then applied this difference to the second target step distribution during saccadic adaptation in visually normal people to test whether their performance diminished to a similar extent as participants with amblyopia. Ten visually normal adults performed a double-step adaptation task (±19°, followed by 4° back-steps) with the nondominant eye under two conditions: "consistent error," using a constant back-step; and "variable error," using a variable (σdiff) back-step determined by subtracting the saccadic endpoint variability in controls from that in anisometropic amblyopia during amblyopic/nondominant eye viewing. Percentage change in saccadic gains, percentage retention, and adaptation time constants were analyzed. Percentage change in saccadic gains decreased significantly during the variable error condition (50% ± 10%) compared to the consistent error condition (69% ± 9%; P = 0.0008). Percentage retention and time constants did not differ between conditions. The adaptation magnitude during the variable error condition was comparable to the previous percentage adaptation in people with anisometropic amblyopia during the consistent error condition with amblyopic eye viewing. Our findings indicate that adding exogenous spatial noise to the adapting step consistent with the saccadic endpoint variability difference between amblyopic and visually normal groups is sufficient to reduce saccadic adaptation in healthy individuals. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. [Systematic deviations of saccadic eye movements in Wallenberg syndrome]. (United States)

    Hamann, K U


    A patient suffering from lateral medullary infarction (Wallenberg's syndrome) is presented, exhibiting a striking bias of all saccadic eye movements toward the side of the lesion. Oculographic tracings demonstrate this oculomotor disorder. Other disturbances of ocular motility which resemble this one superficially are discussed. Interruption of fixation leads to a gliding movement veeringly to the side of the infarction. Since all saccades generated under different circumstances are affected, it is contemplated where the pathological signal is intruded into the prenuclear level, to adulterate all saccades causing lateropulsion of saccadic eye movements.

  4. The amblyopic eye in subjects with anisometropia show increased saccadic latency in the delayed saccade task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej ePerdziak


    Full Text Available The term amblyopia is used to describe reduced visual function in one eye (or both eyes, though not so often which cannot be fully improved by refractive correction and explained by the organic cause observed during regular eye examination. This developmental disorder of spatial vision affects about 2-5% of the population and is associated with abnormal visual experience (e.g. anisometropia, strabismus during infancy or early childhood. Several studies have shown prolongation of saccadic latency time in amblyopic eye. In our opinion, study of saccadic latency in the context of central vision deficits assessment, should be based on central retina stimulation. For this reason, we proposed saccade delayed task. It requires inhibitory processing for maintaining fixation on the central target until it disappears – what constitutes the GO signal for saccade. The experiment consisted of 100 trials for each eye and was performed under two viewing conditions: monocular amblyopic / non-dominant eye and monocular dominant eye. We examined saccadic latency in 16 subjects (mean age 30±11 years with anisometropic amblyopia (two subjects had also microtropia and in 17 control subjects (mean age 28±8 years. Participants were instructed to look at central (fixation target and when it disappears, to make the saccade toward the periphery (10 deg as fast as possible, either left or the right target. The study results have proved the significant difference in saccadic latency between the amblyopic (mean 262±48 ms and dominant (mean 237±45 ms eye, in anisometropic group. In the control group, the saccadic latency for dominant (mean 226±32ms and non-dominant (mean 230±29 ms eye was not significantly different.By the use of LATER (Linear Approach to the Threshold with Ergodic Rate decision model we interpret our findings as a decrease in accumulation of visual information acquired by means of central (affected retina in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia.

  5. Arc Conductance and Flow Velocity Affected by Transient Recovery Voltage (United States)

    Fukuoka, Reo; Ishikawa, Yuya; Ono, Seisui; Sato, Ken; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru


    Recently, the stable supply of electric power is indispensable. The GCB (Gas Circuit Breaker) can prevent the spread of the fault current. However, it should have the reliability more. Therefore the GCB has been researched for performance improvement of the arc interruption of abnormal fault current without the fail. Therefore, it is important to prevent the breakdown such as the re-ignition and thermal re-ignition of arc after the arc interruption. It is necessary to reduce the arc conductance in order to prevent the re-ignition of arc. The arc conductance is derived from the temperature distribution and the volume of the arc. The temperature distribution of the arc is formed by convection. In this research, the arc conductance and flow velocity affected by transient recovery voltage are elucidated. The flow rate and temperature distribution of the arc is calculated with changing transient recovery voltage. In addition, the arc conductance is calculated in order to know the extinguish arc ability. As a result, when the transient recovery voltage increases, the probability of re-ignition increases. Therefore, the arc temperature and the arc conductance were increased.

  6. The Influence of Onsets and Offsets on Saccade Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frouke Hermens


    Full Text Available When making a saccadic eye movement to a peripheral target, a simultaneous stimulus onset at central fixation generally increases saccadic latency, while offsets reduce latency (‘gap effect’. Visual onsets remote from fixation also increase latency (‘remote distractor effect’; however, the influence of remote visual offsets is less clear. Previous studies, which used a search task, found that remote offsets either facilitated, inhibited, or did nothing to saccade latencies towards a peripheral target. It cannot be excluded, however, that the target selection process in such search tasks influenced the results. We therefore simplified the task and asked participants to make eye movements to a predictable target. Simultaneously with target onset, either one or multiple remote stimulus onsets and offsets were presented. It was found that peripheral onsets increased saccade latencies, but offsets did not influence the initiation of a saccade to the target. Moreover, the number of onsets and offsets did not affect the results. These results suggest that earlier effects of remote stimulus offsets and of the number of remote distractor onsets reside in the target identification process of the visual search task rather than the competition between possible saccade goals. The results are discussed in the context of models of saccade target selection.

  7. The peri-saccadic perception of objects and space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred H Hamker


    Full Text Available Eye movements affect object localization and object recognition. Around saccade onset, briefly flashed stimuli appear compressed towards the saccade target, receptive fields dynamically change position, and the recognition of objects near the saccade target is improved. These effects have been attributed to different mechanisms. We provide a unifying account of peri-saccadic perception explaining all three phenomena by a quantitative computational approach simulating cortical cell responses on the population level. Contrary to the common view of spatial attention as a spotlight, our model suggests that oculomotor feedback alters the receptive field structure in multiple visual areas at an intermediate level of the cortical hierarchy to dynamically recruit cells for processing a relevant part of the visual field. The compression of visual space occurs at the expense of this locally enhanced processing capacity.

  8. Visual mislocalization during double-step saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart eZimmermann


    Full Text Available Visual objects presented briefly at the time of saccade onset appear compressed toward the saccade target. Compression strength depends on the presentation of a visual saccade target signal and is strongly reduced during the second saccade of a double-step saccade sequence (Zimmermann et al., 2014; 2014. Here, I tested whether perisaccadic compression is linked to saccade planning by contrasting two double-step paradigms. In the same-direction double-step paradigm, subjects were required to perform two rightward 10° saccades successively. At various times around execution of the saccade sequence a probe dot was briefly flashed. Subjects had to localize the position of the probe dot after they had completed both saccades. I found compression of visual space only at the time of the first but not at the time of the second saccade. In the reverse-direction paradigm, subjects performed first a rightward 10° saccade followed by a leftward 10° saccade back to initial fixation. In this paradigm compression was found in similar magnitude during both saccades. Analysis of the saccade parameters did not reveal indications of saccade sequence preplanning in this paradigm. I therefore conclude that saccade planning, rather than saccade execution factors, is involved in perisaccadic compression.

  9. Slow saccades in bulbar-onset motor neurone disease. (United States)

    Donaghy, Colette; Pinnock, Ralph; Abrahams, Sharon; Cardwell, Chris; Hardiman, Orla; Patterson, Victor; McGivern, R Canice; Gibson, J Mark


    Historical studies of eye movements in motor neurone disease (MND) have been conflicting although current findings suggest that eye movement abnormalities relate to frontal lobe impairment. Numerous case reports, however, describe slow saccades and supranuclear gaze palsies in patients with MND often associated with bulbar-onset disease. We performed a study of saccades and smooth pursuit in a large group of patients with MND to examine for any differences between bulbar-onset and spinal-onset patients. Forty-four patients (14 bulbar-onset and 30 spinal-onset patients) and 45 controls were recruited. Reflexive saccades, antisaccades and smooth pursuit were examined using infra-red oculography and all subjects then underwent neuropsychological evaluation. Reflexive saccades were found to be slower in bulbar-onset compared to spinal-onset patients and controls (p = 0.03, p = 0.05). Antisaccade latency (p = 0.01) and antisaccade type 1 errors (p = 0.03, p = 0.04) were increased in patients compared to controls. 'Proportion of time spent in smooth pursuit' and smooth pursuit 'velocity gain' were reduced in patients compared to controls (p = 0.000, p = 0.001). Antisaccade errors and velocity gain correlated with neuropsychological measures sensitive to lesions of the frontal lobes. This is the first study to highlight the presence of slow saccades in bulbar-onset MND. These findings suggest that slow saccades may be due to increased brainstem pathology in bulbar-onset disease that involves burst cell neurons. Furthermore these observations highlight the potential for overlap between bulbar-onset MND and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) as both can have a bulbar palsy and slowed saccades.

  10. How required reserve ratio affects distribution and velocity of money (United States)

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui


    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  11. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, N; Wang, Y; Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui


    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  12. Saccadic head and thorax movements in freely walking blowflies. (United States)

    Blaj, G; van Hateren, J H


    Visual information processing is adapted to the statistics of natural visual stimuli, and these statistics depend to a large extent on the movements of an animal itself. To investigate such movements in freely walking blowflies, we measured the orientation and position of their head and thorax, with high spatial and temporal accuracy. Experiments were performed on Calliphora vicina, Lucilia cuprina and L. caesar. We found that thorax and head orientation of walking flies is typically different from the direction of walking, with differences of 45 degrees common. During walking, the head and the thorax turn abruptly, with a frequency of 5-10 Hz and angular velocities in the order of 1,000 degrees /s. These saccades are stereotyped: head and thorax start simultaneously, with the head turning faster, and finishing its turn before the thorax. The changes in position during walking are saccade-like as well, occurring synchronously, but on average slightly after the orientation saccades. Between orientation saccades the angular velocities are low and the head is held more stable than the thorax. We argue that the strategy of turning by saccades improves the performance of the visual system of blowflies.

  13. Ocular-motor profile and effects of memantine in a familial form of adult cerebellar ataxia with slow saccades and square wave saccadic intrusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rosini

    Full Text Available Fixation instability due to saccadic intrusions is a feature of autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxias, and includes square wave intrusions (SWI and macrosaccadic oscillations (MSO. A recent report suggested that the non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors, memantine, could decrease MSO and improve fixation in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia with saccadic intrusions (SCASI. We similarly tested two sisters, respectively of 58 and 60 years, with an unrecognized form of recessive, adult-onset cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy and slow saccades, who showed prominent SWI and also complained with difficulty in reading. We tested horizontal visually guided saccades (10°-18° and three minutes of steady fixation in each patient and in thirty healthy controls. Both patients showed a significant reduction of peak and mean velocity compared with control subjects. Large SWI interrupting steady fixation were prominent during steady fixation and especially following visually guided saccades. Eye movements were recorded before and during the treatment with memantine, 20 mg/daily for 6 months. The treatment with memantine reduced both the magnitude and frequency of SWI (the former significantly, but did not modified neurological conditions or saccade parameters. Thus, our report suggests that memantine may have some general suppressive effect on saccadic intrusions, including both SWI and MSO, thereby restoring the capacity of reading and visual attention in these and in other recessive forms of ataxia, including Friedreich's, in which saccadic intrusions are prominent.

  14. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money


    Ning Xi; Ning Ding; Yougui Wang


    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  15. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money


    Ning Xi; Ning Ding; Yougui Wang


    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  16. Reading between eye saccades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

  17. Discovery of neural circuits for saccadic modulation of visual perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ In daily life, we move our eyes frequently to search for or fixate a target of interest with the retinal fovea. Usually, the eyes would dart from one position to another in the visual field at velocities higher than 500 degrees per second. This rapid eye movement is called a saccade.

  18. Directional interactions between current and prior saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Anne Holland Jones


    Full Text Available One way to explore how prior sensory and motor events impact eye movements is to ask someone to look to targets located about a central point, returning gaze to the central point after each eye movement. Concerned about the contribution of this return to centre movement, Anderson et al. (2008 used a sequential saccade paradigm in which participants made a continuous series of saccades to peripheral targets that appeared to the left or right of the currently fixated location in a random sequence (the next eye movement began from the last target location. Examining the effects of previous saccades (n-x on current saccade latency (n, they found that saccadic reaction times (RT were reduced when the direction of the current saccade matched that of a preceding saccade (e.g. two left saccades, even when the two saccades in question were separated by multiple saccades in any direction. We examined if this pattern extends to conditions in which targets appear inside continuously marked locations that provide stable visual features (i.e. target ‘placeholders’ and when saccades are prompted by central arrows. Participants completed 3 conditions: peripheral targets (PT; continuous, sequential saccades to peripherally presented targets without placeholders; PT with placeholders; and centrally presented arrows (CA; left or right pointing arrows at the currently fixated location instructing participants to saccade to the left or right. We found reduced saccadic RT when the immediately preceding saccade (n-1 was in the same (vs. opposite direction in the PT without placeholders and CA conditions. This effect varied when considering the effect of the previous 2-5 (n-x saccades on current saccade latency (n. The effects of previous eye movements on current saccade latency may be determined by multiple, time-varying mechanisms related to sensory (i.e., retinotopic location, motor (i.e., saccade direction, and environmental (i.e., persistent visual objects

  19. Development and learning of saccadic eye movements in 7- to 42-month-old children. (United States)

    Alahyane, Nadia; Lemoine-Lardennois, Christelle; Tailhefer, Coline; Collins, Thérèse; Fagard, Jacqueline; Doré-Mazars, Karine


    From birth, infants move their eyes to explore their environment, interact with it, and progressively develop a multitude of motor and cognitive abilities. The characteristics and development of oculomotor control in early childhood remain poorly understood today. Here, we examined reaction time and amplitude of saccadic eye movements in 93 7- to 42-month-old children while they oriented toward visual animated cartoon characters appearing at unpredictable locations on a computer screen over 140 trials. Results revealed that saccade performance is immature in children compared to a group of adults: Saccade reaction times were longer, and saccade amplitude relative to target location (10° eccentricity) was shorter. Results also indicated that performance is flexible in children. Although saccade reaction time decreased as age increased, suggesting developmental improvements in saccade control, saccade amplitude gradually improved over trials. Moreover, similar to adults, children were able to modify saccade amplitude based on the visual error made in the previous trial. This second set of results suggests that short visual experience and/or rapid sensorimotor learning are functional in children and can also affect saccade performance.

  20. The effects of video game play on the characteristics of saccadic eye movements. (United States)

    Mack, David J; Ilg, Uwe J


    Video game play has become a common leisure activity all around the world. To reveal possible effects of playing video games, we measured saccades elicited by video game players (VGPs) and non-players (NVGPs) in two oculomotor tasks. First, our subjects performed a double-step task. Second, we asked our subjects to move their gaze opposite to the appearance of a visual target, i.e. to perform anti-saccades. As expected on the basis of previous studies, VGPs had significantly shorter saccadic reaction times (SRTs) than NVGPs for all saccade types. However, the error rates in the anti-saccade task did not reveal any significant differences. In fact, the error rates of VGPs were actually slightly lower compared to NVGPs (34% versus 40%, respectively). In addition, VGPs showed significantly higher saccadic peak velocities in every saccade type compared to NVGP. Our results suggest that faster SRTs in VGPs were associated with a more efficient motor drive for saccades. Taken together, our results are in excellent agreement with earlier reports of beneficial video game effects through the general reduction in SRTs. Our data clearly provides additional experimental evidence for an higher efficiency of the VGPs on the one hand and refutes the notion of a reduced impulse control in VGPs on the other.

  1. Differential auditory-oculomotor interactions in patients with right versus left sided subjective tinnitus: A saccade study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eLang


    Full Text Available Subjective tinnitus (ST is a frequent but poorly understood medical condition. Recent studies demonstrated abnormalities in several types of eye movements (smooth pursuit, optokinetic nystagmus, fixation and vergence in ST patients. The present study investigates horizontal and vertical saccades in patients with tinnitus lateralized predominantly to the left or to the right side. Compared to left sided ST, tinnitus perceived on the right side impaired almost all the parameters of saccades (latency, amplitude, velocity, etc. and noticeably the upward saccades. Relative to controls, saccades from both groups were more dysmetric and were characterized by increased saccade disconjugacy (i.e. poor binocular coordination. Although the precise mechanisms linking ST and saccadic control remain unexplained, these data suggest that ST can lead to detrimental auditory, visuomotor and perhaps vestibular interactions.

  2. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eN'guyen


    Full Text Available The Basal Ganglia is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks.We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based onour previous basal ganglia and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of thesaccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks.The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not. Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate.

  3. Oculomotor tasks affect differently postural control in healthy children. (United States)

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette


    Eye movements affect postural stability in children. The present study focuses on the effect of different types of eye movements on postural stability in healthy children. Both eye movements and postural stability have been recorded in 51 healthy children from 6.3 to 15.5 years old. Eye movements were recorded binocularly with a video oculography (MobilEBT(®)), and postural stability was measured while child was standing on a force platform (TechnoConcept(®)). Children performed three oculomotor tasks: saccades, pursuits and reading a text silently. We measured the number of saccades made in the three oculomotor tasks, the number of words read, and the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP). According to previous studies, postural control improves with age until 10-12 years. Saccades toward a target as well as during a reading task reduce significantly the CoP displacement and its velocity, while during pursuit eye movements all children increase postural parameters (i.e., the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the CoP). These results suggest the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor control and the postural system. Visual attention to perform saccades (to stationary targets or to words) influences postural stability more than the frequency of saccade triggering does.

  4. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy. (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X X; Paterson, Ross W; Slattery, Catherine F; Ryan, Natalie S; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J


    whose frequency correlated significantly with generalized reductions in cortical thickness. Patients with both posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease showed lower gain in smooth pursuit compared to controls. The current study establishes that eye movement abnormalities are near-ubiquitous in posterior cortical atrophy, and highlights multiple aspects of saccadic performance which distinguish posterior cortical atrophy from typical Alzheimer's disease. We suggest the posterior cortical atrophy oculomotor profile (e.g. exacerbation of the saccadic gap/overlap effect, preserved saccadic velocity) reflects weak input from degraded occipito-parietal spatial representations of stimulus location into a superior collicular spatial map for eye movement regulation. This may indicate greater impairment of identification of oculomotor targets rather than generation of oculomotor movements. The results highlight the critical role of spatial attention and object identification but also precise stimulus localization in explaining the complex real world perception deficits observed in posterior cortical atrophy and many other patients with dementia-related visual impairment.

  5. The parallel programming of voluntary and reflexive saccades. (United States)

    Walker, Robin; McSorley, Eugene


    A novel two-step paradigm was used to investigate the parallel programming of consecutive, stimulus-elicited ('reflexive') and endogenous ('voluntary') saccades. The mean latency of voluntary saccades, made following the first reflexive saccades in two-step conditions, was significantly reduced compared to that of voluntary saccades made in the single-step control trials. The latency of the first reflexive saccades was modulated by the requirement to make a second saccade: first saccade latency increased when a second voluntary saccade was required in the opposite direction to the first saccade, and decreased when a second saccade was required in the same direction as the first reflexive saccade. A second experiment confirmed the basic effect and also showed that a second reflexive saccade may be programmed in parallel with a first voluntary saccade. The results support the view that voluntary and reflexive saccades can be programmed in parallel on a common motor map.

  6. Inhibition of saccades elicits attentional suppression. (United States)

    Dhawan, Saurabh; Deubel, Heiner; Jonikaitis, Donatas


    Visuospatial attention has been shown to have a central role in planning and generation of saccades but what role, if any, it plays in inhibition of saccades remains unclear. In this study, we used an oculomotor delayed match- or nonmatch-to-sample task in which a cued location has to be encoded and memorized for one of two very different goals-to plan a saccade to it or to avoid making a saccade to it. We measured the spatial allocation of attention during the delay and found that while marking a location as a future saccade target resulted in an attentional benefit at that location, marking it as forbidden to saccades led to an attentional cost. Additionally, saccade trajectories were found to deviate away more from the "don't look" location than from a saccade-irrelevant distractor confirming greater inhibition of an actively forbidden location in oculomotor programming. Our finding that attention is suppressed at locations forbidden to saccades confirms and complements the claim of a selective and obligatory coupling between saccades and attention-saccades at the memorized location could neither be planned nor suppressed independent of a corresponding effect on attentional performance.

  7. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth


    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  8. Variables Affecting Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation of High-Velocity Flyer Plate Impact Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Deepak S [UNLV; Trabia, Mohamed [UNLV; O' Toole, Brendan [UNLV; Hixson, Robert S [NSTec


    This paper describes our work to characterize the variables affecting the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method in the LS-DYNA package for simulating high-velocity flyer plate impact experiments. LS-DYNA simulations are compared with one-dimensional experimental data of an oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper flyer plate impacting another plate of the same material. The comparison is made by measuring the velocity of a point on the back surface of the impact plate using the velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) technique.

  9. 精神分裂症患者视觉引导眼跳中速度非对称性与眼跳幅度的相关性研究%The correlation of amplitude and velocity asymmetry during visually guided saccade in schizophrenia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔晓明; 谢新晖; 王晨; 孙艳; 王克永; 张许来; 张丽; 吴丽敏; 刘佳楠


    Objective To explore the eye tracking function of schizophrenia.Methods Visually guided saccade was checked on 27 schizophrenia patients who met the criterion of ICD-10 and 27 matched normal control participates.First,the peak velocity at duration index (PVADI) of each saccade was calculated; second,the relation of amplitude and PVADI (RPA) of every participate was also calculated; third,the RPA values of schizophrenia and normal control group were compared.Results Compared with normal control group,RPA values of schizophrenia group were significantly lower (RPA values of normal control group:0.42±0.17,RPA values of schizophrenia group:0.20±0.15,Mann-Whitney U test,Z=-4.282,P<0.01).Conclusion The correlation of saccade velocity asymmetry and amplitude of schizophrenic patients is significant lower than that of normal controls.RPA is auxiliary diagnostic index for schizophrenia with great potential.%目的 探讨精神分裂症患者眼动追踪能力.方法 选取符合ICD-10诊断标准的精神分裂症患者27人,正常对照组27人,分别进行视觉引导眼跳范式,并计算每一次眼跳中眼动速度达到最高时刻所占整个眼跳时间的百分比指数(PVADI),并计算每一名被试的PVADI与眼跳幅度的相关系数RPA.然后比较两组间的RPA.结果 与对照组相比,精神分裂症组的RPA显著偏低[RPA在正常组为(0.42±0.17),在精神分裂症组为(0.20±0.15),Mann-Whitney U检验,Z=-4.282,P<0.01)].结论 精神分裂症患者眼跳速度非对称性与眼跳幅度之间的相关性较正常人低.RPA是精神分裂症非常有潜力的辅助诊断指标.

  10. A nonparametric method for detecting fixations and saccades using cluster analysis: removing the need for arbitrary thresholds. (United States)

    König, Seth D; Buffalo, Elizabeth A


    Eye tracking is an important component of many human and non-human primate behavioral experiments. As behavioral paradigms have become more complex, including unconstrained viewing of natural images, eye movements measured in these paradigms have become more variable and complex as well. Accordingly, the common practice of using acceleration, dispersion, or velocity thresholds to segment viewing behavior into periods of fixations and saccades may be insufficient. Here we propose a novel algorithm, called Cluster Fix, which uses k-means cluster analysis to take advantage of the qualitative differences between fixations and saccades. The algorithm finds natural divisions in 4 state space parameters-distance, velocity, acceleration, and angular velocity-to separate scan paths into periods of fixations and saccades. The number and size of clusters adjusts to the variability of individual scan paths. Cluster Fix can detect small saccades that were often indistinguishable from noisy fixations. Local analysis of fixations helped determine the transition times between fixations and saccades. Because Cluster Fix detects natural divisions in the data, predefined thresholds are not needed. A major advantage of Cluster Fix is the ability to precisely identify the beginning and end of saccades, which is essential for studying neural activity that is modulated by or time-locked to saccades. Our data suggest that Cluster Fix is more sensitive than threshold-based algorithms but comes at the cost of an increase in computational time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pupil size reveals preparatory processes in the generation of pro-saccades and anti-saccades. (United States)

    Wang, Chin-An; Brien, Donald C; Munoz, Douglas P


    The ability to generate flexible behaviors to accommodate changing goals in response to identical sensory stimuli is a signature that is inherited in humans and higher-level animals. In the oculomotor system, this function has often been examined with the anti-saccade task, in which subjects are instructed, prior to stimulus appearance, to either automatically look at the peripheral stimulus (pro-saccade) or to suppress the automatic response and voluntarily look in the opposite direction from the stimulus (anti-saccade). Distinct neural preparatory activity between the pro-saccade and anti-saccade conditions has been well documented, particularly in the superior colliculus (SC) and the frontal eye field (FEF), and this has shown higher inhibition-related fixation activity in preparation for anti-saccades than in preparation for pro-saccades. Moreover, the level of preparatory activity related to motor preparation is negatively correlated with reaction times. We hypothesised that preparatory signals may be reflected in pupil size through a link between the SC and the pupil control circuitry. Here, we examined human pupil dynamics during saccade preparation prior to the execution of pro-saccades and anti-saccades. Pupil size was larger in preparation for correct anti-saccades than in preparation for correct pro-saccades and erroneous pro-saccades made in the anti-saccade condition. Furthermore, larger pupil dilation prior to stimulus appearance accompanied saccades with faster reaction times, with a trial-by-trial correlation between dilation size and anti-saccade reaction times. Overall, our results demonstrate that pupil size is modulated by saccade preparation, and neural activity in the SC, together with the FEF, supports these findings, providing unique insights into the neural substrate coordinating cognitive processing and pupil diameter.

  12. Salient Distractors Can Induce Saccade Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Khan


    Full Text Available When saccadic eye movements consistently fail to land on their intended target, saccade accuracy is maintained by gradually adapting the movement size of successive saccades. The proposed error signal for saccade adaptation has been based on the distance between where the eye lands and the visual target (retinal error. We studied whether the error signal could alternatively be based on the distance between the predicted and actual locus of attention after the saccade. Unlike conventional adaptation experiments that surreptitiously displace the target once a saccade is initiated towards it, we instead attempted to draw attention away from the target by briefly presenting salient distractor images on one side of the target after the saccade. To test whether less salient, more predictable distractors would induce less adaptation, we separately used fixed random noise distractors. We found that both visual attention distractors were able to induce a small degree of downward saccade adaptation but significantly more to the more salient distractors. As in conventional adaptation experiments, upward adaptation was less effective and salient distractors did not significantly increase amplitudes. We conclude that the locus of attention after the saccade can act as an error signal for saccade adaptation.

  13. Plasticity during vestibular compensation: the role of saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish Gavin MacDougall


    Full Text Available This paper is focussed on one major aspect of compensation: the recent behavioural findings concerning oculomotor responses in human vestibular compensation and their possible implications for recovery after unilateral vestibular loss (UVL. New measurement techniques have provided new insights into how patients recover after UVL and have given clues for vestibular rehabilitation. Prior to this it has not been possible to quantify the level of function of all the peripheral vestibular sense organs. Now it is. By using vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to measure utricular and saccular function and by new video head impulse testing to measure semicircular canal function to natural values of head accelerations. With these new video procedures it is now possible to measure both slow phase eye velocity and also saccades during natural head movements. The present evidence is that there is little or no recovery of slow phase eye velocity responses to natural head accelerations. It is doubtful as to whether the modest changes in slow phase eye velocity to small angular accelerations are functionally effective during compensation. On the other hand it is now clear that saccades can play a very important role in helping patients compensate and return to a normal lifestyle. Preliminary evidence suggests that different patterns of saccadic response may predict how well patients recover. It may be possible to train patients to produce more effective saccadic patterns in the first days after their unilateral loss. Some patients do learn new strategies, new behaviours, to conceal their inadequate VOR but when those strategies are prevented from operating by using passive, unpredictable, high acceleration natural head movements, as in the head impulse test, their vestibular loss can be demonstrated. It is those very strategies which the tests exclude, which may be the cause of their successful compensation.

  14. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lin

    Full Text Available Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  15. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation. (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian


    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  16. A closer look at visually guided saccades in autism and Asperger’s disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth eJohnson


    Full Text Available Motor impairments have been found to be a significant clinical feature associated with autism and Asperger’s disorder (AD in addition to core symptoms of communication and social cognition deficits. Motor deficits in high-functioning autism (HFA and AD may differentiate these disorders, particularly with respect to the role of the cerebellum in motor functioning. Current neuroimaging and behavioural evidence suggests greater disruption of the cerebellum in HFA than AD. Investigations of ocular motor functioning have previously been used in clinical populations to assess the integrity of the cerebellar networks, through examination of saccade accuracy and the integrity of saccade dynamics. Previous investigations of visually guided saccades in HFA and AD have only assessed basic saccade metrics, such as latency, amplitude and gain, as well as peak velocity. We used a simple visually guided saccade paradigm to further characterize the profile of visually guided saccade metrics and dynamics in HFA and AD. It was found that children with HFA, but not AD, were more inaccurate across both small (5° and large (10° target amplitudes, and final eye position was hypometric at 10°. These findings suggest greater functional disturbance of the cerebellum in HFA than AD, and suggest fundamental difficulties with visual error monitoring in HFA.

  17. Saccadic and smooth-pursuit eye movements during reading of drifting texts. (United States)

    Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Schütz, Alexander C


    Reading is a complex visuomotor behavior characterized by an alternation of fixations and saccadic eye movements. Despite the widespread use of drifting texts in various settings, very little is known about eye movements under these conditions. Here we investigated oculomotor behavior during reading of texts which were drifting horizontally or vertically at different speeds. Consistent with previous reports, drifting texts were read by an alternation of smooth-pursuit and saccadic eye movements. Detailed analysis revealed several interactions between smooth pursuit and saccades. On one side, the gain of smooth pursuit was increased after the execution of a saccade. On the other side, the peak velocity of saccades was reduced for the horizontally drifting text, in which saccades and pursuit were executed in opposite directions. In addition, we show that well-known findings from the reading of static texts extend to drifting text, such as the preferred viewing location, the inverted optimal viewing position, and the correlation between saccade amplitude and subsequent pursuit/fixation duration. In general, individual eye-movement parameters such as saccade amplitude and fixation/pursuit durations were correlated across self-paced reading of static text and time-constrained reading of static and drifting texts. These results show that findings from basic oculomotor research also apply to the reading of drifting texts. Similarly, basic reading principles apply to the reading of static and drifting texts in a similar way. This exemplifies the reading of drifting text as a visuomotor behavior which is influenced by low-level eye-movement control as well as by cognitive and linguistic processing.

  18. Pre-saccadic perception: Separate time courses for enhancement and spatial pooling at the saccade target. (United States)

    Buonocore, Antimo; Fracasso, Alessio; Melcher, David


    We interact with complex scenes using eye movements to select targets of interest. Studies have shown that the future target of a saccadic eye movement is processed differently by the visual system. A number of effects have been reported, including a benefit for perceptual performance at the target ("enhancement"), reduced influences of backward masking ("un-masking"), reduced crowding ("un-crowding") and spatial compression towards the saccade target. We investigated the time course of these effects by measuring orientation discrimination for targets that were spatially crowded or temporally masked. In four experiments, we varied the target-flanker distance, the presence of forward/backward masks, the orientation of the flankers and whether participants made a saccade. Masking and randomizing flanker orientation reduced performance in both fixation and saccade trials. We found a small improvement in performance on saccade trials, compared to fixation trials, with a time course that was consistent with a general enhancement at the saccade target. In addition, a decrement in performance (reporting the average flanker orientation, rather than the target) was found in the time bins nearest saccade onset when random oriented flankers were used, consistent with spatial pooling around the saccade target. We did not find strong evidence for un-crowding. Overall, our pattern of results was consistent with both an early, general enhancement at the saccade target and a later, peri-saccadic compression/pooling towards the saccade target.

  19. Attentional disengagement is modulated by the offset of unpleasant pictures: a saccadic reaction time study. (United States)

    Machado-Pinheiro, Walter; Faria, Aydamari; Braga, Filipe; Guerra, Pedro; Perakakis, Pandelis; Caldas, Ariane Leão; Mocaiber, Izabela; Oliveira, Letícia; Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; Volchan, Eliane; Vila, Jaime


    We studied the influence of passively viewing a picture on saccade latencies to peripheral targets. Thirty-two volunteers were instructed to look at a central picture, wait for the onset of a peripheral target, and execute a saccade toward it as quickly as possible - saccadic reaction time (SRT). The central picture (neutral or unpleasant) could be turned off simultaneously with target onset (the no-gap condition) or 200ms prior to target onset (the gap-200 condition). We found that saccade latencies were influenced by emotional valence and condition. In the no-gap condition, SRTs were longer after viewing unpleasant pictures. In the gap-200 condition, the pattern was reversed, and unpleasant pictures induced shorter SRTs in relation to neutral pictures. Furthermore, the influence of unpleasant pictures gradually decreased when images were re-exposed to the participants - affective habituation. The results are discussed in terms of attentional avoidance and disengagement from unpleasant emotional pictures.

  20. Saccade generation and suppression in schizophrenia: effects of response switching and perseveration. (United States)

    Franke, Cosima; Arndt, Doris; Ploner, Christoph J; Heinz, Andreas; Reuter, Benedikt


    Poor antisaccade performance is a reliable index of action control deficits in schizophrenia. To further elucidate the underlying cognitive impairments, the current study aimed to confirm effects of switching the response direction on saccadic performance and to investigate whether response switch effects relate to perseveration. Fourteen schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy controls performed sequences of 1 to 3 simple volitional saccades to one direction and a subsequent volitional saccade with distractor to the same or the opposite direction. Response switches increased error rates in schizophrenia if they followed 3 saccades to the opposite side, suggesting that response switching affects performance on conditions of strong persisting response programs. The increase of response switch error rates with multiple repetitions of the prior response points to a relationship between perseveration and response selection.

  1. Refixation saccades with normal gain values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsager, Leise Elisabeth Hviid; Faber, Christian Emil; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass


    Refixation saccades with normal gain value occur more frequently with increasing age. The phenomenon has also been observed in different vestibular disorders. In this case, we present a young male with normal gain value and refixation saccades tested with the video head impulse test (vHIT) the da...

  2. Quantitative analysis of saccadic search strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Over, E.A.B.


    This thesis deals with the quantitative analysis of saccadic search strategy. The goal of the research presented was twofold: 1) to quantify overall characteristics of fixation location and saccade direction, and 2) to identify search strategies, with the use of a quantitative description of eye mov

  3. Quantitative analysis of saccadic search strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Over, E.A.B.


    This thesis deals with the quantitative analysis of saccadic search strategy. The goal of the research presented was twofold: 1) to quantify overall characteristics of fixation location and saccade direction, and 2) to identify search strategies, with the use of a quantitative description of eye

  4. Inherited ataxia with slow saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Chakor


    Full Text Available Ataxia is a symptom of cerebellar dysfunction. Slowly progressive ataxia, dysarthria in an adult with a positive family history suggests an inherited cerebellar ataxia. We present an adult with gradually progressive ataxia and slow saccades. There was history of similar illness in his son. Genetic testing for spinocerebellar ataxia 2 was positive. We discuss the various inherited ataxias, causes of acute, progressive ataxia syndromes, episodic ataxias and ataxia associated with other neurological signs like peripheral neuropathy, pyramidal features, movement disorders and cognitive decline.

  5. Saccade execution suppresses discrimination at distractor locations rather than enhancing the saccade goal location. (United States)

    Khan, Aarlenne Z; Blohm, Gunnar; Pisella, Laure; Munoz, Douglas P


    As we have limited processing abilities with respect to the plethora of visual information entering our brain, spatial selection mechanisms are crucial. These mechanisms result in both enhancing processing at a location of interest and in suppressing processing at other locations; together, they enable successful further processing of locations of interest. It has been suggested that saccade planning modulates these spatial selection mechanisms; however, the precise influence of saccades on the distribution of spatial resources underlying selection remains unclear. To this end, we compared discrimination performance at different locations (six) within a work space during different saccade tasks. We used visual discrimination performance as a behavioral measure of enhancement and suppression at the different locations. A total of 14 participants performed a dual discrimination/saccade countermanding task, which allowed us to specifically isolate the consequences of saccade execution. When a saccade was executed, discrimination performance at the cued location was never better than when fixation was maintained, suggesting that saccade execution did not enhance processing at a location more than knowing the likelihood of its appearance. However, discrimination was consistently lower at distractor (uncued) locations in all cases where a saccade was executed compared with when fixation was maintained. Based on these results, we suggest that saccade execution specifically suppresses distractor locations, whereas attention shifts (with or without an accompanying saccade) are involved in enhancing perceptual processing at the goal location.

  6. Head rotation trajectories compared with eye saccades by main sequence relationships. (United States)

    Stark, L; Zangemeister, W H; Edwards, J; Grinberg, J; Jones, A; Lehman, S; Lubock, P; Narayan, V; Nystrom, M


    A helmet apparatus permitted duration, peak velocity, and peak acceleration measurements as functions of magnitude of horizontal head rotation; these "main sequence" data give evidence for multipulse-step neurological signals appropriate for time optimal control of head rotation similar to those of saccadic eye movements.

  7. Control of reflexive saccades following hemispherectomy. (United States)

    Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Herter, Troy M; Guitton, Daniel


    Individuals who have undergone hemispherectomy for treatment of intractable epilepsy offer a rare and valuable opportunity to examine the ability of a single cortical hemisphere to control oculomotor performance. We used peripheral auditory events to trigger saccades, thereby circumventing dense postsurgical hemianopia. In an antisaccade task, patients generated numerous unintended short-latency saccades toward contralesional auditory events, indicating pronounced limitations in the ability of a single hemicortex to exert normal inhibitory control over ipsilateral (i.e., contralesional) reflexive saccade generation. Despite reflexive errors, patients retained an ability to generate correct antisaccades in both directions. The prosaccade task revealed numerous contralesional express saccades, a robust contralesional gap effect, but the absence of both effects for ipsilesional saccades. These results indicate limits to the saccadic control capabilities following hemispherectomy: A single hemicortex can mediate antisaccades in both directions, but plasticity does not extend fully to the bilateral inhibition of reflexive saccades. We posit that these effects are due to altered control dynamics that reduce the responsivity of the superior colliculus on the intact side and facilitate the release of an auditory-evoked ocular grasp reflex into the blind hemifield that the intact hemicortex has difficulty suppressing.

  8. Saccadic Eye Movements in Anorexia Nervosa. (United States)

    Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan Lee; Gurvich, Caroline; Hughes, Matthew Edward; Castle, David Jonathan; Nibbs, Richard Grant; Abel, Larry Allen


    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has a mortality rate among the highest of any mental illness, though the factors involved in the condition remain unclear. Recently, the potential neurobiological underpinnings of the condition have become of increasing interest. Saccadic eye movement tasks have proven useful in our understanding of the neurobiology of some other psychiatric illnesses as they utilise known brain regions, but to date have not been examined in AN. The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals with AN differ from healthy individuals in performance on a range of saccadic eye movements tasks. 24 females with AN and 25 healthy individuals matched for age, gender and premorbid intelligence participated in the study. Participants were required to undergo memory-guided and self-paced saccade tasks, and an interleaved prosaccade/antisaccade/no-go saccade task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). AN participants were found to make prosaccades of significantly shorter latency than healthy controls. AN participants also made an increased number of inhibitory errors on the memory-guided saccade task. Groups did not significantly differ in antisaccade, no-go saccade or self-paced saccade performance, or fMRI findings. The results suggest a potential role of GABA in the superior colliculus in the psychopathology of AN.

  9. Saccadic Eye Movements in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Phillipou

    Full Text Available Anorexia Nervosa (AN has a mortality rate among the highest of any mental illness, though the factors involved in the condition remain unclear. Recently, the potential neurobiological underpinnings of the condition have become of increasing interest. Saccadic eye movement tasks have proven useful in our understanding of the neurobiology of some other psychiatric illnesses as they utilise known brain regions, but to date have not been examined in AN. The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals with AN differ from healthy individuals in performance on a range of saccadic eye movements tasks.24 females with AN and 25 healthy individuals matched for age, gender and premorbid intelligence participated in the study. Participants were required to undergo memory-guided and self-paced saccade tasks, and an interleaved prosaccade/antisaccade/no-go saccade task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.AN participants were found to make prosaccades of significantly shorter latency than healthy controls. AN participants also made an increased number of inhibitory errors on the memory-guided saccade task. Groups did not significantly differ in antisaccade, no-go saccade or self-paced saccade performance, or fMRI findings.The results suggest a potential role of GABA in the superior colliculus in the psychopathology of AN.

  10. Memory-guided saccades show effect of perceptual illusion whereas visually-guided saccades do not. (United States)

    Massendari, Delphine; Lisi, Matteo; Collins, Thérèse; Cavanagh, Patrick


    The double-drift stimulus (a drifting Gabor with orthogonal internal motion) generates a large discrepancy between its physical and perceived path. Surprisingly, saccades directed to the double-drift stimulus land along the physical, and not perceived, path (Lisi & Cavanagh, 2015). Here we asked whether memory-guided saccades exhibited the same dissociation from perception. Participants were asked to keep their gaze centered on a fixation dot while the double-drift stimulus moved back and forth on a linear path in the periphery. The offset of the fixation was the go-signal to make a saccade to the target. In the visually-guided saccade condition, the Gabor kept moving on its trajectory after the go-signal but was removed once the saccade began. In the memory conditions, the Gabor disappeared before or at the same time as the go-signal (0 to 1000 ms delay) and participants made a saccade to its remembered location. The results showed that visually-guided saccades again targeted the physical rather than the perceived location. However, memory saccades, even with 0 ms delay, had landing positions shifted toward the perceived location. Our result shows that memory- and visually-guided saccades are based on different spatial information. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Neurophysiology.

  11. Neural Network Controlled Visual Saccades (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey D.; Grogan, Timothy A.


    The paper to be presented will discuss research on a computer vision system controlled by a neural network capable of learning through classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. Through the use of unconditional stimuli (reward and punishment) the system will develop scan patterns of eye saccades necessary to differentiate and recognize members of an input set. By foveating only those portions of the input image that the system has found to be necessary for recognition the drawback of computational explosion as the size of the input image grows is avoided. The model incorporates many features found in animal vision systems, and is governed by understandable and modifiable behavior patterns similar to those reported by Pavlov in his classic study. These behavioral patterns are a result of a neuronal model, used in the network, explicitly designed to reproduce this behavior.

  12. Saccadic and Postsaccadic Disconjugacy in Zebrafish Larvae Suggests Independent Eye Movement Control (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Huang, Melody Ying-Yu


    Spontaneous eye movements of zebrafish larvae in the dark consist of centrifugal saccades that move the eyes from a central to an eccentric position and postsaccadic centripetal drifts. In a previous study, we showed that the fitted single-exponential time constants of the postsaccadic drifts are longer in the temporal-to-nasal (T->N) direction than in the nasal-to-temporal (N->T) direction. In the present study, we further report that saccadic peak velocities are higher and saccadic amplitudes are larger in the N->T direction than in the T->N direction. We investigated the underlying mechanism of this ocular disconjugacy in the dark with a top-down approach. A mathematic ocular motor model, including an eye plant, a set of burst neurons and a velocity-to-position neural integrator (VPNI), was built to simulate the typical larval eye movements in the dark. The modeling parameters, such as VPNI time constants, neural impulse signals generated by the burst neurons and time constants of the eye plant, were iteratively adjusted to fit the average saccadic eye movement. These simulations suggest that four pools of burst neurons and four pools of VPNIs are needed to explain the disconjugate eye movements in our results. A premotor mechanism controls the synchronous timing of binocular saccades, but the pools of burst and integrator neurons in zebrafish larvae seem to be different (and maybe separate) for both eyes and horizontal directions, which leads to the observed ocular disconjugacies during saccades and postsaccadic drifts in the dark. PMID:27761109

  13. Visual contrast processing is largely unaltered during saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A García-Pérez


    Full Text Available Saccadic suppression refers to a reduction in visual sensitivity during saccadic eye movements. This reduction is conventionally regarded as mediated by either of two sources. One is a simple passive process of motion smear during saccades also accompanied by visual masking exerted by high-contrast pre- and post-saccadic images. The other is an active process exerted by a neural mechanism that turns off visual processing so that the perception of a stable visual environment is not disrupted during saccades. Some studies have actually shown that contrast sensitivity is significantly lower during saccades than under fixation, but these experiments were not designed in a way that could weigh the differential contribution of active and passive sources of saccadic suppression. We report the results of measurements of psychometric functions for contrast detection using stimuli that are only visible during saccades, thus effectively isolating any visual processing that actually takes place during the saccades and also preventing any pre- and post-saccadic visual masking. We also report measurements of psychometric functions for detection under fixation for stimuli that are comparable in duration and spatio-temporal characteristics to the intrasaccadic retinal stimulus. Whether during saccades or under fixation, the psychometric functions for detection turned out to be very similar, leaving room only for a small amount of sensitivity reduction during saccades. This suggests that contrast processing is largely unaltered during saccades and, thus, that no neural mechanism seems to be actively involved in saccadic suppression.

  14. Critical Factors for Inducing Curved Somatosensory Saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamami Nakano


    Full Text Available We are able to make a saccade toward a tactile stimuli to one hand, but trajectories of many saccades curved markedly when the arms were crossed (Groh & Sparks, 2006. However, it remains unknown why some curved and others did not. We therefore examined critical factors for inducing the curved somatosensory saccades. Participants made a saccade as soon as possible from a central fixation point toward a tactile stimulus delivered to one of the two hands, and switched between arms-crossed and arms-uncrossed postures every 6 trials. Trajectories were generally straight when the arms were uncrossed, but all participants made curved saccades when the arms were crossed (12–64%. We found that the probability of curved saccades depended critically on the onset latency: the probability was less than 5% when the latency was larger than 250 ms, but the probability increased up to 70–80% when the onset latency was 160 ms. This relationship was shared across participants. The results suggest that a touch in the arms-crossed posture was always mapped to the wrong hand in the initial phase up to 160 ms, and then remapped to the correct hand during the next 100 ms by some fundamental neural mechanisms shared across participants.

  15. Saccade-induced image motion cannot account for post-saccadic enhancement of visual processing in primate MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun L Cloherty


    Full Text Available Primates use saccadic eye movements to make gaze changes. In many visual areas, including the dorsal medial superior temporal area (MSTd of macaques, neural responses to visual stimuli are reduced during saccades but enhanced afterwards. How does this enhancement arise – from an internal mechanism associated with saccade generation or through visual mechanisms activated by the saccade sweeping the image of the visual scene across the retina? Spontaneous activity in MSTd is elevated even after saccades made in darkness, suggesting a central mechanism for post-saccadic enhancement. However, based on the timing of this effect, it may arise from a different mechanism than occurs in normal vision. Like neural responses in MSTd, initial ocular following eye speed is enhanced after saccades, with evidence suggesting both internal and visually mediated mechanisms. Here we recorded from visual neurons in MSTd and measured responses to motion stimuli presented soon after saccades and soon after simulated saccadessaccade-like displacements of the background image during fixation. We found that neural responses in MSTd were enhanced when preceded by real saccades but not when preceded by simulated saccades. Furthermore, we also observed enhancement following real saccades made across a blank screen that generated no motion signal within the recorded neurons’ receptive fields. We conclude that in MSTd the mechanism leading to post-saccadic enhancement has internal origins.

  16. The Influence of the Saccade Direction on the Direction of the Consecutive Saccade during Free Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Taniuchi


    Full Text Available Motter and Belky (1997 analyzed monkey eye movements during search tasks. They took the relative directional headings for consecutive saccades and found a slight directional bias against saccades to areas between the previously fixated stimulus and the current fixation location. In the current research, an analysis of human eye movements during free viewing was made. Eight images of natural scene were tested with 118 subjects. The subject viewed every image freely for 10 sec. The relative directional headings for consecutive saccade were broken out of the data set and analyzed for directional biases. Saccade direction polar histograms average across subjects showed directional biases: a consecutive saccade took a straight line slightly more than a left or right turn, and it went backward definitely more than the other directions.

  17. Saccade plan overlap and cancellation during free viewing. (United States)

    Wu, Esther X W; Chua, Fook-Kee; Yen, Shih-Cheng


    In the current study, we examined how the saccadic system responds when visual information changes dynamically in our environment. Previous studies, using the double-step task, have shown that (a) saccade plans could overlap, such that saccade preparation to an object started even while the saccade preparation to another object was ongoing, and (b) saccade plans could be cancelled before they were completed. In these studies, saccade targets were restricted to a few, experimenter-defined locations. Here, we examined whether saccade plan overlap and cancellation mechanisms could be observed in free-viewing conditions. For each trial, we constructed sets of two images, each containing five objects. All objects have unique positions. Image 1 was presented for several fixations, before Image 2 was presented during a fixation, presumably while a saccade plan to an object in Image 1 was ongoing. There were two crucial findings: (a) First, the saccade immediately following the transition was sometimes executed towards objects in Image 2, and not an object in Image 1, suggesting that the earlier saccade plan to an Image 1 object had been cancelled. Second, analysis of the temporal data also suggested that preparation of the first post-transition saccade started before an earlier saccade plan to an Image 1 object was executed, implying that saccade plans overlapped.

  18. Adaptation of saccadic sequences with and without remapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Lévy-Bencheton


    Full Text Available It is relatively easy to adapt visually-guided saccades because the visual vector and the saccade vector match. The retinal error at the saccade landing position is compared to the prediction error, based on target location and efference copy. If these errors do not match, planning processes at the level(s of the visual and/or motor vectors processing are assumed to be inaccurate and the saccadic response is adjusted. In the case of a sequence of two saccades, the final error can be attributed to the last saccade vector or to the entire saccadic displacement. Here, we asked whether and how adaptation can occur in the case of remapped saccades, such as during the classic double-step saccade paradigm, where the visual and motor vectors of the second saccade do not coincide and so the attribution of error is ambiguous. Participants performed saccades sequences to two targets briefly presented prior to first saccade onset. The second saccade target was either briefly re-illuminated (visually-guided paradigm or not (remapping paradigm upon first saccade offset. To drive adaptation, the second target was presented at a displaced location (backward or forward jump condition or control – no jump at the end of the second saccade. Pre- and post-adaptation trials were identical, without the re-appearance of the target after the second saccade. For the 1st saccade endpoints, there was no change as a function of adaptation. For the 2nd saccade, there was a similar increase in gain in the forward jump condition (52% and 61% of target jump in the two paradigms, whereas the gain decrease in the backward condition was much smaller for the remapping paradigm than for the visually-guided paradigm (41% vs. 94%. In other words, the absolute gain change was similar between backward and forward adaptation for remapped saccades.In conclusion, we show that remapped saccades can be adapted, suggesting that the error is attributed to the visuo-motor transformation of

  19. Emotional Scene Content Drives the Saccade Generation System Reflexively (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.


    The authors assessed whether parafoveal perception of emotional content influences saccade programming. In Experiment 1, paired emotional and neutral scenes were presented to parafoveal vision. Participants performed voluntary saccades toward either of the scenes according to an imperative signal (color cue). Saccadic reaction times were faster…

  20. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys. (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M; Isa, Tadashi


    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  1. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M.; Isa, Tadashi


    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  2. Saccade performance in the nasal and temporal hemifields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannesson, Ómar Ingi; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni


    There are numerous asymmetries in anatomy between the nasal and temporal hemiretinae, which have been connected to various asymmetries in behavioral performance. These include asymmetries in Vernier acuity, saccade selection, and attentional function, in addition to some evidence for latency...... differences for saccadic eye movements. There is also evidence for stronger retinotectal neural projection from the nasal than the temporal he- miretina. There is, accordingly, good reason to predict asymmetries in saccadic performance depending on which hemifield the saccade trigger stimuli are presented in......, but the evidence on this is mixed. We tested for asymmetries in both saccade latency and landing point accuracy in a variety of different saccade tasks. We found no evidence for any asymmetries in saccade latency and only modest evidence for asymmetries in landing point accuracy. While this lack of asymmetry...

  3. Saccadic adaptation in 10-41 month-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle eLemoine-Lardennois


    Full Text Available When saccade amplitude becomes systematically inaccurate, adaptation mechanisms gradually decrease or increase it until accurate saccade targeting is recovered. Adaptive shortening and adaptive lengthening of saccade amplitude rely on separate mechanisms in adults. When these adaptation mechanisms emerge during development is poorly known except that adaptive shortening processes are functional in children above 8 years of age. Yet, saccades in infants are consistently inaccurate (hypometric as if adaptation mechanisms were not fully functional in early childhood. Here, we tested reactive saccade adaptation in 10-41 month-old children compared to a group of 20-30 years-old adults. A visual target representing a cartoon character appeared at successive and unpredictable locations 10° apart on a computer screen. During the eye movement toward the target, it systematically stepped in the direction opposite to the saccade to induce an adaptive shortening of saccade amplitude (Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, the target stepped in the same direction as the ongoing saccade to induce an adaptive lengthening of saccade amplitude. In both backward and forward adaptation experiments, saccade adaptation was compared to a control condition where there was no intrasaccadic target step. Analysis of baseline performance revealed both longer saccade reaction times and hypometric saccades in children compared to adults. In both experiments, children on average showed gradual changes in saccade amplitude consistent with the systematic intrasaccadic target steps. Moreover, the amount of amplitude change was similar between children and adults for both backward and forward adaptation. Finally, adaptation abilities in our child group were not related to age. Overall the results suggest that the neural mechanisms underlying reactive saccade adaptation are in place early during development.

  4. Pre-saccadic shifts of visual attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Harrison

    Full Text Available The locations of visual objects to which we attend are initially mapped in a retinotopic frame of reference. Because each saccade results in a shift of images on the retina, however, the retinotopic mapping of spatial attention must be updated around the time of each eye movement. Mathôt and Theeuwes [1] recently demonstrated that a visual cue draws attention not only to the cue's current retinotopic location, but also to a location shifted in the direction of the saccade, the "future-field". Here we asked whether retinotopic and future-field locations have special status, or whether cue-related attention benefits exist between these locations. We measured responses to targets that appeared either at the retinotopic or future-field location of a brief, non-predictive visual cue, or at various intermediate locations between them. Attentional cues facilitated performance at both the retinotopic and future-field locations for cued relative to uncued targets, as expected. Critically, this cueing effect also occurred at intermediate locations. Our results, and those reported previously [1], imply a systematic bias of attention in the direction of the saccade, independent of any predictive remapping of attention that compensates for retinal displacements of objects across saccades [2].

  5. Multipulse control of saccadic eye movements (United States)

    Lehman, S. L.; Stark, L.


    We present three conclusions regarding the neural control of saccadic eye movements, resulting from comparisons between recorded movements and computer simulations. The controller signal to the muscles is probably a multipulse-step. This kind of signal drives the fastest model trajectories. Finally, multipulse signals explain differences between model and electrophysiological results.

  6. Saccadic distractibility is elevated in schizophrenia patients, but not in their unaffected relatives. (United States)

    Maccabe, James H; Simon, Helen; Zanelli, Jolanta W; Walwyn, Rebecca; McDonald, Colm D; Murray, Robin M


    Saccadic distractibility, as measured by the antisaccade task, has attracted attention as a putative endophenotypic marker for schizophrenia. Some studies have suggested that this measure is elevated in the unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients. However, recent studies have called this into question and the topic remains controversial. Saccadic distractibility was measured in 53 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia, 80 unaffected first-degree relatives and 41 unaffected controls.Results. Schizophrenia patients performed worse than relatives and controls combined (p<0.00001), but relatives did not differ significantly from controls. Performance in multiply affected families was no worse than that in singly affected families. Relatives with a high presumed genetic risk for schizophrenia performed no worse than other relatives. The performance of the patients did not predict that of their relatives. These results demonstrate that saccadic distractibility is strongly associated with disease status but not with genetic loading for schizophrenia. We conclude that saccadic distractibility is unlikely to be useful as an endophenotypic marker in schizophrenia.

  7. An analysis of the dependence of saccadic latency on target position and target characteristics in human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Jay R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predictions from conduction velocity data for primate retinal ganglion cell axons indicate that the conduction time to the lateral geniculate nucleus for stimulation of peripheral retina should be no longer than for stimulation of central retina. On this basis, the latency of saccadic eye movements should not increase for more peripherally located targets. However, previous studies have reported relatively very large increases, which has the implication of a very considerable increase in central processing time for the saccade-generating system. Results In order to resolve this paradox, we have undertaken an extended series of experiments in which saccadic eye movements were recorded by electro-oculography in response to targets presented in the horizontal meridian in normal young subjects. For stationary or moving targets of either normal beam intensity or reduced red intensity, with the direction of gaze either straight ahead with respect to the head or directed eccentrically, the saccadic latency was shown to remain invariant with respect to a wide range of target angular displacements. Conclusions These results indicate that, irrespective of the angular displacement of the target, the direction of gaze or the target intensity, the saccade-generating system operates with a constant generation time.

  8. Counterproductive effect of saccadic suppression during attention shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Zénon

    Full Text Available During saccadic eye movements, the processing of visual information is transiently interrupted by a mechanism known as "saccadic suppression" [1] that is thought to ensure perceptual stability [2]. If, as proposed in the premotor theory of attention [3], covert shifts of attention rely on sub-threshold recruitment of oculomotor circuits, then saccadic suppression should also occur during covert shifts. In order to test this prediction, we designed two experiments in which participants had to orient towards a cued letter, with or without saccades. We analyzed the time course of letter identification score in an "attention" task performed without saccades, using the saccadic latencies measured in the "saccade" task as a marker of covert saccadic preparation. Visual conditions were identical in all tasks. In the "attention" task, we found a drop in perceptual performance around the predicted onset time of saccades that were never performed. Importantly, this decrease in letter identification score cannot be explained by any known mechanism aligned on cue onset such as inhibition of return, masking, or microsaccades. These results show that attentional allocation triggers the same suppression mechanisms as during saccades, which is relevant during eye movements but detrimental in the context of covert orienting.

  9. How muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation as humans walk and run at different speeds. (United States)

    Arnold, Edith M; Hamner, Samuel R; Seth, Ajay; Millard, Matthew; Delp, Scott L


    The lengths and velocities of muscle fibers have a dramatic effect on muscle force generation. It is unknown, however, whether the lengths and velocities of lower limb muscle fibers substantially affect the ability of muscles to generate force during walking and running. We examined this issue by developing simulations of muscle-tendon dynamics to calculate the lengths and velocities of muscle fibers from electromyographic recordings of 11 lower limb muscles and kinematic measurements of the hip, knee and ankle made as five subjects walked at speeds of 1.0-1.75 m s(-1) and ran at speeds of 2.0-5.0 m s(-1). We analyzed the simulated fiber lengths, fiber velocities and forces to evaluate the influence of force-length and force-velocity properties on force generation at different walking and running speeds. The simulations revealed that force generation ability (i.e. the force generated per unit of activation) of eight of the 11 muscles was significantly affected by walking or running speed. Soleus force generation ability decreased with increasing walking speed, but the transition from walking to running increased the force generation ability by reducing fiber velocities. Our results demonstrate the influence of soleus muscle architecture on the walk-to-run transition and the effects of muscle-tendon compliance on the plantarflexors' ability to generate ankle moment and power. The study presents data that permit lower limb muscles to be studied in unprecedented detail by relating muscle fiber dynamics and force generation to the mechanical demands of walking and running.

  10. No Evidence for a Saccadic Range Effect for Visually Guided and Memory-Guided Saccades in Simple Saccade-Targeting Tasks (United States)

    Vitu, Françoise; Engbert, Ralf; Kliegl, Reinhold


    Saccades to single targets in peripheral vision are typically characterized by an undershoot bias. Putting this bias to a test, Kapoula [1] used a paradigm in which observers were presented with two different sets of target eccentricities that partially overlapped each other. Her data were suggestive of a saccadic range effect (SRE): There was a tendency for saccades to overshoot close targets and undershoot far targets in a block, suggesting that there was a response bias towards the center of eccentricities in a given block. Our Experiment 1 was a close replication of the original study by Kapoula [1]. In addition, we tested whether the SRE is sensitive to top-down requirements associated with the task, and we also varied the target presentation duration. In Experiments 1 and 2, we expected to replicate the SRE for a visual discrimination task. The simple visual saccade-targeting task in Experiment 3, entailing minimal top-down influence, was expected to elicit a weaker SRE. Voluntary saccades to remembered target locations in Experiment 3 were expected to elicit the strongest SRE. Contrary to these predictions, we did not observe a SRE in any of the tasks. Our findings complement the results reported by Gillen et al. [2] who failed to find the effect in a saccade-targeting task with a very brief target presentation. Together, these results suggest that unlike arm movements, saccadic eye movements are not biased towards making saccades of a constant, optimal amplitude for the task. PMID:27658191

  11. The Fastest Saccadic Responses Escape Visual Masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Crouzet, Sébastien; Overgaard, Morten; Busch, Niko A.


    , which gives access to very early stages of visual processing, target visibility was reduced either by OSM, conventional backward masking, or low stimulus contrast. A general reduction of performance was observed in all three conditions. However, the fastest saccades did not show any sign of interference......Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. The reduction of target visibility occurring after OSM has been suggested to result from a specific interference with reentrant...... visual processing while the initial feedforward processing is thought to be left intact. We tested a prediction derived from this hypothesis: the fastest responses, being triggered before the beginning of reentrant processing, should escape the OSM interference. In a saccadic choice reaction time task...

  12. An in-depth look at saccadic search in infancy. (United States)

    Hessels, Roy S; Hooge, Ignace T C; Kemner, Chantal


    Two questions were posed in the present study: (1) Do infants search for discrepant items in the absence of instructions? We outline where previous research has been inconclusive in answering this question. (2) In what manner do infants search, and what are the fixation and saccade characteristics in saccadic search? A thorough characterization of saccadic search in infancy is of great importance as a reference for future eye-movement studies in infancy. We presented 10-month-old infants with 24 visual search displays in two separate sessions within two weeks. We report that infant saccadic search performance at 10 months is above what may be expected by our model of chance, and is dependent on the specific target. Infant fixation and saccade characteristics show similarities to adult fixation and saccade characteristics in saccadic search. All findings were highly consistent across two separate sessions on the group level. An examination of the reliability of saccadic search revealed that test-retest reliability for oculomotor characteristics was high, particularly for fixation duration. We suggest that future research into saccadic search in infancy adopt the presented model of chance as a baseline against which to compare search performance. Researchers investigating both the typical and atypical development of visual search may benefit from the presented results.

  13. Small saccades and image complexity during free viewing of natural images in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ignacio Egaña


    Full Text Available In schizophrenia, patients display dysfunctions during the execution of simple visual tasks such as anti-saccade or smooth pursuit. In more ecological scenarios, such as free viewing of natural images, patients appear to make fewer and longer visual fixations and display shorter scanpaths. It is not clear whether these measurements reflect alterations in their proficiency to perform basic eye movements, such as saccades and fixations, or are related to high-level mechanisms, such as exploration or attention. We utilized free exploration of natural images of different complexities as a model of an ecological context where normally operative mechanisms of visual control can be accurately measured. We quantified visual exploration as Euclidean distance, scanpaths, saccades and visual fixation, using the standard SR-Research eye tracker algorithm (SR. We then compared this result with a computation that includes microsaccades (EM. We evaluated 8 schizophrenia patients and corresponding healthy controls (HC. Next, we tested whether the decrement in the number of saccades and fixations, as well as their increment in duration reported previously in schizophrenia patients, resulted from the increasing occurrence of undetected microsaccades. We found that when utilizing the standard SR algorithm, patients displayed shorter scanpaths as well as fewer and shorter saccades and fixations. When we employed the EM algorithm, the differences in these parameters between patients and HC were no longer significant. On the other hand, we found that image complexity plays an important role in exploratory behaviors, demonstrating that this factor explains most of differences between eye-movement behaviors in schizophrenia patients. These results help elucidate the mechanisms of visual motor control that are affected in schizophrenia and contribute to the finding of adequate markers for diagnosis and treatment for this condition.

  14. Performance Monitoring and Response Inhibition in a Saccadic Countermanding Task in High and Low proficient bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika eSingh


    Full Text Available We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 fluency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR task (Experiment1 and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR task (Experiment 2. In this task typically a target is presented to which subject must make saccade (No step trials, unless a new target appears on the other location after some delay from the first target onset (Step trials. On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first instead program a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT, which is the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target, as a measure of response inhibition, and post-stop slowing as a measure of performance monitoring, we observed two important results. It was found that high proficiency bilinguals showed more post-stop slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficiency bilinguals for both VGR and MGR. Secondly, high and low proficiency bilingual exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR, showing no altering effect of language proficiency on the response inhibition in bilinguals. These results suggest that bilingualism impacts performance monitoring which is modulated by language proficiency if not the inhibitory control system. Higher fluency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility, and ability to adjust behaviour that facilitates attainment of cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems.

  15. Sperm dilution ratio affects post-thaw motility rate and velocity of Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes) sperm. (United States)

    Viveiros, Ana T M; Leal, Marcelo C


    There is a lack of standardization in sperm cryopreservation of aquatic organisms and, thus, a necessity of more accurate investigations in all steps of this process. In this study, the effects of sperm dilution ratio on post-thaw sperm quality of Prochilodus lineatus were evaluated. Sperm was diluted in a standard freezing medium (glucose and methyl glycol) at four different ratios (sperm to final volume = 1:5, 1:10, 1:50 or 1:100), frozen in a nitrogen vapour vessel at -170°C and then stored in liquid nitrogen vessel at -196°C. Post-thaw motility rate and velocities (curvilinear = VCL; average path = VAP; straight line = VSL) were determined using a Computer-Assisted Sperm Analyzer (CASA) at 10 and 40 s post-activation. The highest motility rates were observed when sperm was frozen at a ratio of 1:5 (76%) and 1:10 (75%). The highest VCL (225 μm/s) and VAP (203 μm/s) were observed at a ratio of 1:10, while VSL was similar among samples frozen at 1:5, 1:10 and 1:50 (97-124 μm/s). When those parameters were evaluated again 30 s later, motility decreased significantly in samples frozen at a ratio of 1:5 (57%) and 1:10 (61%), while velocities decreased significantly in all samples regardless of dilution ratio (75-85 μm/s of VCL, 38-53 μm/s of VAP and 25-39 μm/s of VSL). P. lineatus sperm should be frozen at a ratio of 1:10, where both the number of loaded sperm per straw and the post-thaw quality are maximized.

  16. Latency and Accuracy Characteristics of Saccades and Corrective Saccades in Children and Adults. (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E.; Ross, Leonard E.


    Examines the latency and the accuracy of adult's and children's saccades under optimal warning and no-warning conditions. Subjects were nine adults (mean age =23.7) and nine elementary school students (mean age =8.5). (Author/MP)

  17. Body saccades of Drosophila consist of stereotyped banked turns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijres, F.T.; Elzinga, M.J.; Iwasaki, N.A.; Dickinson, M.H.


    The flight pattern of many fly species consists of straight flight segments interspersed with rapid turns called body saccades, a strategy that is thought to minimize motion blur. We analyzed the body saccades of fruit flies (Drosophila hydei), using high-speed 3D videography to track body and wing

  18. Emotional scene content drives the saccade generation system reflexively. (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G


    The authors assessed whether parafoveal perception of emotional content influences saccade programming. In Experiment 1, paired emotional and neutral scenes were presented to parafoveal vision. Participants performed voluntary saccades toward either of the scenes according to an imperative signal (color cue). Saccadic reaction times were faster when the cue pointed toward the emotional picture rather than toward the neutral picture. Experiment 2 replicated these findings with a reflexive saccade task, in which abrupt luminosity changes were used as exogenous saccade cues. In Experiment 3, participants performed vertical reflexive saccades that were orthogonal to the emotional-neutral picture locations. Saccade endpoints and trajectories deviated away from the visual field in which the emotional scenes were presented. Experiment 4 showed that computationally modeled visual saliency does not vary as a function of scene content and that inversion abolishes the rapid orienting toward the emotional scenes. Visual confounds cannot thus explain the results. The authors conclude that early saccade target selection and execution processes are automatically influenced by emotional picture content. This reveals processing of meaningful scene content prior to overt attention to the stimulus.

  19. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation effects on saccade adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Avila (Eric); J.N. van der Geest (Jos); S. Kengne Kamga (Sandra); M.C. Verhage (M. Claire); O. Donchin (Opher); M.A. Frens (Maarten)


    textabstractSaccade adaptation is a cerebellar-mediated type of motor learning in which the oculomotor system is exposed to repetitive errors. Different types of saccade adaptations are thought to involve distinct underlying cerebellar mechanisms. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induc

  20. Spatiotopic buildup of saccade target representation depends on target size. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Eckart


    How we maintain spatial stability across saccade eye movements is an open question in visual neuroscience. A phenomenon that has received much attention in the field is our seemingly poor ability to discriminate the direction of transsaccadic target displacements. We have recently shown that discrimination performance increases the longer the saccade target has been previewed before saccade execution (Zimmermann, Morrone, & Burr, 2013). We have argued that the spatial representation of briefly presented stimuli is weak but that a strong representation is needed for transsaccadic, i.e., spatiotopic localization. Another factor that modulates the representation of saccade targets is stimulus size. The representation of spatially extended targets is more noisy than that of point-like targets. Here, I show that the increase in transsaccadic displacement discrimination as a function of saccade target preview duration depends on target size. This effect was found for spatially extended targets-thus replicating the results of Zimmermann et al. (2013)-but not for point-like targets. An analysis of saccade parameters revealed that the constant error for reaching the saccade target was bigger for spatially extended than for point-like targets, consistent with weaker representation of bigger targets. These results show that transsaccadic displacement discrimination becomes accurate when saccade targets are spatially extended and presented longer, thus resembling closer stimuli in real-world environments.

  1. Normal Speed and Accuracy of Saccade and Vergence Eye Movements in Dyslexic Reader Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Bucci


    Full Text Available Objective. Latency of eye movements depends on cortical structures while speed of execution and accuracy depends mostly on subcortical brainstem structures. Prior studies reported in dyslexic reader children abnormalities of latencies of saccades (isolated and combined with vergence; such abnormalities were attributed to deficits of fixation control and of visual attention. In this study we examine speed and accuracy characteristics of horizontal eye movements in natural space (saccades, vergence and combined movements in dyslexic reader children. Methods. Two paradigms are tested: gap paradigm (fixation offset 200 ms prior to target onset, producing shorter latencies, in both non-dyslexic reader and dyslexic reader children and simultaneous paradigm. Seventeen dyslexic reader children (mean age: 12±0.08 years and thirteen non-dyslexic reader children (mean age: 12±1 years were tested. Horizontal eye movements from both eyes were recorded simultaneously by a photoelectric device (Oculometer, Dr. Bouis. Results. For all movements tested (saccades, vergence, isolated or combined and for both paradigms, the mean velocity and accuracy were similar in dyslexic readers and non-dyslexic readers; no significant difference was found. Conclusion. This negative but important result, suggests no dysfunction of brainstem ocular motor circuits in dyslexic readers. It contrasts results on latencies related to visual attention dysfunction at cortical level.

  2. An Analog VLSI Saccadic Eye Movement System



    In an effort to understand saccadic eye movements and their relation to visual attention and other forms of eye movements, we - in collaboration with a number of other laboratories - are carrying out a large-scale effort to design and build a complete primate oculomotor system using analog CMOS VLSI technology. Using this technology, a low power, compact, multi-chip system has been built which works in real-time using real-world visual inputs. We describe in this paper the performance of a...

  3. Visual working memory modulates low-level saccade target selection: evidence from rapidly generated saccades in the global effect paradigm. (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Matsukura, Michi; Luck, Steven J


    In three experiments, we examined the influence of visual working memory (VWM) on the metrics of saccade landing position in a global effect paradigm. Participants executed a saccade to the more eccentric object in an object pair appearing on the horizontal midline, to the left or right of central fixation. While completing the saccade task, participants maintained a color in VWM for an unrelated memory task. Either the color of the saccade target matched the memory color (target match), the color of the distractor matched the memory color (distractor match), or the colors of neither object matched the memory color (no match). In the no-match condition, saccades tended to land at the midpoint between the two objects: the global, or averaging, effect. However, when one of the two objects matched VWM, the distribution of landing position shifted toward the matching object, both for target match and for distractor match. VWM modulation of landing position was observed even for the fastest quartile of saccades, with a mean latency as low as 112 ms. Effects of VWM on such rapidly generated saccades, with latencies in the express-saccade range, indicate that VWM interacts with the initial sweep of visual sensory processing, modulating perceptual input to oculomotor systems and thereby biasing oculomotor selection. As a result, differences in memory match produce effects on landing position similar to the effects generated by differences in physical salience.

  4. The Word Frequency Effect on Saccade Targeting during Chinese Reading: Evidence from a Survival Analysis of Saccade Length (United States)

    Liu, Yanping; Huang, Ren; Li, Yugang; Gao, Dingguo


    Our study employs distributional analysis (i.e., survival analysis) to examine how the frequency of target words influences saccade lengths into and out of these target words in Chinese reading. The results of survival analysis indicate the survival curves in the high- and low-frequency conditions diverge for a short saccade length, with more than 80% of the lengths of incoming and outgoing saccades being larger than the divergence points. These results as well as simulations using the novel Dynamic-adjustment Model of saccadic targeting (Liu et al., 2016) are consistent with previous mean-based results and provide more precise information to support this novel model. The implications for saccade target selection during the reading of Chinese are discussed.

  5. Luminance contrast in the background makes flashes harder to detect during saccades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maij, F.; Matziridi, M.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Brenner, E.M.


    To explore a visual scene we make many fast eye movements (saccades) every second. During those saccades the image of the world shifts rapidly across our retina. These shifts are normally not detected, because perception is suppressed during saccades. In this paper we study the origin of this saccad

  6. The use of recurrent signals about adaptation for subsequent saccade programming depends on object structure. (United States)

    Doré-Mazars, Karine; Vergilino-Perez, Dorine; Collins, Thérèse; Bohacova, Katarina; Beauvillain, Cécile


    Executing sequences of accurate saccadic eye movements supposes the use of signals carrying information about the first saccade for updating the predetermined motor plan of the subsequent saccades. The present study examines the signals used in planning a second saccade when subjects made two successive saccades towards one long or two short peripheral objects displayed before the first saccade execution. Different first eye movement signals could be used: desired eye movement signals, representing the movement necessary for attaining the intended target, or actual eye movement signals, representing the movement actually executed. Experimental dissociation of desired and actual eye movement signals is made possible by adaptive modifications of the first saccade, obtained by transfer of single saccade adaptation, during which the motor vector was progressively modified in response to the systematic intra-saccadic step of a single target. Whether the second saccade used the actual eye movement signal to compensate or not for the adaptive changes in the first saccade depended on which object properties were relevant for saccade planning. Compensation was observed for saccades that aimed for a new object (between-object saccades) because adaptation modifies relative object location. No compensation was observed for saccades that explored an extended object (within-object saccades). Implications for the on-line control of subsequent eye movements are discussed.

  7. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Reflexive and Volitional Saccades: Evidence from Studies of Humans (United States)

    McDowell, Jennifer E.; Dyckman, Kara A.; Austin, Benjamin P.; Clementz, Brett A.


    This review provides a summary of the contributions made by human functional neuroimaging studies to the understanding of neural correlates of saccadic control. The generation of simple visually guided saccades (redirections of gaze to a visual stimulus or pro-saccades) and more complex volitional saccades require similar basic neural circuitry…

  8. The fastest saccadic responses escape visual masking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien M Crouzet

    Full Text Available Object-substitution masking (OSM occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. The reduction of target visibility occurring after OSM has been suggested to result from a specific interference with reentrant visual processing while the initial feedforward processing is thought to be left intact. We tested a prediction derived from this hypothesis: the fastest responses, being triggered before the beginning of reentrant processing, should escape the OSM interference. In a saccadic choice reaction time task, which gives access to very early stages of visual processing, target visibility was reduced either by OSM, conventional backward masking, or low stimulus contrast. A general reduction of performance was observed in all three conditions. However, the fastest saccades did not show any sign of interference under either OSM or backward masking, as they did under the low-contrast condition. This finding supports the hypothesis that masking interferes mostly with reentrant processing at later stages, while leaving early feedforward processing largely intact.

  9. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders (United States)

    Bittencourt, Juliana; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Salles, José Inácio; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro


    Objective The study presented here analyzed the patterns of relationship between oculomotor performance and psychopathology, focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorder. Methods Scientific articles published from 1967 to 2013 in the PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time), though electrophysiological measures are absent. PMID:24072973

  10. Manipulation of stimulus onset delay in reading: evidence for parallel programming of saccades. (United States)

    Morrison, R E


    On-line eye movement recording of 12 subjects who read short stories on a cathode ray tube enabled a test of direct control and preprogramming models of eye movements in reading. Contingent upon eye position, a mask was displayed in place of the letters in central vision after each saccade, delaying the onset of the stimulus in each eye fixation. The duration of the delay was manipulated in fixed or randomized blocks. Although the length of the delay strongly affected the duration of the fixations, there was no difference due to the conditions of delay manipulation, indicating that fixation duration is under direct control. However, not all fixations were lengthened by the period of the delay. Some ended while the mask was still present, suggesting they had been preprogrammed. But these "anticipation" eye movements could not have been completely determined before the fixation was processed because their fixation durations and saccade lengths were affected by the spatial extent of the mask, which varied randomly. Neither preprogramming nor existing serial direct control models of eye guidance can adequately account for these data. Instead, a model with direct control and parallel programming of saccades is proposed to explain the data and eye movements in reading in general.

  11. Extraretinal signal metrics in multiple-saccade sequences. (United States)

    Collins, Thérèse


    Executing sequences of memory-guided movements requires combining sensory information with information about previously made movements. In the oculomotor system, extraretinal information must be combined with stored visual information about target location. The use of extraretinal signals in oculomotor planning can be probed in the double-step task. Using this task and a multiple-step version, the present study examined whether an extraretinal signal was used on every trial, whether its metrics represented desired or actual eye displacement, and whether it was best characterized as a direct estimate of orbital eye position or a vector representation of eye displacement. The results show that accurate information, including saccadic adaptation, about the first saccade is used to plan the second saccade. Furthermore, with multiple saccades, endpoint variability increases with the number of saccades. Controls ruled out that this was due to the perceptual or memory requirements of storing several target locations. Instead, each memory-guided movement depends on an internal copy of an executed movement, which may present a small discrepancy with the actual movement. Increasing the number of estimates increases the variability because this small discrepancy accumulates over several saccades. Such accumulation is compatible with a corollary discharge signal carrying metric information about saccade vectors.

  12. OCT corneal topography within ¼ diopter in the presence of saccadic eye movements (United States)

    Sayegh, Samir I.


    Refractive surgeons and cataract surgeons need accurate measurements of corneal curvature/power. Increased expectations of patients, the increasing number of patients having undergone prior surgeries and patients with corneal pathologies dictate the need for reliable curvature measurements to enhance the predictability and the quality of surgical outcomes. Eye movements can negatively influence these measurements. We present a model of eye movements based on peak saccade velocities and formulate criteria for obtaining OCT topography within ¼ of a diopter. Using these criteria we illustrate how next generation MHz systems will allow full corneal OCT topography in both healthy and pathological corneas

  13. Kinesthetic information facilitates saccades towards proprioceptive-tactile targets. (United States)

    Voudouris, Dimitris; Goettker, Alexander; Mueller, Stefanie; Fiehler, Katja


    Saccades to somatosensory targets have longer latencies and are less accurate and precise than saccades to visual targets. Here we examined how different somatosensory information influences the planning and control of saccadic eye movements. Participants fixated a central cross and initiated a saccade as fast as possible in response to a tactile stimulus that was presented to either the index or the middle fingertip of their unseen left hand. In a static condition, the hand remained at a target location for the entire block of trials and the stimulus was presented at a fixed time after an auditory tone. Therefore, the target location was derived only from proprioceptive and tactile information. In a moving condition, the hand was first actively moved to the same target location and the stimulus was then presented immediately. Thus, in the moving condition additional kinesthetic information about the target location was available. We found shorter saccade latencies in the moving compared to the static condition, but no differences in accuracy or precision of saccadic endpoints. In a second experiment, we introduced variable delays after the auditory tone (static condition) or after the end of the hand movement (moving condition) in order to reduce the predictability of the moment of the stimulation and to allow more time to process the kinesthetic information. Again, we found shorter latencies in the moving compared to the static condition but no improvement in saccade accuracy or precision. In a third experiment, we showed that the shorter saccade latencies in the moving condition cannot be explained by the temporal proximity between the relevant event (auditory tone or end of hand movement) and the moment of the stimulation. Our findings suggest that kinesthetic information facilitates planning, but not control, of saccadic eye movements to proprioceptive-tactile targets.

  14. Saccadic search performance: the effect of element spacing. (United States)

    Vlaskamp, Björn N S; Over, Eelco A B; Hooge, Ignace Th C


    In a saccadic search task, we investigated whether spacing between elements affects search performance. Since it has been suggested in the literature that element spacing can affect the eye movement strategy in several ways, its effects on search time per element are hard to predict. In the first experiment, we varied the element spacing (3.4 degrees -7.1 degrees distance between elements) and target-distracter similarity. As expected, search time per element increased with target-distracter similarity. Decreasing element spacing decreased the search time per element. However, this effect was surprisingly small in comparison to the effect of varying target-distracter similarity. In a second experiment, we elaborated on this finding and decreased element spacing even further (between 0.8 degrees and 3.2 degrees). Here, we did not find an effect on search time per element for element spacings from 3.2 degrees to spacings as small as 1.5 degrees . It was only at distances smaller than 1.5 degrees that search time per element increased with decreasing element spacing. In order to explain the remarkable finding that search time per element was not affected for such a wide range of element spacings, we propose that irrespective of the spacing crowding kept the number of elements processed per fixation more or less constant.

  15. Hic-Et-Nunc (Here-and-Now Encoding of a Moving Target for its Saccadic Foveation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Goffart


    Full Text Available The neural representation of a moving target undergoes a spatiotemporal “diffusion” while the associated retinal activity propagates toward the motor centers and recruits the appropriate muscles for its interception in the external world. Indeed, the divergent projections within the visual system and the transmissions of signals through multiple relays, with diverse conduction velocities and integration times, lead to activities that are spatially and temporally distributed across several brain regions. In spite of this neural “blurring”, accurate saccadic eye movements can be made to bring the image of a moving target onto the fovea. Such a performance indicates that the brain is able to rapidly estimate the current spatiotemporal coordinates of the target, at least at the time of saccade landing. We tested in the monkey the robustness of this estimate when a change in eye position and a delay are experimentally added before the animal launches a saccade toward a moving target and in the absence of visual feedback. These spatiotemporal perturbations were induced by a brief microstimulation in the deep superior colliculus. The results show that the interceptive saccades can remain accurate and relatively independent of the time taken to react and to foveate the target. We propose that the brain builds an estimate of the expected and current spatiotemporal (hic-et-nunc coordinates of the target and that this signal feeds the same local feedback loop as the mechanism proposed for guiding saccades toward a stationary target (Fleuriet and Goffart, 2012 Journal of Neuroscience 32 452–461.

  16. Difference between visually and electrically evoked gaze saccades disclosed by altering the head moment of inertia. (United States)

    Coimbra, A J; Lefèvre, P; Missal, M; Olivier, E


    Differences between gaze shifts evoked by collicular electrical stimulation and those triggered by the presentation of a visual stimulus were studied in head-free cats by increasing the head moment of inertia. This maneuver modified the dynamics of these two types of gaze shifts by slowing down head movements. Such an increase in the head moment of inertia did not affect the metrics of visually evoked gaze saccades because their duration was precisely adjusted to compensate for these changes in movement dynamics. In contrast, the duration of electrically evoked gaze shifts remained constant irrespective of the head moment of inertia, and therefore their amplitude was significantly reduced. These results suggest that visually and electrically evoked gaze saccades are controlled by different mechanisms. Whereas the accuracy of visually evoked saccades is likely to be assured by on-line feedback information, the absence of duration adjustment in electrically evoked gaze shifts suggests that feedback information necessary to maintain their metrics is not accessible or is corrupted during collicular stimulation. This is of great importance when these two types of movements are compared to infer the role of the superior colliculus in the control of orienting gaze shifts.

  17. Changes in saccadic reaction time while maintaining neck flexion in the elderly. (United States)

    Kunita, Kenji; Fujiwara, Katsuo


    We investigated changes in saccadic reaction time during maintenance of neck flexion in elderly individuals. Subjects comprised 49 volunteers, including 19 young adults and 30 elderly adults. Elderly subjects were separated into 2 groups (trained group: n=18; untrained group: n=12) based on responses to a questionnaire concerning activities of daily living. Saccadic reaction time was measured at angles of neck flexion of 0 degrees (resting position), 10 degrees and 20 degrees , with the chin either resting on a stand (chin-on) or not (chin-off). Reaction time was determined as the latency to the beginning of eye movement toward the lateral target, which was moved at random intervals in jumps of 20 degrees amplitude. In the chin-on posture, the angle of neck flexion had no significant effect on reaction time in any group. In the chin-off posture, the flexion angle significantly affected reaction time in both young and elderly trained groups. Significant shortenings of the reaction time were obtained at 10 degrees and 20 degrees neck flexion in the young group, and at 20 degrees neck flexion in the elderly trained group. No significant shortening of reaction time was noted in the elderly untrained group. These findings suggest that neural function associated with shortening of saccadic reaction time due to neck extensor activity decreases with age, and the decrements become more marked with inactivity in daily life.

  18. Rewards modulate saccade latency but not exogenous spatial attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eDunne


    Full Text Available The eye movement system is sensitive to reward. However, whilst the eye movement system is extremely flexible, the extent to which changes to oculomotor behaviour induced by reward paradigms persist beyond the training period or transfer to other oculomotor tasks is unclear. To address these issues we examined the effects of presenting feedback that represented small monetary rewards to spatial locations on the latency of saccadic eye movements, the time-course of learning and extinction of the effects of rewarding saccades on exogenous spatial attention and oculomotor IOR. Reward feedback produced a relative facilitation of saccadic latency in a stimulus driven saccade task which persisted for 3 blocks of extinction trials. However this hemifield-specific effect failed to transfer to peripheral cueing tasks. We conclude that rewarding specific spatial locations is unlikely to induce long-term, systemic changes to the human oculomotor or attention systems.

  19. Prefrontal cortex is involved in internal decision of forthcoming saccades. (United States)

    Milea, Dan; Lobel, Elie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Leboucher, Pierre; Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Berthoz, Alain


    Deciding where to look is mandatory to explore the visual world. To study the neural correlates subserving the cognitive phase of self-initiated eye movements in humans, we tested 12 healthy participants, using event-related functional MRI. Changes in the frontal-cortical activity preceding voluntary saccades were studied when the participants freely decided the direction of a forthcoming saccade, compared with a condition in which they had only to prepare an externally cued saccade. Self-initiation of saccades, before their execution, was specifically associated with frontal-lobe activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and in the right presupplementary eye field and frontal eye fields, suggesting the roles of these areas in the decision process of where to look when facing two possible visual targets.

  20. Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain in parabolic flight (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Roberts, Dale C.


    Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gains) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. Our earlier work demonstrated this phenomenon of context-specific adaptation for saccadic eye movements: we asked for gain decrease in one context state and gain increase in another context state, and then determined if a change in the context state would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal and vertical eye position and head orientation could serve, to varying degrees, as cues for switching between two different saccade gains. In the present study, we asked whether gravity magnitude could serve as a context cue: saccade adaptation was performed during parabolic flight, which provides alternating levels of gravitoinertial force (0 g and 1.8 g). Results were less robust than those from ground experiments, but established that different saccade magnitudes could be associated with different gravity levels.

  1. Between-object and within-object saccade programming in a visual search task. (United States)

    Vergilino-Perez, Dorine; Findlay, John M


    The role of the perceptual organization of the visual display on eye movement control was examined in two experiments using a task where a two-saccade sequence was directed toward either a single elongated object or three separate shorter objects. In the first experiment, we examined the consequences for the second saccade of a small displacement of the whole display during the first saccade. We found that between-object saccades compensated for the displacement to aim for a target position on the new object whereas within-object saccades did not show compensation but were coded as a fixed motor vector applied irrespective of wherever the preceding saccade landed. In the second experiment, we extended the paradigm to examine saccades performed in different directions. The results suggest that the within-object and between-object saccade distinction is an essential feature of saccadic planning.

  2. Saccadic Palsy following Cardiac Surgery: Possible Role of Perineuronal Nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D Z Eggers

    Full Text Available Perineuronal nets (PN form a specialized extracellular matrix around certain highly active neurons within the central nervous system and may help to stabilize synaptic contacts, promote local ion homeostasis, or play a protective role. Within the ocular motor system, excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons are highly active cells that generate rapid eye movements - saccades; both groups of neurons contain the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin and are ensheathed by PN. Experimental lesions of excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons cause slowing or complete loss of saccades. Selective palsy of saccades in humans is reported following cardiac surgery, but such cases have shown normal brainstem neuroimaging, with only one clinicopathological study that demonstrated paramedian pontine infarction. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that lesions of PN surrounding these brainstem saccade-related neurons may cause saccadic palsy.Together with four controls we studied the brain of a patient who had developed a permanent selective saccadic palsy following cardiac surgery and died several years later. Sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brainstem blocks were applied to double-immunoperoxidase staining of parvalbumin and three different components of PN. Triple immunofluorescence labeling for all PN components served as internal controls. Combined immunostaining of parvalbumin and synaptophysin revealed the presence of synapses.Excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons were preserved and still received synaptic input, but their surrounding PN showed severe loss or fragmentation.Our findings support current models and experimental studies of the brainstem saccade-generating neurons and indicate that damage to PN may permanently impair the function of these neurons that the PN ensheathe. How a postulated hypoxic mechanism could selectively damage the PN remains unclear. We propose that the well-studied saccadic eye movement

  3. Suppression of Face Perception during Saccadic Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Seirafi


    Full Text Available Lack of awareness of a stimulus briefly presented during saccadic eye movement is known as saccadic omission. Studying the reduced visibility of visual stimuli around the time of saccade—known as saccadic suppression—is a key step to investigate saccadic omission. To date, almost all studies have been focused on the reduced visibility of simple stimuli such as flashes and bars. The extension of the results from simple stimuli to more complex objects has been neglected. In two experimental tasks, we measured the subjective and objective awareness of a briefly presented face stimuli during saccadic eye movement. In the first task, we measured the subjective awareness of the visual stimuli and showed that in most of the trials there is no conscious awareness of the faces. In the second task, we measured objective sensitivity in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC face detection task, which demonstrated chance-level performance. Here, we provide the first evidence of complete suppression of complex visual stimuli during the saccadic eye movement.

  4. Electrical Microstimulation of the Pulvinar Biases Saccade Choices and Reaction Times in a Time-Dependent Manner (United States)


    The pulvinar complex is interconnected extensively with brain regions involved in spatial processing and eye movement control. Recent inactivation studies have shown that the dorsal pulvinar (dPul) plays a role in saccade target selection; however, it remains unknown whether it exerts effects on visual processing or at planning/execution stages. We used electrical microstimulation of the dPul while monkeys performed saccade tasks toward instructed and freely chosen targets. Timing of stimulation was varied, starting before, at, or after onset of target(s). Stimulation affected saccade properties and target selection in a time-dependent manner. Stimulation starting before but overlapping with target onset shortened saccadic reaction times (RTs) for ipsiversive (to the stimulation site) target locations, whereas stimulation starting at and after target onset caused systematic delays for both ipsiversive and contraversive locations. Similarly, stimulation starting before the onset of bilateral targets increased ipsiversive target choices, whereas stimulation after target onset increased contraversive choices. Properties of dPul neurons and stimulation effects were consistent with an overall contraversive drive, with varying outcomes contingent upon behavioral demands. RT and choice effects were largely congruent in the visually-guided task, but stimulation during memory-guided saccades, while influencing RTs and errors, did not affect choice behavior. Together, these results show that the dPul plays a primary role in action planning as opposed to visual processing, that it exerts its strongest influence on spatial choices when decision and action are temporally close, and that this choice effect can be dissociated from motor effects on saccade initiation and execution. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite a recent surge of interest, the core function of the pulvinar, the largest thalamic complex in primates, remains elusive. This understanding is crucial given the central

  5. Saccades and vergence performance in a population of children with vertigo and clinically assessed abnormal vergence capabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Bucci

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Early studies reported some abnormalities in saccade and vergence eye movements in children with vertigo and vergence deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to further examine saccade and vergence performance in a population of 44 children (mean age: 12.3±1.6 years with vertigo symptoms and with different levels of vergence abnormalities, as assessed by static orthoptic examination (near point of convergence, prism bar and cover-uncover test. METHODS: Three groups were identified on the basis of the orthoptic tests: group 1 (n = 13 with vergence spasms and mildly perturbed orthoptic scores, group 2 (n = 14 with moderately perturbed orthoptic scores, and group 3 (n = 17 with severely perturbed orthoptic scores. Data were compared to those recorded from 28 healthy children of similar ages. Latency, accuracy and peak velocity of saccades and vergence movements were measured in two different conditions: gap (fixation offset 200 ms prior to target onset and simultaneous paradigms. Binocular horizontal movements were recorded by a photoelectric device. RESULTS: Group 2 of children with vergence abnormalities showed significantly longer latency than normal children in several types of eye movements recorded. For all three groups of children with vergence abnormalities, the gain was poor, particularly for vergence movement. The peak velocity values did not differ between the different groups of children examined. INTERPRETATION: Eye movement measures together with static orthoptic evaluation allowed us to better identify children with vergence abnormalities based on their slow initiation of eye movements. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis of a central deficit in the programming and triggering of saccades and vergence in these children.

  6. The Azospirillum brasilense Che1 chemotaxis pathway controls swimming velocity, which affects transient cell-to-cell clumping. (United States)

    Bible, Amber; Russell, Matthew H; Alexandre, Gladys


    The Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway of Azospirillum brasilense contributes to chemotaxis and aerotaxis, and it has also been found to contribute to regulating changes in cell surface adhesive properties that affect the propensity of cells to clump and to flocculate. The exact contribution of Che1 to the control of chemotaxis and flocculation in A. brasilense remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Che1 affects reversible cell-to-cell clumping, a cellular behavior in which motile cells transiently interact by adhering to one another at their nonflagellated poles before swimming apart. Clumping precedes and is required for flocculation, and both processes appear to be independently regulated. The phenotypes of a ΔaerC receptor mutant and of mutant strains lacking cheA1, cheY1, cheB1, or cheR1 (alone or in combination) or with che1 deleted show that Che1 directly mediates changes in the flagellar swimming velocity and that this behavior directly modulates the transient nature of clumping. Our results also suggest that an additional receptor(s) and signaling pathway(s) are implicated in mediating other Che1-independent changes in clumping identified in the present study. Transient clumping precedes the transition to stable clump formation, which involves the production of specific extracellular polysaccharides (EPS); however, production of these clumping-specific EPS is not directly controlled by Che1 activity. Che1-dependent clumping may antagonize motility and prevent chemotaxis, thereby maintaining cells in a metabolically favorable niche.

  7. Semantic Categorization Precedes Affective Evaluation of Visual Scenes (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.


    We compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization by using forced-choice saccadic and manual response tasks. Participants viewed paired emotional and neutral scenes involving humans or animals flashed rapidly in extrafoveal vision. Participants were instructed to categorize the targets by saccading toward the location occupied by…

  8. Continuous perception of motion and shape across saccadic eye movements. (United States)

    Fracasso, Alessio; Caramazza, Alfonso; Melcher, David


    Although our naïve experience of visual perception is that it is smooth and coherent, the actual input from the retina involves brief and discrete fixations separated by saccadic eye movements. This raises the question of whether our impression of stable and continuous vision is merely an illusion. To test this, we examined whether motion perception can "bridge" a saccade in a two-frame apparent motion display in which the two frames were separated by a saccade. We found that transformational apparent motion, in which an object is seen to change shape and even move in three dimensions during the motion trajectory, continues across saccades. Moreover, participants preferred an interpretation of motion in spatial, rather than retinal, coordinates. The strength of the motion percept depended on the temporal delay between the two motion frames and was sufficient to give rise to a motion-from-shape aftereffect, even when the motion was defined by a second-order shape cue ("phantom transformational apparent motion"). These findings suggest that motion and shape information are integrated across saccades into a single, coherent percept of a moving object.

  9. Variables that affect the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in fetuses with anemia and intrauterine growth restriction. (United States)

    Hanif, Farhan; Drennan, Kathrin; Mari, Giancarlo


    We have previously reported that the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) increases in anemic fetuses and in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We hypothesized that the pathophysiology for the increased MCA PSV is different in anemic and IUGR fetuses. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the factor(s) among fetal umbilical vein blood pH, Po2, Pco2, and hemoglobin that might affect the MCA PSV in fetuses with anemia and IUGR. This study included two groups of fetuses. The first group included fetuses at risk for anemia because of red cell alloimmunization, whereas the second group included IUGR fetuses. For both groups of fetuses, we determined hemoglobin, umbilical vein blood gases -- at cordocentesis in anemic fetuses and immediately after cesarean delivery in IUGR fetuses -- and MCA PSV before cordocentesis, or before delivery. The relationship between MCA PSV and the hemoglobin, Po2, Pco2, and pH values for the anemic and the IUGR fetuses were assessed by regression analysis using multiples of the mean. There were 14 fetuses in the first group and 22 fetuses in the second group. In the first group, the only parameter that was related to MCA PSV was the fetal hemoglobin (R2 = 0.34; p < 0.05); in fetuses with IUGR, the Pco2 (R2 = 0.36; p < 0.01) and the PO2 (R2 = 0.30; p < 0.01) correlated well with the MCA PSV, whereas no relationship was found between the MCA PSV and the hemoglobin. The data indicate that the mechanism of high MCA PSV is different in anemic and nonanemic IUGR fetuses, and suggest that the process of cerebral autoregulation is present in the preterm IUGR fetus.

  10. Does Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Affect the Shear Wave Velocity of the Thyroid Gland of Children Without Autoimmune Thyroiditis? (United States)

    Sağlam, Dilek; Ceyhan Bilgici, Meltem; Kara, Cengiz; Can Yilmaz, Gülay; Tanrivermiş Sayit, Asli


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the shear wave velocity (SWV) of the thyroid gland with acoustic radiation force impulse elastography in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Between November 2015 and April 2016, 35 T1D patients who were referred to our hospital's endocrinology outpatient clinic (mean age, 11.88 ± 4.1 years) and 30 children (mean age, 11.3 ± 3.08 years) in the control group were enrolled in the study. Five acoustic radiation force impulse elastography measurements from each lobe of the thyroid gland in m/s were recorded. Diabetes age, hemoglobin A1c, and C-peptide levels were recorded in T1D patients. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 21 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY). The mean SWV of the thyroid gland in T1D patients and the control group was 1.11 ± 0.21 and 1.29 ± 0.23 m/s, respectively. The mean SWV of the thyroid gland in T1D patients was lower than that in the control group and this was significant (P = 0.002). The mean SWV of the thyroid gland was not correlated with hemoglobin A1c level, body mass index, or the insulin dose in T1D patients. The present study showed that T1D affects the thyroid gland stiffness even in patients without autoimmune thyroiditis. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography may be a useful method in determining early changes in thyroid gland in T1D and may be used as a screening tool.

  11. Lateralized EEG components with direction information for the preparation of saccades versus finger movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbe, van der Rob H.J.; Wauschkuhn, Bernd; Wascher, Edmund; Niehoff, Torsten; Kömpf, Detlef; Verleger, Rolf


    During preparation of horizontal saccades in humans, several lateralized (relative to saccade direction), event-related EEG components occur that have been interpreted as reflecting activity of frontal and parietal eye fields. We investigated to what degree these components are specific to saccade p

  12. Decoding target distance and saccade amplitude from population activity in the macaque lateral intraparietal area (LIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Bremmer


    Full Text Available Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades towards moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP. Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction towards either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a, b. Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface.

  13. Toward a visual cognitive system using active top-down saccadic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LaCroix, J.; Postma, E.; van den Herik, J.; Murre, J.


    The saccadic selection of relevant visual input for preferential processing allows the efficient use of computational resources. Based on saccadic active human vision, we aim to develop a plausible saccade-based visual cognitive system for a humanoid robot. This paper presents two initial steps towa

  14. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt J


    Med/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results: Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion: Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time, though electrophysiological measures are absent. Keywords: depression, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder

  15. Saccade-vergence properties remain more stable over short-time repetition under overlap than under gap task: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eLang


    Full Text Available Under natural circumstances, saccade-vergence eye movements are among the most frequently occurring. This study examines the properties of such movements focusing on short-term repetition effects. Are such movements robust over time or are they subject to tiredness ? Twelve healthy adults performed convergent and divergent combined eye movements either in a gap task (i.e., 200 ms between the end of the fixation stimulus and the beginning of the target stimulus or in an overlap task (i.e., the peripheral target begins 200 ms before the end of the fixation stimulus. Latencies were shorter in the gap task than in the overlap task for both saccade and vergence components. Repetition had no effect on latency, which is a novel result. In both tasks, saccades were initiated later and executed faster (mean and peak velocities than the vergence component. The mean and peak velocities of both components decreased over trials in the gap task but remained constant in the overlap task. This result is also novel and has some clinical implications. Another novel result concerns the accuracy of the saccade component that was better in the gap than in the overlap task. The accuracy also decreased over trials in the gap task but remained constant in the overlap task. The major result of this study is that under a controlled mode of initiation (overlap task properties of combined eye movements are more stable than under automatic triggering (gap task. These results are discussed in terms of saccade-vergence interactions, convergence-divergence specificities and repetition versus adaptation protocols.

  16. Relationship between saccadic eye movements and cortical activity as measured by fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimmig, H.; Greenlee, M.W.; Gondan, Matthias;


    quantitative changes in cortical activity associated with qualitative changes in the saccade task for comparable levels of saccadic activity. All experiments required the simultaneous acquisition of eye movement and fMRI data. For this purpose we used a new high-resolution limbus-tracking technique...... that repeated processing of saccades is integrated over time in the BOLD response. In contrast, there was no comparable BOLD change with variation of saccade amplitude. This finding speaks for a topological rather than activity-dependent coding of saccade amplitudes in most cortical regions. In the experiments...

  17. Saccade-related activity in areas 18 and 21a of cats freely viewing complex scenes. (United States)

    Moeller, Gudrun U; Kayser, Christoph; König, Peter


    Although saccadic eye movements can radically change the retinal image, perceptually their impact is surprisingly small. Here, we investigate possible neuronal correlates of saccadic suppression in cats freely viewing natural stimuli. By comparing changes attributable to saccadic events with passive stimulus changes, we find that during saccades: (i) evoked and induced activity is reduced in areas 18 and 21a by equal amounts, (ii) the variability of neuronal activity with stimulus category is abolished in both areas, and (iii) the high-power transient induced by stimulus change is not observed. These results present electrophysiological evidence for saccadic suppression at the level of primary and higher visual cortex under natural conditions.

  18. Incomplete suppression of distractor-related activity in the frontal eye field results in curved saccades. (United States)

    McPeek, Robert M


    Saccades in the presence of distractors show significant trajectory curvature. Based on previous work in the superior colliculus (SC), we speculated that curvature arises when a movement is initiated before competition between the target and distractor goals has been fully resolved. To test this hypothesis, we recorded frontal eye field (FEF) activity for curved and straight saccades in search. In contrast to the SC, activity in FEF is normally poorly correlated with saccade dynamics. However, the FEF, like the SC, is involved in target selection. Thus if curvature is caused by incomplete target selection, we expect to see its neural correlates in the FEF. We found that saccades that curve toward a distractor are accompanied by an increase in perisaccadic activity of FEF neurons coding the distractor location, and saccades that curve away are accompanied by a decrease in activity. In contrast, for FEF neurons coding the target location, there is no significant difference in activity between curved and straight saccades. To establish that the distractor-related activity is causally related to saccade curvature, we applied microstimulation to sites in the FEF before saccades to targets presented without distractors. The stimulation was subthreshold for evoking saccades and the temporal structure of the stimulation train resembled the activity recorded for curved saccades. The resulting movements curved toward the location coded by the stimulation site. These results support the idea that saccade curvature results from incomplete suppression of distractor-related activity during target selection.

  19. An in-depth look at saccadic search in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, Roy S.; Hooge, Ignace T C; Kemner, Chantal


    Two questions were posed in the present study: (1) Do infants search for discrepant items in the absence of instructions? We outline where previous research has been inconclusive in answering this question. (2) In what manner do infants search, and what are the fixation and saccade characteristics i

  20. An in-depth look at saccadic search in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, Roy S.; Hooge, Ignace T C; Kemner, Chantal

    Two questions were posed in the present study: (1) Do infants search for discrepant items in the absence of instructions? We outline where previous research has been inconclusive in answering this question. (2) In what manner do infants search, and what are the fixation and saccade characteristics

  1. Temporal uncertainty separates flashes from their background during saccades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maij, F.; Brenner, E.M.; Smeets, J.B.J.


    It is known that spatial localization of flashed objects fails around the time of rapid eye movements (saccades). This mislocalization is often interpreted in terms of a combination of shifts and deformations of the brain's representation of space to account for the eye movement. Such temporary

  2. Temporal uncertainty separates flashes from their background during saccades.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maij, F.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J.B.J.


    It is known that spatial localization of flashed objects fails around the time of rapid eye movements (saccades). This mislocalization is often interpreted in terms of a combination of shifts and deformations of the brain’s representation of space to account for the eye movement. Such temporary

  3. A key role for the caudoventral pontine tegmentum in the simultaneous generation of eye saccades in bursts and associated ponto-geniculo-occipital waves during paradoxical sleep in the cat. (United States)

    Vanni-Mercier, G; Debilly, G


    Ponto-geniculo-occipital waves and rapid eye movements (eye saccades) are two prominent phasic events of paradoxical sleep which occur in conjunction. Although they have been studied intensively, the neuronal link between these two events is still poorly understood. On the basis of our previous results, combining brainstem transections and carbachol microinjections, we postulated that the oculomotor and ponto-geniculo-occipital systems do not work in series, but in parallel, and that the caudoventral pontine tegmentum might represent a structure controlling and/or co-ordinating the simultaneous production of the two phenomena. This hypothesis was further supported by the demonstration that, during paradoxical sleep, the instantaneous velocity of eye saccades in bursts is higher than that of isolated ones which, in turn, are more rapid than waking saccades. This acceleration of eye saccades in bursts also seems to be under the cholinergic control of the caudoventral pontine tegmentum. In order to test the hypothesis that this area may be a prime mover leading to the simultaneous appearance of these two phasic events as a whole, we investigated, in the present study, the effects of pharmacological stimulation (with carbachol) and inhibition (with atropine) of the caudoventral pontine tegmentum on the production and the characteristics of eye saccades and ponto-geniculo-occipital waves. Cats' eye movements were recorded using the technique of the scleral search coil in a magnetic field, together with sleep-waking parameters. We found that: (i) unilateral microinjections of carbachol (0.4 microg) induced, during waking, a majority of long bursts of ponto-geniculo-occipital waves (i.e. bursts containing at least five waves) which had intra-burst intervals similar to natural ones (48-259 ms) and decreased the frequency of isolated ponto-geniculo-occipital waves; (ii) unilateral microinjections of atropine (2.4 microg) strongly decreased, during paradoxical sleep, the

  4. Saccade suppression exerts global effects on the motor system. (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Reynoso, H Sequoyah; Aron, Adam R


    Stopping inappropriate eye movements is a cognitive control function that allows humans to perform well in situations that demand attentional focus. The stop-signal task is an experimental model for this behavior. Participants initiate a saccade toward a target and occasionally have to try to stop the impending saccade if a stop signal occurs. Prior research using a version of this paradigm for limb movements (hand, leg) as well as for speech has shown that rapidly stopping action leads to apparently global suppression of the motor system, as indexed by the corticospinal excitability (CSE) of task-unrelated effectors in studies with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of M1. Here we measured CSE from the hand with high temporal precision while participants made saccades and while they successfully and unsuccessfully stopped these saccades in response to a stop signal. We showed that 50 ms before the estimated time at which a saccade is successfully stopped there was reduced CSE for the hand, which was task irrelevant. This shows that rapidly stopping eye movements also has global motor effects. We speculate that this arises because rapidly stopping eye movements, like skeleto-motor movements, is possibly achieved via input to the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia, with a putatively broad suppressive effect on thalamocortical drive. Since recent studies suggest that this suppressive effect could also impact nonmotor representations, the present finding points to a possible mechanistic basis for some kinds of distractibility: abrupt-onset stimuli will interrupt ongoing processing by generating global motor and nonmotor effects.

  5. Cultural diversity and saccade similarities: culture does not explain saccade latency differences between Chinese and Caucasian participants. (United States)

    Knox, Paul C; Wolohan, Felicity D A


    A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour.

  6. The art of braking : Post saccadic oscillations in the eye tracker signal decrease with increasing saccade size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooge, Ignace; Cornelissen, Tim; Holmqvist, Kenneth


    Recent research has shown that the pupil signal from video-based eye trackers contains post saccadic oscillations (PSOs). These reflect pupil motion relative to the limbus (Nyström, Hooge, & Holmqvist, 2013). More knowledge about video-based eye tracker signals is essential to allow comparison betwe

  7. Increased red cell rigidity might affect retinal capillary blood flow velocity and oxygen transport efficiency in type II diabetes. (United States)

    Chung, T W; Liu, A G; Yu, J H


    Retinal capillary blood flow velocity, oxygen transport efficiency (TE) and rheological properties of the blood were measured from twenty-two type II diabetes patients and nineteen normal subjects. The results showed that diabetic patients had increased plasma viscosity (P < 0.01). Also, for both shear rates of 225 sec-1 and 450 sec-1, they had increased blood viscosity (P < 0.002, both), red cell rigidity (Tk) (P < 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively), but lower values of TE (P < 0.001, both), and of retinal capillary blood flow velocity (P < 0.005). Furthermore, TE was linearly correlated with Tk for both shear rates of all subjects (r = -0.80, gamma = 225 sec-1, P < 0.001; r = -0.84, gamma = 450 sec-1, P < 0.001). The impaired rheological properties of blood and red cell rigidity might result in both reduced capillary blood flow velocity and lower values of TE, which then possibly contribute to the deterioration of retinopathy or microangiopathy in diabetic patients.

  8. Differential roles of the frontal and parietal cortices in the control of saccades. (United States)

    Bender, Julia; Tark, Kyeong-Jin; Reuter, Benedikt; Kathmann, Norbert; Curtis, Clayton E


    Although externally as well as internally-guided eye movements allow us to flexibly explore the visual environment, their differential neural mechanisms remain elusive. A better understanding of these neural mechanisms will help us to understand the control of action and to elucidate the nature of cognitive deficits in certain psychiatric populations (e.g., schizophrenia) that show increased latencies in volitional but not visually-guided saccades. Both the superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are implicated in the control of eye movements. However, it remains unknown what differential contributions the two areas make to the programming of visually-guided and internally-guided saccades. In this study we tested the hypotheses that sPCS and IPS distinctly encode internally-guided saccades and visually-guided saccades. We scanned subjects with fMRI while they generated visually-guided and internally-guided delayed saccades. We used multi-voxel pattern analysis to test whether patterns of cue related, preparatory and saccade related activation could be used to predict the direction of the planned eye movement. Results indicate that patterns in the human sPCS predicted internally-guided saccades but not visually-guided saccades in all trial periods and patterns in the IPS predicted internally-guided saccades and visually-guided saccades equally well. The results support the hypothesis that the human sPCS and IPS make distinct contributions to the control of volitional eye movements.

  9. Aging increases compensatory saccade amplitude in the video head impulse test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Anson


    Full Text Available Objective: Rotational vestibular function declines with age resulting in saccades as a compensatory mechanism to improve impaired gaze stability. Small reductions in rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR gain that would be considered clinically normal have been associated with compensatory saccades. We evaluated whether compensatory saccade characteristics varied as a function of age, independent of semicircular canal function as quantified by VOR gain.Methods: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 participants age 27-93 from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT. Latency and amplitude of the first saccade (either covert – occurring during head impulse, or overt – occurring following head impulse were measured for head impulses with compensatory saccades (n = 2230 head impulses. The relationship between age and saccade latency, as well as the relationship between age and saccade amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for VOR gain, gender, and race.Results: Older adults (mean age 75.9 made significantly larger compensatory saccades relative to younger adults (mean age 45.0. In analyses adjusted for VOR gain, there was a significant association between age and amplitude of the first compensatory covert saccade (β = 0.015, p = 0.008. In analyses adjusted for VOR gain, there was a significant association between age and amplitude of the first compensatory overt saccade (β = 0.02, p < 0.001. Compensatory saccade latencies did not vary significantly by age. Conclusions: We observed that aging increases the compensatory catch-up saccade amplitude in healthy adults after controlling for VOR gain. Size of compensatory saccades may be useful in addition to VOR gain for characterizing vestibular function in aging adults.

  10. Saccades during attempted fixation in parkinsonian disorders and recessive ataxia: from microsaccades to square-wave jerks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Otero-Millan

    Full Text Available During attempted visual fixation, saccades of a range of sizes occur. These "fixational saccades" include microsaccades, which are not apparent in regular clinical tests, and "saccadic intrusions", predominantly horizontal saccades that interrupt accurate fixation. Square-wave jerks (SWJs, the most common type of saccadic intrusion, consist of an initial saccade away from the target followed, after a short delay, by a "return saccade" that brings the eye back onto target. SWJs are present in most human subjects, but are prominent by their increased frequency and size in certain parkinsonian disorders and in recessive, hereditary spinocerebellar ataxias. Here we asked whether fixational saccades showed distinctive features in various parkinsonian disorders and in recessive ataxia. Although some saccadic properties differed between patient groups, in all conditions larger saccades were more likely to form SWJs, and the intervals between the first and second saccade of SWJs were similar. These findings support the proposal of a common oculomotor mechanism that generates all fixational saccades, including microsaccades and SWJs. The same mechanism also explains how the return saccade in SWJs is triggered by the position error that occurs when the first saccadic component is large, both in the healthy brain and in neurological disease.

  11. Covert oculo-manual coupling induced by visually guided saccades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca eFalciati


    Full Text Available Hand pointing to objects under visual guidance is one of the most common motor behaviors in everyday life. In natural conditions, gaze and arm movements are commonly aimed at the same target and the accuracy of both systems is considerably enhanced if eye and hand move together. Evidence supports the viewpoint that gaze and limb control systems are not independent but at least partially share a common neural controller. The aim of the present study was to verify whether a saccade execution induces excitability changes in the upper-limb corticospinal system (CSS, even in the absence of a manual response. This effect would provide evidence for the existence of a common drive for ocular and arm motor systems during fast aiming movements. Single-pulse TMS was applied to the left motor cortex of 19 subjects during a task involving visually guided saccades, and motor evoked potentials (MEPs induced in hand and wrist muscles of the contralateral relaxed arm were recorded. Subjects had to make visually guided saccades to one of 6 positions along the horizontal meridian (±5°, ±10° or ±15°. During each trial, TMS was randomly delivered at one of 3 different time delays: shortly after the end of the saccade or 300 ms or 540 ms after saccade onset. Fast eye movements towards a peripheral target were accompanied by changes in upper-limb CSS excitability. MEP amplitude was highest immediately after the end of the saccade and gradually decreased at longer TMS delays. In addition to the change in overall CSS excitability, MEPs were specifically modulated in different muscles, depending on the target position and the TMS delay. By applying a simple model of a manual pointing movement, we demonstrated that the observed changes in CSS excitability are compatible with the facilitation of an arm motor program for a movement aimed at the same target of the gaze. These results provide evidence in favor of the existence of a common drive for both eye and arm

  12. Shear Wave Velocity Profiles Determined from Surface Wave Measurements at Sites Affected by the August 15th, 2007 Earthquake in Peru (United States)

    Rosenblad, B. L.; Bay, J. A.


    The shear wave velocity (Vs) profile of near-surface soils is a critical parameter for understanding recorded ground motions and predicting local site effects in an earthquake. In structural design, the Vs profile in the top 30 m is used to modify design response spectra to account for local soil effects. In addition, knowledge of the near- surface Vs profile at strong motion stations can be used to account for changes in frequency content and amplification caused by the local site conditions. Following the August 15th, 2007 earthquake in Peru, a field testing program was performed to measure Vs profiles in the top 20 to 30 m at twenty-two locations in the affected region. The measurements were performed primarily at the sites of damaged school buildings but were also performed at several strong motion station sites as well as a few locations where evidence of soil liquefaction was observed. Nineteen of the sites were located in the severely affected cities of Chincha, Ica, Pisco and Tambo de Mora, with the remaining three sites located in, Lima, Palpa and Paracus. The Vs profiles were determined from surface wave velocity measurements performed with an impact source. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss the range of Vs profile conditions encountered in the regions affected by the Pisco-Peru earthquake. In the city of Ica, the profiles generally exhibited gradually increasing velocities with depth, with velocities which rarely exceeded 400 m/s in the top 30 m. In contrast, the profiles measured in Pisco, often exhibited strong, shallow velocity contrasts with Vs increasing from less than 200 m/s at the surface to over 600 m/s at some sites. The profiles measured in Chincha generally fell in between the ranges measured in Ica and Pisco. Lastly, soil liquefaction was evident throughout Tambo de Mora on the coast of Peru. Measurements indicated very low shear wave velocities of 75 to 125 m/s in the top 4 m, which is consistent with the observed

  13. Relationship between saccadic eye movements and cortical activity as measured by fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimmig, H.; Greenlee, M.W.; Gondan, Matthias;


    quantitative changes in cortical activity associated with qualitative changes in the saccade task for comparable levels of saccadic activity. All experiments required the simultaneous acquisition of eye movement and fMRI data. For this purpose we used a new high-resolution limbus-tracking technique......We investigated the quantitative relationship between saccadic activity (as reflected in frequency of occurrence and amplitude of saccades) and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) changes in the cerebral cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Furthermore, we investigated....... The latter finding is taken to indicate a more demanding cortical processing in the "anti" task than the "pro" task, which could explain the observed difference in BOLD activation. We hold that a quantitative analysis of saccade parameters (especially saccade frequency and latency) is important...

  14. Saccade-confounded image statistics explain visual crowding. (United States)

    Nandy, Anirvan S; Tjan, Bosco S


    Processing of shape information in human peripheral visual fields is impeded beyond what can be expected by poor spatial resolution. Visual crowding, the inability to identify objects in clutter, has been shown to be the primary factor limiting shape perception in peripheral vision. Despite the well-documented effects of crowding, its underlying causes remain poorly understood. Given that spatial attention both facilitates learning of image statistics and directs saccadic eye movements, we propose that the acquisition of image statistics in peripheral visual fields is confounded by eye-movement artifacts. Specifically, the image statistics acquired under a peripherally deployed spotlight of attention are systematically biased by saccade-induced image displacements. These erroneously represented image statistics lead to inappropriate contextual interactions in the periphery and cause crowding.

  15. Dynamic weakening of fault gouge affected by thermal conductivity of host specimen: implications for the high-velocity weakening mechanisms (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Ma, Shengli; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Niemeijer, André


    Since many high-velocity weakening mechanisms are thermal in origin, we study the effects of thermal conductivity of host specimen on fault gouge friction behavior at seismic slip rates. By using host specimens made of brass, stainless steel, Ti-Al-V alloy and gabbro with thermal conductivities of 123, 15, 5.8 and 3.25 W/m/K, respectively, the experiments in this study produce completely different temperature conditions within the same gouge under the same slip rates and normal stresses. Fault gouges used in the experiments are a natural illite- and quartz-rich gouge from Longmenshan fault zone and pure periclase (MgO) nanopowder. High-velocity weakening of gouges were more pronounced with decreasing thermal conductivity of the specimens. Particularly, almost no dynamic weakening was observed in the tests performed with brass host specimens, while tests with specimens of gabbro and Ti-Al-V alloy exhibits quite similar dramatic weakening behaviors. Such differences in gouge frictional behavior cannot be explained by original flash heating model, since asperity contacts within the slip zone and experimental conditions are still same, even though host specimens are different. Microstructure observations under scanning and transmission electron microscopes reveal that slip zone materials tend to change from individual ultrafine nanograins to larger sintered grains or aggregates, with decreasing thermal conductivities of host specimens. Calculated temperature together with observed microstructure indicate that bulk temperature rise may be also play an important role in fault weakening, as predicted by a recent theoretical analysis of the role of flash heating within the gouge zone [Proctor et al., 2014]. Current results demonstrate the importance of frictional heating in causing the dynamic weakening of gouge, and the powder lubrication hypothesis is not consistent with our experimental data.

  16. VOR Gain Is Related to Compensatory Saccades in Healthy Older Adults (United States)

    Anson, Eric R.; Bigelow, Robin T.; Carey, John P.; Xue, Qian-Li; Studenski, Stephanie; Schubert, Michael C.; Agrawal, Yuri


    Objective: Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain is well-suited for identifying rotational vestibular dysfunction, but may miss partial progressive decline in age-related vestibular function. Since compensatory saccades might provide an alternative method for identifying subtle vestibular decline, we describe the relationship between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Methods: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 subjects age 60 and older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT). Saccades in each HIT were identified as either “compensatory” or “compensatory back-up,” i.e., same or opposite direction as the VOR response respectively. Saccades were also classified as “covert” (occurring during head movement) and “overt” (occurring after head movement). The relationship between VOR gain and percentage of HITs with saccades, as well as the relationship between VOR gain and saccade latency and amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and race. Results: In adjusted analyses, the percentage of HITs with compensatory saccades increased 4.5% for every 0.1 decrease in VOR gain (p < 0.0001). Overt compensatory saccade amplitude decreased 0.6° (p < 0.005) and latency increased 90 ms (p < 0.001) for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Covert back-up compensatory saccade amplitude increased 0.4° for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Conclusion: We observed significant relationships between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Lower VOR gain was associated with larger amplitude, shorter latency compensatory saccades. Compensatory saccades reflect underlying rotational vestibular hypofunction, and may be particularly useful at identifying partial vestibular deficits as occur in aging adults. PMID:27445793

  17. What triggers catch-up saccades during visual tracking?



    When tracking moving visual stimuli, primates orient their visual axis by combining two kinds of eye movements, smooth pursuit and saccades, that have very different dynamics. Yet, the mechanisms that govern the decision to switch from one type of eye movement to the other are still poorly understood, even though they could bring a significant contribution to the understanding of how the CNS combines different kinds of control strategies to achieve a common motor and sensory goal. In this stu...

  18. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans. (United States)

    Marshall, N J; Land, M F; Cronin, T W


    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a 'primate-like' awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly.

  19. Linking express saccade occurance to stimulus properties and sensorimotor integration in the superior colliculus. (United States)

    Marino, Robert A; Levy, Ron; Munoz, Douglas P


    Express saccades represent the fastest possible eye movements to visual targets with reaction times that approach minimum sensory-motor conduction delays. Previous work in monkeys has identified two specific neural signals in the superior colliculus (SC: a midbrain sensorimotor integration structure involved in gaze control) that are required to execute express saccades: 1) previsual activity consisting of a low-frequency increase in action potentials in sensory-motor neurons immediately before the arrival of a visual response; and 2) a transient visual-sensory response consisting of a high-frequency burst of action potentials in visually responsive neurons resulting from the appearance of a visual target stimulus. To better understand how these two neural signals interact to produce express saccades, we manipulated the arrival time and magnitude of visual responses in the SC by altering target luminance and we examined the corresponding influences on SC activity and express saccade generation. We recorded from saccade neurons with visual-, motor-, and previsual-related activity in the SC of monkeys performing the gap saccade task while target luminance was systematically varied between 0.001 and 42.5 cd/m(2) against a black background (∼0.0001 cd/m(2)). Our results demonstrated that 1) express saccade latencies were linked directly to the arrival time in the SC of visual responses produced by abruptly appearing visual stimuli; 2) express saccades were generated toward both dim and bright targets whenever sufficient previsual activity was present; and 3) target luminance altered the likelihood of producing an express saccade. When an express saccade was generated, visuomotor neurons increased their activity immediately before the arrival of the visual response in the SC and saccade initiation. Furthermore, the visual and motor responses of visuomotor neurons merged into a single burst of action potentials, while the visual response of visual-only neurons was

  20. Electrical stimulation of the primate lateral habenula suppresses saccadic eye movement through a learning mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb is a brain structure which represents negative motivational value. Neurons in the LHb are excited by unpleasant events such as reward omission and aversive stimuli, and transmit these signals to midbrain dopamine neurons which are involved in learning and motivation. However, it remains unclear whether these phasic changes in LHb neuronal activity actually influence animal behavior. To answer this question, we artificially activated the LHb by electrical stimulation while monkeys were performing a visually guided saccade task. In one block of trials, saccades to one fixed direction (e.g., right direction were followed by electrical stimulation of the LHb while saccades to the other direction (e.g., left direction were not. The direction-stimulation contingency was reversed in the next block. We found that the post-saccadic stimulation of the LHb increased the latencies of saccades in subsequent trials. Notably, the increase of the latency occurred gradually as the saccade was repeatedly followed by the stimulation, suggesting that the effect of the post-saccadic stimulation was accumulated across trials. LHb stimulation starting before saccades, on the other hand, had no effect on saccade latency. Together with previous studies showing LHb activation by reward omission and aversive stimuli, the present stimulation experiment suggests that LHb activity contributes to learning to suppress actions which lead to unpleasant events.

  1. Caffeine can affect velocity in the middle cerebral artery during hyperventilation, hypoventilation, and thinking: a transcranial Doppler study. (United States)

    Perod, A L; Roberts, A E; McKinney, W M


    This study examined possible caffeine-mediated changes in blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) induced by tests of cerebrovascular responsiveness. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography provided simultaneous bilateral VMCA measures while healthy college students hypoventilated, hyperventilated, and performed cognitive activities (short-term remembering, generating an autobiographical image, solving problems), each in 31-second tests. VMCA measures were obtained from the same persons, in separate testing sessions, when they were noncaffeinated and under two levels of caffeine: a smaller amount (from a cola, 45 mg/12 oz) and a larger amount (from coffee, 117 mg/8 oz). Compared with the no-caffeine control condition, a smaller amount of caffeine had no significant effects on global VMCA, but a larger amount suppressed VMCA by 5.8%. Time-course analyses showed that VMCA (1) followed a triphasic pattern to increase over baselines during hypoventilation regardless of caffeine condition, (2) slowed below baselines during hyperventilation (with the degree of slowing attenuated under caffeine), and (3) increased over baselines during all cognitive activities (ranges 3.8-6.9%). It is concluded that a large amount of caffeine can suppress VMCA, and this possibility should be anticipated when TCD is used to assess cerebral hemovelocity.

  2. Saccades and fixations in children with delayed reading skills. (United States)

    Vinuela-Navarro, Valldeflors; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Williams, Cathy; Woodhouse, J Margaret


    Previous studies have reported that eye movements differ between good/average and poor readers. However, these studies have been limited to investigating eye movements during reading related tasks, and thus, the differences found could arise from deficits in higher cognitive processes involved in reading rather than oculomotor performance. The purpose of the study is to determine the extent to which eye movements in children with delayed reading skills are different to those obtained from children with good/average reading skills in non-reading related tasks. After a screening optometric assessment, eye movement recordings were obtained from 120 children without delayed reading skills and 43 children with delayed reading skills (4 to 11 years) using a Tobii TX300 eye tracker. Cartoon characters were presented horizontally from -20° to +20° in steps of 5° to study saccades. An animated stimulus in the centre of the screen was presented for 8 seconds to study fixation stability. Saccadic main sequences, and the number and amplitude of the saccades during fixation were obtained for each participant. Children with delayed reading skills (n = 43) were unmasked after data collection was completed. Medians and quartiles were calculated for each eye movement parameter for children without (n = 120) and with (n = 43) delayed reading skills. Independent t-tests with Bonferroni correction showed no significant differences in any of the saccadic main sequence parameters (Slope, Intercept, A, n and Q ratio) between children without and with delayed reading (p > 0.01). Similarly, no significant differences were found in the number of saccades and their amplitude during the fixation task between the two groups (p > 0.05). Further, none of the gross optometric parameters assessed (visual acuity, refractive error, ocular alignment, convergence, stereopsis and accommodation accuracy) were found to be associated with delayed reading skills (p > 0.05). Eye movements in

  3. 高尔夫球场果岭球速影响因素的分析%Analysis of the Affecting Factors of Green Velocity in Golf Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Golf green ball velocity is the important indicator to measure a stadium is good or bad, a lot of golf course turf managers also try to improve green ball velocity, this article expounds the factors that affect the green ball velocity from measures such as pruning, water, fertilizer, grass seed selection, seasonal change, the machine shop, sand and curing of the green.%高尔夫球场果岭球速是衡量一个球场好与坏的重要指标,很多高尔夫球场草坪管理者也在想尽办法去改善果岭球速,本文从果岭的修剪、果岭浇水,果岭施肥、草种选择、季节变化、中耕作业、铺沙和滚压等养护措施入手,阐述了影响果岭球速的因素。

  4. Threat but not arousal narrows attention: Evidence from pupil dilation and saccade control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk eVan Steenbergen


    Full Text Available It has been shown that negative affect causes attentional narrowing. According to Easterbrook’s (1959 influential hypothesis this effect is driven by the withdrawal motivation inherent to negative emotions and might be related to increases in arousal. We investigated whether valence-unspecific increases in physiological arousal, as measured by pupil dilation, could account for attentional narrowing effects in a cognitive control task. Following the presentation of a negative, positive, or neutral picture, participants performed a saccade task with a prosaccade versus an antisaccade instruction. The reaction time difference between pro- and antisaccades was used to index attentional selectivity, and while pupil diameter was used as an index of physiological arousal. Pupil dilation was observed for both negative and positive pictures, which indicates increased physiological arousal. However, increased attentional selectivity was only observed following negative pictures. Our data show that motivational intensity effects on attentional narrowing can occur independently of physiological arousal effects.

  5. Role of early visual cortex in trans-saccadic memory of object features. (United States)

    Malik, Pankhuri; Dessing, Joost C; Crawford, J Douglas


    Early visual cortex (EVC) participates in visual feature memory and the updating of remembered locations across saccades, but its role in the trans-saccadic integration of object features is unknown. We hypothesized that if EVC is involved in updating object features relative to gaze, feature memory should be disrupted when saccades remap an object representation into a simultaneously perturbed EVC site. To test this, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over functional magnetic resonance imaging-localized EVC clusters corresponding to the bottom left/right visual quadrants (VQs). During experiments, these VQs were probed psychophysically by briefly presenting a central object (Gabor patch) while subjects fixated gaze to the right or left (and above). After a short memory interval, participants were required to detect the relative change in orientation of a re-presented test object at the same spatial location. Participants either sustained fixation during the memory interval (fixation task) or made a horizontal saccade that either maintained or reversed the VQ of the object (saccade task). Three TMS pulses (coinciding with the pre-, peri-, and postsaccade intervals) were applied to the left or right EVC. This had no effect when (a) fixation was maintained, (b) saccades kept the object in the same VQ, or (c) the EVC quadrant corresponding to the first object was stimulated. However, as predicted, TMS reduced performance when saccades (especially larger saccades) crossed the remembered object location and brought it into the VQ corresponding to the TMS site. This suppression effect was statistically significant for leftward saccades and followed a weaker trend for rightward saccades. These causal results are consistent with the idea that EVC is involved in the gaze-centered updating of object features for trans-saccadic memory and perception.

  6. How does organic matter affect the head velocity and run-out distance of cohesive sediment gravity flows? (United States)

    Craig, Melissa; Baas, Jaco; Amos, Kathryn; Strachan, Lorna; Baker, Megan


    physically cohesive kaolin clay (one of the most common clay minerals on Earth). Provisional results indicate that very small quantities of EPS - several orders of magnitude smaller than the quantity of clay - are sufficient to enhance flocculation and reduce flow velocity compared to a flow that lacks EPS. This finding has the potential to change our understanding of sediment gravity flows in the natural environment, where biological matter is ubiquitous.

  7. Using temporally aligned event-related potentials for the investigation of attention shifts prior to and during saccades. (United States)

    Huber-Huber, Christoph; Ditye, Thomas; Marchante Fernández, María; Ansorge, Ulrich


    According to the pre-motor theory of attention, attention is shifted to a saccade's landing position before the saccade is executed. Such pre-saccadic attention shifts are usually studied in psychophysical dual-task conditions, with a target-discrimination task before saccade onset. Here, we present a novel approach to investigate pre-saccadic attention shifts with the help of event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants executed one or two saccades to color-defined targets while ERPs and eye-movements were recorded. In single-target blocks participants executed a single saccade. In two-targets blocks participants made either a single saccade to one of the targets, or two successive saccades to both targets. Importantly, in two-targets blocks, targets could appear on the same or on opposite sides of the vertical midline. This allowed us to study contra-to-ipsilateral ERP differences (such as the N2pc or PCN) that reflect attention shifts to the targets, prior to saccade onset and during saccades. If pre-saccadic attention shifts to saccade target locations are necessary for saccade execution and if searched-for saccade targets capture attention, there should be enhanced attentional competition (1) between two targets compared to single targets; (2) between two opposite-sides targets compared to two same-side targets; and (3) in two saccades rather than one saccade conditions: More attentional competition was expected to delay saccade latency and to weaken pre-saccadic laterality effects in ERPs. Hypotheses were tested by means of temporally aligned ERPs that were simultaneously time-locked to stimulus onsets, saccade onsets, and saccade offsets. Predictions (1) and (2) were partly and fully confirmed, respectively, but no evidence was found for (3). We explain the implications of our results for the role of attention during saccade preparation, and we point out how temporally aligned ERPs compare to ICA-based electroencephalogram (EEG) artifact correction

  8. Trans-saccadic integration of peripheral and foveal feature information is close to optimal. (United States)

    Wolf, Christian; Schütz, Alexander C


    Due to the inhomogenous visual representation across the visual field, humans use peripheral vision to select objects of interest and foveate them by saccadic eye movements for further scrutiny. Thus, there is usually peripheral information available before and foveal information after a saccade. In this study we investigated the integration of information across saccades. We measured reliabilities--i.e., the inverse of variance-separately in a presaccadic peripheral and a postsaccadic foveal orientation--discrimination task. From this, we predicted trans-saccadic performance and compared it to observed values. We show that the integration of incongruent peripheral and foveal information is biased according to their relative reliabilities and that the reliability of the trans-saccadic information equals the sum of the peripheral and foveal reliabilities. Both results are consistent with and indistinguishable from statistically optimal integration according to the maximum-likelihood principle. Additionally, we tracked the gathering of information around the time of the saccade with high temporal precision by using a reverse correlation method. Information gathering starts to decline between 100 and 50 ms before saccade onset and recovers immediately after saccade offset. Altogether, these findings show that the human visual system can effectively use peripheral and foveal information about object features and that visual perception does not simply correspond to disconnected snapshots during each fixation.

  9. Parallel programming of saccades during natural scene viewing: evidence from eye movement positions. (United States)

    Wu, Esther X W; Gilani, Syed Omer; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Amihai, Ido; Chua, Fook Kee; Yen, Shih-Cheng


    Previous studies have shown that saccade plans during natural scene viewing can be programmed in parallel. This evidence comes mainly from temporal indicators, i.e., fixation durations and latencies. In the current study, we asked whether eye movement positions recorded during scene viewing also reflect parallel programming of saccades. As participants viewed scenes in preparation for a memory task, their inspection of the scene was suddenly disrupted by a transition to another scene. We examined whether saccades after the transition were invariably directed immediately toward the center or were contingent on saccade onset times relative to the transition. The results, which showed a dissociation in eye movement behavior between two groups of saccades after the scene transition, supported the parallel programming account. Saccades with relatively long onset times (>100 ms) after the transition were directed immediately toward the center of the scene, probably to restart scene exploration. Saccades with short onset times (programming of saccades during scene viewing. Additionally, results from the analyses of intersaccadic intervals were also consistent with the parallel programming hypothesis.

  10. Study on the Availability Opening Size of Throttle and Affection to the Velocity Characteristic of Shock Absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Chang-cheng; ZHENG Zhi-yun; GU Liang; CHEN Yi-jie


    Based on the solution of the governing differential equation for deformation of throttle slice while satisfying required boundary conditions,the coefficient (Gr) and an analytical formula for computing the deformation of throttle slice is presented through equivalency transformation,which is a concise,accurate and practical method for throttle slice design and characteristic analysis.Researched the deformation at any radius,compared with ANSYS FEA software by the simulation analysis,the availability opening size of throttle that was defined by the deformation at the valve mouth radius is studied. The affection of valve mouth radius to the damper characteristic is analyzed.Tests are made for the damper characteristic,compared with simulation results,it is shown that Gr method is an accurate computation method for computing the deformation of throttle slice at valve mouth radius,suitible to use in the damper design,analysis,and verification.The deformation at mouth radius could not be replaced with the outside radius.

  11. Stimulation of the substantia nigra influences the specification of memory-guided saccades. (United States)

    Mahamed, Safraaz; Garrison, Tiffany J; Shires, Joel; Basso, Michele A


    In the absence of sensory information, we rely on past experience or memories to guide our actions. Because previous experimental and clinical reports implicate basal ganglia nuclei in the generation of movement in the absence of sensory stimuli, we ask here whether one output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (nigra), influences the specification of an eye movement in the absence of sensory information to guide the movement. We manipulated the level of activity of neurons in the nigra by introducing electrical stimulation to the nigra at different time intervals while monkeys made saccades to different locations in two conditions: one in which the target location remained visible and a second in which the target location appeared only briefly, requiring information stored in memory to specify the movement. Electrical manipulation of the nigra occurring during the delay period of the task, when information about the target was maintained in memory, altered the direction and the occurrence of subsequent saccades. Stimulation during other intervals of the memory task or during the delay period of the visually guided saccade task had less effect on eye movements. On stimulated trials, and only when the visual stimulus was absent, monkeys occasionally (∼20% of the time) failed to make saccades. When monkeys made saccades in the absence of a visual stimulus, stimulation of the nigra resulted in a rotation of the endpoints ipsilaterally (∼2°) and increased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades. When the visual stimulus was present, stimulation of the nigra resulted in no significant rotation and decreased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades slightly. Based on these measurements, stimulation during the delay period of the memory-guided saccade task influenced the metrics of saccades much more than did stimulation during the same period of the visually guided saccade task. Because these effects

  12. Visual working memory modulates within-object metrics of saccade landing position. (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew


    In two experiments, we examined the influence of visual working memory (VWM) on oculomotor selection, testing whether the landing positions of rapidly generated saccades are biased toward the region of an object that matches a feature held in VWM. Participants executed a saccade to the center of a single saccade target, divided into two colored regions and presented on the horizontal midline. Concurrently, participants maintained a color in VWM for an unrelated memory task. This color either matched one of the two regions or neither of the regions. Relative to the no-match baseline, the landing positions of rapidly generated saccades (mean latency < 150 ms) were biased toward the region that matched the remembered color. The results support the hypothesis that VWM modulates early, spatially organized sensory representations to bias selection toward locations with features that match VWM content. In addition, the results demonstrate that saccades to spatially extended objects are sensitive to within-object differences in salience.

  13. Gliding and Saccadic Gaze Gesture Recognition in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozado, David; San Agustin, Javier; Rodriguez, Francisco


    paradigm in the context of human-machine interaction as low-cost gaze trackers become more ubiquitous. The viability of gaze gestures as an innovative way to control a computer rests on how easily they can be assimilated by potential users and also on the ability of machine learning algorithms...... to discriminate intentional gaze gestures from typical gaze activity performed during standard interaction with electronic devices. In this work, through a set of experiments and user studies, we evaluate the performance of two different gaze gestures modalities, gliding gaze gestures and saccadic gaze gestures...

  14. Impaired Saccadic Eye Movement in Primary Open-angle Glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamirel, Cédric; Milea, Dan; Cochereau, Isabelle


    PURPOSE:: Our study aimed at investigating the extent to which saccadic eye movements are disrupted in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This approach followed upon the discovery of differences in the eye-movement behavior of POAG patients during the exploration of complex visual...... scenes. METHODS:: The eye movements of 8 POAG patients and 4 healthy age-matched controls were recorded. Four of the patients had documented visual field scotoma, and 4 had no identifiable scotoma on visual field testing. The eye movements were monitored as the observers watched static and kinetic...

  15. Binocular coordination of saccades during reading in children with clinically assessed poor vergence capabilities. (United States)

    Gaertner, Chrystal; Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette


    Prior studies have pointed toward a link between the saccadic and vergence systems, coordinating binocular saccadic movements. Recent studies have shown that vergence deficits in children induce poor binocular coordination during saccades, but none of them have studied ocular motility in children during a daily task such as reading. The present study tests whether vergence deficits in children perturb binocular coordination of saccades and fixation during reading. Our second objective was to explore whether vergence training could improve the quality of binocular coordination. Twelve patients (from 7.3 to 13.4 years old) complaining from vertigo but without vestibular and neurological pathology underwent orthoptic tests and were selected for our study when they presented vergence deficits. Eye movements were recorded during a reading task with a Mobile EyeBrain® Tracker video-oculography system. Data were compared to twelve age-matched controls with normal orthoptic values. While there was no statistically significant difference in saccade amplitudes between the two groups (p=0.29), patients showed higher disconjugacy during and after the saccades compared to controls (pbinocular saccade coordination. We suggest that the larger disconjugacy during reading observed in patients before training could be due to poor vergence as initially assessed by orthoptic examination. Such findings support the hypothesis of a tight relationship between the saccadic and vergence systems for controlling the binocular coordination of saccades. The improvement reported after orthoptic training is in line with the hypothesis of an adaptative interaction on a premotor level between the saccadic and vergence system.

  16. Different types of errors in saccadic task are sensitive to either time of day or chronic sleep restriction. (United States)

    Wachowicz, Barbara; Beldzik, Ewa; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Fafrowicz, Magdalena; Gawlowska, Magda; Janik, Justyna; Lewandowska, Koryna; Oginska, Halszka; Marek, Tadeusz


    Circadian rhythms and restricted sleep length affect cognitive functions and, consequently, the performance of day to day activities. To date, no more than a few studies have explored the consequences of these factors on oculomotor behaviour. We have implemented a spatial cuing paradigm in an eye tracking experiment conducted four times of the day after one week of rested wakefulness and after one week of chronic partial sleep restriction. Our aim was to verify whether these conditions affect the number of a variety of saccadic task errors. Interestingly, we found that failures in response selection, i.e. premature responses and direction errors, were prone to time of day variations, whereas failures in response execution, i.e. omissions and commissions, were considerably affected by sleep deprivation. The former can be linked to the cue facilitation mechanism, while the latter to wake state instability and the diminished ability of top-down inhibition. Together, these results may be interpreted in terms of distinctive sensitivity of orienting and alerting systems to fatigue. Saccadic eye movements proved to be a novel and effective measure with which to study the susceptibility of attentional systems to time factors, thus, this approach is recommended for future research.

  17. N-acetylgalactosamine positive perineuronal nets in the saccade-related-part of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus do not maintain saccade gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Mueller

    Full Text Available Perineuronal nets (PNNs accumulate around neurons near the end of developmental critical periods. PNNs are structures of the extracellular matrix which surround synaptic contacts and contain chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Previous studies suggest that the chondroitin sulfate chains of PNNs inhibit synaptic plasticity and thereby help end critical periods. PNNs surround a high proportion of neurons in the cerebellar nuclei. These PNNs form during approximately the same time that movements achieve normal accuracy. It is possible that PNNs in the cerebellar nuclei inhibit plasticity to maintain the synaptic organization that produces those accurate movements. We tested whether or not PNNs in a saccade-related part of the cerebellar nuclei maintain accurate saccade size by digesting a part of them in an adult monkey performing a task that changes saccade size (long term saccade adaptation. We use the enzyme Chondroitinase ABC to digest the glycosaminoglycan side chains of proteoglycans present in the majority of PNNs. We show that this manipulation does not result in faster, larger, or more persistent adaptation. Our result indicates that intact perineuronal nets around saccade-related neurons in the cerebellar nuclei are not important for maintaining long-term saccade gain.

  18. The Effects of Short-Lasting Anti-Saccade Training in Homonymous Hemianopia with and without Saccadic Adaptation (United States)

    Lévy-Bencheton, Delphine; Pélisson, Denis; Prost, Myriam; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Salemme, Roméo; Pisella, Laure; Tilikete, Caroline


    Homonymous Visual Field Defects (HVFD) are common following stroke and can be highly debilitating for visual perception and higher level cognitive functions such as exploring visual scene or reading a text. Rehabilitation using oculomotor compensatory methods with automatic training over a short duration (~15 days) have been shown as efficient as longer voluntary training methods (>1 month). Here, we propose to evaluate and compare the effect of an original HVFD rehabilitation method based on a single 15 min voluntary anti-saccades task (AS) toward the blind hemifield, with automatic sensorimotor adaptation to increase AS amplitude. In order to distinguish between adaptation and training effect, 14 left- or right-HVFD patients were exposed, 1 month apart, to three trainings, two isolated AS task (Delayed-shift and No-shift paradigm), and one combined with AS adaptation (Adaptation paradigm). A quality of life questionnaire (NEI-VFQ 25) and functional measurements (reading speed, visual exploration time in pop-out and serial tasks) as well as oculomotor measurements were assessed before and after each training. We could not demonstrate significant adaptation at the group level, but we identified a group of nine adapted patients. While AS training itself proved to demonstrate significant functional improvements in the overall patient group, we could also demonstrate in the sub-group of adapted patients and specifically following the adaptation training, an increase of saccade amplitude during the reading task (left-HVFD patients) and the Serial exploration task, and improvement of the visual quality of life. We conclude that short-lasting AS training combined with adaptation could be implemented in rehabilitation methods of cognitive dysfunctions following HVFD. Indeed, both voluntary and automatic processes have shown interesting effects on the control of visually guided saccades in different cognitive tasks. PMID:26778986

  19. Intentional signals during saccadic and reaching delays in the human posterior parietal cortex. (United States)

    Galati, Gaspare; Committeri, Giorgia; Pitzalis, Sabrina; Pelle, Gina; Patria, Fabiana; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio


    In the monkey posterior parietal cortex (PPC), there is clear evidence of anatomically segregated neuronal populations specialized for planning saccades and arm-reaching movements. However, functional neuroimaging studies in humans have yielded controversial results. Here we show that the human PPC contains distinct subregions responsive to salient visual cues, some of which combine spatial and action-related signals into 'intentional' signals. Participants underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing delayed saccades and long-range arm reaches instructed by visual cues. We focused on activity in the time period following the cue and preceding the actual movement. The use of individual cortical surface reconstructions with detailed sulcal labeling allowed the definition of six responsive regions with distinctive anatomical locations in the PPC. Each region exhibited a distinctive combination of transient and sustained signals during the delay, modulated by either the cue spatial location (contralateral vs. ipsilateral), the instructed action (saccades vs. reaching) or both. Importantly, a lateral and a medial dorsal parietal region showed sustained responses during the delay preferentially for contralateral saccadic and reaching trials, respectively. In the lateral region, preference for saccades was evident only as a more sustained response during saccadic vs. reaching delays, whereas the medial region also showed a higher transient response to cues signaling reaching vs. saccadic actions. These response profiles closely match the behavior of neurons in the macaque lateral and medial intraparietal area, respectively, and suggest that these corresponding human regions are encoding spatially directed action plans or 'intentions'.

  20. The neural basis of parallel saccade programming: an fMRI study. (United States)

    Hu, Yanbo; Walker, Robin


    The neural basis of parallel saccade programming was examined in an event-related fMRI study using a variation of the double-step saccade paradigm. Two double-step conditions were used: one enabled the second saccade to be partially programmed in parallel with the first saccade while in a second condition both saccades had to be prepared serially. The intersaccadic interval, observed in the parallel programming (PP) condition, was significantly reduced compared with latency in the serial programming (SP) condition and also to the latency of single saccades in control conditions. The fMRI analysis revealed greater activity (BOLD response) in the frontal and parietal eye fields for the PP condition compared with the SP double-step condition and when compared with the single-saccade control conditions. By contrast, activity in the supplementary eye fields was greater for the double-step condition than the single-step condition but did not distinguish between the PP and SP requirements. The role of the frontal eye fields in PP may be related to the advanced temporal preparation and increased salience of the second saccade goal that may mediate activity in other downstream structures, such as the superior colliculus. The parietal lobes may be involved in the preparation for spatial remapping, which is required in double-step conditions. The supplementary eye fields appear to have a more general role in planning saccade sequences that may be related to error monitoring and the control over the execution of the correct sequence of responses.

  1. The effects of TMS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on trans-saccadic memory of multiple objects. (United States)

    Tanaka, L L; Dessing, J C; Malik, P; Prime, S L; Crawford, J D


    Humans typically make several rapid eye movements (saccades) per second. It is thought that visual working memory can retain and spatially integrate three to four objects or features across each saccade but little is known about this neural mechanism. Previously we showed that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the posterior parietal cortex and frontal eye fields degrade trans-saccadic memory of multiple object features (Prime, Vesia, & Crawford, 2008, Journal of Neuroscience, 28(27), 6938-6949; Prime, Vesia, & Crawford, 2010, Cerebral Cortex, 20(4), 759-772.). Here, we used a similar protocol to investigate whether dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an area involved in spatial working memory, is also involved in trans-saccadic memory. Subjects were required to report changes in stimulus orientation with (saccade task) or without (fixation task) an eye movement in the intervening memory interval. We applied single-pulse TMS to left and right DLPFC during the memory delay, timed at three intervals to arrive approximately 100 ms before, 100 ms after, or at saccade onset. In the fixation task, left DLPFC TMS produced inconsistent results, whereas right DLPFC TMS disrupted performance at all three intervals (significantly for presaccadic TMS). In contrast, in the saccade task, TMS consistently facilitated performance (significantly for left DLPFC/perisaccadic TMS and right DLPFC/postsaccadic TMS) suggesting a dis-inhibition of trans-saccadic processing. These results are consistent with a neural circuit of trans-saccadic memory that overlaps and interacts with, but is partially separate from the circuit for visual working memory during sustained fixation.

  2. Oral progesterone decreases saccadic eye velocity and increases sedation in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, F. van; Backstrom, T.; Verkes, R.J.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of a single dose of progesterone in women. Allopregnanolone is a metabolite of progesterone and a potent positive modulator of the GABA(A) receptor and produces sedative and anxiolytic effects. This study was des

  3. Energy velocity and group velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A new Lagrangian method for studying the relationship between the energy velocity and the group velocity is described. It is proved that under the usual quasistatic electric field, the energy velocity is identical to the group velocity for acoustic waves in anisotropic piezoelectric (or non-piezoelectric) media.

  4. Human visual search does not maximize the post-saccadic probability of identifying targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Morvan


    Full Text Available Researchers have conjectured that eye movements during visual search are selected to minimize the number of saccades. The optimal Bayesian eye movement strategy minimizing saccades does not simply direct the eye to whichever location is judged most likely to contain the target but makes use of the entire retina as an information gathering device during each fixation. Here we show that human observers do not minimize the expected number of saccades in planning saccades in a simple visual search task composed of three tokens. In this task, the optimal eye movement strategy varied, depending on the spacing between tokens (in the first experiment or the size of tokens (in the second experiment, and changed abruptly once the separation or size surpassed a critical value. None of our observers changed strategy as a function of separation or size. Human performance fell far short of ideal, both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  5. Deficient saccadic inhibition in Asperger's disorder and the social-emotional processing disorder



    Background: Both Asperger's disorder and the social-emotional processing disorder (SEPD), a form of non-verbal learning disability, are associated with executive function deficits. SEPD has been shown to be associated with deficient saccadic inhibition.

  6. Pressure dependency of aortic pulse wave velocity in vivo is not affected by vasoactive substances that alter aortic wall tension ex vivo. (United States)

    Butlin, Mark; Lindesay, George; Viegas, Kayla D; Avolio, Alberto P


    Aortic stiffness, a predictive parameter in cardiovascular medicine, is blood pressure dependent and experimentally requires isobaric measurement for meaningful comparison. Vasoactive drug administration to change peripheral resistance and blood pressure allows such isobaric comparison but may alter large conduit artery wall tension, directly changing aortic stiffness. This study quantifies effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, vasodilator) and phenylephrine (PE, vasoconstrictor) on aortic stiffness measured by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) assessed by invasive pressure catheterization in anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 7). This was compared with nondrug-dependent alteration of blood pressure through reduced venous return induced by partial vena cava occlusion. In vivo drug concentration was estimated by modeling clearance rates. Ex vivo responses of excised thoracic and abdominal aortic rings to drugs was measured using myography. SNP administration did not alter aPWV compared with venous occlusion (P = 0.21-0.87). There was a 5% difference in aPWV with PE administration compared with venous occlusion (P arteries in vivo. However, similar drug concentrations affect aortic ring wall tension ex vivo. Future studies investigating in vivo and ex vivo kinetics will need to elucidate mechanisms for this marked difference.

  7. Changes in saccadic reaction time while maintaining neck flexion in men and women. (United States)

    Fujiwara, K; Kunita, K; Toyama, H


    We investigated changes in saccadic reaction time in relation to the degree of increase in activity of neck extensor muscles when neck flexion occurred, and assessed the reliability of the measurements. Saccadic reaction time was measured firstly, during neck flexion angles set at 5 degrees increments from 0 degrees (resting position) to 25 degrees, with the chin either resting on a stand or not, and secondly, during shoulder girdle elevator muscles providing a relative muscle force of 30%, with the neck flexion angle maintained at 0 degrees by having the subjects rest their chins on a stand. Saccadic reaction time was evaluated by the latency to the beginning of eye movement toward the lateral target, which was moved at random intervals in 20 degrees amplitude jumps. Muscle activity in the trapezius muscle was evaluated using the mean amplitude of electromyogram recordings. Very high coefficients of reliability in muscle activity and saccadic reaction time were observed between the two sets of tests at 1-h intervals and also among the three trials with a 1-min rest. When their necks were flexed and the subjects rested their chins on a stand, muscle activity increased slightly in accordance with the enlargement of this angle, with no significant change in saccadic reaction time. With the chin not resting on the stand, muscle activity increased gradually, while the saccadic reaction time decreased to that obtained at an average neck flexion angle of 20 degrees. However, the angle where the shortest reaction time was obtained showed considerable individual variation (5-25 degrees ). Activity in the trapezius muscle at a 20 degrees neck flexion angle, with the chin not resting on the stand, was far less than that for 30% maximal voluntary contraction in shoulder girdle elevator muscles. Nevertheless, the saccadic reaction times were roughly equivalent under the two different sets of conditions. No sex differences were observed in terms of saccadic reaction time under

  8. Subliminal Reorientation and Repositioning in Immersive Virtual Environments using Saccadic Suppression. (United States)

    Bolte, Benjamin; Lappe, Markus


    Virtual reality strives to provide a user with an experience of a simulated world that feels as natural as the real world. Yet, to induce this feeling, sometimes it becomes necessary for technical reasons to deviate from a one-to-one correspondence between the real and the virtual world, and to reorient or reposition the user's viewpoint. Ideally, users should not notice the change of the viewpoint to avoid breaks in perceptual continuity. Saccades, the fast eye movements that we make in order to switch gaze from one object to another, produce a visual discontinuity on the retina, but this is not perceived because the visual system suppresses perception during saccades. As a consequence, our perception fails to detect rotations of the visual scene during saccades. We investigated whether saccadic suppression of image displacement (SSID) can be used in an immersive virtual environment (VE) to unconsciously rotate and translate the observer's viewpoint. To do this, the scene changes have to be precisely time-locked to the saccade onset. We used electrooculography (EOG) for eye movement tracking and assessed the performance of two modified eye movement classification algorithms for the challenging task of online saccade detection that is fast enough for SSID. We investigated the sensitivity of participants to translations (forward/backward) and rotations (in the transverse plane) during trans-saccadic scene changes. We found that participants were unable to detect approximately ±0.5m translations along the line of gaze and ±5° rotations in the transverse plane during saccades with an amplitude of 15°. If the user stands still, our approach exploiting SSID thus provides the means to unconsciously change the user's virtual position and/or orientation. For future research and applications, exploiting SSID has the potential to improve existing redirected walking and change blindness techniques for unlimited navigation through arbitrarily-sized VEs by real walking.

  9. Latency of saccadic eye movement during contraction of bilateral and unilateral shoulder girdle elevators. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Kunita, Kenji; Toyama, Hiroshi


    We compared the timed latencies of saccadic eye movement during isometric contraction of the bilateral and unilateral shoulder girdle elevators in a sitting posture. Muscle contraction force was increased in 10% increments from 0% to 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of each side. Saccadic latency was measured as the latency to the beginning of eye movement toward the lateral target that was moved at random intervals in 20 degree amplitude jumps. Eye movement was measured using the electro-oculogram technique. During bilateral contraction, saccadic latency decreased until 30% MVC and then began to increase at 40% MVC. During unilateral contraction, saccadic latency decreased until 30% MVC in a similar pattern as in bilateral condition, was constant from 30% MVC to 50% MVC, followed by a slight increase at 60% MVC. The saccadic latencies at 10% and 40-60% MVC were significantly shorter during unilateral contraction than bilateral contraction. Thus, the relative force for producing a marked shortening of saccadic latency is observed within a wider range during unilateral contraction than bilateral contraction.

  10. Visual Attention Saccadic Models Learn to Emulate Gaze Patterns From Childhood to Adulthood. (United States)

    Le Meur, Olivier; Coutrot, Antoine; Liu, Zhi; Rama, Pia; Le Roch, Adrien; Helo, Andrea


    How people look at visual information reveals fundamental information about themselves, their interests and their state of mind. While previous visual attention models output static 2D saliency maps, saccadic models aim to predict not only where observers look at but also how they move their eyes to explore the scene. In this paper, we demonstrate that saccadic models are a flexible framework that can be tailored to emulate observer's viewing tendencies. More specifically, we use fixation data from 101 observers split into five age groups (adults, 8-10 y.o., 6-8 y.o., 4-6 y.o., and 2 y.o.) to train our saccadic model for different stages of the development of human visual system. We show that the joint distribution of saccade amplitude and orientation is a visual signature specific to each age group, and can be used to generate age-dependent scan paths. Our age-dependent saccadic model does not only output human-like, age-specific visual scan paths, but also significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art saliency models. We demonstrate that the computational modeling of visual attention, through the use of saccadic model, can be efficiently adapted to emulate the gaze behavior of a specific group of observers.

  11. Saccade-related activity in the prefrontal cortex: its role in eye movement control and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro eFunahashi


    Full Text Available Prefrontal neurons exhibit saccade-related activity and pre-saccadic memory-related activity often encodes the directions of forthcoming eye movements, in line with demonstrated prefrontal contribution to flexible control of voluntary eye movements. However, many prefrontal neurons exhibit post-saccadic activity that is initiated well after the initiation of eye movement. Although post-saccadic activity has been observed in the frontal eye field, this activity is thought to be a corollary discharge from oculomotor centers, because this activity shows no directional tuning and is observed whenever the monkeys perform eye movements regardless of goal-directed or not. However, prefrontal post-saccadic activities exhibit directional tunings similar as pre-saccadic activities and show context dependency, such that post-saccadic activity is observed only when monkeys perform goal-directed saccades. Context-dependency of prefrontal post-saccadic activity suggests that this activity is not a result of corollary signals from oculomotor centers, but contributes to other functions of the prefrontal cortex. One function might be the termination of memory-related activity after a behavioral response is done. This is supported by the observation that the termination of memory-related activity coincides with the initiation of post-saccadic activity in population analyses of prefrontal activities. The termination of memory-related activity at the end of the trial ensures that the subjects can prepare to receive new and updated information. Another function might be the monitoring of behavioral performance, since the termination of memory-related activity by post-saccadic activity could be associated with informing the correctness of the response and the termination of the trial. However, further studies are needed to examine the characteristics of saccade-related activities in the prefrontal cortex and their functions in eye movement control and a variety of

  12. Effect of saccades in tongue electrotactile stimulation for vision substitution applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chekhchoukh, Abdessalem; Payan, Yohan; Glade, Nicolas


    The visual substitution paradigm aims to facilitate the life of blind people. Generally one uses electro-stimulating devices where electrodes are arranged into arrays to stimulate the skin or the tongue mucosa to send signals of visual type to the subjects. When an electro-stimulation signal is applied continuously (e.g. when static visual scenes are displayed for a long period of time), the receptors of the affected region can get saturated and the patient may lose the displayed information. We propose here some mechanisms that ameliorate the quality of perception of the electro-stimulation information. The electrical signal is encoded as 2D scenes projected onto the tongue via a Tongue Display Unit, i.e. an electro-tactile stimulator formed by a 12x12 matrix of electrodes. We propose to apply stochastic saccades on this signal. Our assumption is that this eye-inspired mechanism should make the visual substitution more efficient (by improving the perception) because of the reduction of the tactile receptors ...

  13. Neural activity in the macaque putamen associated with saccades and behavioral outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Phillips

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that the basal ganglia nuclei form segregated, parallel loops with neocortical areas. The prevalent view is that the putamen is part of the motor loop, which receives inputs from sensorimotor areas, whereas the caudate, which receives inputs from frontal cortical eye fields and projects via the substantia nigra pars reticulata to the superior colliculus, belongs to the oculomotor loop. Tracer studies in monkeys and functional neuroimaging studies in human subjects, however, also suggest a potential role for the putamen in oculomotor control. To investigate the role of the putamen in saccadic eye movements, we recorded single neuron activity in the caudal putamen of two rhesus monkeys while they alternated between short blocks of pro- and anti-saccades. In each trial, the instruction cue was provided after the onset of the peripheral stimulus, thus the monkeys could either generate an immediate response to the stimulus based on the internal representation of the rule from the previous trial, or alternatively, could await the visual rule-instruction cue to guide their saccadic response. We found that a subset of putamen neurons showed saccade-related activity, that the preparatory mode (internally- versus externally-cued influenced the expression of task-selectivity in roughly one third of the task-modulated neurons, and further that a large proportion of neurons encoded the outcome of the saccade. These results suggest that the caudal putamen may be part of the neural network for goal-directed saccades, wherein the monitoring of saccadic eye movements, context and performance feedback may be processed together to ensure optimal behavioural performance and outcomes are achieved during ongoing behaviour.

  14. Changes to Saccade Behaviors in Parkinson’s Disease Following Dancing and Observation of Dancing (United States)

    Cameron, Ian G. M.; Brien, Donald C.; Links, Kira; Robichaud, Sarah; Ryan, Jennifer D.; Munoz, Douglas P.; Chow, Tiffany W.


    Background: The traditional view of Parkinson’s disease (PD) as a motor disorder only treated by dopaminergic medications is now shifting to include non-pharmacologic interventions. We have noticed that patients with PD obtain an immediate, short-lasting benefit to mobility by the end of a dance class, suggesting some mechanism by which dancing reduces bradykinetic symptoms. We have also found that patients with PD are unimpaired at initiating highly automatic eye movements to visual stimuli (pro-saccades) but are impaired at generating willful eye movements away from visual stimuli (anti-saccades). We hypothesized that the mechanisms by which a dance class improves movement initiation may generalize to the brain networks impacted in PD (frontal lobe and basal ganglia, BG), and thus could be assessed objectively by measuring eye movements, which rely on the same neural circuitry. Methods: Participants with PD performed pro- and anti-saccades before, and after, a dance class. “Before” and “after” saccade performance measurements were compared. These measurements were then contrasted with a control condition (observing a dance class in a video), and with older and younger adult populations, who rested for an hour between measurements. Results: We found an improvement in anti-saccade performance following the observation of dance (but not following dancing), but we found a detriment in pro-saccade performance following dancing. Conclusion: We suggest that observation of dance induced plasticity changes in frontal-BG networks that are important for executive control. Dancing, in contrast, increased voluntary movement signals that benefited mobility, but interfered with the automaticity of efficient pro-saccade execution. PMID:23483834

  15. Modeling control of eye orientation in three dimensions. I. Role of muscle pulleys in determining saccadic trajectory. (United States)

    Raphan, T


    This study evaluates the effects of muscle axis shifts on the performance of a vector velocity-position integrator in the CNS. Earlier models of the oculomotor plant assumed that the muscle axes remained fixed relative to the head as the eye rotated into secondary and tertiary eye positions. Under this assumption, the vector integrator model generates torsional transients as the eye moves from secondary to tertiary positions of fixation. The torsional transient represents an eye movement response to a spatial mismatch between the torque axes that remain fixed in the head and the displacement plane that changes by half the angle of the change in eye orientation. When muscle axis shifts were incorporated into the model, the torque axes were closer to the displacement plane at each eye orientation throughout the trajectory, and torsional transients were reduced dramatically. Their size and dynamics were close to reported data. It was also shown that when the muscle torque axes were rotated by 50% of the eye rotation, there was no torsional transient and Listing's law was perfectly obeyed. When muscle torque axes rotated >50%, torsional transients reversed direction compared with what occurred for muscle axis shifts of law is implemented by the oculomotor plant subject to a two-dimensional command signal that is confined to the pitch-yaw plane, having zero torsion. Saccades that bring the eye to orientations outside Listing's plane could easily be corrected by a roll pulse that resets the roll state of the velocity-position integrator to zero. This would be a simple implementation of the corrective controller suggested by Van Opstal and colleagues. The model further indicates that muscle axis shifts together with the torque orientation relationship for tissue surrounding the eye and Newton's laws of motion form a sufficient plant model to explain saccadic trajectories and periods of fixation when driven by a vector command confined to the pitch-yaw plane. This implies

  16. LATEST: A model of saccadic decisions in space and time. (United States)

    Tatler, Benjamin W; Brockmole, James R; Carpenter, R H S


    Many of our actions require visual information, and for this it is important to direct the eyes to the right place at the right time. Two or three times every second, we must decide both when and where to direct our gaze. Understanding these decisions can reveal the moment-to-moment information priorities of the visual system and the strategies for information sampling employed by the brain to serve ongoing behavior. Most theoretical frameworks and models of gaze control assume that the spatial and temporal aspects of fixation point selection depend on different mechanisms. We present a single model that can simultaneously account for both when and where we look. Underpinning this model is the theoretical assertion that each decision to move the eyes is an evaluation of the relative benefit expected from moving the eyes to a new location compared with that expected by continuing to fixate the current target. The eyes move when the evidence that favors moving to a new location outweighs that favoring staying at the present location. Our model provides not only an account of when the eyes move, but also what will be fixated. That is, an analysis of saccade timing alone enables us to predict where people look in a scene. Indeed our model accounts for fixation selection as well as (and often better than) current computational models of fixation selection in scene viewing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Disrupted Saccade Control in Chronic Cerebral Injury: Upper Motor Neuron-Like Disinhibition in the Ocular Motor System. (United States)

    Rizzo, John-Ross; Hudson, Todd E; Abdou, Andrew; Lui, Yvonne W; Rucker, Janet C; Raghavan, Preeti; Landy, Michael S


    Saccades rapidly direct the line of sight to targets of interest to make use of the high acuity foveal region of the retina. These fast eye movements are instrumental for scanning visual scenes, foveating targets, and, ultimately, serve to guide manual motor control, including eye-hand coordination. Cerebral injury has long been known to impair ocular motor control. Recently, it has been suggested that alterations in control may be useful as a marker for recovery. We measured eye movement control in a saccade task in subjects with chronic middle cerebral artery stroke with both cortical and substantial basal ganglia involvement and in healthy controls. Saccade latency distributions were bimodal, with an early peak at 60 ms (anticipatory saccades) and a later peak at 250 ms (regular saccades). Although the latencies corresponding to these peaks were the same in the two groups, there were clear differences in the size of the peaks. Classifying saccade latencies relative to the saccade "go signal" into anticipatory (latencies up to 80 ms), "early" (latencies between 80 and 160 ms), and "regular" types (latencies longer than 160 ms), stroke subjects displayed a disproportionate number of anticipatory saccades, whereas control subjects produced the majority of their saccades in the regular range. We suggest that this increase in the number of anticipatory saccade events may result from a disinhibition phenomenon that manifests as an impairment in the endogenous control of ocular motor events (saccades) and interleaved fixations. These preliminary findings may help shed light on the ocular motor deficits of neurodegenerative conditions, results that may be subclinical to an examiner, but clinically significant secondary to their functional implications.

  18. Disrupted Saccade Control in Chronic Cerebral Injury: Upper Motor Neuron-Like Disinhibition in the Ocular Motor System (United States)

    Rizzo, John-Ross; Hudson, Todd E.; Abdou, Andrew; Lui, Yvonne W.; Rucker, Janet C.; Raghavan, Preeti; Landy, Michael S.


    Saccades rapidly direct the line of sight to targets of interest to make use of the high acuity foveal region of the retina. These fast eye movements are instrumental for scanning visual scenes, foveating targets, and, ultimately, serve to guide manual motor control, including eye–hand coordination. Cerebral injury has long been known to impair ocular motor control. Recently, it has been suggested that alterations in control may be useful as a marker for recovery. We measured eye movement control in a saccade task in subjects with chronic middle cerebral artery stroke with both cortical and substantial basal ganglia involvement and in healthy controls. Saccade latency distributions were bimodal, with an early peak at 60 ms (anticipatory saccades) and a later peak at 250 ms (regular saccades). Although the latencies corresponding to these peaks were the same in the two groups, there were clear differences in the size of the peaks. Classifying saccade latencies relative to the saccade “go signal” into anticipatory (latencies up to 80 ms), “early” (latencies between 80 and 160 ms), and “regular” types (latencies longer than 160 ms), stroke subjects displayed a disproportionate number of anticipatory saccades, whereas control subjects produced the majority of their saccades in the regular range. We suggest that this increase in the number of anticipatory saccade events may result from a disinhibition phenomenon that manifests as an impairment in the endogenous control of ocular motor events (saccades) and interleaved fixations. These preliminary findings may help shed light on the ocular motor deficits of neurodegenerative conditions, results that may be subclinical to an examiner, but clinically significant secondary to their functional implications. PMID:28184211

  19. Are the visual transients from microsaccades helpful? Measuring the influences of small saccades on contrast sensitivity. (United States)

    Mostofi, Naghmeh; Boi, Marco; Rucci, Michele


    Like all saccades, microsaccades cause both spatial and temporal changes in the input to the retina. In space, recent studies have shown that these small shifts precisely relocate a narrow (smaller than the foveola) high-acuity retinal locus on the stimulus. However, it has long been questioned whether the temporal modulations resulting from microsaccades are also beneficial for vision. To address this question, we combined spectral analysis of the visual input to the retina with measurements of contrast sensitivity in humans. Estimation of how different types of eye movements redistribute the power of an otherwise stationary stimulus shows that small saccades contribute more temporal power than ocular drift in the low-frequency range, suggesting a specific role for these movements in the encoding of low spatial frequencies. However, an influence on contrast sensitivity was only found for saccades with amplitudes larger than 30'. Contrast thresholds remained highly similar in the presence and absence of smaller saccades. Furthermore, saccades of all amplitudes, including microsaccades, were strongly suppressed during exposure to the stimulus. These findings do not support an important function of the visual transients caused by microsaccades.

  20. Saccade amplitude disconjugacy induced by aniseikonia: role of monocular depth cues. (United States)

    Pia Bucci, M; Kapoula, Z; Eggert, T


    The conjugacy of saccades is rapidly modified if the images are made unequal for the two eyes. Disconjugacy persists even in the absence of disparity which indicates learning. Binocular visual disparity is a major cue to depth and is believed to drive the disconjugacy of saccades to aniseikonic images. The goal of the present study was to test whether monocular depth cues can also influence the disconjugacy of saccades. Three experiments were performed in which subjects were exposed for 15-20 min to a 10% image size inequality. Three different images were used: a grid that contained a single monocular depth cue strongly indicating a frontoparallel plane; a random-dot pattern that contained a less prominent monocular depth cue (absence of texture gradient) which also indicates the frontoparallel plane; and a complex image with several overlapping geometric forms that contained a variety of monocular depth cues. Saccades became disconjugate in all three experiments. The disconjugacy was larger and more persistent for the experiment using the random-dot pattern that had the least prominent monocular depth cues. The complex image which had a large variety of monocular depth cues produced the most variable and less persistent disconjugacy. We conclude that the monocular depth cues modulate the disconjugacy of saccades stimulated by the disparity of aniseikonic images.

  1. New supervised learning theory applied to cerebellar modeling for suppression of variability of saccade end points. (United States)

    Fujita, Masahiko


    A new supervised learning theory is proposed for a hierarchical neural network with a single hidden layer of threshold units, which can approximate any continuous transformation, and applied to a cerebellar function to suppress the end-point variability of saccades. In motor systems, feedback control can reduce noise effects if the noise is added in a pathway from a motor center to a peripheral effector; however, it cannot reduce noise effects if the noise is generated in the motor center itself: a new control scheme is necessary for such noise. The cerebellar cortex is well known as a supervised learning system, and a novel theory of cerebellar cortical function developed in this study can explain the capability of the cerebellum to feedforwardly reduce noise effects, such as end-point variability of saccades. This theory assumes that a Golgi-granule cell system can encode the strength of a mossy fiber input as the state of neuronal activity of parallel fibers. By combining these parallel fiber signals with appropriate connection weights to produce a Purkinje cell output, an arbitrary continuous input-output relationship can be obtained. By incorporating such flexible computation and learning ability in a process of saccadic gain adaptation, a new control scheme in which the cerebellar cortex feedforwardly suppresses the end-point variability when it detects a variation in saccadic commands can be devised. Computer simulation confirmed the efficiency of such learning and showed a reduction in the variability of saccadic end points, similar to results obtained from experimental data.

  2. Vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression during head-fixed saccades reveals gaze feedback control. (United States)

    Daye, Pierre M; Roberts, Dale C; Zee, David S; Optican, Lance M


    Previous experiments have shown that the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is partially suppressed during large head-free gaze (gaze = eye-in-head + head-in-space) shifts when both the eyes and head are moving actively, on a fixed body, or when the eyes are moving actively and the head passively on a fixed body. We tested, in human subjects, the hypothesis that the VOR is also suppressed during gaze saccades made with en bloc, head and body together, rotations. Subjects made saccades by following a target light. During some trials, the chair rotated so as to move the entire body passively before, during, or after a saccade. The modulation of the VOR was a function of both saccade amplitude and the time of the head perturbation relative to saccade onset. Despite the perturbation, gaze remained accurate. Thus, VOR modulation is similar when gaze changes are programmed for the eyes alone or for the eyes and head moving together. We propose that the brain always programs a change in gaze using feedback based on gaze and head signals, rather than on separate eye and head trajectories.

  3. Patterns of Activity in the Human Frontal and Parietal Cortex Differentiate Large and Small Saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Helene Grosbras


    Full Text Available A vast literature indicates that small and large saccades, respectively, subserve different perceptual and cognitive strategies and may rely on different programming modes. While it is well established that in monkeys’ main oculomotor brain regions small and large eye movements are controlled by segregated neuronal populations, the representation of saccade amplitude in the human brain remains unclear. To address this question we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to scan participants while they performed saccades towards targets at either short (4 degrees or large (30 degrees eccentricity. A regional multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA reveals that patterns of activity in the frontal (FEF and parietal eye fields discriminate between the execution of large or small saccades. This was not the case in the supplementary eye fields nor in the inferior precentral cortex. These findings provide the first evidence of a representation of saccadic eye movement size in the fronto-parietal occulomotor circuit. They shed light on the respective roles of the different cortical oculomotor regions with respect to space perception and exploration, as well as on the homology of eye movement control between human and non-human primates.

  4. CarPrice versus CarpRice: Word Boundary Ambiguity Influences Saccade Target Selection during the Reading of Chinese Sentences (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Kliegl, Reinhold


    As a contribution to a theoretical debate about the degree of high-level influences on saccade targeting during sentence reading, we investigated eye movements during the reading of structurally ambiguous Chinese character strings and examined whether parafoveal word segmentation could influence saccade-target selection. As expected, ambiguous…

  5. CarPrice versus CarpRice: Word boundary ambiguity influences saccade target selection during the reading of Chinese sentences. (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Kliegl, Reinhold


    As a contribution to a theoretical debate about the degree of high-level influences on saccade targeting during sentence reading, we investigated eye movements during the reading of structurally ambiguous Chinese character strings and examined whether parafoveal word segmentation could influence saccade-target selection. As expected, ambiguous strings took longer to process. More critically there were theoretically relevant interactions between ambiguity and launch site when first-fixation location and saccade amplitude served as dependent variables: Ambiguous strings in the parafovea triggered longer saccades and more rightward fixations for close launch sites than unambiguous ones; the reverse result was obtained for far launch sites. These crossover interactions indicate that parafoveal word segmentation influences saccade generation in Chinese and provide support of the hypothesis that high-level information can be involved in the decision about where to fixate next. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Response times for visually guided saccades in persons with Parkinson's disease: a meta-analytic review. (United States)

    Chambers, Jonathan M; Prescott, Tony J


    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) show marked impairments in their ability to generate self-initiated, or "voluntary", saccadic eye movements. Investigations of visually guided, or "reflexive", saccades have, on the other hand, produced inconclusive results with studies showing response times (RTs) in persons with PD that are slower, faster, or indistinguishable from those of controls. We performed a meta-analysis to establish whether there are consistent effects of PD on the metrics of visually guided saccades. Combining results across 47 studies we found that reflexive saccades are overall initiated more slowly in persons with PD than in controls, however, this analysis also revealed considerable heterogeneity across studies. Step-wise meta-regression, using eleven potential predictors, subsequently showed that differences in mean RT between controls and persons with PD may arise due to aspects of experimental design. In particular, mean target eccentricity was shown to impact substantially on RTs such that persons with PD predictably initiate saccades faster than controls at small target eccentricities, while responding more slowly for large target eccentricities. Changes in eye-tracking and display equipment over the period covered by the review were also found to have impacted on the pattern of results obtained. We conclude that a, previously unsuspected, eccentricity effect could explain why the saccadic eye movements of persons with PD are sometimes found to be "hyper-reflexive" compared to controls, and suggest that this effect may arise due to PD-induced changes in both peripheral perceptual processing and in central executive mechanisms involving the basal ganglia.

  7. Positive affect increases cognitive control in the antisaccade task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stigchel, S.; Imants, P.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.


    To delineate the modulatory effects of induced positive affect on cognitive control, the current study investigated whether positive affect increases the ability to suppress a reflexive saccade in the antisaccade task. Results of the antisaccade task showed that participants made fewer erroneous

  8. Saccades to the seeing visual hemifield in hemidecorticate patients exhibit task-dependent reaction times and hypometria. (United States)

    Herter, Troy M; Guitton, Daniel


    In three patients who had one cortical hemisphere removed surgically (hemidecortication), we studied visually-triggered saccades directed contralateral to the intact cortical hemisphere (i.e., ipsilesional saccades). Both saccade reaction times (SRTs) and accuracy of these saccades have been reported as abnormal in hemidecorticate patients, but not monkeys. One explanation for this difference is that deficits in hemidecorticate patients may not have been directly caused by removal of cortical oculomotor structures themselves, but may have been a manifestation of compensatory strategies used to cope with contralesional hemianopia. We hypothesized that deficits in saccade performance to the ipsilesional (seeing) visual hemifield would be directly linked to how easily patients could localize targets in their blind hemifield with searching saccades. To test this hypothesis, we examined how deficits in our patients varied when targets were: (1) randomly presented to either the seeing or blind hemifield for long durations thereby permitting searching saccades in the blind hemifield; (2) presented as in Experiment 1, but briefly flashed thereby removing visual feedback prior to saccade onset thereby rendering searching saccades useless; (3) briefly flashed as in Experiment 2, but at random locations in only the seeing hemifield (blind hemifield irrelevant). Mean SRTs to the seeing hemifield were 165 ms longer than normal in Experiment 2, but only about 40 ms longer in Experiments 1 and 3. Saccade accuracy was characterized by task-dependent hypometria in all three experiments with a mean undershoot of about twice the amplitude variance. The largest undershoots were in Experiments 2 and 3. Our data suggest that deficits resulted from the direct effects of the lesions themselves coupled with context-dependent strategies used to cope with contralesional hemianopia.

  9. The impact of microsaccades on vision: towards a unified theory of saccadic function. (United States)

    Martinez-Conde, Susana; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Macknik, Stephen L


    When we attempt to fix our gaze, our eyes nevertheless produce so-called 'fixational eye movements', which include microsaccades, drift and tremor. Fixational eye movements thwart neural adaptation to unchanging stimuli and thus prevent and reverse perceptual fading during fixation. Over the past 10 years, microsaccade research has become one of the most active fields in visual, oculomotor and even cognitive neuroscience. The similarities and differences between microsaccades and saccades have been a most intriguing area of study, and the results of this research are leading us towards a unified theory of saccadic and microsaccadic function.

  10. Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Suppression during Head-Fixed Saccades Reveals Gaze Feedback Control


    Daye, Pierre M.; Dale C Roberts; David S Zee; Optican, Lance M.


    Previous experiments have shown that the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is partially suppressed during large head-free gaze (gaze = eye-in-head + head-in-space) shifts when both the eyes and head are moving actively, on a fixed body, or when the eyes are moving actively and the head passively on a fixed body. We tested, in human subjects, the hypothesis that the VOR is also suppressed during gaze saccades made with en bloc, head and body together, rotations. Subjects made saccades by following...

  11. Cortical control of vertical and horizontal saccades in progressive supranuclear palsy: An exploratory fMRI study. (United States)

    Lemos, J; Pereira, D; Almendra, L; Rebelo, D; Patrício, M; Castelhano, J; Cunha, G; Januário, C; Cunha, L; Freire, A; Castelo-Branco, M


    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disorder showing predominant brainstem involvement, characterized by marked slowing of rapid eye movements (saccades), particularly along the vertical plane. While the contribution of the brainstem damage for the saccadic disturbance in PSP has been extensively studied, much less is known about its cortical and subcortical pathomechanisms. We measured reflexive (prosaccades) and voluntary (antisaccades) saccades in the vertical and horizontal plane in PSP patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) in an eye tracking study, followed by the measurement of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activation (PSP, n=6; controls, n=10) during similar saccade paradigms. Behaviorally, PSP patients evidenced slower and lower amplitude prosaccades (horizontal and vertical) and lower amplitude antisaccades (vertical) than controls. Functionally, patients showed decreased frontostriatal BOLD activation during prosaccades (horizontal and vertical) and antisaccades (vertical), relative to controls. Additionally, PSP patients showed less default mode network (DMN) deactivation than controls for all types of saccades. Within groups, controls showed no BOLD differences between horizontal and vertical prosaccades while PSP patients demonstrated greater DMN deactivation during vertical prosaccades. Both groups evidenced greater DMN deactivation during vertical antisaccades when compared to their horizontal counterpart and patients further showed relative frontostriatal BOLD hypoactivity during vertical antisaccades. We found fMRI evidence of frontostriatal hypoactivity in PSP patients relative to controls, especially during vertical saccades. These new findings highlight the impact of cortical impairment in saccadic disturbance of PSP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonconjugate adaptation of human saccades to anisometropic spectacles: Meridian-specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Lemij (Hans); H. Collewijn (Han)


    textabstractAbstract Recently it has been demonstrated that saccades become different in size in the two eyes if a subject is adapted to anisometropic spectacles, which provide visual images of different magnitude to the two eyes. These nonconjugate adaptations adequately meet the requirements of th

  13. Eye movements during saccadic and fixation tasks in patients with homonymous hemianopia. (United States)

    Reinhard, Jens I; Damm, Ingelene; Ivanov, Iliya V; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne


    The aim of our study was to quantify ocular motor performance in patients with homonymous hemianopia and in healthy controls during saccadic and fixation tasks and to detect potential spontaneous adaptive mechanisms in the hemianopic patients. Eye movements were recorded in 33 hemianopic patients (15 right, 18 left; disease duration, 0.2-29 years) and 14 healthy subjects by scanning laser ophthalmoscope allowing determination of the absolute fovea position relative to the stimulus without calibration. Landing accuracy of saccades was determined for 5° saccades, indicated by the number of dysmetric saccades (DS), and fixation stability (FS) after landing. In addition, during continuous fixation of a central cross, FS, and distribution of fixational eye movements (FEMs) were measured. Size of macular sparing was determined using custom microperimetry software (stimulus grid, 0.5°). Compared with controls, landing accuracy was decreased in hemianopic patients, indicated by significantly more DS (hypometric and hypermetric) to the blind side compared with the seeing side. The number of DS was greater in patients with macular sparing of FEM during continuous fixation was asymmetrically shifted to the blind side, especially in cases of macular sparing of FEMs during continuous fixation indicate an advantageous adaptive mechanism to shift the visual field border towards the hemianopic side.

  14. Saccadic selection and crowding in visual search : stronger lateral masking leads to shorter search times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jelmer P.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.; Wiering, Marco A.; Verstraten, Frans A. J.


    We investigated the role of crowding in saccadic selection during visual search. To guide eye movements, often information from the visual periphery is used. Crowding is known to deteriorate the quality of peripheral information. In four search experiments, we studied the role of crowding, by accomp

  15. The phase of ongoing EEG oscillations predicts the amplitude of peri-saccadic mislocalization (United States)

    McLelland, Douglas; Lavergne, Louisa; VanRullen, Rufin


    Our constant eye movements mean that updating processes, such as saccadic remapping, are essential for the maintenance of a stable spatial representation of the world around us. It has been proposed that, rather than continually update a full spatiotopic map, only the location of a few key objects is updated, suggesting that the process is linked to attention. At the same time, mounting evidence links attention to oscillatory neuronal processes. We therefore hypothesized that updating processes should themselves show oscillatory characteristics, inherited from underlying attentional processes. To test this, we carried out a combined psychophysics and EEG experiment in human participants, using a saccadic mislocalization task as a behaviourally measureable proxy for spatial updating, and simultaneously recording 64-channel EEG. We then used a time-frequency analysis to test for a correlation between oscillation phase and perceptual outcome. We found a significant phase-dependence of mislocalization in a time-frequency region from around 400 ms prior to saccade initiation and peaking at around 7 Hz, principally apparent over occipital electrodes. Thus the degree of perceived mislocalization is correlated with the phase of a theta-frequency oscillation prior to saccade onset. We conclude that spatial updating processes are indeed linked to rhythmic processes in the brain. PMID:27403937

  16. Stimulus-response incompatibility eliminates inhibitory cueing effects with saccadic but not manual responses. (United States)

    Eng, Vivian; Lim, Alfred; Kwon, Simon; Gan, Su Ren; Jamaluddin, S Azrin; Janssen, Steve M J; Satel, Jason


    There are thought to be two forms of inhibition of return (IOR) depending on whether the oculomotor system is activated or suppressed. When saccades are allowed, output-based IOR is generated, whereas input-based IOR arises when saccades are prohibited. In a series of 4 experiments, we mixed or blocked compatible and incompatible trials with saccadic or manual responses to investigate whether cueing effects would follow the same pattern as those observed with more traditional peripheral onsets and central arrows. In all experiments, an uninformative cue was displayed, followed by a cue-back stimulus that was either red or green, indicating whether a compatible or incompatible response was required. The results showed that IOR was indeed observed for compatible responses in all tasks, whereas IOR was eliminated for incompatible trials-but only with saccadic responses. These findings indicate that the dissociation between input- and output-based forms of IOR depends on more than just oculomotor activation, providing further support for the existence of an inhibitory cueing effect that is distinct to the manual response modality.

  17. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Reflexive and Voluntary Saccades in Non-Human Primates (United States)

    Johnston, Kevin; Everling, Stefan


    A multitude of cognitive functions can easily be tested by a number of relatively simple saccadic eye movement tasks. This approach has been employed extensively with patient populations to investigate the functional deficits associated with psychiatric disorders. Neurophysiological studies in non-human primates performing the same tasks have…

  18. Impaired Oculomotor Behavior of Children with Developmental Dyslexia in Antisaccades and Predictive Saccades Tasks. (United States)

    Lukasova, Katerina; Silva, Isadora P; Macedo, Elizeu C


    Analysis of eye movement patterns during tracking tasks represents a potential way to identify differences in the cognitive processing and motor mechanisms underlying reading in dyslexic children before the occurrence of school failure. The current study aimed to evaluate the pattern of eye movements in antisaccades, predictive saccades and visually guided saccades in typical readers and readers with developmental dyslexia. The study included 30 children (age M = 11; SD = 1.67), 15 diagnosed with developmental dyslexia (DG) and 15 regular readers (CG), matched by age, gender and school grade. Cognitive assessment was performed prior to the eye-tracking task during which both eyes were registered using the Tobii® 1750 eye-tracking device. The results demonstrated a lower correct antisaccades rate in dyslexic children compared to the controls (p < 0.001, DG = 25%, CC = 37%). Dyslexic children also made fewer saccades in predictive latency (p < 0.001, DG = 34%, CG = 46%, predictive latency within -300-120 ms with target as 0 point). No between-group difference was found for visually guided saccades. In this task, both groups showed shorter latency for right-side targets. The results indicated altered oculomotor behavior in dyslexic children, which has been reported in previous studies. We extend these findings by demonstrating impaired implicit learning of target's time/position patterns in dyslexic children.

  19. Memory-guided saccade processing in visual form agnosia (patient DF). (United States)

    Rossit, Stéphanie; Szymanek, Larissa; Butler, Stephen H; Harvey, Monika


    According to Milner and Goodale's model (The visual brain in action, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006) areas in the ventral visual stream mediate visual perception and oV-line actions, whilst regions in the dorsal visual stream mediate the on-line visual control of action. Strong evidence for this model comes from a patient (DF), who suffers from visual form agnosia after bilateral damage to the ventro-lateral occipital region, sparing V1. It has been reported that she is normal in immediate reaching and grasping, yet severely impaired when asked to perform delayed actions. Here we investigated whether this dissociation would extend to saccade execution. Neurophysiological studies and TMS work in humans have shown that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), on the right in particular (supposedly spared in DF), is involved in the control of memory-guided saccades. Surprisingly though, we found that, just as reported for reaching and grasping, DF's saccadic accuracy was much reduced in the memory compared to the stimulus-guided condition. These data support the idea of a tight coupling of eye and hand movements and further suggest that dorsal stream structures may not be sufficient to drive memory-guided saccadic performance.

  20. Impaired Oculomotor Behavior of Children with Developmental Dyslexia in Antisaccades and Predictive Saccades Tasks (United States)

    Lukasova, Katerina; Silva, Isadora P.; Macedo, Elizeu C.


    Analysis of eye movement patterns during tracking tasks represents a potential way to identify differences in the cognitive processing and motor mechanisms underlying reading in dyslexic children before the occurrence of school failure. The current study aimed to evaluate the pattern of eye movements in antisaccades, predictive saccades and visually guided saccades in typical readers and readers with developmental dyslexia. The study included 30 children (age M = 11; SD = 1.67), 15 diagnosed with developmental dyslexia (DG) and 15 regular readers (CG), matched by age, gender and school grade. Cognitive assessment was performed prior to the eye-tracking task during which both eyes were registered using the Tobii® 1750 eye-tracking device. The results demonstrated a lower correct antisaccades rate in dyslexic children compared to the controls (p < 0.001, DG = 25%, CC = 37%). Dyslexic children also made fewer saccades in predictive latency (p < 0.001, DG = 34%, CG = 46%, predictive latency within −300–120 ms with target as 0 point). No between-group difference was found for visually guided saccades. In this task, both groups showed shorter latency for right-side targets. The results indicated altered oculomotor behavior in dyslexic children, which has been reported in previous studies. We extend these findings by demonstrating impaired implicit learning of target's time/position patterns in dyslexic children. PMID:27445945

  1. Saccadic Eye Movements Impose a Natural Bottleneck on Visual Short-Term Memory (United States)

    Ohl, Sven; Rolfs, Martin


    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a crucial repository of information when events unfold rapidly before our eyes, yet it maintains only a fraction of the sensory information encoded by the visual system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements provide a natural bottleneck for the transition of fragile content in sensory memory…

  2. Bilateral Saccadic Eye Movements and Tactile Stimulation, but Not Auditory Stimulation, Enhance Memory Retrieval (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Ras, Priscilla H.; Berends, Floris; Duijs, Peter; Samara, Zoe; Slagter, Heleen A.


    Recent research has shown superior memory retrieval when participants make a series of horizontal saccadic eye movements between the memory encoding phase and the retrieval phase compared to participants who do not move their eyes or move their eyes vertically. It has been hypothesized that the rapidly alternating activation of the two hemispheres…

  3. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor plasticity in human lateral cerebellum : Dual effect on saccadic adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panouilleres, Muriel; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Gutteling, Tjerk P.; Salemme, Romeo; van der Stigchel, Stefan; van der Geest, Josef N.; Frens, Maarten A.; Pelisson, Denis


    The cerebellum is a key area for movement control and sensory-motor plasticity. Its medial part is considered as the exclusive cerebellar center controlling the accuracy and adaptive calibration of saccadic eye movements. However, the contribution of other zones situated in its lateral part is unkno

  4. Effects of Saccadic Bilateral Eye Movements on Memory in Children and Adults: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil


    The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on true and false memory in adults and children were investigated. Both adults and children encoded lists of associated words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm followed by a test of recognition memory. Just prior to retrieval, participants were asked to engage in 30 s of bilateral…

  5. Bilateral saccadic eye movements and tactile stimulation, but not auditory stimulation, enhance memory retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Ras, P.H.; Berends, F.; Duijs, P.; Samara, Z.; Slagter, H.A.


    Recent research has shown superior memory retrieval when participants make a series of horizontal saccadic eye movements between the memory encoding phase and the retrieval phase compared to participants who do not move their eyes or move their eyes vertically. It has been hypothesized that the rapi

  6. The effect of spatial-temporal audiovisual disparities on saccades in a complex scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooij, M.M. van; Bell, A.H.; Munoz, D.P.; Opstal, A.J. van


    In a previous study we quantified the effect of multisensory integration on the latency and accuracy of saccadic eye movements toward spatially aligned audiovisual (AV) stimuli within a rich AV-background (Corneil et al. in J Neurophysiol 88:438-454, 2002). In those experiments both stimulus modalit

  7. A model of saccade generation based on parallel processing and competitive inhibition. (United States)

    Findlay, J M; Walker, R


    During active vision, the eyes continually scan the visual environment using saccadic scanning movements. This target article presents an information processing model for the control of these movements, with some close parallels to established physiological processes in the oculomotor system. Two separate pathways are concerned with the spatial and the temporal programming of the movement. In the temporal pathway there is spatially distributed coding and the saccade target is selected from a "salience map." Both pathways descend through a hierarchy of levels, the lower ones operating automatically. Visual onsets have automatic access to the eye control system via the lower levels. Various centres in each pathway are interconnected via reciprocal inhibition. The model accounts for a number of well-established phenomena in target-elicited saccades: the gap effect, express saccades, the remote distractor effect, and the global effect. High-level control of the pathways in tasks such as visual search and reading is discussed; it operates through spatial selection and search selection, which generally combine in an automated way. The model is examined in relation to data from patients with unilateral neglect.

  8. Differential effects of olanzapine and risperidone on cognition in schizophrenia? A saccadic eye movement study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, A; Crawford, TJ; den Boer, JA


    Recent studies suggest that novel antipsychotics have positive effects on certain cognitive functions in schizophrenia. The present study investigated this claim by means of saccadic paradigms, which provide a selective index of cognitive function. Thirty-three first-episode schizophrenic patients w

  9. Influence of gap and overlap paradigms on saccade latencies and vergence eye movements in seven-year-old children. (United States)

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Pouvreau, Nathalie; Yang, Qing; Kapoula, Zoï


    The latency of eye movements is influenced by the fixation task; when the fixation stimulus is switched off before the target presentation (gap paradigm) the latency becomes short and express movements occur. In contrast, when the fixation stimulus remains on when the target appears (overlap paradigm), eye movement latency is longer. Several previous studies have shown increased rates of express saccades in children; however the presence of an express type of latency for vergence and combined movements in children has never been explored. The present study examines the effects of the gap and the overlap paradigms on horizontal saccades at far (150 cm) and at close (20 cm) viewing distances, on vergence along the median plane, and on saccades combined with convergence or divergence in 15 normal seven-year-old children. The results show that the gap paradigm produced shorter latency for all eye movements than the overlap paradigm, but the difference was only significant for saccades at close viewing distances, for divergence (pure and combined), and for saccades combined with vergence. The gap paradigm produced significantly higher rates of express latencies for saccades at close viewing distances, for divergence, and for saccades combined with divergence; in contrast, the frequencies of express latencies for saccades at far viewing distances and for convergence (pure or combined) were similar in the gap and the overlap paradigms. Interestingly, the rate of anticipatory latencies (gap paradigm. Our collective findings suggest that the initiation of saccades at close viewing distances and of divergence is more reflexive, particularly in the gap paradigm. The finding of frequent anticipatory divergence that occurs at similar rates for seven-year-old children (this study) and for adults (Coubard et al., 2004, Exp Brain Res 154:368-381) indicates that predictive initiation of divergence is dominant.

  10. On the reduced influence of contour on saccade metrics and its competition with stimulus size. (United States)

    Massendari, Delphine; Tandonnet, Christophe; Vitu, Françoise


    It is well known that the metrical properties of saccadic eye movements are strongly influenced by the extraction of low-level visual features (e.g., luminance). Higher-level visual features (e.g., contour) also play a role, but their relative contribution and time course remain undetermined. Here, we investigated this issue, by testing the influence of contour on saccade metrics. We used a saccade-targeting task in which a peripheral target was, on some trials, simultaneously displayed with a less eccentric distractor. This paradigm is known to yield a global effect, that is a deviation of the eyes towards an intermediate location between the stimuli. The novelty was to test whether this effect would vary with the alignment of the distractor's elementary features. Distractors were of high vs. low luminance, and composed of 16 pixels that were either aligned or misaligned by 0.23° or 0.43°. Our prediction, under the hypothesis that contour intervenes, was that aligned distractors, which formed a definite contour, would deviate the eyes more strongly than misaligned distractors. On the contrary, we found that distractors of high luminance produced greater eye deviations when they were misaligned, and hence more largely spread, than when they were aligned. Furthermore, low-luminance distractors deviated the eyes to the same extent irrespective of their alignment, though showing a reversed, contour-like, effect of alignment for early-triggered saccades. We proposed that contour has only limited influence on saccade metrics, when other, lower-level and more salient visual features, such as the extent of the stimulus pattern, are available.

  11. Velocity centroids as tracers of the turbulent velocity statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A E A


    We use the results of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to emulate spectroscopic observations, and produce maps of variations of velocity centroids to study their scaling properties. We compare them with those of the underlying velocity field, and analytic predictions presented in a previous paper (Lazarian & Esquivel 2003). We tested, with success, a criteria for recovering velocity statistics from velocity centroids derived in our previous work. That is, if >> (where S is a 2D map of ``unnormalized'', v velocity, and I integrated intensity map -column density-), then the structure function of the centroids is dominated by the structure function of velocity. We show that it is possible to extract the velocity statistics using centroids for subsonic and mildly supersonic turbulence (e.g. Mach numbers ~2.5). While, towards higher Mach numbers other effects could affect significantly the statistics of centroids.

  12. Trans-saccadic interactions in human parietal and occipital cortex during the retention and comparison of object orientation. (United States)

    Dunkley, Benjamin T; Baltaretu, Bianca; Crawford, J Douglas


    The cortical sites for the trans-saccadic storage and integration of visual object features are unknown. Here, we used a variant of fMRI-Adaptation where subjects fixated to the left or right of a briefly presented visual grating, maintained fixation or saccaded to the opposite side, then judged whether a re-presented grating had the same or different orientation. fMRI analysis revealed trans-saccadic interactions (different > same orientation) in a visual field-insensitive cluster within right supramarginal gyrus. This cluster was located at the anterolateral pole of the parietal eye field (identified in a localizer task). We also observed gaze centered, field-specific interactions (same > different orientation) in an extrastriate cluster overlapping with putative 'V4'. Based on these data and our literature review, we conclude that these supramarginal and extrastriate areas are involved in the retention, spatial updating, and evaluation of object orientation information across saccades.

  13. Ganzfeld stimulation or sleep enhance long term motor memory consolidation compared to normal viewing in saccadic adaptation paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Voges

    Full Text Available Adaptation of saccade amplitude in response to intra-saccadic target displacement is a type of implicit motor learning which is required to compensate for physiological changes in saccade performance. Once established trials without intra-saccadic target displacement lead to de-adaptation or extinction, which has been attributed either to extra-retinal mechanisms of spatial constancy or to the influence of the stable visual surroundings. Therefore we investigated whether visual deprivation ("Ganzfeld"-stimulation or sleep can partially maintain this motor learning compared to free viewing of the natural surroundings. Thirty-five healthy volunteers performed two adaptation blocks of 100 inward adaptation trials - interspersed by an extinction block - which were followed by a two-hour break with or without visual deprivation (VD. Using additional adaptation and extinction blocks short and long (4 weeks term memory of this implicit motor learning were tested. In the short term, motor memory tested immediately after free viewing was superior to adaptation performance after VD. In the long run, however, effects were opposite: motor memory and relearning of adaptation was superior in the VD conditions. This could imply independent mechanisms that underlie the short-term ability of retrieving learned saccadic gain and its long term consolidation. We suggest that subjects mainly rely on visual cues (i.e., retinal error in the free viewing condition which makes them prone to changes of the visual stimulus in the extinction block. This indicates the role of a stable visual array for resetting adapted saccade amplitudes. In contrast, visual deprivation (GS and sleep, might train subjects to rely on extra-retinal cues, e.g., efference copy or prediction to remap their internal representations of saccade targets, thus leading to better consolidation of saccadic adaptation.

  14. Back to basics: The effects of block vs. interleaved trial administration on pro- and anti-saccade performance. (United States)

    Zeligman, Liran; Zivotofsky, Ari Z


    The pro and anti-saccade task (PAT) is a widely used tool in the study of overt and covert attention with promising potential role in neurocognitive and psychiatric assessment. However, specific PAT protocols can vary significantly between labs, potentially resulting in large variations in findings across studies. In light of recent calls towards a standardization of PAT the current study's objective was to systematically and purposely evaluate the effects of block vs. interleaved administration-a fundamental consideration-on PAT measures in a within subject design. Additionally, this study evaluated whether measures of a Posner-type cueing paradigm parallels measures of the PAT paradigm. As hypothesized, results indicate that PAT performance is highly susceptible to administration mode. Interleaved mode resulted in larger error rates not only for anti (blocks: M = 22%; interleaved: M = 42%) but also for pro-saccades (blocks: M = 5%; interleaved: M = 12%). This difference between block and interleaved administration was significantly larger in anti-saccades compared to pro-saccades and cannot be attributed to a 'speed/accuracy tradeoff'. Interleaved mode produced larger pro and anti-saccade differences in error rates while block administration produced larger latency differences. Results question the reflexive nature of pro-saccades, suggesting they are not purely reflexive. These results were further discussed and compared to previous studies that included within subject data of blocks and interleaved trials.

  15. Age-related deficits in voluntary control over saccadic eye movements: consideration of electrical brain stimulation as a therapeutic strategy. (United States)

    Chen, Po Ling; Machado, Liana


    Sudden changes in our visual environment trigger reflexive eye movements, so automatically they often go unnoticed. Consequently, voluntary control over reflexive eye movements entails considerable effort. In relation to frontal-lobe deterioration, adult aging adversely impacts voluntary saccadic eye movement control in particular, which compromises effective performance of daily activities. Here, we review the nature of age-related changes in saccadic control, focusing primarily on the antisaccade task because of its assessment of 2 key age-sensitive control functions: reflexive saccade inhibition and voluntary saccade generation. With an ultimate view toward facilitating development of therapeutic strategies, we systematically review the neuroanatomy underpinning voluntary control over saccadic eye movements and natural mechanisms that kick in to compensate for age-related declines. We then explore the potential of noninvasive electrical brain stimulation to counteract aging deficits. Based on evidence that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation can confer a range of benefits specifically relevant to aging brains, we put forward this neuromodulation technique as a therapeutic strategy for improving voluntary saccadic eye movement control in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Reduction of the Effect of the Müller—Lyer Illusion on Saccade Amplitude by Classic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Knox


    Full Text Available The effect of Müller—Lyer stimuli on saccade amplitude varies across studies. One methodological difference between studies is stimulus display time; studies with long stimulus display times tend to report smaller effects than studies with short display times. Is it possible that long display times might provide conditions in which saccade adaption takes place? Five adult subjects were exposed to runs of the same illusion-inducing Müller—Lyer stimulus, presented for 1 s, interspersed with probe trials in which a point target was presented for 200 ms. While saccade amplitude was consistently larger with ‘in-configurations’ than with ‘out-configurations’ at the beginning of runs, amplitude declined over runs with the in-configuration. On average, it was constant in out-configuration runs. The net effect was a decline in the apparent effect size (in-amp - out-amp / out-amp of the Müller—Lyer stimulus. Probe trial saccade amplitude increased in ‘out’ runs and decreased in ‘in’ runs. These effects were not present in control experiments, in which stimulus display time was 200 ms. One explanation for this pattern of results is that long stimulus presentation times allow for the generation of retinal error signals. This in turn leads to saccade adaptation, causing an underestimation of the effect of this type of stimulus on saccade amplitude.

  17. Geometry and Gesture-Based Features from Saccadic Eye-Movement as a Biometric in Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Tracy [Texas A& M University, College Station; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Alamudun, Folami T. [ORNL


    In this study, we present a novel application of sketch gesture recognition on eye-movement for biometric identification and estimating task expertise. The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions collected for 100 mammographic cases (25 normal, 25 benign, 50 malignant) and 10 readers (three board certified radiologists and seven radiology residents), formed the corpus for this study. Sketch gesture recognition techniques were employed to extract geometric and gesture-based features from saccadic eye-movements. Our results show that saccadic eye-movement, characterized using sketch-based features, result in more accurate models for predicting individual identity and level of expertise than more traditional eye-tracking features.

  18. Association of Attention Deficit Disorder With Bedside Anti-saccades in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia. (United States)

    Khan, Raja B; Hudson, Melissa M; Ness, Kirsten K; Liang, Zhu; Srivastava, Deokumar; Krull, Kevin R


    Impaired attention is well recognized in childhood cancer survivors. We prospectively evaluated 162 long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia to study an association between presence of neurologic soft signs as measured by Zurich Neuromotor Scale, bedside evaluation of anti-saccades, and attention deficit disorder. Attention deficit disorder was recognized in 10.5% of the study cohort. We did not find an association of attention deficit with presence of any soft sign. However, there was an association between presence of abnormal anti-saccades and attention deficit (P = .04). These results will require further validation and if confirmed may introduce a quick bedside method of assessing impaired attention in cancer survivors.

  19. How Lovebirds Maneuver Rapidly Using Super-Fast Head Saccades and Image Feature Stabilization. (United States)

    Kress, Daniel; van Bokhorst, Evelien; Lentink, David


    Diurnal flying animals such as birds depend primarily on vision to coordinate their flight path during goal-directed flight tasks. To extract the spatial structure of the surrounding environment, birds are thought to use retinal image motion (optical flow) that is primarily induced by motion of their head. It is unclear what gaze behaviors birds perform to support visuomotor control during rapid maneuvering flight in which they continuously switch between flight modes. To analyze this, we measured the gaze behavior of rapidly turning lovebirds in a goal-directed task: take-off and fly away from a perch, turn on a dime, and fly back and land on the same perch. High-speed flight recordings revealed that rapidly turning lovebirds perform a remarkable stereotypical gaze behavior with peak saccadic head turns up to 2700 degrees per second, as fast as insects, enabled by fast neck muscles. In between saccades, gaze orientation is held constant. By comparing saccade and wingbeat phase, we find that these super-fast saccades are coordinated with the downstroke when the lateral visual field is occluded by the wings. Lovebirds thus maximize visual perception by overlying behaviors that impair vision, which helps coordinate maneuvers. Before the turn, lovebirds keep a high contrast edge in their visual midline. Similarly, before landing, the lovebirds stabilize the center of the perch in their visual midline. The perch on which the birds land swings, like a branch in the wind, and we find that retinal size of the perch is the most parsimonious visual cue to initiate landing. Our observations show that rapidly maneuvering birds use precisely timed stereotypic gaze behaviors consisting of rapid head turns and frontal feature stabilization, which facilitates optical flow based flight control. Similar gaze behaviors have been reported for visually navigating humans. This finding can inspire more effective vision-based autopilots for drones.

  20. An Attention-Sensitive Memory Trace in Macaque MT Following Saccadic Eye Movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yao


    Full Text Available We experience a visually stable world despite frequent retinal image displacements induced by eye, head, and body movements. The neural mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. One mechanism that may contribute is transsaccadic remapping, in which the responses of some neurons in various attentional, oculomotor, and visual brain areas appear to anticipate the consequences of saccades. The functional role of transsaccadic remapping is actively debated, and many of its key properties remain unknown. Here, recording from two monkeys trained to make a saccade while directing attention to one of two spatial locations, we show that neurons in the middle temporal area (MT, a key locus in the motion-processing pathway of humans and macaques, show a form of transsaccadic remapping called a memory trace. The memory trace in MT neurons is enhanced by the allocation of top-down spatial attention. Our data provide the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of the influence of top-down attention on the memory trace anywhere in the brain. We find evidence only for a small and transient effect of motion direction on the memory trace (and in only one of two monkeys, arguing against a role for MT in the theoretically critical yet empirically contentious phenomenon of spatiotopic feature-comparison and adaptation transfer across saccades. Our data support the hypothesis that transsaccadic remapping represents the shift of attentional pointers in a retinotopic map, so that relevant locations can be tracked and rapidly processed across saccades. Our results resolve important issues concerning the perisaccadic representation of visual stimuli in the dorsal stream and demonstrate a significant role for top-down attention in modulating this representation.

  1. Functional Asymmetries Revealed in Visually Guided Saccades: An fMRI Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, L.; Zago, L.; Vigneau, M.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B.; Mellet, E.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. [Centre for Imaging, Neurosciences and Applications to Pathologies, UMR6232 CNRS CEA (France); Mazoyer, B. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Caen (France); Andersson, F. [Institut Federatif de Recherche 135, Imagerie fonctionnelle, Tours (France); Mazoyer, B. [Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France)


    Because eye movements are a fundamental tool for spatial exploration, we hypothesized that the neural bases of these movements in humans should be under right cerebral dominance, as already described for spatial attention. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 right-handed participants who alternated central fixation with either large or small visually guided saccades (VGS), equally performed in both directions. Hemispheric functional asymmetry was analyzed to identify whether brain regions showing VGS activation elicited hemispheric asymmetries. Hemispheric anatomical asymmetry was also estimated to assess its influence on the VGS functional lateralization. Right asymmetrical activations of a saccadic/attentional system were observed in the lateral frontal eye fields (FEF), the anterior part of the intra-parietal sulcus (aIPS), the posterior third of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), the occipito-temporal junction (MT/V5 area), the middle occipital gyrus, and medially along the calcarine fissure (V1). The present rightward functional asymmetries were not related to differences in gray matter (GM) density/sulci positions between right and left hemispheres in the pre-central, intra-parietal, superior temporal, and extrastriate regions. Only V1 asymmetries were explained for almost 20% of the variance by a difference in the position of the right and left calcarine fissures. Left asymmetrical activations of a saccadic motor system were observed in the medial FEF and in the motor strip eye field along the Rolando sulcus. They were not explained by GM asymmetries. We suggest that the leftward saccadic motor asymmetry is part of a general dominance of the left motor cortex in right-handers, which must include an effect of sighting dominance. Our results demonstrate that, although bilateral by nature, the brain network involved in the execution of VGSs, irrespective of their direction, presented specific right and left asymmetries that were not related to

  2. Free Exploration of Painting Uncovers Particularly Loose Yoking of Saccades in Dyslexics (United States)

    Kapoula, Zoi; Ganem, Rebecca; Poncet, Sarah; Gintautas, Daunys; Eggert, Thomas; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Bucci, Maria Pia


    Binocular yoking of saccades is essential for single vision of words during reading. This study examines the quality of binocular coordination in individuals with dyslexia, independent of the process of reading. Fifteen dyslexia children (11.2 plus or minus 1.4 years) and 15 non-dyslexia individuals (8 children, aged 11.1 plus or minus 1.3 years,…

  3. Saccade selection when reward probability is dynamically manipulated using Markov chains. (United States)

    Nummela, Samuel U; Lovejoy, Lee P; Krauzlis, Richard J


    Markov chains (stochastic processes where probabilities are assigned based on the previous outcome) are commonly used to examine the transitions between behavioral states, such as those that occur during foraging or social interactions. However, relatively little is known about how well primates can incorporate knowledge about Markov chains into their behavior. Saccadic eye movements are an example of a simple behavior influenced by information about probability, and thus are good candidates for testing whether subjects can learn Markov chains. In addition, when investigating the influence of probability on saccade target selection, the use of Markov chains could provide an alternative method that avoids confounds present in other task designs. To investigate these possibilities, we evaluated human behavior on a task in which stimulus reward probabilities were assigned using a Markov chain. On each trial, the subject selected one of four identical stimuli by saccade; after selection, feedback indicated the rewarded stimulus. Each session consisted of 200-600 trials, and on some sessions, the reward magnitude varied. On sessions with a uniform reward, subjects (n = 6) learned to select stimuli at a frequency close to reward probability, which is similar to human behavior on matching or probability classification tasks. When informed that a Markov chain assigned reward probabilities, subjects (n = 3) learned to select the greatest reward probability more often, bringing them close to behavior that maximizes reward. On sessions where reward magnitude varied across stimuli, subjects (n = 6) demonstrated preferences for both greater reward probability and greater reward magnitude, resulting in a preference for greater expected value (the product of reward probability and magnitude). These results demonstrate that Markov chains can be used to dynamically assign probabilities that are rapidly exploited by human subjects during saccade target selection.

  4. How Lovebirds Maneuver Rapidly Using Super-Fast Head Saccades and Image Feature Stabilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kress

    Full Text Available Diurnal flying animals such as birds depend primarily on vision to coordinate their flight path during goal-directed flight tasks. To extract the spatial structure of the surrounding environment, birds are thought to use retinal image motion (optical flow that is primarily induced by motion of their head. It is unclear what gaze behaviors birds perform to support visuomotor control during rapid maneuvering flight in which they continuously switch between flight modes. To analyze this, we measured the gaze behavior of rapidly turning lovebirds in a goal-directed task: take-off and fly away from a perch, turn on a dime, and fly back and land on the same perch. High-speed flight recordings revealed that rapidly turning lovebirds perform a remarkable stereotypical gaze behavior with peak saccadic head turns up to 2700 degrees per second, as fast as insects, enabled by fast neck muscles. In between saccades, gaze orientation is held constant. By comparing saccade and wingbeat phase, we find that these super-fast saccades are coordinated with the downstroke when the lateral visual field is occluded by the wings. Lovebirds thus maximize visual perception by overlying behaviors that impair vision, which helps coordinate maneuvers. Before the turn, lovebirds keep a high contrast edge in their visual midline. Similarly, before landing, the lovebirds stabilize the center of the perch in their visual midline. The perch on which the birds land swings, like a branch in the wind, and we find that retinal size of the perch is the most parsimonious visual cue to initiate landing. Our observations show that rapidly maneuvering birds use precisely timed stereotypic gaze behaviors consisting of rapid head turns and frontal feature stabilization, which facilitates optical flow based flight control. Similar gaze behaviors have been reported for visually navigating humans. This finding can inspire more effective vision-based autopilots for drones.

  5. Effects of preparation time and trial type probability on performance of anti- and pro-saccades. (United States)

    Pierce, Jordan E; McDowell, Jennifer E


    Cognitive control optimizes responses to relevant task conditions by balancing bottom-up stimulus processing with top-down goal pursuit. It can be investigated using the ocular motor system by contrasting basic prosaccades (look toward a stimulus) with complex antisaccades (look away from a stimulus). Furthermore, the amount of time allotted between trials, the need to switch task sets, and the time allowed to prepare for an upcoming saccade all impact performance. In this study the relative probabilities of anti- and pro-saccades were manipulated across five blocks of interleaved trials, while the inter-trial interval and trial type cue duration were varied across subjects. Results indicated that inter-trial interval had no significant effect on error rates or reaction times (RTs), while a shorter trial type cue led to more antisaccade errors and faster overall RTs. Responses following a shorter cue duration also showed a stronger effect of trial type probability, with more antisaccade errors in blocks with a low antisaccade probability and slower RTs for each saccade task when its trial type was unlikely. A longer cue duration yielded fewer errors and slower RTs, with a larger switch cost for errors compared to a short cue duration. Findings demonstrated that when the trial type cue duration was shorter, visual motor responsiveness was faster and subjects relied upon the implicit trial probability context to improve performance. When the cue duration was longer, increased fixation-related activity may have delayed saccade motor preparation and slowed responses, guiding subjects to respond in a controlled manner regardless of trial type probability.

  6. [Development of auditory-visual spatial integration using saccadic response time as the index]. (United States)

    Kato, Masaharu; Konishi, Kaoru; Kurosawa, Makiko; Konishi, Yukuo


    We measured saccadic response time (SRT) to investigate developmental changes related to spatially aligned or misaligned auditory and visual stimuli responses. We exposed 4-, 5-, and 11-month-old infants to ipsilateral or contralateral auditory-visual stimuli and monitored their eye movements using an electro-oculographic (EOG) system. The SRT analyses revealed four main results. First, saccades were triggered by visual stimuli but not always triggered by auditory stimuli. Second, SRTs became shorter as the children grew older. Third, SRTs for the ipsilateral and visual-only conditions were the same in all infants. Fourth, SRTs for the contralateral condition were longer than for the ipsilateral and visual-only conditions in 11-month-old infants but were the same for all three conditions in 4- and 5-month-old infants. These findings suggest that infants acquire the function of auditory-visual spatial integration underlying saccadic eye movement between the ages of 5 and 11 months. The dependency of SRTs on the spatial configuration of auditory and visual stimuli can be explained by cortical control of the superior colliculus. Our finding of no differences in SRTs between the ipsilateral and visual-only conditions suggests that there are multiple pathways for controlling the superior colliculus and that these pathways have different developmental time courses.

  7. Eye-tracking in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A longitudinal study of saccadic and cognitive tasks. (United States)

    Proudfoot, Malcolm; Menke, Ricarda A L; Sharma, Rakesh; Berna, Claire M; Hicks, Stephen L; Kennard, Christopher; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R


    A relative preservation of eye movements is notable in ALS, but saccadic functions have not been studied longitudinally. ALS overlaps with FTD, typically involving executive dysfunction, and eye-tracking offers additional potential for the assessment of extramotor pathology where writing and speaking are both impaired. Eye-tracking measures (including anti-saccade, trail-making and visual search tasks) were assessed at six-monthly intervals for up to two years in a group of ALS (n = 61) and primary lateral sclerosis (n = 7) patients, compared to healthy age-matched controls (n = 39) assessed on a single occasion. Task performance was explored speculatively in relation to resting-state functional MRI (R-FMRI) network connectivity. Results showed that ALS patients were impaired on executive and visual search tasks despite normal basic saccadic function, and impairments in the PLS patients were unexpectedly often more severe. No significant progression was detected longitudinally in either group. No changes in R-FMRI network connectivity were identified in relation to patient performance. In conclusion, eye-tracking offers an objective means to assess extramotor cerebral involvement in ALS. The relative resistance of pure oculomotor function is confirmed, and higher-level executive impairments do not follow the same rate of decline as physical disability. PLS patients may have more cortical dysfunction than has been previously appreciated.

  8. Spatial attention, precision, and Bayesian inference: a study of saccadic response speed. (United States)

    Vossel, Simone; Mathys, Christoph; Daunizeau, Jean; Bauer, Markus; Driver, Jon; Friston, Karl J; Stephan, Klaas E


    Inferring the environment's statistical structure and adapting behavior accordingly is a fundamental modus operandi of the brain. A simple form of this faculty based on spatial attentional orienting can be studied with Posner's location-cueing paradigm in which a cue indicates the target location with a known probability. The present study focuses on a more complex version of this task, where probabilistic context (percentage of cue validity) changes unpredictably over time, thereby creating a volatile environment. Saccadic response speed (RS) was recorded in 15 subjects and used to estimate subject-specific parameters of a Bayesian learning scheme modeling the subjects' trial-by-trial updates of beliefs. Different response models-specifying how computational states translate into observable behavior-were compared using Bayesian model selection. Saccadic RS was most plausibly explained as a function of the precision of the belief about the causes of sensory input. This finding is in accordance with current Bayesian theories of brain function, and specifically with the proposal that spatial attention is mediated by a precision-dependent gain modulation of sensory input. Our results provide empirical support for precision-dependent changes in beliefs about saccade target locations and motivate future neuroimaging and neuropharmacological studies of how Bayesian inference may determine spatial attention.

  9. Saccade generation by the frontal eye fields in rhesus monkeys is separable from visual detection and bottom-up attention shift. (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Min; Ahn, Kyung-Ha; Keller, Edward L


    The frontal eye fields (FEF), originally identified as an oculomotor cortex, have also been implicated in perceptual functions, such as constructing a visual saliency map and shifting visual attention. Further dissecting the area's role in the transformation from visual input to oculomotor command has been difficult because of spatial confounding between stimuli and responses and consequently between intermediate cognitive processes, such as attention shift and saccade preparation. Here we developed two tasks in which the visual stimulus and the saccade response were dissociated in space (the extended memory-guided saccade task), and bottom-up attention shift and saccade target selection were independent (the four-alternative delayed saccade task). Reversible inactivation of the FEF in rhesus monkeys disrupted, as expected, contralateral memory-guided saccades, but visual detection was demonstrated to be intact at the same field. Moreover, saccade behavior was impaired when a bottom-up shift of attention was not a prerequisite for saccade target selection, indicating that the inactivation effect was independent of the previously reported dysfunctions in bottom-up attention control. These findings underscore the motor aspect of the area's functions, especially in situations where saccades are generated by internal cognitive processes, including visual short-term memory and long-term associative memory.

  10. Saccade generation by the frontal eye fields in rhesus monkeys is separable from visual detection and bottom-up attention shift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min Lee

    Full Text Available The frontal eye fields (FEF, originally identified as an oculomotor cortex, have also been implicated in perceptual functions, such as constructing a visual saliency map and shifting visual attention. Further dissecting the area's role in the transformation from visual input to oculomotor command has been difficult because of spatial confounding between stimuli and responses and consequently between intermediate cognitive processes, such as attention shift and saccade preparation. Here we developed two tasks in which the visual stimulus and the saccade response were dissociated in space (the extended memory-guided saccade task, and bottom-up attention shift and saccade target selection were independent (the four-alternative delayed saccade task. Reversible inactivation of the FEF in rhesus monkeys disrupted, as expected, contralateral memory-guided saccades, but visual detection was demonstrated to be intact at the same field. Moreover, saccade behavior was impaired when a bottom-up shift of attention was not a prerequisite for saccade target selection, indicating that the inactivation effect was independent of the previously reported dysfunctions in bottom-up attention control. These findings underscore the motor aspect of the area's functions, especially in situations where saccades are generated by internal cognitive processes, including visual short-term memory and long-term associative memory.

  11. Saccadic eye movements in a high-speed bimanual stacking task: changes of attentional control during learning and automatization. (United States)

    Foerster, Rebecca M; Carbone, Elena; Koesling, Hendrik; Schneider, Werner X


    Principles of saccadic eye movement control in the real world have been derived by the study of self-paced well-known tasks such as sandwich or tea making. Little is known whether these principles generalize to high-speed sensorimotor tasks and how they are affected by learning and automatization. In the present study, right-handers practiced the speed-stacking task in 14 consecutive daily training sessions, while their eye movements were recorded. Speed stacking is a high-speed sensorimotor task that requires grasping, moving, rotating, and placing of objects. The following main results emerged. Throughout practice, the eyes led the hands, displayed by a positive eye-hand time span. Moreover, visual information was gathered for the subsequent manual sub-action, displayed by a positive eye-hand unit span. With automatization, the eye-hand time span became shorter, yet it increased when corrected by the decreasing trial duration. In addition, fixations were mainly allocated to the goal positions of the right hand or objects in the right hand. The number of fixations decreased while the fixation rate remained constant. Importantly, all participants fixated on the same task-relevant locations in a similar scan path across training days, revealing a long-term memory-based mode of attention control after automatization of a high-speed sensorimotor task.

  12. Saccadic Suppression of Flash Detection: the Uncertainty Theory VS. Alternative Theories. (United States)

    Greenhouse, Daniel Stephen

    Helmholtz('1) and others have proposed that when a saccadic eye movement occurs, stability of the visual world is maintained by a process that utilizes a corollary to the efferent motor signal for the eye movement, allowing the visual frame of reference to translate equal in magnitude, but opposite in sign, to the movement itself. This process is now known to be synchronous neither with the saccadic trajectory('2,3) nor in all parts of the visual field.('4) In addition, this process has been shown to have variability('2) whereby the perceived visual direction of a flash presented to a fixed retinal locus during a saccade may change from trial to trial. Hence, uncertainty with respect to visual location of a stimulus may exist during and just before a saccade. It has been established for normal vision that uncertainty produces a decline in detectability of a weak stimulus.('5,6,7) The research reported in this dissertation was performed to test the notion, first suggested by L. Matin,('8) that uncertainty is responsible for saccadic suppression, the decline in detectability that has been reported('9,10,11) for a brief flash presented during a saccade. After having established the existence of suppression under the conditions we employed (1(DEGREES) foveal flash occurring 2 1/2(DEGREES) into a 10(DEGREES) voluntary saccade, presented against an illuminated background) we conducted an initial test of the uncertainty theory. We employed a pedestal (flash at the spatial, temporal, and chromatic locus of the stimulus, occurring on all trials, and sufficiently intense as to be visible during saccades) in an attempt to reduce uncertainty. Suppression was nearly eliminated for all subjects. We interpreted this result in terms of the uncertainty theory, but were unable to reject alternative theories of suppression, which include forms of neural inhibition,('10,11) increaed noise level in the retina during saccades,('12) and metacontrast masking.('13). The next experiment

  13. The effect of vestibulo-ocular reflex deficits and covert saccades on dynamic vision in opioid-induced vestibular dysfunction. (United States)

    Ramaioli, Cecilia; Colagiorgio, Paolo; Sağlam, Murat; Heuser, Fabian; Schneider, Erich; Ramat, Stefano; Lehnen, Nadine


    Patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction cannot fully compensate passive head rotations with eye movements, and experience disturbing oscillopsia. To compensate for the deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), they have to rely on re-fixation saccades. Some can trigger "covert" saccades while the head still moves; others only initiate saccades afterwards. Due to their shorter latency, it has been hypothesized that covert saccades are particularly beneficial to improve dynamic visual acuity, reducing oscillopsia. Here, we investigate the combined effect of covert saccades and the VOR on clear vision, using the Head Impulse Testing Device-Functional Test (HITD-FT), which quantifies reading ability during passive high-acceleration head movements. To reversibly decrease VOR function, fourteen healthy men (median age 26 years, range 21-31) were continuously administrated the opioid remifentanil intravenously (0.15 µg/kg/min). VOR gain was assessed with the video head-impulse test, functional performance (i.e. reading) with the HITD-FT. Before opioid application, VOR and dynamic reading were intact (head-impulse gain: 0.87±0.08, mean±SD; HITD-FT rate of correct answers: 90±9%). Remifentanil induced impairment in dynamic reading (HITD-FT 26±15%) in 12/14 subjects, with transient bilateral vestibular dysfunction (head-impulse gain 0.63±0.19). HITD-FT score correlated with head-impulse gain (R = 0.63, p = 0.03) and with gain difference (before/with remifentanil, R = -0.64, p = 0.02). One subject had a non-pathological head-impulse gain (0.82±0.03) and a high HITD-FT score (92%). One subject triggered covert saccades in 60% of the head movements and could read during passive head movements (HITD-FT 93%) despite a pathological head-impulse gain (0.59±0.03) whereas none of the 12 subjects without covert saccades reached such high performance. In summary, early catch-up saccades may improve dynamic visual function. HITD-FT is an appropriate method

  14. The effect of vestibulo-ocular reflex deficits and covert saccades on dynamic vision in opioid-induced vestibular dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ramaioli

    Full Text Available Patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction cannot fully compensate passive head rotations with eye movements, and experience disturbing oscillopsia. To compensate for the deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, they have to rely on re-fixation saccades. Some can trigger "covert" saccades while the head still moves; others only initiate saccades afterwards. Due to their shorter latency, it has been hypothesized that covert saccades are particularly beneficial to improve dynamic visual acuity, reducing oscillopsia. Here, we investigate the combined effect of covert saccades and the VOR on clear vision, using the Head Impulse Testing Device-Functional Test (HITD-FT, which quantifies reading ability during passive high-acceleration head movements. To reversibly decrease VOR function, fourteen healthy men (median age 26 years, range 21-31 were continuously administrated the opioid remifentanil intravenously (0.15 µg/kg/min. VOR gain was assessed with the video head-impulse test, functional performance (i.e. reading with the HITD-FT. Before opioid application, VOR and dynamic reading were intact (head-impulse gain: 0.87±0.08, mean±SD; HITD-FT rate of correct answers: 90±9%. Remifentanil induced impairment in dynamic reading (HITD-FT 26±15% in 12/14 subjects, with transient bilateral vestibular dysfunction (head-impulse gain 0.63±0.19. HITD-FT score correlated with head-impulse gain (R = 0.63, p = 0.03 and with gain difference (before/with remifentanil, R = -0.64, p = 0.02. One subject had a non-pathological head-impulse gain (0.82±0.03 and a high HITD-FT score (92%. One subject triggered covert saccades in 60% of the head movements and could read during passive head movements (HITD-FT 93% despite a pathological head-impulse gain (0.59±0.03 whereas none of the 12 subjects without covert saccades reached such high performance. In summary, early catch-up saccades may improve dynamic visual function. HITD-FT is an appropriate

  15. The Müller-Lyer illusion: investigation of a center of gravity effect on the amplitudes of saccades. (United States)

    Gilster, R; Kuhtz-Buschbeck, J P


    Previous research has compared the effects of visual illusions on perception with their effects on action to investigate if the action system and the perceptual system use different or common codes. Appropriate conclusions based on this comparison rely on effects that reflect the internal parameter estimates of the action and of the perceptual system. We investigated an additional factor that can possibly change the amplitudes of saccades along the Müller-Lyer illusion, the center of gravity effect. It refers to the finding that the endpoints of saccades can be diverted from the target point in the direction of the center of gravity of a stimulus configuration. We measured the perceptual (adjustment method) and the action effects (amplitudes of saccades) of the illusion. In addition, we let subjects carry out saccades along Müller-Lyer figures and a neutral figure that appeared to have the same size (but differed in actual sizes). The amplitudes of saccades differed for these figures. This was interpreted as evidence for a center of gravity effect. Its quantification allowed a correction of the action effect, which was then remarkably similar to the perceptual effect. Our results are in agreement with the notion of a common internal representation for perception and action.

  16. Post-saccadic oscillations in eye movement data recorded with pupil-based eye trackers reflect motion of the pupil inside the iris. (United States)

    Nyström, Marcus; Hooge, Ignace; Holmqvist, Kenneth


    Current video eye trackers use information about the pupil center to estimate orientation and movement of the eye. While dual Purkinje eye trackers suffer from lens wobble and scleral search coils may be influenced by contact lens slippage directly after saccades, it is not known whether pupil-based eye trackers produces similar artifacts in the data. We recorded eye movements from participants making repetitive, horizontal saccades and compared the movement in the data with pupil- and iris movements extracted from the eye images. Results showed that post-saccadic instabilities clearly exist in data recorded with a pupil-based eye tracker. They also exhibit a high degree of reproducibility across saccades and within participants. While the recorded eye movement data correlated well with the movement of the pupil center, the iris center showed only little post-saccadic movement. This means that the pupil moves relative to the iris during post-saccadic eye movements, and that the eye movement data reflect pupil movement rather than eyeball rotation. Besides introducing inaccuracies and additional variability in the data, the pupil movement inside the eyeball influences the decision of when a saccade should end and the subsequent fixation should begin, and consequently higher order analyses based on fixations and saccades.

  17. The time-course of visual masking effects on saccadic responses indicates that masking interferes with reentrant processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouzet, S.; Pin, Simon Hviid Del; Overgaard, Morten;


    with reentrant processing, then the first feedforward sweep should be left relatively intact. Using a standard OSM paradigm in combination with a saccadic choice task, giving access to an early phase of visual processing (the fastest saccades occurring only 100 ms after target onset), we compared the masking...... time-course of OSM, noise backward masking, as well as a simple target contrast decrease. Consistently with a reentrant account, a significantly stronger masking effect was observed for slow (larger than median RT; average median RT = 177 ms) relatively to fast saccades in the OSM condition......Object substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. Here, we tested the widespread assumption that OSM selectively impairs reentrant processing. If OSM interferes selectively...

  18. Increased risk for age-related impairment in visual attention associated with mild traumatic brain injury: Evidence from saccadic response times (United States)

    Barry, David M.; Ettenhofer, Mark L.


    It was hypothesized that risk for age-related impairment in attention would be greater among those with remote history of mild TBI than individuals without history of head injury. Twenty-seven adults with remote history of mild TBI and a well-matched comparison group of 54 uninjured controls completed a computerized test of visual attention while saccadic and manual response times were recorded. Within the mild TBI group only, older age was associated with slower saccadic responses and poorer saccadic inhibition. Saccadic slowing was mitigated in situations where the timing and location of attention targets was fully predictable. Mild TBI was not associated with age-related increases in risk for neuropsychological impairment or neurobehavioral symptoms. These results provide preliminary evidence that risk for age-related impairment in visual attention may be higher among those with a history of mild TBI. Saccadic measures may provide enhanced sensitivity to this subtle form of cognitive impairment. PMID:28166259

  19. Integrated Bayesian models of learning and decision making for saccadic eye movements. (United States)

    Brodersen, Kay H; Penny, Will D; Harrison, Lee M; Daunizeau, Jean; Ruff, Christian C; Duzel, Emrah; Friston, Karl J; Stephan, Klaas E


    The neurophysiology of eye movements has been studied extensively, and several computational models have been proposed for decision-making processes that underlie the generation of eye movements towards a visual stimulus in a situation of uncertainty. One class of models, known as linear rise-to-threshold models, provides an economical, yet broadly applicable, explanation for the observed variability in the latency between the onset of a peripheral visual target and the saccade towards it. So far, however, these models do not account for the dynamics of learning across a sequence of stimuli, and they do not apply to situations in which subjects are exposed to events with conditional probabilities. In this methodological paper, we extend the class of linear rise-to-threshold models to address these limitations. Specifically, we reformulate previous models in terms of a generative, hierarchical model, by combining two separate sub-models that account for the interplay between learning of target locations across trials and the decision-making process within trials. We derive a maximum-likelihood scheme for parameter estimation as well as model comparison on the basis of log likelihood ratios. The utility of the integrated model is demonstrated by applying it to empirical saccade data acquired from three healthy subjects. Model comparison is used (i) to show that eye movements do not only reflect marginal but also conditional probabilities of target locations, and (ii) to reveal subject-specific learning profiles over trials. These individual learning profiles are sufficiently distinct that test samples can be successfully mapped onto the correct subject by a naïve Bayes classifier. Altogether, our approach extends the class of linear rise-to-threshold models of saccadic decision making, overcomes some of their previous limitations, and enables statistical inference both about learning of target locations across trials and the decision-making process within trials.

  20. A functional and structural investigation of the human fronto-basal volitional saccade network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan F W Neggers

    Full Text Available Almost all cortical areas are connected to the subcortical basal ganglia (BG through parallel recurrent inhibitory and excitatory loops, exerting volitional control over automatic behavior. As this model is largely based on non-human primate research, we used high resolution functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to investigate the functional and structural organization of the human (prefrontal cortico-basal network controlling eye movements. Participants performed saccades in darkness, pro- and antisaccades and observed stimuli during fixation. We observed several bilateral functional subdivisions along the precentral sulcus around the human frontal eye fields (FEF: a medial and lateral zone activating for saccades in darkness, a more fronto-medial zone preferentially active for ipsilateral antisaccades, and a large anterior strip along the precentral sulcus activating for visual stimulus presentation during fixation. The supplementary eye fields (SEF were identified along the medial wall containing all aforementioned functions. In the striatum, the BG area receiving almost all cortical input, all saccade related activation was observed in the putamen, previously considered a skeletomotor striatal subdivision. Activation elicited by the cue instructing pro or antisaccade trials was clearest in the medial FEF and right putamen. DTI fiber tracking revealed that the subdivisions of the human FEF complex are mainly connected to the putamen, in agreement with the fMRI findings. The present findings demonstrate that the human FEF has functional subdivisions somewhat comparable to non-human primates. However, the connections to and activation in the human striatum preferentially involve the putamen, not the caudate nucleus as is reported for monkeys. This could imply that fronto-striatal projections for the oculomotor system are fundamentally different between humans and monkeys. Alternatively, there could be a bias in published reports of

  1. A computational vector-map model of neonate saccades: modulating the externality effect through refraction periods. (United States)

    Jansen, Peter A; Fiacconi, Chris M; Gibson, Laura C


    The present study develops an explicit and predictive computational model of neonate saccades based on the interaction of several simple mechanisms, including the tendency to fixate towards areas of high contrast, and the decay and recovery of a world-centered contrast representation simulating a low-level inhibition of return mechanism. Emergent properties similar to early visual behaviors develop, including the externality effect (or tendency to focus on external then internal features). The age-associated progression of this effect is modulated by the decay period of the model's contrast representation, where the high-level behavior of either scanning broadly or locally is modulated by a single decay parameter.

  2. Effects of Reduced Acuity and Stereo Acuity on Saccades and Reaching Movements in Adults With Amblyopia and Strabismus. (United States)

    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Goltz, Herbert C; Colpa, Linda; Chandrakumar, Manokaraananthan; Wong, Agnes M F


    Our previous work has shown that amblyopia disrupts the planning and execution of visually-guided saccadic and reaching movements. We investigated the association between the clinical features of amblyopia and aspects of visuomotor behavior that are disrupted by amblyopia. A total of 55 adults with amblyopia (22 anisometropic, 18 strabismic, 15 mixed mechanism), 14 adults with strabismus without amblyopia, and 22 visually-normal control participants completed a visuomotor task while their eye and hand movements were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between three clinical predictors of amblyopia (amblyopic eye [AE] acuity, stereo sensitivity, and eye deviation) and seven kinematic outcomes, including saccadic and reach latency, interocular saccadic and reach latency difference, saccadic and reach precision, and PA/We ratio (an index of reach control strategy efficacy using online feedback correction). Amblyopic eye acuity explained 28% of the variance in saccadic latency, and 48% of the variance in mean saccadic latency difference between the amblyopic and fellow eyes (i.e., interocular latency difference). In contrast, for reach latency, AE acuity explained only 10% of the variance. Amblyopic eye acuity was associated with reduced endpoint saccadic (23% of variance) and reach (22% of variance) precision in the amblyopic group. In the strabismus without amblyopia group, stereo sensitivity and eye deviation did not explain any significant variance in saccadic and reach latency or precision. Stereo sensitivity was the best clinical predictor of deficits in reach control strategy, explaining 23% of total variance of PA/We ratio in the amblyopic group and 12% of variance in the strabismus without amblyopia group when viewing with the amblyopic/nondominant eye. Deficits in eye and limb movement initiation (latency) and target localization (precision) were associated with amblyopic acuity deficit, whereas changes in

  3. Numerical simulation of nonlinear feedback model of saccade generation circuit implemented in the LabView graphical programming language. (United States)

    Jackson, M E; Gnadt, J W


    The object-oriented graphical programming language LabView was used to implement the numerical solution to a computational model of saccade generation in primates. The computational model simulates the activity and connectivity of anatomical strictures known to be involved in saccadic eye movements. The LabView program provides a graphical user interface to the model that makes it easy to observe and modify the behavior of each element of the model. Essential elements of the source code of the LabView program are presented and explained. A copy of the model is available for download from the internet.

  4. A new familial disease of saccadic oscillations and limb tremor provides clues to mechanisms of common tremor disorders. (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Miura, Kenichiro; Optican, Lance M; Ramat, Stefano; Leigh, R John; Zee, David S


    Tremor disorders pose fundamental questions about disease mechanisms, and challenges to successful neurotherapeutics: What causes motor circuits to oscillate in disorders in which the central nervous system otherwise seems normal? How does inheritance 'determine' the clinical phenotype in familial tremor disorders? Here, we address these questions. Analogies between the neural circuits controlling rapid eye movements (saccades) and those controlling limb movements allow us to translate the interpretations from the saccadic systems to the limb movement system. Moreover, the relatively well understood neurophysiology of the ocular motor system offers a unique opportunity to test specific hypotheses about normal and abnormal motor control of both eye and limb movements. We describe a new familial disorder--'micro-saccadic oscillations and limb tremor (microSOLT)'--in a mother and daughter who had tiny saccadic oscillations of the eyes and tremor of the hands. This unique oscillatory movement disorder resembles other common tremor disorders (such as essential tremor) that occur in patients who have an otherwise normally functioning central nervous system. We hypothesize that microSOLT is caused by an inherited abnormality that results in abnormal membrane properties causing reduced external inhibition in the premotor neurons that generate the high-frequency discharge (burst) for saccades and for ballistic limb movements. To test this hypothesis, we recorded hand tremor and eye movements in two patients with microSOLT and particularly during natural circumstances when inhibition of the premotor saccadic burst neurons is removed (e.g. eye closure). We then simulated a conductance-based model for the premotor commands which included excitatory and reciprocally inhibitory burst neurons. The structure of this physiologically realistic model was based upon known cell types and anatomical connections in the brainstem (for saccades) and the thalamus (for limb movements). The

  5. A neural locus for spatial-frequency specific saccadic suppression in visual-motor neurons of the primate superior colliculus. (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yang; Hafed, Ziad M


    Saccades cause rapid retinal-image shifts that go perceptually unnoticed several times per second. The mechanisms for saccadic suppression have been controversial, in part because of sparse understanding of neural substrates. In this study we uncovered an unexpectedly specific neural locus for spatial frequency-specific saccadic suppression in the superior colliculus (SC). We first developed a sensitive behavioral measure of suppression in two macaque monkeys, demonstrating selectivity to low spatial frequencies similar to that observed in earlier behavioral studies. We then investigated visual responses in either purely visual SC neurons or anatomically deeper visual motor neurons, which are also involved in saccade generation commands. Surprisingly, visual motor neurons showed the strongest visual suppression, and the suppression was dependent on spatial frequency, as in behavior. Most importantly, suppression selectivity for spatial frequency in visual motor neurons was highly predictive of behavioral suppression effects in each individual animal, with our recorded population explaining up to ~74% of behavioral variance even on completely different experimental sessions. Visual SC neurons had mild suppression, which was unselective for spatial frequency and thus only explained up to ~48% of behavioral variance. In terms of spatial frequency-specific saccadic suppression, our results run contrary to predictions that may be associated with a hypothesized SC saccadic suppression mechanism, in which a motor command in the visual motor and motor neurons is first relayed to the more superficial purely visual neurons, to suppress them and to then potentially be fed back to cortex. Instead, an extraretinal modulatory signal mediating spatial-frequency-specific suppression may already be established in visual motor neurons.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Saccades, which repeatedly realign the line of sight, introduce spurious signals in retinal images that normally go unnoticed. In

  6. Infant eye and head movements toward the side opposite the cue in the anti-saccade paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukigara Masune


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anti-saccade task, when people must respond in the direction opposite to a visual stimulus, has been used as a marker of operation of the frontal cortical oculomotor area. However, early development of oculomotor control has been little studied with the infant anti-saccade paradigm, and a few studies did not recognize anti-saccades in infants in light of the results of adult anti-saccade. Since the characteristics of infant eye movements are little known, applying the criteria used in adult study is by no means the best way to study infant anti-saccade. As it is indicated that coordinated eye and head movements often enable infants to control the direction of their gaze, head movements should be examined as an infant orienting response. The aim of this study was to address how infants used eye and head movements during the anti-saccade paradigm. To distinguish infants' responses, we also investigated eye and head movements during a task for an inhibition of return. Inhibition of return, in which delayed responses occur in the direction to which attention had previously been oriented, has been thought to mark activity of the superior colliculus. Since the superior colliculus is thought to develop much earlier in life than the frontal lobes, we thought it useful to compare these task performances during infancy. Methods Infants were divided into three groups according to age. Anti-saccade and inhibition-of-return tasks were given. Their eye and head movements during tasks were independently recorded by the corneal reflection method in the head-free condition. Results Younger infants tended to initiate eye movement less than older ones in both tasks. In the anti-saccade task, responses opposite to the cue tended to show longer latency than responses to the cue. Infants made faster responses toward the side opposite the cue when it was to the right than when it was left of fixation. Regarding the comparison of responses

  7. Saccadic gain adaptation is predicted by the statistics of natural fluctuations in oculomotor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V Albert


    Full Text Available Due to multiple factors such as fatigue, muscle strengthening, and neural plasticity, the responsiveness of the motor apparatus to neural commands changes over time. To enable precise movements the nervous system must adapt to compensate for these changes. Recent models of motor adaptation derive from assumptions about the way the motor apparatus changes. Characterizing these changes is difficult because motor adaptation happens at the same time, masking most of the effects of ongoing changes. Here, we analyze eye movements of monkeys with lesions to the posterior cerebellar vermis that impair adaptation. Their fluctuations better reveal the underlying changes of the motor system over time. When these measured, unadapted changes are used to derive optimal motor adaptation rules the prediction precision significantly improves. Among three models that similarly fit single-day adaptation results, the model that also matches the temporal correlations of the nonadapting saccades most accurately predicts multiple day adaptation. Saccadic gain adaptation is well matched to the natural statistics of fluctuations of the oculomotor plant.

  8. Attentional Capture and Inhibition of Saccades after Irrelevant and Relevant Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Werner Priess


    Full Text Available Attentional capture is usually stronger for task-relevant than irrelevant stimuli, whereas irrelevant stimuli can trigger equal or even stronger amounts of inhibition than relevant stimuli. Capture and inhibition, however, are typically assessed in separate trials, leaving it open whether or not inhibition of irrelevant stimuli is a consequence of preceding attentional capture by the same stimuli or whether inhibition is the only response to these stimuli. Here, we tested the relationship between capture and inhibition in a setup allowing for estimates of the capture and inhibition based on the very same trials. We recorded saccadic inhibition after relevant and irrelevant stimuli. At the same time, we recorded the N2pc, an event-related potential, reflecting initial capture of attention. We found attentional capture not only for, relevant but importantly also for irrelevant stimuli, although the N2pc was stronger for relevant than irrelevant stimuli. In addition, inhibition of saccades was the same for relevant and irrelevant stimuli. We conclude with a discussion of the mechanisms that are responsible for these effects.

  9. Probing the attentional control theory in social anxiety: an emotional saccade task. (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas


    Volitional attentional control has been found to rely on prefrontal neuronal circuits. According to the attentional control theory of anxiety, impairment in the volitional control of attention is a prominent feature in anxiety disorders. The present study investigated this assumption in socially anxious individuals using an emotional saccade task with facial expressions (happy, angry, fearful, sad, neutral). The gaze behavior of participants was recorded during the emotional saccade task, in which participants performed either pro- or antisaccades in response to peripherally presented facial expressions. The results show that socially anxious persons have difficulties in inhibiting themselves to reflexively attend to facial expressions: They made more erratic prosaccades to all facial expressions when an antisaccade was required. Thus, these findings indicate impaired attentional control in social anxiety. Overall, the present study shows a deficit of socially anxious individuals in attentional control-for example, in inhibiting the reflexive orienting to neutral as well as to emotional facial expressions. This result may be due to a dysfunction in the prefrontal areas being involved in attentional control.

  10. Changes in absolute theta power in bipolar patients during a saccadic attention task. (United States)

    Cartier, Consuelo; Diniz, Claudia; Di Girogio, Luiza; Bittencourt, Juliana; Gongora, Mariana; Ken Tanaka, Guaraci; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Novis, Fernanda; Angélica Silveira, Luciana; da Silva, Rafael de Assis; Cagy, Mauricio; Cheniaux, Elie; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna


    The present study analyzed absolute theta power (ATP) in brain areas involved with attention in the three phase of BD while the patients performing a saccadic attention task. We hypothesized that patients in depression and mania states show a higher ATP compared to euthymic patients, since a higher ATP is indicative of attention deficit. We analyzed the frontal (F7, F3, Fz, F4 and F8) and central (C3, Cz and C4) areas. Thirty bipolar patients were enrolled in this study. The subjects performed a saccadic attention task while their brain activity pattern was recorded using quantitative electroencephalography (20 channels). Our results showed a main effect for group over C3, C4, Cz, F7, F4, F8 electrodes, and a main effect for moment over Cz, F7, F8 electrodes. These results indicate that both task and groups produce changes in theta activity in distinct cortical areas that participate in the organization of attention. Our results therefore demonstrate that, although it is well established in the literature that theta has a relevant role in the attention process, it is necessary to deepen the investigations to better understand the specifics of theta during visual processing tasks that have a demand for attention.

  11. Decoding of intended saccade direction in an oculomotor brain-computer interface (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Brincat, Scott L.; Salazar-Gómez, Andrés F.; Panko, Mikhail; Guenther, Frank H.; Miller, Earl K.


    Objective. To date, invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) research has largely focused on replacing lost limb functions using signals from the hand/arm areas of motor cortex. However, the oculomotor system may be better suited to BCI applications involving rapid serial selection from spatial targets, such as choosing from a set of possible words displayed on a computer screen in an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) application. Here we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a BCI utilizing the oculomotor system. Approach. We developed a chronic intracortical BCI in monkeys to decode intended saccadic eye movement direction using activity from multiple frontal cortical areas. Main results. Intended saccade direction could be decoded in real time with high accuracy, particularly at contralateral locations. Accurate decoding was evident even at the beginning of the BCI session; no extensive BCI experience was necessary. High-frequency (80-500 Hz) local field potential magnitude provided the best performance, even over spiking activity, thus simplifying future BCI applications. Most of the information came from the frontal and supplementary eye fields, with relatively little contribution from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Significance. Our results support the feasibility of high-accuracy intracortical oculomotor BCIs that require little or no practice to operate and may be ideally suited for ‘point and click’ computer operation as used in most current AAC systems.

  12. The effect of spatial-temporal audiovisual disparities on saccades in a complex scene. (United States)

    Van Wanrooij, Marc M; Bell, Andrew H; Munoz, Douglas P; Van Opstal, A John


    In a previous study we quantified the effect of multisensory integration on the latency and accuracy of saccadic eye movements toward spatially aligned audiovisual (AV) stimuli within a rich AV-background (Corneil et al. in J Neurophysiol 88:438-454, 2002). In those experiments both stimulus modalities belonged to the same object, and subjects were instructed to foveate that source, irrespective of modality. Under natural conditions, however, subjects have no prior knowledge as to whether visual and auditory events originated from the same, or from different objects in space and time. In the present experiments we included these possibilities by introducing various spatial and temporal disparities between the visual and auditory events within the AV-background. Subjects had to orient fast and accurately to the visual target, thereby ignoring the auditory distractor. We show that this task belies a dichotomy, as it was quite difficult to produce fast responses (al. in J Neurophysiol 88:438-454, 2002). In contrast, with increasing spatial disparity, integration gradually broke down, as the subjects' responses became bistable: saccades were directed either to the auditory (fast responses), or to the visual stimulus (late responses). Interestingly, also in this case responses were faster and more accurate than to the respective unisensory stimuli.

  13. Explicit and implicit emotional processing in peripheral vision: A saccadic choice paradigm. (United States)

    D'Hondt, Fabien; Szaffarczyk, Sébastien; Sequeira, Henrique; Boucart, Muriel


    We investigated explicit and implicit emotional processing in peripheral vision using saccadic choice tasks. Emotional-neutral pairs of scenes were presented peripherally either at 10, 30 or 60° away from fixation. The participants had to make a saccadic eye movement to the target scene: emotional vs neutral in the explicit task, and oval vs rectangular in the implicit task. In the explicit task, pleasant scenes were reliably categorized as emotional up to 60° while performance for unpleasant scenes decreased between 10° and 30° and did not differ from chance at 60°. Categorization of neutral scenes did not differ from chance. Performance in the implicit task was significantly better for emotional targets than for neutral targets at 10° and this beneficial effect of emotion persisted only for pleasant scenes at 30°. Thus, these findings show that explicit and implicit emotional processing in peripheral vision depends on eccentricity and valence of stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Saccadic inhibition and the remote distractor effect: One mechanism or two? (United States)

    Bompas, Aline; Sumner, Petroc


    It has been hotly debated whether a single mechanism underlies two established and highly robust oculomotor phenomena thought to index the competitive nature of eye movement plans: the remote distractor effect and saccadic inhibition (SI). It has been suggested that a transient mechanism underlying SI would not be able to account for the shift in the saccade latency distribution produced by early distractors (e.g., those appearing 60 ms before target onset) without additional assumptions or a more sustained source of inhibition. Here we tested this prediction with a model previously optimized to capture SI for late distractors. Where behavioral studies have intermingled stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) within the same block, the model captures the pattern of RDEs and SI effects with no parameter changes. Where SOAs have been blocked behaviorally, the pattern of RDEs can also be captured by the same model architecture, but requires changes to the inputs of the model between SOAs. Such changes plausibly reflect likely changes in participants' expectations and attentional strategy across block types.

  15. Trial-type probability and task-switching effects on behavioral response characteristics in a mixed saccade task. (United States)

    Pierce, Jordan E; McCardel, J Brett; McDowell, Jennifer E


    Eye movement circuitry involved in saccade production offers a model for studying cognitive control: visually guided prosaccades are stimulus-directed responses, while goal-driven antisaccades rely upon more complex control processes to inhibit the prepotent tendency to look toward a cue, transform its spatial location, and generate a volitional saccade in the opposite direction. By manipulating the relative probability of these saccade types, we measured participants' behavioral responses to different levels of implicit trial-type probability and task-switching demands in conditions with relatively long inter-trial fixation and trial-type cue lengths. Results indicated that when prosaccades were less probable in a run, more prosaccade errors were generated; however, for antisaccades, trial-type probability had no effect on the percent of correct responses. For reaction times, specifically in runs with a larger probability of antisaccade trials, latencies increased for both anti- and pro-saccades. Furthermore, task switching resulted in a lower percentage of correct responses on switched trials, but a prior antisaccade trial led to slower reaction times for both trial types (i.e., a task switch cost for prosaccades and switch benefit for antisaccades). These findings indicate that cognitive control demands and residual inhibition from antisaccades alter performance relative to trial-type probability and task switching within a run, with the prosaccade task showing greater susceptibility to the influence of a large probability of cognitively complex antisaccades.

  16. Saccades during visual exploration align hippocampal 3-8 Hz rhythms in human and non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari L Hoffman


    Full Text Available Visual exploration in primates depends on saccadic eye movements that cause alternations of neural suppression and enhancement. This modulation extends beyond retinotopic areas, and is thought to facilitate perception; yet saccades may also influence brain regions critical for forming memories of these exploratory episodes. The hippocampus, for example, shows oscillatory activity that is generally associated with encoding of information. Whether or how hippocampal oscillations are influenced by eye movements is unknown. We recorded the neural activity in the human and macaque hippocampus during visual scene search. Across species, saccadic eye movements were associated with a time-limited alignment of a low-frequency (3-8 Hz rhythm. The phase alignment depended on the task and not only on eye movements per se, and the frequency band was not a direct consequence of saccade rate. Hippocampal theta-frequency oscillations are produced by other mammals during repetitive exploratory behaviors, including whisking, sniffing, echolocation and locomotion. The present results may reflect a similar yet distinct primate homologue supporting active perception during exploration.

  17. Velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Li-yun; WENG Xu-dan; LI Qing-ding


    In this paper,the velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model (OVM) is investigated.The driver adjusts the velocity of his vehicle by the desired headway,which depends on both instantaneous headway and relative velocity.The effect of relative velocity is measured by a sensitivity function.A specific form of the sensitivity function is supposed and the involved parameters are determined by the both numerical simulation and empirical data.It is shown that inclusion of velocity anticipation enhances the stability of traffic flow.Numerical simulations show a good agreement with empirical data.This model provides a better description of real traffic,including the acceleration process from standing states and the deceleration process approaching a stopped car.

  18. Distinct control of initiation and metrics of memory-guided saccades and vergence by the FEF: a TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The initiation of memory guided saccades is known to be controlled by the frontal eye field (FEF. Recent physiological studies showed the existence of an area close to FEF that controls also vergence initiation and execution. This study is to explore the effect of transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS over FEF on the control of memory-guided saccade-vergence eye movements. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects had to make an eye movement in dark towards a target flashed 1 sec earlier (memory delay; the location of the target relative to fixation point was such as to require either a vergence along the median plane, or a saccade, or a saccade with vergence; trials were interleaved. Single pulse TMS was applied on the left or right FEF; it was delivered at 100 ms after the end of memory delay, i.e. extinction of fixation LED that was the "go" signal. Twelve healthy subjects participated in the study. TMS of left or right FEF prolonged the latency of all types of eye movements; the increase varied from 21 to 56 ms and was particularly strong for the divergence movements. This indicates that FEF is involved in the initiation of all types of memory guided movement in the 3D space. TMS of the FEF also altered the accuracy but only for leftward saccades combined with either convergence or divergence; intrasaccadic vergence also increased after TMS of the FEF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest anisotropy in the quality of space memory and are discussed in the context of other known perceptual motor anisotropies.

  19. SacLab: A toolbox for saccade analysis to increase usability of eye tracking systems in clinical ophthalmology practice. (United States)

    Cercenelli, Laura; Tiberi, Guido; Corazza, Ivan; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Fresina, Michela; Marcelli, Emanuela


    Many open source software packages have been recently developed to expand the usability of eye tracking systems to study oculomotor behavior, but none of these is specifically designed to encompass all the main functions required for creating eye tracking tests and for providing the automatic analysis of saccadic eye movements. The aim of this study is to introduce SacLab, an intuitive, freely-available MATLAB toolbox based on Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) that we have developed to increase the usability of the ViewPoint EyeTracker (Arrington Research, Scottsdale, AZ, USA) in clinical ophthalmology practice. SacLab consists of four processing modules that enable the user to easily create visual stimuli tests (Test Designer), record saccadic eye movements (Data Recorder), analyze the recorded data to automatically extract saccadic parameters of clinical interest (Data Analyzer) and provide an aggregate analysis from multiple eye movements recordings (Saccade Analyzer), without requiring any programming effort by the user. A demo application of SacLab to carry out eye tracking tests for the analysis of horizontal saccades was reported. We tested the usability of SacLab toolbox with three ophthalmologists who had no programming experience; the ophthalmologists were briefly trained in the use of SacLab GUIs and were asked to perform the demo application. The toolbox gained an enthusiastic feedback from all the clinicians in terms of intuitiveness, ease of use and flexibility. Test creation and data processing were accomplished in 52±21s and 46±19s, respectively, using the SacLab GUIs. SacLab may represent a useful tool to ease the application of the ViewPoint EyeTracker system in clinical routine in ophthalmology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Correcting LCD luminance non-uniformity for threshold Saccadic Vector Optokinetic Perimetry (SVOP). (United States)

    Perperidis, Antonios; Murray, Ian; Brash, Harry; McTrusty, Alice; Cameron, Lorraine; Fleck, Brian; Minns, Robert


    The accurate assessment of visual field function can provide valuable information on a range of visual disorders. Saccadic Vector Optokinetic Perimetry (SVOP) is a novel instrument for measuring supra-threshold visual fields in young children who are otherwise unable to perform Automated Static Perimetry (ASP). However, limitations in Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) technology restrict the ability of SVOP to determine threshold values at various points in the visual field, often required in detailed perimetry examinations. This paper introduces a purpose-specific LCD luminance non-uniformity compensation approach to address this limitation. Thorough quantitative evaluation identifies the effectiveness of the proposed approach in (i) compensating for luminance non-uniformities across an LCD, and (ii) enabling SVOP to perform accurate and precise threshold visual field tests. The findings demonstrate that SVOP provides a promising alternative to the current threshold ASP standard (Humphrey Field Analyser).

  1. Comparison of saccadic reaction time between normal and glaucoma using an eye movement perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Mazumdar


    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the saccadic reaction time (SRT in both the central and peripheral visual field in normal and glaucomatous eyes using eye movement perimetery (EMP. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four normal and 25 glaucoma subjects underwent EMP and visual field testing on the Humphrey Field Analyser (HFA 24-2 program. The EMP is based on infrared tracking of the corneal reflex. Fifty-four test locations corresponding to the locations on the 24-2 HFA program were tested. SRTs at different eccentricities and for different severities of glaucoma were compared between normal and glaucoma subjects. Results: Mean SRT was calculated for both normal and glaucoma subjects. Mann-Whitney U test showed statistically significant (P < 0.001 differences in SRT′s between normal and glaucoma subjects in all zones. Conclusion: SRT was prolonged in eyes with glaucoma across different eccentricities.

  2. Saccadic reaction times to audiovisual stimuli show effects of oscillatory phase reset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Diederich

    Full Text Available Initiating an eye movement towards a suddenly appearing visual target is faster when an accessory auditory stimulus occurs in close spatiotemporal vicinity. Such facilitation of saccadic reaction time (SRT is well-documented, but the exact neural mechanisms underlying the crossmodal effect remain to be elucidated. From EEG/MEG studies it has been hypothesized that coupled oscillatory activity in primary sensory cortices regulates multisensory processing. Specifically, it is assumed that the phase of an ongoing neural oscillation is shifted due to the occurrence of a sensory stimulus so that, across trials, phase values become highly consistent (phase reset. If one can identify the phase an oscillation is reset to, it is possible to predict when temporal windows of high and low excitability will occur. However, in behavioral experiments the pre-stimulus phase will be different on successive repetitions of the experimental trial, and average performance over many trials will show no signs of the modulation. Here we circumvent this problem by repeatedly presenting an auditory accessory stimulus followed by a visual target stimulus with a temporal delay varied in steps of 2 ms. Performing a discrete time series analysis on SRT as a function of the delay, we provide statistical evidence for the existence of distinct peak spectral components in the power spectrum. These frequencies, although varying across participants, fall within the beta and gamma range (20 to 40 Hz of neural oscillatory activity observed in neurophysiological studies of multisensory integration. Some evidence for high-theta/alpha activity was found as well. Our results are consistent with the phase reset hypothesis and demonstrate that it is amenable to testing by purely psychophysical methods. Thus, any theory of multisensory processes that connects specific brain states with patterns of saccadic responses should be able to account for traces of oscillatory activity in observable

  3. Inter-Trial Correlations in Predictive-Saccade Endpoints: Fractal Scaling Reflects Differential Control along Task-Relevant and Orthogonal Directions (United States)

    Federighi, Pamela; Wong, Aaron L.; Shelhamer, Mark


    Saccades exhibit variation in performance from one trial to the next, even when paced at a constant rate by targets at two fixed locations. We previously showed that amplitude fluctuations in consecutive predictive saccades have fractal structure: the spectrum of the sequence of consecutive amplitudes has a power-law (f −α) form, indicative of inter-trial correlations that reflect the storage of prior performance information to guide the planning of subsequent movements. More gradual decay of these inter-trial correlations coincides with a larger magnitude of spectral slope α, and indicates stronger information storage over longer times. We have previously demonstrated that larger decay exponents (α) are associated with faster adaptation in a saccadic double-step task. Here, we extend this line of investigation to predictive saccade endpoints (i.e., movement errors). Subjects made predictive, paced saccades between two fixed targets along a horizontal or vertical axis. Endpoint fluctuations both along (on-axis) and orthogonal to (off-axis) the direction of target motion were examined for correlations and fractal structure. Endpoints in the direction of target motion had little or no correlation or power-law scaling, suggesting that successive movements were uncorrelated (white noise). In the orthogonal direction, however, the sequence of endpoints did exhibit inter-trial correlations and scaling. In contrast, in our previous work the scaling of saccade amplitudes is strong along the target direction. This may reflect the fact that while saccade amplitudes are neurally programmed, endpoints are not directly controlled but instead serve as a source of error feedback. Hence, the lack of correlations in on-axis endpoint errors suggests that maximum information has been extracted from previous movement errors to plan subsequent movement amplitudes. In contrast, correlations in the off-axis component indicate that useful information still remains in this error

  4. High-velocity clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, BP; vanWoerden, H


    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) consist of neutral hydrogen (HI) at velocities incompatible with a simple model of differential galactic rotation; in practice one uses \\v(LSR)\\ greater than or equal to 90 km/s to define HVCs. This review describes the main features of the sky and velocity distributions,

  5. Transverse Spectral Velocity Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    A transverse oscillation (TO)-based method for calculating the velocity spectrum for fully transverse flow is described. Current methods yield the mean velocity at one position, whereas the new method reveals the transverse velocity spectrum as a function of time at one spatial location. A convex...

  6. The time-course of visual masking effects on saccadic responses indicates that masking interferes with reentrant processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouzet, S.; Pin, Simon Hviid Del; Overgaard, Morten


    Object substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. Here, we tested the widespread assumption that OSM selectively impairs reentrant processing. If OSM interferes selectively...... with reentrant processing, then the first feedforward sweep should be left relatively intact. Using a standard OSM paradigm in combination with a saccadic choice task, giving access to an early phase of visual processing (the fastest saccades occurring only 100 ms after target onset), we compared the masking....... Interestingly, the same result was observed using backward masking. In a follow-up experiment, where we assessed observer’s visual awareness using single-trial visibility ratings, we demonstrated that these ultra-fast responses were actually linked to subsequent reported visibility. Taken together...

  7. Distractor Evoked Deviations of Saccade Trajectory Are Modulated by Fixation Activity in the Superior Colliculus: Computational and Behavioral Evidence


    Zhiguo Wang; Jan Theeuwes


    Previous studies have shown that saccades may deviate towards or away from task irrelevant visual distractors. This observation has been attributed to active suppression (inhibition) of the distractor location unfolding over time: early in time inhibition at the distractor location is incomplete causing deviation towards the distractor, while later in time when inhibition is complete the eyes deviate away from the distractor. In a recent computational study, Wang, Kruijne and Theeuwes propose...

  8. Binocular Saccade Coordination in Reading and Visual Search: A Developmental Study in Typical Reader and Dyslexic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali eSeassau


    Full Text Available Studies dealing with developmental aspects of binocular eye movement behavior during reading are scarce. In this study we have explored binocular strategies during reading and visual search tasks in a large population of dyslexic and typical readers. Binocular eye movements were recorded using a video-oculography system in 43 dyslexic children (aged 8 to 13 and in a group of 42 age-matched typical readers. The main findings are (i ocular motor characteristics of dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to those reported in typical children in reading task ; (ii a developmental effect exists in reading in control children; in dyslexic children the effect of development was observed only on fixation durations ; (iii ocular motor behavior in the visual search tasks is similar for dyslexic children and for typical readers, except for the disconjugacy during and after the saccade: dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to typical children. Data reported here confirms and expands previous studies on children’s reading. Both reading skills and binocular saccades coordination improve with age in typical readers. The atypical eye movement’s patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an impairment of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction.

  9. Immaturity of the Oculomotor Saccade and Vergence Interaction in Dyslexic Children: Evidence from a Reading and Visual Search Study (United States)

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Nassibi, Naziha; Gerard, Christophe-Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Seassau, Magali


    Studies comparing binocular eye movements during reading and visual search in dyslexic children are, at our knowledge, inexistent. In the present study we examined ocular motor characteristics in dyslexic children versus two groups of non dyslexic children with chronological/reading age-matched. Binocular eye movements were recorded by an infrared system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN) in twelve dyslexic children (mean age 11 years old) and a group of chronological age-matched (N = 9) and reading age-matched (N = 10) non dyslexic children. Two visual tasks were used: text reading and visual search. Independently of the task, the ocular motor behavior in dyslexic children is similar to those reported in reading age-matched non dyslexic children: many and longer fixations as well as poor quality of binocular coordination during and after the saccades. In contrast, chronological age-matched non dyslexic children showed a small number of fixations and short duration of fixations in reading task with respect to visual search task; furthermore their saccades were well yoked in both tasks. The atypical eye movement's patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an immaturity of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction. PMID:22438934

  10. Decoupling eye and hand movement control: visual short-term memory influences reach planning more than saccade planning. (United States)

    Issen, Laurel A; Knill, David C


    When reaching for objects, humans make saccades to fixate the object at or near the time the hand begins to move. In order to address whether the CNS relies on a common representation of target positions to plan both saccades and hand movements, we quantified the contributions of visual short-term memory (VSTM) to hand and eye movements executed during the same coordinated actions. Subjects performed a sequential movement task in which they picked up one of two objects on the right side of a virtual display (the "weapon"), moved it to the left side of the display (to a "reloading station") and then moved it back to the right side to hit the other object (the target). On some trials, the target was perturbed by 1° of visual angle while subjects moved the weapon to the reloading station. Although subjects did not notice the change, the original position of the target, encoded in VSTM, influenced the motor plans for both the hand and the eye back to the target. Memory influenced motor plans for distant targets more than for near targets, indicating that sensorimotor planning is sensitive to the reliability of available information; however, memory had a larger influence on hand movements than on eye movements. This suggests that spatial planning for coordinated saccades and hand movements are dissociated at the level of processing at which online visual information is integrated with information in short-term memory.

  11. Binocular saccade coordination in reading and visual search: a developmental study in typical reader and dyslexic children. (United States)

    Seassau, Magali; Gérard, Christophe Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia


    Studies dealing with developmental aspects of binocular eye movement behavior during reading are scarce. In this study we have explored binocular strategies during reading and visual search tasks in a large population of dyslexic and typical readers. Binocular eye movements were recorded using a video-oculography system in 43 dyslexic children (aged 8-13) and in a group of 42 age-matched typical readers. The main findings are: (i) ocular motor characteristics of dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to those reported in typical children in reading task; (ii) a developmental effect exists in reading in control children, in dyslexic children the effect of development was observed only on fixation durations; and (iii) ocular motor behavior in the visual search tasks is similar for dyslexic children and for typical readers, except for the disconjugacy during and after the saccade: dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to typical children. Data reported here confirms and expands previous studies on children's reading. Both reading skills and binocular saccades coordination improve with age in typical readers. The atypical eye movement's patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an impairment of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction.

  12. Typical object velocity influences motion extrapolation. (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Stewart, Andrew J; Poliakoff, Ellen


    Previous work indicates that extrapolation of object motion during occlusion is affected by the velocity of the immediately preceding trial. Here we ask whether longer-term velocity representations can also influence motion extrapolation. Red, blue or green targets disappeared behind an occluder. Participants pressed a button when they thought the target had reached the other side. Red targets were slower (10-20 deg/s), blue targets moved at medium velocities (14-26 deg/s) and green targets were faster (20-30 deg/s). We compared responses on a subset of red and green trials which always travelled at 20 deg/s. Although trial velocities were identical, participants responded as if the green targets moved faster (M = 22.64 deg/s) then the red targets (M = 19.72 deg/s). This indicates that motion extrapolation is affected by longer-term information about the typical velocity of different categories of stimuli.

  13. Velocity condensation for magnetotactic bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Rupprecht, Jean-Francois; Bocquet, Lydéric


    Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g. active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that L\\'evy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior.

  14. Different target-discrimination times can be followed by the same saccade-initiation timing in different stimulus conditions during visual searches. (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Nishida, Satoshi; Ogawa, Tadashi


    The neuronal processes that underlie visual searches can be divided into two stages: target discrimination and saccade preparation/generation. This predicts that the length of time of the prediscrimination stage varies according to the search difficulty across different stimulus conditions, whereas the length of the latter postdiscrimination stage is stimulus invariant. However, recent studies have suggested that the length of the postdiscrimination interval changes with different stimulus conditions. To address whether and how the visual stimulus affects determination of the postdiscrimination interval, we recorded single-neuron activity in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) when monkeys (Macaca fuscata) performed a color-singleton search involving four stimulus conditions that differed regarding luminance (Bright vs. Dim) and target-distractor color similarity (Easy vs. Difficult). We specifically focused on comparing activities between the Bright-Difficult and Dim-Easy conditions, in which the visual stimuli were considerably different, but the mean reaction times were indistinguishable. This allowed us to examine the neuronal activity when the difference in the degree of search speed between different stimulus conditions was minimal. We found that not only prediscrimination but also postdiscrimination intervals varied across stimulus conditions: the postdiscrimination interval was longer in the Dim-Easy condition than in the Bright-Difficult condition. Further analysis revealed that the postdiscrimination interval might vary with stimulus luminance. A computer simulation using an accumulation-to-threshold model suggested that the luminance-related difference in visual response strength at discrimination time could be the cause of different postdiscrimination intervals.

  15. Distinct functional properties of the vertical and horizontal saccadic network in Health and Parkinson's disease: An eye-tracking and fMRI study. (United States)

    Lemos, J; Pereira, D; Almendra, L; Rebelo, D; Patrício, M; Castelhano, J; Cunha, G; Januário, C; Cunha, L; Freire, A; Castelo-Branco, M


    Saccadic behaviour ranges from reflexive (e.g., prosaccade) to goal oriented voluntary movements (e.g., antisaccade). Behavioural asymmetries between vertical and horizontal saccades have been described both in normal individuals (greater delay of vertical prosaccades) and in disease states such as Parkinson's disease (PD) (prosaccades are short and antisaccades are delayed, especially in the vertical plane, possibly due to a frontostriatal deficit). Importantly, the cortical mechanisms for the generation of vertical saccades are largely unknown, both in health and disease, when compared with their horizontal counterpart. Moreover, studies exploring saccadic neural correlates and putative compensatory mechanisms at a functional level in PD are scarce. We investigated horizontal and vertical prosaccades and antisaccades in an eye tracking paradigm in 19 PD patients off medication and 22 healthy controls, followed by a block-design functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study, consisting of two runs (prosaccade, antisaccade) of 6 blocks each (3 vertical, 3 horizontal). While saccade metrics were not significantly different between groups, PD showed left frontal underactivation during horizontal prosaccades and right parietal overactivation during horizontal and vertical prosaccades and horizontal antisaccades. Moreover, controls showed greater deactivation of the default-mode network (DMN) during antisaccades. Vertical prosaccades were associated with greater right frontal and cerebellar activity in controls, and cuneus hypoactivity in PD. Vertical antisaccades were associated with greater DMN deactivation in both groups and left frontal hypoactivity in PD. Putative functional compensatory changes in the right parietal cortex in PD patients may help to keep saccadic behaviour at the same level as the healthy controls. We provide first time evidence showing that functional cortical asymmetries between vertical and horizontal saccades occur distinctively in PD

  16. Velocity selective optical pumping


    Aminoff, C. G.; Pinard, M.


    We consider optical pumping with a quasi monochromatic tunable light beam, in the low intensity limit where a rate equation regime is obtained The velocity selective optical pumping (V.S.O.P.) introduces a correlation between atomic velocity and internal variables in the ground (or metastable) state. The aim of this article is to evaluate these atomic observables (orientation, alignment, population) as a function of velocity, using a phenomenological description of the relaxation effect of co...

  17. Do horizontal saccadic eye movements increase interhemispheric coherence? Investigation of a hypothesized neural mechanism underlying EMDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe eSamara


    Full Text Available Series of horizontal saccadic eye movements (EMs are known to improve episodic memory retrieval in healthy adults and to facilitate the processing of traumatic memories in eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR therapy. Several authors have proposed that EMs achieve these effects by increasing the functional connectivity of the two brain hemispheres, but direct evidence for this proposal is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether memory enhancement following bilateral EMs is associated with increased interhemispheric coherence in the electroencephalogram (EEG. Fourteen healthy young adults were asked to freely recall lists of studied neutral and emotional words after a series of bilateral EMs and a control procedure. Baseline EEG activity was recorded before and after the EM and control procedures. Phase and amplitude coherence between bilaterally homologous brain areas were calculated for six frequency bands and electrode pairs across the entire scalp. Behavioral analyses showed that participants recalled more emotional (but not neutral words following the EM procedure than following the control procedure. However, the EEG analyses indicated no evidence that the EMs altered participants’ interhemispheric coherence or that improvements in recall were correlated with such changes in coherence. These findings cast doubt on the interhemispheric interaction hypothesis, and therefore may have important implications for future research on the neurobiological mechanism underlying EMDR.

  18. Brain Activations Related to Saccadic Response Conflict are not Sensitive to Time on Task. (United States)

    Beldzik, Ewa; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Oginska, Halszka; Marek, Tadeusz; Fafrowicz, Magdalena


    Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e., a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  19. Brain activations related to saccadic response conflict are not sensitive to time on task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa eBeldzik


    Full Text Available Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e. a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  20. Cognitive mechanisms and motor control during a saccadic eye movement task: evidence from quantitative electroencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Diniz


    Full Text Available The saccadic movement is an important behavioral measure used to investigate several cognitive processes, including attention and sensorimotor integration. The present study aimed at investigating changes in beta coherence over frontal, motor, occipital, and parietal cortices during the performance of two different conditions of a prosacadic paradigm. The conditions involved a different pattern of stimulus presentation: a fixed and random stimulus presentation. Twelve healthy volunteers (three male, mean age of 26.25 (SD=4.13 performed the task, while their brain activity pattern was recorded using quantitative electroencephalography. The results showed an interaction between factors condition and moment for the pair of electrode C3/C4. We observed a main effect for moment to CZ/C4, FZ/F3, and P3/PZ. We also found a main effect for condition to FZ/F4, P3/P4, and O1/O2. Our results demonstrated an important role of the inter-connection of the two hemispheres in visual search and movement preparation. The study demonstrates an automation of action and reduction of the focus of attention during the task. We also found that the inter-hemispheric beta coherence plays an important role in the differentiation of the two conditions, and that beta in the right frontal cortex is able to differentiate the conditions, demonstrating a greater involvement of procedural memory in fixed condition. Our results suggest a neuronal specialization in the execution of prosacadic paradigm involving motor task sequence.

  1. ERP indices of persisting and current inhibitory control: a study of saccadic task switching. (United States)

    Mueller, S C; Swainson, R; Jackson, G M


    Previous studies have found that inhibition of a biologically dominant prepotent response tendency is required during the execution of a less familiar, non-prepotent response. However, the lasting impact of this inhibition and the cognitive mechanisms to flexibly switch between prepotent and non-prepotent responses are poorly understood. We examined the neurophysiological (ERP) correlates of switching between prosaccade and antisaccade responses in 22 healthy volunteers. The behavioural data showed significant switch costs in terms of response latency for the prosaccade task only. These costs occurred exclusively in trials when preparation for the switch was limited to 300 ms, suggesting that inhibition of the prepotent prosaccade task either passively dissipated or was actively overcome during the longer 1000 ms preparation interval. In the neurophysiological data, a late frontal negativity (LFN) was visible during preparation for a switch to the prosaccade task that was absent when switching to the antisaccade task, which may reflect the overcoming of persisting inhibition. During task implementation both saccade types were associated with a late parietal positivity (LPP) for switch relative to repetition trials, possibly indicating attentional reorienting to the switched-to task, and visible only with short preparation intervals. When the prosaccade and antisaccade task were contrasted directly during task implementation, the antisaccade task exhibited increased stimulus-locked N2 and decreased P3 amplitudes indicative of active inhibition. The present findings indicate that neurophysiological markers of persisting and current inhibition can be revealed using a prosaccade/antisaccade-switching task.

  2. A Saccade Based Framework for Real-Time Motion Segmentation Using Event Based Vision Sensors (United States)

    Mishra, Abhishek; Ghosh, Rohan; Principe, Jose C.; Thakor, Nitish V.; Kukreja, Sunil L.


    Motion segmentation is a critical pre-processing step for autonomous robotic systems to facilitate tracking of moving objects in cluttered environments. Event based sensors are low power analog devices that represent a scene by means of asynchronous information updates of only the dynamic details at high temporal resolution and, hence, require significantly less calculations. However, motion segmentation using spatiotemporal data is a challenging task due to data asynchrony. Prior approaches for object tracking using neuromorphic sensors perform well while the sensor is static or a known model of the object to be followed is available. To address these limitations, in this paper we develop a technique for generalized motion segmentation based on spatial statistics across time frames. First, we create micromotion on the platform to facilitate the separation of static and dynamic elements of a scene, inspired by human saccadic eye movements. Second, we introduce the concept of spike-groups as a methodology to partition spatio-temporal event groups, which facilitates computation of scene statistics and characterize objects in it. Experimental results show that our algorithm is able to classify dynamic objects with a moving camera with maximum accuracy of 92%. PMID:28316563

  3. Associating peripheral and foveal visual input across saccades: a default mode of the human visual system? (United States)

    Weiß, Katharina; Schneider, Werner X; Herwig, Arvid


    Spatial processing resolution of a particular object in the visual field can differ considerably due to eye movements. The same object will be represented with high acuity in the fovea but only coarsely in periphery. Herwig and Schneider (in press) proposed that the visual system counteracts such resolution differences by predicting, based on previous experience, how foveal objects will look in the periphery and vice versa. They demonstrated that previously learned transsaccadic associations between peripheral and foveal object information facilitate performance in visual search, irrespective of the correctness of these associations. False associations were learned by replacing the presaccadic object with a slightly different object during the saccade. Importantly, participants usually did not notice this object change. This raises the question of whether perception of object continuity is a critical factor in building transsaccadic associations. We disturbed object continuity during learning with a postsaccadic blank or a task-irrelevant shape change. Interestingly, visual search performance revealed that neither disruption of temporal object continuity (blank) nor disruption of spatial object continuity (shape change) impaired transsaccadic learning. Thus, transsaccadic learning seems to be a very robust default mechanism of the visual system that is probably related to the more general concept of action-effect learning.

  4. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  5. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong; LI Chunfeng


    The ring expansion procedures over various forming velocities are calculated with ANSYS software in order to show the effect of forming velocity on ductility of rate insensitive materials. Ring expansion procedures are simplified to one-dimensional tension by constraining the radial deformation, with element birth and death method, fracture problem of circular ring are considered. The calculated results show that for insensitive materials of 1060 aluminum and 3A21 aluminum alloy, fracture strain increases corresponding to the increase of forming velocity. This trend agrees well with experimental results, and indicates inertia is the key factor to affect ductility; With element birth and death methods, fracture problems can be solved effectively. Experimental studies on formability of tubular workpieces are also conducted, experimental results show that the formability of 1060 aluminum and 3A21 aluminum alloy under electromagnetic forming is higher than that under quasistatic forming, according to the characteristics of electromagnetic forming, the forming limit diagrams of the two materials tube are also built respectively, this is very important to promote the development of electromagnetic forming and guide the engineering practices.

  7. Estimation of mental workload using saccadic eye movements in a free-viewing task. (United States)

    Tokuda, Satoru; Obinata, Goro; Palmer, Evan; Chaparro, Alex


    This study proposes a new method to automatically estimate a person's mental workload (MWL) using a specific type of eye movements called saccadic intrusions (SI). Previously, the most accurate existing method to estimate MWL was the pupil diameter measure [1]. However, pupil diameter is not practical in a vehicle driving environment because it is overly sensitive to brightness changes. A new method should be independent from environment brightness changes, robust in most driving environments, and accurately reflect MWL. This study used SI as an indicator of MWL because eye movements, including SI, are independent from brightness changes. SI are a specific type of eye-gaze deviations. SI are known to be closely related to cognitive activities [2], [3]. This means that SI may be also closely related to MWL. Eye movements were recorded using a non-intrusive eye tracking camera, located 550 mm away from a participant. Participants were instructed to move their eye gaze to examine a highway driving scenery picture. In the data set of the recorded eye movements, our new algorithm detected SI and quantified SI behavior into a SI measure. Participants were also engaged in a secondary N-back task. The N-back task is a popular task used in cognitive sciences to systematically control a MWL level of participants. In our results, all 14 participants exhibited more SI eye movements when their MWL level was high compared to when their MWL level was low. Moreover, our results showed that the SI measure was a more accurate measure of MWL than the pupil diameter measure. This finding indicates that MWL of the person can be estimated by observation of SI eye movements. This new method has a wide range of applications. One of them is to predict a person's MWL, thus predicting when a person is capable of driving a vehicle in a safe or dangerous manner.

  8. Widely applicable MATLAB routines for automated analysis of saccadic reaction times. (United States)

    Leppänen, Jukka M; Forssman, Linda; Kaatiala, Jussi; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Wass, Sam


    Saccadic reaction time (SRT) is a widely used dependent variable in eye-tracking studies of human cognition and its disorders. SRTs are also frequently measured in studies with special populations, such as infants and young children, who are limited in their ability to follow verbal instructions and remain in a stable position over time. In this article, we describe a library of MATLAB routines (Mathworks, Natick, MA) that are designed to (1) enable completely automated implementation of SRT analysis for multiple data sets and (2) cope with the unique challenges of analyzing SRTs from eye-tracking data collected from poorly cooperating participants. The library includes preprocessing and SRT analysis routines. The preprocessing routines (i.e., moving median filter and interpolation) are designed to remove technical artifacts and missing samples from raw eye-tracking data. The SRTs are detected by a simple algorithm that identifies the last point of gaze in the area of interest, but, critically, the extracted SRTs are further subjected to a number of postanalysis verification checks to exclude values contaminated by artifacts. Example analyses of data from 5- to 11-month-old infants demonstrated that SRTs extracted with the proposed routines were in high agreement with SRTs obtained manually from video records, robust against potential sources of artifact, and exhibited moderate to high test-retest stability. We propose that the present library has wide utility in standardizing and automating SRT-based cognitive testing in various populations. The MATLAB routines are open source and can be downloaded from .

  9. Designing driver assistance systems with crossmodal signals: multisensory integration rules for saccadic reaction times apply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rike Steenken

    Full Text Available Modern driver assistance systems make increasing use of auditory and tactile signals in order to reduce the driver's visual information load. This entails potential crossmodal interaction effects that need to be taken into account in designing an optimal system. Here we show that saccadic reaction times to visual targets (cockpit or outside mirror, presented in a driving simulator environment and accompanied by auditory or tactile accessories, follow some well-known spatiotemporal rules of multisensory integration, usually found under confined laboratory conditions. Auditory nontargets speed up reaction time by about 80 ms. The effect tends to be maximal when the nontarget is presented 50 ms before the target and when target and nontarget are spatially coincident. The effect of a tactile nontarget (vibrating steering wheel was less pronounced and not spatially specific. It is shown that the average reaction times are well-described by the stochastic "time window of integration" model for multisensory integration developed by the authors. This two-stage model postulates that crossmodal interaction occurs only if the peripheral processes from the different sensory modalities terminate within a fixed temporal interval, and that the amount of crossmodal interaction manifests itself in an increase or decrease of second stage processing time. A qualitative test is consistent with the model prediction that the probability of interaction, but not the amount of crossmodal interaction, depends on target-nontarget onset asynchrony. A quantitative model fit yields estimates of individual participants' parameters, including the size of the time window. Some consequences for the design of driver assistance systems are discussed.

  10. Superluminal Recession Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, T M; Davis, Tamara M.; Lineweaver, Charles H.


    Hubble's Law, v=HD (recession velocity is proportional to distance), is a theoretical result derived from the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. v=HD applies at least as far as the particle horizon and in principle for all distances. Thus, galaxies with distances greater than D=c/H are receding from us with velocities greater than the speed of light and superluminal recession is a fundamental part of the general relativistic description of the expanding universe. This apparent contradiction of special relativity (SR) is often mistakenly remedied by converting redshift to velocity using SR. Here we show that galaxies with recession velocities faster than the speed of light are observable and that in all viable cosmological models, galaxies above a redshift of three are receding superluminally.

  11. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)


    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  12. 副中央凹中字N+2的预视对汉语阅读眼跳目标选择影响的眼动研究%The influence of parafoveal processing of character N+2 on saccade targeting in Chinese reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永胜; 白学军; 臧传丽; 高晓雷; 郭志英; 闫国利


    Although some researches have found that the word is the basic processing unit in Chinese reading, there is little if any evidence to show that Chinese readers select upcoming words as the next saccade target. Research has shown that parafoveal processing affects saccade targeting in reading of word-based alphabetic languages like English. However, it is less clear whether it is the case in reading of character-based languges like Chinese, in which word boundaries are not clearly demarcated and there is often ambiguity about which characters form a word. Opinions differ about whether Chinese readers select a specific position within a word to fixate during reading. Several studies have shown that Chinese readers do not target saccades to a specific position within a word. However, others have argued that saccade targeting is based on ongoing word segmentation that occurs in parafoveal vision, and only if segmentation is successful, do Chinese readers select the center of the word as the next fixation location. Conversely, if segmentation fails, readers will move their eyes to the beginning of the word. If Chinese readers select the next word as a target, there should be difference in the fixation location when characters in parafovea do, or do not, comprise a word. In this experiment, we selected a high-frequency character as character N+1. In the “two-character word” condition, the characters N+1 and N+2 formed a word, but in the “two single character words” condition, the two characters did not form a word. Using the boundary pradigm (Rayner, 1975), we also manipulated the preview of character N+2, such that it was either an identical or a pseudocharacter preview. The results showed that fixation durations on character N+2 were significantly shorter when the preview of character N+2 was identical than when it was a pseudocharacter. There was no significant difference in the length of the outgoing saccade from the pretarget to the target region between

  13. Velocities in Solar Pores (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Keil, S. L.; Smaldone, L. A.


    We investigate the three dimensional structure of solar pores and their surroundings using high spatial and spectral resolution data. We present evidence that surface velocities decrease around pores with a corresponding increase in the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. LOS velocities in pores increase with the strength of the magnetic field. Surface velocities show convergence toward a weak downflow which appear to trace boundaries resembling meso-granular and super granular flows. The observed magnetic fields in the pores appear near these boundaries. We analyze the vertical velocity structure in pores and show that they generally have downflows decreasing exponentially with height, with a scale height of about 90 km. Evidence is also presented for the expanding nature of flux tubes. Finally we describe a phenomenological model for pores. This work was supported by AFOSR Task 2311G3. LAS was partially supported by the Progetto Nazionale Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica of MURST and Scambi Internazionali of the Universita degli Studi di Napoli Frederico II. National Solar Observatory, NOAO, is operated for the National Science Foundation by AURA, Inc.

  14. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism? (United States)

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne


    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  15. Cross-frequency phase synchrony around the saccade period as a correlate of perceiver’s internal state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie eNakatani


    Full Text Available In active vision, eye-movements depend on perceivers’ internal state. We investigated peri-fixation brain activity for internal state-specific tagging. Human participants performed a task, in which a visual object was presented for identification in lateral visual field, to which they moved their eyes as soon as possible from a central fixation point. Next, a phrase appeared in the same location; the phrase could either be an easy or hard question about the object, answered by pressing one of two alternative response buttons, or it could be an instruction to simply press one of these two buttons. Depending on whether these messages were blocked or randomly mixed, one of two different internal states was induced: either the task was known in advance or it wasn’t. Eye movements and electroencephalogram (EEG were recorded simultaneously during task performance. Using eye-event-time-locked averaging and independent component analysis, saccade- and fixation-related components were identified. Coss-frequency phase-synchrony was observed between the alpha/beta1 ranges of fixation-related and beta2/gamma1 ranges of saccade-related activity 50 ms prior to fixation onset in the mixed-phrase condition only. We interpreted this result as evidence for internal state-specific tagging.

  16. Distractor evoked deviations of saccade trajectory are modulated by fixation activity in the superior colliculus: computational and behavioral evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Wang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that saccades may deviate towards or away from task irrelevant visual distractors. This observation has been attributed to active suppression (inhibition of the distractor location unfolding over time: early in time inhibition at the distractor location is incomplete causing deviation towards the distractor, while later in time when inhibition is complete the eyes deviate away from the distractor. In a recent computational study, Wang, Kruijne and Theeuwes proposed an alternative theory that the lateral interactions in the superior colliculus (SC, which are characterized by short-distance excitation and long-distance inhibition, are sufficient for generating both deviations towards and away from distractors. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature, ran model simulations and conducted two behavioral experiments to further explore this unconventional theory. Confirming predictions generated by the model simulations, the behavioral experiments show that a saccades deviate towards close distractors and away from remote distractors, and b the amount of deviation depends on the strength of fixation activity in the SC, which can be manipulated by turning off the fixation stimulus before or after target onset (Experiment 1, or by varying the eccentricity of the target and distractor (Experiment 2.

  17. Distractor evoked deviations of saccade trajectory are modulated by fixation activity in the superior colliculus: computational and behavioral evidence. (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Theeuwes, Jan


    Previous studies have shown that saccades may deviate towards or away from task irrelevant visual distractors. This observation has been attributed to active suppression (inhibition) of the distractor location unfolding over time: early in time inhibition at the distractor location is incomplete causing deviation towards the distractor, while later in time when inhibition is complete the eyes deviate away from the distractor. In a recent computational study, Wang, Kruijne and Theeuwes proposed an alternative theory that the lateral interactions in the superior colliculus (SC), which are characterized by short-distance excitation and long-distance inhibition, are sufficient for generating both deviations towards and away from distractors. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature, ran model simulations and conducted two behavioral experiments to further explore this unconventional theory. Confirming predictions generated by the model simulations, the behavioral experiments show that a) saccades deviate towards close distractors and away from remote distractors, and b) the amount of deviation depends on the strength of fixation activity in the SC, which can be manipulated by turning off the fixation stimulus before or after target onset (Experiment 1), or by varying the eccentricity of the target and distractor (Experiment 2).

  18. A system outlook on the vision problem associated with observation of light flickering at the micro-saccades' frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Gluskin, Emanuel; Topalis, Frangiskos V; Bisketzis, Nikolas


    The flickering of the light of fluorescent lamps (FL), whose basic frequency, 100 Hz, is close to that of the micro-saccadic (the eye-muscles' tremor component) eye movement, is a severe problem for autists (autistic humans), a problem for newborn babies, for people after some traumatic accidents, and for some 10% of otherwise absolutely normal humans. Taking the line of a "system-terms" discussion of the vision-disturbance problem, the present work provides a constructive framework for investigating the problem. Using the results of light intensity measurements and some simple analytical models for the instantaneous light-intensity function, and analyzing the role of the coincidence (closeness) of the frequencies of the ripple of and the micro saccades, we suggest a block-diagram for the biological vision control system. We also show that a singularity of the waveform of, which is typical for most FL, may be important for brain control of the eye tremor. The latter conclusion is supported by a simulation of ...

  19. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy (United States)

    Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.


    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined.

  20. The Prescribed Velocity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...... description of this momentum flow. The Prescribed Velocity Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points close to the opening and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  1. Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities. (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean


    Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal

  2. Extension of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity to the hydrophobic microchannels with velocity slip. (United States)

    Park, H M; Kim, T W


    Electrokinetic flows through hydrophobic microchannels experience velocity slip at the microchannel wall, which affects volumetric flow rate and solute retention time. The usual method of predicting the volumetric flow rate and velocity profile for hydrophobic microchannels is to solve the Navier-Stokes equation and the Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the electric potential with the boundary condition of velocity slip expressed by the Navier slip coefficient, which is computationally demanding and defies analytic solutions. In the present investigation, we have devised a simple method of predicting the velocity profiles and volumetric flow rates of electrokinetic flows by extending the concept of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity to microchannels with Navier slip. The extended Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity is simple to use and yields accurate results as compared to the exact solutions. Employing the extended Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity, the analytical expressions for volumetric flow rate and velocity profile for electrokinetic flows through rectangular microchannels with Navier slip have been obtained at high values of zeta potential. The range of validity of the extended Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity is also investigated.

  3. Age-Related Change of the Mean Level and Intraindividual Variability of Saccadic Reaction Time Performance in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Haishi, Koichi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru


    The current study examined age-related change of saccadic reaction time (SRT) in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 29 persons with intellectual disabilities aged between 14 and 34 years whose IQs were between 14 and 70. Participants were divided into Group I (IQ greater than or equal to 35) and Group II (IQ less than…

  4. Reliability and comparison of gain values with occurrence of saccades in the EyeSeeCam video head impulse test (vHIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Korsager, Leise Elisabeth; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Faber, Christian


    The vHIT (video head impulse test) investigates the vestibular function in two ways: a VOR (vestibulo-ocular reflex) gain value and a head impulse diagram. From the diagram covert and overt saccades can be detected. Evaluation of the vestibular function based on vHIT depends on both parameters. T...

  5. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Reflexive and Volitional Saccades as Revealed by Lesion Studies with Neurological Patients and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) (United States)

    Muri, Rene M.; Nyffeler, Thomas


    This review discusses the neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of the cortical control of reflexive and volitional saccades in humans. The main focus is on classical lesion studies and studies using the interference method of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). To understand the behavioural function of a region, it is essential to assess…

  6. How the structure of a continental margin affects the development of a fold and thrust belt. 2: Imaging basement structures with seismic velocities and seismicity in south-central Taiwan (United States)

    Biete, Cristina; Brown, Dennis; Alvarez-Marron, Joaquina; Camanni, Giovanni; Kuo-Chen, Hao; Ho, Chun-Wei


    We investigate the geophysical signature within the south-central Taiwan fold and thrust belt of the reactivation of pre-existing structures developed on the Eurasian margin. Seismic tomography (P-wave) and earthquake hypocenters are combined to trace structures mapped on the margin offshore western Taiwan into the fold and thrust belt. The extensional tectonic history of the margin began in the Early Eocene and culminated in the Late Eocene to Early Oligocene with sea-floor spreading and the opening of the South China Sea. Several NE trending basins developed during the rifting of a pre-Cenozoic basement and these were filled with Eocene sediments. Further extension on the outer margin took place during the Middle to Late Miocene, forming basins that are now involved in the Taiwan deformation. Finally, the margin's transition from the platform to the slope takes place across south-central Taiwan and is oriented at a high angle to the active deformation front. We define the basement as pre-Eocene rocks and use a P-wave velocity (Vp) of 5.2 km/s as a proxy for the interface between them and their younger cover. This Vp interface is characterized by highs and lows that can be interpreted to image basement topography whose possible causes we investigate here. In the Hsuehshan Range there is a pronounced shallowing of the 5.2 km/s surface across the Shuilikeng fault. It is accompanied by an east-dipping cluster of seismicity down to more than 25 km depth, and forming what appears to be a crustal ramp across which the Eocene-age Hsuehshan Basin is being inverted. Westward, the 5.2 km/s interface forms a high called Paikang basement high, the southern flank of which is the on land projection of the Mesozoic basement shelf break. Southward, there is an increase in seismicity and topography that is associated to a NE-SW oriented lateral structure in the fold and thrust belt. South of this lateral structure, beneath the Alishan Range, a shallowing of the 5.2 km/s interface

  7. Modeling Terminal Velocity (United States)

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.


    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  8. 自主控制眼跳脑神经机制%The neural mechanisms of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 李秀红


    Voluntary control of saccadic eye movements is a kind of saccades controlled by conscious and always used to investigate the brain areas related to saccades and ability of response inhibition and work memory.Researching the neural mechanisms of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements could provide a basis to study the advanced cognitive function of brain and facilitate to explore basic neural mechanisms of abnormal saccadic in brain disorders.As neuroimaging technologies develops,intensive studies about the neural mechanisms of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements have been made great progress.It is showed that several brain areas such as prefrontal cortex,subcortical areas and parietal cortex mainly in participate.These multiple brain regions are involved in voluntary control of saccadic eye movements at different stages.Antisaccades and memory-guided saccades including different brain regions because of their different characteristics of saccadic.The future direction of the research is to combine study with neural imaging technology,and to study more about the brain regions and their functional connectivity involved in voluntary control of saccadic eye movements.%自主控制眼跳是一种受意识控制的眼跳,可用来考察调控眼跳的大脑区域、反应抑制和空间工作记忆等能力.研究自主控制眼跳的脑神经机制可为探讨大脑的高级认知功能提供依据,对于探索一些脑功能失调疾病中异常眼跳的脑神经基础有重要意义.随着神经成像技术的发展,自主控制眼跳的脑神经机制有了较深入的研究,自主控制眼跳需要额叶皮层、皮层下区域和顶叶区域等多个脑区的共同参与,这些脑区参与了自主控制眼跳的不同阶段,而且反向眼跳和记忆导向眼跳由于各自眼跳特征不同分别涉及不同的脑区.未来的研究方向是将研究与神经成像技术相结合,更多地考察参与自主控制眼跳的大脑区域和脑区间的功能连接.

  9. Reading performance is not affected by a prism induced increase of horizontal and vertical vergence demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel eDysli


    Full Text Available Purpose Dyslexia is the most common developmental reading disorder that affects language skills. Latent strabismus (heterophoria has been suspected to be causally involved. Even though phoria correction in dyslexic children is commonly applied, the evidence in support of a benefit is poor. In order to provide experimental evidence on this issue, we simulated phoria in healthy readers by modifying the vergence tone required to maintain binocular alignment. MethodsVergence tone was altered with prisms that were placed in front of one eye in 16 healthy subjects to induce exophoria, esophoria, or vertical phoria. Subjects were to read one paragraph for each condition, from which reading speed was determined. Text comprehension was tested with a forced multiple choice test. Eye movements were recorded during reading and subsequently analysed for saccadic amplitudes, saccades per 10 letters, percentage of regressive (backward saccades, average fixation duration, first fixation duration on a word, and gaze duration.ResultsAcute change of horizontal and vertical vergence tone does neither significantly affect reading performance nor reading associated eye movements. Conclusion Prisms in healthy subjects fail to induce a significant change of reading performance. This finding is not compatible with a role of phoria in dyslexia. Our results contrast the proposal for correcting small angle heterophorias in dyslexic children.

  10. Wave propagation and group velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Brillouin, Léon


    Wave Propagation and Group Velocity contains papers on group velocity which were published during the First World War and are missing in many libraries. It introduces three different definitions of velocities: the group velocity of Lord Rayleigh, the signal velocity of Sommerfeld, and the velocity of energy transfer, which yields the rate of energy flow through a continuous wave and is strongly related to the characteristic impedance. These three velocities are identical for nonabsorbing media, but they differ considerably in an absorption band. Some examples are discussed in the last chapter

  11. Radial Velocities with PARAS (United States)

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.


    The Physical Research Laboratory Advanced Radial-velocity All-sky Search (PARAS) is an efficient fiber-fed cross-dispersed high-resolution echelle spectrograph that will see first light in early 2010. This instrument is being built at the Physical Research laboratory (PRL) and will be attached to the 1.2m telescope at Gurushikhar Observatory at Mt. Abu, India. PARAS has a single-shot wavelength coverage of 370nm to 850nm at a spectral resolution of R 70000 and will be housed in a vacuum chamber (at 1x10-2 mbar pressure) in a highly temperature controlled environment. This renders the spectrograph extremely suitable for exoplanet searches with high velocity precision using the simultaneous Thorium-Argon wavelength calibration method. We are in the process of developing an automated data analysis pipeline for echelle data reduction and precise radial velocity extraction based on the REDUCE package of Piskunov & Valenti (2002), which is especially careful in dealing with CCD defects, extraneous noise, and cosmic ray spikes. Here we discuss the current status of the PARAS project and details and tests of the data analysis procedure, as well as results from ongoing PARAS commissioning activities.

  12. The influence of crystalline lens accommodation on post-saccadic oscillations in pupil-based eye trackers. (United States)

    Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Richard; Magnusson, Måns; Pansell, Tony; Hooge, Ignace


    It is well known that the crystalline lens (henceforth lens) can oscillate (or 'wobble') relative to the eyeball at the end of saccades. Recent research has proposed that such wobbling of the lens is a source of post-saccadic oscillations (PSOs) seen in data recorded by eye trackers that estimate gaze direction from the location of the pupil. Since the size of the lens wobbles increases with accommodative effort, one would predict a similar increase of PSO-amplitude in data recorded with a pupil based eye tracker. In four experiments, we investigated the role of lens accommodation on PSOs in a video-based eye tracker. In Experiment 1, we replicated previous results showing that PSO-amplitudes increase at near viewing distances (large vergence angles), when the lens is highly accommodated. In Experiment 2a, we manipulated the accommodative state of the lens pharmacologically using eye drops at a fixed viewing distance and found, in contrast to Experiment 1, no significant difference in PSO-amplitude related to the accommodative state of the lens. Finally, in Experiment 2b, the effect of vergence angle was investigated by comparing PSO-amplitudes at near and far while maintaining a fixed lens accommodation. Despite the pharmacologically fixed degree of accommodation, PSO-amplitudes were systematically larger in the near condition. In summary, PSOs cannot exhaustively be explained by lens wobbles. Possible confounds related to pupil size and eye-camera angle are investigated in Experiments 3 and 4, and alternative mechanisms behind PSOs are probed in the discussion.

  13. Effects of a pretarget distractor on saccade reaction times across space and time in monkeys and humans. (United States)

    Khan, Aarlenne Z; Munoz, Douglas P; Takahashi, Naomi; Blohm, Gunnar; McPeek, Robert M


    Previous studies have shown that the influence of a behaviorally irrelevant distractor on saccade reaction times (SRTs) varies depending on the temporal and spatial relationship between the distractor and the saccade target. We measured distractor influence on SRTs to a subsequently presented target, varying the spatial location and the timing between the distractor and the target. The distractor appeared at one of four equally eccentric locations, followed by a target (either 50 ms or 200 ms after) at one of 136 different locations encompassing an area of 20° square. We extensively tested two humans and two monkeys on this task to determine interspecies similarities and differences, since monkey neurophysiology is often used to interpret human behavioral findings. Results were similar across species; for the short interval (50 ms), SRTs were shortest to a target presented close to or at the distractor location and increased primarily as a function of the distance from the distractor. There was also an effect of distractor-target direction and visual field. For the long interval (200 ms) the results were inverted; SRTs were longest for short distances between the distractor and target and decreased as a function of distance from distractor. Both SRT patterns were well captured by a two-dimensional dynamic field model with short-distance excitation and long-distance inhibition, based upon known functional connectivity found in the superior colliculus that includes wide-spread excitation and inhibition. Based on these findings, we posit that the different time-dependent patterns of distractor-related SRTs can emerge from the same underlying neuronal mechanisms common to both species.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, with the starting velocity experiments of natural cohesive sedimentation, the author proposes an assumption concerning the starting mechanism of cohesive sedimentation and gives a formula to determine the starting velocity of compact clay. It is pointed out that the fluctuating function of flow is a main factor for the starting of sedimentation. And the component and the structure of cohesive sedimentation are also the affecting factors for the starting. Consequently, the study shows that modern results of soil mechanics, clay mineralogy and fluid mechanics are helpful in the investigation of this kind of engineering problem.

  15. Transverse velocity shifts in protostellar jets: rotation or velocity asymmetries?

    CERN Document Server

    De Colle, Fabio; Riera, Angels


    Observations of several protostellar jets show systematic differences in radial velocity transverse to the jet propagation direction, which have been interpreted as evidence of rotation in the jets. In this paper we discuss the origin of these velocity shifts, and show that they could be originated by rotation in the flow, or by side to side asymmetries in the shock velocity, which could be due to asymmetries in the jet ejection velocity/density or in the ambient medium. For typical poloidal jet velocities (~ 100-200 km/s), an asymmetry >~ 10% can produce velocity shifts comparable to those observed. We also present three dimensional numerical simulations of rotating, precessing and asymmetric jets, and show that, even though for a given jet there is a clear degeneracy between these effects, a statistical analysis of jets with different inclination angles can help to distinguish between the alternative origins of transverse velocity shifts. Our analysis indicate that side to side velocities asymmetries could ...

  16. Movimentos sacádicos em indivíduos com alterações cerebelares Saccadic Movements in subjects with cerebellar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysio Augusto Tahan de Campos Netto


    Full Text Available A pesquisa dos movimentos sacádicos ou sacadas é parte da bateria de testes da eletro-oculografia. O cerebelo apresenta importantes conexões com o tronco cerebral e estruturas talâmicas que possuem função na geração das sacadas. OBJETIVO: Estudar as sacadas de indivíduos com cerebelopatias. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram selecionados 11 indivíduos com doenças cerebelares e um grupo controle com outros 27 indivíduos. Os pacientes dos dois grupos foram submetidos à pesquisa das sacadas (fixo e randomizado. A comparação das respostas foi feita entre os grupos controle e o com cerebelopatias. Foram analisadas velocidade, latência e acurácia das respostas nos grupos controle e patológico. Além disso, as variáveis sexo e idade também foram avaliadas. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças nos parâmetros quantitativos nos dois grupos. Idade e sexo também não exerceram influência nestes parâmetros. A morfologia das respostas, porém, foi que apresentou profundas diferenças entre os dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Os parâmetros quantitativos das sacadas horizontais de cerebelopatas não diferem daquelas apresentadas por indivíduos normais. Sexo e idade não exercem influência nestes parâmetros.Saccades are part of the electrooculography tests battery. The cerebellum has important connections with the brainstem and thalamic structures involved in the generation of saccades. AIM: to study saccadic movements in subjects with cerebellar disorders. STUDY METHOD: Prospective clinical study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 11 subjects with cerebellar disorders were selected, together with a control group with 27 normal subjects. The patients of both groups had their saccadic movements registered (fixed and randomized. We compared and quantitatively analyzed the responses from both groups. RESULTS: We did not find any differences among the quantitative parameters between the two. Age and gender did not

  17. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Speckhard, Eric G; Ng, Kenny C Y; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan


    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce linelike spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming experiments will have the precision needed. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  18. Minimum Length - Maximum Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Panes, Boris


    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA about superluminal neutrinos.

  19. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Speckhard, Eric G; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan


    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce line-like spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming and proposed experiments will make significant improvements. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  20. Statistics of Velocity from Spectral Data Modified Velocity Centroids

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A


    We address the problem of studying interstellar (ISM) turbulence using spectral line data. We construct a measure that we term modified velocity centroids (MVCs) and derive an analytical solution that relates the 2D spectra of the modified centroids with the underlying 3D velocity spectrum. We test our results using synthetic maps constructed with data obtained through simulations of compressible MHD turbulence. We prove that the MVCs are able to restore the underlying spectrum of turbulent velocity. We show that the modified velocity centroids (MVCs) are complementary to the the Velocity Channel Analysis (VCA) technique that we introduced earlier. Employed together they make determining of the velocity spectral index more reliable. At the same time we show that MVCs allow to determine velocity spectra when the underlying statistics is not a power law and/or the turbulence is subsonic.

  1. Accurate Sound Velocity Measurement in Ocean Near-Surface Layer (United States)

    Lizarralde, D.; Xu, B. L.


    Accurate sound velocity measurement is essential in oceanography because sound is the only wave that can propagate in sea water. Due to its measuring difficulties, sound velocity is often not measured directly but instead calculated from water temperature, salinity, and depth, which are much easier to obtain. This research develops a new method to directly measure the sound velocity in the ocean's near-surface layer using multi-channel seismic (MCS) hydrophones. This system consists of a device to make a sound pulse and a long cable with hundreds of hydrophones to record the sound. The distance between the source and each receiver is the offset. The time it takes the pulse to arrive to each receiver is the travel time.The errors of measuring offset and travel time will affect the accuracy of sound velocity if we calculated with just one offset and one travel time. However, by analyzing the direct arrival signal from hundreds of receivers, the velocity can be determined as the slope of a straight line in the travel time-offset graph. The errors in distance and time measurement result in only an up or down shift of the line and do not affect the slope. This research uses MCS data of survey MGL1408 obtained from the Marine Geoscience Data System and processed with Seismic Unix. The sound velocity can be directly measured to an accuracy of less than 1m/s. The included graph shows the directly measured velocity verses the calculated velocity along 100km across the Mid-Atlantic continental margin. The directly measured velocity shows a good coherence to the velocity computed from temperature and salinity. In addition, the fine variations in the sound velocity can be observed, which is hardly seen from the calculated velocity. Using this methodology, both large area acquisition and fine resolution can be achieved. This directly measured sound velocity will be a new and powerful tool in oceanography.

  2. Modulation of cognitive control levels via manipulation of saccade trial-type probability assessed with event-related BOLD fMRI. (United States)

    Pierce, Jordan E; McDowell, Jennifer E


    Cognitive control supports flexible behavior adapted to meet current goals and can be modeled through investigation of saccade tasks with varying cognitive demands. Basic prosaccades (rapid glances toward a newly appearing stimulus) are supported by neural circuitry, including occipital and posterior parietal cortex, frontal and supplementary eye fields, and basal ganglia. These trials can be contrasted with complex antisaccades (glances toward the mirror image location of a stimulus), which are characterized by greater functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the aforementioned regions and recruitment of additional regions such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The current study manipulated the cognitive demands of these saccade tasks by presenting three rapid event-related runs of mixed saccades with a varying probability of antisaccade vs. prosaccade trials (25, 50, or 75%). Behavioral results showed an effect of trial-type probability on reaction time, with slower responses in runs with a high antisaccade probability. Imaging results exhibited an effect of probability in bilateral pre- and postcentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus. Additionally, the interaction between saccade trial type and probability revealed a strong probability effect for prosaccade trials, showing a linear increase in activation parallel to antisaccade probability in bilateral temporal/occipital, posterior parietal, medial frontal, and lateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, antisaccade trials showed elevated activation across all runs. Overall, this study demonstrated that improbable performance of a typically simple prosaccade task led to augmented BOLD signal to support changing cognitive control demands, resulting in activation levels similar to the more complex antisaccade task.

  3. Low-level and high-level modulations of fixational saccades and high frequency oscillatory brain activity in a visual object classification task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej eKosilo


    Full Text Available Until recently induced gamma-band activity (GBA was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However induced GBA in the electroencephalogram (EEG is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature fixational saccades. Recent studies have demonstrated that fixational saccades also reflect high-level representational processes. Do high-level as opposed to low-level factors influence fixational saccades? What is the effect of these factors on artifact-free GBA? To investigate this, we conducted separate eye tracking and EEG experiments using identical designs. Participants classified line drawings as objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, contours were defined along different directions in cardinal colour space: S-cone-isolating, intermediate isoluminant, or a full-colour stimulus, the latter containing an additional achromatic component. Prior to the classification task, object discrimination thresholds were measured and stimuli were scaled to matching suprathreshold levels for each participant. In both experiments, behavioural performance was best for full-colour stimuli and worst for S-cone isolating stimuli. Saccade rates 200-700 ms after stimulus onset were modulated independently by low and high-level factors, being higher for full-colour stimuli than for S-cone isolating stimuli and higher for objects. Low-amplitude evoked GBA and total GBA were observed in very few conditions, showing that paradigms with isoluminant stimuli may not be ideal for eliciting such responses. We conclude that cortical loops involved in the processing of objects are preferentially excited by stimuli that contain achromatic information. Their activation can lead to relatively early exploratory eye movements even for foveally-presented stimuli.

  4. Minimal information in velocity space

    CERN Document Server

    Evrard, Guillaume


    Jaynes' transformation group principle is used to derive the objective prior for the velocity of a non-zero rest-mass particle. In the case of classical mechanics, invariance under the classical law of addition of velocities, leads to an improper constant prior over the unbounded velocity space of classical mechanics. The application of the relativistic law of addition of velocities leads to a less simple prior. It can however be rewritten as a uniform volumetric distribution if the relativistic velocity space is given a non-trivial metric.

  5. Saccadic movements using eye-tracking technology in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: pilot study Movimentos sacádicos de indivíduos do espectro autista por varredura visual: estudo piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos T. Mercadante


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify differences in the visual scanning strategies between pervasive developmental disorders (PDD and controls when they are observing social and non-social pictures. METHOD: PDD group (PDDG comprised by 10 non-retarded subjects (age from 4 to 41 and age-matched control group (CG. Nine social pictures with human beings (including two pictures of cat mask, and 3 nonsocial pictures of objects were presented for 5 seconds. Saccadic movements and fixation were recorded with equipment EyeGaze® (LC Technologies Inc.. RESULTS: PDDG (mean=292.73, SE=67.62 presented longer duration of saccadic movements for social pictures compared to CG (mean=136.06, SE=14.01 (p=0.04. The CG showed a higher number of fixations in the picture 7 (a women using a cat mask, with the eyes erased (CG: mean=3.40; PDDG: mean=1.80; p=0.007. CONCLUSION: The results suggest differences in strategies that PDD explore human picture. Moreover, these strategies seem not to be affected by the lack of expected part of the face (the eyes.OBJETIVO: Verificar diferenças nas estratégias de varredura visual de indivíduos com transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento (TID comparados a controles normais na observação de figuras sociais e não sociais. MÉTODO: Estudo caso-controle. Grupo TID: dez sujeitos com TID, inteligência normal e idade entre 4 e 41 anos; Grupo Controle: dez sujeitos pareados por idade. Os sujeitos observaram por 5 segundos 9 figuras de seres humanos e 3 figuras de objetos. Os movimentos sacádicos e o número de fixações foram gravados em equipamento EyeGaze® (LC Technologies Inc.. RESULTADOS: O grupo TID apresentou maior duração dos movimentos sacádicos na observação de figuras humanas [TID=292,73 (EP=67,62; controle= 136,06 (EP=14,01; p=0,04]. O grupo controle apresentou maior número de fixações na figura 7 (mulher com máscara de gato sem os olhos (TID=1,8; controle=3,4; p=0,007. CONCLUSÃO: Indivíduos com TID parecem utilizar estrat

  6. Saccadic performance and cortical excitability as trait-markers and state-markers in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: a 2-case follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eMalsert


    Full Text Available Background: The understanding of physiopathology and cognitive impairments in mood disorders requires finding objective markers. Mood disorders have often been linked to hypometabolism in the prefrontal dorsolateral cortex, and to GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission dysfunction. The present study aimed to discover whether saccadic tasks (involving DPLFC activity, and cortical excitability (involving GABA/Glutamate neurotransmission could provide neuropsychophysical markers for mood disorders, and/or of its phases, in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorders (rcBD. Methods: Two rcBD patients were followed for a cycle, and were compared to 9 healthy controls. A saccade task, mixing prosaccades, antisaccades and nosaccades, and an evaluation of cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation were performed. Results: We observed a deficit in antisaccade in patients independently of thymic phase, and in nosaccade in the manic phase only. Cortical excitability data revealed global intracortical deficits in all phases, switching according to cerebral hemisphere and thymic phase. Conclusion: Specific patterns of performance in saccade tasks and cortical excitability could characterize mood disorders (trait-markers and its phases (state-markers. Moreover, a functional relationship between oculometric performance and cortical excitability is discussed.

  7. Visual control of walking velocity. (United States)

    François, Matthieu; Morice, Antoine H P; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Montagne, Gilles


    Even if optical correlates of self-motion velocity have already been identified, their contribution to the control of displacement velocity remains to be established. In this study, we used a virtual reality set-up coupled to a treadmill to test the role of both Global Optic Flow Rate (GOFR) and Edge Rate (ER) in the regulation of walking velocity. Participants were required to walk at a constant velocity, corresponding to their preferred walking velocity, while eye height and texture density were manipulated. This manipulation perturbed the natural relationship between the actual walking velocity and its optical specification by GOFR and ER, respectively. Results revealed that both these sources of information are indeed used by participants to control walking speed, as demonstrated by a slowing down of actual walking velocity when the optical specification of velocity by either GOFR or ER gives rise to an overestimation of actual velocity, and vice versa. Gait analyses showed that these walking velocity adjustments result from simultaneous adaptations in both step length and step duration. The role of visual information in the control of self-motion velocity is discussed in relation with other factors.

  8. An improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation (United States)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke


    To explore and evaluate the impacts of relative velocity fluctuation on the dynamic characteristics and fuel consumptions of traffic flow, we present an improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation based on the full velocity difference model, then we carry out several numerical simulations to determine the optimal time window length and to explore how relative velocity fluctuation affects cars' velocity and its fluctuation as well as fuel consumptions. It can be found that the improved car-following model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion, and that taking relative velocity fluctuation into account in designing the advanced adaptive cruise control strategy can improve the traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.

  9. POTENT Reconstruction from Mark III Velocities (United States)

    Dekel, A.; Eldar, A.; Kolatt, T.; Yahil, A.; Willick, J. A.; Faber, S. M.; Courteau, S.; Burstein, D.


    We present an improved version of the POTENT method for reconstructing the cosmological velocity and mass density fields from radial peculiar velocities, test it with mock catalogs, and apply it to the Mark III Catalog of Galaxy Peculiar Velocities. The method is improved in several ways: (1) the inhomogeneous Malmquist bias is reduced by grouping and corrected statistically in either forward or inverse analyses of inferred distances, (2) the smoothing into a radial velocity field is optimized such that window and sampling biases are reduced, (3) the density field is derived from the velocity field using an improved weakly nonlinear approximation in Eulerian space, and (4) the computational errors are made negligible compared to the other errors. The method is carefully tested and optimized using realistic mock catalogs based on an N-body simulation that mimics our cosmological neighborhood, and the remaining systematic and random errors are evaluated quantitatively. The Mark III catalog, with ~3300 grouped galaxies, allows a reliable reconstruction with fixed Gaussian smoothing of 10-12 h-1 Mpc out to ~60 h-1 Mpc and beyond in some directions. We present maps of the three-dimensional velocity and mass-density fields and the corresponding errors. The typical systematic and random errors in the density fluctuations inside 40 h-1 Mpc are +/-0.13 and +/-0.18 (for Ω=1). In its gross features, the recovered mass distribution resembles the galaxy distribution in redshift surveys and the mass distribution in a similar POTENT analysis of a complementary velocity catalog (SFI), including such features as the Great Attractor, Perseus-Pisces, and the large void in between. The reconstruction inside ~40 h-1 Mpc is not affected much by a revised calibration of the distance indicators (VM2, tailored to match the velocities from the IRAS 1.2 Jy redshift survey). The volume-weighted bulk velocity within the sphere of radius 50 h-1 Mpc about the Local Group is V50=370+/-110 km s-1

  10. Development of an optimal velocity selection method with velocity obstacle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Geuk; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Velocity obstacle (VO) method is one of the most well-known methods for local path planning, allowing consideration of dynamic obstacles and unexpected obstacles. Typical VO methods separate a velocity map into a collision area and a collision-free area. A robot can avoid collisions by selecting its velocity from within the collision-free area. However, if there are numerous obstacles near a robot, the robot will have very few velocity candidates. In this paper, a method for choosing optimal velocity components using the concept of pass-time and vertical clearance is proposed for the efficient movement of a robot. The pass-time is the time required for a robot to pass by an obstacle. By generating a latticized available velocity map for a robot, each velocity component can be evaluated using a cost function that considers the pass-time and other aspects. From the output of the cost function, even a velocity component that will cause a collision in the future can be chosen as a final velocity if the pass-time is sufficiently long enough.

  11. Velocity dependant splash behaviour (United States)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.


    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  12. Examples of Vector Velocity Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter M.; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.


    To measure blood flow velocity in vessels with conventional ultrasound, the velocity is estimated along the direction of the emitted ultrasound wave. It is therefore impossible to obtain accurate information on blood flow velocity and direction, when the angle between blood flow and ultrasound wa...... with a 90° angle on the vessel. Moreover secondary flow in the abdominal aorta is illustrated by scanning on the transversal axis....

  13. Hovering by Gazing: A Novel Strategy for Implementing Saccadic Flight-based Navigation in GPS-denied Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Manecy


    Full Text Available Hovering flies are able to stay still in place when hovering above flowers and burst into movement towards a new object of interest (a target. This suggests that sensorimotor control loops implemented onboard could be usefully mimicked for controlling Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. In this study, the fundamental head-body movements occurring in free-flying insects was simulated in a sighted twin-engine robot with a mechanical decoupling inserted between its eye (or gaze and its body. The robot based on this gaze control system achieved robust and accurate hovering performances, without an accelerometer, over a ground target despite a narrow eye field of view (±5◦. The gaze stabilization strategy validated under Processor-In-the-Loop (PIL and inspired by three biological Oculomotor Reflexes (ORs enables the aerial robot to lock its gaze onto a fixed target regardless of its roll angle. In addition, the gaze control mechanism allows the robot to perform short range target to target navigation by triggering an automatic fast "target jump" behaviour based on a saccadic eye movement.

  14. Influence of sparkle and saccades on tongue electro-stimulation-based vision substitution of 2D vectors. (United States)

    Chekhchoukh, Abdessalem; Glade, Nicolas


    Vision substitution by electro-stimulation has been studied since the 60s beginning with P. Bach-y-Rita. Camera pictures or movies encoded in gray levels are displayed using an electro-stimulation display device on the surface of a body part, such as the skin or the tongue. Medical-technical devices have been developed on this principle to compensate for sensory-motor disabilities such as blindness or loss of balance, or to guide specific actions, such as surgery. However, the electrical signals of stationary or moving slowly moving objects, displayed on a Tongue display unit (TDU), are quickly lost due to saturation of receptors undergoing electrostimulation. We propose to add random saccades or sparkle to the displayed visual scene to increase the quality of pattern recognition by the subjects. In the present experimental trimodal study (normal vision, TDU vision substitution, or both), we show that the presence of a moderate sparkle level enhances the perception of the direction of lines drawn on a TDU and reduces the response time.

  15. Sensitivity to communicative and non-communicative gestures in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder: saccadic and pupillary responses. (United States)

    Aldaqre, Iyad; Schuwerk, Tobias; Daum, Moritz M; Sodian, Beate; Paulus, Markus


    Nonverbal communication using social cues, like gestures, governs a great part of our daily interactions. It has been proposed that people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a deviant processing of social cues throughout their social cognitive development. However, social cues do not always convey an intention to communicate. Hence, the aim of this study was to test the sensitivity of adolescents and adults with ASD and neurotypical controls to social cues of high communicative (pointing) and low communicative values (grasping). For this purpose, we employed a spatial cueing paradigm with both Cue Types and compared saccadic reaction times (SRTs) between conditions in which the target appeared at a location which was congruent versus incongruent with the direction of the cue. Results showed that both adolescents and adults with ASD had slower SRTs for the incongruent relative to the congruent condition for both Cue Types, reflecting sensitivity to these cues. Additionally, mental effort during the processing of these social cues was assessed by means of pupil dilation. This analysis revealed that, while individuals with and without ASD required more mental effort to process incongruent compared to the congruent cues, cues with higher communicative value posed more processing load for the ASD group. These findings suggest that the perception of social gestures is intact in ASD but requires additional mental effort for gestures with higher communicative value.

  16. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.


    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  17. Introduction to vector velocity imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov;

    Current ultrasound scanners can only estimate the velocity along the ultrasound beam and this gives rise to the cos() factor on all velocity estimates. This is a major limitation as most vessels are close to perpendicular to the beam. Also the angle varies as a function of space and time making...

  18. Instantaneous Velocity Using Photogate Timers (United States)

    Wolbeck, John


    Photogate timers are commonly used in physics laboratories to determine the velocity of a passing object. In this application a card attached to a moving object breaks the beam of the photogate timer providing the time for the card to pass. The length L of the passing card can then be divided by this time to yield the average velocity (or speed)…

  19. Kriging Interpolating Cosmic Velocity Field

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yu; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie


    [abridge] Volume-weighted statistics of large scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in mass-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number $n_k$ of the nearby particles to interpolate and the density $n_P$ of the observed sample are investigated. (1) We find that Kriging induces $1\\%$ and $3\\%$ systematics at $k\\sim 0.1h{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ when $n_P\\sim 6\\times 10^{-2} ({\\rm Mpc}/h)^{-3}$ and $n_P\\sim 6\\times 10^{-3} ({\\rm Mpc...

  20. Diffraction imaging and velocity analysis using oriented velocity continuation

    KAUST Repository

    Decker, Luke


    We perform seismic diffraction imaging and velocity analysis by separating diffractions from specular reflections and decomposing them into slope components. We image slope components using extrapolation in migration velocity in time-space-slope coordinates. The extrapolation is described by a convection-type partial differential equation and implemented efficiently in the Fourier domain. Synthetic and field data experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect accurate time-migration velocities by automatically measuring the flatness of events in dip-angle gathers.

  1. Radial Velocity Planet Detection Biases at the Stellar Rotational Period

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Johnson, John Asher; Ciardi, David R; Swift, Jonathan; Kane, Stephen R


    Future generations of precise radial velocity (RV) surveys aim to achieve sensitivity sufficient to detect Earth mass planets orbiting in their stars' habitable zones. A major obstacle to this goal is astrophysical radial velocity noise caused by active areas moving across the stellar limb as a star rotates. In this paper, we quantify how stellar activity impacts exoplanet detection with radial velocities as a function of orbital and stellar rotational periods. We perform data-driven simulations of how stellar rotation affects planet detectability and compile and present relations for the typical timescale and amplitude of stellar radial velocity noise as a function of stellar mass. We show that the characteristic timescales of quasi-periodic radial velocity jitter from stellar rotational modulations coincides with the orbital period of habitable zone exoplanets around early M-dwarfs. These coincident periods underscore the importance of monitoring the targets of RV habitable zone planet surveys through simul...

  2. The impact of salience and visual working memory on the monitoring and control of saccadic behavior: An eye-tracking and EEG study. (United States)

    Weaver, Matthew D; Hickey, Clayton; van Zoest, Wieske


    In a concurrent eye-tracking and EEG study, we investigated the impact of salience on the monitoring and control of eye movement behavior and the role of visual working memory (VWM) capacity in mediating this effect. Participants made eye movements to a unique line-segment target embedded in a search display also containing a unique distractor. Target and distractor salience was manipulated by varying degree of orientation offset from a homogenous background. VWM capacity was measured using a change-detection task. Results showed greater likelihood of incorrect saccades when the distractor was relatively more salient than when the target was salient. Misdirected saccades to salient distractors were strongly represented in the error-monitoring system by rapid and robust error-related negativity (ERN), which predicted a significant adjustment of oculomotor behavior. Misdirected saccades to less-salient distractors, while arguably representing larger errors, were not as well detected or utilized by the error/performance-monitoring system. This system was instead better engaged in tasks requiring greater cognitive control and by individuals with higher VWM capacity. Our findings show that relative salience of task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli can define situations where an increase in cognitive control is necessary, with individual differences in VWM capacity explaining significant variance in the degree of monitoring and control of goal-directed eye movement behavior. The present study supports a conflict-monitoring interpretation of the ERN, whereby the level of competition between different responses, and the stimuli that define these responses, was more important in the generation of an enhanced ERN than the error commission itself.

  3. Brain-computer interface combining eye saccade two-electrode EEG signals and voice cues to improve the maneuverability of wheelchair. (United States)

    Wang, Ker-Jiun; Zhang, Lan; Luan, Bo; Tung, Hsiao-Wei; Liu, Quanfeng; Wei, Jiacheng; Sun, Mingui; Mao, Zhi-Hong


    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) largely augment human capabilities by translating brain wave signals into feasible commands to operate external devices. However, many issues face the development of BCIs such as the low classification accuracy of brain signals and the tedious human-learning procedures. To solve these problems, we propose to use signals associated with eye saccades and blinks to control a BCI interface. By extracting existing physiological eye signals, the user does not need to adapt his/her brain waves to the device. Furthermore, using saccade signals to control an external device frees the limbs to perform other tasks. In this research, we use two electrodes placed on top of the left and right ears of thirteen participants. Then we use Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to extract meaningful EEG signals associated with eye movements. A sliding-window technique was implemented to collect relevant features. Finally, we classified the features as horizontal or blink eye movements using KNN and SVM. We were able to achieve a mean classification accuracy of about 97%. The two electrodes were then integrated with off-the-shelf earbuds to control a wheelchair. The earbuds can generate voice cues to indicate when to rotate the eyeballs to certain locations (i.e., left or right) or blink, so that the user can select directional commands to drive the wheelchair. In addition, through properly designing the contents of voice menus, we can generate as many commands as possible, even though we only have limited numbers of states of the identified eye saccade movements.

  4. Superconducting spoke cavities for high-velocity applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Christopher S. [Old Dominion U.; Delayen, Jean R. [Old Dominion U., JLAB


    To date, superconducting spoke cavities have been designed, developed, and tested for particle velocities up to {beta}{sub 0}~0.6, but there is a growing interest in possible applications of multispoke cavities for high-velocity applications. We have explored the design parameter space for low-frequency, high-velocity, double-spoke superconducting cavities in order to determine how each design parameter affects the electromagnetic properties, in particular the surface electromagnetic fields and the shunt impedance. We present detailed design for cavities operating at 325 and 352 MHz and optimized for {beta}{sub 0}~=0.82 and 1.

  5. Neutrino Velocity and Neutrino Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Minakata, H


    We study distances of propagation and the group velocities of the muon neutrinos in the presence of mixing and oscillations assuming that Lorentz invariance holds. Oscillations lead to distortion of the $\

  6. Statistics of Centroids of Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, A


    We review the use of velocity centroids statistics to recover information of interstellar turbulence from observations. Velocity centroids have been used for a long time now to retrieve information about the scaling properties of the turbulent velocity field in the interstellar medium. We show that, while they are useful to study subsonic turbulence, they do not trace the statistics of velocity in supersonic turbulence, because they are highly influenced by fluctuations of density. We show also that for sub-Alfv\\'enic turbulence (both supersonic and subsonic) two-point statistics (e.g. correlation functions or power-spectra) are anisotropic. This anisotropy can be used to determine the direction of the mean magnetic field projected in the plane of the sky.

  7. Kriging interpolating cosmic velocity field (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie


    Volume-weighted statistics of large-scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of the uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in observed number density-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. Therefore, the exploration of velocity assignment methods with well-controlled sampling artifacts is of great importance. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number nk of the nearby particles to interpolate, and the density nP of the observed sample are investigated. First, we find that Kriging induces 1% and 3% systematics at k ˜0.1 h Mpc-1 when nP˜6 ×1 0-2(h-1 Mpc )-3 and nP˜6 ×1 0-3(h-1 Mpc )-3 , respectively. The deviation increases for decreasing nP and increasing k . When nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 , a smoothing effect dominates small scales, causing significant underestimation of the velocity power spectrum. Second, increasing nk helps to recover small-scale power. However, for nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 cases, the recovery is limited. Finally, Kriging is more sensitive to the variogram prior for a lower sample density. The most straightforward application of Kriging on the cosmic velocity field does not show obvious advantages over the nearest-particle method [Y. Zheng, P. Zhang, Y. Jing, W. Lin, and J. Pan, Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013)] and could not be directly applied to cosmology so far. However, whether potential improvements may be achieved by more delicate versions of Kriging is worth further investigation.

  8. The interaction between duration, velocity and repetitive auditory stimulation. (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen; Dillon, Joe; Perrin, Aimee; Mullet, Thomas; Jones, Luke A


    Repetitive auditory stimulation (with click trains) and visual velocity signals both have intriguing effects on the subjective passage of time. Previous studies have established that prior presentation of auditory clicks increases the subjective duration of subsequent sensory input, and that faster moving stimuli are also judged to have been presented for longer (the time dilation effect). However, the effect of clicks on velocity estimation is unknown, and the nature of the time dilation effect remains ambiguous. Here were present a series of five experiments to explore these phenomena in more detail. Participants viewed a rightward moving grating which traveled at velocities ranging from 5 to 15°/s and which lasted for durations of 500 to 1500 ms. Gratings were preceded by clicks, silence or white noise. It was found that both clicks and higher velocities increased subjective duration. It was also found that the time dilation effect was a constant proportion of stimulus duration. This implies that faster velocity increases the rate of the pacemaker component of the internal clock. Conversely, clicks increased subjective velocity, but the magnitude of this effect was not proportional to actual velocity. Through considerations of these results, we conclude that clicks independently affect velocity and duration representations.

  9. Event Detection by Velocity Pyramid



    In this paper, we propose velocity pyramid for multimediaevent detection. Recently, spatial pyramid matching is proposed to in-troduce coarse geometric information into Bag of Features framework,and is eective for static image recognition and detection. In video, notonly spatial information but also temporal information, which repre-sents its dynamic nature, is important. In order to fully utilize it, wepropose velocity pyramid where video frames are divided into motionalsub-regions. Our meth...

  10. Gait phase varies over velocities. (United States)

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan


    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification.

  11. Disruptive behavior disorders and indicators of disinhibition in adolescents: The BRIEF-SR, anti-saccade task, and D-KEFS color-word interference test. (United States)

    Long, E C; Hill, J; Luna, B; Verhulst, B; Clark, D B


    Disinhibition contributes to the development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in adolescents. Self-reports and behavioral tasks are commonly used to assess disinhibition, each with their unique strengths and limitations. Accordingly, it is important to identify which measure, or combination thereof, is the most effective in predicting DBD symptoms. This study assessed the relationship between DBD (symptoms of ADHD/ODD/CD) and two behavioral disinhibition tasks: the anti-saccade task and the D-KEFS color-word interference test, as well as a self-report measure (the BRIEF-SR). The results indicated that the BRIEF-Inhibit scale accounted for the majority of the variance in the DBD sum score. The anti-saccade task and color-word interference test were also significantly associated with an increase in the number of DBD symptoms endorsed. These behavioral tasks accounted for 9% additional variance than the self-report alone. Therefore, combining self-report measures with behavioral disinhibition tasks may provide the most thorough assessment of adolescent DBD.

  12. Robust seismic velocity change estimation using ambient noise recordings (United States)

    Daskalakis, E.; Evangelidis, C. P.; Garnier, J.; Melis, N. S.; Papanicolaou, G.; Tsogka, C.


    We consider the problem of seismic velocity change estimation using ambient noise recordings. Motivated by Zhan et al., we study how the velocity change estimation is affected by seasonal fluctuations in the noise sources. More precisely, we consider a numerical model and introduce spatio-temporal seasonal fluctuations in the noise sources. We show that indeed, as pointed out by Zhan et al., the stretching method is affected by these fluctuations and produces misleading apparent velocity variations which reduce dramatically the signal to noise ratio of the method. We also show that these apparent velocity variations can be eliminated by an adequate normalization of the cross-correlation functions. Theoretically we expect our approach to work as long as the seasonal fluctuations in the noise sources are uniform, an assumption which holds for closely located seismic stations. We illustrate with numerical simulations in homogeneous and scattering media that the proposed normalization significantly improves the accuracy of the velocity change estimation. Similar behaviour is also observed with real data recorded in the Aegean volcanic arc. We study in particular the volcano of Santorini during the seismic unrest of 2011-2012 and observe a decrease in the velocity of seismic waves which is correlated with GPS measured elevation.

  13. Velocity requirements for causality violation

    CERN Document Server

    Modanese, Giovanni


    It is known that the hypothetical existence of superluminal signals would imply the logical possibility of active causal violation: an observer in relative motion with respect to a primary source could in principle emit secondary superluminal signals (triggered by the primary ones) which go back in time and deactivate the primary source before the initial emission. This is a direct consequence of the structure of the Lorentz transformations, sometimes called "Regge-Tolman paradox". It is straightforward to find a formula for the velocity of the moving observer required to produce the causality violation. When applied to some recent claims of slight superluminal propagation, this formula yields a required velocity very close to the speed of light; this raises some doubts about the real physical observability of such violations. We re-compute this velocity requirement introducing a realistic delay between the reception of the primary signal and the emission of the secondary. It turns out that for -any- delay it...

  14. Signal velocity in oscillator arrays (United States)

    Cantos, C. E.; Veerman, J. J. P.; Hammond, D. K.


    We investigate a system of coupled oscillators on the circle, which arises from a simple model for behavior of large numbers of autonomous vehicles where the acceleration of each vehicle depends on the relative positions and velocities between itself and a set of local neighbors. After describing necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability, we derive expressions for the phase velocity of propagation of disturbances in velocity through this system. We show that the high frequencies exhibit damping, which implies existence of well-defined signal velocitiesc+ > 0 and c- < 0 such that low frequency disturbances travel through the flock as f+(x - c+t) in the direction of increasing agent numbers and f-(x - c-t) in the other.

  15. Angle independent velocity spectrum determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....

  16. Study on the Velocity of Partially Submerged Landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang


    Full Text Available Hydraulic resistance is one of the most important factors which affect the velocity of the partially submerged landslide when it moves into river at a high speed. In this paper, an experiment system was designed including a water tank, a moving frame fixed over the tank with liquid level sensors, blocks, and velocity control apparatus. Six blocks with different areas were used for experiments and each block moved at five different velocities in water tank. Test results showed that the increment of the pressure head was proportional to the square velocity of submerged block. Based on that, the total water pressure and corresponding hydraulic resistance of the moving block in water tank were obtained, and the latter was used to analyze hydraulic resistance acting on partially submerged landslide. Method of slice was applied to calculate the forces of landslide with curved slip surface. The dynamics and kinematics equation of landslide were used to calculate the velocity. Taking the Dayantang landslide as an example, velocities with different travel distance were obtained. The results showed that the maximum velocity of Dayantang landslide considering hydraulic resistance was 18.6% less than that without considering hydraulic resistance.

  17. Influence of speckle effect on doppler velocity measurement (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Changming, Zhao; Haiyang, Zhang; Suhui, Yang; Dehua, Zhang; Xingyuan, Zheng; Hongzhi, Yang


    In a coherent Lidar system, velocity measurement of a target is achieved by measuring Doppler frequency shift between the echo and local oscillator (LO) signals. The measurement accuracy is proportional to the spectrum width of Doppler signal. Actually, the speckle effect caused by the scattering of laser from a target will broaden the Doppler signal's spectrum and bring uncertainty to the velocity measurement. In this paper, a theoretical model is proposed to predict the broadening of Doppler spectrum with respect to different target's surface and motion parameters. The velocity measurement uncertainty caused by the broadening of spectrum is analyzed. Based on the analysis, we design a coherent Lidar system to measure the velocity of the targets with different surface roughness and transverse velocities. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical analysis. It is found that the target's surface roughness and transverse velocity can significantly affect the spectrum width of Doppler signal. With the increase of surface roughness and transverse velocity, the measurement accuracy becomes worse. However, the influence of surface roughness becomes weaker when the spot size of laser beam on the target is smaller.

  18. Chalk porosity and sonic velocity versus burial depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Gommesen, Lars; Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne


    that porosity and sonic velocity follow the most consistent depth trends when fluid pressure and pore-volume compressibility are considered. Quartz content up to 10% has no marked effect, but more than 5% clay causes lower porosity and velocity. The mineralogical effect differs between P-wave and shear velocity...... for fluid pressure because the cementing ions originate from stylolites, which are mechanically similar to fractures. We find that cementation occurs over a relatively short depth interval.......Seventy chalk samples from four formations in the overpressured Danish central North Sea have been analyzed to investigate how correlations of porosity and sonic velocity with burial depth are affected by varying mineralogy, fluid pressure, and early introduction of petroleum. The results show...

  19. Behaviour of ion velocity distributions for a simple collision model (United States)

    St-Maurice, J.-P.; Schunk, R. W.


    Calculation of the ion velocity distributions for a weakly ionized plasma subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. An exact solution to Boltzmann's equation has been obtained by replacing the Boltzmann collision integral with a simple relaxation model. At altitudes above about 150 km, where the ion collision frequency is much less than the ion cyclotron frequency, the ion distribution takes the shape of a torus in velocity space for electric fields greater than 40 mV/m. This shape persists for one to two hours after application of the electric field. At altitudes where the ion collision and cyclotron frequencies are approximately equal (about 120 km), the ion velocity distribution is shaped like a bean for large electric field strengths. This bean-shaped distribution persists throughout the lifetime of ionospheric electric fields. These highly non-Maxwellian ion velocity distributions may have an appreciable affect on the interpretation of ion temperature measurements.

  20. Tachoastrometry: astrometry with radial velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquini, L; Lombardi, M; Monaco, L; Leão, I C; Delabre, B


    Spectra of composite systems (e.g., spectroscopic binaries) contain spatial information that can be retrieved by measuring the radial velocities (i.e., Doppler shifts) of the components in four observations with the slit rotated by 90 degrees in the sky. By using basic concepts of slit spectroscopy we show that the geometry of composite systems can be reliably retrieved by measuring only radial velocity differences taken with different slit angles. The spatial resolution is determined by the precision with which differential radial velocities can be measured. We use the UVES spectrograph at the VLT to observe the known spectroscopic binary star HD 188088 (HIP 97944), which has a maximum expected separation of 23 milli-arcseconds. We measure an astrometric signal in radial velocity of 276 \\ms, which corresponds to a separation between the two components at the time of the observations of 18 $\\pm2$ milli-arcseconds. The stars were aligned east-west. We describe a simple optical device to simultaneously record p...

  1. The dependence of sheet erosion velocity on slope angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available The article presents a method for estimating the erosion velocity on forested natural area. As a research object for testing the methodology the authors selected Neskuchny Garden - a city Park on the Moskva river embankment, named after the cognominal Palace of Catherine's age. Here, an almost horizontal surface III of the Moskva river terrace above the flood-plain is especially remarkable, accentuated by the steep sides of the ravine parallel to St. Andrew's, but short and nameless. The crests of the ravine sides are sharp, which is the evidence of its recent formation, but the old trees on the slopes indicate that it has not been growing for at least 100 years. Earlier Russian researchers defined vertical velocity of sheet erosion for different regions and slopes with different parent (in relation to the soil rocks. The comparison of the velocities shows that climatic conditions, in the first approximation, do not have a decisive influence on the erosion velocity of silt loam soils. The velocities on the shores of Issyk-Kul lake and in Moscow proved to be the same. But the composition of the parent rocks strongly affects the sheet erosion velocity. Even low-strength rock material reduces the velocity by times. Phytoindication method gives a real, physically explainable sheet erosion velocities. The speed is rather small but it should be considered when designing long-term structures on the slopes composed of dispersive soils. On the slopes composed of rocky soils sheet erosion velocity is so insignificant that it shouldn't be taken into account when designing. However, there may be other geological processes, significantly disturbing the stability of slopes connected with cracks.

  2. Spatiotemporal velocity-velocity correlation function in fully developed turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Canet, Léonie; Wschebor, Nicolás; Balarac, Guillaume


    Turbulence is an ubiquitous phenomenon in natural and industrial flows. Since the celebrated work of Kolmogorov in 1941, understanding the statistical properties of fully developed turbulence has remained a major quest. In particular, deriving the properties of turbulent flows from a mesoscopic description, that is from Navier-Stokes equation, has eluded most theoretical attempts. Here, we provide a theoretical prediction for the {\\it space and time} dependent velocity-velocity correlation function of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence from the field theory associated to Navier-Stokes equation with stochastic forcing. This prediction is the analytical fixed-point solution of Non-Perturbative Renormalisation Group flow equations, which are exact in a certain large wave-number limit. This solution is compared to two-point two-times correlation functions computed in direct numerical simulations. We obtain a remarkable agreement both in the inertial and in the dissipative ranges.

  3. Diffusion and butterfly velocity at finite density (United States)

    Niu, Chao; Kim, Keun-Young


    We study diffusion and butterfly velocity ( v B ) in two holographic models, linear axion and axion-dilaton model, with a momentum relaxation parameter ( β) at finite density or chemical potential ( μ). Axion-dilaton model is particularly interesting since it shows linear- T -resistivity, which may have something to do with the universal bound of diffusion. At finite density, there are two diffusion constants D ± describing the coupled diffusion of charge and energy. By computing D ± exactly, we find that in the incoherent regime ( β/T ≫ 1 , β/μ ≫ 1) D + is identified with the charge diffusion constant ( D c ) and D - is identified with the energy diffusion constant ( D e ). In the coherent regime, at very small density, D ± are `maximally' mixed in the sense that D +( D -) is identified with D e ( D c ), which is opposite to the case in the incoherent regime. In the incoherent regime D e ˜ C - ℏv B 2 / k B T where C - = 1 /2 or 1 so it is universal independently of β and μ. However, {D}_c˜ {C}+\\hslash {v}{^B}^2/{k}_BT where C + = 1 or β 2 /16 π 2 T 2 so, in general, C + may not saturate to the lower bound in the incoherent regime, which suggests that the characteristic velocity for charge diffusion may not be the butterfly velocity. We find that the finite density does not affect the diffusion property at zero density in the incoherent regime.

  4. A continuum of myofibers in adult rabbit extraocular muscle: force, shortening velocity, and patterns of myosin heavy chain colocalization. (United States)

    McLoon, Linda K; Park, Han Na; Kim, Jong-Hee; Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima; Thompson, Ladora V


    Extraocular muscle (EOM) myofibers do not fit the traditional fiber typing classifications normally used in noncranial skeletal muscle, in part, due to the complexity of their individual myofibers. With single skinned myofibers isolated from rectus muscles of normal adult rabbits, force and shortening velocity were determined for 220 fibers. Each fiber was examined for myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform composition by densitometric analysis of electrophoresis gels. Rectus muscle serial sections were examined for coexpression of eight MyHC isoforms. A continuum was seen in single myofiber shortening velocities as well as force generation, both in absolute force (g) and specific tension (kN/m(2)). Shortening velocity correlated with MyHCIIB, IIA, and I content, the more abundant MyHC isoforms expressed within individual myofibers. Importantly, single fibers with similar or identical shortening velocities expressed significantly different ratios of MyHC isoforms. The vast majority of myofibers in both the orbital and global layers expressed more than one MyHC isoform, with up to six isoforms in single fiber segments. MyHC expression varied significantly and unpredictably along the length of single myofibers. Thus EOM myofibers represent a continuum in their histological and physiological characteristics. This continuum would facilitate fine motor control of eye position, speed, and direction of movement in all positions of gaze and with all types of eye movements-from slow vergence movements to fast saccades. To fully understand how the brain controls eye position and movements, it is critical that this significant EOM myofiber heterogeneity be integrated into hypotheses of oculomotor control.

  5. Signal velocity for anomalous dispersive waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))


    The concept of signal velocity for dispersive waves is usually identified with that of group velocity. When the dispersion is anomalous, this interpretation is not correct since the group velocity can assume nonphysical values. In this note, by using the steepest descent method first introduced by Brillouin, the phase velocity is shown to be the signal velocity when the dispersion is anomalous in the full range of frequencies.

  6. Centroid Velocity Statistics of Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Bertram, Erik; Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C O; Klessen, Ralf S


    We compute structure functions and Fourier spectra of 2D centroid velocity (CV) maps in order to study the gas dynamics of typical molecular clouds (MCs) in numerical simulations. We account for a simplified treatment of time-dependent chemistry and the non-isothermal nature of the gas and use a 3D radiative transfer tool to model the CO line emission in a post-processing step. We perform simulations using three different initial mean number densities of n_0 = 30, 100 and 300 cm^{-3} to span a range of typical values for dense gas clouds in the solar neighbourhood. We compute slopes of the centroid velocity increment structure functions (CVISF) and of Fourier spectra for different chemical components: the total density, H2 number density, 12CO number density as well as the integrated intensity of 12CO (J=1-0) and 13CO (J=1-0). We show that optical depth effects can significantly affect the slopes derived for the CVISF, which also leads to different scaling properties for the Fourier spectra. The slopes of CVI...

  7. Centroid velocity statistics of molecular clouds (United States)

    Bertram, Erik; Konstandin, Lukas; Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.


    We compute structure functions and Fourier spectra of 2D centroid velocity maps in order to study the gas dynamics of typical molecular clouds in numerical simulations. We account for a simplified treatment of time-dependent chemistry and the non-isothermal nature of the gas and use a 3D radiative transfer tool to model the CO line emission in a post-processing step. We perform simulations using three different initial mean number densities of n0 = 30, 100 and 300 cm-3 to span a range of typical values for dense gas clouds in the solar neighbourhood. We compute slopes of the centroid velocity increment structure functions (CVISF) and of Fourier spectra for different chemical components: the total density, H2 number density, 12CO number density as well as the integrated intensity of 12CO (J = 1 → 0) and 13CO (J = 1 → 0). We show that optical depth effects can significantly affect the slopes derived for the CVISF, which also leads to different scaling properties for the Fourier spectra. The slopes of CVISF and Fourier spectra for H2 are significantly steeper than those for the different CO tracers, independent of the density and the numerical resolution. This is due to the larger space-filling factor of H2 as it is better able to self-shield in diffuse regions, leading to a larger fractal co-dimension compared to CO.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangjun FEI; Peng CUI; Yong LI


    Debris flows in nature generally fall into three groups distinct in their grain composition: water-stone flow,or sub-viscous debris flow,dominated by coarse grains; muddy flow,dominated by fine grains;and viscous debris flow composed of grains in large range. Liquid-phase velocity and sedimentary delivery resistance of sub-viscous debris flow have been discussed based on the composition characters of sub-and high-viscous debris flows. It is revealed that the presence of fine grains plays a vital role in affecting resistance and average velocity,particularly when the volume fraction of grains in the flow is relatively high,i.e. Sv > 0.45. Grain-size distribution of viscous debris flow is characterized by a bimodal curve,which explains the properties like high density and low resistance gradient of debris flows. A calculation formula is finally put forward,which has to some extent overcome locality limits and achieved a good agreement with the field observations of debris flows in Southwest China.

  9. Electrophoresis of particles with Navier velocity slip. (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok


    In the present investigation, it is found that the electrophoretic mobility of hydrophobic particles is affected not only by the zeta potential but also by the velocity slip at the particle surface. From a physicochemical viewpoint, zeta potential represents the surface charge properties and the slip coefficient indicates the hydrophobicity of the particle surface. Thus, it is necessary to separate the contribution of zeta potential from that of slip coefficient to the particle mobility, since zeta potential can be changed by varying the bulk ionic concentration while the slip coefficient can be modified by adjusting surfactant concentration. In the present investigation, a method is devised that allows a simultaneous estimation of zeta potential and slip coefficient of micro and nanoparticles using measurements of electrophoretic mobility at various bulk ionic concentrations. Employing a nonlinear curve-fitting technique and an analytic solution of electrophoresis for a particle with velocity slip, the present technique predicts both zeta potential and slip coefficient simultaneously with reasonable accuracy using the measured values of electrophoretic mobility at various bulk ionic concentrations.

  10. The integration of angular velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, Michael


    A common problem in physics and engineering is determination of the orientation of an object given its angular velocity. When the direction of the angular velocity changes in time, this is a nontrivial problem involving coupled differential equations. Several possible approaches are examined, along with various improvements over previous efforts. These are then evaluated numerically by comparison to a complicated but analytically known rotation that is motivated by the important astrophysical problem of precessing black-hole binaries. It is shown that a straightforward solution directly using quaternions is most efficient and accurate, and that the norm of the quaternion is irrelevant. Integration of the generator of the rotation can also be made roughly as efficient as integration of the rotation. Both methods will typically be twice as efficient naive vector- or matrix-based methods. Implementation by means of standard general-purpose numerical integrators is stable and efficient, so that such problems can ...

  11. The Pulsar Kick Velocity Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, B M S; Hansen, Brad M. S.


    We analyse the sample of pulsar proper motions, taking detailed account of the selection effects of the original surveys. We treat censored data using survival statistics. From a comparison of our results with Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the mean birth speed of a pulsar is 250-300 km/s, rather than the 450 km/s foundby Lyne & Lorimer (1994). The resultant distribution is consistent with a maxwellian with dispersion $ \\sigma_v = 190 km/s$. Despite the large birth velocities, we find that the pulsars with long characteristic ages show the asymmetric drift, indicating that they are dynamically old. These pulsars may result from the low velocity tail of the younger population, although modified by their origin in binaries and by evolution in the galactic potential.

  12. Multilogarithmic velocity renormalization in graphene (United States)

    Sharma, Anand; Kopietz, Peter


    We reexamine the effect of long-range Coulomb interactions on the quasiparticle velocity in graphene. Using a nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach with partial bosonization in the forward scattering channel and momentum transfer cutoff scheme, we calculate the quasiparticle velocity, v (k ) , and the quasiparticle residue, Z , with frequency-dependent polarization. One of our most striking results is that v (k ) ∝ln[Ck(α ) /k ] where the momentum- and interaction-dependent cutoff scale Ck(α ) vanishes logarithmically for k →0 . Here k is measured with respect to one of the charge neutrality (Dirac) points and α =2.2 is the strength of dimensionless bare interaction. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the so-obtained multilogarithmic singularity is reconcilable with the perturbative expansion of v (k ) in powers of the bare interaction.

  13. Velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Wittig, C.


    The technique of velocity-aligned Doppler spectrosocopy (VADS) is presented and discussed. For photolysis/probe experiments with pulsed initiation, VADS can yield Doppler profiles for nascent photofragments that allow detailed center-of-mass (c.m.) kinetic energy distributions to be extracted. When compared with traditional forms of Doppler spectroscopy, the improvement in kinetic energy resolution is dramatic. Changes in the measured profiles are a consequence of spatial discrimination (i.e., focused and overlapping photolysis and probe beams) and delayed observation. These factors result in the selective detection of species whose velocities are aligned with the wave vector of the probe radiation k/sub pr/, thus revealing the speed distribution along k/sub pr/ rather than the distribution of nascent velocity components projected upon this direction. Mathematical details of the procedure used to model VADS are given, and experimental illustrations for HI, H/sub 2/S, and NH/sub 3/ photodissociation are presented. In these examples, pulsed photodissociation produces H atoms that are detected by sequential two-photon, two-frequency ionization via Lyman-..cap alpha.. with a pulsed laser (121.6+364.7 nm), and measuring the Lyman-..cap alpha.. Doppler profile as a function of probe delay reveals both internal and c.m. kinetic energy distributions for the photofragments. Strengths and weaknesses of VADS as a tool for investigating photofragmentation phenomena are also discussed.

  14. High velocity collisions of nanoparticles (United States)

    Johnson, Donald F.; Mattson, William D.


    Nanoparticles (NPs) are a unique class of material with highly functionalizable surfaces and exciting applications. With a large surface-to-volume ratio and potentially high surface tension, shocked nanoparticles might display unique materials behavior. Using density functional theory, we have simulated high-velocity NP collisions under a variety of conditions. NPs composed of diamond-C, cubic-BN, and diamond-Si were considered with particle sizes up to 3.5 nm diameter. Additional simulations involved NPs that were destabilized by incorporating internal strain. The initial spherical NP structures were carved out of bulk crystals while the NPs with internal strain were constructed as a dense core (compressive strain) encompassed by a thin shell (tensile strain). Both on-axis and off-axis collisions were simulated at 10 km/s relative velocity. The amount of internal strain was artificially increased by creating a dense inner core with bond lengths compressed up to 8%. Collision dynamics, shock propagation, and fragmentation will be analyzed, but the simulation are ongoing and results are not finalized. The effect of material properties, internal strain, and collision velocity will be discussed.

  15. Filament velocity scaling laws for warm ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, P. [Physik-Department E28, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assoziation, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Carralero, D.; Birkenmeier, G.; Müller, H. W.; Scott, B. D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assoziation, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Müller, S. H. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California at San Diego, San Diego 92093 (United States); Fuchert, G. [Insitut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universität Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Stroth, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assoziation, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department E28, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    The dynamics of filaments or blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetic fusion devices are studied by magnitude estimates of a comprehensive drift-interchange-Alfvén fluid model. The standard blob models are reproduced in the cold ion case. Even though usually neglected, in the scrape-off layer, the ion temperature can exceed the electron temperature by an order of magnitude. The ion pressure affects the dynamics of filaments amongst others by adding up to the interchange drive and the polarisation current. It is shown how both effects modify the scaling laws for filament velocity in dependence of its size. Simplifications for experimentally relevant limit regimes are given. These are the sheath dissipation, collisional, and electromagnetic regime.

  16. Filament velocity scaling laws for warm ions (United States)

    Manz, P.; Carralero, D.; Birkenmeier, G.; Müller, H. W.; Müller, S. H.; Fuchert, G.; Scott, B. D.; Stroth, U.


    The dynamics of filaments or blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetic fusion devices are studied by magnitude estimates of a comprehensive drift-interchange-Alfvén fluid model. The standard blob models are reproduced in the cold ion case. Even though usually neglected, in the scrape-off layer, the ion temperature can exceed the electron temperature by an order of magnitude. The ion pressure affects the dynamics of filaments amongst others by adding up to the interchange drive and the polarisation current. It is shown how both effects modify the scaling laws for filament velocity in dependence of its size. Simplifications for experimentally relevant limit regimes are given. These are the sheath dissipation, collisional, and electromagnetic regime.

  17. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play, expe...... affects can be choreographed and designed intentionally or whether it arises from unpredictable circumstances within urbanity itself....

  18. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  19. Velocity Correction and Measurement Uncertainty Analysis of Light Screen Velocity Measuring Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bin; ZUO Zhao-lu; HOU Wen


    Light screen velocity measuring method with unique advantages has been widely used in the velocity measurement of various moving bodies.For large air resistance and friction force which the big moving bodies are subjected to during the light screen velocity measuring,the principle of velocity correction was proposed and a velocity correction equation was derived.A light screen velocity measuring method was used to measure the velocity of big moving bodies which have complex velocity attenuation,and the better results were gained in practical tests.The measuring uncertainty after the velocity correction was calculated.

  20. Tidally induced velocity variations of the Beardmore Glacier, Antarctica, and their representation in satellite measurements of ice velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Marsh


    Full Text Available Ocean tides close to the grounding line of outlet glaciers around Antarctica have been shown to directly influence ice velocity, both linearly and non-linearly. These fluctuations can be significant and have the potential to affect satellite measurements of ice discharge, which assume displacement between satellite passes to be consistent and representative of annual means. Satellite observations of horizontal velocity variation in the grounding zone are also contaminated by vertical tidal effects, the importance of which is highlighted here in speckle tracking measurements. Eight TerraSAR-X scenes from the grounding zone of the Beardmore Glacier are analysed in conjunction with GPS measurements to determine short-term and decadal trends in ice velocity. Diurnal tides produce horizontal velocity fluctuations of >50% on the ice shelf, recorded in the GPS data 4 km downstream of the grounding line. This variability decreases rapidly to <5% only 15 km upstream of the grounding line. Daily fluctuations are smoothed to <1% in the 11-day repeat pass TerraSAR-X imagery, but fortnightly variations over this period are still visible and show that satellite-velocity measurements can be affected by tides over longer periods. The measured tidal displacement observed in radar look direction over floating ice also allows the grounding line to be identified, using differential speckle tracking where phase information cannot be easily unwrapped.

  1. Ovarian fluid of receptive females enhances sperm velocity (United States)

    Gasparini, Clelia; Andreatta, Gabriele; Pilastro, Andrea


    The females of several internal fertilizers are able to store sperm for a long time, reducing the risk of sperm limitation. However, it also means that males can attempt to mate outside females' receptive period, potentially increasing the level of sperm competition and exacerbating sexual conflict over mating. The guppy ( Poecilia reticulata), an internally fertilizing fish, is a model system of such competition and conflict. Female guppies accept courtship and mate consensually only during receptive periods of the ovarian cycle but receive approximately one (mostly forced) mating attempt per minute both during and outside their sexually receptive phase. In addition, females can store viable sperm for months. We expected that guppy females would disfavour sperm received during their unreceptive period, possibly by modulating the quality and/or quantity of the components present in the ovarian fluid (OF) over the breeding cycle. Ovarian fluid has been shown to affect sperm velocity, a determinant of sperm competition success in this and other fishes. We found that in vitro sperm velocity is slower in OF collected from unreceptive females than in OF from receptive females. Visual stimulation with a potential partner prior to collection did not significantly affect in vitro sperm velocity. These results suggest that sperm received by unreceptive females may be disfavoured as sperm velocity likely affects the migration process and the number of sperm that reach storage sites.

  2. Study of velocity centroids based on the theory of fluctuations in position-position-velocity space (United States)

    Kandel, D.; Lazarian, A.; Pogosyan, D.


    We study the possibility of obtaining power spectrum of gas velocity in the turbulent interstellar medium from spatial correlation of velocity centroids (VCs) of optically thick emission lines. Combining this study with the earlier studies of centroids in Esquivel & Lazarian, we conclude that centroids are applicable for studies of subsonic/transonic turbulence for sufficiently small line-of-sight (LOS) separations at which self-absorption does not affect correlation scalings. At larger LOS separations where self-absorption becomes important, we find that there is a range of scales over which VC correlation demonstrates the universal scaling, similar to the effect found in the velocity channel analysis (VCA). In other words, for large absorptions the VCs lose their ability to reflect the spectra of turbulence. We develop analytical formalism that relates statistical properties of underlying magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence to observable scaling and anisotropy of VC correlations arising from Alfvén, slow and fast modes that constitute the compressible MHD modes, and show how the VC anisotropy can be used to find the media magnetization as well as to identify and separate the contributions from these MHD modes. Our study demonstrates that VCs are complementary to the VCA. In order to study turbulent volume with insufficient resolution of single-dish telescopes, we demonstrate how the studies of anisotropy can be performed using interferometers. We also suggest that restricted VC can be constructed for absorption lines by integrating LOS velocity weighted by the optical depth. We discuss the requirements for applicability of this approach.

  3. Study of velocity centroids based on the theory of fluctuations in position-position-velocity space (United States)

    Kandel, D.; Lazarian, A.; Pogosyan, D.


    We study the possibility of obtaining power spectrum of gas velocity in the turbulent interstellar medium from spatial correlation of velocity centroids (VC) of optically thick emission lines. Combining our present study with the earlier studies of centroids in Esquivel & Lazarian, we conclude that centroids are applicable for studies of subsonic/transsonic turbulence for sufficiently small line of sight (LOS) separations at which self-absorption does not affect correlation scalings. At larger LOS separations where self-absorption becomes important, we find that there is a range of scales over which VC correlation demonstrates the universal scaling, similar to the effect found in the velocity channel analysis (VCA). In other words, for large absorptions the VC lose their ability to reflect the spectra of turbulence. We develop analytical formalism the relates statistical properties of underlying magnetohydrodynamical turbulence to observable scaling and anisotropy of VC correlations arising from Alfvén, slow and fast modes that constitute the compressible MHD modes, and show how the VC anisotropy can be used to find the media magnetization as well as to identify and separate the contributions from these MHD modes. Our study demonstrates that VC are complementary to the VCA. In order to study turbulent volume with insufficient resolution of single dish telescopes, we demonstrate how the studies of anisotropy can be performed using interferometers. We also suggest that restricted VC can be constructed for absorption lines by integrating line-of-sight velocity weighted by the optical depth. We discuss the requirements for applicability of this approach.

  4. Experimental analysis of turbulence effect in settling velocity of suspended sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salinas–Tapia


    Full Text Available Settling velocities of sediment particles for different size ranges were measured in this work using PIV with the help of discriminatory filters. An experimental channel 10x15 cm cross section was used in order to obtain two set of turbulent characteristics corresponding with two different flow rates. The purpose was to analyze the effect of turbulence on the solids settling velocity. The technique allowed us to measure the individual settling velocity of the particles and the flow velocity field of the fluid. Capture and image analysis was performed with digital cameras (CCD using the software Sharp–provision PIV and the statistical cross correlation technique. Results showed that settling velocity of particles is affected by turbulence which enhances the fluid drag coefficient. Physical explanation of this phenomenon is related with the magnitude of the vertical fluctuating velocity of the fluid. However, more research is needed in order to define settling velocity formulas that takes into account this effect

  5. Eyes on crowding: crowding is preserved when responding by eye and similarly affects identity and position accuracy. (United States)

    Yildirim, Funda; Meyer, Vincent; Cornelissen, Frans W


    Peripheral vision guides recognition and selection of targets for eye movements. Crowding—a decline in recognition performance that occurs when a potential target is surrounded by other, similar, objects—influences peripheral object recognition. A recent model study suggests that crowding may be due to increased uncertainty about both the identity and the location of peripheral target objects, but very few studies have assessed these properties in tandem. Eye tracking can integrally provide information on both the perceived identity and the position of a target and therefore could become an important approach in crowding studies. However, recent reports suggest that around the moment of saccade preparation crowding may be significantly modified. If these effects were to generalize to regular crowding tasks, it would complicate the interpretation of results obtained with eye tracking and the comparison to results obtained using manual responses. For this reason, we first assessed whether the manner by which participants responded—manually or by eye—affected their performance. We found that neither recognition performance nor response time was affected by the response type. Hence, we conclude that crowding magnitude was preserved when observers responded by eye. In our main experiment, observers made eye movements to the location of a tilted Gabor target while we varied flanker tilt to manipulate target-flanker similarity. The results indicate that this similarly affected the accuracy of peripheral recognition and saccadic target localization. Our results inform about the importance of both location and identity uncertainty in crowding.

  6. Peculiar velocities in dynamic spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato


    We investigate the asymptotic behavior of peculiar velocities in certain physically significant time-dependent gravitational fields. Previous studies of the motion of free test particles have focused on the \\emph{collapse scenario}, according to which a double-jet pattern with Lorentz factor $\\gamma \\to \\infty$ develops asymptotically along the direction of complete gravitational collapse. In the present work, we identify a second \\emph{wave scenario}, in which a single-jet pattern with Lorentz factor $\\gamma \\to \\infty$ develops asymptotically along the direction of wave propagation. The possibility of a connection between the two scenarios for the formation of cosmic jets is critically examined.

  7. Minimum length-maximum velocity (United States)

    Panes, Boris


    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example, we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA on superluminal neutrinos.

  8. Response of the waterlouse Asellus aquaticus to multiple stressors : effects of current velocity and mineral substratum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Camu, J.M.; Beijer, J.A.J.; Scheffer, M.; Gardeniers, J.J.P.


    Experiments were performed to study the individual and combined effects of current velocity and substratum composition on the waterlouse Asellus aquaticus (L.). Both factors affected growth, mortality, behavior, and food consumption of A. aquaticus. Short-term effects of increasing current velocity

  9. Measurement of air velocity in animal occupied zones using an ultrasonic anemometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van A.V.; Leeuw, de M.T.J.


    The air velocity in the animal occupied zone (AOZ) of a pig facility influences the thermal comfort of pigs and is affected by the ventilation system in the building. Little is known about the relationship between the air velocity in the AOZ and the ventilation system design. This article describes

  10. Variation of Quench Propagation Velocities in YBCO Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Härö, E.; Stenvall, A.; 10.1007/s10948-015-2976-y


    changes during the quench. Due to the large temperature margin between the operation and the current sharing temperatures, the normal zone does not propagate with the temperature front. This means that the temperature will rise in a considerably larger volume when compared to the quenched volume. Thus, the evolution of the temperature distribution below current sharing temperature Tcs after the quench onset affects the normal zone propagation velocity in HTS more than in LTS coils. This can be seen as an acceleration of the quench propagation velocities while the quench evolves when margin to Tcs is high. In this paper we scrutinize quench propagation in a stack of YBCO cables with an in-house finite element method software which solves the heat diffusion equation. We compute the longitudinal and transverse normal zone propagation velocities at various distances from the hot spot to demonstrate the distance-variation...

  11. Velocity of sound in hadron matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Roulet, E.


    The velocity of sound in hadron matter, in both the confined and deconfined phases, is studied. This velocity of sound appears to be an important tool to distinguish among different bag-model-based thermodynamical descriptions of hadronic matter.

  12. Inexpensive Time-of-Flight Velocity Measurements. (United States)

    Everett, Glen E.; Wild, R. L.


    Describes a circuit designed to measure time-of-flight velocity and shows how to use it to determine bullet velocity in connection with the ballistic pendulum demonstration of momentum conservation. (Author/GA)

  13. Velocity Measurement Based on Laser Doppler Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-Yan; HUO Yu-Jing; HE Shu-Fang; GONG Ke


    @@ A novel method for velocity measurement is presented.In this scheme,a parallel-linear-polarization dualfrequency laser is incident on the target and senses the target velocity with both the frequencies,which can increase the maximum measurable velocity significantly.The theoretical analysis and verification experiment of the novel method are presented,which show that high-velocity measurement can be achieved with high precision using this method.

  14. Acoustic feedback system with digital signal processor to alert the subject and quantitative visualization of arousal reaction induced by the sound using dynamic characteristics of saccadic eye movement: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Ueno, A; Manabe, S; Uchikawa, Y


    A new system has been developed to assess human alertness and to alert the subject with acoustic stimulation in accordance with the assessed level of alertness. Dynamic characteristics of saccadic eye movement (saccade: SC) were used to calculate an alertness index. Digital signal processor was adopted for the calculation. The system was tested through eye tracking tasks. The results indicated that the developed system could awaken the subject by feeding sound back to the subject. Also, arousal reaction induced by the sound was visualized quantitatively by analyzing values of the alertness index after the stimulation. These results indicate applicability of the system not only to awakening device for accident prevention, but also to a tool for investigating effects of the stimulation.

  15. Weakly nonlinear density-velocity relation

    CERN Document Server

    Chodorowski, M J; Chodorowski, Michal J; Lokas, Ewa L


    We rigorously derive weakly nonlinear relation between cosmic density and velocity fields up to third order in perturbation theory. The density field is described by the mass density contrast, \\de. The velocity field is described by the variable \\te proportional to the velocity divergence, \\te = - f(\\Omega)^{-1} H_0^{-1} \

  16. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon;


    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  17. Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity (United States)

    Tin-Lam, Toh


    The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…

  18. Extending the unambiguous velocity range using multiple carrier frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Z.; Jakobsson, A.; Nikolov, Svetoslav;


    Typically, velocity estimators based on the estimation of the Doppler shift will suffer from a limited unambiguous velocity range. Proposed are two novel multiple carrier based velocity estimators extending the velocity range above the Nyquist velocity limit. Numerical simulations indicate...

  19. Is flow velocity a significant parameter in flood damage modelling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich


    Full Text Available Flow velocity is generally presumed to influence flood damage. However, this influence is hardly quantified and virtually no damage models take it into account. Therefore, the influences of flow velocity, water depth and combinations of these two impact parameters on various types of flood damage were investigated in five communities affected by the Elbe catchment flood in Germany in 2002. 2-D hydraulic models with high to medium spatial resolutions were used to calculate the impact parameters at the sites in which damage occurred. A significant influence of flow velocity on structural damage, particularly on roads, could be shown in contrast to a minor influence on monetary losses and business interruption. Forecasts of structural damage to road infrastructure should be based on flow velocity alone. The energy head is suggested as a suitable flood impact parameter for reliable forecasting of structural damage to residential buildings above a critical impact level of 2 m of energy head or water depth. However, general consideration of flow velocity in flood damage modelling, particularly for estimating monetary loss, cannot be recommended.

  20. SPIDER - IX. Classifying galaxy groups according to their velocity distribution (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. L. B.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Trevisan, M.; Capelato, H. V.; La Barbera, F.; Lopes, P. A. A.; Schilling, A. C.


    We introduce a new method to study the velocity distribution of galaxy systems, the Hellinger Distance (HD), designed for detecting departures from a Gaussian velocity distribution. Testing different approaches to measure normality of a distribution, we conclude that HD is the least vulnerable method to type I and II statistical errors. We define a relaxed galactic system as the one with unimodal velocity distribution and a normality deviation below a critical value (HD ) and the Gaussianity of the velocity distribution of the groups. Bright galaxies (Mr ≤ -20.7) residing in the inner and outer regions of groups do not show significant differences in the listed quantities regardless if the group has a Gaussian (G) or a Non-Gaussian (NG) velocity distribution. However, the situation is significantly different when we examine the faint galaxies (-20.7 < Mr ≤ -17.9). In G groups, there is a remarkable difference between the galaxy properties of the inner and outer galaxy populations, testifying how the environment is affecting the galaxies. Instead, in NG groups there is no segregation between the properties of galaxies in the inner and outer regions, showing that the properties of these galaxies still reflect the physical processes prevailing in the environment where they were found earlier.

  1. Predicting minimum fluidization velocities of multi-component solid mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Asif


    Employing well-established mixing rules for mean properties,appropriate expressions are aerivea for predicting minimum fluidization velocities of multi-component solid mixtures in terms of monocomponent values for the velocity and the bed voidage at incipient fluidization.Based on flow regime and the mixing level of constituent species,it is found that these relationships differ significantly from each other,whether related to size-different or density-different mixtures.For mixed beds of size-different mixtures,the effect of volume contraction is accounted for by the mean voidage term,which is absent for segregated beds.Incorporating the volume-change of mixing leads to values of the mixture minimum fluidization velocities even lower than corresponding values for segregated bed,thus conforming to the trend reported in the literature.Size-different mixtures exhibit flow regime dependence irrespective of whether the bed is mixed or segregated.On the other hand,the mixing of constituent species does not affect the minimum fluidization velocity of density-different mixtures,as the difference in the expressions for a segregated and a mixed system is rather inconsequential.Comparison with experimental data available in the literature is made to test the efficacy of the minimum fluidization velocity expressions derived here.

  2. The circular velocity function of group galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramson, Louis E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Williams, Rik J.; Benson, Andrew J.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Mulchaey, John S., E-mail: [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)


    A robust prediction of ΛCDM cosmology is the halo circular velocity function (CVF), a dynamical cousin of the halo mass function. The correspondence between theoretical and observed CVFs is uncertain, however: cluster galaxies are reported to exhibit a power-law CVF consistent with N-body simulations, but that of the field is distinctly Schechter-like, flattened compared to ΛCDM expectations at circular velocities v {sub c} ≲ 200 km s{sup –1}. Groups offer a powerful probe of the role environment plays in this discrepancy as they bridge the field and clusters. Here, we construct the CVF for a large, mass- and multiplicity-complete sample of group galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using independent photometric v {sub c} estimators, we find no transition from field to ΛCDM-shaped CVF above v {sub c} = 50 km s{sup –1} as a function of group halo mass. All groups with 12.4 ≲ log M {sub halo}/M {sub ☉} ≲ 15.1 (Local Group analogs to rich clusters) display similar Schechter-like CVFs marginally suppressed at low v {sub c} compared to that of the field. Conversely, some agreement with N-body results emerges for samples saturated with late-type galaxies, with isolated late-types displaying a CVF similar in shape to ΛCDM predictions. We conclude that the flattening of the low-v {sub c} slope in groups is due to their depressed late-type fractions—environment affecting the CVF only to the extent that it correlates with this quantity—and that previous cluster analyses may suffer from interloper contamination. These results serve as useful benchmarks for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation.

  3. The effect of velocity filtering in pressure estimation (United States)

    Schiavazzi, D. E.; Nemes, A.; Schmitter, S.; Coletti, F.


    Velocity field measurements allow, in principle, the evaluation of the pressure field by integrating the equations of fluid motion. Unavoidable experimental uncertainty, however, may result in unreliable estimates. In this study, we use the Poisson pressure equation to estimate the relative pressure from experimental velocities, and investigate how pre-processing with smoothing and solenoidal filters affects this estimate. For diffusion dominated laminar flow or for turbulent flow modeled through an eddy viscosity, measurement noise significantly affects the results. In this case, solenoidal filtering provides superior performance over other smoothing approaches, as it preserves the second spatial derivatives of the velocity field. For laminar flows dominated by advection or acceleration components of the pressure gradient, the choice of the filter appears to have little effect under limited noise, while smoothing produces improved relative pressure estimates for higher noise intensities. The above statements are verified using idealized flow conditions, numerical fluid dynamics simulations, and velocity fields from in-vivo and in-vitro magnetic resonance velocimetry.

  4. Velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Wittig, C.


    The use of velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy (VADS) to measure center-of-mass kinetic-energy distributions of nascent photofragments produced in pulsed-initiation photolysis/probe experiments is described and demonstrated. In VADS, pulsed photolysis and probe laser beams counterpropagate through the ionization region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The theoretical principles of VADS and the mathematical interpretation of VADS data are explained and illustrated with diagrams; the experimental setup is described; and results for the photodissociation of HI, H2S, and NH3 are presented in graphs and characterized in detail. VADS is shown to give much higher kinetic-energy resolution than conventional Doppler spectroscopy.

  5. The critical velocity in swimming. (United States)

    di Prampero, Pietro E; Dekerle, Jeanne; Capelli, Carlo; Zamparo, Paola


    In supra-maximal exercise to exhaustion, the critical velocity (cv) is conventionally calculated from the slope of the distance (d) versus time (t) relationship: d = I + St. I is assumed to be the distance covered at the expense of the anaerobic capacity, S the speed maintained on the basis of the subject's maximal O(2) uptake (VO2max) This approach is based on two assumptions: (1) the energy cost of locomotion per unit distance (C) is constant and (2) VO2max is attained at the onset of exercise. Here we show that cv and the anaerobic distance (d (anaer)) can be calculated also in swimming, where C increases with the velocity, provided that VO2max its on-response, and the C versus v relationship are known. d (anaer) and cv were calculated from published data on maximal swims for the four strokes over 45.7, 91.4 and 182.9 m, on 20 elite male swimmers (18.9 +/- 0.9 years, 75.9 +/- 6.4 kg), whose VO2max and C versus speed relationship were determined, and compared to I and S obtained from the conventional approach. cv was lower than S (4, 16, 7 and 11% in butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl) and I (=11.6 m on average in the four strokes) was lower than d (anaer). The latter increased with the distance: average, for all strokes: 38.1, 60.6 and 81.3 m over 45.7, 91.4 and 182.9 m. It is concluded that the d versus t relationship should be utilised with some caution when evaluating performance in swimmers.

  6. The Solidification Velocity of Undercooled Nickel and Titanium Alloys with Dilute Solute (United States)

    Algoso, Paul R.; Altgilbers, A. S.; Hofmeister, William H.; Bayuzick, Robert J.


    The study of solidification velocity is important for two reasons. First, understanding the manner in which the degree of undercooling of the liquid and solidification velocity affect the microstructure of the solid is fundamental. Second, there is disagreement between theoretical predictions of the relationship between undercooling and solidification velocity and experimental results. Thus, the objective of this research is to accurately and systematically quantify the solidification velocity as a function of undercooling for dilute nickel-and titanium-based alloys. The alloys chosen for study cover a wide range of equilibrium partition coefficients, and the results are compared to current theory.

  7. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne


    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental...

  8. Vector blood velocity estimation in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gran, Fredrik; Udesen, Jesper


    Two methods for making vector velocity estimation in medical ultrasound are presented. All of the techniques can find both the axial and transverse velocity in the image and can be used for displaying both the correct velocity magnitude and direction. The first method uses a transverse oscillation...... in the ultrasound field to find the transverse velocity. In-vivo examples from the carotid artery are shown, where complex turbulent flow is found in certain parts of the cardiac cycle. The second approach uses directional beam forming along the flow direction to estimate the velocity magnitude. Using a correlation...

  9. Turbulent Velocity Structure in Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ossenkopf, V; Ossenkopf, Volker; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac


    We compare velocity structure observed in the Polaris Flare molecular cloud at scales ranging from 0.015 pc to 20 pc to the velocity structure of a suite of simulations of supersonic hydrodynamic and MHD turbulence computed with the ZEUS MHD code. We examine different methods of characterising the structure, including a scanning-beam size-linewidth relation, structure functions, velocity and velocity difference probability distribution functions (PDFs), and the Delta-variance wavelet transform, and use them to compare models and observations. The Delta-variance is most sensitive in detecting characteristic scales and varying scaling laws, but is limited in the observational application by its lack of intensity weighting. We compare the true velocity PDF in our models to simulated observations of velocity centroids and average line profiles in optically thin lines, and find that the line profiles reflect the true PDF better. The observed velocity structure is consistent with supersonic turbulence showing a com...

  10. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean


    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  11. Near Continuum Velocity and Temperature Coupled Compressible Boundary Layer Flow over a Flat Plate (United States)

    He, Xin; Cai, Chunpei


    The problem of a compressible gas flows over a flat plate with the velocity-slip and temperature-jump boundary conditions are being studied. The standard single- shooting method is applied to obtain the exact solutions for velocity and temperature profiles when the momentum and energy equations are weakly coupled. A double-shooting method is applied if these two equations are closely coupled. If the temperature affects the velocity directly, more significant velocity slip happens at locations closer to the plate's leading edge, and inflections on the velocity profiles appear, indicating flows may become unstable. As a consequence, the temperature-jump and velocity-slip boundary conditions may trigger earlier flow transitions from a laminar to a turbulent flow state.

  12. Velocity distribution measurements in a fishway like open channel by Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) (United States)

    Sayeed-Bin-Asad, S. M.; Lundström, T. S.; Andersson, A. G.; Hellström, J. G. I.


    Experiments in an open channel flume with placing a vertical half cylinder barrier have been performed in order to investigate how the upstream velocity profiles are affected by a barrier. An experimental technique using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was adopted to measure these velocity distributions in the channel for four different discharge rates. Velocity profiles were measured very close to wall and at 25, 50 and 100 mm upstream of the cylinder wall. For comparing these profiles with well-known logarithmic velocity profiles, velocity profiles were also measured in smooth open channel flow for all same four discharge rates. The results indicate that regaining the logarithmic velocity profiles upstream of the half cylindrical barrier occurs at 100 mm upstream of the cylinder wall.

  13. Velocity distribution measurements in a fishway like open channel by Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeed-Bin-Asad S.M.


    Full Text Available Experiments in an open channel flume with placing a vertical half cylinder barrier have been performed in order to investigate how the upstream velocity profiles are affected by a barrier. An experimental technique using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV was adopted to measure these velocity distributions in the channel for four different discharge rates. Velocity profiles were measured very close to wall and at 25, 50 and 100 mm upstream of the cylinder wall. For comparing these profiles with well-known logarithmic velocity profiles, velocity profiles were also measured in smooth open channel flow for all same four discharge rates. The results indicate that regaining the logarithmic velocity profiles upstream of the half cylindrical barrier occurs at 100 mm upstream of the cylinder wall.

  14. Frequency Comb Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (United States)

    Cossel, Kevin C.; Sinclair, Laura C.; Coffey, Tyler; Cornell, Eric; Ye, Jun


    We have developed a novel technique for rapid ion-sensitive spectroscopy over a broad spectral bandwidth by combining the high sensitivity of velocity modulation spectroscopy (VMS) with the parallel nature and high frequency accuracy of cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy. Prior to this research, no techniques have been capable of high sensitivity velocity modulation spectroscopy on every parallel detection channel over such a broad spectral range. We have demonstrated the power of this technique by measuring the A^2Π_u - X^2Σ_g^+ (4,2) band of N_2^+ at 830 nm with an absorption sensitivity of 1×10-6 for each of 1500 simultaneous measurement channels spanning 150 Cm-1. A densely sampled spectrum consisting of interleaved measurements to achieve 75 MHz spacing is acquired in under an hour. This technique is ideally suited for high resolution survey spectroscopy of molecular ions with applications including chemical physics, astrochemistry, and precision measurement. Currently, this system is being used to map the electronic transitions of HfF^+ for the JILA electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) experiment. The JILA eEDM experiment uses trapped molecular ions to significantly increase the coherence time of the measurement in addition to utilizing the strong electric field enhancement available from molecules. Previous theoretical work has shown that the metastable ^3Δ_1 state in HfF^+ and ThF^+ provides high sensitivity to the eEDM and good cancellation of systematic effects; however, the electronic level structure of these species have not previously been measured, and the theoretical uncertainties are hundreds to thousands of wavenumbers. This necessitates broad-bandwidth, high-resolution survey spectroscopy provided by frequency comb VMS in the 700-900 nm spectral window. F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye. Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175-205 (2010) A. E. Leanhardt, et. al. arXiv:1008.2997v2 E. Meyer, J. L. Bohn, and M. P. Deskevich

  15. Measurement of the velocity of a quantum object: A role of phase and group velocities (United States)

    Lapinski, Mikaila; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.


    We consider the motion of a quantum particle in a free space. Introducing an explicit measurement procedure for velocity, we demonstrate that the measured velocity is related to the group and phase velocities of the corresponding matter waves. We show that for long distances the measured velocity coincides with the matter wave group velocity. We discuss the possibilities to demonstrate these effects for the optical pulses in coherently driven media or for radiation propagating in waveguides.

  16. Influences of Medium Structure of Three-Phase Seabed Deposit on Sound Velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长节; 蔡袁强


    Based on the former research, the mechanism of the influence of the medium structure on the sound velocity of the three- phase seabed deposit is discussed by theoretical method. Through analysis of several structure models of three-phase seabed deposit, an equation of sound velocity is presented, which can describe the effect of structure of three-phase deposit on its acoustic velocity. Seen form the derived equation, the equations of the sound velocity of the deposits with different medium structures are different, the influence of the medium structure on the sound velocity is apparent. The equation in the paper provides the theoretical basis to understand the mechanics properties through sound velocity test, and it can be easily adopted in engineering. The influences of the parameters of deposits, void ratio, gas concentration and modulus on sound velocity through the deposit are investigated by numerical analysis of the acoustic velocity. Numerical result shows that the sound velocity of three-phase medium is affected by void ratio, gas concentration and body modulus, and the sound velocity generally increases with the gas concentration increasing. The results of the paper can be helpful to the acoustic method.

  17. A geomorphic and morphometric analysis of surface ice velocity variation of different valley type glaciers (United States)

    Tiwari, R. K.; Garg, P. K.; Shukla, A.; Ahluwalia, R. S.; Singh, N.; Chauhan, P.


    Glacier surface ice velocity is one of the important parameters which determine the glacier dynamics. If the surface ice velocity is high in upper zone (accumulation zone) of the glacier, more ice is brought to the lower zone (ablation zone) of the glacier where it melts more rapidly. The surface ice velocity depends on multiple factors like geomorphology of a glacier and glacier valley, ice load, orientation of the glacier, slope and debris cover. In this study, we have used latest multi-temporal Landsat-8 satellite images to calculate the surface ice velocity of different glaciers from the Himalayan region and a relationship of velocity and geomorphology and geo-morphometry of the glacier has been studied. The standard procedure has been implied to estimate the glacial velocity using image to image correlation technique. The geo-morphometric parameters of the glacier surface have been derived using SRTM 90 m global DEM. It has been observed that the slope of the glacier is one of the main factors on which the velocity is dependent i.e. higher the slope higher is the velocity and more ice is brought by the glacier to the ablation zone. The debris cover over the glacier and at the terminus also affects the velocity of the glacier by restricting ice flow. Thus, observations suggest that the geomorphology and geo-morphometry of the glacier has a considerable control on the surface ice velocity of the glacier.

  18. High velocity impact experiment (HVIE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, A.; Donich, T.; Carter, P.


    The HVIE space project was conceived as a way to measure the absolute EOS for approximately 10 materials at pressures up to {approximately}30 Mb with order-of-magnitude higher accuracy than obtainable in any comparable experiment conducted on earth. The experiment configuration is such that each of the 10 materials interacts with all of the others thereby producing one-hundred independent, simultaneous EOS experiments The materials will be selected to provide critical information to weapons designers, National Ignition Facility target designers and planetary and geophysical scientists. In addition, HVIE will provide important scientific information to other communities, including the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and the lethality and vulnerability community. The basic HVIE concept is to place two probes in counter rotating, highly elliptical orbits and collide them at high velocity (20 km/s) at 100 km altitude above the earth. The low altitude of the experiment will provide quick debris strip-out of orbit due to atmospheric drag. The preliminary conceptual evaluation of the HVIE has found no show stoppers. The design has been very easy to keep within the lift capabilities of commonly available rides to low earth orbit including the space shuttle. The cost of approximately 69 million dollars for 100 EOS experiment that will yield the much needed high accuracy, absolute measurement data is a bargain!

  19. Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles

    KAUST Repository

    Giese, Andrew


    © 2014 IEEE. Modern multi-agent systems frequently use highlevel planners to extract basic paths for agents, and then rely on local collision avoidance to ensure that the agents reach their destinations without colliding with one another or dynamic obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming, we introduce Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles (RRVO). RRVO generalizes ORCA by introducing a notion of rotation for polygonally-shaped agents. This generalization permits more realistic motion than ORCA and does not suffer from as much deadlock. In this paper, we present the theory of RRVO and show empirically that it does not suffer from the deadlock issue ORCA has, permits agents to reach goals faster, and has a comparable collision rate at the cost of performance overhead quadratic in the (typically small) user-defined parameter δ.

  20. Geotail observations of FTE velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Korotova


    Full Text Available We discuss the plasma velocity signatures expected in association with flux transfer events (FTEs. Events moving faster than or opposite the ambient media should generate bipolar inward/outward (outward/inward flow perturbations normal to the nominal magnetopause in the magnetosphere (magnetosheath. Flow perturbations directly upstream and downstream from the events should be in the direction of event motion. Flows on the flanks should be in the direction opposite the motion of events moving at subsonic and subAlfvénic speeds relative to the ambient plasma. Events moving with the ambient flow should generate no flow perturbations in the ambient plasma. Alfvén waves propagating parallel (antiparallel to the axial magnetic field of FTEs may generate anticorrelated (correlated magnetic field and flow perturbations within the core region of FTEs. We present case studies illustrating many of these signatures. In the examples considered, Alfvén waves propagate along event axes away from the inferred reconnection site. A statistical study of FTEs observed by Geotail over a 3.5-year period reveals that FTEs within the magnetosphere invariably move faster than the ambient flow, while those in the magnetosheath move both faster and slower than the ambient flow.

  1. Two-dimensional grouping affects perisaccadic perception of depth and synchrony. (United States)

    Aruga, Reiko; Saito, Hideo; Ando, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Junji


    There is considerable evidence that, when visual stimuli are presented around the time of a saccade, spatial and temporal perceptions of them are distorted. However, only a small number of previous studies have addressed the perception of a visual image induced by a saccade eye movement (visual image that is dynamically drawn on the retina during a saccade at the speed of the eye movement). Here we investigated three-dimensional and temporal perceptions of the saccade-induced images and found that perceptual grouping of objects has a significant effect on the perceived depth and timing of the images.

  2. Computing discharge using the index velocity method (United States)

    Levesque, Victor A.; Oberg, Kevin A.


    Application of the index velocity method for computing continuous records of discharge has become increasingly common, especially since the introduction of low-cost acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) in 1997. Presently (2011), the index velocity method is being used to compute discharge records for approximately 470 gaging stations operated and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to document and describe techniques for computing discharge records using the index velocity method. Computing discharge using the index velocity method differs from the traditional stage-discharge method by separating velocity and area into two ratings—the index velocity rating and the stage-area rating. The outputs from each of these ratings, mean channel velocity (V) and cross-sectional area (A), are then multiplied together to compute a discharge. For the index velocity method, V is a function of such parameters as streamwise velocity, stage, cross-stream velocity, and velocity head, and A is a function of stage and cross-section shape. The index velocity method can be used at locations where stage-discharge methods are used, but it is especially appropriate when more than one specific discharge can be measured for a specific stage. After the ADVM is selected, installed, and configured, the stage-area rating and the index velocity rating must be developed. A standard cross section is identified and surveyed in order to develop the stage-area rating. The standard cross section should be surveyed every year for the first 3 years of operation and thereafter at a lesser frequency, depending on the susceptibility of the cross section to change. Periodic measurements of discharge are used to calibrate and validate the index rating for the range of conditions experienced at the gaging station. Data from discharge measurements, ADVMs, and stage sensors are compiled for index-rating analysis. Index ratings are developed by means of regression

  3. Refinement of turbulent flow velocity characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Bryanskaya


    Full Text Available The basic laws of Prandtl semi-empirical turbulence theory were analyzed in the article. It was shown, that the Prandtl – Nikuradse logarithmic distribution of velocities are not strictly universal. The change of the first and second turbulence constants was analyzed on the basis of experimental data of I. Nikuradse. The logarithmic velocity profiles for smooth and rough pipes have been transformed. A united velocity logarithmic profile for flows in pipes, appropriate for any rate of hydraulic resistance was received. A more precise, consistent with the resistance laws, description of the kinematic structure of the flow with varying parameters of the velocity profiles was set. It was shown that the position of the average velocity point for the flow in pipe remained constant when the parameters of the velocity profile changed.

  4. Surface Velocities and Hydrology at Engabreen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messerli, Alexandra

    on surface velocities recorded at the site. The Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory (SSL) under Engabreen, augmented by additional subglacial pressure and hydrological measurements, provides a invaluable observations for detailed process-oriented studies. However, the lack of complementary surface velocity data...... complicates comparisons with other surface-oriented glaciohydrological studies. One major aim of this thesis is to provide a longer record of surface velocity, enabling a more complete understanding of the glacial hydro-mechanical relationship at Engabreen. In order to extend the velocity dataset here, a time......-lapse camera based study was carried out, providing seasonal velocity maps over a large portion of an inaccessible region of the glacier. The processing and feature tracking of terrestrially based imagery, in order to obtain quantitative velocity measurements, is challenging. Whilst optical feature tracking...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dianchang; WANG Xingkui; YU Mingzhong; LI Danxun


    The log-law and the wake law of velocity profile for open channel flows are discussed and compared in this paper. Experimental data from eight sources are used to verify the velocity distribution models.The effect of bed level on the velocity profile is analyzed. A formula to calculate the maximum velocity is proposed. In the region of y <δm , the velocity profile approximately follows the log-law. For the region of y >δm , the effect of the aspect ratio is considered. A new velocity profile model on the basis of log-law that can unify all of the hydraulic bed roughness is presented.

  6. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T


    for eight subjects, respectively, were excluded from analysis because of insufficient signal quality. Running increased mean arterial pressure and mean MCA velocity and induced rhythmic oscillations in BP and in MCA velocity corresponding to the difference between step rate and heart rate (HR) frequencies......) blood flow velocity, photoplethysmographic finger BP, and step frequency were measured continuously during three consecutive 5-min intervals of treadmill running at increasing running intensities. Data were analysed in the time and frequency domains. BP data for seven subjects and MCA velocity data....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  7. Local wavefield velocity imaging for damage evaluation (United States)

    Chia, Chen Ciang; Gan, Chia Sheng; Mustapha, F.


    Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging or Acoustic Wavefield Imaging has been widely used to evaluate structural damages and internal features. Inspecting complete wavefield time history for damage identification is tedious and error-prone. A more effective way is by extracting damage-related information into a single image. A wavefield velocity imaging method that maps the local estimates of group or phase velocity is proposed. Actual velocity values rather than arbitrarily-scaled intensities are mapped, enabling damage sizing without the need of supervised training or inspecting wavefield propagation video. Performance of the proposed method was tested by inspecting a 100 mm by 100 mm area of a 2 mm thick stainless steel specimen. Local phase velocity maps of A0 mode showed a half-thickness hole of 2 mm diameter as significant change in local phase velocity from the nominal 2 m/ms. Full width at half maximum of relevant velocity profiles proved the accuracy and consistency of the damage sizing.

  8. Decreased group velocity in compositionally graded films. (United States)

    Gao, Lei


    A theoretical formalism is presented that describes the group velocity of electromagnetic signals in compositionally graded films. The theory is first based on effective medium approximation or the Maxwell-Garnett approximation to obtain the equivalent dielectric function in a z slice. Then the effective dielectric tensor of the graded film is directly determined, and the group velocities for ordinary and extraordinary waves in the film are derived. It is found that the group velocity is sensitively dependent on the graded profile. For a power-law graded profile f(x)=ax(m), increasing m results in the decreased extraordinary group velocity. Such a decreased tendency becomes significant when the incident angle increases. Therefore the group velocity in compositionally graded films can be effectively decreased by our suitable adjustment of the total volume fraction, the graded profile, and the incident angle. As a result, the compositionally graded films may serve as candidate material for realizing small group velocity.

  9. Analysis of slow- and fast-α band asymmetry during performance of a saccadic eye movement task: dissociation between memory- and attention-driven systems. (United States)

    Sanfim, Antonio; Velasques, Bruna; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; Teixeira, Silmar; Santos, Joana Luz; Bittencourt, Juliana; Basile, Luis F; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Sack, Alexander T; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Ribeiro, Pedro


    This study aimed at analyzing the relationship between slow- and fast-alpha asymmetry within frontal cortex and the planning, execution and voluntary control of saccadic eye movements (SEM), and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) was recorded using a 20-channel EEG system in 12 healthy participants performing a fixed (i.e., memory-driven) and a random SEM (i.e., stimulus-driven) condition. We find main effects for SEM condition in slow- and fast-alpha asymmetry at electrodes F3-F4, which are located over premotor cortex, specifically a negative asymmetry between conditions. When analyzing electrodes F7-F8, which are located over prefrontal cortex, we found a main effect for condition in slow-alpha asymmetry, particularly a positive asymmetry between conditions. In conclusion, the present approach supports the association of slow- and fast-alpha bands with the planning and preparation of SEM, and the specific role of these sub-bands for both, the attention network and the coordination and integration of sensory information with a (oculo)-motor response.

  10. Statistics of Peculiar Velocities from Cosmic Strings


    Moessner, R.


    We calculate the probability distribution of a single component of peculiar velocities due to cosmic strings, smoothed over regions with a radius of several $h^{-1}$ Mpc. The probability distribution is shown to be Gaussian to good accuracy, in agreement with the distribution of peculiar velocities deduced from the 1.9 Jy IRAS redshift survey. Using the normalization of parameters of the cosmic string model from CMB measurements, we show that the rms values for peculiar velocities inferred fr...

  11. Magnetogenesis through Relativistic Velocity Shear (United States)

    Miller, Evan

    Magnetic fields at all scales are prevalent in our universe. However, current cosmological models predict that initially the universe was bereft of large-scale fields. Standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) does not permit magnetogenesis; in the MHD Faraday's law, the change in magnetic field B depends on B itself. Thus if B is initially zero, it will remain zero for all time. A more accurate physical model is needed to explain the origins of the galactic-scale magnetic fields observed today. In this thesis, I explore two velocity-driven mechanisms for magnetogenesis in 2-fluid plasma. The first is a novel kinematic 'battery' arising from convection of vorticity. A coupling between thermal and plasma oscillations, this non-relativistic mechanism can operate in flows that are incompressible, quasi-neutral and barotropic. The second mechanism results from inclusion of thermal effects in relativistic shear flow instabilities. In such flows, parallel perturbations are ubiquitously unstable at small scales, with growth rates of order with the plasma frequency over a defined range of parameter-space. Of these two processes, instabilities seem far more likely to account for galactic magnetic fields. Stable kinematic effects will, at best, be comparable to an ideal Biermann battery, which is suspected to be orders of magnitude too weak to produce the observed galactic fields. On the other hand, instabilities grow until saturation is reached, a topic that has yet to be explored in detail on cosmological scales. In addition to investigating these magnetogenesis sources, I derive a general dispersion relation for three dimensional, warm, two species plasma with discontinuous shear flow. The mathematics of relativistic plasma, sheared-flow instability and the Biermann battery are also discussed.

  12. Spectra of Velocity components over Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panofsky, H. A.; Larko, D.; Lipschut, R.


    Spectra have been measured over a variety of types of complex terrain: on tops of hills and escarpments, over land downstream of a water surface, and over rolling terrain. Differences between spectra over many types of complex terrain, and over uniform terrain, can be explained by these hypotheses...... is horizontal, and decrease when the flow is uphill, for the longitudinal velocity component only. Since vertical-velocity spectra contain relatively less low wavenumber energy than horizontal-velocity spectra, energetic vertical-velocity fluctuations tend to be in equilibrium with local terrain....

  13. Algorithms for estimating blood velocities using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Ultrasound has been used intensively for the last 15 years for studying the hemodynamics of the human body. Systems for determining both the velocity distribution at one point of interest (spectral systems) and for displaying a map of velocity in real time have been constructed. A number of schemes...... have been developed for performing the estimation, and the various approaches are described. The current systems only display the velocity along the ultrasound beam direction and a velocity transverse to the beam is not detected. This is a major problem in these systems, since most blood vessels...

  14. Effect of Pressure on Minimum Fluidization Velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhiping; Na Yongjie; Lu Qinggang


    Minimum fluidization velocity of quartz sand and glass bead under different pressures of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Mpa were investigated. The minimum fluidization velocity decreases with the increasing of pressure. The influence of pressure to the minimum fluidization velocities is stronger for larger particles than for smaller ones.Based on the test results and Ergun equation, an experience equation of minimum fluidization velocity is proposed and the calculation results are comparable to other researchers' results.

  15. Conduction velocity of antigravity muscle action potentials. (United States)

    Christova, L; Kosarov, D; Christova, P


    The conduction velocity of the impulses along the muscle fibers is one of the parameters of the extraterritorial potentials of the motor units allowing for the evaluation of the functional state of the muscles. There are no data about the conduction velocities of antigravity muscleaction potentials. In this paper we offer a method for measuring conduction velocity of potentials of single MUs and the averaged potentials of the interference electromiogram (IEMG) lead-off by surface electrodes from mm. sternocleidomastoideus, trapezius, deltoideus (caput laterale) and vastus medialis. The measured mean values of the conduction velocity of antigravity muscles potentials can be used for testing the functional state of the muscles.

  16. A method for determining critical swimming velocity. (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Wakayoshi, K; Hayashi, A; Sakaguchi, Y; Kitagawa, K


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the critical swimming velocity (Vcri) estimated by the swimming velocity for a distance of 300 m at maximal effort breaststroke reflects the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Twelve trained swimmers swam 50 m, 300 m and 2 000 m at maximal effort for determination of Vcri that averaged 1.167 +/- 0.045 m . sec (-1). Since Vcri was equivalent to 90.5 % of the mean swimming velocity over the distance of 300 m at maximal effort, the swimming velocity obtained by multiplying the swimming velocity for the distance of 300 m of each subject by 90.5 % was taken to be 100 % of the predicted critical swimming velocity (Vcri-pred). Then, in an MLSS test, the subjects were instructed to swim breaststroke 2 000 m (5 x 400 m) at three constant velocities (98 %, 100 %, and 102 % of Vcri-pred), interrupted by four short rest periods from 30 to 45 seconds for blood sampling and heart rate measurement. As a result, the blood lactate concentration at 100 % Vcri-pred showed a higher steady state than the slow velocity, but at high velocity did not show the steady state. In conclusion, we can accurately estimate the Vcri for breaststroke by a one-time 300-m maximal effort swimming test.

  17. Explore Seismic Velocity Change Associated with the 2010 Kaohsiung Earthquake by Ambient Noise Tomography (United States)

    Ku, Chin-Shang; Wu, Yih-Min; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Huang, Win-Gee; Liu, Chun-Chi


    A ML 6.4 earthquake occurred on 4 March 2010 in Kaohsiung, the southern part of Taiwan, this shallow earthquake is the largest one of that area in the past few years. Some damages occurred on buildings and bridges after the earthquake, obvious surface deformation up to few cm was observed and the transportation including road and train traffic was also affected near the source area. Some studies about monitoring the velocity change induced by the big earthquake were carried out recently, most of studies used cross-correlation of the ambient noise-based method and indicated velocity drop was observed immediately after the big earthquake. However, this method is not able to constrain the depth of velocity change, and need to assume a homogeneous seismic velocity change during the earthquake. In this study, we selected 25 broadband seismic stations in the southern Taiwan and time period is from 2009/03 to 2011/03. Then we explored the velocity change associated with the 2010 Kaohsiung earthquake by applying ambient noise tomography (ANT) method. ANT is a way of using interferometry to image subsurface seismic velocity variations by using surface wave dispersions extracted from the ambient noise cross-correlation of seismic station-pairs, then the 2-D group velocity map with different periods could be extracted. Compare to ambient noise-based cross-correlation analysis, we estimated sensitivity kernel of dispersion curves and converted 2-D group velocity map from "with the period" to "with the depth" to have more constraints on the depth of velocity change. By subtracting shear velocity between "before" and "after" the earthquake, we could explore velocity change associated with the earthquake. Our result shows velocity reduction about 5-10% around the focal depth after the 2010 Kaohsiung earthquake and the post-seismic velocity recovery was observed with time period increasing, which may suggest a healing process of damaged rocks.

  18. The stress-induced surface wave velocity variations in concrete (United States)

    Spalvier, Agustin; Bittner, James; Evani, Sai Kalyan; Popovics, John S.


    This investigation studies the behavior of surface wave velocity in concrete specimens subjected to low levels of compressive and tensile stress in beams from applied flexural loads. Beam specimen is loaded in a 4-point-load bending configuration, generating uniaxial compression and tension stress fields at the top and bottom surfaces of the beam, respectively. Surface waves are generated through contactless air-coupled transducers and received through contact accelerometers. Results show a clear distinction in responses from compression and tension zones, where velocity increases in the former and decreases in the latter, with increasing load levels. These trends agree with existing acoustoelastic literature. Surface wave velocity tends to decrease more under tension than it tends to increase under compression, for equal load levels. It is observed that even at low stress levels, surface wave velocity is affected by acoustoelastic effects, coupled with plastic effects (stress-induced damage). The acoustoelastic effect is isolated by means of considering the Kaiser effect and by experimentally mitigating the viscoelastic effects of concrete. Results of this ongoing investigation contribute to the overall knowledge of the acoustoelastic behavior of concrete. Applications of this knowledge may include structural health monitoring of members under flexural loads, improved high order modelling of materials, and validation of results seen in dynamic acoustoelasticity testing.

  19. Detailed Measurement of Horizontal Groundwater Velocities Without a Borehole (United States)

    Bakker, M.; Calje, R.; Van der Made, K. J.; Schaars, F.


    A new methodology has been developed to measure horizontal groundwater velocities in unconsolidated aquifers. Groundwater velocities are measured with a heat tracer experiment. Temperature is measured along fiber optic cables using a Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system. Fiber optic cables and a separate heating cable are pushed into the ground to depths of tens of meters. The groundwater is heated with the heating cable and the response is measured along several nearby fiber optic cables. The measured temperature responses are used to estimate the distribution of the magnitude and direction of the horizontal groundwater velocity over the entire depth of the cables. The methodology has been applied in a phreatic aquifer in the dune area along the Dutch coast. Significant variations of groundwater velocities with depth were observed even though the dune sand is relatively homogeneous. Major advantages of the new methodology are that the fiber optic cables are in direct contact with the groundwater and that the cables and installation are relatively cheap. No expensive boreholes are needed and consequently measurements are not affected by movement and mixing of water inside a borehole.

  20. [Affective dependency]. (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M


    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  1. Experimental study on the ejecta-velocity distributions caused by low-velocity impacts on quartz sand (United States)

    Tsujido, S.; Arakawa, M.; Suzuki, A. I.; Yasui, M.


    velocity distributions are written in the form V_i/√{gR}=k(x/R)^{-b}, where R is a crater radius, g is the gravitational acceleration of planet, k is obtained to be approximately a constant of 0.78±0.17, irrespective of projectile density. Our results in low-velocity experiments for 500 μ m glass beads target are also roughly consistent with the results for the quartz sand target. In other words, we found that the shape of the target grain does not affect the velocity distribution so much, and the current scaling law can explain the effect of the impact velocity.

  2. Determination of pedestrian displacement velocity for ground exploration programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernán Ochoa Gutierrez


    Full Text Available In Engineering and Geophysics field exploration, uncertainty for determination of the velocity of ground data acquisition due to extreme topographic conditions has been underestimated in the calculation of the displacement time between stations or sampling points. This lack of reliable models, negatively affects the determination of costs and planning of fieldwork activities. Known models of times and routes of displacement determination such as the “Smaller Cost Routes” are based on the effect of the type of land and the slope. However, these models consider the effect of the slope by means of subjective impedance values which has no a clear physical meaning. Furthermore, the upslope or downslope displacement is not considered to affect the reliability of velocity estimation. In this paper, a model of displacement velocity is proposed taking into account the upslope/downslope factor. The model was determined using real data from a topographical survey along a pipeline of 880 Km extended along terrains with changing climatic and topographic conditions. As a result, the proposed model improves the selection of optimal routes for a reliable time and cost estimation.

  3. Projectile Velocity and Crater Formation in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravitra Chaikulngamdee


    Full Text Available The relationship between the velocity of impact and maximum crater diameter was found for two steel balls dropped into water using 300 fps video. The maximum diameter of the crater was found to be proportional to the impact velocity and independent of the diameter of the ball.

  4. Demonstration of a Vector Velocity Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Møller; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.;


    With conventional Doppler ultrasound it is not possible to estimate direction and velocity of blood flow, when the angle of insonation exceeds 60–70°. Transverse oscillation is an angle independent vector velocity technique which is now implemented on a conventional ultrasound scanner. In this pa...

  5. Velocity gradients and microturbulence in Cepheids. (United States)

    Karp, A. H.


    Variations of the microturbulent velocity with phase and height in the atmosphere have been reported in classical Cepheids. It is shown that these effects can be understood in terms of variations of the velocity gradient in the atmospheres of these stars.

  6. Position and velocity estimation through acceleration measurements


    Estrada, Antonio; Efimov, Denis; Perruquetti, Wilfrid


    International audience; This paper proposes a solution to the problem of velocity and position estimation for a class of oscillating systems whose position, velocity and acceleration are zero mean signals. The proposed scheme considers that the dynamic model of the system is unknown and only noisy acceleration measurements are available.

  7. Velocity spectrum for the Iranian plateau (United States)

    Bastami, Morteza; Soghrat, M. R.


    Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration values have been proposed in most building codes/guidelines, unlike spectral velocity (SV) and peak ground velocity (PGV). Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of spectral velocity and peak ground velocity in the design of long period structures (e.g., pipelines, tunnels, tanks, and high-rise buildings) and evaluation of seismic vulnerability in underground structures. The current study was undertaken to develop a velocity spectrum and for estimation of PGV. In order to determine these parameters, 398 three-component accelerograms recorded by the Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC) were used. The moment magnitude (Mw) in the selected database was 4.1 to 7.3, and the events occurred after 1977. In the database, the average shear-wave velocity at 0 to 30 m in depth (Vs30) was available for only 217 records; thus, the site class for the remaining was estimated using empirical methods. Because of the importance of the velocity spectrum at low frequencies, the signal-to-noise ratio of 2 was chosen for determination of the low and high frequency to include a wider range of frequency content. This value can produce conservative results. After estimation of the shape of the velocity design spectrum, the PGV was also estimated for the region under study by finding the correlation between PGV and spectral acceleration at the period of 1 s.

  8. Critical Landau Velocity in Helium Nanodroplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.B. Brauer; S. Smolarek; E. Loginov; D. Mateo; A. Hernando; M. Pi; M. Barranco; W.J. Buma; M. Drabbels


    The best-known property of superfluid helium is the vanishing viscosity that objects experience while moving through the liquid with speeds below the so-called critical Landau velocity. This critical velocity is generally considered a macroscopic property as it is related to the collective excitatio

  9. Simulating river flow velocity on global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schulze


    Full Text Available Flow velocity in rivers has a major impact on residence time of water and thus on high and low water as well as on water quality. For global scale hydrological modeling only very limited information is available for simulating flow velocity. Based on the Manning-Strickler equation, a simple algorithm to model temporally and spatially variable flow velocity was developed with the objective of improving flow routing in the global hydrological model of WaterGAP. An extensive data set of flow velocity measurements in US rivers was used to test and to validate the algorithm before integrating it into WaterGAP. In this test, flow velocity was calculated based on measured discharge and compared to measured velocity. Results show that flow velocity can be modeled satisfactorily at selected river cross sections. It turned out that it is quite sensitive to river roughness, and the results can be optimized by tuning this parameter. After the validation of the approach, the tested flow velocity algorithm has been implemented into the WaterGAP model. A final validation of its effects on the model results is currently performed.

  10. Ultrasound systems for blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    color image of velocity at up to 20 to 60 frames a second. Both measurements are performedby repeatedly pulsing in the same direction and then usethe correlation from pulse to pulse to determine the velocity.The paper gives a simple model for the interactionbetween the ultrasound and the moving blood......Medical ultrasound scanners can be used both for displayinggray-scale images of the anatomy and for visualizing theblood flow dynamically in the body.The systems can interrogate the flow at a single position in the bodyand there find the velocity distribution over time. They can also show adynamic....... The calculation of the velocity distribution is then explainedalong with the different physical effects influencing the estimation.The estimation of mean velocities using auto- andcross-correlation for color flow mapping is also described....

  11. Minimum and terminal velocities in projectile motion

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, E N; Riba, R


    The motion of a projectile with horizontal initial velocity V0, moving under the action of the gravitational field and a drag force is studied analytically. As it is well known, the projectile reaches a terminal velocity Vterm. There is a curious result concerning the minimum speed Vmin; it turns out that the minimum velocity is lower than the terminal one if V0 > Vterm and is lower than the initial one if V0 < Vterm. These results show that the velocity is not a monotonous function. If the initial speed is not horizontal, there is an angle range where the velocity shows the same behavior mentioned previously. Out of that range, the volocity is a monotonous function. These results come out from numerical simulations.

  12. A method to deconvolve stellar rotational velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Cure, Michel; Cassetti, Julia; Christen, Alejandra


    Rotational speed is an important physical parameter of stars and knowing the distribution of stellar rotational velocities is essential for the understanding stellar evolution. However, it cannot be measured directly but the convolution of the rotational speed and the sine of the inclination angle, $v \\sin i$. We developed a method to deconvolve this inverse problem and obtain the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for stellar rotational velocities extending the work of Chandrasekhar & M\\"unch (1950). This method is applied a) to theoretical synthetic data recovering the original velocity distribution with very small error; b) to a sample of about 12.000 field main--sequence stars, corroborating that the velocity distribution function is non--Maxwellian, but is better described by distributions based on the concept of maximum entropy, such as Tsallis or Kaniadakis distribution functions. This is a very robust and novel method that deconvolve the rotational velocity cumulative distribution function fro...

  13. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional...... cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer [case (b)] the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C-atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant...... shows no dependence on the sliding velocity, and for the shortest hydrocarbon (20 C-atoms) the frictional shear stress increases nearly linearly with the sliding velocity....

  14. Velocity estimation using synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    In a previous paper we have demonstrated that the velocity can be estimated for a plug flow using recursive ultrasound imaging [1]. The approach involved the estimation of the velocity at every emission and using the estimates for motion compensation. An error in the estimates, however, would lead...... to an error in the compensation further increasing the error in the estimates. In this paper the approach is further developed such that no motion compensation is necessary. In recursive ultrasound imaging a new high resolution image is created after every emission. The velocity was estimated by cross...... and significantly improves the velocity estimates. The approach is verified using simulations with the program Field II and measurements on a blood-mimicking phantom. The estimates from the simulations have a bias of -3.5% and a mean standard deviation less than 2.0% for a parabolic velocity profile. The estimates...

  15. The Velocity Distribution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Arzoumanian, Z; Cordes, J M


    (Abridged) We infer the velocity distribution of radio pulsars by modelling their birth, evolution, and detection in large-scale 0.4 GHz pulsar surveys, and by comparing model distributions of measurable pulsar properties with survey data using a likelihood function. We test models that characterize a population's birth rate, luminosity, shutoff of radio emission, birth locations, and birth velocities. We infer that the radio beam luminosity (i) is comparable to the energy flux of relativistic particles in models for spin-driven magnetospheres, signifying that radio emission losses reach nearly 100% for the oldest pulsars; and (ii) scales approximately as sqrt(Edot) which, in magnetosphere models, is proportional to the voltage drop available for acceleration of particles. We find that a two-component velocity distribution with characteristic velocities of 90 km/s and 500 km/s is greatly preferred to any one-component distribution. We explore some consequences of the preferred birth velocity distribution: (i)...

  16. Radial velocity moments of dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Wojtak, R; Gottlöber, S; Mamon, G A; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Lokas, Ewa L.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Mamon, Gary A.


    Using cosmological N-body simulations we study the radial velocity distribution in dark matter haloes focusing on the lowest-order even moments, dispersion and kurtosis. We determine the properties of ten massive haloes in the simulation box approximating their density distribution by the NFW formula characterized by the virial mass and concentration. We also calculate the velocity anisotropy parameter of the haloes and find it mildly radial and increasing with distance from the halo centre. The radial velocity dispersion of the haloes shows a characteristic profile with a maximum, while the radial kurtosis profile decreases with distance starting from a value close to Gaussian near the centre. We therefore confirm that dark matter haloes possess intrinsically non-Gaussian, flat-topped velocity distributions. We find that the radial velocity moments of the simulated haloes are very well reproduced by the solutions of the Jeans equations obtained for the halo parameters with the anisotropy measured in the simu...

  17. The Velocity Campaign for Ignition on NIF (United States)

    Callahan, Debra


    Achieving ignition requires a high velocity implosion since the energy required for ignition scales like 1/v8. Beyond ignition, a higher velocity produces more robust performance, which will be useful for applications of ignition. In the velocity campaign, we will explore three methods for increasing implosion velocity: increased laser power and energy, optimized hohlraum and capsule materials, and optimized capsule thickness. The main issue with increasing the laser power and energy is the way in which LPI (laser plasma interactions) and hot electron preheat will change as we increase the laser power. Based on scalings from previous data and theory, we expect to couple 80-85% of 1.5 MJ at 475-500 TW. We can also increase the velocity by optimizing the hohlraum and capsule materials. In this campaign, we will explore depleted uranium hohlraums to reduce wall loss and optimize the capsule dopant by replacing the germanium dopant with silicon. Those two changes are expected to increase velocity by 6-7%. Finally, we will optimize the capsule thickness. The optimal capsule thickness is a trade-off between velocity and mix. A thinner capsule has higher velocity, but is more susceptible to mix of the ablator material into the hotspot due to hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by ablation surface imperfections. Once we have achieved adequate capsule areal density, we will optimize the velocity/mix trade off by varying the capsule thickness. We will also make direct measure of Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth by backlighting the growth of engineered features on the surface of the capsule. This will allow us to benchmark our models of mix. In this paper, we will describe the designs and experimental results of the velocity campaign. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Porosity and Velocity Relations of Grosmont Formation, Alberta, Canada (United States)

    Keehm, Y.; Hu, D.


    We present results on porosty-velocity relations of Grosmont formation, Alberta, Canada, which is one of largest bitumen carbonate reservoirs. Grosmont formation is divided into four units: LG; UG-1; UG-2; and UG-3 from the bottom. Two lower units are mainly imestone, while upper units are mostly dolomite with vuggy porosity and fractures, which makes the upper units be a good reservoir. Rock physics modeling was then performed to quantify porosity-velocity relations for the four units, which enables us to predict porosity from seismic data. To incorporate the pore-scale details in the modeling, we used DEM (differential effective medium) models. Two lower units are very similar in velocity-porosity domain, thus the relations can be represented by one velocity-porosity model, which is used as our reference model. For the UG-2 unit, we found that one model cannot represent the unit since the degree of fracturing are heterogeneous from location to location. We thus suggested three different DEM models for the UG-2 unit: vuggy-dominant; mildly-fractured; and heavily-fractured. The UG-3 units can be modeled with vuggy porosity, and fractures were not very noticeable. We also investigated the spatial variation of the UG-2 unit, and found that the degree of fracturing is generally proportional to the proximity to the unconformity boundary, where the fresh water invasion can be dominant. In conclusion, we proposed velocity-porosity relations for the four units in Grosmont formation, and believe that these models can help to characterize the reservoir quality. In addition, since the proximity of reservoir to the unconformity boundary highly affects the degree of fracturing, a careful analysis of spatial variation would be essential for the successful characterization of Grosmont formation. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government

  19. Analysis of the Velocity Distribution in Partially-Filled Circular Pipe Employing the Principle of Maximum Entropy. (United States)

    Jiang, Yulin; Li, Bin; Chen, Jie


    The flow velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe was investigated in this paper. The velocity profile is different from full-filled pipe flow, since the flow is driven by gravity, not by pressure. The research findings show that the position of maximum flow is below the water surface, and varies with the water depth. In the region of near tube wall, the fluid velocity is mainly influenced by the friction of the wall and the pipe bottom slope, and the variation of velocity is similar to full-filled pipe. But near the free water surface, the velocity distribution is mainly affected by the contractive tube wall and the secondary flow, and the variation of the velocity is relatively small. Literature retrieval results show relatively less research has been shown on the practical expression to describe the velocity distribution of partially-filled circular pipe. An expression of two-dimensional (2D) velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe flow was derived based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME). Different entropies were compared according to fluid knowledge, and non-extensive entropy was chosen. A new cumulative distribution function (CDF) of partially-filled circular pipe velocity in terms of flow depth was hypothesized. Combined with the CDF hypothesis, the 2D velocity distribution was derived, and the position of maximum velocity distribution was analyzed. The experimental results show that the estimated velocity values based on the principle of maximum Tsallis wavelet entropy are in good agreement with measured values.

  20. Measuring the Alfvenic Nature of the Interstellar Medium: Velocity Anisotropy Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Leao, I C; de Medeiros, J R; Esquivel, A


    The dynamics of the interstellar medium (ISM) are strongly affected by turbulence, which shows increased anisotropy in the presence of a magnetic field. We expand upon the Esquivel & Lazarian method to estimate the Alfven Mach number using the structure function anisotropy in velocity centroid data from position-position-velocity maps. We utilize 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of fully developed turbulence, with a large range of sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers, to produce synthetic observations of velocity centroids with observational characteristics such as thermal broadening, cloud boundaries, noise, and radiative transfer effects of carbon monoxide. In addition, we investigate how the resulting anisotropy-Alfven Mach number dependency found in Esquivel & Lazarian (2011) might change when taking the second moment of the position-position-velocity cube or when using different expressions to calculate the velocity centroids. We find that the degree of anisotropy is related primarily to the m...

  1. Velocity bias in a LCDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Pierre; Kravtsov, A V; Colin, Pedro; Klypin, Anatoly; Kravtsov, Andrey V.


    We use N-body simulations to study the velocity bias of dark matter halos, the difference in the velocity fields of dark matter and halos, in a flat low- density LCDM model. The high force, 2kpc/h, and mass, 10^9Msun/h, resolution allows dark matter halos to survive in very dense environments of groups and clusters making it possible to use halos as galaxy tracers. We find that the velocity bias pvb measured as a ratio of pairwise velocities of the halos to that of the dark matter evolves with time and depends on scale. At high redshifts (z ~5) halos move generally faster than the dark matter almost on all scales: pvb(r)~1.2, r>0.5Mpc/h. At later moments the bias decreases and gets below unity on scales less than r=5Mpc/h: pvb(r)~(0.6-0.8) at z=0. We find that the evolution of the pairwise velocity bias follows and probably is defined by the spatial antibias of the dark matter halos at small scales. One-point velocity bias b_v, defined as the ratio of the rms velocities of halos and dark matter, provides a mo...

  2. Anaerobic critical velocity in four swimming techniques. (United States)

    Neiva, H P; Fernandes, R J; Vilas-Boas, J P


    The aim of this study was to assess critical velocity in order to control and evaluate anaerobic swimming training. 51 highly trained male swimmers performed maximal 15, 25, 37.5 and 50 m in the 4 swimming techniques to determine critical velocity from the distance-time relationship. Anaerobic critical velocity was compared with 100 m swimming performance and corresponding partials. Complementarily, 9 swimmers performed a 6×50 m (4 min interval) training series at front crawl individual anaerobic critical velocity, capillary blood lactate concentrations being assessed after each repetition. The mean±SD values of anaerobic critical velocity and its relationship with the 100 m event were: 1.61±0.07 (r=0.60, p=0.037), 1.53±0.05 (r=0.81, p=0.015), 1.33±0.05 (r=0.83, p=0.002), and 1.75±0.05 (r=0.74, p=0.001), for butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl, respectively. However, differences between anaerobic critical velocity and performance were observed (with exception of the second half of the 100 m swimming events in breaststroke and butterfly). Lactate concentration values at the end of the series were 14.52±1.06 mmol.l (-1), which suggests that it was indeed an anaerobic training set. In this sense, anaerobic critical velocity can be used to prescribe anaerobic training intensities.

  3. Velocities of Thwaites and Land glaciers (United States)

    Lucchitta, B. K.; Mullins, Kevin F.; Ferrigno, J. G.


    Changes in the area of volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate and may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. An ice sheet's velocity is a critical parameter, which, together with ice thickness, allows the determination of discharge rates. Using moderate-resolution satellite images such as Landsat, the velocity of floating ice can be measured quickly and relatively inexpensively by tracing crevasse patterns on shelves and ice tongues. Errors in measured velocities are as little as 0.02 km per year, if the following criteria are met: (1) the time interval is longer than 10 years; (2) the velocity is higher than 0.5 km per year; (3) the coregistration points are well dispersed and enclose the area to be measured; and (4) the image pair includes a Landsat 4 or 5 image. The fewer of these conditions that are met, the less accurate the results become; but even for poor conditions, the velocities are generally reliable to near 0.1 km per year. We are in the process of obtaining velocities of all ice shelves and ice tongues along the Bakutis and Ruppert coasts, wherever suitable crevasse patterns exist. So far, we have obtained velocities for the Thwaites and Land glacier tongues.

  4. Comparison of Threshold Saccadic Vector Optokinetic Perimetry (SVOP) and Standard Automated Perimetry (SAP) in Glaucoma. Part II: Patterns of Visual Field Loss and Acceptability. (United States)

    McTrusty, Alice D; Cameron, Lorraine A; Perperidis, Antonios; Brash, Harry M; Tatham, Andrew J; Agarwal, Pankaj K; Murray, Ian C; Fleck, Brian W; Minns, Robert A


    We compared patterns of visual field loss detected by standard automated perimetry (SAP) to saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry (SVOP) and examined patient perceptions of each test. A cross-sectional study was done of 58 healthy subjects and 103 with glaucoma who were tested using SAP and two versions of SVOP (v1 and v2). Visual fields from both devices were categorized by masked graders as: 0, normal; 1, paracentral defect; 2, nasal step; 3, arcuate defect; 4, altitudinal; 5, biarcuate; and 6, end-stage field loss. SVOP and SAP classifications were cross-tabulated. Subjects completed a questionnaire on their opinions of each test. We analyzed 142 (v1) and 111 (v2) SVOP and SAP test pairs. SVOP v2 had a sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 77.9% for identifying normal versus abnormal visual fields. SAP and SVOP v2 classifications showed complete agreement in 54% of glaucoma patients, with a further 23% disagreeing by one category. On repeat testing, 86% of SVOP v2 classifications agreed with the previous test, compared to 91% of SAP classifications; 71% of subjects preferred SVOP compared to 20% who preferred SAP. Eye-tracking perimetry can be used to obtain threshold visual field sensitivity values in patients with glaucoma and produce maps of visual field defects, with patterns exhibiting close agreement to SAP. Patients preferred eye-tracking perimetry compared to SAP. This first report of threshold eye tracking perimetry shows good agreement with conventional automated perimetry and provides a benchmark for future iterations.

  5. Velocity structure and seismicity of southeastern Tennessee (United States)

    Kaufmann, Ronald Douglas; Long, Leland Timothy


    The seismic zone in southeastern Tennessee is at the confluence of major crustal features, which have been interpreted largely from potential data, and their relation to seismicity could help us understand why major earthquakes sometimes occur in the eastern United States. In this paper we solve for the previously unknown velocity structure of the upper crust by an inversion of travel time residuals from relocated earthquakes. The gravity anomalies are included by using a linear relation between average anomalous density and average anomalous velocity. The velocity model demonstrates that the seismicity is concentrated in areas of average to below average velocity and does not appear to be associated with one of the previously identified major crustal features. The high-velocity zones mark areas that are generally lacking in seismicity. The association of earthquake hypocenters with regions of low-velocity crustal rocks is consistent with other intraplate seismic zones, and this association supports the conjecture that intraplate earthquakes occur in crust that may have been weakened. The velocity anomalies at midcrustal depths do not support the New York-Alabama (NY-AL) lineament as a linear feature extending through southeastern Tennessee and parallel to contours in gravity anomalies as originally proposed. A continuation of the (NY-AL) lineament to the southwest requires either a 15 degree southwestward change in direction or a displacement to be consistent with the velocity anomalies. The seismically active areas in southeastern Tennessee do not appear to be constrained by the major crustal features, but instead, the seismicity is characterized by the distribution of hypocenters and their association with low-velocity regions at midcrustal depths.

  6. Performance of a vector velocity estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    It is a well-known limitation of all commercially available scanners that only the velocity component along the propagation direction of the emitted pulse is measured, when evaluating blood velocities with ultrasound. Proposals for solving this limitation using several transducers or speckle...... tracking can be found in the literature, but no method with a satisfactory performance has been found that can be used in a commercial implementation. A method for estimation of the velocity vector is presented. Here an oscillation transverse to the ultrasound beam is generated, so that a transverse motion...

  7. Measuring Bullet Velocity with a PC Soundcard

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, M; Courtney, Michael; Edwards, Brian


    This article describes a simple method for using a PC soundcard to accurately measure bullet velocity. The method involves placing the microphone within a foot of the muzzle and firing at a steel target between 50 and 100 yards away. The time of flight for the bullet is simply the recorded time between muzzle blast and sound of the bullet hitting the target minus the time it takes the sound to return from the target to the microphone. The average bullet velocity is simply the distance from the muzzle to the target divided by the time of flight of the bullet. This method can also be applied to measurement of paintball velocities.

  8. Low-Velocity Measurement in Water (United States)

    Ellis, Christopher; Stefan, Heinz G.


    Water velocities in the centimeter per second range or less are measurable by only a few instruments. Experimental laboratory studies frequently require such measurements. A review of low water velocity measurement methods is presented. An inexpensive optical hydrogen bubble-tracing technique is described for velocity measurements in the range 0.5 to 8 cm/s. Modification to a thymol blue (pH) tracer method extends its applicability to the range 0.1 to 1.0 cm/s. Design and operational characteristics of the hydrogen bubble/thymol blue current meter are described.

  9. Sound velocities in iron to 110 gigapascals. (United States)

    Fiquet, G; Badro, J; Guyot, F; Requardt, H; Krisch, M


    The dispersion of longitudinal acoustic phonons was measured by inelastic x-ray scattering in the hexagonal closed-packed (hcp) structure of iron from 19 to 110 gigapascals. Phonon dispersion curves were recorded on polycrystalline iron compressed in a diamond anvil cell, revealing an increase of the longitudinal wave velocity (VP) from 7000 to 8800 meters per second. We show that hcp iron follows a Birch law for VP, which is used to extrapolate velocities to inner core conditions. Extrapolated longitudinal acoustic wave velocities compared with seismic data suggest an inner core that is 4 to 5% lighter than hcp iron.

  10. Quantification of ultrasound correlation-based flow velocity mapping and edge velocity gradient measurement. (United States)

    Park, Dae Woo; Kruger, Grant H; Rubin, Jonathan M; Hamilton, James; Gottschalk, Paul; Dodde, Robert E; Shih, Albert J; Weitzel, William F


    This study investigated the use of ultrasound speckle decorrelation- and correlation-based lateral speckle-tracking methods for transverse and longitudinal blood velocity profile measurement, respectively. By studying the blood velocity gradient at the vessel wall, vascular wall shear stress, which is important in vascular physiology as well as the pathophysiologic mechanisms of vascular diseases, can be obtained. Decorrelation-based blood velocity profile measurement transverse to the flow direction is a novel approach, which provides advantages for vascular wall shear stress measurement over longitudinal blood velocity measurement methods. Blood flow velocity profiles are obtained from measurements of frame-to-frame decorrelation. In this research, both decorrelation and lateral speckle-tracking flow estimation methods were compared with Poiseuille theory over physiologic flows ranging from 50 to 1000 mm/s. The decorrelation flow velocity measurement method demonstrated more accurate prediction of the flow velocity gradient at the wall edge than the correlation-based lateral speckle-tracking method. The novelty of this study is that speckle decorrelation-based flow velocity measurements determine the blood velocity across a vessel. In addition, speckle decorrelation-based flow velocity measurements have higher axial spatial resolution than Doppler ultrasound measurements to enable more accurate measurement of blood velocity near a vessel wall and determine the physiologically important wall shear.

  11. Effect of airflow velocity on moisture exchange at surfaces of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele


    The moisture transfer between air and construction are affected of the boundary layer conditions close to the surface, which is influenced by the airflow patterns in the room. Therefore an investigation of the relation be-tween the surface resistance and the airflow velocity above a material sample...... resistances decrease for increasing airflow velocity above the boundary layer of the material surface. The measured resistances are somewhat smaller than the ones esti-mated by use of the Lewis relation....

  12. Oculomotor function during space flight and susceptibility to space motion sickness (United States)

    Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.

    Horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and saccadic eye movements (SEM) were studied in 18 subjects before and during five Space Shuttle missions to evaluate the effects of weightlessness and correlations between results and susceptibility to and actual presence of space motion sickness (SMS). Active sinusoidal head oscillation was the stimulus for VOR tests with vision (VVOR), with eyes shaded (VOR-ES), and VOR suppression (VOR-S). Eye movements were recorded by electrooculography and head position by a potentiometer. No pathological nystagmus or other abnormal eye movements were seen. No significant in-flight changes were seen in the gain, phase shift or waveform of VVOR, VOR-ES or VOR-S. Statistically significant increases in saccadic latency and decreases in saccadic velocity were seen, with no change in saccadic accuracy. Preflight differences between SMS susceptible and non-susceptible subjects were noted only in VOR-S, with less complete suppression in susceptible subjects, a finding also seen in flight. During flight, VVOR gain was significantly increased in three non-affected subjects. Saccades of SMS-affected subjects showed increased latency and velocity and decreased accuracy compared to saccades of unaffected subjects.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhiping; Dong Zujue; Huo Shubin


    Based on gas dynamics,thermodynamics,fluid dynamics of multiphase systems and other theories,the dynamic analyses of the particle flying velocity in a high velocity oxygen fuel spray (HVOF) is accomplished.The relationships between the flying velocity of a particle and the flying time or flying length,particle size,hot gas velocity,and pressure or density of the gas are proposed.Meanwhile,the influences of the velocity and mass rate of flow of the flame gas of a HVOF gun,and particle size on the particle flying velocity are discussed in detail.The dynamic pressure concept is introduced to express the flow capacity of hot gas of a HVOF gun,and the relationship between the dynamic pressure of a HVOF gun and the velocity of a particle for depositing is presented.

  14. Velocity profile of turbulent sediment-laden flows in open-channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deyu Zhong n; Lei Zhang; Baosheng Wu; Yongqiang Wang


    In this paper, a study was carried out on the velocity profile of sediment-laden flows in open channels using a two-phase mixture model for two-phase flows. The governing equations for water-sediment mixtures were derived based on the two-fluid equations for solid–liquid two-phase flows. The drift velocity, a key variable involved in the two-phase mixture equations, was derived from the equation of momentum conservation for the solid phase. The drift velocity shows that the inertia of flow, particle turbulence, and collisions effect contribute to the dispersion of the sediment particles in turbulent flows. Using the two-phase mixture equation, the vertical velocity profile of open channel flows was obtained. Further analysis indicated that the distribution of the velocity over depth of water-sediment mixtures, composed of two different phases, is significantly affected by the turbulence of water-sediment mixtures and the density stratification. However, the velocity distribution is also affected by other factors including collisions between particles and particle turbulence as a basic feature of two-phase flows where interphase interactions inevitably mark their influence on the velocity distribution. Comparisons of this approach with observations for a wide range of experimental conditions are presented in this paper, which show that this approach agrees well with the experiments.

  15. Strain-dependent Damage Evolution and Velocity Reduction in Fault Zones Induced by Earthquake Rupture (United States)

    Zhong, J.; Duan, B.


    Low-velocity fault zones (LVFZs) with reduced seismic velocities relative to the surrounding wall rocks are widely observed around active faults. The presence of such a zone will affect rupture propagation, near-field ground motion, and off-fault damage in subsequent earth-quakes. In this study, we quantify the reduction of seismic velocities caused by dynamic rup-ture on a 2D planar fault surrounded by a low-velocity fault zone. First, we implement the damage rheology (Lyakhovsky et al. 1997) in EQdyna (Duan and Oglesby 2006), an explicit dynamic finite element code. We further extend this damage rheology model to include the dependence of strains on crack density. Then, we quantify off-fault continuum damage distribution and velocity reduction induced by earthquake rupture with the presence of a preexisting LVFZ. We find that the presence of a LVFZ affects the tempo-spatial distribu-tions of off-fault damage. Because lack of constraint in some damage parameters, we further investigate the relationship between velocity reduction and these damage prameters by a large suite of numerical simulations. Slip velocity, slip, and near-field ground motions computed from damage rheology are also compared with those from off-fault elastic or elastoplastic responses. We find that the reduction in elastic moduli during dynamic rupture has profound impact on these quantities.

  16. Effect of temperature on electrophoresis velocity of sol particles in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍治宇; 顾大明


    Viscosity of water is affected by temperature and electrophoresis velocity is related to the viscosity of colloid. However, there hasn' t been any direct description about the relation between electrophoresis velocity of colloid and temperature. Based on a large number of tests, the relation between electrophoresis velocity and temperature is established as [ v = A + B( T-T°) ]. Meanwhile the ratio of the electric charge (q) of sol particles to their radium (r) is a constant is obtained. The results of above were testified in both experiment and theory.

  17. Radial Velocity Fluctuations of RZ Psc (United States)

    Potravnov, I. S.; Gorynya, N. A.; Grinin, V. P.; Minikulov, N. Kh.


    The behavior of the radial velocity of the UX Ori type star RZ Psc is studied. The existence of an inner cavity with a radius of about 0.7 a.u. in the circumstellar disk of this star allows to suggest the presence of a companion. A study of the radial velocity of RZ Psc based on our own measurements and published data yields no periodic component in its variability. The two most accurate measurements of V r , based on high resolution spectra obtained over a period of three months, show that the radial velocity is constant over this time interval to within 0.5 km/s. This imposes a limit of M p ≤10 M Jup on the mass of the hypothetical companion. Possible reasons for the observed strong fluctuations in the radial velocity of this star are discussed.

  18. Computer program calculates transonic velocities in turbomachines (United States)

    Katsanis, T.


    Computer program, TSONIC, combines velocity gradient and finite difference methods to obtain numerical solution for ideal, transonic, compressible flow for axial, radial, or mixed flow cascade of turbomachinery blades.

  19. Optimal Moments for Velocity Fields Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, H A; Melott, A; Feldman, Hume A; Watkins, Richard; Melott, Adrian; Proxy, Will Chambers; ccsd-00000954, ccsd


    We describe a new method of overcoming problems inherent in peculiar velocity surveys by using data compression as a filter with which to separate large-scale, linear flows from small-scale noise that biases the results systematically. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method using realistic catalogs of galaxy velocities drawn from N--body simulations. Our tests show that a likelihood analysis of simulated catalogs that uses all of the information contained in the peculiar velocities results in a bias in the estimation of the power spectrum shape parameter $\\Gamma$ and amplitude $\\beta$, and that our method of analysis effectively removes this bias. We expect that this new method will cause peculiar velocity surveys to re--emerge as a useful tool to determine cosmological parameters.

  20. The escape velocity and Schwarzschild metric

    CERN Document Server

    Murzagalieva, A G; Murzagaliev, G Z


    The escape velocity value in the terms of general relativity by means Schwarzschild metric is provided to make of the motion equation with Friedman cosmological model behavior build in the terms of Robertson-Worker metric. (author)