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Sample records for affects neuropsychological function

  1. Neuropsychological function in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como, P G

    2001-01-01

    The accumulated body of scientific evidence regarding intellectual function, presence of learning disorders, and specific neuropsychological deficits in TS suggests that difficulties in these areas are present in a significant percentage of patients with TS. Despite the numerous methodological shortcomings of past neuropsychological studies of TS, relatively robust and consistent findings have emerged. The literature to date has suggested that intellectual ability is normally distributed in TS. Whether or not individuals with TS have significant discrepancies between their verbal and nonverbal abilities remains unclear. The prevalence of learning disabilities in TS has been reported to be similar to the base rates reported for the general population, although there is evidence to suggest that the prevalence of LDs in children with TS may actually be lower and specific for difficulties in math and written language. Specific cognitive deficits in TS consist of visuomotor integration problems, impaired fine motor skill, and executive dysfunction. The presence of comorbid conditions, notably ADHD and OCD, appears to significantly increase the likelihood that an individual with TS will also have learning problems or some demonstrable cognitive impairment. The presence of a learning disability, specific academic deficiency, or cognitive deficit may pose a greater obstacle for persons with TS than the tic disorder itself. This is particularly salient for children with TS, who may be at a higher risk for poor school performance and academic failure. The psychosocial impact of these problems is also far-reaching. Given the recent emphasis on the early detection of academic and learning problems, it would seem prudent that children with TS who are suspected of having neuropsychological difficulties be evaluated as soon as possible. There are numerous educational interventions and accommodations available to children with LDs and/or specific academic weaknesses that can work

  2. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  3. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:27221367

  4. EFFECTIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Buller P.

    2010-01-01

    The following article comes in the development of a degree paper, and its original purpose pointed to assess the success of a neuropsychological rehabilitation program focused on the executive function. Nevertheless, it is possible to extend its usefulness as a complete and efficient instrument that allows an exhaustive diagnosis of the executive functioning to lead its accurate rehabilitation. The main importance of its consideration deals with the limitations observed in the context of the ...

  5. EFFECTIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Buller P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The following article comes in the development of a degree paper, and its original purpose pointed to assess the success of a neuropsychological rehabilitation program focused on the executive function. Nevertheless, it is possible to extend its usefulness as a complete and efficient instrument that allows an exhaustive diagnosis of the executive functioning to lead its accurate rehabilitation. The main importance of its consideration deals with the limitations observed in the context of the Chilean tertiary public attention, in terms of the lack of resources and benefits related to neuropsychological rehabilitation, and because of the need of a treatment focused on that very function that will secure better cognitive recovering for brain damaged patients served by such institutions.

  6. Neuropsychological executive functioning and psychosocial well-being / Elizabeth Peters

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to come to a better understanding of possible neuropsychological mechanisms underlying psychosocial well-being and therefore to determine whether a relationship between neuropsychological executive functions and psychosocial well-being does indeed exist. Research was conducted in the domains of neuropsychology and positive psychology. This thesis consists of three articles, namely I ) Neuropsychological executive functions and psychosocial well-being: ...

  7. The affective neuropsychology of confabulation and delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the scientific understanding of the role of emotion in confabulation and delusion. I argue that the significance of emotion in the pathogenesis of these symptoms was obscured by academic polarisation between psychodynamic and neurocognitive traditions and was also often obfuscated by rigid distinctions between psychogenic and neurogenic explanations. This tradition of epistemic dualism was implicitly maintained in the fields of cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychiatry. This paper focuses on memory-related confabulation following ventromedial frontal lobe lesions, awareness-related confabulation following right perisylvian lesions, and delusions of various aetiologies. Ambiguity regarding the definition and taxonomy of symptoms renders direct comparison difficult, but certain overriding principles are becoming discernible. Recent findings suggest that emotion and motivation influence both confabulation and delusion. These influences may be instigated directly by neural dysfunction or indirectly by life changes and altered social circumstances, or by a combination of these. Importantly, the rejection of epistemic dualism in the conceptualisation of both symptoms can allow us to study them in parallel and draw conclusions about the relation between cognition and emotion. Specifically, confabulation and delusion can be described as faulty attempts to balance the conflicting demands of accurate and self-serving reality representation. PMID:19823958

  8. Neuropsychological function in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tükel, Raşit; Gürvit, Hakan; Ertekin, Banu Aslantaş; Oflaz, Serap; Ertekin, Erhan; Baran, Bengi; Kalem, Sükriye Akça; Kandemir, Pınar Elif; Ozdemiroğlu, Filiz Alyanak; Atalay, Figen

    2012-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disease characterized by repetitive, unwanted intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors. Studies of neuropsychological functions in OCD have documented deficits in several cognitive domains, particularly with regard to visuospatial abilities, executive functioning, and motor speed. The objective of the present study was to investigate systematically the cognitive functioning of OCD patients who were free of medication and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 72 OCD patients were compared with 54 healthy controls on their performance in a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were administered to the patients, and a semistructured interview form was used to evaluate the demographic features of the patients and control subjects. Overall, widespread statistically significant differences were found in tests related to verbal memory, global attention and psychomotor speed, and visuospatial and executive functions indicating a poorer performance of the OCD group. A closer scrutiny of these results suggests that the OCD group has difficulty in using an effective learning strategy that might be partly explained by their insufficient mental flexibility and somewhat poor planning abilities. PMID:21550029

  9. Neuropsychological functioning following bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, C E; Borod, J C; Perrine, K; Beric, A; Brin, M F; Rezai, A; Kelly, P; Sterio, D; Germano, I; Weisz, D; Olanow, C W

    2004-03-01

    The cognitive effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been examined. However, there are no reported studies that evaluate, by incorporating a disease control group, whether neuropsychological performance in surgical patients changes beyond the variability of the assessment measures. To examine this issue, 17 PD patients were tested before and after bilateral STN stimulator implantation, both on and off stimulation. Eleven matched PD controls were administered the same repeatable neuropsychological test battery twice. Relative to changes seen in the controls, the surgery for electrode placement mildly adversely affected attention and language functions. STN stimulation, per se, had little effect on cognition. The STN DBS procedure as a whole resulted in a mild decline in delayed verbal recall and language functions. There were no surgery, stimulation, or procedure effects on depression scale scores. In contrast to these group findings, one DBS patient demonstrated significant cognitive decline following surgery. PMID:15010083

  10. Neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Strømnes Dybedal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature describing neurocognitive function in patients with late-life depression (LLD show inconsistent findings in regard to incidence and main deficits. Reduced information processing speed is in some studies found to explain deficits in higher order cognitive function, while other studies report specific deficits in memory and executive function. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of neuropsychological functioning in non-demented LLD patients.Methods; A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered to a group of hospitalized LLD patients and healthy control subjects. Thirty-nine patients without dementia, 60 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for current episode of major depression, and 18 nondepressed control subjects were included. The patient group was characterized by having a long lasting current depressive episode of late-onset depression and by being non-responders to treatment with antidepressants. Neurocognitive scores were calculated for the domains of information processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, and language. Number of impairments (performance below the 10th percentile of the control group per domain for each participant was calculated. Results: Nearly half of the patients had a clinically significant cognitive impairment in at least one neurocognitive domain. Relative to healthy control subjects, LLD patients performed significantly poorer in the domains of information processing speed and executive function. Executive abilities were most frequently impaired in the patient group (39 % of the patients. Even when controlling for differences in processing speed, patients showed more executive deficits than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling for processing speed, patients still showed impaired executive function compared to healthy controls. Reduced executive function thus appears to be the core neurocognitive deficit in LLD. Executive function seems

  11. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities

  12. Affective infrastructures: toward a cultural neuropsychology of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie L Heywood

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently researchers within sport studies have argued that the traditional focus on clinical psychology and performance enhancement is incomplete, and emphasize athletes’ social and familial contexts in a paradigm that examines movement, cognition, and emotion. But this model is still incomplete since it is missing a fundamental variable—our evolutionary neurobiological roots. Affective neuroscience shows that because sport so clearly activates neural systems at the ultimate level of causation, it can be seen to serve fundamental needs for affective balance. A neurobiology of affect shows how the evolution of the mammalian autonomic nervous system has resulted in neurophysiological substrates for affective processes and stress responses, and has wide-ranging implications for sport studies by suggesting what forms of coaching might be most effective. I propose cultural neuropsychology of sport to describe a model that examines relationships between neurophysiological substrates and athletes' social and familial contexts, and how these variables facilitate athletes’ neuroceptions of safety, which impact performance. A cultural neuropsychology of sport thereby concretely connects proximate and ultimate mechanisms.

  13. Neuropsychological Functioning in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelson, Kristin W.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Rothlind, Johannes; Choucroun, Gerard; Neylan, Thomas C.; Lenoci, Maryanne; Henn-Haase, Clare; Weiner, Michael W.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown differences in neuropsychological functioning between groups with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control participants. Because individuals with PTSD often have a history of comorbid alcohol abuse, the extent to which an alcohol confound is responsible for these differences remains a concern. The current study compares neuropsychological testing scores in 4 groups of veterans with and without PTSD (PTSD+] and PTSD–, respectively) and with and without a history of a...

  14. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid…

  15. Depression vs. Dementia: A comparative analysis of neuropsychological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Leposavić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of depression, detected comparatively specific profile of cognitive deficiencies, including the disorders of attention, memory and executive functions. Although the classical depression is recognized as psuedodementia, or reversible dementia, these two entities frequently overlap in the elder population. Many patients who are at first depressive, become demented later, and the initial stages of dementia are not rarely accompanied with mood changes. The aim of this study is the establishing of differences between neuropsychological profiles of depression and dementia. The sample included three groups: the first group represented the patients with endogenous depression, the second – the patients with dementia, and the third one – healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery. Two patient groups were tested during the stage of remission/adequate mood. Abilities most susceptible to depression are: attention, executive functions and memory. Cognitive flexibility and general cognitive ability are preserved in depressive patients. Depressive patients express cognitive disorders of moderate degree during the remission stage. Impairment pattern in the group of depressive patients does not indicate intellectual degradation of the dementia type. Neuropsychological deficiencies of the patients with endogenous depression suggest frontal limbic dysfunction. Еxcesses in cognitive functioning of demented patients are more serious and massive in comparison with cognitive difficulties in depressive patients.

  16. Intergenerational Transmission of Neuropsychological Executive Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    JESTER, JENNIFER M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Puttler, Leon I.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Robert A. Zucker

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between parent and child executive functioning were examined, controlling for the critical potential confound of IQ, in a family study involving 434 children (130 girls, 304 boys) and 376 parents from 204 community recruited families at high risk for the development of substance use disorder. Structural equation modeling found evidence of separate executive functioning and intelligence (IQ) latent variables. Mother’s and father’s executive functioning were associated with child’...

  17. Cognitive–Neuropsychological Function in Chronic Physical Aggression and Hyperactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Séguin, Jean R.; Nagin, Daniel; Assaad, Jean-Marc; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Histories of violence and of hyperactivity are both characterized by poor cognitive–neuropsychological function. However, researchers do not know whether these histories combine in additive or interactive ways. The authors tested 303 male young adults from a community sample whose trajectories of teacher-rated physical aggression and motoric hyperactivity from kindergarten to age 15 were well defined. No significant interaction was found. In a 1st model, both histories of problem behavior wer...

  18. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the 133xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning

  19. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacInnes, W.D.; Golden, C.J.; Gillen, R.W.; Sawicki, R.F.; Quaife, M.; Uhl, H.S.; Greenhouse, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the /sup 133/xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning.

  20. Intergenerational Transmission of Neuropsychological Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Puttler, Leon I.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between parent and child executive functioning were examined, controlling for the critical potential confound of IQ, in a family study involving 434 children (130 girls and 304 boys) and 376 parents from 204 community recruited families at high risk for the development of substance use disorder. Structural equation modeling found…

  1. Neuropsychology and Advances in Memory Function

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, B.

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in the functional and neural bases of several aspects of memory are described including long term cortical memory storage, the transition from immediate to permanent memory mediated by medial temporal structures, working memory, memory retrieval, and implicit memory. These are linked to current data on the nature of anterograde and retrograde amnesia in the degenerative diseases, and also to issues in the clinical diagnosis of memory impairments. Understanding the bases of...

  2. Cognitive and affective disturbances following focal cerebellar damage in adults: a neuropsychological and SPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillieux, Hanne; De Smet, Hyo Jung; Dobbeleir, André; Paquier, Philippe F; De Deyn, Peter P; Mariën, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The traditional view on cerebellar functioning has recently been challenged by results from neuroanatomical, neuroimaging and clinical studies. In this contribution, eighteen patients with primary cerebellar lesions (vascular: n=13; neoplastic: n=5) were systematically investigated by means of an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Fifteen patients (83%) presented with a broad variety of cognitive and linguistic deficits following cerebellar damage. Disturbances of attention (72%), executive functioning (50%) and memory (50%) were most commonly found. Analyses of our results tend to support the hypothesis of a lateralization of cognitive modulation within the cerebellum, the right cerebellar hemisphere being associated with logical reasoning and language processing and the left cerebellum mediating right-hemispheric functions including attentional and visuo-spatial skills. In addition, nine patients (50%) presented with frontal-like behavioural and affective alterations. In an attempt to determine the working-mechanism underlying cerebellar-induced cognitive and affective disturbances, all patients were investigated by means of quantified Tc-99m-ethylenecysteine dimer (ECD) single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) studies. From a semiological point of view, damage to the cerebellum can cause a broad spectrum of clinically significant cognitive and affective disturbances. From a pathophysiological point of view, quantified SPECT data, reflecting the phenomenon of cerebello-cerebral diaschisis, support the functional impact of the cerebellar lesion on cortical functioning through disruption of cerebello-cerebral connections. PMID:19853848

  3. Brain Connectivity and Neuropsychological Functioning in Recently Treated Testicular Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amidi, Ali; Agerbæk, Mads; Leemans, Alexander;

    neuropsychological functioning. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has well-known neurotoxic side effects and neural populations such as progenitor cells, oligodendrocytes, and hippocampal neurons are exceptionally vulnerable to even small concentrations of cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the...... possible adverse effects of BEP on brain white matter connectivity and neuropsychological functioning in recently treated men with TC....

  4. The interplay among temperament, neuropsychological abilities, and global functioning in young hyperactive/inattentive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dione M; Rajendran, Khushmand; O'Neill, Sarah; Gopin, Chaya B; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    Cognition and emotion have been shown to interact and influence psychological functioning. However, to date these interactions have only been examined cross-sectionally among inattentive and/or hyperactive/impulsive children. This study investigated the moderating effects of neuropsychological functioning at age 3-4 years on the relation between negative emotionality at age 3-4 years and global functioning 1 year later, at age 4-5 years. Hyperactive/inattentive (H/I; n = 114) preschoolers entered the study (BL: baseline) and were seen again 1 year later (F1). Children's BL scores on a neuropsychological test (NEPSY) and their temperament as rated by parents (Child Behavior Questionnaire) and teachers (Temperament Assessment Battery for Children-Revised) were obtained, as were clinicians' ratings of their global functioning (Children's Global Assessment Scale) at F1. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that BL temperament variables accounted for significant variance in F1 Global Functioning. Significant interactions indicated that higher Verbal Executive abilities were associated with better child functioning when parent-rated Effortful Control was high, but not when Effortful Control was low. Additionally, high levels of Nonverbal Executive skills were associated with higher child global functioning when both parent- and teacher-rated negative affect was low, but not when negative affect was high. PMID:26868832

  5. Sleep disturbance and neuropsychological function in young children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Heather E; Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, aged 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance--including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness--(all p ≤ .01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p ≤ .01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p < .01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  6. Neuropsychological functioning in youth with obsessive compulsive disorder: an examination of executive function and memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B; Larson, Michael J; Park, Jennifer M; McGuire, Joseph F; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2014-04-30

    Preliminary research suggests neuropsychological deficits in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) similar to those in adults; however, small samples and methodological confounds limit interpretation. We aimed to examine the rates and clinical correlates of cognitive sequelae in youth with OCD, focusing on executive functioning and memory abilities. Youth ages 7-17 years with OCD (N=96) completed a hypothesis-driven neuropsychological battery (including the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure, California Verbal Learning Test, and subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning) that primarily assessed executive functioning, memory and processing speed. Cognitive sequelae were identified in 65% of youth (37% using a more stringent definition of impairment). Magnitude of cognitive sequelae was not associated with OCD severity or age; however, greater neuropsychological impairments were found amongst youth prescribed atypical neuroleptics and those diagnosed with comorbid tic disorders. Comorbidity burden was associated with presence of neuropsychological impairment, but was not specific to any single test. Findings suggest that the presence of cognitive sequelae is prevalent amongst treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Deficits were found in executive functioning and non-verbal memory performance but these impairments were not associated with OCD severity. PMID:24508366

  7. Probing prefrontal function in schizophrenia with neuropsychological paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, T E; Weinberger, D R

    1988-01-01

    In a recent series of studies we have attempted to clarify the nature of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia, and in particular, how patterns of dysfunction implicate specific neural systems. First, we found that acute psychotic adolescent patients displayed the same pattern of IQ scores (Performance less than Verbal) as adult chronic schizophrenic patients. We explored this deficit in problem solving by studying the performance of schizophrenic patients after receiving concrete and explicit instructions on how to do the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a task thought to be mediated by prefrontal cortex. We then studied the differential impact such a deficit in problem-solving strategies might have on a task thought to elicit both cognitive (prefrontal) and procedural or motor-skill (basal ganglia) processing. Procedural components appeared to be relatively more intact. We also addressed schizophrenic patients' ability to learn in other (extrafrontal) cognitive domains through verbal memory tasks and block design puzzles. Learning occurred under both conditions. We believe the overall pattern of deficit implicates primarily prefrontal neural systems, though a number of other neuropsychological functions are yet to be surveyed. PMID:3059467

  8. Functional and neuropsychological late outcomes in posterior fossa tumors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Alvaro; Bouffet, Eric; Mabbott, Donald; Kulkarni, Abhaya V

    2015-10-01

    Tumors of the posterior fossa (PF) account for up to 60 % of all childhood intracranial tumors. Over the last decades, the mortality rate of children with posterior fossa tumors has gradually decreased. While survival has been the primary objective in most reports, quality of survival increasingly appears to be an important indicator of a successful outcome. Children with a PF tumor can sustain damage to the cerebellum and other brain structures from the tumor itself, concomitant hydrocephalus, the consequences of treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy), or a combination of these factors. Together, these contribute to long-term sequelae in physical functioning, neuropsychological late outcomes (including academic outcome, working memory, perception and estimation of time, and selective attention, long-term neuromotor speech deficits, and executive functioning). Long-term quality of life can also be affected by endocrinological complication or the occurrence of secondary tumors. A significant proportion of survivors of PF tumors require long-term special education services and have reduced rates of high school graduation and employment. Interventions to improve neuropsychological functioning in childhood PF tumor survivors include (1) pharmacological interventions (such as methylphenidate, modafinil, or donepezil), (2) cognitive remediation, and (3) home-based computerized cognitive training. In order to achieve the best possible outcome for survivors, and ultimately minimize long-term complications, new interventions must be developed to prevent and ameliorate the neuro-toxic effects experienced by these children. PMID:26351237

  9. The Impact of Chronic Pesticide Exposure on Neuropsychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Caitlin G.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared neuropsychological test performance of individuals (n = 18) with an occupational history of pesticide exposure to individuals (n = 35) with no such exposure history. Results showed that a history of pesticide-related occupation exposure led to deficits in only Digit Symbol performance. Additionally, the correlation between…

  10. Alcohol use disorders and neuropsychological functioning in first-year undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, K J; Martin, E D; Wood, P K; Rutledge, P C

    1997-08-01

    The relation between alcohol use disorders and neuropsychological functioning was examined in 489 first-year undergraduates, approximately half of whom had a history of alcoholism in their biological fathers. Factor analyses of 17 neuropsychological tests and subtests produced the following 5 factors that were the basis of subsequent analyses: Language/Verbal Memory, Visuospatial Ability, Motor Speed, Booklet Category Performance, and Attention. Participants with alcohol use disorders showed deficits in visuospatial ability. Those who had alcohol dependence showed deficits in both visuospatial ability and motor speed relative to participants who abused alcohol. The differences in neuropsychological functioning remained even after several potential confounding variables were controlled statistically. Results suggest that alcohol use disorders in first-year college students are associated with deficits in neuropsychological measures that are not attributable to several potential third-variable explanations. PMID:9260079

  11. The effects of hostility and arousal on facial affect perception : a test of a neuropsychological model of hostility

    OpenAIRE

    Herridge, Matthew L.

    1996-01-01

    Within the field of psychology, hostility has historically been a heavily researched affective construct. The purpose of this experiment was to test hypotheses derived from a neuropsychological model of hostility utilizing two common research paradigms from the extant literatures on hostility's cognitive and physiological correlates. This was accomplished by testing an integral component of a previously proposed neuropsychological model of hostility (Herridge & Harrison, 1994). The purpose of...

  12. The Impact of Neuropsychological Functioning on Adherence to HAART in HIV-Infected Substance Abuse Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Applebaum, Allison J.; Reilly, Laura C.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Richardson, Mark A.; Leveroni, Catherine L.; Steven A Safren

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the frequency of neuropsychological impairment and its relationship to adherence in a sample of HIV-infected injection drug users (IDUs) in treatment. One hundred eight participants recruited between September 2006 and October 2008 completed psychodiagnostic and neuropsychological assessments and monitored HAART adherence over a 2-week period via the use of Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) electronic pill caps and self-report. Assessment of concurrent functioning ...

  13. Risk for eating disorders and neuropsychological functioning: Developing risk models

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED) is associated with differential cognitive functioning. Whether differences are present prior to onset, possibly affecting risk status for development of an ED, or whether differences are a consequence of secondary features of the disorder such as low nutritional intake, is not conclusive. One method of investigating cognitive functioning prior to onset of a disorder is to investigate cognitive functioning in those that a...

  14. Impairment of neuropsychological function in patients with hemodynamic cerebral ischemia and efficacy of bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the relation between neuropsychological functions and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the author analyzed neuropsychological examination and the cerebral blood flow and metabolism of patients before and after bypass surgery. Twenty-five patients were defined by clinical and laboratory criteria as suffering from hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. All patients had one or more episodes of focal cerebral ischemia due to unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery occlusion. Computerized tomography scans either were normal or showed evidence of watershed infarction. Based on these criteria, superficial temporal artery-proximal middle cerebral artery anastomosis was performed. The baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) were studied using positron emission computerized tomography (PET) and the acetazolamide test. Neuropsychological evaluations including Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, Mini-Mental State and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and PET study were completed one month after the last ischemic event and 3-6 months after the operation. A significant negative correlation was observed between OEF and neuropsychological functions. Postoperative neuropsychological functions showed significant improvement. Significant correlations were observed for ΔWAIS-R (preoperative WAIS-R postoperative WAIS-R) versus preoperative CMRO2 (r=0.52), for ΔWAIS-R versus preoperative OEF (r=0.47). In view of these findings, the author concludes that elevation of OEF impairs neuropsychological functions and bypass surgery improves neuropsychological functions in patients with normal CMRO2 and elevated OEF. (author)

  15. Impairment of neuropsychological function in patients with hemodynamic cerebral ischemia and efficacy of bypass surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasoh, Masayuki [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-08-01

    In order to evaluate the relation between neuropsychological functions and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the author analyzed neuropsychological examination and the cerebral blood flow and metabolism of patients before and after bypass surgery. Twenty-five patients were defined by clinical and laboratory criteria as suffering from hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. All patients had one or more episodes of focal cerebral ischemia due to unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery occlusion. Computerized tomography scans either were normal or showed evidence of watershed infarction. Based on these criteria, superficial temporal artery-proximal middle cerebral artery anastomosis was performed. The baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) were studied using positron emission computerized tomography (PET) and the acetazolamide test. Neuropsychological evaluations including Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, Mini-Mental State and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and PET study were completed one month after the last ischemic event and 3-6 months after the operation. A significant negative correlation was observed between OEF and neuropsychological functions. Postoperative neuropsychological functions showed significant improvement. Significant correlations were observed for {delta}WAIS-R (preoperative WAIS-R postoperative WAIS-R) versus preoperative CMRO{sub 2} (r=0.52), for {delta}WAIS-R versus preoperative OEF (r=0.47). In view of these findings, the author concludes that elevation of OEF impairs neuropsychological functions and bypass surgery improves neuropsychological functions in patients with normal CMRO{sub 2} and elevated OEF. (author)

  16. Much Ado about Something: The Weight of Evidence for PCB Effects on Neuropsychological Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Gasior, Donna M.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Humphrey, Harold E. B.

    2004-01-01

    D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) use six criteria to evaluate the published findings from seven different studies of PCB exposure and neuropsychological function. They point out a number of weaknesses or flaws in each study and conclude that these weaknesses make the overall conclusion that PCB exposure negatively…

  17. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well…

  18. Neuropsychological function and past exposure to metallic mercury in female dental workers

    OpenAIRE

    Sletvold, Helge; Svendsen, Kristin; Aas, Oddfrid; Syversen, Tore; Hilt, BjØrn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to see if dental personnel with previous exposure to metallic mercury have later developed disturbances in cognitive function. Ninety-one female participants who had been selected from a previous health survey of dental personnel were investigated neuropsychologically within the following domains: motor function, short-term memory, working memory, executive function, mental flexibility, and visual and verbal long-term memory. The scores were mainly within normal rang...

  19. Influence of height in neuropsychological functioning and acquisition of motor milestones in children

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Caycho Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    It aims to present a brief review on the effects of height above the sea level in neuropsychological functioning and the acquisition of motor milestones in children. While in Peru, there is no objective data to support such information, the reasoning described here is based on recent findings on the functional importance of the biophysical contexts that suggests the presence of slight alterations sensoperceptive functioning in high altitude conditions.

  20. Assessment of cognitive functions after prophylactic and therapeutic whole brain irradiation using neuropsychological testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Aim of this study was the assessment of neuropsychological changes after whole brain irradiation. Patients and Method: 64 patients were tested before, and 29 after whole brain irradiation, including 28 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and 36 patients with cerebral metastases before therapeutic cranial irradiation (TCI), as well as 14 patients after PCI and 15 after TCI (Table 1). Intelligence, attention and memory were assessed applying a 90-minute test battery of standardized, neuropsychological tests (Table 3). Results: Patients with SCLC showed test results significantly below average before PCI (n=28, mean IQ=83, SD=17). Neither after PCI, nor after TCI the tested neuropsychological functions decreased significantly (Tables 4, 5). A comparison between SCLC-patients with and without cerebral metastases before whole brain irradiation showed better test-results in patients with cerebral metastases and fewer cycles of preceding chemotherapy (Table 7). Conclusion: Neuropsychological capacity in patients with SCLC was impaired even before PCI. Possible reason is the preceding chemotherapy. Whole brain irradiation did not induce a significant decline of cognitive functions in patients with PCI or TCI. A decline in a longer follow-up nevertheless seems possible. (orig.)

  1. Age of seizure onset, functional reorganization, and neuropsychological outcome in temporal lobectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Stefanie; Tranel, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Patients with early onset seizure disorder tend to have less cognitive decline following surgical resection than patients with late onset seizure disorder. Differential opportunity for presurgical cerebral functional reorganization has been proposed to account for this “age of onset” effect. However, the relationships between age of seizure onset, functional organization, and neuropsychological outcome remain incompletely understood. To shed additional light on these issues, we investigated 6...

  2. Cognitive and neuropsychological predictors of juvenile adjudicative competency: the role of executive functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Kreklewetz, Kimberly Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between juvenile adjudicative competence and executive functioning was investigated in a sample of 96 middle and high school students. Measures of adjudicative competence (selected questions from the Fitness Interview Test—Revised Understanding scale) and legal decision-making were administered together with cognitive and neuropsychological testing assessing various domains of executive functioning. Adolescents ages 13-14 performed less well than older adolescents (ages 17-18...

  3. A Principal Components Analysis of Executive Processes: Exploring the Structure of Executive Functions using Neuropsychological Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Maner, Safir

    2011-01-01

    Whether executive system is a unified or separable structure is still a matter of debate. Using an individual differences approach, this study investigated the structure of five hypothesized executive functions (“Updating”, “Shifting,” “Inhibition”, “Dual-Tasking” and “Planning”) and their relationship to “Intelligence”. The separability of these executive functions was explored. Ten neuropsychological tests were administered to young and healthy participants (N =103). Correlations between t...

  4. Neuropsychological and Socio-Occupational Functioning in Young Psychiatric Outpatients: A Longitudinal Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rico S. C.; Hermens, Daniel F; Redoblado-Hodge, M. Antoinette; Naismith, Sharon L.; Porter, Melanie A.; Kaur, Manreena; White, Django; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical symptoms and neuropsychological deficits are longitudinally associated with functional outcome in chronic psychiatric cohorts. The current study extended these findings to young and early-course psychiatric outpatients, with the aim of identifying cognitive markers that predict later socio-occupational functioning. Methods At baseline, 183 young psychiatric outpatients were assessed. Ninety-three returned for follow-up (M = 21.6 years old; SD = 4.5) with an average re-asse...

  5. Neuropsychological functioning in adolescent marijuana users: Subtle deficits detectable after a month of abstinence

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Hanson, Karen L; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Nagel, Bonnie J; Tapert, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    In adults, studies examining the long-lasting cognitive effects of marijuana use demonstrate subtle deficits in attention, executive function, and memory. Because neuromaturation continues through adolescence, these results cannot necessarily generalize to adolescent marijuana users. The goal of this study was to examine neuropsychological functioning in abstinent marijuana using and demographically similar control adolescents. Data were collected from 65 adolescent marijuana users (n = 31, 2...

  6. The associations between video gaming, sleep, and neuropsychological functioning in Hong Kong children

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Holing, Sarah; 陳可苓

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between video gaming, sleep, and neuropsychological functioning. A total of 143 mother-children dyads were included in the study. The children’s neurocognitive functions were measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children– Fourth Edition (Hong Kong), the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch), and the Grooved Pegboard Test. Sleep quality was measured by the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality...

  7. Neuropsychological function in a child with 18p deletion syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian L; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H; Braaten, Ellen B

    2014-09-01

    We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to joint attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice. PMID:25237747

  8. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Johnson

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model.Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21 with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23 with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20 with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples.The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired.Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  9. Childhood- versus Adolescent-Onset Antisocial Youth with Conduct Disorder: Psychiatric Illness, Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt’s dual taxonomy model. Method Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12–21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. Results The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Conclusions Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process. PMID:25835393

  10. Cerebral pathology and neuropsychological effects. Differential effects of cranial radiation as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) has been associated with an increased incidence of neuropsychological impairments and pathologic changes in the CNS among children. However, findings regarding a causal relationship between CRT and neurobehavioral impairments and the differential impact of CRT as a function of treatment age have been equivocal. Inconsistent findings may be attributed to the current research focus on description of impairments to the neglect of a larger theoretical framework and the failure of investigators to integrate findings from the various disciplines involved in assessing CRT effects. Two theories regarding the etiology of CRT effects on neuropsychological functions have been proposed. The myelination hypothesis suggests that CRT effects are attributable to direct effects on myelin synthesis. Findings indicating that the child is in a state of particular vulnerability to teratogens due to the rapid growth phase of myelin during the first 48 months of life provide the basis for this hypothesis. The myelination hypothesis predicts a differential effect for CRT as a function of age/maturation. The vascular hypothesis proposes that CRT effects are due to pathological changes in vascular tissues. Results indicating prominent white matter changes among some CRT recipients provide the basis for this hypothesis. The vascular hypothesis predicts no age effect or an inverse age effect; it places more emphasis on the relationship between indices of cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological test performance. Two basic mechanisms underlying the effects of CRT are outlined to provide a theoretical framework on which future research may be based. 29 references

  11. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50 years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group--Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test--were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent

  12. Evidence of an Age Related Threshold Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) on Neuropsychological Functioning in a Native American Population

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Richard F.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L.; Morse, Gayle S.; Tarbell, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been suspected for some time of having adverse effects on neuropsychological functioning in humans. While there is evidence of slowing of cognitive function in children associated with exposure to PCBs, the evidence of comparable effects on adults is far less well understood. We report here on the neuropsychological evaluation of 277 Native American adults, ranging in age from 18 -79, who were exposed to PCBs by way of environmental contamination in the S...

  13. SPECT neuroimaging and neuropsychological functions in different stages of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated differences and associations between cortical perfusion, nigrostriatal dopamine pathway and neuropsychological functions in different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). We recruited 53 non-demented PD patients divided into four groups according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging system and 20 healthy controls who were used in the comparison of the neuropsychological findings. Each patient underwent two separate brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies (perfusion and dopamine transporter binding) as well as neuropsychological evaluation. Perfusion images of each patient were quantified and compared with a normative database provided by the NeuroGam software manufacturers. Mean values obtained from the cortical areas and neuropsychological measures in the different groups were also compared by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for disease duration and educational level. We found cognitive deficits especially in the late PD stages (HY 3, 4 and 5) compared to the early stages (HY 1 and 2) and associations between cognitive decrements and cortical perfusion deterioration mainly in the frontal and posterior cortical areas. Compared with controls, PD patients showed impairments of cognition and cerebral perfusion that increased with clinical severity. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between the performance on the phonemic fluency task and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left frontal lobe. Dopamine transporter binding in the left caudate nucleus significantly correlated with blood flow in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but not with measures of executive functions. There are significant cognitive and perfusion deficits associated with PD progression, implying a multifactorial neurodegeneration process apart from dopamine depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). (orig.)

  14. SPECT neuroimaging and neuropsychological functions in different stages of Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Pavlos [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Patras (Greece); Messinis, Lambros; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurology, Neuropsychology Section, Patras (Greece); Kefalopoulou, Zinovia; Constantoyannis, Costantinos [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Patras (Greece)

    2010-06-15

    The present study investigated differences and associations between cortical perfusion, nigrostriatal dopamine pathway and neuropsychological functions in different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). We recruited 53 non-demented PD patients divided into four groups according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging system and 20 healthy controls who were used in the comparison of the neuropsychological findings. Each patient underwent two separate brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies (perfusion and dopamine transporter binding) as well as neuropsychological evaluation. Perfusion images of each patient were quantified and compared with a normative database provided by the NeuroGam software manufacturers. Mean values obtained from the cortical areas and neuropsychological measures in the different groups were also compared by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for disease duration and educational level. We found cognitive deficits especially in the late PD stages (HY 3, 4 and 5) compared to the early stages (HY 1 and 2) and associations between cognitive decrements and cortical perfusion deterioration mainly in the frontal and posterior cortical areas. Compared with controls, PD patients showed impairments of cognition and cerebral perfusion that increased with clinical severity. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between the performance on the phonemic fluency task and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left frontal lobe. Dopamine transporter binding in the left caudate nucleus significantly correlated with blood flow in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but not with measures of executive functions. There are significant cognitive and perfusion deficits associated with PD progression, implying a multifactorial neurodegeneration process apart from dopamine depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). (orig.)

  15. Mercury derived from dental amalgams and neuropsychologic function.

    OpenAIRE

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Hasselgren, Gunnar; Jacobs, Diane; Begg, Melissa; Kline, Jennie; Geier, Jamie; MERVISH, NANCY; Schoenholtz, Sonia; Graziano, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    There is widespread concern regarding the safety of silver-mercury amalgam dental restorations, yet little evidence to support their harm or safety. We examined whether mercury dental amalgams are adversely associated with cognitive functioning in a cross-sectional sample of healthy working adults. We studied 550 adults, 30-49 years of age, who were not occupationally exposed to mercury. Participants were representative of employees at a major urban medical center. Each participant underwent ...

  16. Single Case Study: Neuropsychological Functioning in a Patient Diagnosed with Intermittent Explosive Disorder Pre and Post Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Alonso, María José; Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Castaño-León, Ana María; Lagares, Alfonso; Rubio, Gabriel; Jurado-Barba, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is characterized by a difficulty to resist the urge to carry out a recognized harmful behavior. The central symptom is aggressiveness, expressed in isolated episodes. Executive function impairments are habitually found in impulse control disorders. Neuropsychology of impulsivity is related to dysfunctions in the orbito-frontal cortex, dorsolateral cortex and anterior-cingulated regions, being consequently involved in cognitive mechanisms of inhibition. Lesions in those areas are common in IED. In the most severe cases of IED, surgical procedures are required for treatment. In this study, we examined JML; a patient suffering from a severe case of IED. He experienced frequent episodes of auto and heteroaggression and multiple psychiatric admissions, and thus stereotactic surgery was the recommended treatment. The procedure consisted of an electrode situated lateral to the lateral ventricle, targeting the projections between frontal and subcortical affected regions. We aimed to study the neuropsychological functioning of JML, before and after electrode implantation. Our results suggested that surgery in IED improves cognitive performance at some levels. JML significantly improved his cognitive flexibility, measured with WCST, and alternate attention assessed with CPT and TMT-B tests, after electrode implantation. Cognitive flexibility deficits may be also related to increased aggressiveness. Therefore, improvements at this level may involve a reduction of impulsivity and aggressive behavior. PMID:27161981

  17. Verbal Neuropsychological Functions in Aphasia: An Integrative Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Báez, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    A theoretical framework which considers the verbal functions of the brain under a multivariate and comprehensive cognitive model was statistically analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify whether some recognized aphasia constructs can be hierarchically integrated as latent factors from a homogenously verbal test. The Brief Aphasia Evaluation was used. A sample of 65 patients with left cerebral lesions, and two supplementary samples comprising 35 patients with right cerebral lesions and 30 healthy participants were studied. A model encompassing an all inclusive verbal organizer and two successive organizers was validated. The two last organizers were: three factors of comprehension, expression and a "complementary" verbal factor which included praxia, attention, and memory; followed by the individual (and correlated) factors of auditory comprehension, repetition, naming, speech, reading, writing, and the "complementary" factor. By following this approach all the patients fall inside the classification system; consequently, theoretical improvement is guaranteed. PMID:25168953

  18. Effects of different forms of central nervous system prophylaxis on neuropsychologic function in childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the late effects on intellectual and neuropsychologic function of three different CNS prophylaxis regimens was conducted in 104 patients treated for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Of the children studied, 33 were randomized to treatment with intrathecal (IT) methotrexate alone, 36 to IT methotrexate plus 2,400 rad cranial irradiation, and 35 to IT methotrexate plus intravenous intermediate dose methotrexate. All patients were in their first (complete) continuous remission, were a minimum of one year post-CNS prophylaxis and had no evidence of CNS disease at the time of evaluation. In contrast to the other two treatment groups, children whose CNS prophylaxis included cranial irradiation attained significantly lower mean Full Scale IQs, performed more poorly on the Wide Range Achievement Test, a measure of school abilities, and exhibited a greater number of difficulties on a variety of other neuropsychologic measures. The poorer performance of the irradiated group was independent of sex of the patient, time since treatment and age at diagnosis. These data suggest that the addition of 2,400 rad cranial irradiation to CNS prophylaxis in ALL puts these children at greater risk for mild global loss in intellectual and neuropsychologic ability

  19. Childhood problem behavior and neuropsychological functioning in persons at risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman-Daniels, K L; Hesselbrock, V M

    1987-05-01

    The relationship of childhood hyperkinetic and minimal brain dysfunction (Hk-MBD) to neuropsychological functioning was examined in three groups of young adults. Nonalcoholic offspring of an alcoholic parent (N = 21) and of nonalcoholic parents (N = 21) were examined. A comparison group of similar age alcoholic patients (N = 21) was also studied. Each subject completed a battery of neuropsychological test measures and was administered a checklist on the presence of Hk-MBD symptoms in childhood. Offspring of an alcoholic parent and offspring of nonalcoholic parents could not be distinguished on the basis of their cognitive abilities or their frequency of reported Hk-MBD symptoms in childhood. Alcoholic subjects performed more poorly on measures of verbal and performance intelligence and reported a higher frequency of childhood Hk-MBD symptoms. Further, it was found that the frequency of childhood Hk-MBD symptoms was related to poor performance on certain types of cognitive tasks, regardless of group membership. These findings do not support the suggestion that certain cognitive deficits distinguish persons with a family history for alcoholism. However, poor neuropsychological performance in adulthood, at least on certain types of tasks, appears to be associated with the presence of childhood Hk-MBD. PMID:3657159

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow changes and neuropsychological functioning in early and late onset alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Chronic alcoholism is strongly associated with morphologic and functional abnormalities in the brain. The age-of-onset of alcoholism symptoms might be of discriminating value and can be used to subdivide the population into more homogeneous groups. The aim of the study was to compare late and early onset alcoholism with regard to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and neuropsychological functioning. Methods: Ten late onset (Type I) and thirteen early onset (Type II) male alcoholics were included in the study, the criterion being the age of onset for alcohol abuse. Six healthy, age-matched, male volunteers were included as a control group. rCBF changes were assessed using Tc-99m-HMPAO/SPECT after a detoxification period. Transaxial slices were assessed visually and semi quantitatively. Regional mean counts were divided to the mean counts of cerebellar and occipital regions to obtain semiquantitative ratios for superior frontal, middle frontal, inferior frontal, temporal and parietal lobes for the left and right hemispheres. The neuropsychological battery consisted of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Word Fluency Test. Results: Type I and II groups had significantly asymmetric blood flow in the frontal region compared to control group (Left frontal percentage; Type I%46.8±2, Type II=48.3±2.3, Control=50.8±3, p=0.008). The semiquantitative ratios for the frontal subregions were lower for the patients compared to those of control group, however, statistically significant difference was observed only for the ratio of superior frontal region to occipital region in type I patients, for both left and right. The difference between the two subgroups was not statistically significant. Both groups of alcoholic patients also displayed impairment in frontal lobe functions and non-verbal memory. No significant difference was detected between the alcoholic subgroups on neuropsychological measures. There was no significant correlation

  1. Neuropsychological Functioning of Girls with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Followed Prospectively into Adolescence: Evidence for Continuing Deficits?

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Carte, Estol T.; Fan, Catherine; Jassy, Jonathan S.; Owens, Elizabeth B.

    2007-01-01

    Prospectively followed girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), along with a matched comparison sample, five years after childhood neuropsychological assessments. Follow-up neuropsychological measures emphasized attentional skills, executive functions, and language abilities. Paralleling childhood findings, the childhood-diagnosed ADHD group displayed moderate to large deficits in executive/attentional performance as well as rapid naming, relative to the comparison group, a...

  2. The influence of cognitive reserve on psychosocial and neuropsychological functioning in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcada, Irene; Mur, Maria; Mora, Ester; Vieta, Eduard; Bartrés-Faz, David; Portella, Maria J

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to the hypothesized capacity of an adult brain to cope with brain pathology in order to minimize symptomatology. CR was initially investigated in dementia and acute brain damage, but it is being applied to other neuropsychiatric conditions. The present study aims at examining the fit of this concept to a sample of euthymic bipolar patients compared with healthy controls in order to investigate the role of CR in predicting psychosocial and cognitive outcome in bipolar disorder (BD). The sample included 101 subjects: 52 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for BD type I or II and 49 healthy controls (HC) matched for age and gender. They were all assessed with a cognitive battery tapping into executive and memory functioning. CR was obtained using three different proxies: education-occupation, leisure activities and premorbid IQ. Psychosocial functioning was evaluated by means of the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). MANCOVAs were performed to determine differences in cognitive and functioning variables. Linear regression analyses were carried out to predict neuropsychological and psychosocial outcomes. Euthymic bipolar patients showed worse neuropsychological performance and psychosocial functioning than HC. The linear regression models revealed that CR was significantly predictive of FAST score (β = -0.47, p bipolar outpatients. Therefore, CR may contribute to functional outcome in BD and may be applied in research and clinical interventions to prevent cognitive and functional impairment. PMID:25172270

  3. Cognitive Neuropsychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    2012-01-01

    are disproportionally impaired in one task or domain compared to another. In many cases data for normal performance has not been referred to or reported. This has resulted in several theories of cognitive functioning in different domains such as language, visual perception, and memory, specifying a number of different...... in patients’ test performance can inform theories of (normal) cognitive function. In four talks, this symposium will present and discuss methods for investigating impairment patterns in neuropsychological patients: 1) a talk on basic assumptions and statistical methods in single case methodology; 2) a talk......Traditionally, studies in cognitive neuropsychology have reported single cases or small groups of patients with seemingly selective impairments of specific cognitive processes or modules. Many studies, particularly older ones, have used simple and coarse tasks to show that patients...

  4. Distinct neuropsychological correlates of cognitive, behavioural and affective apathy sub-domains in acquired brain injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Progress eNjomboro; Shoumitro eDeb

    2014-01-01

    Apathy has a high prevalence and a significant contribution to treatment and rehabilitation outcomes in acquired brain damage. Research on the disorder’s neuropsychological correlates has produced mixed results. While the mixed picture may be due to the use of varied assessment tools on different patient populations, it’s also the case that most studies treat apathy as a unitary syndrome. This is in spite of evidence that apathy is a multifaceted and multidimensional syndrome. This study inve...

  5. Initiating Moderate to Heavy Alcohol Use Predicts Changes in Neuropsychological Functioning for Adolescent Girls and Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Squeglia, L M; Spadoni, A D; Infante, M. A.; Myers, M. G.; Tapert, S. F.

    2009-01-01

    This study prospectively examines the influence of alcohol on neuropsychological functioning in a sample of boys and girls who were characterized prior to initiating drinking (N=76, ages 12–14). Adolescents who transitioned into heavy (n= 25; 11 female, 14 male) or moderate (n=11; 2 female, 9 male) drinking were compared to demographically-matched controls who remained non-users throughout the approximately 3-year follow-up period (n=40; 16 female, 24 male). For girls, more drinking days in t...

  6. Neuropsychological performance and affective temperaments in Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ester; Holtzman, Jessica N; Tannenhaus, Lucila; Monchablon, Romina; Rago, Carlo Mario; Lolich, Maria; Vázquez, Gustavo H

    2016-04-30

    Affective temperament has been suggested as a potential mediator of the effect between genetic predisposition and neurocognitive functioning. As such, this report seeks to assess the extent of the correlation between affective temperament and cognitive function in a group of bipolar II subjects. 46 bipolar II outpatients [mean age 41.4 years (SD 18.2); female 58.9%] and 46 healthy controls [mean age 35.1 years (SD 18); female 56.5%] were evaluated with regard to their demographic and clinical characteristics, affective temperament, and neurocognitive performance. Crude bivariate correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were constructed between five affective temperament subscales and eight neurocognitive domains. Significant correlations were identified in bipolar patients between hyperthymic temperament and verbal memory and premorbid IQ; cyclothymic temperament and attention; and irritable temperament, attention, and verbal fluency. In adjusting for potential confounders of the relationship between temperament and cognitive function, the strongest mediating factors among the euthymic bipolar patients were found to be residual manic and depressive symptoms. It is therefore concluded that affective temperaments may partially influence the neurocognitive performance of both healthy controls and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II in several specific domains. PMID:27086230

  7. White versus gray matter function as seen on neuropsychological testing following bone marrow transplant for acute leukemia in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona S Anderson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiona S Anderson1, Alicia S Kunin-Batson1, Joanna L Perkins2, K Scott Baker31Divisions of Pediatric Clinical Neuroscience; 2Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Children’s Hospitals and Clinics, Minneapolis, MN, USA and 3Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Current theory suggests that neurocognitive late effects of treatments for childhood cancer such as difficulties with attention, processing speed and visual-motor ability are the result of white matter damage. Neuroimaging studies have produced a variety of white matter findings. However, although white matter is thought to be differentially affected, previous studies have not demonstrated a discrepancy between white and gray matter function. The present study included 36 children treated for childhood leukemia with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT. Their performance on neurocognitive measures traditionally thought to measure white matter was compared to performance on measures thought to measure gray matter function. Composite white and gray matter standard scores were created based on neuropsychological measures that individuals with known white or gray matter damage perform poorly. As predicted, composite white matter scores (mean = 98.1 were significantly lower (t = 2.26, p = 0.03 than composite gray matter scores (mean = 102.5. Additionally, as gray matter performance increased, the difference between gray and white matter scores increased (R = 0.353, p = 0.035. Overall, the results of this study support the current theory that white matter damage is responsible for the more subtle neurocognitive late effects resulting from treatment for childhood leukemia.Keywords: late effects of cancer treatment, leukemia, neuropsychology, white matter, brain function

  8. Neuropsychological function in older subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiea, J A; Moses, J L; Sinclair, A J

    1995-08-01

    Neuropsychological function was compared in three well-matched groups of subjects: Group 1, 20 diabetic patients with hypertension, mean age 69.1 +/- 4.8 years, 14 males and 6 females; Group 2, 20 normotensive diabetic patients, mean age 69.0 +/- 6.2 years, 14 males and 6 females; Group 3, 20 healthy community controls, mean age 68.1 +/- 4.5 years, 13 males and 7 females. There were no significant differences between the groups in education or estimated IQ using the NART (National Adult Reading Test). Groups 1 and 2 did not differ significantly in duration of diabetes (mean 10.6 and 9.5 years, respectively), or mean glycosylated haemoglobin, HbA1 (mean 9.8 and 10.6%, respectively), or mean blood glucose before and after testing. On a battery neuropsychological tests, sensitive to cognitive impairment in older subjects, analysis of covariance using estimated IQ as the covariate showed no significant differences between the groups on tests of recall, with (Brown-Peterson Test) and without (Kendrick Object Learning Test) interference, forward and backward digit span, concentration (serial subtraction), verbal fluency, immediate and delayed prose recall, digit symbol substitution or psychomotor speed (Kendrick Digit Copying Test). These results provide no support for an association between cognitive deficits and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in older subjects or for the view that such deficits may also be mediated by hypertension. PMID:7587006

  9. The association of pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking with child neuropsychological functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Kjærsgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Denny, Clark H.;

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking on child neuropsychological functioning. Design: Prospective follow-up study. Setting and population: 154 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods: Participants were sampled based on maternal...... alcohol consumption before pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children atFive (TEACh-5), and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). The Behaviour Rating Inventory...... of Executive Function (BRIEF) was completed by the mothers and a preschool teacher. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, child’s age at testing, child’s sex, and maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy were considered potential confounders. Main outcome measures: Performance...

  10. The neuropsychology of hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are a psychopathological phenomenon with neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and pathophysiological correlates in specific brain areas. They can affect any of the senses, but auditory and visual hallucinations predominate. Verbal hallucinations reveal no gross organic lesions while visual hallucinations are connected to defined brain lesions. Functional neuroimaging shows impairments in modality specific sensory systems with the hyperactivity of the surrounding cerebral cortex. Disinhibition and expansion of the inner speech was noted with impaired internal monitoring in auditory verbal hallucinations. The subcortical areas and modal-specific associative cortex and cingulate cortex are essential for the occurrence of hallucinations.

  11. Assessment of neuropsychological function through use of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery: performance in 4- to 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciana, Monica; Nelson, Charles A

    2002-01-01

    In this article, children's performance on subtasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB) is described. Two samples were recruited, one of which included children who spoke English as a second language. Children in this group also completed subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Revision (WISC-III). Despite the fact that ESL children scored over 1 SD below the norm on the WISC-III Vocabulary subtest, there were no CANTAB performance distinctions between primary versus secondary English-language speakers. In addition, several aspects of CANTAB performance were significantly correlated with verbal and nonverbal IQ. When developmental trends were examined, findings indicated that several aspects of frontal lobe function (memory span, working memory, and planning skills) are not functionally mature, by the age of 12 years. Implications for use of the CANTAB in clinical studies are discussed. PMID:12661972

  12. Effect of STA-proximal MCA bypass. Improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neuropsychological function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in patients with hemodynamic ischemia by positron emission tomography (PET) and thermal diffusion flow meter. We also studied neuropsychological functions to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization. Bypass surgery of the superficial temporal artery to the proximal middle cerebral artery was performed on 26 patients satisfying the following categories: stenosis or occlusive lesion in main cerebral arteries; no marked focus of infarction on CT or MRI. PET was performed before and 1 month after the operation, and CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were analyzed. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) was also calculated after acetazolamide challenge. CBF during the operation was continuously measured with a thermal diffusion flow meter. CO2 response of CBF was analyzed before and after anastomosis. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated by Hasegawa dementia scale revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised (WAIS-R). Before the operation, increase in OEF accorded with the decrease in CBF, and a significant relationship between both CBF and CVRC, and OEF and CVRC was found. A decrease in CVRC was noted prior to a decrease in CBF and elevation of OEF. CVRC caused by acetazolamide might reflect CO2 reactivity. Significant improvement of CBF and CVRC, and normalization of OEF were observed after the operation. Also, significant improvement of neuropsychological function was observed by HDS-R and WAIS-R. Disturbance in neuropsychological function might reflect elevation of OEF. (author)

  13. Order Effects on Neuropsychological Test Performance of Normal, Learning Disabled and Low Functioning Children: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, Adebowale

    2000-01-01

    Investigated possible priming effect of two neuropsychological tests, the Booklet Category Test (BCT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Obtained counterbalanced order effects on like-aged sample of 63 South African elementary school students (normally- achieving, low-functioning, learning-disabled). Found a significant effect of set-shifting…

  14. A meta-analysis of neuropsychological functioning in first-episode bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Scott, Jan; Redoblado-Hodge, M Antoinette; Naismith, Sharon L; Lagopoulos, Jim; Griffiths, Kristi R; Porter, Melanie A; Hickie, Ian B

    2014-10-01

    Broad neuropsychological deficits have been consistently demonstrated in well-established bipolar disorder. The aim of the current study was to systematically review neuropsychological studies in first-episode bipolar disorders to determine the breadth, extent and predictors of cognitive dysfunction at this early stage of illness through meta-analytic procedures. Electronic databases were searched for studies published between January 1980 and December 2013. Twelve studies met eligibility criteria (N = 341, mean age = 28.2 years), and pooled effect sizes (ES) were calculated across eight cognitive domains. Moderator analyses were conducted to identify predictors of between-study heterogeneity. Controlling for known confounds, medium to large deficits (ES ≥ 0.5) in psychomotor speed, attention and working memory, and cognitive flexibility were identified, whereas smaller deficits (ES 0.20-0.49) were found in the domains of verbal learning and memory, attentional switching, and verbal fluency. A medium to large deficit in response inhibition was only detected in non-euthymic cases. Visual learning and memory functioning was not significantly worse in cases compared with controls. Overall, first-episode bipolar disorders are associated with widespread cognitive dysfunction. Since euthymia was not associated with superior cognitive performance in most domains, these results indicate that even in the earliest stages of disease, cognitive deficits are not mood-state dependent. The current findings have important implications for whether cognitive impairments represent neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes. Future studies need to more clearly characterise the presence of psychotic features, and the nature and number of previous mood episodes. PMID:25016347

  15. Neuropsychological function in adults after high dose fractionated radiation therapy of skull base tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the long term effects of high dose fractionated radiation therapy on brain functioning prospectively in adults without primary brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with histologically confirmed chordomas and low grade chondrosarcomas of the skull base were evaluated with neuropsychological measures of intelligence, language, memory, attention, motor function and mood following surgical resection/biopsy of the tumor prior to irradiation, and then at about 6 months, 2 years and 4 years following completion of treatment. None received chemotherapy. Results: In the patients without tumor recurrence or radiation necrosis, there were no indications of adverse effects on cognitive functioning in the post-acute through the late stages after brain irradiation. Even in patients who received doses of radiation up to 66 Cobalt Gy equivalent through nondiseased (temporal lobe) brain tissue, memory and cognitive functioning remained stable for up to 5 years after treatment. A mild decline in psycho-motor speed was seen in more than half of the patients, and motor slowing was related to higher radiation doses in midline and temporal lobe brain structures. Conclusion: Results suggest that in adults, tolerance for focused radiation is relatively high in cortical brain structures

  16. Preliminary evidence of motor impairment among polysubstance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine users with intact neuropsychological functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Bousman, Chad A.; Cherner, Mariana; Emory, Kristen T; BARRON, DANIEL; Grebenstein, Patricia; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Heaton, Robert K.; Grant, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological disturbances have been reported in association with use of the recreational drug “ecstasy,” or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but findings have been inconsistent. We performed comprehensive neuropsychological testing examining seven ability domains in 21 MDMA users (MDMA+) and 21 matched control participants (MDMA−). Among MDMA+ participants, median [interquartile range] lifetime MDMA use was 186 [111, 516] doses, with 120 [35–365] days of abstinence. There were ...

  17. Verbal memory functioning in borderline personality disorder : neuropsychological and neuroimaging perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mensebach, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Clinical features of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as an unstable and dysregulated control over behavior, emotion, and cognition as well as clinical descriptions of temporary disturbances of perception and cognition led to the question of neuropsychological deficits. Although neuropsychological investigations of BPD did not provide a consistent constellation of findings, some evidence is available for a non-domain-specific impairment in multiple domains of memory, attention, visuo-spa...

  18. Neuropsychological function in college students with and without posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Hami, S; Stein, M. B.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research on the neuropsychology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has identified several neurocognitive deficits that co-occur with the disorder. However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are due to trauma exposure, PTSD symptomatology or psychiatric/substance abuse comorbidity. We examined trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms and neuropsychological performance in 235 undergraduate students, i.e. a non-clinical sample. The sample comprised 146 subjects with trauma exposure (...

  19. Neuropsychological evaluation of deficits in executive functioning for ADHD children with or without learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kitty K; Anderson, Vicki; Castiello, Umberto

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates multiple aspects of executive functioning in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These areas include attentional components, impulsiveness, planning, and problem solving. The rationale of the study is based on neurophysiological studies that suggest frontal lobe dysfunction in ADHD. As frontal lobe functioning is related to abilities in executive control, ADHD is hypothesised to be associated with deficits in various areas of executive functioning. The specific effect of comorbidity of learning disability (LD) was also investigated. Eighty-three children with ADHD and 29 age-matched controls (age 7-13) participated in the study. A battery of neuropsychological tests was utilized to evaluate specific deficits in speed of processing, selective attention, switching attention, sustained attention, attentional capacity, impulsiveness, planning and problem solving. Findings indicated that children with ADHD have slower verbal responses and sustained attention deficit. Deficits in selective attention and attentional capacity observed were largely related to the presence of LD. No specific deficit associated with ADHD or the comorbidity of LD was identified in switching attention, impulsiveness, planning, and problem solving. These results revealed that ADHD is not associated with a general deficit in executive functioning. Instead, ADHD is related to a specific deficit in regulation for attentional resources. The importance of isolating the deficit related to LDs for examining the specific deficit associated with ADHD is highlighted. Results also emphasised the importance of isolating the effect of lower level of abilities (e.g., speed of processing) and the utilization of specific definition for the examination of executive functions. PMID:12537336

  20. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  1. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18–24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  2. Effect of STA-proximal MCA bypass. Improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neuropsychological function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Akira; Funayama, Masayuki; Miura, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-11-01

    We investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in patients with hemodynamic ischemia by positron emission tomography (PET) and thermal diffusion flow meter. We also studied neuropsychological functions to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization. Bypass surgery of the superficial temporal artery to the proximal middle cerebral artery was performed on 26 patients satisfying the following categories: stenosis or occlusive lesion in main cerebral arteries; no marked focus of infarction on CT or MRI. PET was performed before and 1 month after the operation, and CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were analyzed. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) was also calculated after acetazolamide challenge. CBF during the operation was continuously measured with a thermal diffusion flow meter. CO{sub 2} response of CBF was analyzed before and after anastomosis. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated by Hasegawa dementia scale revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised (WAIS-R). Before the operation, increase in OEF accorded with the decrease in CBF, and a significant relationship between both CBF and CVRC, and OEF and CVRC was found. A decrease in CVRC was noted prior to a decrease in CBF and elevation of OEF. CVRC caused by acetazolamide might reflect CO{sub 2} reactivity. Significant improvement of CBF and CVRC, and normalization of OEF were observed after the operation. Also, significant improvement of neuropsychological function was observed by HDS-R and WAIS-R. Disturbance in neuropsychological function might reflect elevation of OEF. (author)

  3. Dental amalgam restorations and children’s neuropsychological function: The New England Children’s Amalgam Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, David; Trachtenberg, Felicia; McKinlay, Sonja; David C Bellinger; Tavares, Mary Angela

    2006-01-01

    Background: A concern persists that children’s exposure to mercury vapor from dental amalgams produces neurotoxicity. Objective: Our goal was to compare the neuropsychological function of children, without prior exposure to dental amalgam, whose caries were repaired using either dental amalgam or mercury-free composite materials. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving 534 6- to 10-year-old urban and rural children who were assessed yearly for 5 years using a battery of ...

  4. The neuropsychology of empathy for pain: how social differences affect the empathic brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Forgiarini,

    2011-01-01

    With the present thesis I investigated whether and how empathy for pain is effected by social cues. Empathy is a critical function regulating human social life and, specifically empathy for pain is a source of deep emotional feelings and a strong trigger of pro-social behavior. I investigated the existence of a racial and religion bias in the emotional reaction to other people’s pain. Measuring participants’ physiological arousal and functional brain activations, I found that Caucasian obser...

  5. Neuropsychological functions and rCBF SPECT in Parkinson's disease patients considered candidates for deep brain stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Paulos [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Patras (Greece); Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurology, Neuropsychology Section, Patras (Greece); Constantoyannis, Costas; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Patras (Greece)

    2009-11-15

    In the present study, we examined relationships between neuropsychological functions and brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed at presurgical evaluation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Twenty advanced non-demented PD patients, candidates for DBS surgery, underwent perfusion brain SPECT study and neuropsychological assessment prior to surgery (range: 30-50 days). Patients were further assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) scale. During all assessments patients were ''on'' standard medication. NeuroGam software, which permits voxel by voxel analysis, was used to compare the brain perfusion of PD patients with a normal database adjusted for sex and age. Neuropsychological scores were compared to age, education and sex-adjusted normative databases. Our results indicated that the distribution of rCBF showed significant differences when compared to an age- and sex-adjusted normative database. We found impaired blood flow in 17 (85%) of our patients in the left prefrontal lobe, in 14 (70%) in the right prefrontal lobe and in 11 (55%) in the left frontal and right parietal lobes. Neuropsychological testing revealed that 18 (90%) of our patients had significant impairments in measures of executive functions (set-shifting) and 15 (75%) in response inhibition. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between measures of visual attention, executive functions and the right frontal lobe region. The presence of widespread blood flow reduction was observed mainly in the frontal lobes of dementia-free patients with advanced PD. Furthermore, performance on specific cognitive measures was highly related to perfusion brain SPECT findings. (orig.)

  6. Neuropsychological functions and rCBF SPECT in Parkinson's disease patients considered candidates for deep brain stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we examined relationships between neuropsychological functions and brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed at presurgical evaluation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Twenty advanced non-demented PD patients, candidates for DBS surgery, underwent perfusion brain SPECT study and neuropsychological assessment prior to surgery (range: 30-50 days). Patients were further assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) scale. During all assessments patients were ''on'' standard medication. NeuroGam software, which permits voxel by voxel analysis, was used to compare the brain perfusion of PD patients with a normal database adjusted for sex and age. Neuropsychological scores were compared to age, education and sex-adjusted normative databases. Our results indicated that the distribution of rCBF showed significant differences when compared to an age- and sex-adjusted normative database. We found impaired blood flow in 17 (85%) of our patients in the left prefrontal lobe, in 14 (70%) in the right prefrontal lobe and in 11 (55%) in the left frontal and right parietal lobes. Neuropsychological testing revealed that 18 (90%) of our patients had significant impairments in measures of executive functions (set-shifting) and 15 (75%) in response inhibition. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between measures of visual attention, executive functions and the right frontal lobe region. The presence of widespread blood flow reduction was observed mainly in the frontal lobes of dementia-free patients with advanced PD. Furthermore, performance on specific cognitive measures was highly related to perfusion brain SPECT findings. (orig.)

  7. Neuropsychological Evaluation Against Geriatric Background

    OpenAIRE

    Rambe, Aldy S.

    2010-01-01

    Population aging will have an influence on pathologies associated with extreme old and dementia. Some aspects of cognitive functions, especially memory, and other thinking abilities decline as part of the normal aging process. When cognitive decline is suspected, a neuropsychological evaluation can provide an objective assessment of cognitive functioning. Neuropsychology is converged from the parent disciplines of neurological medicine and psychology. The neuropsychological evaluation typical...

  8. Acute central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of total body irradiation (TBI) measured using neuropsychological testing of attention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute normal tissue damage of low irradiation doses to the healthy, adult central nervous system (CNS) using neuropsychological testing of attention functions. Methods and Materials: Neuropsychological testing (IQ, attention [modified Trail-Making Test A, Digit Symbol Test, D2 Test, Wiener Determination Machine]) was used to examine 40 patients (43 ± 10 years) before and immediately after the first fraction (1.2 Gy) of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) at the University of Heidelberg. The patients received antiemetic premedication. Test results are given as mean percentiles ± standard deviation, with 50 ± 34 being normal. Thirty-eight control patients (53 ± 15 years) were studied to quantify the influence of hospitalization, stress, and repeated testing. Results: The patients showed normal baseline test results (IQ = 101 ± 14, attention = 54 ± 28) and no decrease in test results after 1.2 Gy TBI. Attention functions improved (66 ± 25) corresponding to a practice effect of repeated testing that was seen in the control group, although alternate versions of the tests were used (IQ = 104 ± 10, attention before = 42 ± 29, attention after = 52 ± 31). Conclusion: Our data show no deterioration of neuropsychologic test results acutely after 1.2 Gy whole body exposure in adult patients without CNS disease receiving antiemetic medication

  9. Monitoring cognitive function and need with the automated neuropsychological assessment metrics in Decompression Sickness (DCS) research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesthus, Thomas E.; Schiflett, Sammuel G.

    1993-01-01

    Hypobaric decompression sickness (DCS) research presents the medical monitor with the difficult task of assessing the onset and progression of DCS largely on the basis of subjective symptoms. Even with the introduction of precordial Doppler ultrasound techniques for the detection of venous gas emboli (VGE), correct prediction of DCS can be made only about 65 percent of the time according to data from the Armstrong Laboratory's (AL's) hypobaric DCS database. An AL research protocol concerned with exercise and its effects on denitrogenation efficiency includes implementation of a performance assessment test battery to evaluate cognitive functioning during a 4-h simulated 30,000 ft (9144 m) exposure. Information gained from such a test battery may assist the medical monitor in identifying early signs of DCS and subtle neurologic dysfunction related to cases of asymptomatic, but advanced, DCS. This presentation concerns the selection and integration of a test battery and the timely graphic display of subject test results for the principal investigator and medical monitor. A subset of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) developed through the Office of Military Performance Assessment Technology (OMPAT) was selected. The ANAM software provides a library of simple tests designed for precise measurement of processing efficiency in a variety of cognitive domains. For our application and time constraints, two tests requiring high levels of cognitive processing and memory were chosen along with one test requiring fine psychomotor performance. Accuracy, speed, and processing throughout variables as well as RMS error were collected. An automated mood survey provided 'state' information on six scales including anger, happiness, fear, depression, activity, and fatigue. An integrated and interactive LOTUS 1-2-3 macro was developed to import and display past and present task performance and mood-change information.

  10. Neurological soft signs in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and the relationships to neuropsychological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hui-jie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances. Methods Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants. Results People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI.

  11. Neuropsychological Functioning in Childhood-Onset Psychosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Kimberly; Willcutt, Erik G.; Davalos, Deana B.; Ross, Randal G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few…

  12. Immediate treatment effects of high-dose methotrexate and cranial irradiation on neuropsychological functions of children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia at a regional cancer center

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaramoorthy Chidambaram; Arun Seshachalam; Vidhubala Elangovan; Rejiv Rajendranath

    2014-01-01

    Context: Overall cure rates for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have improved; however, the neuropsychological sequelae of ALL treatment have not been adequately documented in India. Aims: The present study assesses the immediate effects of ALL treatment on neuropsychological functioning, at the Regional Cancer Center in Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: Newly diagnosed with ALL patients (n = 24) (aged 6-15 years; 13M:11F) registered between March 2008 and February 200...

  13. Neuropsychological Assessment in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, William R., Sr.; And Others

    The nature of neuropsychological assessment and its application in the school environment are discussed. Neuropsychology is the study of how the brain and nervous system affect thinking and behavior. A complete neuropsychological assessment requires gathering and analyzing information on a child's: (1) physical, social, and psychological…

  14. Neuropsychological and psychiatric functioning in sheep farmers exposed to low levels of organophosphate pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie Ross, Sarah Jane; Brewin, Chris Ray; Curran, Helen Valerie; Furlong, Clement Eugene; Abraham-Smith, Kelly Michelle; Harrison, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The study aim was to determine whether low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) causes neuropsychological or psychiatric impairment. Methodological weaknesses of earlier studies were addressed by: recruiting participants who had retired on ill health grounds; excluding participants with a history of acute poisoning, medical or psychiatric conditions that might account for ill health; and exploring factors which may render some individuals more vulnerable to the effects of OPs th...

  15. Associations among treatment-related neurological risk factors and neuropsychological functioning in survivors of childhood brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Mark D; Rane, Shruti; Daly, Brian P; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2016-03-01

    Adverse neurological side effects associated with childhood brain tumors and their treatments contribute to long-term neurocognitive morbidity. Measures designed to quantify tumor-related risk factors are lacking. The neurological predictor scale (NPS) is designed to assess treatment-related neurological risks. Preliminary validation established associations between the NPS and global cognitive functioning in this population, though its associations with specific neurobehavioral domains has yet to be addressed. Participants referred for outpatient neuropsychological assessment completed performance-based measures of intellectual, attentional, working memory, motor speed, and executive abilities. Caregivers completed ratings of adaptive functioning. Neuropsychological and adaptive data were available for 100 brain tumor survivors (51 % female), ages 6 to 22 years (M = 12.83, SD = 4.37). Total NPS scores were generated via retrospective medical record review. Total NPS scores were significantly associated with several neurocognitive composite scores including verbal reasoning and working memory, after controlling for years post-diagnosis (ps  .05). Results indicate that the NPS is associated with performance-based neurocognitive functioning and executive skills but not with functioning in specific caregiver-reported adaptive behavior domains. The NPS offers some value as a resource for understanding associations between treatment-related neurological risks and select aspects of neurocognitive morbidity. Future studies should examine whether the NPS can aid in planning appropriate therapeutic intervention as survivors progress into early adulthood. PMID:26725098

  16. Cognitive Function in Adolescent Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Unipolar Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrar, Lea; Holzhausen, Martin; Warschburger, Petra; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Schneider, Nora

    2016-05-01

    Studies have shown impairments in cognitive function among adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and affective disorders (AD). The association between cognitive dysfunctions, AN and AD as well as the specificity for these psychiatric diagnoses remains unclear. Therefore, we examined cognitive flexibility and processing speed in 47 female adolescent patients with AN, 21 female adolescent patients with unipolar affective disorders and 48 female healthy adolescents. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. There were no significant group differences regarding cognitive function, except for psychomotor processing speed with poorer performance in patients with AN. A further analysis revealed that all groups performed with the normal range, although patients with AN were over represented in the poorest performing quartile. We found no severe cognitive impairments in either patient group. Nevertheless, belonging to the AN group contributed significantly to poor performances in neuropsychological tasks. Therefore, we conclude that the risk for cognitive impairments is slightly higher for patients with AN. PMID:26695683

  17. Neuropsychological heterogeneity in multiple sclerosis / Heterogeneidade neuropsicológica na esclerose múlipla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Paula Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a progressively disabling neurological disease which symptoms affect sensory, motor and psychological functioning. Several clinical neurological and psychological variables influence the neuropsychological profile in MS, which is extremely heterogeneous. The main objective of the present study was to investigate if it is possible to statistically stratify control subjects and MS patients from neurological, socio-demographic and neuropsychological dimensions. With this purpose we applied cluster analysis procedures to five neuropsychological instruments selected according to diagnostic accuracy from a pool of 9 neuropsychological tests. The sample was composed of 45 healthy controls and 35 MS patients with similar socio-demographic characteristics. The results indicated an ideal solution with 4 different clusters according to two dimensions: "cognitive" and "psychosocial" functioning, which represent independent but non-disjunctive aspects of neuropsychological functioning in MS.

  18. Neuropsychological measures of attention and memory function in schizophrenia: relationships with symptom dimensions and serum monoamine activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Uwe

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some clinical symptoms or cognitive functions have been related to the overall state of monoamine activity in patients with schizophrenia, (e.g. inverse correlation of the dopamine metabolite HVA with delusions or visual-masking performance. However, profiles (as presented here of the relations of the activity of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin to neuropsychologic (dysfunctions in major patient sub-groups with their very different symptomatic and cognitive characteristics have not been reported. Methods Serum measures of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin turnover were examined by regression analyses for the prediction of performance on 10 neuropsychological measures reflecting left- and right-hemispheric and frontal-, parietal- and temporal-lobe function in 108 patients with schizophrenia and 63 matched controls. The neuropsychological battery included tests of verbal fluency, Stroop interference, trail-making, block-design, Mooney faces recognition, picture-completion, immediate and delayed visual and verbal recall. Paranoid and nonparanoid subgroups were based on ratings from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Groups with high and low ratings of ideas-of-reference and thought-disorder were formed from a median split on the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results Verbal-fluency and Stroop-interference (left frontal and fronto-cingulate function were negatively associated with noradrenergic turnover in nonparanoid and thought-disordered patients. High dopamine turnover related to speeded trail-making (frontal modulation of set switching in those with many ideas-of-reference. In contrast, low dopamine turnover predicted poor recall in nonparanoid patients and those with little thought disorder. Serotonin metabolism did not independently contribute to the prediction any measure of cognitive performance. But, with regard to the relative activity between monoaminergic systems, increased

  19. Normal birth weight variation and children's neuropsychological functioning: links between language, executive functioning, and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, M; Browne, D T; Madigan, S; Plamondon, A; Jenkins, J M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of low birth weight on children's development has been documented for a range of neurocognitive outcomes. However, few previous studies have examined the effect of birth weight variability within the normal range on children's neuropsychological development. The current study examined birth weight variation amongst children weighing ≥2500 g in relation to their language, executive functioning (EF), and theory of mind (ToM), and specified a developmental pathway in which birth weight was hypothesized to be associated with children's EF and ToM through their intermediary language skills. The current study used a prospective community birth cohort of 468 children. Families were recruited when children were newborns and followed up every 18 months until children were age 4.5. Language was assessed at age 3 using a standardized measure of receptive vocabulary (PPVT), and EF and ToM were measured at age 4.5 using previously validated and developmentally appropriate tasks. After controlling for potential confounding variables (family income, parent education, gestational age), birth weight within the normal range was associated with language ability at age 3 (β=.17; p=.012); and the effect of birth weight on both EF (z=2.09; p=.03) and ToM (z=2.07; p=.03) at age 4.5 operated indirectly through their language ability at age 3. Our findings indicate that the effects of birth weight on child neurocognition extend into the normal range of birth weight, and specific developmental mechanisms may link these skills over time. PMID:25171131

  20. School Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.; Obrzut, John E.

    1981-01-01

    Studies the increasing interest among school psychologists in neuropsychology as it relates to children in the educational environment. Attempts to identify forces which have led to this increased interest and provide a conceptual framework for recognizing this specialty within the profession of school psychology. (Author)

  1. Delusion disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of delusions, were mainly focused on specific forms of this disorder. Comparatively small number of investigations were concerned with cognitive deficiencies accompanying the delusions. The substance of this study includes the detection of neuropsychological disfunctions in patients with persistent delusion disorder, and in tracing of these cognitive distortions to appropriate brain regions. Besides, characteristics of attribution style in these patients are analysed, from the aspect of their connections with unadjusted localized input for their reasoning system. The investigation is designed as a comparative study. The sample includes: a group of patients with persistent delusion disorder; a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia; a group of healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery that represents the following cognitive functions: attention, memory, vizuospatial and vizuoconstruction organization, executive ability, verbal divergent thinking. Projective Rorschach's method was used for estimation of attribution style.

  2. Neuropsychological functions in progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy and Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Syam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have compared cognitive functions in multiple system atrophy (MSA, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and Parkinson′s disease (PD. Aim: To compare the results of cognitive function tests in the three diseases and examine their relation with the severity of parkinsonism. Settings and Design: Clinic-based open prospective study. Materials and Methods: Global cognitive function tests and tests specific for frontal lobe functions were used in 25 cases of each disease. UPDRS III was used to measure the severity of parkinsonism. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA was done for group comparisons, followed by t-test for independent samples with Bonferroni correction. Pearson′s correlation test was done to assess the relation between severity of parkinsonism and cognitive functions. Results: The severity of parkinsonism was worst in PD followed by PSP and least in MSA. Patients with PSP exhibited the worst performance in both sets of cognitive tests. Even though patients with MSA did better than PD in global function tests, they performed worse than PD in some frontal function tests. There was a negative correlation between severity of parkinsonism and scores in cognitive tests in the MSA group but not in others. Conclusions: Global and frontal dysfunction was worst in PSP. The frontal dysfunction in MSA was more severe than PD, correlated with the severity of parkinsonism and was worse in clinically probable than possible cases of MSA. The severity of cognitive dysfunction in these diseases may be related to the distribution and extent of pathological changes affecting the striato-frontal circuits in them.

  3. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N

    2009-05-27

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and 'weak' central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region of GW's cortex was the only area thicker (while areas such as the superior and medial prefrontal, middle temporal and motor cortices were thinner) than that of a neurotypical control group. Taken from the perspective of learning/practice-based models, skills in domains (e.g. calendars, art, music) that capitalize upon strengths often associated with ASD, such as detail-focused processing, are probably further enhanced through over-learning and massive exposure, and reflected in atypical brain structure. PMID:19528026

  4. The neuropsychological profile of early and continuously treated phenylketonuria : orienting, vigilance, and maintenance versus manipulation-functions of working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, SCJ; de Sonneville, LMJ; van Spronsen, FJ; Licht, R; Sergeant, JA

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we review neuropsychological test results of early and continuously treated Phenylketonuria (PKU) patients. To increase insight into the neuropsychological profile of this population, we have attempted to place the results within an attentional network model [Images of the mind, 1994

  5. Neuropsychological functioning, motor speed, and language processing in boys with and without ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carte, E T; Nigg, J T; Hinshaw, S P

    1996-08-01

    We administered a neuropsychological battery to boys aged 6 to 12 years old diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 51) and to comparison boys of the same age range (n = 31). Boys with ADHD had greater difficulty than comparison youngsters on nonautomated language and motor tasks administered with a fast instructional set and on one of two traditional frontal executive measures (Porteus mazes). When tasks requiring automatic processing were paired with similar tasks requiring greater use of selective attention processes, the latter, controlled processing tasks differentiated groups better than did automated tasks. This differential effect of otherwise similar tasks is interpreted in terms of an output deficit mediated by response organization as detailed in the information processing literature. The ADHD group also exhibited slow gross motor output, measured independently of verbal output. The findings are evaluated in terms of both Luria's (1973) tripartite model of neurocognitive organization and frontal striatal models, with an emphasis on output processes. The observed language deficits could represent frontal lobe processes intricately related to self-monitoring and planning. The utility of controlled processing, self-paced tasks with fast instructional sets in assessing language and motor skills in ADHD is highlighted. PMID:8886944

  6. The impact of preexisting illness and substance use on functional and neuropsychological outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdah, Marie N; Barnes, Sunni A; Buros, Amy; Allmon, Andrew; Dubiel, Rosemary; Dunklin, Cynthia; Callender, Librada; Shafi, Shahid

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the US. Specific preexisting medical illnesses delay recovery after TBI and increase mortality or risk of repeat TBI. This study examined the impact of preexisting illness and substance use on patient rehabilitation outcomes following TBI. The Functional Independence Measure total score and Disability Rating Scale score measured functional outcomes at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, while the Trail Making Test A and B and Total Trials 1-5 of the California Verbal Learning Test-II measured neuropsychological outcomes in 128 TBI survivors with moderate or severe TBI. Results showed that the presence of a heart condition or diabetes/high blood sugar was associated with lower functional outcomes by discharge. A history of a heart condition, stroke, or respiratory condition prior to TBI was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility. Those with preexisting diabetes/high blood sugar demonstrated poorer visual attention, visuomotor processing speed, and ability to learn and recall verbal information. Those with pre-TBI cancer also had greater auditory-verbal memory deficits. The findings showed that specific preexisting medical conditions are independently associated with lower functional and cognitive outcomes for patients with TBI. By screening patients for preexisting medical conditions, multidisciplinary TBI rehabilitation teams can identify patients who require more aggressive treatments or greater length of stay. PMID:27365869

  7. Cognitive complaints and neuropsychological functioning in adults with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder referred for multidisciplinary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In de Braek, Dymphie; Dijkstra, Jeanette B; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-04-01

    The present study aims to gain insight into the clinical presentation (viz., self-reported complaints and neuropsychological functioning) of adults referred for an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. The investigation evaluated group differences between an ADHD and a non-ADHD sample (n = 30 and n = 42, respectively), all of which had been clinically referred for multidisciplinary assessment of ADHD. Forty-two percent of all referred patients were diagnosed with adult ADHD. Adults with ADHD made significantly more errors on a verbal learning task than the non-ADHD control group, which could indicate an impairment of the self-monitoring function in adult ADHD. The ADHD group reported more problems than the control group in the domains of executive functioning but not in the domains of attention and hyperactivity. More attention should be paid to executive complaints and functioning (present and past) when referring adults suspected of ADHD for multidisciplinary assessment. Also, characteristics that are thought to be striking symptoms of adult ADHD, such as problems with concentration and hyperactive behavior, are in fact not distinctive symptoms of ADHD at all. PMID:21660764

  8. The impact of preexisting illness and substance use on functional and neuropsychological outcomes following traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sunni A.; Buros, Amy; Allmon, Andrew; Dubiel, Rosemary; Dunklin, Cynthia; Callender, Librada; Shafi, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the US. Specific preexisting medical illnesses delay recovery after TBI and increase mortality or risk of repeat TBI. This study examined the impact of preexisting illness and substance use on patient rehabilitation outcomes following TBI. The Functional Independence Measure total score and Disability Rating Scale score measured functional outcomes at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, while the Trail Making Test A and B and Total Trials 1–5 of the California Verbal Learning Test–II measured neuropsychological outcomes in 128 TBI survivors with moderate or severe TBI. Results showed that the presence of a heart condition or diabetes/high blood sugar was associated with lower functional outcomes by discharge. A history of a heart condition, stroke, or respiratory condition prior to TBI was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility. Those with preexisting diabetes/high blood sugar demonstrated poorer visual attention, visuomotor processing speed, and ability to learn and recall verbal information. Those with pre-TBI cancer also had greater auditory-verbal memory deficits. The findings showed that specific preexisting medical conditions are independently associated with lower functional and cognitive outcomes for patients with TBI. By screening patients for preexisting medical conditions, multidisciplinary TBI rehabilitation teams can identify patients who require more aggressive treatments or greater length of stay. PMID:27365869

  9. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  10. Impact of gender and age on executive functioning: do girls and boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder differ neuropsychologically in preteen and teenage years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C; Valera, Eve; Doyle, Alysa E; Faraone, Stephen V

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is known to have neuropsychological correlates, characterized mainly by executive function (EF) deficits. However, most available data are based on studies of boys through age 12. Our goal was to assess whether girls with ADHD express neuropsychological features similar to those found in boys, and whether these impairments are found in both preteen and teen samples. Participants were 101 girls and 103 boys with DSM-III-R ADHD, and 109 comparison girls and 70 boys without ADHD, ages 9 to 17 years. Information on neuropsychological performance was obtained in a standardized manner blind to clinical status. Primary regression analyses controlled for age, socioeconomic status, learning disability, and psychiatric comorbidity. Girls and boys with ADHD were significantly more impaired on some measures of EFs than healthy comparisons but did not differ significantly from each other. With the exception of 1 test score there were no significant Sex x Diagnosis interactions. Moreover, there were no more significant interactions among age, gender, and diagnosis than would be expected by chance. Neuropsychological measures of EFs were comparably impaired in girls compared to boys with ADHD, and these impairments are found at ages 9 to 12 and ages 13 to 17. These findings suggest that executive dysfunctions are correlates of ADHD regardless of gender and age, at least through the late teen years. PMID:15737943

  11. Does Retirement Affect Cognitive Functioning?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsang, E.D.M.; S. Adam; S Perelman

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of retirement on cognitive functioning using two large scale surveys. On the one hand the HRS, a longitudinal survey among individuals aged 50+ living in the United States, allows us to control for individual heterogeneity and endogeneity of the retirement decision by using the eligibility age for Social Security as an instrument. On the other hand, a comparable international European survey, SHARE, allows us to identify the causal effect of retirement on cognit...

  12. Does Retirement Affect Cognitive Functioning?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsang, Eric; Adam, Stéphane; Perelman, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of retirement on cognitive functioning using two large scale surveys. On the one hand the HRS, a longitudinal survey among individuals aged 50+ living in the United States, allows us to control for individual heterogeneity and endogeneity of the retirement decision by using the eligibility age for Social Security as an instrument. On the other hand, a comparable international European survey, SHARE, allows us to identify the causal effect of retir...

  13. Validating neuropsychological subtypes of ADHD: how do children with and without an executive function deficit differ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD).......The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD)....

  14. Influence of personality and neuropsychological ability on social functioning and self-management in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierck, Esther; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-10-30

    A majority of bipolar patients (BD) show functional difficulties even in remission. In recent years cognitive functions and personality characteristics have been associated with occupational and psychosocial outcomes, but findings are not consistent. We assessed personality and cognitive functioning through a range of tests in BD and control participants. Three cognitive domains-verbal memory, facial-executive, and spatial memory-were extracted by principal component analysis. These factors and selected personality dimensions were included in hierarchical regression analysis to predict psychosocial functioning and the use of self-management strategies while controlling for mood status. The best determinants of good psychosocial functioning were good verbal memory and high self-directedness. The use of self-management techniques was associated with a low level of harm-avoidance. Our findings indicate that strategies to improve memory and self-directedness may be useful for increasing functioning in individuals with bipolar disorder. PMID:26282228

  15. Neuropsychological correlates of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R A; Rosenbaum, A; Kane, R L; Warnken, W J; Benjamin, S

    1999-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning was assessed in 39 males who had committed domestic violence (batterers) and compared to 63 nonviolent (both maritally discordant and satisfied) subjects recruited by advertisement. Subjects were subsequently divided into two groups (head injured, nonhead injured) and these groups were also contrasted as a function of batterer status. Tests were administered to assess for cognitive and behavioral functions, including executive dysfunction, hypothesized to be a factor contributing to propensity for violence. Questionnaires and structured clinical interviews were used to assess marital discord, emotional distress, and violent behaviors. Batterers differed from nonbatterers across several cognitive domains: executive, learning, memory, and verbal functioning. Batterers were reliably discriminated from nonbatterers based on three neuropsychological tasks: Digit Symbol, Recognition Memory Test-Words, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuropsychological performance was the strongest correlate of domestic violence of all clinical variables measured. However, the inclusion of two other variables, severity of emotional distress and history of head injury, together with the neuropsychological indices provided the strongest correlation with batterers status. Among batterers, neuropsychological performance did not vary as a function of head injury status, indicating that while prior head injury was correlated with batterer status, it was not the sole basis for their impairments. The findings suggest that current cognitive status, prior brain injury, childhood academic problems, as well as psychosocial influences, contribute along with coexisting emotional distress to a propensity for domestic violence. PMID:10751047

  16. Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Spek, Annelies A; Scholte, Evert M.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2010-01-01

    Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the self-reports did show higher levels of local information processing and a stronger tendency to use systemizing strategies in the two disorder groups. Absent a...

  17. Validating Neuropsychological Subtypes of ADHD: How Do Children "with" and "without" an Executive Function Deficit Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD). Method: Children with ADHD - EFD (n = 22) and children with ADHD + EFD (n = 26) were compared on aspects of…

  18. DIETARY MANGANESE INTAKE AND TYPE OF LIPID DO NOT AFFECT CLINICAL OR NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES IN HEALTHY YOUNG WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because manganese (Mn) is potentially toxic, and because dietary fat type may affect Mn absorption, the objectives of the current study were to determine whether diets containing very low or very high amounts of Mn and enriched in either saturated or unsaturated fats affected measures of neuropsycho...

  19. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. Wilson; F. Happé; S.J. Wheelwright; C. Ecker; M.V. Lombardo; P. Johnston; E. Daly; C.M. Murphy; D. Spain; M-C. Lai; B Chakrabarti; D.A. Sauter; - MRC AIMS Consortium; S. Baron-Cohen; D.G.M. Murphy

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of c

  20. Impaired Executive Functions in Subjects with Frequent Nightmares as Reflected by Performance in Different Neuropsychological Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simor, Peter; Pajkossy, Peter; Horvath, Klara; Bodizs, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Nightmare disorder is a prevalent parasomnia characterized by vivid and highly unpleasant dream experiences during night time sleep. The neural background of disturbed dreaming was proposed to be associated with impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic functioning during REM sleep. We hypothesized that the impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic…

  1. Neuropsychologic function in children with brain tumors. III. Interval changes in the six months following treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-six children with primary brain tumors were studied prospectively with regard to their sensorimotor, intellectual, academic, and emotional status. Serial evaluations were conducted after surgery (pre-irradiation) and six months after the completion of radiation therapy. The timing of the second evaluation was chosen so as to antedate the late effects of irradiation. Children over 6 years old displayed significant improvement of intellectual function over time, with only 11% exhibiting deterioration on one or more cognitive parameters. In contrast, 68% of younger children clinically deteriorated in one or more areas of intellectual functioning, with prominent difficulties in memory and selective attention for age. Children under 6 years old with supratentorial tumors were less likely than those with posterior fossa tumors to improve their cognitive performance. At the second evaluation, 23% of the patients were functioning below normal (IQ less than 80) intellectually, with 50% of the younger children and 11% of the older children receiving special educational assistance. Approximately 40-50% of the patients manifested emotional adjustment problems at each evaluation. The results are discussed in terms of the clinical need to follow similar patient populations with formal psychological assessments over time, and in terms of the difficulties involved in defining factors that determine the functional status of children surviving brain tumors

  2. Breakfast consumption has no effect on neuropsychological functioning in children: A repeated-measures clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many studies have investigated the relation between breakfast consumption and various domains of cognitive functioning within children, some of the reported findings are inconsistent. The goal of this study was to determine the short-term effects of a breakfast meal on the neuropsychologica...

  3. Relations of neuropsychological functioning and depressive symptoms to school achievement in children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kollerová, Lenka; Preiss, M.; Janošová, Pavlína

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2012), s. 250-251. ISSN 0887-0446. [Conference of European Health Psychology Society: Resilience and Health /26./. 21.08.2012-25.08.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2325 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : depressive symptoms * executive functions * school achievement Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  4. [Evaluation of dreams by the neuropsychological approach. Utility in the characterization of cerebral correlates in oneiric activity by functional neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquet, P; Schwartz, M S

    2002-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies show that human REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. While being usually interpreted in relation to physiological and cellular mechanisms, the regionally-specific distribution of brain activity during REM sleep may also be linked to specific dream features. Remarkably, several bizarre features of dreams present similarities with wellknown neuropsychological syndromes after brain damage, such as delusional misidentifications for faces and places. We propose that neuropsychological analysis of dream content might offer new ways of interpreting neuroimaging maps, as well as specific predictions for future neuroimaging studies. PMID:12508717

  5. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, C. Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V.; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A.; ,; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and...

  6. The dynamic functional capacity theory: A neuropsychological model of intense emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Klineburger, Philip C; Harrison, David W

    2015-01-01

    The music-evoked emotion literature implicates many brain regions involved in emotional processing but is currently lacking a model that specifically explains how they temporally and dynamically interact to produce intensely pleasurable emotions. A conceptual model, the dynamic functional capacity theory (DFCT), is proposed and provides a foundation for the further understanding of how brain regions interact to produce intensely pleasurable emotions. The DFCT claims that brain regions mediati...

  7. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources-including clinical history. PMID:24903974

  8. The dynamic functional capacity theory: A neuropsychological model of intense emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Klineburger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The music-evoked emotion literature implicates many brain regions involved in emotional processing but is currently lacking a model that specifically explains how they temporally and dynamically interact to produce intensely pleasurable emotions. A conceptual model, the dynamic functional capacity theory (DFCT, is proposed and provides a foundation for the further understanding of how brain regions interact to produce intensely pleasurable emotions. The DFCT claims that brain regions mediating emotion and arousal regulation have a limited functional capacity that can be exceeded by intense stimuli. The prefrontal cortex is hypothesized to abruptly deactivate when this happens, resulting in the inhibitory release of sensory cortices, the limbic system, the reward-circuit, and the brainstem reticular activating system, causing “unbridled” activation of these areas. This process is hypothesized to produce extremely intense emotions. This theory may provide—music-evoked emotion researchers and music therapy researchers—a theoretical foundation for continued research and complement current theories of emotion.

  9. COGNITIVE AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS, WHILE THE FIRST EPISODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A EBRAHIMI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is assumed that the process of schizophrenia effect on patient"s cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to examine and to compare cognitive profile of patients with that of control group. Methods: 40 patients with schizophrenia were selected from Isfahan Noor Hospital. 40 non-patients as control group were selected and matched on the base of age, sex, education, economic status. Cognitive functions of two groups were assessed by WAlS-R. Results: Results show that schizophrenic patients appear at a lower level of IQ than control group. Nonverbal IQ was more impaired than the other kind of IQ in patients. Cognitive profile analysis reveals that patients had low scores on all of the WAlS-R subscles except information and word subscales. Discussion: These findings show that schizophrenic patients in the first episode of theire illness reveal a remarkable impairment on inteligence performance. Cognitive profile analysis indicates that schizophrenic patients performer significatly at a lower level in comparison with control group, in: abstraction, visual - special perception, verbal and non-verbal conceptualization, social judgment, attention, motor-visual organization and mental flexibility.

  10. Memory in myasthenia gravis: neuropsychological tests of central cholinergic function before and after effective immunologic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, A; Palace, J; Warburton, D; Oxbury, S; Newsom-Davis, J

    1996-04-01

    There are reports of central cholinergic deficits in myasthenia gravis (MG) describing impaired performance on a variety of tests of memory with varying benefits from plasmapheresis. We tested 11 patients with symptomatic MG at the start of a trial of immunosuppressive treatment (prednisolone plus azathioprine or placebo) and again when in remission. The tests included the Logical Memory and Design Reproduction parts of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Peterson-Peterson task, and an auditory vigilance task. Muscle strength improved significantly over the period of treatment, but overall performance on tests of memory or attention did not. These results fail to substantiate reports of functionally significant and reversible central deficits in myasthenia gravis. PMID:8780106

  11. Effects of Perinatal Exposure to PCBs on Neuropsychological Functions in the Rotterdam Cohort at 9 Years of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, H.J.I.; Emmen, H.H.; Mulder, P.G.H.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.

    2004-01-01

    PCBs are known for their neurotoxic properties, especially on the developing brain. To increase insight into the neurotoxic effects of PCB exposure, the authors studied the effects of perinatal exposure to environmental levels of these compounds on different neuropsychological domains. In 9-year-old

  12. TECHNOLOGY & NEUROPSYCHOLOGY: TOWARDS A CYBER – NEUROPSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Soto - Pérez; Manuel Franco Martin; Fernando Jimenez Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Technologies have penetrated all walks of human beings. Numerous technological advances have been developed in the field of neuropsychology, but they are not usually used in daily care. In this regard, it are developed some reflections on the difficulties and of the process of implementing technology solutions in the field of neuropsychology.

  13. Neuropsychology, Social Cognition and Global Functioning Among Bipolar, Schizophrenic Patients and Healthy Controls: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eCaletti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD, schizophrenic patients (SKZ and healthy controls (HC. The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30, euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 18. Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however the differences did not influence the results. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to schizophrenic patients, even in ecological tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p

  14. Contributions to Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Arthur L., Ed.

    Seven aspects of neuropsychology are discussed including modern trends in neuropsychology by Klaus Poeck, the behavioral effect s of commissural section by George Ettlinger and Colin B. Blakemore, neuropsychological studies of phantom limbs by Sidney Weinstein, and problems in the anatomical understanding of aphasias by Norman Geschwind. Also…

  15. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  16. Neuropsychology, Fact or Mythology, Educational Help or Hindrance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddes, William H.

    1981-01-01

    A rationale is presented for the use of neuropsychological knowledge in the better understanding and treatment of the learning disabled child by the school psychologist. Neuropsychological classifications of brain function and behavior are discussed in order to help psychologists recognize those cases appropriate for neuropsychological assessment.…

  17. Tourette Syndrome neuropsychological profile: a study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Gomes da Silva Almeida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses findings resulting from the neuro-psychological assessment of an adolescent with Tourette Syndrome (TS, a rare neuro-developmental disorder characterized by the manifestation of physical and/or audible tics that emerge in childhood or early adolescence. Although we performed an extensive assessment of all cognitive functions, our reported findings focus on those functions that are described in prior research as relevant to the understanding of the cognitive profile of patients with this condition. The findings reported here are consistent with other reports and suggest that intellectual and long-term memory potentials are preserved, while noting deficiencies in executive functioning, reduced speed of mental and psycho-motor functions, and decreased recent memory capacity. Given the rarity of this diagnosis, our reporting of this case should contribute to the understanding of cognitive function in adolescents with TS. In addition, this article highlights and describes factors that affect the quality of neuropsychological assessment and facilitate accurate therapeutical diagnosis and referral for TS carriers.

  18. Long-Term Low-Level Arsenic Exposure Is Associated with Poorer Neuropsychological Functioning: A Project FRONTIER Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sid E. O’Bryant; Edwards, Melissa; Chloe V. Menon; Gong, Gordon; Barber, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to elements in groundwater (toxic or beneficial) is commonplace yet, outside of lead and mercury, little research has examined the impact of many commonly occurring environmental exposures on mental abilities during the aging process. Inorganic arsenic is a known neurotoxin that has both neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the potential association between current and long-term arsenic exposure and detailed neuropsychological funct...

  19. Surgical results in patients with unruptured asymptomatic cerebral aneurysms. Significance of evaluation of neuropsychological function, magnetic resonance images and cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated neuropsychological function, magnetic resonance (MR) images and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with unruptured asymptomatic cerebral aneurysms. Among consecutive operations (n=73) on 70 patients since 2000, direct surgery was performed in 53 operations on 50 patients, and intravascular surgery was performed in 20 operations on 20 patients. Surgical results of direct surgery were studied. Direct surgery was selected mainly for patients with small and anterior circulation aneurysms. MR imaging was conducted 1 week after surgery, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) examination and CBF measurement using 133Xe-SPECT were done before and 1 month after surgery. Abnormal neurological findings were recognized postoperatively in 26% of surgeries. Among them, visual disturbance was permanent in 4% of surgeries, all of which were surgeries for paraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysms. WAIS-R results deteriorated in 26% of surgeries at 1 month and at least in 5% of surgeries at 1 year after surgery. MR images at 1 week after surgery revealed brain damage in 30% of surgeries and subdural fluid collection in 19% of surgeries. Patients with large brain damage or thick subdural fluid collection frequently showed neurological deficits and/or WAISR deterioration. These complications were recognized frequently in patients with ACoA aneurysms. Resting CBF decreased significantly in the area supplied by the anterior cerebral artery and anterior border zone on the operated side postoperatively. The brain damage and subdural fluid collection were observed frequently and caused neurological deficits and neuropsychological dysfunction, although these were usually transient. It may be necessary to evaluate neuropsychological function, MRI and CBF in patients with unruptured asymptomatic cerebral aneurysms to improve surgical results. (author)

  20. Immediate treatment effects of high-dose methotrexate and cranial irradiation on neuropsychological functions of children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia at a regional cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaramoorthy Chidambaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Overall cure rates for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL have improved; however, the neuropsychological sequelae of ALL treatment have not been adequately documented in India. Aims: The present study assesses the immediate effects of ALL treatment on neuropsychological functioning, at the Regional Cancer Center in Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: Newly diagnosed with ALL patients (n = 24 (aged 6-15 years; 13M:11F registered between March 2008 and February 2009 were included. Patients who had received high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX and cranial radiotherapy (CRT as part of their treatment were enrolled for the study. Neurocognitive assessments were done to assess various functions such as performance intelligence, visuo-perception, visuo-spatial, perceptual organization, processing speed, planning, working memory, and immediate verbal memory (IVM (Malin′s intelligence scale; verbal fluency (ideation fluency test and verbal attention (vigilance test. Three assessments were done during induction (baseline, after re-induction phase (second and during the maintenance phase (third. Results: The patients performed significantly worse in the third assessment (mean duration from diagnosis 17.48 months on performance intelligence quotient (PIQ, visuo-perception, visuo-spatial, processing speed, planning, IVM, verbal attention, and verbal fluency (P 0.05. Significant difference was observed between age groups 6 and 10 (41.7% and 11-15 years (58.3% in perceptual organization, verbal fluency, and verbal attention (P 0.05. Conclusions: Combining HD MTX and CRT had an immediate effect on neuropsychological sequelae among the children with ALL, however, long-term evaluation is recommended to study the long-term effects.

  1. Affective symptoms and cognitive functions in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Elberling, Tina V; Hørding, Merete;

    2007-01-01

    problems. No significant differences between the patient and the control group on neuropsychological test performances were found. Thyroid levels did not correlate with the neuropsychological test performances or psychiatric ratings. After reaching euthyroidism the level of affective symptoms (including......In the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis patients often have subjective cognitive complaints. Continuing controversy exists about the nature of these symptoms and whether they persist after treatment. This prospective study included 31 consecutively referred, newly diagnosed, and untreated...

  2. Neuropsychological deficits in BPD patients and the moderator effects of co-occurring mental disorders: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt; J Richman, Mara

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have co-occurring disorders; literature has also suggested that BPD patients have impairments in neuropsychological functioning, as seen in a previous meta-analysis (Ruocco, 2005). This meta-analysis showed that neuropsychological functioning are marked areas of concern in BPD; however, this meta-analytic research did not assess the effects of co-occurring disorders on neuropsychological functioning in BPD patients. The current meta-analysis takes this into consideration and a systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with BPD with age-matched healthy comparison subjects was carried out. Potential moderators (i.e., age, gender, education level, and co-morbid mental disorders) were analyzed. Significant deficits were observed in the decision making, memory, executive functioning, processing speed, verbal intelligence, and visuospatial abilities. BPD patients with more education and with parents of a higher educational level had better neuropsychological functioning. Globally, BPD samples with a higher percentage of co-morbid personality disorders, major depression, eating disorders, or any substance abuse disorders performed worse than patients with a less percentage; however, anxiety disorders and PTSD co-morbidity did not affect the cognitive performance of the BPD group. Differences are seen dependent on neuropsychological domain and specific co-morbidity. These findings highlight the clinical relevance of characterizing cognitive functioning in BPD and the importance of considering demographic and clinical moderators in future analyses. PMID:26708387

  3. Vitamin D, Physical Performance and Neuropsychological Functioning in Elderly Subjects:The Pro.V.A Study

    OpenAIRE

    Toffanello, Elena D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the past two decades, it has become evident that the role of vitamin D extends beyond calcium homoeostasis.1 Vitamin D metabolites have been found to affect muscle metabolism by stimulating de novo protein synthesis, increasing the proportion of type II muscle fibers and improving muscle function.2 Moreover Vitamin D receptors seem to be widespread in brain tissue and vitamin D’s biologically active form (1,25OHD3) has shown neuroprotective effects including the clearance of...

  4. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subho Chakrabarti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and can induce hypothyroidism or exacerbate a preexisting hypothyroid state. Even minor perturbations of the HPT axis may affect the outcome of bipolar disorder, necessitating careful monitoring of thyroid functions of patients on treatment. Supplementation with high dose thyroxine can be considered in some patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitter, neuroimaging, and genetic studies have begun to provide clues, which could lead to an improved understanding of the thyroid-bipolar disorder connection, and more optimal ways of managing this potentially disabling condition.

  5. [Neuropsychology, plasticity and childhood epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassonde, Maryse; Sauerwein, Hannelore C

    2007-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequent childhood disorders. While most cases are well controlled, approximately 30-50% are resistant to medical treatment. In these cases, neurosurgery may be an option. Since 1979, our team at the Sainte-Justine Hospital in Montreal has studied the impact of epilepsy on the psycho-motor and cognitive development of the affected children. The aim of a first series of studies was to explore the extent and limits of cerebral plasticity by investigating the neuropsychological sequelae of early versus late callosotomy and hemispherectomy. In keeping with the plasticity hypothesis, the results revealed that the children who were operated before puberty showed fewer deficits than those operated during adolescence or adulthood. However, the compensatory mechanisms available to them appeared to be limited with respect to the nature and complexity of the information they can process. For instance, young children having undergone section of the corpus callosum resembled individuals born without a corpus callosum (callosal agenesis) in that there did not show the typical disconnection deficits seen in adult ''split-brain'' patients. However, they exhibited deficits on tasks requiring interhemispheric integration of motor and visuo-motor information. By the same token, hemispherectomy patients were still able to make visual judgements in their ''blind'' visual field but they were found to be impaired on a variety of visual and auditory tasks (localization of a sound sources in space) requiring the participation of both hemispheres. In a second series of studies, carried out in collaboration with a Parisian team, we intended to describe the neuropsychological profile of focal epilepsies, specifically frontal and temporal epilepsy. Contrary to the common belief that childhood epilepsy would result in diffuse impairments, we were able to demonstrate that children manifest the same localized deficits as adult patients. In studies presently underway in

  6. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani S. Durvasula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall. Dementia occurs in a relatively small proportion of HIV infected individuals, though milder NP deficits are observed in 30-50% of persons with advanced disease. Recent evidence suggests that drug users, especially stimulant users, are at risk for accelerated progression of their HIV disease, including a greater risk of neuropsychological dysfunction. Methamphetamine may potentiate HIV Tat protein mediated neurotoxicity giving rise to striatal proinflammatory cytokine stimulation and activation of redox-regulated transcription factors. Oxidative stress due to mitochondrial dysfunction is another candidate process underlying the synergistic effects of stimulant use and HIV. Damage to neurotransmitter systems including the dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems which are affected by both stimulant use and HIV is an alternate explanation. Methamphetamine has also been shown to impede the effectiveness of HAART, which could then in turn allow for more rapid HIV disease progression. A greater prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly mood, anxiety and substance use disorders are also observed in HIV positive samples relative to the general population. The changing nature of the HIV pandemic is an ongoing challenge to investigators and clinicians working in this field. Emerging issues requiring additional attention are study of the interactive effects of normal aging and HIV on neurocognition as well as study of the effects of co

  7. Does selenium supplementation affect thyroid function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Cold, Frederik;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selenium is present in the active site of proteins important for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation in different doses on thyroid function, under conditions of suboptimal dietary selenium intake......, and after 6 months, and 5 years of supplementation. RESULTS: Plasma selenium concentrations increased significantly and dose-dependently in treatment groups receiving selenium (P<0.001). Serum TSH and FT4 concentrations decreased significantly and dose-dependently by 0.066 mIU/l (P=0.010) and 0.......11 pmol/l (P=0.015), respectively, per 100 μg/day increase, with insignificant differences between 6 months and 5 years. No significant effects were found for FT3 and FT3:FT4 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In euthyroid subjects, selenium supplementation minutely and dose-dependently affects thyroid function, when...

  8. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Durvasula, Ramani S; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall...

  9. Reflections on clinical neuropsychology: a multifaceted approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ruis, C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychology is a rapidly growing, independent discipline with a broad work field. Neuropsychologists are working in hospitals, rehabilitation centres, nursing homes, forensic organisations and research institutes. One of the most important instruments of a neuropsychologist in assessing the behavioural expression of brain functions is the neuropsychological examination. This examination can have different purposes: 1. Diagnosis 2. Patient care 3. Treatment 4. Research The aim of this thes...

  10. Recognizing and identifying people: A neuropsychological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jason J S; Corrow, Sherryse L

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing people is a classic example of a cognitive function that involves multiple processing stages and parallel routes of information. Neuropsychological data have provided important evidence for models of this process, particularly from case reports; however, the quality and extent of the data varies widely between studies. In this review we first discuss the requirements and logical basis of the types of neuropsychological evidence to support conclusions about the modules in this process. We then survey the adequacy of the current body of reports to address two key issues. First is the question of which cognitive operation generates a sense of familiarity: the current debate revolves around whether familiarity arises in modality-specific recognition units or later amodal processes. Key evidence on this point comes from the search for dissociations between familiarity for faces, voices and names. The second question is whether lesions can differentially affect the abilities to link diverse sources of person information (e.g., face, voice, name, biographic data). Dissociations of these linkages may favor a 'distributed-only' model of the organization of semantic knowledge, whereas a 'person-hub' model would predict uniform impairments of all linkages. While we conclude that there is reasonable evidence for dissociations in name, voice and face familiarity in regards to the first question, the evidence for or against dissociated linkages between information stores in regards to the second question is tenuous at best. We identify deficiencies in the current literature that should motivate and inform the design of future studies. PMID:26773237

  11. Influence of depressed mood on neuropsychologic performance in HIV-seropositive drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Justo, Enrique; Rodríguez Alvarez, Marina; Ferraces Otero, Maria J

    2003-06-01

    Some studies point out that depression affects the performance of HIV patients in neuropsychological tasks, but at present this effect is not clear. The purpose of the present paper was to study whether the presence of symptoms of depression affects the neuropsychologic performance of seropositive drug users in tasks of attention/concentration, learning and memory, language, construction and visuospatial function, speed of motor performance, cognitive flexibility, manual skill and concept formation and reasoning. In order to carry out this research a sample consisting of 127 male volunteer subjects was used. These subjects were distributed in four groups: one group consisted of HIV-seropositive drug users with symptoms of depression (n = 33); the second group consisted of HIV-seropositive drug users without symptoms of depression (n = 47); the third group was formed by HIV-seronegative drug users with symptoms of depression (n = 15) and the fourth group was formed by HIV-seronegative drug users without symptoms of depression (n = 32). The results reveal the effect of symptoms of depression (evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory) on the neuropsychologic performance of seropositive drug users. This effect, however, was not observed in the seronegative group. These findings lead us to suggest that symptoms of depression constitute a risk factor for presenting neuropsychologic disturbances in seropositive subjects, which could well be acting as a factor that foments the neuropsychological effects of HIV. PMID:12753563

  12. Neuropsychology in Multiple Sclerosis: A literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodneys Mauricio Jiménez Morales

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by demyelination and degeneration. The objective of this article is to offer a review of the latest scientific discoveries in the field of neuropsychology in ME. A description is presented of the most frequent neuropsychological manifestations and their probable association with other factors such as: school level, fatigue, disability, cerebral dysfunction, time and clinical form of evolution, as well as depression and other states of mind starting from recent evidences in the scientific community. Also addressed is the development of tests and valid sensitive neuropsychological sets to evaluate cognitive functions. The use of sensitive and specific test facilitates the evaluation of neuropsychological alterations associated to ME, besides other socio-demographic and clinical-evaluative factors to contemplate in the exploration.

  13. 人脑神经心理功能的DTI研究%Diffusion tensor imaging research on some neuropsychological function of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冠勇; 刘远健

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨MR弥散张量成像( DTI)技术在记忆、学习、语言、音乐及思维活动相关脑区白质纤维的研究进展。方法在 Medline 和 Embase 数据库,以“diffusion tensor imaging”与“memory”、“study”、“language”、“music”、“cognition”等为关键词,检索2015年6月之前发表的MR DTI技术研究有关心理神经功能的文章进行分析总结。对检索到100余篇文献进行筛选,以近5年发表在较权威期刊者优先纳入,主要文献32篇。结果人脑白质纤维通过记忆、学习、语言、音乐及认知活动可发生重塑性改变。结论 MR DTI技术作为一种能无创显示活体内脑白质纤维变化的技术,可广泛应用于各种认知训练及神经心理功能研究。%Objective To explore the progress of neuropsychological profile on memory, study, language, music, and cognition with diffusion tensor imaging(DTI). Methods A computer-based online database of Medline and Embase were undertaken to identify all articles about neuropsychological activities and diffusion tensor imaging with the key words of "memory, study, language, music, and cognition"published from January 2004 to June 2015. The search involved in more than 100 articles, as the key 32 of them were issued on authority magazines recently. Results The white matter fiber of human brain can be changed and remodeled through memory, learning, language, music and cognitive activity. Conclusions As a kind of technology to display the changing white matter construction of brain in vivo, magnetic resonance DTI are widely used in research on a variety of neuropsychological function as well as cognitive training.

  14. Neuropsychological characteristics of dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cruz-Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the neuropsychological characteristics of dyslexic children. Seventy-three children underwent neuropsychological assessment and were divided into two groups: a group with dyslexia (DG; n=39 and a control group (CG; n= 34. A general linear model showed a significant difference between the groups regarding the following abilities: reading, writing and mathematics; forward and backward digit span tasks; semantic and phonological fluency; number of completed categories and total number of cards in the Wisconsin Cards Sorting Test; as well as right and left discrimination on self and on other. These results suggest impairment in executive functions, phonological working memory and semantic memory among dyslexic children, rather than impairment of just phonological abilities, as suggested in previous studies.

  15. Pulmonary Function Affects Language Performance in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewina O Lee

    2014-04-01

    associated with better ES performance (B = 6.64, SE = 2.43, p = .01. Higher FVC and FEV1 were related to better MN performance, but this did not reach statistical significance (FVC: B = 3.68, SE = 2.16, p = .09; FEV1: B = 4.92, SE = 2.64, p = .06. Higher FVC (B = 3.98, SE = 1.44, p = .01 and FEV1 (B = 4.79, SE = 1.75, p = .01 were associated with better ANT performance. The positive association between PF and BNT performance was marginally significant (FVC: B = 4.19, SE = 2.18, p = .06; FEV1: B = 3.51, SE = 2.66, p = .10. Discussion and Conclusion Better PF was associated with higher accuracy on sentence processing and naming-based lexical retrieval tasks, consistent with the conclusion that pulmonary function affects older adults’ language performance. Our findings support the emerging thesis that language changes in aging are influenced by health-related physiological and neural mechanisms (e.g., Albert et al., 2009; Cahana-Amitay et al., 2013. From a clinical perspective, these findings highlight the promise of targeting PF as an intervention for improving language abilities among the elderly.

  16. Neuropsychology of Illiteracy

    OpenAIRE

    Rosselli, M

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that analysis of illiteracy can not only discern the influence of schooling background on neuropsychological test performance, but also contributes to obtaining a better understanding about the cerebral organization of cognitive activity. Brain organization of cognition, and cognitive sequelae of brain pathology in illiterates are reviewed. It is concluded that: (1) cognitive abilities, as measured by standard neuropsychological tests, are significantly influenced by schooling ...

  17. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology. PMID:20582855

  18. Toward a model of neuropsychological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, A; Galeano, L M; Rosselli, M

    1998-12-01

    The main purpose of this research was to establish the intercorrelations existing among different psychological and neuropsychological test scores in a normal and homogeneous population. A second purpose was to attempt further step in the component analysis of cognitive activity measured by means of neuropsychological tests. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was assembled and individually administered to a 300-subject sample, aged 17-25 year-old. All of them were right-handed male university students. The battery included some basic neuropsychological tests directed to assess language, calculation abilities, spatial cognition, praxic abilities, memory, perceptual abilities, and executive functions. In addition, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was administered. Forty-one different scores were calculated. Correlations among the different test scores were analyzed. It was found that some of the tests presented a quite complex intecorrelation system, whereas other tests presented few or no significant correlations. Mathematical ability tests and orthography knowledge represented the best predictors of Full Scale IQ. A factor analysis with varimax rotation disclosed five factors (verbal, visuoperceptual, executive function, fine movements, and memory) accounting for 63.6% of the total variance. Implications of these results for a neuropsychological model about brain organization of cognition were analyzed. PMID:9951709

  19. Cerebellar mutism syndrome and its relation to cerebellar cognitive and affective function: Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Ozlem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors of the cerebellum and brainstem account for half of all brain tumors in children. The realization that cerebellar lesions produce clinically relevant intellectual disability makes it important to determine whether neuropsychological abnormalities occur in long-term survivors of pediatric cerebellar tumors. Little is known about the neurobehavioral sequale resulting specifically from the resection of these tumors in this population. We therefore reviewed neuropsychological findings associated with postoperative cerebellar mutism syndrome and discuss the further implications for cerebellar cognitive function.

  20. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of executive function in a sample of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bandeira de Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the executive functions of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy with a control group and to correlate with clinical data, intelligence and academic performance. Method Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study. Thirty-one cases and thirty-five controls were evaluated by the WCST (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.The results were compared with clinical data (seizure type and frequency, disease duration and number of antiepileptic drugs used, IQ (WISC-III and academic performance (APT. Results Patients with epilepsy had poorer executive function scores. There was no positive linear correlation between test scores and epilepsy variables. There was a positive association between academic performance and some executive function results. Conclusion Children with well controlled idiopathic epilepsy may show deficits in executive functions in spite of clinical variables. Those deficits may influence academic performance.

  1. The impact of preexisting illness and substance use on functional and neuropsychological outcomes following traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dahdah, Marie N.; Barnes, Sunni A.; Buros, Amy; Allmon, Andrew; Dubiel, Rosemary; Dunklin, Cynthia; Callender, Librada; Shafi, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the US. Specific preexisting medical illnesses delay recovery after TBI and increase mortality or risk of repeat TBI. This study examined the impact of preexisting illness and substance use on patient rehabilitation outcomes following TBI. The Functional Independence Measure total score and Disability Rating Scale score measured functional outcomes at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, while the Trail Making Test A a...

  2. Neuropsychological Assessment of a New Computerized Cognitive Task that Was Developed to Train Several Cognitive Functions Simultaneously

    OpenAIRE

    Ichihara-Takeda, Satoe; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ikeda, Nozomu; Matsuyama, Kiyoji; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that computerized cognitive training is effective as therapy for reducing the cognitive decline with aging and the dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatric illness. Although cognitive trainings that targets a specific function and multi-domain cognitive training have both been shown to have significant effects, we need one simple behavioral training paradigm to improve multiple domains of cognitive functions easily and simultaneously. We had developed a new c...

  3. Applying Clinical Neuropsychology in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federhar, David B.

    Neuropsychology is an area in which the functioning or integrity of the brain is linked to measurable human behavior. This paper describes the use of the Reitan batteries (Reitan and Davison; 1974) in public school settings for documenting and prescribing appropriate academic programs. Three individual case studies are presented. Case 1 is a 16…

  4. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barowsky, Ellis I.

    1990-01-01

    The Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery identifies cognitive deficits and localizes specific brain impairment in individuals age 15 or older. The instrument uses visual stimulus cards and an audiotape to assess performance in such areas as tactile functions, speech, arithmetic, and memory. This paper examines test administration, summation…

  5. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in euthymic Adult Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I: Neuropsychological and Neurofunctional Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Vargas Upegui; Andrés Correa-Palacio; Jenny García; Carlos López-Jaramillo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging during the euthymic phase of bipolar disorder type I have been performed in the last decade. A critical review of the findings is therefore required. Methods: The major databases (Pubmed, EMBASE, Lilacs, and Scielo) were consulted searching studies of fMRI in euthymic adults with Bipolar disorder type I without timeframe limits. Results: The neuroanatomical and neuropsycholo gical findings are presented in two parts: 1)...

  6. Executive Function and Attention Profiles of Children with ADHD and / or Reading Disorder: Developmental Neuropsychology and Genetic Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Marzocchi,

    2006-01-01

    The object of this study was to analyze Attention and EF in children with ADHD and/or Reading Disability. Four groups of children aged between 7 and 12 years (38 ADHD-only, 39 RD-only, 17 ADHD+RD and 37 Normal Controls) were tested Energization Processing, Executive Functioning (Inhibition, Set-shifting, Strategy Application and Verbal Fluency) and Episodic Memory. Children with ADHD-only may present a double deficit of Energization and Strategy Application. Energization and Inhibition defici...

  7. Does Acquired Hypothyroidism Affect the Hearing Functions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Arduç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that congenital hypothyroidism can cause hearing loss. However, conflicting results were found in studies investigating hearing functions in acquired hypothyroidism. Therefore, we evaluated the audiometric findings in patients with acquired hypothyroidism. Material and Method: The study included 58 patients with hypothyroidism and age- and gender-matched 34 healthy controls. Twenty eight (48.27% patients had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 30 (51.73% had obvious hypothyroidism. All subjects had a normal otoscopic examination and tympanometry. Pure tone audiometry at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hertz (Hz was performed in both groups. Blood pressure measurements and the levels of plasma electrolytes, lipids and vitamin B12 were available in all subjects. Results: Hypothyroidism group and control group were similar with respect to systolic and diastolic blood pressures and plasma glucose, lipid, vitamin B12, calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride levels. Significantly higher audiometric thresholds (dB at 250 (10 (0-45 vs. 5 (0-15, p<0.001 and 500 Hz (10 (0-40 vs. 10 (-5-15, p=0.003 were recorded in hypothyroid patients compared to that in healthy controls. Hearing thresholds at 250 and 500 Hz correlated positively with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, and negatively with free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had a higher hearing threshold at 250 Hz than healthy controls (p=0.001. Discussion: Our study demonstrated that hearing ability decreases in hypothyroidism, even in subclinical hypothyroidism. The changes in TSH and thyroid hormone levels seem to be directly related to the hearing loss in this population of patients.

  8. Forensic neuropsychology: a selective introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilandas, A J; Touyz, S W

    1983-07-01

    During the last decade, neuropsychology has emerged as one of the fastest growing disciplines within clinical psychology. One of the most important roles for neuropsychologists is their contribution to the forensic sciences. The present paper reviews how lawyers may best utilize the services of clinical neuropsychologists. Suggestions are also offered to neuropsychologists on how better to meet the needs of lawyers. The following forensic science issues are discussed: the legal framework in which neuropsychologists function; contributions psychologists may make towards answering basic medicolegal questions such as the elucidation of the nature, extent, and duration of head injury sequelae; criteria for acceptable neuropsychological reports; medicolegal aspects of severe head injury, minor head injury (posttraumatic syndrome), and pseudo-head injury (malingering). There are many causes of damage to the nervous system (for example, industrial toxins and medical malpractice) that are eligible for compensation. Examples will be confined to head injury since the basic forensic science principles remain the same, whatever the etiology of such brain damage. PMID:6619781

  9. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters a...

  10. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  11. Executive Function in Adolescence: A Commentary on Regulatory Control and Depression in Adolescents: Findings From Neuroimaging and Neuropsychological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This commentary addresses the manner in which executive control processes and their development is impacted by major depressive episodes during adolescence. Strengths of the articles within this special issue include the breadth of executive functions that were examined, incorporation of biological probes to understand neural mechanisms involved in observed impairments, the use of longitudinal paradigms to assess developmental timing, consideration and modeling of comorbid conditions, and the identification of individual difference factors that may serve as both liabilities and resilience factors. This work is timely; a close examination of negative emotions and how they change during adolescence is needed if we are to fully understand motivation-cognition interactions and how they are impaired by psychopathology. PMID:26743038

  12. Neuropsychological Perspectives in Pupil Services: Practical Application of Luria's Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrzut, John E.; Obrzut, Ann

    1982-01-01

    The rationale and guidelines for incorporating a neuropsychological perspective in the educational process are presented. Luria's (1973) model is most pertinent for "neuroeducators" because it describes the concept of functional systems interacting to produce behavior. (CJ)

  13. Interdependence of episodic and semantic memory: Evidence from neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Daniel L.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    Tulving's (1972) theory of memory draws a distinction between general knowledge (semantic memory) and memory for events (episodic memory). Neuropsychological studies have generally examined each type of memory in isolation, but theorists have long argued that these two forms of memory are interdependent. Here we review several lines of neuropsychological research that have explored the interdependence of episodic and semantic memory. The studies show that these forms of memory can affect each...

  14. PRECIS OF - FROM NEUROPSYCHOLOGY TO MENTAL STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Shallice, T.

    1991-01-01

    Neuropsychological results are increasingly cited in cognitive theories although their methodology has been severely criticised. The book argues for an eclectic approach but particularly stresses the use of single-case studies. A range of potential artifacts exists when inferences are made from each studies to the organisation of formal function - for example, resource differences among tasks, premorbid individual differences, and reorganisation of function. The use of "strong" and "classical...

  15. Neuropsychological profile of patients with bipolar depression in remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić-Poznanović Sanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine if the patients with bipolar affective disorder, after the depressive phase, would exhibit cognitive impairment in remission. Methods. Twenty three euthymic patients with bipolar disorder were matched, on a case-by-case basis, to twenty-one healthy subjects in the control group, for the presence of the symptoms of depression. The patients and the control group were tested with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results. Impairments were found in the patients compared with the control group in tests of verbal learning and memory and in tests of executive function. Verbal learning and memory, as well as executive functions, did not correlate either with the clinical indices of patients, or with the demographic and baseline clinical measures of depression. Conclusion. Impaired verbal learning and memory and executive functions may represent a trait rather than the state variables in bipolar disorder.

  16. Neuropsychological Basis of Self Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Ceylan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a connection between the face recognition, the social relationship and the development of self. There must be a reason that people recognize faces through an important and complex module like the language functions. People know each other, recognize their friends and enemies and make friends through their faces. These show its fundamental role in the world. Like the integrity builds by collective self in inner world, integrity is established through face outside worlds. Researches and comments about the center of self in the brain are made based on neurological disorders like prosopagnosia. Especially some investigations about the evoked potentials will provide us a scientific basic for this subject. This paper addresses the relationship between facial recognition and self-development in terms of neuropsychological aspects. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 255-264

  17. Lying in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. PMID:25306079

  18. When the third party observer of a neuropsychological evaluation is an audio-recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Marios; Ashendorf, Lee; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    The presence of third parties during neuropsychological evaluations is an issue of concern for contemporary neuropsychologists. Previous studies have reported that the presence of an observer during neuropsychological testing alters the performance of individuals under evaluation. The present study sought to investigate whether audio-recording affects the neuropsychological test performance of individuals in the same way that third party observation does. In the presence of an audio-recorder the performance of the participants on memory tests declined. Performance on motor tests, on the other hand, was not affected by the presence of an audio-recorder. The implications of these findings in forensic neuropsychological evaluations are discussed. PMID:12607152

  19. Accounting for Human Polymorphisms Predicted to Affect Protein Function

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Pauline C.; Henikoff, Steven

    2002-01-01

    A major interest in human genetics is to determine whether a nonsynonymous single-base nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP) in a gene affects its protein product and, consequently, impacts the carrier's health. We used the SIFT (Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant) program to predict that 25% of 3084 nsSNPs from dbSNP, a public SNP database, would affect protein function. Some of the nsSNPs predicted to affect function were variants known to be associated with disease. Others were artifacts of SNP di...

  20. Cognitive function in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Maj Vinberg; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2006-01-01

    . Cognitive performance of 203 High-Risk and Low-Risk twins was compared. RESULTS: Healthy twins discordant for unipolar disorder showed lower performance on almost all measures of cognitive function: selective and sustained attention, executive function, language processing and working and declarative memory...... on language processing and episodic memory. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that discrete cognitive impairment is present before the onset of the affective disorder and is genetically transmitted was supported. Thus, cognitive function may be a candidate endophenotype for affective disorders.......BACKGROUND: Patients may present with cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase of affective disorder, but it is unclear whether the impairment is prevalent before onset of the illness. The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that genetic liability to affective disorder...

  1. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  2. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  3. Neuropsychological Complications of HIV Disease and Substances of Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Lisa R.; Anil Kumar

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that neuropsychological deficits and impairments are associated with HIV infection. Given that antiretroviral therapies have extended the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons, it becomes critical to focus on the physical and mental health of these patients. Understanding the neuropsychology of HIV disease can provide insight into improving mental health, functional capacity and overall quality of life for persons living with HIV...

  4. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child

  5. Assessment of fitness to drive after acquired brain injury: The role of neuropsychological tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette

    functioning e.g. WCST will not predict the driving ability of this group. This illustrates that many things can affect the predictive value a neuropsychological test and the belief that neuropsychological testing on its own cannot predict fitness to drive. As findings in the field of driving assessment of...... participants of this study were 45 persons with ABI who had attended a rehabilitation programme at Center for Brain Injury in Copenhagen. Their results from the Trail Making Test A&B, Wisconsin Card Sorting test and clinical assessment of neglect were compared with their performance on an on-road test. Only...... older people show they can at best be used for screening. Ideally, the assessment of a person with ABI’s fitness to drive should be conducted by an interdisciplinary team consisting of medical doctors, neuropsychologists, occupational therapists and driving instructors. In addition, the evaluation...

  6. Neuropsychological advocacy and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Hermann, Bruce P; Cohen, Morris J

    2010-04-01

    Neuropsychologists are in a unique position to be active advocates for patients with epilepsy given their unique understanding of the behavioral and cognitive effects associated the disease, its progression, and its treatment. Neuropsychologists communicate the cognitive and behavioral consequences of epilepsy and its long-term implications to patients, family, school, and employers. In this article we review factors influencing the neuropsychological profile of patients with epilepsy, and discuss common behavioral comorbidities, as well as special issues associated with school placement and long-term planning. We also include a seizure action plan, which is designed to be both an educational tool for individuals with limited epilepsy knowledge, and a way to minimize stigma associated with an event should a seizure occur during school or work. PMID:19214828

  7. Age-related changes of adaptive and neuropsychological features in persons with Down Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ghezzo

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years, from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy.

  8. Age-related changes of adaptive and neuropsychological features in persons with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzo, Alessandro; Salvioli, Stefano; Solimando, Maria Caterina; Palmieri, Alice; Chiostergi, Chiara; Scurti, Maria; Lomartire, Laura; Bedetti, Federica; Cocchi, Guido; Follo, Daniela; Pipitone, Emanuela; Rovatti, Paolo; Zamberletti, Jessica; Gomiero, Tiziano; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years), from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier) in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy. PMID:25419980

  9. Neuropsychological sequelae of postradiation somnolence syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.A.; Ch' ien, L.T.; Lancaster, W.; Williams, S.; Cummins, J.

    1983-06-01

    Postirradiation somnolence syndrome in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with cranial irradiation has been identified as a possible precursor of later cognitive dysfunction. To test this, the neuropsychological evaluation of 48 children who developed somnolence syndrome was compared with that of 31 children who did not have the syndrome at approximately 1 1/2 and 3 3/4 years after treatment. No differences in performance between the two groups were found on many measures of neuropsychological functioning with the exception of fine motor speed. Children without somnolence syndrome scored somewhat less than normal on measures of academic achievement. No other differences from normal performance were noted in either group. The results of the study indicated that if children with somnolence are at greater risk for the development of cognitive dysfunction than those not manifesting the syndrome, such risks occur at a time farther from treatment than 3 to 4 years.

  10. Neuropsychological sequelae of postradiation somnolence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postirradiation somnolence syndrome in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with cranial irradiation has been identified as a possible precursor of later cognitive dysfunction. To test this, the neuropsychological evaluation of 48 children who developed somnolence syndrome was compared with that of 31 children who did not have the syndrome at approximately 1 1/2 and 3 3/4 years after treatment. No differences in performance between the two groups were found on many measures of neuropsychological functioning with the exception of fine motor speed. Children without somnolence syndrome scored somewhat less than normal on measures of academic achievement. No other differences from normal performance were noted in either group. The results of the study indicated that if children with somnolence are at greater risk for the development of cognitive dysfunction than those not manifesting the syndrome, such risks occur at a time farther from treatment than 3 to 4 years

  11. Subtyping Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Neuropsychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Harris

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We administered neuropsychological measures considered sensitive to prefrontal dysfunction (both orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients and control subjects. OCD subjects exhibited performance deficits, in comparison to community controls, on three measures sensitive to orbitofrontal neocortex dysfunction. Contrary to expectation, OCD patients also exhibited performance deficits on measures sensitive to dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex dysfunction. However, distinct neurocognitive profiles emerged when we examined the impact of comorbid schizotypal personality features on neuropsychological test performance. Primary OCD patients displayed impaired performance on measures sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction; however, they did not differ from control subjects on tests of dorsolateral function. OCD subjects presenting with schizotypal personality features performed poorly not only on tests sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction, but also on tests sensitive to dorsolateral dysfunction. Findings suggest that OCD can be subdivided into clinical subtypes, and distinct prefrontal subsystems may be differentially involved in these subtypes.

  12. Illiteracy: the neuropsychology of cognition without reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Braga, Lucia W; Castro-Caldas, Alexander; Judd, Tedd; Kosmidis, Mary H; Matute, Esmeralda; Nitrini, Ricardo; Ostrosky-Solis, Feggy; Rosselli, Monica

    2010-12-01

    Illiterates represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Written language not only plays a role in mediating cognition, but also extends our knowledge of the world. Two major reasons for illiteracy can be distinguished, social (e.g., absence of schools), and personal (e.g., learning difficulties). Without written language, our knowledge of the external world is partially limited by immediate sensory information and concrete environmental conditions. Literacy is significantly associated with virtually all neuropsychological measures, even though the correlation between education and neuropsychological test scores depends on the specific test. The impact of literacy is reflected in different spheres of cognitive functioning. Learning to read reinforces and modifies certain fundamental abilities, such as verbal and visual memory, phonological awareness, and visuospatial and visuomotor skills. Functional imaging studies are now demonstrating that literacy and education influence the pathways used by the brain for problem-solving. The existence of partially specific neuronal networks as a probable consequence of the literacy level supports the hypothesis that education impacts not only the individual's day-to-day strategies, but also the brain networks. A review of the issues related to dementia in illiterates is presented, emphasizing that the association between the education level and age-related cognitive changes and education remains controversial. The analysis of the impact of illiteracy on neuropsychological test performance represents a crucial approach to understanding human cognition and its brain organization under normal and abnormal conditions. PMID:21075867

  13. The extended fronto-striatal model of obsessive compulsive disorder: convergence from event-related potentials, neuropsychology and neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Margherita eMelloni; Claudia eUrbistondo; Lucas eSedeño; Carlos eGelormini; Rafael eKichic; Agustin eIbanez

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD) and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP) studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), basal ganglia (BG), and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and their related cognitive functions, su...

  14. A combined neuropsychological and brain imaging study of obstructive sleep apnea.

    OpenAIRE

    Yaouhi, Khalid; Bertran, Françoise; Clochon, Patrice; Mézenge, Florence; Denise, Pierre; Foret, Jean; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2009-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) show neuropsychological impairments ranging from vigilance decrements, attentional lapses and memory gaps to decreased motor coordination, but their cognitive profile, and the origin of the impairments, remain unclear. We sought to establish the neuropsychological profile of 16 newly diagnosed apneics and to highlight both their morphological and functional brain abnormalities. We used an extensive neuropsychological test battery to investigate atte...

  15. Function if Cooperative Learning in Developing Positive Affect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟玉平

    2008-01-01

    This paper focus on the function of cooperative learning in developing positive affect, Including reducing anxiety, increasing motivation, facilitating the development of positive attitudes toward learning and language learning, promoting serf- esteem, as well as supporting different learning styles and encouraging perseverance in the difficult and confusing process of learning a foreign language.

  16. Affective symptoms and cognitive functions in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Elberling, Tina V; Hørding, Merete;

    2007-01-01

    In the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis patients often have subjective cognitive complaints. Continuing controversy exists about the nature of these symptoms and whether they persist after treatment. This prospective study included 31 consecutively referred, newly diagnosed, and untreated...... of cognitive deficits) had decreased significantly, with further normalisation 1-year after treatment initiation. In conclusion, patients had subjective reports of cognitive deficits in the toxic phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis but comprehensive neuropsychological testing revealed no cognitive impairment....... Reports of cognitive dysfunction may reflect affective and somatic manifestations of thyrotoxicosis and in most patients these symptoms disappear after treatment of Graves' thyrotoxicosis....

  17. Neuropsychology of childhood arithmetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, E S

    1989-01-01

    The arithmetic learning disability literature was reviewed and critiqued. Due to the paucity of research in this area, few conclusions may be inferred. In general, the available research has provided tentative hypotheses about the nature of arithmetic disabilities. A variety of psychosocial variables notwithstanding, childhood arithmetic disability may directly result from cerebral dysfunction, poor motivation, and emotional/behavioral disturbance. However, further research is necessary in order to clarify the effects of maturation on arithmetic skills acquisition. Indeed, one approach to identification of the disorder would consider individual differences in neuropsychological development and performance affecting arithmetic achievement. It was concluded that a more comprehensive approach to investigating and diagnosing childhood arithmetic disability is needed. Reformulations and methods of study were articulated. Six related lines of research were outlined. A diagnostic rating scale was suggested which would account for type and severity of disorder. Diagnostic criteria were recommended based on the degree and definition of disability. Needs for remediation research were briefly explored. PMID:2485827

  18. Neuropsychological improvement in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy after posterior decompression surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy sometimes complain of cognitive dysfunction, which may be coincidence. However, cognitive dysfunction may be related to disorders of the cervical spine and/or spinal cord. This study investigated cognitive dysfunction in patients with cervical spinal disorders. A total of 79 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (40 women and 39 men, mean age 61.2 years) underwent cervical laminoplasty between January 2006 and July 2007. Ten of these 79 patients (7 women and 3 men, mean age 65.2 years) complained of moderate to severe memory disturbances. These 10 patients underwent neuroimaging studies and a battery of neuropsychological tests consisting of the mini-mental state examination, Kohs Block Design Test, Miyake Memory Test, Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and 'kana-hiroi' test before and 3 months after surgery. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no organic brain lesions in the 10 patients, but single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated reduced regional cerebral blood flow in the posterior cortical areas in eight patients before surgery. Neuropsychological test scores showed statistically significant improvement after surgery in the Kohs Block Design Test and the BVRT, which measure visuospatial perception and reflect the function of the parietal and/or occipital lobes (p<0.05). The practice effect may have contributed to the neuropsychological improvements, but this study suggests that cervical spinal disorders may affect cognitive functions and that surgical treatment can ameliorate such effects. (author)

  19. Image analysis of neuropsychological test responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen L.; Hiller, Darren L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reports recent advances in the development of an automated approach to neuropsychological testing. High performance image analysis algorithms have been developed as part of a convenient and non-invasive computer-based system to provide an objective assessment of patient responses to figure-copying tests. Tests of this type are important in determining the neurological function of patients following stroke through evaluation of their visuo-spatial performance. Many conventional neuropsychological tests suffer from the serious drawback that subjective judgement on the part of the tester is required in the measurement of the patient's response which leads to a qualitative neuropsychological assessment that can be both inconsistent and inaccurate. Results for this automated approach are presented for three clinical populations: patients suffering right hemisphere stroke are compared with adults with no known neurological disorder and a population comprising normal school children of 11 years is presented to demonstrate the sensitivity of the technique. As well as providing a more reliable and consistent diagnosis this technique is sufficiently sensitive to monitor a patient's progress over a period of time and will provide the neuropsychologist with a practical means of evaluating the effectiveness of therapy or medication administered as part of a rehabilitation program.

  20. Cognitive functioning in depression and the course of bipolar affective disorder [Funkcjonowanie poznawcze a przebieg choroby afektywnej dwubiegunowej u pacjentów w okresie depresji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świtalska, Julita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study aims were to demonstrate the relationship between neuropsychological functioning in depressed bipolar patients and clinical variables: intensity of depressive symptoms, age at onset, duration of illness, total number of episodes, number of maniac episodes, number of depressive episodes and number of hospitalizations. Method. Cognitive functions were examined in 30 depressed bipolar patients aged 18-68 (M=45.6, SD= 12.6; 18 women and 12 men who fulfilled ICD-10 criteria for depressive episode (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score . 11. A neuropsychological battery assessed executive functions and working memory. Demographic and clinical variables were assessed with questionnaire. Results: The results do not indicate relationship between the neuropsychological functioning and intensity of depressive symptoms. Number of hospitalizations seems to be related to severity of neuropsychological dysfunction. Longer duration of illness and earlier onset turned out to be connected with better neurocognitive functions. Total number of episodes, number of maniac and depressive episodes are not related to neuropsychological functioning. Conclusions: Neuropsychological impairment in bipolar disorder seems to be stable trait, independent from intensity of depressive symptoms and they progress with course of illness measured by number of hospitalizations.

  1. MAGNETIC-RESONANCE-IMAGING OF THE BRAIN AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN CHILDREN TREATED FOR ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA AT A YOUNG AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, A; MOOYAART, EL; KAMPS, WA; WILMINK, JT

    1993-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the adverse late effects of ALL treatment on cognitive functions and brain morphology; to integrate the results of a neuropsychological and neuroradiological study. Patients and Methods: Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological assessments (NA) were perfor

  2. Does Subacromial Osteolysis Affect Shoulder Function after Clavicle Hook Plating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Siwei; Gan, Minfeng; Sun, Han; Wu, Guizhong; Yang, Huilin; Zhou, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether subacromial osteolysis, one of the major complications of the clavicle hook plate procedure, affects shoulder function. Methods. We had performed a retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with a Neer II lateral clavicle fracture or Degree-III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from July 2012 to December 2013. All these patients had undergone surgery with clavicle hook plate and were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of subacromial osteolysis. By using the Constant-Murley at the first follow-up visit after plates removal, we evaluated patients' shoulder function to judge if it has been affected by subacromial osteolysis. Results. We have analyzed clinical data for these 72 patients, which shows that there is no significant difference between group A (39 patients) and group B (33 patients) in age, gender, injury types or side, and shoulder function (the Constant-Murley scores are 93.38 ± 3.56 versus 94.24 ± 3.60, P > 0.05). Conclusion. The occurrence of subacromial osteolysis is not rare, and also it does not significantly affect shoulder function. PMID:27034937

  3. Interictal epileptiform discharge effects on neuropsychological assessment and epilepsy surgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drane, Daniel L; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Kim, Michelle S; Gross, Robert E; Miller, John W; Faught, R Edward; Loring, David W

    2016-03-01

    Both animal research and human research suggest that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) may affect cognition, although the significance of such findings remains controversial. We review a wide range of literature with bearing on this topic and present relevant epilepsy surgery cases, which suggest that the effects of IEDs may be substantial and informative for surgical planning. In the first case, we present a patient with epilepsy with left anterior temporal lobe (TL) seizure onset who experienced frequent IEDs during preoperative neuropsychological assessment. Cognitive results strongly lateralized to the left TL. Because the patient failed performance validity tests and appeared amnestic for verbal materials inconsistent with his work history, selected neuropsychological tests were repeated 6 weeks later. Scores improved one to two standard deviations over the initial evaluation and because of this improvement, were only mildly suggestive of left TL impairment. The second case involves another patient with documented left TL epilepsy who experienced epileptiform activity while undergoing neurocognitive testing and simultaneous ambulatory EEG recording. This patient's verbal memory performance was impaired during the period that IEDs were present but near normal when such activity was absent. Overall, although the presence of IEDs may be helpful in confirming laterality of seizure onset, frequent IEDs might disrupt focal cognitive functions and distort accurate measurement of neuropsychological ability, interfering with accurate characterization of surgical risks and benefits. Such transient effects on daily performance may also contribute to significant functional compromise. We include a discussion of the manner in which IED effects during presurgical assessment can hinder individual patient presurgical planning as well as distort outcome research (e.g., IEDs occurring during presurgical assessment may lead to an underestimation of postoperative

  4. DISORDERED ATTENTION AS NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL COGNITIVE DISFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors are using the neuropsychological method. On the base of their theoretical and practical experiences they come to certain considered that brain is reacting as a functional unity, same in the pathological like in the normal conditions. In this context, attention disorder is followed parallel by motorcar disorder and disorders in emotions, remembering, thinking, intelligence, perceptions, cognition’s, socialization, that means functioning of whole personality.For securing a good selective attention, authors suggest that is important to have a mature and integrity cerebral and neurotransmitter system which is respec­tive for the age of the child.

  5. Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aas, Monica

    2011-06-01

    A history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis. The potential impact of diagnosis (schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and gender on this association was also examined.

  6. Human NK Cell Subset Functions Are Differentially Affected by Adipokines

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Lena; Engeli, Stefan; Christiane D Wrann; Goudeva, Lilia; Laue, Tobias; Kielstein, Heike

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for various types of infectious diseases and cancer. The increase in adipose tissue causes alterations in both adipogenesis and the production of adipocyte-secreted proteins (adipokines). Since natural killer (NK) cells are the host’s primary defense against virus-infected and tumor cells, we investigated how adipocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) affects functions of two distinct human NK cell subsets. Methods: Isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell...

  7. Preliminary effects of pagoclone, a partial GABAA agonist, on neuropsychological performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela F Caveney

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Angela F Caveney1, Bruno Giordani1, George M Haig21Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Neurosciences Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USAAbstract: Pagoclone is a novel cyclopyrrolone that acts as a partial GABAA receptor agonist. Preclinical studies suggest that pagoclone may have clinical utility as an anxiolytic agent, as well as a reduced incidence of side-effects. The present study was conducted to determine whether pagoclone would affect healthy individuals’ performances on neuropsychological measures as a function of dose within the projected therapeutic range. Twelve healthy adult subjects were randomly assigned to dosage groups in a 3-way crossover study. Participants were administered neuropsychological measures six hours following dosing on Day 1 and Day 6 of administration of the drug. Dose effects were noted on measures of alertness, learning, and memory and movement time. Significant effects were also noted on measures of alertness, learning and memory, information processing and psychomotor speed. Overall, the results of this small, preliminary study do not support a finding of behavioral toxicity for these doses of pagoclone. Rather, a pattern was found of transient and mild negative effects on learning and memory scores at the highest dose administered, though these changes were small and no longer evident by the sixth day of use.Keywords: pagoclone, cyclopyrrolone, neuropsychological, memory, generalized anxiety disorder

  8. Specific and generalized neuropsychological deficits: a comparison of patients with various first-episode psychosis presentations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zanelli, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that compromised neuropsychological function is frequently observed in schizophrenia. Neurocognitive dysfunction has often been reported in other psychotic disorders, although there are inconsistencies in the literature. In the context of four distinct diagnostic groups, the authors compared neuropsychological performance among patients experiencing their first psychotic episode.

  9. A Developmental Neuropsychological Model for the Study of Children with HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Gerard A.; And Others

    A developmental neuropsychological model is presented to address critical factors critical to the functional outcome in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In the model, which is derived from work at the Boston Children's Hospital Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) program, neuropsychological outcomes are determined…

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Williams syndrome: shared behavioral and neuropsychological profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sinead M; Riby, Deborah M; Matthews, Keith; Coghill, David R

    2011-01-01

    We compared verbally matched attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Williams syndrome (WS), and typically developing individuals (N = 19 each group) on behavioral symptoms (Conners ADHD rating scale) and neuropsychological functioning. Neuropsychological tasks included those that assessed short-term memory and executive functions from the CANTAB (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) neuropsychological battery. Children with WS scored within the abnormal range and did not differ in severity from ADHD children on the Conners Oppositionality, Cognitive Problems/Inattention, Hyperactivity, and ADHD Index subscales. The WS and ADHD groups also showed similar patterns of neuropsychological functioning, particularly in working memory (WM) strategy use and delayed short-term memory (STM). The findings may have clinical implications for the management of individuals with WS, highlighting the potential significance of behavioral, educational, and pharmacological strategies and treatments known to be useful in the treatment of children with ADHD for individuals with WS. PMID:20700845

  11. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  12. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. PMID:27590367

  13. Hospital-based neuropsychological services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciara, A D

    1986-01-01

    Hospital-based neuropsychological services may provide the hospital with a new means of interfacing with the general medical community, especially neurologists and neurosurgeons. This could produce increased census through the evaluation and treatment of patients who may not have been referred to the psychiatric hospital previously. Additionally, it is a service that can be marketed to the legal community. The establishment of neuropsychological services is a relatively inexpensive project that requires little in the way of physical plant and personnel needs other than a qualified technician and neuropsychologist. PMID:10279536

  14. Neuropsychology: music of the hemispheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Walsh, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit.......Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit....

  15. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT TO ADULT POPULATION; ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Esperanza Bausela Herreras

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the assessment neuropsychological in compressive context. We study the instruments which have been very often applied, one of them are not instruments neuropsychology, also these are applied in this context, the aim is known which is the neurology subtract which is underneath; others have been traditionally neuropsychological instruments, we are going to deep in one of them, the batteryLuria-DNA. We are going to deep in neuropsychological batterys.

  16. Neuropsychological Assessment Following Concussion: an Evidence-Based Review of the Role of Neuropsychological Assessment Pre- and Post-Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Anthony P; Sufrinko, Alicia; Womble, Melissa; Kegel, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation is one component of a comprehensive and multifaceted assessment following concussion. Although some neuropsychologists use a "hybrid" assessment approach integrating computerized neurocognitive testing batteries with traditional paper and pencil tests, computerized neurocognitive test batteries are the predominant testing modality for assessment of athletes from the youth to professional level. This review summarizes the most recent research supporting the utility of neuropsychological evaluation and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of both computerized and traditional neuropsychological testing approaches. The most up to date research and guidelines on baseline neurocognitive testing is also discussed. This paper addresses concerns regarding reliability of neuropsychological testing while providing an overview of factors that influence test performance, both transient situational factors (e.g., pain level, anxiety) and characteristics of particular subgroups (e.g., age, preexisting learning disabilities), warranting the expertise of an experienced neuropsychologist for interpretation. Currently, research is moving forward by integrating neuropsychological evaluation with emerging assessment approaches for other domains of brain function (e.g., vestibular function) vulnerable to concussion. PMID:27099226

  17. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p Ramadan period of fasting group (p Ramadan compared to baseline (p Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  18. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p fasting group (p fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  19. Correlation of neuropsychological and neuroendocrine function in healthy adult%健康成人神经心理与神经内分泌功能的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪明; 孙学礼; 胡峻梅; 姚静

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解男女神经心理学和神经内分泌功能之间的相关性,为认知功能的性别差异生物学基础提供依据.方法 对年龄在16 ~75岁的健康成人156例(男64例、女92例)进行神经心理测验,包括部分WAIS智力测验项目、WMS逻辑记忆和视觉记忆测验、STROOP字色干扰测验、词汇流畅性测验、连线测验、汉诺塔木块移动测验(TOH)、威斯康星卡片分类测验改良版(M-WCST).同时对下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴激素包括雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(P)、睾丸酮(T)、黄体生成素(LH)、促卵泡素(FSH)、泌乳素(PRL)和下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴激素包括促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)、皮质醇(PTC)进行测定.结果 男女在认知功能、神经内分泌水平方面存在明显差异.男女神经内分泌水平和认知功能的相关项目稍有不同,但两者的ACTH、PTC与记忆功能相关,E2、T、LH、FSH等性激素与很多方面的认知功能如注意、记忆、思维分析能力、执行功能相关.结论 健康成人的神经内分泌功能与神经心理功能之间存在相关性.%Objective To investigate the correlation between neuropsychological and neuroendocrine functions in healthy adult . So provide the biological basis for cognitive differences in different gender. Methods 156 healthy adults (64 male, 92 female) at the age of 16-75 did neuropsychological tests, including the WAIS intelligence test project, WMS logical memory and visual memory test, STROOP Word-Color interference test, word fluency test, trail making test, tower of Hanoi block mobile test (TOH) , Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (M-WCST). At the same time measured the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones including estradiol (E2) , progesterone (P), testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone ( FSH) , prolactin ( PRL) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones including adrenocorticotropie hormone ( ACTH) , cortisol (PTC). Results There

  20. Commentary: the postdoctoral residency match in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Prior to 1994, there were no organized recruitment guidelines for the specialty. From 1994 to 2001, the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology (APPCN) facilitated a uniform notification date where member programs agreed to not make offers prior to a specified date. In 2001, APPCN partnered with National Matching Services to administer a computerized match recruitment system. Presently, not all programs participate in the match. This often results in students applying to 'match' and 'non-match' programs which can lead to significant stress on the part of applicants and program directors. This issue has recently become the focus of journal articles and public discussions. The goals of this paper were to review the history of postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology, review the benefits of coordinated recruitment systems, review the structure and function of the computerized match, and explain why the computerized match for postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology is beneficial for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology. PMID:27348785

  1. Can the hydrophilicity of functional monomers affect chemical interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, V P; Ogliari, F A; Van Meerbeek, B; Watson, T F; Yoshihara, K; Ogliari, A O; Sinhoreti, M A; Correr, A B; Cama, G; Sauro, S

    2014-02-01

    The number of carbon atoms and/or ester/polyether groups in spacer chains may influence the interaction of functional monomers with calcium and dentin. The present study assessed the chemical interaction and bond strength of 5 standard-synthesized phosphoric-acid ester functional monomers with different spacer chain characteristics, by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), ATR-FTIR, thin-film x-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microtensile bond strength (μTBS). The tested functional monomers were 2-MEP (two-carbon spacer chain), 10-MDP (10-carbon), 12-MDDP (12-carbon), MTEP (more hydrophilic polyether spacer chain), and CAP-P (intermediate hydrophilicity ester spacer). The intensity of monomer-calcium salt formation measured by AAS differed in the order of 12-MDDP=10-MDP>CAP-P>MTEP>2-MEP. FTIR and SEM analyses of monomer-treated dentin surfaces showed resistance to rinsing for all monomer-dentin bonds, except with 2-MEP. TF-XRD confirmed the weaker interaction of 2-MEP. Highest µTBS was observed for 12-MDDP and 10-MDP. A shorter spacer chain (2-MEP) of phosphate functional monomers induced formation of unstable monomer-calcium salts, and lower chemical interaction and dentin bond strength. The presence of ester or ether groups within longer spacer carbon chains (CAP-P and MTEP) may affect the hydrophilicity, μTBS, and also the formation of monomer-calcium salts. PMID:24284259

  2. Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, R. S.; Manor, O.; Gross-Tsur, V.

    1997-01-01

    Classification of arithmetic disorders is predicated on neuropsychological features and associated learning disabilities. Assesses the compatibility of these classifications on a nonreferred, population-based cohort of children (N=139) with developmental dyscalculia. Concludes that children with dyscalculia and disabilities in reading and/or…

  3. Behavioral Neuropsychology in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Arthur MacNeill, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A rationale for the integration of the principles of behavior therapy with those of neuropsychology is provided. Theoretical issues, empirical considerations and future directions pertaining to this area of specialization are discussed, with special reference to the practice of school psychology. (Author/AL)

  4. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  5. Neuropsychological Aspects of Epilepsy Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpherts, W.C.J. (Willem Cornelis Johan)

    2003-01-01

    Only a small number of patients with epilepsy undergo a neurosurgical operation in which the area from which epileptic neurons generate seizures is removed. From a neuropsychological perspective several different assessments and outcomes are being looked at. Chapter 2 deals with research on the Wada

  6. Neuropsychology: music of the hemispheres

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Lauren; Walsh, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit.

  7. Avaliação neuropsicológica das funções executivas: considerações metodológicas Neuropsychological assessment of executive functions: methodological questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pelo estudo das funções executivas tem crescido nos últimos anos. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar algumas questões metodológicas e conceituais relacionadas à avaliação neuropsicológica das funções executivas. As principais limitações e dicotomias relacionadas às funções executivas são apresentadas e a importância de um modelo teórico que fundamente os instrumentos de avaliação e suas interpretações clinicas analisada. Conclui-se que as evidências provenientes da investigação das funções executivas ainda não permitem a compreensão satisfatória desses processos. Sugere-se, a adoção de um modelo específico para o estudo das funções executivas.The article aims to review methodological and conceptual issues related to neuropsychological assessment of executive functions. The main limitations and dichotomies of current studies related to executive functions are presented and the importance of theoretical support to validate the instruments and their clinical interpretation are discussed. There is still the need of additional evidences on executive functions that allow a complete understanding of all the processes involved. Finally, it is suggested the adoption of a specific model that may guide the study of the executive functions.

  8. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2∙- production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined.

  9. Neuropsychological follow-up in early-treated congenital hypothyroidism: a problem-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagna, S; Canepa, G; Costagli, C; Dinetti, D; Marcheschi, M; Millepiedi, S; Montanelli, L; Pinchera, A; Chiovato, L

    2000-03-01

    Screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) dramatically improved the neuropsychological prognosis in affected children. However, mild impairments in cognitive performances, poorer motor skills, defective language abilities, and learning problems have been reported in some studies of early-treated CH children. The occurrence of these defects makes neuropsychological follow-up mandatory. The aim of the present study was to identify those neuropsychological functions that are more frequently affected in early-treated CH children and that might require prompt rehabilitation treatment to prevent permanent defects. The study group involved 24 CH children. Levothyroxine (LT4) treatment (initial dose 8-10 microg/kg per day) was started at mean age of 28 days (range 15-45) and was then adjusted with the goal to keep thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroid hormone levels in the normal range. Cognitive evaluation was performed at 3, 5, and 7 years of age and did not significantly differ from that of controls. Mean neurological scores were lower in children 5 years of age than in controls. Children with severe neonatal hypothyroidism (serum thyroxine [T4] children and normal controls. The most affected functions were balance, extremity coordination, fine motricity, quality of movements, associated movements, and head movements. Language disorders were observed in half of CH children at 3 and 5 years of age, but moderately severe defects were restricted to those with severe neonatal hypothyroidism. In conclusion, a problem-oriented, simplified neuropsychological follow-up of early-treated children with CH should not systematically include the frequent repetition of time-consuming and expensive psychometric tests because individual IQ scores are in the normal range of tests in almost all CH children and can be differentiated from those of normal controls only on a population-statistic basis. Selected tests of motor proficiency are indicated at 3 and 5 years of age to

  10. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological insights into hoarding disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisham JR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jessica R Grisham, Peter A Baldwin School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Abstract: Hoarding disorder (HD is associated with significant personal impairment in function and constitutes a severe public health burden. Individuals who hoard experience intense distress in discarding a large number of objects, which results in extreme clutter. Research and theory suggest that hoarding may be associated with specific deficits in information processing, particularly in the areas of attention, memory, and executive functioning. There is also growing interest in the neural underpinnings of hoarding behavior. Thus, the primary aim of this review is to summarize the current state of evidence regarding neuropsychological deficits associated with hoarding and review research on its neurophysiological underpinnings. We also outline the prominent theoretical model of hoarding and provide an up-to-date description of empirically based psychological and medical treatment approaches for HD. Finally, we discuss important future avenues for elaborating our model of HD and improving treatment access and outcomes for this disabling disorder. Keywords: hoarding, information processing, neuropsychology, neurophysiology, treatment

  11. Contributions of Neuropsychology to Our Understanding of Developmental Reading Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; Hynd, George W.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how neuropsychological research has increased understanding of the reading process and reading disabilities in children. Variations in impaired processes in reading disabilities can best be understood when brain-behavior relations involved in reading are conceptualized as a widespread functional system. Discusses implications for…

  12. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Unenge Hallerbäck, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and…

  13. Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neuropsychological Pathways, Comorbidity and Symptom Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstedt, Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate different neuropsychological impairments and comorbid behavioral problems in relation to symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), studying the independent effects of different functions as well as specific relations to symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. A…

  14. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification.

  15. Integrating Negative Affect Measures in a Measurement Model: Assessing the Function of Negative Affect as Interference to Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the composition of negative affect and its function as inhibitory to thought processes such as self-regulation. Negative affect in the present study were composed of anxiety, worry, thought suppression, and fear of negative evaluation. These four factors were selected based on the criteria of negative affect by…

  16. To what extent does urbanisation affect fragmented grassland functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, L; Cilliers, S S; Kellner, K; Du Toit, M J; Tongway, D

    2015-03-15

    Urbanisation creates altered environments characterised by increased human habitation, impermeable surfaces, artificial structures, landscape fragmentation, habitat loss, resulting in different resource loss pathways. The vulnerable Rand Highveld Grassland vegetation unit in the Tlokwe Municipal area, South Africa, has been extensively affected and transformed by urbanisation, agriculture, and mining. Grassland fragments in urban areas are often considered to be less species rich and less functional than in the more untransformed or "natural" exurban environments, and are therefore seldom a priority for conservation. Furthermore, urban grassland fragments are often being more intensely managed than exurban areas, such as consistent mowing in open urban areas. Four urbanisation measures acting as indicators for patterns and processes associated with urban areas were calculated for matrix areas surrounding each selected grassland fragment to quantify the position of each grassland remnant along an urbanisation gradient. The grassland fragments were objectively classified into two classes of urbanisation, namely "exurban" and "urban" based on the urbanisation measure values. Grazing was recorded in some exurban grasslands and mowing in some urban grassland fragments. Unmanaged grassland fragments were present in both urban and exurban areas. Fine-scale biophysical landscape function was determined by executing the Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) method. LFA assesses fine-scale landscape patchiness (entailing resource conserving potential and erosion resistance) and 11 soil surface indicators to produce three main LFA parameters (stability, infiltration, and nutrient cycling), which indicates how well a system is functioning in terms of fine-scale biophysical soil processes and characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urbanisation and associated management practices on fine-scale biophysical landscape function of urban and exurban

  17. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Ghayour Najafabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n=9 and nonfasting (n=8 groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan. Digit span test (DST and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p<0.05. Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p<0.05. Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p<0.05. Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p<0.05. The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes.

  18. Mild cognitive impairment in adult: A neuropsychological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouyang Yanhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. This is clinically relevant as overt dementia can be prevented if treatment strategies are devised for MCI. Neuropsychological deficits in this condition are very common and are important clinically for treatment and outcomes. We aimed to review various neuropsychological deficits in MCI. Further, we have presented the current evidence for nosological status, neuroanatomical basis, and clinical outcome of this heterogeneous construct. All published papers on the topic of neuropsychological deficits in MCI on Medline and other databases were reviewed. A wide range of memory and executive function deficits are common in MCI patients. However, several studies are limited by either improper designs or inadequate sample sizes. Several neuropsychological impairments like memory function and executive functions can be diagnosed in MCI. The evidence base for the exact neuroanatomical basis of MCI is not robust yet. However, given the wide range of outcomes, controversies and debates exist regarding the nosological significance of the deficits. Hence, more studies are needed to specifically localise the impairments and further delineate the construct of MCI.

  19. A comparison of neuropsychological test performance on the Ravello Profile between bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Background The Ravello Profile is a battery of standardised neuropsychological measures of areas of functioning that evidence indicates are impaired in Anorexia Nervosa (AN), namely visuo-spatial functioning, central coherence and executive functioning. The neuropsychological profile of individuals with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is less well established. The current study aimed to examine differences in cognitive performance between people with BN, AN and non-eating disordered controls on the Rave...

  20. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery of the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moleiro, Carla; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana;

    2013-01-01

    motor assessments, which were repeated each year for a 3-year follow-up. CFA provided support for a 3-factor model. These factors involve the dimensions of executive functions, memory functions, and speed and motor control abilities. Performance decreased in most neuropsychological measures. Results...... showed that executive functioning, memory and speed of motor abilities are valid latent variables of neuropsychological performance among older adults, and that this structure is relatively consistent longitudinally, even though performance decreases with time....

  1. EMOTICOM: A Neuropsychological Test Battery to Evaluate Emotion, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Amy R; Roiser, Jonathan P; Mehta, Mitul A; Schei, Thea; Boland, Heather; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel K; Emsley, Richard A; Munafo, Marcus R; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi; Voon, Valerie; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W; Elliott, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In mental health practice, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are aimed at improving neuropsychological symptoms, including cognitive and emotional impairments. However, at present there is no established neuropsychological test battery that comprehensively covers multiple affective domains relevant in a range of disorders. Our objective was to generate a standardized test battery, comprised of existing, adapted and novel tasks, to assess four core domains of affective cognition (emotion processing, motivation, impulsivity and social cognition) in order to facilitate and enhance treatment development and evaluation in a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. The battery was administered to 200 participants aged 18-50 years (50% female), 42 of whom were retested in order to assess reliability. An exploratory factor analysis identified 11 factors with eigenvalues greater than 1, which accounted for over 70% of the variance. Tasks showed moderate to excellent test-retest reliability and were not strongly correlated with demographic factors such as age or IQ. The EMOTICOM test battery is therefore a promising tool for the assessment of affective cognitive function in a range of contexts. PMID:26941628

  2. [Neuropsychological performance and demographic characteristics in alcoholic patients in treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Rigoni, Maisa; Quarti Irigaray, Tatiana; Feliz Duarte de Moraes, João; Ferrão, Ygor; da Silva Oliveira, Margareth

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive performance of alcoholics (AG) and participants from the general population (CG) without alcohol dependence. The sample consisted of 141 men, aged 18 and 59. Divided into two groups, 101 alcoholic patients without comorbidities, hospitalized for drug abuse treatment, and 40 healthy individuals from the general population, matched for age and socioeconomic status. The instruments assessed the sociodemographics data and economic classification, alcohol dependence, psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive performance, executive functions, memory and perception. The results showed that the AG group presented severe dependence on alcohol and 92.1% indicated having a family with problems associated with alcohol for only 41.5 % of the CG. At the moment of the evaluation, 59.4 % of the participants of the AG group were abstinent between 8 and 15 days, and the in CG, 43.9%, were more than 60 days alcohol free. The neuropsychological performance verified that there was a decline in cognitive functions in alcoholics’ participants, whereas the AG suggests psychomotor retardation. Thus, it can be inferred that alcohol greatly affects cognitive functions of people who depend on this substance. In addition, there was a greater number of family stories with prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and nicotine addiction in alcoholic patients compared with the general population. PMID:25314037

  3. Spectrum of Mathematical Weaknesses: Related Neuropsychological Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Le, Jessica; Hertza, Jeremy; Cohen, Morris J

    2015-01-01

    Math disorders have been recognized for as long as language disorders yet have received far less research. Mathematics is a complex construct and its development may be dependent on multiple cognitive abilities. Several studies have shown that short-term memory, working memory, visuospatial skills, processing speed, and various language skills relate to and may facilitate math development and performance. The hypotheses explored in this research were that children who performed worse on math achievement than on Full-Scale IQ would exhibit weaknesses in executive functions, memory, and visuoperceptual skills. Participants included 436 children (27% girls, 73% boys; age range = 5-17 years, M(age) = 9.45 years) who were referred for neuropsychological evaluations due to academic and/or behavioral problems. This article specifically focuses on the spectrum of math weakness rather than clinical disability, which has yet to be investigated in the literature. Results suggest that children with relative weakness to impairments in math were significantly more likely to have cognitive weaknesses to impairments on neuropsychological variables, as compared with children without math weaknesses. Specifically, the math-weak children exhibit a weakness to impairment on measures involving attention, language, visuoperceptual skills, memory, reading, and spelling. Overall, our results suggest that math development is multifaceted. PMID:25117216

  4. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P emotional symptoms and conduct problems prevailed. Childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy represents a risk factor for subtle and heterogeneous cognitive impairments potentially resulting in academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness. PMID:24293310

  5. Neuropsychological assessment of mental capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Karen

    2004-09-01

    The assessment of mental capacity to assist legal determinations of competency is potentially a growth area for neuropsychology, although to date neuropsychologists have published relatively little in this area. In this paper a systematic review of methods used to assess capacity is presented, including coverage of specialized tests and interviews used for this purpose. A neuropsychological model for conducting capacity assessments is proposed. This model involves comprehensive assessment of a wide range of cognitive abilities as well as assessment of specific skills and knowledge related to the type of capacity being assessed. The purpose of proposing this model is to stimulate further discussion and debate about the contribution neuropsychologists might make in this area. PMID:15673234

  6. Human NK cell subset functions are differentially affected by adipokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Huebner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for various types of infectious diseases and cancer. The increase in adipose tissue causes alterations in both adipogenesis and the production of adipocyte-secreted proteins (adipokines. Since natural killer (NK cells are the host's primary defense against virus-infected and tumor cells, we investigated how adipocyte-conditioned medium (ACM affects functions of two distinct human NK cell subsets. METHODS: Isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were cultured with various concentrations of human and murine ACM harvested on two different days during adipogenesis and analyzed by fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS. RESULTS: FACS analyses showed that the expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, granzyme A (GzmA and interferon (IFN-γ in NK cells was regulated in a subset-specific manner. ACM treatment altered IFN-γ expression in CD56(dim NK cells. The production of GzmA in CD56(bright NK cells was differentially affected by the distinct adipokine compositions harvested at different states of adipogenesis. Comparison of the treatment with either human or murine ACM revealed that adipokine-induced effects on NK cell expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R, TRAIL and IFN-γ were species-specific. CONCLUSION: Considering the growing prevalence of obesity and the various disorders related to it, the present study provides further insights into the roles human NK cell subsets play in the obesity-associated state of chronic low-grade inflammation.

  7. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology and Neuropsychological Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Naumann; Irene Daum

    2003-01-01

    Narcolepsy is now recognized as a distinctive disorder with specific pathophysiology and neurochemical abnormalities. Findings on the role of the neuropeptide hypocretin are opening new avenues of research and new strategies for therapy. Recently, neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for reduced memory performance on standard memory tests in addition to subjective complaints of forgetfulness which may be related to changes in attentional processing. Furth...

  8. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS OF EARLY DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT IN DEFECTOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Svetomir Bojanin

    1997-01-01

    Every problem of defectology, based on the developmental difficulties of the senses, intelligence, motor and early socialization, is performed in the area of the developmental nervous structures and neuromuscular links. The scientific defectology , today, can not exist without neuropsychological studies of perception, movement, function of intelligence and feelings.The time when determined functions develop, and the appropriate time for stimulation of those functions, for improvement of the d...

  9. [Forensic neuropsychology in the aging and the dementias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Losada, M L; Rodríguez Aizcorbe, J R; Fernández Guinea, S

    INTRODUCTION. Forensic Neuropsychology establishes an expert valuation of the brain-injured patient (or supposed), or of the law offender people (or supposed) requiring law protection due to their illness. This discipline has a fundamental role in the study of cerebral organic syndromes, particularly in the dementias. DEVELOPMENT. The demential syndrome is common to a group of diseases as degenerative or cardiovascular disorders, brain tumors, syphilis, alcoholism or toxic factors, etc. When speaking of dementia we refer to a syndrome characterized by a progressive and global deterioration of the cognitive functions (memory, language, attention, space-temporal orientation, praxis, thinking, etc.) with preservation of the level of conscience (DSM-IV). This symptomatology affects the personality of the individual as reasonable being , as well as to his behavior and social adaptation. The decrease or loss of the intellectual and volitives abilities of the affected person of a demential syndrome, if it is permanent, also implies a change in its legal situation, since its legal capacity is altered. Therefore, it will be necessary to adopt protective measures for his person and his patrimony. Even if it is necessary, to promote a process of disability, whose sentence will be emitted by a judge, who will indicate: the degree of the mentioned disability, the trusteeship regime and who is designated as a legal tutor. PMID:11391517

  10. Neuropsychological Complications of HIV Disease and Substances of Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Norman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that neuropsychological deficits and impairments are associated with HIV infection. Given that antiretroviral therapies have extended the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons, it becomes critical to focus on the physical and mental health of these patients. Understanding the neuropsychology of HIV disease can provide insight into improving mental health, functional capacity and overall quality of life for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, clinicians may be better able to assist patients to manage their symptoms, thereby increasing the number of patients who are able to successfully maintain difficult treatment schedules. In addition, it is equally important to understand the potentially exacerbating effects of various factors. One such factor is substance abuse, which has been associated with various neuropsychological impairments, irrespective of the substance of abuse. Therefore, a more complete understanding of the effects of substance abuse on the progression of impaired cognitive processes and functioning can allow for an enhanced evaluation and management of those patients who live with HIV disease and who suffer from substance abuse disorders. As such, the present paper provides an overview of the neuropsychology of HIV and substance abuse, as well as of the available research that has examined the potential interaction effects between HIV disease and substance abuse. The implications of the findings as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  11. Estimación de la prevalencia puntual de alteraciones neuropsicológicas asociadas al trastorno depresivo mayor (Estimated point prevalence of neuropsychological disorders associated with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Gudayol-Ferre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is a chronic affective disorder associated with cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of neuropsychological deficit in patients with MDD who were not receiving pharmacotherapy. The results obtained from a neuropsychological assessment battery were compared to the normative data. We also investigated whether specific cognitive functions change more frequently than others in MDD and determined whether there were any associations between the neuropsychological deficits in MDD and various clinical and socio-demographic variables. A total of 174 subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for diagnosis of MDD without major medical comorbidities (psychopathology or physical illness and who were not receiving pharmacotherapy were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB. CANTAB was used to determine the prevalence of neuropsychological deficit and studied its association with the variables age, years of education, WAIS vocabulary, age at first episode and comorbidity estimated by Odds Ratios. Our data suggest that cognitive impairment in patients with MDD has a very high prevalence and is relatively independent of socio-demographic and clinical variables.

  12. The legacy of Luria and school neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Manga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the history of neuropsychology applied towork with children. Several authors have advocated for the application of neuropsychology to the school centres, a specialty some have called “school neuropsycology”. Since the term was initially introduced (Hynd & Obrzut, 1981, considerable advances have arisen regarding the field and professional identityof this specialty. Luria’work continues to have a strong international influence. Luria has served for neuropsychological understanding of the individual and for the professional practice. As professional activity, the school neuropsychology focuses in assessing, diagnosing, and intervening with students who are experiencing learning difficulties and/or behaviour disorders in academic setting. In recent years, a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment for intervention is recommended within a school setting. Newer neuropsychological assessment procedures for children represent innovative applications of Luria’s conceptualmodel. Research and advances in neuroimaging allow us to view how the developmental brain changes.

  13. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology...

  14. The legacy of Luria and school neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Dionisio Manga; Francisco Ramos

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the history of neuropsychology applied towork with children. Several authors have advocated for the application of neuropsychology to the school centres, a specialty some have called “school neuropsycology”. Since the term was initially introduced (Hynd & Obrzut, 1981), considerable advances have arisen regarding the field and professional identityof this specialty. Luria’work continues to have a strong international influence. Luria has served for neuropsychological unde...

  15. Differences between early and late-onset Alzheimer's disease in neuropsychological tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca eSá; Paula ePinto; Catarina eCunha; Raquel eLemos; Liliana eLetra; Mário eSimões; Isabel eSantana

    2012-01-01

    Although patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) share clinical and histological features regardless of age of onset, the hypothesis that early-onset AD constitutes a distinct subgroup prevails. Some authors suggest that early attention or language impairment constitute patterns of differentiation in terms of neuropsychological profile. However, investigations are not consensual in terms of cognitive domains affected in each group.Aim: To investigate whether there is early neuropsychological dif...

  16. EMOTICOM: A Neuropsychological Test Battery to Evaluate Emotion, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Social Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Amy R.; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Mehta, Mitul A; Schei, Thea; Boland, Heather; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel K.; Emsley, Richard A; Munafo, Marcus R; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi; Voon, Valerie; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Elliott, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In mental health practice, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are aimed at improving neuropsychological symptoms, including cognitive and emotional impairments. However, at present there is no established neuropsychological test battery that comprehensively covers multiple affective domains relevant in a range of disorders. Our objective was to generate a standardised test battery, comprised of existing, adapted and novel tasks, to assess four core domains of ...

  17. Families First-Keys to Successful Family Functioning. Affective Responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Rick; Green, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Affective responsiveness is the ability of an individual to respond to another with appropriate feelings . Affective (emotional) responsiveness is very important because family members interact with one another on a regular basis and often need to support each other during difficult times.

  18. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cognition disorders. Neuropsychological study of a population of 26 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dary-Auriol, M; Ingrand, P; Bonnaud, V; Dumas, P; Neau, J P; Gil, R

    1997-05-01

    Typical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is described as a motoneuron disease which spared cognitive functions. Recent studies reported cognitive impairement associated with classical ALS. Gallasi and al. (1985) detect subtle cognitive impairement sparing memory in a population of 22 patients affected with sporadic motoneuron disease. Iwasaki and al. (1990) finds lower scores, including memory tests. Our study evaluated 26 patients compared with 26 control subjects with neurospychological tests (rapid evaluation of cognitive function fluency, Weschler adult intelligence scale, Wisconsin cards, Rey scheme, memory tests - Luria -, trail making, visual retentional test of Benton Violon Seyll test). All the neuropsychological tests were significantly lower for the patients group. The cognitive impairement is global: memory and frontal functions were not spared and this impairement is also subtle. It may easily go undetected without tests. We cannot isolate a cortical or subcortical profile of the deterioration. PMID:9296142

  19. The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness

    OpenAIRE

    Philippi, Carissa L.; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The development of robust neuropsychological measures of social and affective function—which link critical dimensions of mental health to their underlying neural circuitry—could be a key step in achieving a more pathophysiologically-based approach to psychiatric medicine. In this article, we summarize research indicating that self-reflection (the inward attention to personal thoughts, memories, feelings, and actions) may be a useful model for developing such a paradigm, as there is evidence t...

  20. Measurement in cross-cultural neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2008-09-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  1. Pattern of neuropsychological performance among HIV positive patients in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Thomas D

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined cognitive functioning of HIV positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa. It cannot be assumed that HIV positive patients in Africa exhibit the same declines as patients in high-resource settings, since there are differences that may influence cognitive functioning including nutrition, history of concomitant disease, and varying HIV strains, among other possibilities. Part of the difficulty of specifying abnormalities in neuropsychological functioning among African HIV positive patients is that there are no readily available African normative databases. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the pattern of neuropsychological performance in a sample of HIV positive patients in comparison to HIV negative control subjects in Uganda. Methods The neuropsychological test scores of 110 HIV positive patients (WHO Stage 2, n = 21; WHO Stage 3, n = 69; WHO Stage 4, n = 20 were contrasted with those of 100 control subjects on measures of attention/concentration, mental flexibility, learning/memory, and motor functioning. Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA revealed significant group differences on measures of verbal learning and memory, speed of processing, attention and executive functioning between HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects. Conclusion Ugandan patients with HIV demonstrated relative deficits on measures of verbal learning and memory, speed of processing, attention, and executive functioning compared to HIV negative controls. These results from a resource limited region where clades A and D are prevalent are consistent with previous findings in the developed world where clade B predominates.

  2. Clinical myths of forensic neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiffenstein, Manfred F

    2009-02-01

    Clinical myths and lore are unfounded beliefs that still influence practice decisions. I examine the validity of six beliefs commonly encountered in forensic neuropsychology practice: the admissibility of test batteries; avoidance of practice effects; forewarning insures good effort; average deficits in bright persons; 15% chronic impairment in mild brain injury; and examiner bias causing malingering. I show these beliefs are invalid because of material misunderstandings of case law and literature, falsification by empirical findings, and lack of authoritative sources. The benefits, costs, and persistence of clinical myths are discussed. PMID:18609338

  3. Finding models to detect Alzheimer's disease by fusing structural and neuropsychological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Diana L.; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Velasco, Nelson; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects higher brain functions. Initial diagnosis of AD is based on the patient's clinical history and a battery of neuropsychological tests. The accuracy of the diagnosis is highly dependent on the examiner's skills and on the evolution of a variable clinical frame. This work presents an automatic strategy that learns probabilistic brain models for different stages of the disease, reducing the complexity, parameter adjustment and computational costs. The proposed method starts by setting a probabilistic class description using the information stored in the neuropsychological test, followed by constructing the different structural class models using membership values from the learned probabilistic functions. These models are then used as a reference frame for the classification problem: a new case is assigned to a particular class simply by projecting to the different models. The validation was performed using a leave-one-out cross-validation, two classes were used: Normal Control (NC) subjects and patients diagnosed with mild AD. In this experiment it is possible to achieve a sensibility and specificity of 80% and 79% respectively.

  4. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  5. Differences between early and late-onset Alzheimer's disease in neuropsychological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca eSá

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although patients with Alzheimer disease (AD share clinical and histological features regardless of age of onset, the hypothesis that early-onset AD constitutes a distinct subgroup prevails. Some authors suggest that early attention or language impairment constitute patterns of differentiation in terms of neuropsychological profile. However, investigations are not consensual in terms of cognitive domains affected in each group.Aim: To investigate whether there is early neuropsychological difference between two types of AD using the conventional dividing line of 65 years.Methods: We evaluated the results obtained in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and in a comprehensive neuropsychological battery – Battery of Lisbon for the Assessment of Dementia (BLAD, at a Dementia clinic in the University Hospital of Coimbra and a Memory Clinic. Consecutive patients with a clinical probable diagnosis of mild to moderate AD, using standard criteria (DSMIV and NINCDS-ADRDA, were selected. Statistical analysis was performed using Qui-square and U-Mann-Whitney, for categorical and non-categorical variables.Results: The sample included 280 patients: 109 with early-onset AD and 171 with a late-onset form. Groups were comparable in gender, education, severity of disease and MMSE. In BLAD, the early onset group had lower scores in Naming (p=0,025, Right-Left Orientation (p=0,029 and Praxis (p=0,001, and better performances in Orientation (p=0,001 and Visual Memory (p=0,022. After application of Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons only Praxis and Orientation could differentiate the two groups.Discussion: The results are suggestive of dissociated profiles between early and late-onset AD. Younger patients have a major impairment in Praxis and a tendency for a great impairment in neocortical temporal functions. Late-onset form had a tendency for worse performances in Visual Memory and Orientation, suggesting a more localized disease to the limbic

  6. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  7. Distinct Regions of Right Temporal Cortex Are Associated with Biological and Human-Agent Motion: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Neuropsychological Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao; Chen, Jing; Chen, Quanjing; He, Yong; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    In human lateral temporal cortex, some regions show specific sensitivity to human motion. Here we examine whether such effects reflect a general biological-nonbiological organizational principle or a process specific to human-agent processing by comparing processing of human, animal, and tool motion in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with healthy participants and a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) study of patients with brain damage (77 stroke patients). The...

  8. Relations between brain volumes, neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaire in prematurely born children

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Annika; Haataja, Leena; Rautava, Liisi; Väliaho, Anniina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Korkman, Marit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between brain volumes at term equivalent age and neuropsychological functions at 5 years of age in very low birth weight (VLBW) children, and to compare the results from a neuropsychological assessment and a parental questionnaire at 5 years of age. The study group included a regional cohort of 97 VLBW children and a control group of 161 children born at term. At term equivalent age, brain magnetic resonance imaging...

  9. Concept of inclusion on the section of Vygotskian socio-cultural theory and neuropsychology:

    OpenAIRE

    Kobal Grum, Darja

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of inclusion of children with special needs from the context of contemporary fi ndings in neuropsychology as well as from the context of the psychology of L.S. Vygotsky and his theory of socio- cultural development. In contrast to the classical physiological models that treated deficits and defects in brain functioning as final and "non-serviceable", the contemporary neuropsychological advancements show the significance of brain plastic changes, which enable t...

  10. ON THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES IN THE CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Glozman, Janna

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the development and main features of the cultural-historical approach in neuropsychology. A three step model of the evolution of Russian neuropsychology is proposed. The social and subjective features of disturbances in the pattern of mental functions and their dynamics in children and adults are discussed. The problems of the internal representation of defects, of the quality of life of patients and of their caregivers prove to be of fundamental value for contemporary n...

  11. Risk factors affecting somatosensory function after sagittal split osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Torben Henrik; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Helleberg, M; Norholt, SE; Jensen, John; Svensson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate potential individual and intraoperative risk factors associated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and to correlate the findings with postoperative changes in somatosensory function. Patients and Methods A total of 18 men and 29 women (mean...... somatosensory function after BSSO is dependent on both intraoperative risk factors and preoperative sensation levels....

  12. Importance of a critical reading of neuropsychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappedi, M; Baschenis, I M C; Dolci, R; Bejor, M

    2011-06-01

    Neuropsychological testing has become an important part of the diagnostic tools available to assess children's functioning. Tests are routinely use to establish diagnosis, measure patient's impairment and drive rehabilitation. The authors present the clinical case of a eight-year-old girl, sent to our Child Neuropsychiatry and Rehabilitation Unit for a suspected Specific Learning Disorder. Peculiar findings regarding attention and reading ability became evident during the initial evaluation; a mistaken diagnosis of dyslexia was avoided by carefully examining her global functioning (in particular sight, as she suffered from hyperopia but more importantly she had an insufficient control of vertical saccadic movements) and the strategies she used during testing. This constitutes a good example of the need to take into consideration the patient as a whole during any assessment, including neuropsychological testing. PMID:21654605

  13. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Hallerbäck, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-07-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and adults with schizophrenic psychosis (SP). A group with AS and a group with SP were assessed neuropsychologically with WAIS-III and D-KEFS. Similarities were found between groups, as displayed by an uneven cognitive profile, limitations in working memory, processing speed and some aspects of executive functioning. Full Scale IQ was higher in the AS group. These results add to the current research illuminating similarities and differences between ASD and schizophrenia on a cognitive level. PMID:26936160

  14. Neuropsychological support to relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury in the sub-acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Siert, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have reported emotional distress in relatives of patients with brain injury, but few studies have investigated neuropsychological interventions for relatives. The present study assessed the amount of neuropsychological support as well as the actual number of sessions with a neuropsyc......Many studies have reported emotional distress in relatives of patients with brain injury, but few studies have investigated neuropsychological interventions for relatives. The present study assessed the amount of neuropsychological support as well as the actual number of sessions with a...... characteristics related to the patient: Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, Early Functional Abilities, Functional Independence Measure, Rancho Los Amigos; and to the relative: symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-90-R), quality of life (SF-36) and amount and number of sessions of neuropsychological...

  15. Clinical and Biological Risk Factors for Neuropsychological Impairment in Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Ludivine; Coulbault, Laurent; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Segobin, Shailendra; Eustache, Francis; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alcoholism on cognitive and motor functioning are heterogeneous. While the role of some factors (patterns of alcohol consumption, eating habits or associated liver disease) has been hypothesized, the origins of this heterogeneity remain difficult to establish. The goals of the present study were thus to identify the clinical and biological risk factors for alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments and to determine the threshold beyond which these risk factors can be considered significant. Thirty alcoholic patients and 15 healthy controls had a blood test and underwent a neuropsychological examination. Alcohol severity measures, and liver, thiamine and malnutrition variables, were included in logistic regression models to determine the risk factors for cognitive and motor impairments (executive functions, visuospatial abilities, verbal episodic memory, ataxia), as well as those related to the severity of patients' overall neuropsychological profile (moderate or severe impairments). Liver fibrosis was found to be a risk factor for executive impairments and also for ataxia, when it was associated with long-term alcohol misuse and symptoms of withdrawal. Altered thiamine metabolism was solely predictive of verbal episodic memory impairments. This combination of biological abnormalities was associated with a profile of moderate neuropsychological impairments. Malnutrition was associated with a profile of more severe impairments. Malnutrition, altered liver function and thiamine metabolism explain, at least partially, the heterogeneity of alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments. Our findings could allow clinicians to identify patients at particular risk of severe neuropsychological impairments before the onset of irreversible and debilitating neurological complications. PMID:27617840

  16. Changing Patterns of Neuropsychological Functioning in Children Living at High Altitude above and below 4000 M: A Report from the Bolivian Children Living at Altitude (BoCLA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Bucks, Romola; Kirkham, Fenella J.; Baldeweg, Torsten; Baya-Botti, Ana; Hogan, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    The brain is highly sensitive to environmental hypoxia. Little is known, however, about the neuropsychological effects of high altitude residence in the developing brain. We recently described only minor changes in processing speed in native Bolivian children and adolescents living at approximately 3700 m. However, evidence for loss of cerebral…

  17. Brain Evolution and Human Neuropsychology: The Inferential Brain Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the the...

  18. Profiles of Impaired, Spared, and Recovered Neuropsychological Processes in Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Mary M Valmas; Sawyer, Kayle S; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B; Gravitz, Zoe R.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychological profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across r...

  19. The Neuropsychology of Cocaine Addiction: Recent Cocaine Use Masks Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Woicik, Patricia A.; Moeller, Scott J.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Maloney, Thomas; Lukasik, Tanya M; Yeliosof, Olga; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with current cocaine use disorders (CUD) form a heterogeneous group, making sensitive neuropsychological (NP) comparisons with healthy individuals difficult. The current study examined the effects on NP functioning of four factors that commonly vary among CUD: urine status for cocaine (positive vs negative on study day), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and dysphoria. Sixty-four cocaine abusers were matched to healthy comparison subjects on gender and race; the groups also ...

  20. Mammalian cadherins DCHS1-FAT4 affect functional cerebral architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Christian; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; von der Hagen, Maja; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2016-06-01

    Cortical development is a complex process where a multitude of factors, including cadherins, plays an important role and where disruptions are known to have far reaching effects in neural development and cortical patterning. Cadherins play a central role in structural left-right differentiation during brain and body development, but their effect on a functional level remains elusive. We addressed this question by examining functional cerebral asymmetries in a patient with Van Maldergem Syndrome (VMS) (MIM#601390), which is caused by mutations in DCHS1-FAT4 cadherins, using a dichotic listening task. Using neurophysiological (EEG) data, we show that when key regulators during mammalian cerebral cortical development are disrupted due to DCHS1-FAT4 mutations, functional cerebral asymmetries are stronger. Basic perceptual processing of biaurally presented auditory stimuli was unaffected. This suggests that the strength and emergence of functional cerebral asymmetries is a direct function of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells. Moreover, these results support the recent assumption that the molecular mechanisms establishing early left-right differentiation are an important factor in the ontogenesis of functional lateralization. PMID:25930014

  1. Neuropsychological profiles and subsequent diagnoses of children with early life insults: do caregiver reports suggest deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughan, Ashlee R; Perna, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many types of early life events can cause cerebral dysfunction; however, not all children have medical records or neurologic imaging documenting brain injuries. Rather, many neuropsychologists base their findings on caregiver reports describing possible early brain insults. Neuropsychological studies suggest that brief perinatal cyanosis and/or childhood neglect may negatively affect cognitive functioning. Should the mere suggestion of these events from caregiver reports be enough to suggest deficits? This study examines four groups of children: those with (1) reported nuchal cord compression with brief cyanosis, (2) reported childhood neglect, (3) reported history of both, and (4) reported history of none. It was hypothesized that based on the literature of these populations, children who present at an evaluation with the report of these insults would also present cognitive deficits. Results revealed no significant difference in intellect, memory, or academic abilities. A significant difference was shown between groups during the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test Failure to Maintain Set, as groups with a history of neglect had lower scores. A history of childhood neglect also suggested an increased risk for subsequent emotional/behavioral diagnoses. These findings suggest that although the profiles range between low-average and average, reports of early life insults can flag potential deficits in a child's neuropsychological profile. PMID:24236945

  2. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Nishinaka

    Full Text Available In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk.Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used.Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts.Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence.

  3. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Methods Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Results Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Conclusion Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence. PMID:26824701

  4. Neuropsychological investigation in Chinese patients with progressive muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Cui

    Full Text Available Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA is a rare type of degenerative motor neuron disease (MND of which the onset happens in adult period. Despite its well-defined clinical characteristics, its neuropsychological profile has remained poorly understood, considering the consensus of cognitive and behavioral impairment reached in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of Chinese PMA patients with a series of comprehensive batteries emphasizing the executive and attention function, and covering other domains of memory, language, visuospatial function, calculation and behavior as well. Their performances were compared with those of age- and education-matched ALS and healthy controls (HC.21 patients newly diagnosed with PMA were consecutively enrolled into our ALS and other MND registry platform, accounting for 14.7% of all the incident MND cases registered during the same period. 20 patients who completed the neuropsychological batteries were included into analysis. Compared with HC, PMA performed significantly worse in maintenance function of attention, while they exhibited quantitative similarity to ALS in all behavioral inventories and neuropsychological tests except the time for Stroop interference effect.PMA could display mild cognitive dysfunction in the same frontal-mediated territory of ALS but in a lesser degree, whereas they did not differ from ALS behaviorally.

  5. Estudio neuropsicológico basado en la creatividad, las inteligencias múltiples y la función ejecutiva en el ámbito educativo (Neuropsychological Study based on Creativity, Multiple Intelligences and Executive Function in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Castillo-Delgado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años la neuropsicología supone un enfoque de gran interés en su aplicación en el ámbito educativo. Por ello, es fundamental estudiar la relación que existe entre diferentes funciones cognitivas, en aras de optimizar el aprendizaje del alumnado. Método: La investigación se realizó en un colegio público de Sevilla, con participantes (n=29 de edades comprendidas entre 8 y 10 años, escolarizados en el cuarto curso de Educación Primaria. Se les aplicaron diferentes pruebas para evaluar las inteligencias múltiples, la creatividad y las funciones ejecutivas. Posteriormente se analizó la relación entre las variables estudiadas. Resultados: El análisis estadístico muestra que existe relación significativa entre creatividad gráfica e inteligencia interpersonal, entre creatividad verbal e inteligencia lingüística, y entre creatividad total e inteligencia interpersonal; Sin embargo no se encontraron valores significativos entre las variables de creatividad y función ejecutiva. Conclusiones: Es necesario realizar más investigaciones para esclarecer las posibles relaciones existentes entre Creatividad e Inteligencias Múltiples. Abstract: Neuropsychology is a focus of great interest in their application in education. Therefore, it is essential to study the relationship between different cognitive functions in order to optimize student learning. Method: The research was conducted in a Public School in Seville, with participants (n=29 aged, between 8 and 10 years, they are enrolled in the fourth year of Primary Education. Different tests were applied to evaluate multiple intelligences, creativity and executive functions. Then the relationship between the variables studied was analyzed. Results: Statistical analysis shows that there is significant relationship between graphic creativity and interpersonal intelligence, including verbal linguistic intelligence and creativity, and between full creativity and interpersonal

  6. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  7. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patient...

  8. Does vitamin C deficiency affect cognitive development and function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(-/-) mice...

  9. Compliance on neuropsychological performance validity testing in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-03-01

    Complaints of cognitive dysfunction are common in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and they are often accompanied by deficits on neuropsychological testing. Prior studies of BPD, however, did not evaluate compliance on neuropsychological performance validity testing, which could partially account for cognitive deficits observed in patients. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency at which patients with BPD show less than adequate compliance on performance validity testing, and whether patients showing less compliance perform lower on standardized neuropsychological measures. Fifty outpatients with BPD completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, a 2-alternative, forced-choice recognition test as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery for research on cognitive functioning in BPD. As a group, patients with BPD made more errors and had longer response latencies on seemingly difficult items as compared to healthy individuals. Based on established guidelines for interpretation of performances on the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, 2% of the sample was classified as probably not compliant, 10% questionably compliant, and 88% compliant. Patients with questionably or probably not compliant performances had lower estimated premorbid intellectual functioning and displayed poorer response control on neuropsychological testing than compliant patients. These findings highlight the value of incorporating performance validity testing in neuropsychological studies of patients with BPD and suggest that prior research on the disorder should be interpreted with caution because the results may not be based on valid performances. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26121384

  10. Indoor Particles Affect Vascular Function in the Aged

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Forchhammer, Lykke; Møller, Peter;

    2008-01-01

    , P-selectin, plasma amyloid A, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, protein oxidation measured as 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in plasma, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 and blood pressure. Indoor air filtration significantly improved microvascular function by 8......Rationale. Exposure to particulate matter is associated with risk of cardiovascular events, possibly through endothelial dysfunction and indoor air may be most important. Objective. We investigated effects of controlled exposure to indoor air particles on microvascular function as the primary...... endpoint and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress as secondary endpoints in a healthy elderly population. Methods. Twenty-one non-smoking couples participated in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study with two consecutive 48-h exposures to either particle filtered or non-filtered air (2533...

  11. Kinesthesia Is Not Affected by Functional Ankle Instability Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Tricia J; Kaminski, Thomas W

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether subjects with functional ankle instability suffered kinesthetic deficits in the injured ankle compared with the healthy ankle and to examine the effect of prophylactic ankle bracing on kinesthesia in uninjured and functionally unstable ankles. DESIGN AND SETTING: We tested subjects over 4 consecutive days in a climate-controlled athletic training/sports medicine laboratory setting. A single-group time-series design enabled all subjects to serve as their own controls. A different bracing condition was tested on each of those occasions. SUBJECTS: Sixteen subjects (8 men, 8 women; age = 21.6 +/- 1.7 years; mass = 73.5 +/- 15.0 kg; height = 172.9 +/- 8.8 cm) with unilateral functional ankle instability participated in this study. MEASUREMENTS: Kinesthetic threshold-to-detection of passive motion (TTDPM) measurements were obtained during passive inversion and eversion movements (0.5 degrees.s(-1)) under 4 different bracing or taping conditions (unbraced, Swede-O Ankle Lok, Aircast Air-Stirrup, and tape). RESULTS: We analyzed the data using a 3-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on the ankle and motion factors. Threshold-to-detection of passive motion scores in the unbraced condition were significantly better than the TTDPM scores in any of the other 3 test conditions. No significant differences were seen in TTDPM scores between the 2 ankles under any of the 4 conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Threshold-to-detection of passive motion scores did not differ in uninjured ankles and those with functional instability; however, bracing with either the Ankle Lok or Air-Stirrup decreased the ability to detect passive motion when compared with the no-tape (unbraced) condition. Further research is needed to determine the exact contributions of taping and bracing on ankle joint kinesthesia. PMID:12937571

  12. Does vitamin C deficiency affect cognitive development and function?

    OpenAIRE

    Stine Normann Hansen; Pernille Tveden-Nyborg; Jens Lykkesfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(-/-) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have sev...

  13. Oscar Marin and the Creation of a Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I

    2015-09-01

    During the 1980s, the Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory at Good Samaritan Hospital, Portland, Oregon, made important strides in the study of brain injury. Created and headed by Oscar Marin and the author, in affiliation with the University of Oregon, the lab brought together students, fellows, and visiting experts in neurology, psychology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, neurobiology, neurophysiology, and computation. Their patient-focused collaborations produced groundbreaking research in language and its disorders, bradyphrenia, neglect, cerebellar function and impairment, and the psychology of music. The lab hosted the meeting that they documented in the influential 1985 book Attention and Performance XI: Mechanisms of Attention. The lab's members have gone on to lead distinguished careers and continue making major contributions to cognitive neuroscience. PMID:26413738

  14. A Case of Chronic Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A Neuropsychological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudman, Erik; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Postma, Albert; Wijnia, Jan W; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman was referred to our Korsakoff Center because of extensive cognitive problems following acute Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE). She had a relatively short history of alcohol abuse and was found lying on the floor in her home by her son. After 5 days without treatment, she was diagnosed with WE in a general hospital. During the course of the disease, minimal change to the acute situation occurred, with chronic confusion, attention deficits, and incoherent behavior symptoms most notable unlike classical Korsakoff's syndrome. Neuropsychological assessment after 4 and 16 months after admission to the hospital revealed global cognitive decline, with striking impairments in attentional, executive, and memory functions. The present case study suggests that the state of confusion and the neuropsychological symptoms in WE can become chronic in case of very late treatment. We therefore recommend that confused alcoholics should receive appropriate parenteral thiamine according to the current clinical standards. PMID:24904442

  15. Forensic neuropsychological assessment: clinical case of depression and working incapacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to mental health in relation to court matters have increasingly required the participation of the psychologist. We present the use of forensic neuropsychological assessment in a case of retirement reversal. Incapacity was attested due to disability resulting from depression of a 35-year-old attorney, and the case was forwarded from the courts to the Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology Unit at the USP Clinical Hospital. A clinical interview and application of cognitive tests was conducted. Despite the depression, significant cognitive losses that would prevent return to his professional assignments were not detected. The neuropsychological assessment has been shown to be an important tool in the forensic context, as it assists with diagnostic value for clarification of functional aspects in the various psychopathological areas in terms of disabilities or potentialities.

  16. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100367

  17. Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: implications for neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Valdez, Candelaria Ramírez, Aída GarcíaLaboratory of Psychophysiology, School of Psychology, University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, MéxicoAbstract: Circadian variations have been found in human performance, including the efficiency to execute many tasks, such as sensory, motor, reaction time, time estimation, memory, verbal, arithmetic calculations, and simulated driving tasks. Performance increases during the day and decreases during the night. Circadian rhythms have been found in three basic neuropsychological processes (attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. The time course of circadian rhythms in cognitive performance may be modified significantly in patients with brain disorders, due to chronotype, age, alterations of the circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation, type of disorder, and medication. This review analyzes the recent results on circadian rhythms in cognitive performance, as well as the implications of these rhythms for the neuropsychological assessment of patients with brain disorders such as traumatic head injury, stroke, dementia, developmental disorders, and psychiatric disorders.Keywords: human circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, neuropsychological assessment, attention, working memory, executive functions

  18. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachsse Jan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. Methods MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively. Results MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis, the right temporal locus extended more antero

  19. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboubeh Ghayour Najafabadi; Laya Rahbar Nikoukar; Amir Memari; Hamed Ekhtiari; Sara Beygi

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whe...

  20. Factors affecting the decline of ventilatory function in chronic bronchitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, A H; Barter, C. E.; O'Connell, J M; Huggins, R

    1985-01-01

    Ninety six middle aged male patients with chronic bronchitis with relatively well preserved ventilatory function who were resident in Queensland, New South Wales, or Victoria took part in a prospective study to determine the relationship of various factors to the rate of decline of the FEV1. Thirty of the subjects withdrew, leaving 66 to be followed for four to six years. The mean rate of decline of the FEV1 was 58.6 (SD 51.4) ml/year. The subjects' ventilatory responses to bronchodilator and...

  1. Affected functional networks associated with sentence production in classic galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Inge; van den Hurk, Job; Hofman, Paul Am; Zimmermann, Luc Ji; Uludağ, Kâmil; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2015-08-01

    Patients with the inherited metabolic disorder classic galactosemia have language production impairments in several planning stages. Here, we assessed potential deviations in recruitment and connectivity across brain areas responsible for language production that may explain these deficits. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural activity and connectivity while participants carried out a language production task. This study included 13 adolescent patients and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants passively watched or actively described an animated visual scene using two conditions, varying in syntactic complexity (single words versus a sentence). Results showed that patients recruited additional and more extensive brain regions during sentence production. Both groups showed modulations with syntactic complexity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region associated with syntactic planning, and in right insula. In addition, patients showed a modulation with syntax in left superior temporal gyrus (STG), whereas the controls did not. Further, patients showed increased activity in right STG and right supplementary motor area (SMA). The functional connectivity data showed similar patterns, with more extensive connectivity with frontal and motor regions, and restricted and weaker connectivity with superior temporal regions. Patients also showed higher baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) in right IFG and trends towards higher CBF in bilateral STG, SMA and the insula. Taken together, the data demonstrate that language abnormalities in classic galactosemia are associated with specific changes within the language network. These changes point towards impairments related to both syntactic planning and speech motor planning in these patients. PMID:25979518

  2. Neuropsychological findings in personality disorders: A.R. Luria’s Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluzhnikov I.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information concerning the features of cognitive processes in personality disorders, as well as the brain mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these diseases. Luria’s neuropsychological approach demonstrated its heuristicity in estimating the cognitive status of patients with mental disorders and can be employed to identify the brain bases of non-psychotic mental disorders (including personality disorders. The objective of this research is to study the features of neurocognitive functioning in patients with schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder (against the norm, employing Luria’s neuropsychological methodology. Hypotheses: 1 While both types of personality disorders are related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the specificity of the neurocognitive functioning of each personality disorder will be observed in addition to general neuropsychological signs. Specific neuropsychological symptoms point to different brain deficits, which allows conclusion to be drawn regarding differences in the pathogenesis of each personality disorder; and 2 Luria’s methodology neuropsychology is adequate for the study of neurocognitive functioning in personality disorders. The study was conducted using qualitative and quantitative analyses (according to Luria of neuropsychological testing data in a group of fifty male patients aged 19,2±3,7 years with pathocharacteristic domain disorders. The group consisted of 30 schizoid personality disorder patients and 20 schizotypal personality disorder patients. Statistically significant differences (p <0,005 in neurocognitive function (regulatory processes, memory, spatial function between the healthy controls and patients with personality disorders were observed. Specific cognitive disorders pointing to the dysfunction of front-thalamoparietal connections were characteristic of both groups. Lateral differences were discovered for both patient groups. The

  3. Neuropsychological Outcomes of Neonatal Herpes Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological outcome and the relation to neuroimaging findings are studied in a cohort of 9 children between 2.5 and 13 years of age with neonatal herpes encephalitis, examined at Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.

  4. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  5. Osmotic stress affects functional properties of human melanoma cell lines

    CERN Document Server

    La Porta, Caterina A M; Pasini, Maria; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J; Zapperi, Stefano; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of microenvironment in cancer growth and metastasis is a key issue for cancer research. Here, we study the effect of osmotic pressure on the functional properties of primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. In particular, we experimentally quantify individual cell motility and transmigration capability. We then perform a circular scratch assay to study how a cancer cell front invades an empty space. Our results show that primary melanoma cells are sensitive to a low osmotic pressure, while metastatic cells are less. To better understand the experimental results, we introduce and study a continuous model for the dynamics of a cell layer and a stochastic discrete model for cell proliferation and diffusion. The two models capture essential features of the experimental results and allow to make predictions for a wide range of experimentally measurable parameters.

  6. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Normann Hansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(−/− mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies.

  7. Neuropsychological evaluation of mild head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentilini, M; Nichelli, P; Schoenhuber, R; Bortolotti, P.; Tonelli, L; Falasca, A; Merli, G A

    1985-01-01

    Neuropsychological deficits following mild head injury have been reported recently in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue with a strict methodological approach. The neuropsychological performance of 50 mildly head injured patients was compared with that of 50 normal controls chosen with the case-control approach. No conclusive evidence was found that mild head injury causes cognitive impairment one month after the trauma.

  8. Neuropsychological development in adolescents: cognitive and emotional model for considering risk factors for adolescents with cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, L C

    1995-03-01

    This article reviews neurologic, endocrinologic, and neuropsychological developments that affect our understanding of the adolescent patient. Neuroimaging and neuroradiologic techniques have assisted in identifying brain-behavior relationships and how different neuropsychological patterns result in different ways of thinking. Psychoneuroendocrinologic studies have shown that sex differences in maturation and hormonal effects on behavior need taking into account. At adolescence, the individual with a cleft or craniofacial condition may be at risk for adjustment problems due to earlier developmental events, which may affect language, behavior, and self-esteem. PMID:7748881

  9. Consumption of bee pollen affects rat ovarian functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesarova, A; Bakova, Z; Capcarova, M; Galik, B; Juracek, M; Simko, M; Toman, R; Sirotkin, A V

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of bee pollen added to the feed mixture (FM) on rat ovarian functions (secretion activity and apoptosis). We evaluated the bee pollen effect on the release of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol), as well as on the expression of markers of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3) in rat ovarian fragments. Female rats (n = 15) were fed during 90 days by FM without or with rape seed bee pollen in dose either 3 kg/1000 kg FM or 5 kg/1000 kg FM. Fragments of ovaries isolated from rats of each group (totally 72 pieces) were incubated for 24 h. Hormonal secretion into the culture medium was detected by RIA. The markers of apoptosis were evaluated by Western blotting. It was observed that IGF-I release by rat ovarian fragments was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased; on the other hand, progesterone and estradiol secretion was increased after bee pollen treatment at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM but not at 3 kg/1000 FM. Accumulation of Bcl-2 was increased by bee pollen added at 3 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at higher dose. Accumulation of Bax was increased in ovaries of rats fed by bee pollen at doses either 3 or 5 kg/1000 kg FM, whilst accumulation of caspase-3 increased after feeding with bee pollen at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at 3 kg/1000 kg FM. Our results contribute to new insights regarding the effect of bee pollen on both secretion activity (release of growth factor IGF-I and steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol) and apoptosis (anti- and pro-apoptotic markers Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3). Bee pollen is shown to be a potent regulator of rat ovarian functions. PMID:23137268

  10. DOES MEAN PERFUSION PRESSURE DURING CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS AFFECT RENAL FUNCTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After cardiac surgery acute kidney injury (AKI is a common and serious condition carrying significant costs and is independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB surgery, modifiable factors may contri bute to post - operative AKI. Their prevention might be a potential target for nephroprotection and any other morbidity after cardiac surgery. METHODS AND MATERIAL : The objective of the present study was to identify and determine whether intraoperative hypot ension or any other cofactor are independent risk factors for postoperative AKI defined by the RIFLE (renal Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of renal function and End - stage renal disease. On basis of this patients were divided into two groups according to rise in serum creatinine >0.3 mg/dl till 72 hrs postoperatively. Group B patients have developed AKI (n=34 and the remaining patients were in Group A. RESULT : In our study we have found that mean arterial pressure during CPB were less in group B patients compare to group A patients which was statistically significant (p<0.001. And in this group ICU stay and mortality rate were also high compare to group A pati ent who had not developed AKI. CONCLUSION: Lower MAP during CPB is associated with development of postoperative renal derangement, leads to increase ICU stay and mortality. Larger studies are required to further support the evidence

  11. Neuropsychological Status in Children After Repair of Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartermain, Michael D.; Ittenbach, Richard F.; Flynn, Thomas B.; Gaynor, J. William; Zhang, Xuemei; Licht, Daniel J.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Nance, Michael L.; Wernovsky, Gil

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The majority of previous studies that described the neuropsychological effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in children were performed after surgery in infancy for complex congenital heart disease (CHD). We sought to limit confounding variables and isolate potential independent effects of CPB by describing neuropsychological function in school-aged children after repair of acyanotic CHD. METHODS This was a prospective study of patients who were aged 5 to 18 years and undergoing repair of acyanotic CHD. Neuropsychological testing battery included assessment of intelligence, memory, motor, attention, executive function, and behavior before and 6 months after CPB. The independent effects of anesthesia, surgery, and hospitalization on neuropsychological function were assessed by testing a surgical control group of patients who were undergoing repair of pectus deformities. In addition, an outpatient group of children with mild CHD were enrolled to assess the practice effects of serial testing. RESULTS Patients included CPB (n = 35), surgical control (n = 19), and nonsurgical (n = 12). Groups were comparable in age, gender, and race and demonstrated similar unadjusted group mean scores on baseline and 6-month follow-up neuropsychological testing. When adjusted for practice effects, the CPB group performed similar to the non-CPB groups in all assessed neuropsychological domains, with the exception of 1 of 4 tests of executive function. CONCLUSIONS When controlling for the non-CPB effects of surgery (eg, hospitalization, anesthesia, thoracotomy) and the practice effects of serial testing, there were no consistent independent effects of CPB on neuropsychological status in a cohort of children and adolescents 6 months after repair of acyanotic CHD. PMID:20660542

  12. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  13. Investigation of a neuropsychological screen for chemo-fog

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    Lea Ann Ouimet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (the term ‘‘chemo-fog’’ is used by many investigators supports the occurrence of subtle declines in function for a subset of recipients. Identification of vulnerable individuals via comprehensive neuropsychological batteries is complicated due to their lack of clinical utility and increased risk of misclassification. The goal of this paper was to evaluate the ability of a reduced battery to detect chemotherapy-related cognitive impairments. Data from our previous study (Ouimet et al. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 31:73–89, 2009 were used to compare a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery comprising 23 tests with a reduced battery consisting of a subset of nine tests. A standardized regression-based approach revealed that a comparable numbers of participants were identified by both batteries, suggesting that individuals vulnerable to chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment can be identified by a more selective battery. Further work is needed to clarify the neuropsychological tests most sensitive to detecting impairments associated with chemotherapy so that assessment batteries can be limited to these tests.

  14. Neuropsychogical Function of Schizophrenics%精神分裂症患者的HR神经心理测验结果与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛继芳; 戴郑生

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To examine neuropsychological fun ctions in a group of sch izophrenic patients. Methods:The patients were assessed b y the Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological Battery (HRB). Results:Nearly 3/4 pat ients did not show any significant sign of brain damage. The performances on TPT localization、sensory memory, and speech function were poor in patients who suffered from mild brain damage. Level of brain damage was not related to duration of illness and drug do sage. However, results of the neuropsychological functioning may be affected by drugs taken by patients. Conclusion:Global impairment in neuropsychological fun ctioning was not found in most of the patients. However, mild impairment in the sensory memory and sound discrimination functions were noted.

  15. Neuropsychological sequelae of medulloblastoma in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the neuropsychological consequences of medulloblastoma in adults. Methods: Patients 18 years of age or older who had medulloblastoma and at least 3 years of disease-free survival were eligible. A battery of tests was conducted to assess global intellectual functioning, verbal ability, visuospatial ability, memory, reasoning, and academic proficiency. For the verbal memory performance, each patient was matched with two normal controls selected on the basis of age, sex, and level of education. Results: Review of the Neuro-Oncology database revealed 24 patients eligible for the study. Of these, 10 patients (6 good-risk and 4 poor-risk) agreed to participate; 7 patients were lost to follow-up; 5 lived too far away to come to the testing site, and 2 refused testing. There were four men and six women; their mean age was 36.5 years at testing and 29.9 years at surgical diagnosis. Mean dose of whole brain radiation was 34.5 Gy. Mean interval between diagnosis and testing was 79.1 months. Test results demonstrated below average intelligence quotients (mean intelligence quotient 90.2; range 67-103) and specific deficits in memory, reasoning, visuospatial ability, and arithmetic. Conclusion: Adults with medulloblastoma in a prolonged disease-free status may suffer significant cognitive deficits. We recommend further controlled, prospective studies to evaluate cognitive outcomes in this patient population in the hope that interventional strategies could be developed, or treatment modified to minimize such toxicities

  16. Psychological structure of written speech in modern foreign neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Mikadze

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the current foreign ideas on the structure of written speech in terms of the principle of the system structure of mental functions. It is shown that written speech is considered as a multicomponent structure within the framework of the presently dominating foreign concept Р a double route model. This structure includes both elements common to other functions and those specific only for writing. The performed analysis allows determination of the theoretical standpoint common to the Russian and foreign neuropsychological concepts of the structure of speech processes.

  17. Cognitive insight in psychosis: The relationship between self-certainty and self-reflection dimensions and neuropsychological measures

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Michael A.; Peters, Emmanuelle R.; Fannon, Dominic; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive insight in schizophrenia encompasses the evaluation and reinterpretation of distorted beliefs and appraisals. We investigated the neuropsychological basis of cognitive insight in psychosis. It was predicted that, like clinical insight, cognitive insight would be associated with a wide range of neuropsychological functions, but would be most strongly associated with measures of executive function. Sixty-five outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed on ...

  18. Neuropsychological evaluation of patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with combination chemotherapy or radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuropsychological tests were used to evaluate possible central nervous system dysfunction in patients treated with chemotherapy. Ninety-five patients with non-small cell lung cancer limited disease were randomized to either radiotherapy (2.8 Gyx15) or combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. In order to evaluate cognitive functions three neuropsychological tests were applied: Trail Making, Benton Visual Retention Test and Verbal Learning. Changes in the patients' test scores before and after treatment were compared. The chemotherapy patients showed reduced performance on some of the neuropsychological tests compared to the radiotherapy group. This indicates a treatment related effect on the central nervous system, possibly caused by the combination chemotherapy. (orig.)

  19. Forensic Neuropsychology: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Jim

    2003-12-01

    Forensic Neuropsychology is a new and rapidly evolving subspecialty of clinical neuropsychology that applies neuropsychological principles and practices to matters that pertain to legal decision-making. Forensic neuropsychologists provide the trier of fact with specialized information regarding brain-behavior relationships. The primary responsibility of the forensic neuropsychologist is to provide information based on scientifically-validated neuropsychological principles and clinical methodology that is pertinent to the Forensic Question at hand-which is not just whether the patient has dysfunction, but whether the dysfunction results from the event under consideration. To best answer the Forensic Question, the neuropsychologist must use a methodology that has been scientifically-validated on brain-impaired individuals, and can distinguish various brain conditions from each other as well as from normal variation. The methodology must be able to determine whether any dysfunction found is, in fact, the result of a neurological condition as opposed to non-neurological, psychological, or even factitious disorders. This paper discusses neuropsychological methodology in the context of forensic application and the requirements of the legal process and illustrates these issues with case examples. PMID:14609579

  20. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Special Education Students with Serious Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Richard E.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.

    2006-01-01

    Special education, elementary school students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) were investigated for neuropsychological deficits with the NEPSY battery. Over half (54%) scored two or more standard deviations below the test mean on at least one of the four functional domains, especially Language and Attention/Executive Functions. The NEPSY…

  1. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological approaches to study of variants of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Matveyeva E. Yu.; Romanova A. A.; Yegorova O. I.; Agris A.R.

    2012-01-01

    The present review carries out analysis of empirical studies concerning neuropsychological and neurophysiological mechanisms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The current data, regarding malfunctions of brain systems at various levels of aetiopathogenesis (genetic, neurotrasmitting, functioning of separate brain structure), are discussed. The article regards the character of deficit in various components of psychic activity in people with ADHD, namely, executive functions an...

  2. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Adults with Comorbid ADHD and Borderline/Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, E.; Bramham, J.; Young, S.; Paliokostas, E.; Xenitidis, K.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to characterise the neuropsychological functioning of adults with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and intellectual disability. Individuals with ADHD and mild-borderline range intelligence (N=59) and individuals with ADHD and normal intellectual functioning (N=95) were compared on attentional and response…

  3. Test security in medicolegal cases: proposed guidelines for attorneys utilizing neuropsychology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Kenneth R

    2009-11-01

    In the context of forensic neuropsychological assessments, the professional interaction of law and psychology is viewed primarily as one where the retaining attorney or court dictates its needs to psychologists when resolving legal disputes. While this perspective is conceptually accurate, the positive and practical collaboration of law and psychology also relies on attorneys adhering to basic protections of sensitive psychological assessment procedures and tests. Objective testing is undermined when a practitioner of law engages in actions prior to, during, or following a neuropsychological examination in a manner that threatens the test security. An appreciation among practitioners of law and psychology regarding the necessity of test security is essential. This article reviews attorney actions that can affect test security, proposes a distinction by psychology between appropriate and problematic client preparation for a neuropsychological examination, integrates the available legal precedent regarding test security, and suggests productive measures to protect test security in medicolegal settings. PMID:19778915

  4. Positive Affect in the Midst of Distress: Implications for Role Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Shmueli-Blumberg, Dikla; Acree, Michael; Folkman, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Stress has been shown to deplete the self-regulation resources hypothesized to facilitate effective role functioning. However, recent research suggests that positive affect may help to replenish these vital self-regulation resources. Based on revised Stress and Coping theory and the Broaden-and-Build theory of positive emotion, three studies provide evidence of the potential adaptive function of positive affect in the performance of roles for participants experiencing stress. Participants wer...

  5. Effort testing in contemporary UK neuropsychological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Renee J; Walton, Nigel H; Brooks, D Neil; Powell, Graham E

    2009-08-01

    A survey of members of the British Psychological Society Division of Neuropsychology (N = 588) was conducted via email to ascertain current practice with respect to the use of symptom validity testing (SVT) in clinical and legal neuropsychological assessments. Replies were received from 130 practicing neuropsychologists. Results showed that 59% frequently use SVT in legal assessments, but a minority (15%) employ them in clinical assessments. Practice in the UK is only moderately different to that in North America with respect to frequency of use of SVT, although methods employed showed greater diversity. Favored tests, respondents' justifications for use of SVT and rationales for not using SVT are reported. PMID:19235633

  6. Disturbances of affective prosody in patients with schizophrenia; a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Leentjens, A.; Wielaert, S.; Van Harskamp, F; Wilmink, F.

    1998-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether disturbances of affective prosody constitute part of the symptomatology of schizophrenia. Affective prosody is defined here as a neuropsychological function that encompasses all non-verbal aspects of language that are necessary for recognising and conveying emotions in communication. Twenty six schizophrenic out-patients and twenty four normal controls underwent a standardised prosody test, assessing four different aspects of affecti...

  7. WOMEN AND ADVANCEMENT IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY:REAL-LIFE LESSONS LEARNED

    OpenAIRE

    Hilsabeck, Robin C.; Martin, Eileen M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions f...

  8. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  9. Neuropsychological Evaluation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmon, David C.; Smerz, Jessica M.

    2005-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of Tourettes syndrome is reviewed for the purpose of presenting a clinically relevant account of the neuropsychology of the disorder for the clinician who is behaviorally oriented. The neuropathology and neuropsychological deficits typically found in Tourettes are reviewed, and a neuropsychological test battery is…

  10. L.Vygotsky, A.Luria and Developmental Neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Akhutina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to Lev Vygotsky's and Alexander Luria's contribution to the theory and methods of neuropsychology, and particularly, developmental neuropsychology. The first part of the article covers the principle foundations of neuropsychology as elaborated by Vygotsky and Luria. The goal of the second part is to show what interpretation of learning disabilities can be derived from it.

  11. L.Vygotsky, A.Luria and Developmental Neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana V. Akhutina; Nataly M. Pylaeva

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to Lev Vygotsky's and Alexander Luria's contribution to the theory and methods of neuropsychology, and particularly, developmental neuropsychology. The first part of the article covers the principle foundations of neuropsychology as elaborated by Vygotsky and Luria. The goal of the second part is to show what interpretation of learning disabilities can be derived from it.

  12. Neuropsychological syndromes in patients with Parkinson’s disease after deep electric stimulation of pallidar complex structures

    OpenAIRE

    Yu V Mikadze; Irina Igorevna Titkova; A. O. Gushcha; V M Tyurnikov

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides the results of neuropsychological examinations in 10 patients with Parkinson’s disease who underwent deep electrical stimulation of pallidar complex structures. The general neuropsychological test battery that had been developed by A.R. Luria and allowed the qualitative classification of the cognitive impairment symptoms detectable on examination to be made was used to study cognitive functions. The patients were examined before and just after surgery and in the late period...

  13. Neuropsychological Assessment In Epilepsy Surgery – Preliminary Experience In A Rural Tertiary Care Hospital In North East Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sayuthi, Sani; Tharakan, John; Pieter, Maria Soccoro; Salmah, Win Mar; Madhavan, Manoharan; Tahir, Adnan; George, Jain

    2009-01-01

    We present our preliminary experience in neuropsychological testing in epilepsy surgery patients to demonstrate how these tests contributed to decide the laterality of epileptic focus, and to assess the effect of surgery on patient’s cognitive function and quality of life. Preoperative neuropsychological tests consisting of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS) for IQ, Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS) for memory and patients’ quality of life (QOLIE 31) were administered to refractory ep...

  14. Objective Neuropsychological Deficits in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: What Remains Beyond Symptom Similarity?

    OpenAIRE

    Hélène Pineau; André Marchand; Stéphane Guay

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study intends to characterize the neuropsychological profile in persons with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using objective measures of cognitive performance. A neuropsychological battery of tests for attention, memory and executive functions was administered to four groups: PTSD (n = 25), mTBI (n = 19), subjects with two formal diagnoses: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI/PTSD) (n = 6) and contr...

  15. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting....

  16. Neuropsychological Profiles and Behavioral Ratings in ADHD Overlap Only in the Dimension of Syndrome Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Takács

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive neuropsychological and the behavioral rating profiles of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods. Forty-two children diagnosed with ADHD (M=11.5  years, SD=1.1 and 43 typically developing children (M=11.2 years, SD=1.7 participated. We measured symptom severity with behavioral rating scales, and we administered neuropsychological tasks to measure inhibitory performance, updating/working memory, and shifting ability. Results. On the basis of the three neuropsychological variables, the hierarchical cluster analytic method yielded a six-cluster structure. The clusters, according to the severity of the impairment, were labeled as follows: none or few symptoms, Moderate inhibition and mild shifting, moderate to severe shifting with moderate updating, moderate updating, severe updating with mild shifting, and severe updating with severe shifting. There were no systematic differences in inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior across the clusters. The comorbid learning disorder appeared more likely only in severe neuropsychological forms of ADHD. Conclusion. In sum, our results suggest that behavioral ratings and neuropsychological profiles converge only in the dimension of symptom severity and that atypicalities in executive functions may manifest in nonspecific everyday problems.

  17. Neuropsychological Profiles of Written Expression Learning Disabilities Determined by Concordance-Discordance Model Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Melanie E; Kubas, Hanna A; Witzke, Justin W; Fitzer, Kim R; Miller, Daniel C; Maricle, Denise E; Harrison, Gina L; Macoun, Sarah J; Hale, James B

    2016-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have disparate neuropsychological processing deficits that interfere with academic achievement in spelling, writing fluency, and/or written expression (WE). Although there are multiple potential causes of WE SLD, there is a paucity of research exploring this critical academic skill from a neuropsychological perspective. This study examined the neuropsychological profiles of WE SLD subtypes defined using the concordance-discordance model (C-DM) of SLD identification. Participants were drawn from a sample of 283 children (194 boys, 89 girls) aged 6 years to 16 years old (Mage = 9.58 years, SD = 2.29 years) referred for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations in school settings and subsequently selected based on C-DM determined spelling, writing fluency, and WE SLD. WE SLD subtypes differed on several psychomotor, memory, and executive function measures (F range = 2.48-5.07, p range = .049 to <.001), suggesting that these children exhibit distinct patterns of neuropsychological processing strengths and weaknesses. Findings have relevance for differential diagnosis of WE subtypes, discriminating WE SLD subtypes from low WE achievement, and developing differentiated evidence-based instruction and intervention for children with WE SLD. Limitations and future research will be addressed. PMID:25671391

  18. MENTAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: Overview and development of a protocol for neuropsychological assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Sánchez-Joya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The last decades have brought great advances in the understanding of child neurodevelopment and knowledge of cognitive processes that occur in the brain from an early age. As a result and thanks to the large number of standardized and scientifically guaranteed neuropsychological tests that are available today, we can assess and diagnose with high specificity, deficits or delays in the acquisition of cognitive functions. Besides, it allows knowing the strengths or normality points of children with various pathologies. Objective: To present the concepts and a neuropsychological assessment protocol for mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation. Development: First, the authors present a general model of neuropsychological assessment in childhood. Second, he concept, classification and aetiology of mental retardation is revised and it is proposed a neuropsychological profile. Finally, the paradigms of pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation are shown. Conclusion: Based on standardized and validated test for child neuropsychological assessment, children cognitive disorders can be accurately identified to plan each child's cognitive stimulation, and thus optimize the results of the therapy.

  19. The role of affect in attentional functioning for younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo RimNoh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although previous research has shown that positive affect (PA and negative affect (NA modulate attentional functioning in distinct ways, few studies have considered whether the links between affect and attentional functioning may vary as a function of age. Using the Attention Network Test (Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002, we tested whether participants’ current state of PA and NA influenced distinct attentional functions (i.e., alerting, orienting, and executive attention and how the relationships between affective states and attentional functioning differ in younger (18-25 yrs and older (60-85 yrs age groups. The results revealed that higher PA was associated with lower alerting efficiency; however, this pattern did not vary by age group. While there were age differences in alerting efficiency, these age differences were mediated by PA, indicating that the higher state PA found in older adults may contribute to age differences in alerting. Furthermore, age group moderated the relationship between PA and orienting as well as NA and orienting. That is, higher levels of PA and lower levels of NA were associated with enhanced orienting efficiency in older adults. Neither PA nor NA had any influence on executive attention. The current results suggest that positive and negative affect may influence attentional functioning in distinct ways, but that these patterns may depend on age groups.

  20. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  1. Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Symptoms of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Osterling, Julie; Rinaldi, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examined performance on neuropsychological tests (tapping the medial temporal lobe and related limbic structures, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively) in relation to performance on tasks assessing autistic symptoms in young children with autism, and developmentally matched children with Down syndrome or typical development.…

  2. Neuropsychology of Learning Disabilities: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, Byron P.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the issues that dominated, or at least held sway, in the neuropsychology of learning disabilities (LD) in the 1970s included: the definition of LD, whether there are reliable and valid subtypes of LD, whether and to what extent LD are related to cerebral dysfunction, and whether LD are related to types and/or degrees of psychosocial…

  3. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  4. Approaching neuropsychological tasks through adaptive neurorobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychological phenomena have been modelized mainly, by the mainstream approach, by attempting to reproduce their neural substrate whereas sensory-motor contingencies have attracted less attention. In this work, we introduce a simulator based on the evolutionary robotics platform Evorobot* in order to setting up in silico neuropsychological tasks. Moreover, in this study we trained artificial embodied neurorobotic agents equipped with a pan/tilt camera, provided with different neural and motor capabilities, to solve a well-known neuropsychological test: the cancellation task in which an individual is asked to cancel target stimuli surrounded by distractors. Results showed that embodied agents provided with additional motor capabilities (a zooming/attentional actuator) outperformed simple pan/tilt agents, even those equipped with more complex neural controllers and that the zooming ability is exploited to correctly categorising presented stimuli. We conclude that since the sole neural computational power cannot explain the (artificial) cognition which emerged throughout the adaptive process, such kind of modelling approach can be fruitful in neuropsychological modelling where the importance of having a body is often neglected.

  5. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  6. Factors Affecting Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Functional Foods in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tra, Pham Van; Moritaka, Masahiro; Fukuda, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    Ordered probit model is used to analyze 11 independent factors, socio?demographic characteristics, family health condition, experience of functional food consumption and mass media impact those are presumed to affect the willingness to pay for functional food by Vietnamese consumers. Contingent valuation using the payment card method was used to elicit the premium that respondents are willing to pay for 2 popular functional food items which is selected from the pilot survey, Diabetes milk?fun...

  7. Neuropsychological and dimensional behavioral trait profiles in Costa Rican ADHD sib pairs: Potential intermediate phenotypes for genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Viviana A; Ordóñez, Anna; Mackin, R Scott; Delucchi, Kevin; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J; Chavira, Denise A; Berrocal, Monica; Cheung, Erika; Fournier, Eduardo; Badner, Judith A; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A

    2015-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with substantial functional impairment in children and in adults. Many individuals with ADHD have clear neurocognitive deficits, including problems with visual attention, processing speed, and set shifting. ADHD is etiologically complex, and although genetic factors play a role in its development, much of the genetic contribution to ADHD remains unidentified. We conducted clinical and neuropsychological assessments of 294 individuals (269 with ADHD) from 163 families (48 multigenerational families created using genealogical reconstruction, 78 affected sib pair families, and 37 trios) from the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR). We used principal components analysis (PCA) to group neurocognitive and behavioral variables using the subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and 15 neuropsychological measures, and created quantitative traits for heritability analyses. We identified seven cognitive and two behavioral domains. Individuals with ADHD were significantly more impaired than their unaffected siblings on most behavioral and cognitive domains. The verbal IQ domain had the highest heritability (92%), followed by auditory attention (87%), visual processing speed and problem solving (85%), and externalizing symptoms (81%). The quantitative traits identified here have high heritabilities, similar to the reported heritability of ADHD (70-90%), and may represent appropriate alternative phenotypes for genetic studies. The use of multigenerational families from a genetically isolated population may facilitate the identification of ADHD risk genes in the face of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. PMID:25832558

  8. Ocular motility, visual acuity and dysfunction of neuropsychological impairment in children with shunted uncomplicated hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, H K; Prigatano, G P; Pollay, M; Biscoe, C B; Smith, R V

    1985-01-01

    Children with shunted, uncomplicated, communicating hydrocephalus were tested to determine (1) the persistence of neuropsychological impairment and (2) the relationship between neuropsychological functioning, ocular motility, and acuity abnormalities. Eighteen hydrocephalic and 18 individually age- and sex-matched controls were given a neuropsychological battery, repeated after an interval of 1 year. Hydrocephalic children were also tested at the beginning of the second year for strabismus, amblyopia and visual acuity. Their medical records were reviewed for history of ocular motility and/or acuity abnormalities. Hydrocephalic children with normal range IQ were found to have lower verbal IQ, memory, and fine motor skills compared to controls. A history of ocular motility and acuity abnormalities was associated with impaired visuospatial and verbal problem-solving skills. PMID:4005882

  9. Total dream loss: a distinct neuropsychological dysfunction after bilateral PCA stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Matthias; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2004-10-01

    The term Charcot-Wilbrand syndrome (CWS) denotes dream loss following focal brain damage. We report the first case of CWS, in whom neuropsychological functions, extension of the underlying lesion, and sleep architecture changes were assessed. A 73-year-old woman reported a total dream loss after acute, bilateral occipital artery infarction (including the right inferior lingual gyrus), which lasted for over 3 months. In the absence of sleep-wake complaints and (other) neuropsychological deficits, polysomnography demonstrated an essentially normal sleep architecture with preservation of REM sleep. Dreaming was denied also after repeated awakenings from REM sleep. This observation suggests that CWS (1) can represent a distinct and isolated neuropsychological manifestation of deep occipital lobe damage, and (2) may occur in the absence of detectable REM sleep abnormalities. PMID:15389890

  10. Forensic neuropsychology: the art of practicing a science that does not yet exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, D

    1991-09-01

    Despite its future promise, neuropsychological evidence generally lacks scientifically demonstrated value for resolving legal issues, and thus, if admitted into court, should be accorded little or no weight. In support of this contention, examples of problems and limits in forensic neuropsychology are described. These include contrasts between the clinical and forensic context; the base-rate problem; lack of standardized practices; problems assessing credibility or malingering; difficulties determining prior functioning, limits in the capacity to integrate complex data; and the lack of relation between judgmental accuracy and education, experience, or credentials. Some possible counterarguments are also addressed. PMID:1844709

  11. Neuropsychological study of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their parents in China: searching for potential endophenotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Li; Jin-Hua Sun; Tao Li; Yan-Chun Yang

    2012-01-01

    Objective The existence of neuropsychological deficits has been implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),particularly memory,attention,and executive functions.However,few studies have focused on neuropsychological deficits in the relatives of OCD patients.The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive deficits in OCD patients and their parents.Methods Forty patients with OCD,48 parents of these patients,and 87 healthy controls completed a neuropsychological testing battery.Results Both OCD patients and their parents showed impairments in delayed verbal memory and delayed visual memory.Furthermore,they performed worse than healthy controls in problemsolving ability.Conclusion Our study demonstrated familial aggregation of delayed memory deficits and impaired problemsolving ability,which may be the potential neuropsychological endophenotypes of hereditary susceptibility to OCD.

  12. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Lundholm, Jeremy; MacIvor, J. Scott; MacDougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a repl...

  13. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Lundholm; J Scott Macivor; Zachary Macdougall; Melissa Ranalli

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a re...

  14. [The "Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST)": initial validation and reliability studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidgen, H; Hoell, T; Regard, M; Landis, T; Rudolf, K H; Berzewski, H; Brock, M

    1994-01-01

    Medical examinations only insufficiently measure cognitive impairment in neurological and neurosurgical patients. Due to costs an personnel shortages, adequate neuropsychological test methods are typically bypassed. Indeed, the very size and methodological problems of current tests impede their application in clinical practice. To resolve this dissatisfying state of affairs, we have developed a standardized, scored form of initial neuropsychological examination. The Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST) comprises 45 items, is easy to handle, and can be conducted in 15-20 min. The NST measures psychic performance along functional parameters such as orientation in place and time, primary and secondary language, visuospatial ability, attention, and memory skills. We have assessed the validity and reliability of the NST in a prospective study. 129 neurosurgical patients (60% malignant or benign cerebral tumors, 21% vascular malformations with and without subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6% traumatic brain injury, 3% hydrocephalus, 10% others) and 52 control subjects were included in the study. The difference in average total NST-scores was highly significant for the two groups (t = -7.84, DF = 177.93, p < .001). In addition, two chronologically separate subsamples of NCH patients (N = 81) and controls (N = 35) were tested using the Mini-Mental State (MMS). The correlation between total NST-score and MMS results was r = .49 (p < .001). Cross-tabulation was used to set a cut-off score, by means of which 80% of the neurosurgical patients were identified as true positive and 74% of the controls as true negative. A 24-hour retest confirmed the NST as reliable to .85 (p < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7887046

  15. Insights from Neuropsychology: Pinpointing the role of the Posterior Parietal Cortex in Episodic and Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian E. Berryhill

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of posterior parietal cortex (PPC in various forms of memory is a current topic of interest in the broader field of cognitive neuroscience. This large cortical region has been linked with a wide range of mnemonic functions affecting each stage of memory processing: encoding, maintenance and retrieval. Yet, the precise role of the PPC in memory remains mysterious and controversial. Progress in understanding PPC function will require researchers to incorporate findings in a convergent manner from multiple experimental techniques rather than emphasizing a particular type of data. To facilitate this process, here, we review findings from the human neuropsychological research and examine the consequences to memory following PPC damage. Recent patient-based research findings have investigated two typically disconnected fields: working memory and episodic memory. The findings from patient participants with unilateral and bilateral PPC lesions performing diverse experimental paradigms are summarized. These findings are then related to findings from other techniques including neurostimulation (TMS and tDCS and the influential and more abundant functional neuroimaging literature. We then review the strengths and weaknesses of hypotheses proposed to account for PPC function in these forms of memory. Finally, we address what missing evidence is needed to clarify the role(s of the PPC in memory.

  16. Impairment of executive function and attention predicts onset of affective disorder in healthy high-risk twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether measures of cognitive function can predict onset of affective disorder in individuals at heritable risk.......To investigate whether measures of cognitive function can predict onset of affective disorder in individuals at heritable risk....

  17. School children with neuropsychological handicap: coping strategies and parents' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krener, P; Cranston, C

    1990-01-01

    One hundred forty six boys (mean age 9 years 1 months, SD = two years, nine months) and forty one girls (mean age 8 years 6 months, SD = three years, three months) received medical, developmental, psychoeducational, and psychiatric evaluations in a multidisciplinary developmental pediatric clinic. Two hundred fifty variables were analyzed by developing ten scales to quantitatively evaluate neuropsychological risk factors, family and parent functioning, and outcome measures of academic achievement, social adjustment and coping or psychiatric symptom pattern. Higher academic achievement, and lower behavioral symptomatology were associated with high IQ scores but not with higher scores on neurobehavioral risk factors. Chief complaints reported by parents did not correlate with their children's final psychiatric diagnoses and also were found to be independent of children's coping styles observed in the office. Problem parenting, as observed in the pediatrician's office, was associated with behavioral problems, and also with decreased competence on language measures and lower academic achievement in relation to IQ. In this sample, assessing parenting yielded a stronger prediction of the child's school and behavioral functioning than did taking a detailed history of neuropsychological risk factors. PMID:2134302

  18. Neuropsychologic side-effects of tacrolimus in pediatric renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Markus J; Spartà, Giuseppina; Laube, Guido F; Miozzari, Marco; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2003-04-01

    Calcineurin inhibition with tacrolimus has been used after renal transplantation (RTPL) as rescue therapy for insufficient immunological control or if cyclosporin A (CSA) toxicity occurred. Neurologic side-effects occur but are rare in children, usually presenting as tremor; however, serious complications, e.g. the posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are also documented. Twenty children (10 girls) were switched to tacrolimus: 11 (55%) for immunological reasons (n = 9: steroid-resistant rejection; n = 2: recurrent rejections) and nine for CSA side-effects. Tacrolimus was started at a median of 8 wk (range 10 d to 8.7 yr) after RTPL and was continued for a median of 2.5 yr (range 5 wk to 4.6 yr). Renal function significantly improved over a period of 12 months following conversion to tacrolimus (glomerular filtration rate 56 +/- 19 vs. 66 +/- 16 mL/min/1.73 m2; p side-effects were neuropsychological and behavioral symptoms in three children, ranging from anorexia nervosa-like symptoms with weight loss, amenorrhea, depression and school problems to severe insomnia and to aggressive and anxious behavior in one child. Only the latter child was exposed to toxic tacrolimus blood levels. All side-effects were fully reversible after discontinuation of tacrolimus. In conclusion, tacrolimus had a beneficial effect on renal function and was well tolerated in the majority of pediatric patients. However, neuropsychologic and behavioral side-effects are important and maybe underrecognized in children. PMID:12709079

  19. A motion to exclude and the 'fixed' versus 'flexible' battery in 'forensic' neuropsychology: challenges to the practice of clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2007-01-01

    Two recent publications in Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology (ACN) have been used by defense attorneys as the centerpiece for an argument that only a 'fixed' battery approach, exemplified by the Halstead-Reitan battery (HRB), satisfies the Daubert criteria for admissibility; and therefore, the HRB represents the only method of forensic neuropsychological assessment that should be admitted into evidence. Since this case has important implications for the practice of clinical neuropsychology in the United States, this 'Motion to Exclude' and its rationale are presented, which demonstrates how the legal profession uses neuropsychological literature. The critical issues of this argument for clinical neuropsychological practice are reviewed. PMID:17194563

  20. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  1. Effectiveness of Selected Neuropsychological, Academic, and Sociocultural Measures for Predicting Bannatyne Pattern Categories in Black Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury, Charles A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the degree to which a set of neuropsychological, organismic, school achievement, and ethnic identity variables correlated with Bannatyne pattern groupings for a selected sample of 100 right-handed Black 12- and 13-year olds. Finds a possible relationship between Bannatyne pattern categories, gender, and certain types of brain functions.…

  2. Cognitive Deficits Associated with Acquired Amusia after Stroke: A Neuropsychological Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkamo, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence on amusia suggests that our ability to perceive music might be based on the same neural resources that underlie other higher cognitive functions, such as speech perception and spatial processing. We studied the neural correlates of acquired amusia by performing extensive neuropsychological assessments on 53 stroke patients with a…

  3. Williams Syndrome Hypersociability: A Neuropsychological Study of the Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitao, Liliana; Sampaio, Adriana; Fernandez, Montse; Sousa, Nuno; Pinheiro, Ana; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome display indiscriminate approach towards strangers. Neuroimaging studies conducted so far have linked this social profile to structural and/or functional abnormalities in WS amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In this study, the neuropsychological hypotheses of amygdala and prefrontal cortex involvement in WS…

  4. Multicultural Neuropsychology: Performance of Mandarin-Speaking Children On Widely Used Assessment Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shaio-Ling Judy; Tori, Christopher D.; Saito, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In order to extend the multicultural horizons of neuropsychological assessment in the Chinese mainland, a battery of eight commonly used neurocognitive tests assessing motor speed, verbal and visual-spatial memory, language fluency, attention, and executive functioning were given to 224 Mandarin-speaking school children (107 boys and 117 girls)…

  5. Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome CCAS – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starowicz-Filip, Anna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to describe a case of the patient with cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome CCAS, characterize the role of cerebellum in the regulation of cognitive functions and present theprocedure of neuropsychological diagnosis useful in indicating the specific cognitive and emotional problems in patients with cerebellar damage.Case report. A 41- year old man with an ischemic cerebellar stroke of its right hemisphere manifested the neuropsychological symptoms typical for the frontal damage: euphoric mood, disorganized behavior,lack of criticism and mental plasticity, tendency to shorten the personal distance, problems with mistake correction. In neuropsychological diagnosis we used following methods: Raven Progressive Matrices Test, Mini Mental Stage Examination (MMSE, Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Interference Test, Word Fluency Test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test by Łuria, Benton Visual Retention Test, Digit Span.Results. Analyzing the obtained results we observed the significant decrease of all executive functions: planning, abstract thinking, cognitive flexibility, adaptation to new situations as well as memory impairments and changes in emotional and behavioral state similar to frontal syndrome. The whole of impairments including the typical cerebellar symptoms (ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria,hypotonia create the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome CCAS with leading role of dysexecutive syndrome.Conclusions. The cerebellum takes part in the regulation of cognitive functions. The cerebellar damages can imitate the emotional- cognitive problems of patients after frontal damages what additionally stress the functional link between these two brain structures. Patient’s with cerebellar damages should have neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric diagnosis and care.

  6. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; MacIvor, J. Scott; MacDougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Conclusions/Significance Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms

  7. Plant species and functional group combinations affect green roof ecosystem functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lundholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or

  8. Personality profile and neuropsychological test performance in chronic cocaine-abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Lubomski, M; Murray, S; King, K

    2001-09-01

    Little is known about the association between personality disorders and neuropsychological test performance in chronic cocaine users. The aims of the present study were to (1) pinpoint the specific neuropsychological characteristics of chronic cocaine abusers, (2) analyze their personality profile, and (3) explore the association between personality traits and neuropsychological test performance. A sample of 42 drug-abusers (mean age = 34.15; SD = 6.73; mean educational level = 11.44; SD = 2.01) was selected from a state rehabilitation facility and was compared to a control group (mean age = 34.53; SD = 9.01; mean educational level = 12.29; SD = 1.31). The following information was collected for each subject: (1) A clinical history adapted from Horton (1996). (2) The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) (Morey, 1991). (3) A neuropsychological test battery including: Arithmetic and Digits subtests from the WAIS-R, California Verbal Learning Test, Trial Making Test, Verbal Fluency tests, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Stroop Neurological Screening Test and Hooper Visual Organization. Thirty-seven of the drug-dependent subjects obtained an abnormal score in at least one PAI scale. The personality profile of the drug-dependent subjects found via the PAI pointed to a Borderline/Antisocial personality, frequently associated with mania features. In six of the drug-abusers, a normal personality profile was observed. Neuropsychological test performance scores were within the low average or borderline range. The most abnormal scores were observed in attention, memory, and executive functioning tests. The results did not show any robust association between personality profile and neuropsychological test performance. PMID:11697211

  9. Tree functional diversity affects litter decomposition and arthropod community composition in a tropical forest

    OpenAIRE

    Laird-Hopkins, Benita

    2016-01-01

    The crucial role of tropical forests in the global carbon balance is determined by tree growth and the rapid turnover of organic material. Land-use change and forest recovery from disturbance alters species- and functional diversity, which in turn can modify decomposition processes and affect ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling. Despite numerous studies on tropical litter decomposition, the links among plant- and invertebrate diversity and microbial function are far from clear. I investigat...

  10. Neuropsychological differential diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Glenn J; Rohling, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is reviewed from the perspective of meta-analyses of neuropsychological outcome, showing full recovery from a single, uncomplicated mTBI by 90 days post-trauma. Persons with history of complicated mTBI characterized by day-of-injury computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, and those who have suffered prior mTBIs may or may not show evidence of complete recovery similar to that experienced by persons suffering a single, uncomplicated mTBI. Persistent post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is considered as a somatoform presentation, influenced by the non-specificity of PCS symptoms which commonly occur in non-TBI samples and co-vary as a function of general life stress, and psychological factors including symptom expectation, depression and anxiety. A model is presented for forensic evaluation of the individual mTBI case, which involves open-ended interview, followed by structured interview, record review, and detailed neuropsychological testing. Differential diagnosis includes consideration of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders, symptom expectation, diagnosis threat, developmental disorders, and malingering. PMID:24105915

  11. Neuropsychological performance of native versus non-native English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Jason E; Wendell, Carrington R; Spencer, Robert J; Waldstein, Shari R

    2012-11-01

    Relatively little is known about differences in English-administered, clinical neuropsychological test performance between native versus non-native English speakers, with prior literature yielding mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of native and non-native English speakers with similar age and educational backgrounds on a variety of cognitive tests. Participants were 153 university students (115 native and 38 non-native English speakers) who completed a neuropsychological battery during two testing sessions. Multiple regression analyses examined relations of native language to cognitive performance after adjustment for age, education, sex, and depressive symptomatology. Results showed that native English speakers outperformed non-native English speakers on several language-mediated tasks-Letter and Category Fluency and the Cognitive Estimation Test-as well as Trails A (p's executive functions, perceptuo-motor speed, verbal memory, and visuospatial abilities. These results suggest that non-native English language may have a negative influence predominantly on language-dependent tasks. PMID:22985952

  12. Correlation of volumetric and fractal measurements of brain atrophy with neuropsychological tests in patients with dementive disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain atrophy is one of the features of the dementive diseases, but also of other neurodegenerative disorders as well as physiological brain aging. The aim of the study was to define the relationship between the brain atrophy measurements and the degree of the severity of dementive process based on the neuropsychological tests (MMSE and Clock Drawing Test). In 68 patients with diagnosed impairment of cognitive functions due to dementia, neuropsychological tests (MMSE and Clock Drawing Test) and CT studies were performed. On the basis of CT images we evaluated cortical and subcortical atrophy with 3 methods; visual, semiautomatic (volumetric) and automatic method based on fractal geometry calculations; the latter was characterized by very short time of measurements. The correlation between neuropsychological tests and brain atrophy measurements has been assessed using Pearson's correlation test. No statistical correlation was found between the results of neuropsychological tests and measurements of the brain atrophy (both cortical and subcortical) using all three methods mentioned above. Single measurement of the generalized cortical and subcortical atrophy is not correlated with the results of neuropsychological tests. In our opinion, these measurements might be valuable in follow-up of the dementive process to compare progression of the atrophic changes with the changes of the neuropsychological tests results, especially using very quick automatic method, supplemented by local atrophy measurements. (authors)

  13. Neuropsychological performance of a patient suspected of dementia taking lorazepam and retested 1 year later following titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Bonnie M; Schmitt, Andrew L; Livingston, Ronald B

    2016-01-01

    The effects of medication on neuropsychological performance have yet to be fully investigated, particularly in older patients. As such, the present case study was undertaken to examine the specific impact of benzodiazepine use on neuropsychological performance by providing a comparison of the test-retest data of an 81-year-old patient taking lorazepam. A comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation was conducted: (a) during the initial referral, while the patient had been taking high doses of lorazepam for approximately 3 years; and (b) 6 months after complete titration, which was 1 year after the initial evaluation. Normative scores derived from the 2 trials were compared via calculation of Reliable Change Indexes. Neuropsychological performance during both evaluations was indicative of dementia, including similar degrees of impairment in delayed memory, verbal fluency, and olfaction. However, scores obtained during the second evaluation were somewhat higher, with significant improvements observed in immediate memory, visuospatial/construction abilities, language function, abstract concept formation, and set shifting. Results of the current case study suggest that several neuropsychological domains may be particularly sensitive to chronic benzodiazepine use. Although the overall diagnostic picture in the present study remained unaltered, clinicians should be cognizant of such medication effects and the potential for these neuropsychological alterations to obscure differential diagnosis. PMID:26507010

  14. Traumatic brain injury and forensic neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Brooks, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As part of a special issue of The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, forensic neuropsychology is reviewed as it applies to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other types of acquired brain injury in which clinical neuropsychologists and rehabilitation psychologists may be asked to render professional opinions about the neurobehavioral effects and outcome of a brain injury. The article introduces and overviews the topic focusing on the process of forensic neuropsychological consultation and practice as it applies to patients with TBI or other types of acquired brain injury. The emphasis is on the application of scientist-practitioner standards as they apply to legal questions about the status of a TBI patient and how best that may be achieved. This article introduces each topic area covered in this special edition. PMID:19333063

  15. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  16. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical…

  17. Case Series Investigations in Cognitive Neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Myrna F.; Dell, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Case series methodology involves the systematic assessment of a sample of related patients, with the goal of understanding how and why they differ from one another. This method has become increasingly important in cognitive neuropsychology, which has long been identified with single-subject research. We review case series studies dealing with impaired semantic memory, reading, and language production, and draw attention to the affinity of this methodology for testing theories that are express...

  18. Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Symptoms of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Osterling, Julie; Rinaldi, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Both the medial temporal lobe and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex have been implicated in autism. In the present study, performance on two neuropsychological tasks—one tapping the medial temporal lobe and related limbic structures, and another tapping the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex—was examined in relation to performance on tasks assessing autistic symptoms in young children with autism, and developmentally matched groups of children with Down syndrome or typical development. Autistic symp...

  19. Measurement in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the f...

  20. Better quality of life with neuropsychological improvement on HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Colin D

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART regimens have resulted in substantial improvements in the systemic health of HIV infected persons and increased survival times. Despite increased systemic health, the prevalence of minor HIV-associated cognitive impairment appears to be rising with increased longevity, and it remains to be seen what functional outcomes will result from these improvements. Cognitive impairment can dramatically impact functional ability and day-to-day productivity. We assessed the relationship of quality of life (QOL and neuropsychological functioning with successful HAART treatment. Methods In a prospective longitudinal study, subjects were evaluated before instituting HAART (naïve or before changing HAART regimens because current therapy failed to maintain suppression of plasma viral load (treatment failure. Subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, as well as psychological evaluation sensitive to possible confounds. Re-evaluation was performed six months after institution of the new HAART regimen and/or if plasma viral load indicated treatment failure. At each evaluation, subjects underwent ultrasensitive HIV RNA quantitative evaluation in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Results HAART successes performed better than failures on measures exploring speed of mental processing (p Conclusion Our study investigated the relationship between HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and quality of life. HAART failures experienced slower psychomotor processing, and had increased self-reports of physical health complaints and substance abuse. Contrariwise, HAART successes experienced improved mental processing, demonstrating the impact of successful treatment on functioning. With increasing life expectancy for those who are HIV seropositive, it is important to measure cognitive functioning in relation to the actual QOL these individuals report. The study

  1. Full-thickness cartilage lesion do not affect knee function in patients with ACL injury

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Full-thickness cartilage lesion do not affect knee function in patients with ACL injury Abstract There is debate in the literature regarding the impact of full-thickness cartilage lesion on knee function in patients with ACL injury. The hypothesis of this study is that a full-thickness cartilage lesion at the time of ACL reconstruction does not influence knee function as measured by the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) in patients with ACL injury. Of the 4,849 prim...

  2. Neuropsychological consequences of chronic drug use: relevance to treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Lud eCadet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy use of drugs impacts of the daily activities of individuals in these activities. Several groups of investigators have indeed documented changes in cognitive performance by individuals who have a long history of chronic drug use. In the case of marijuana, a wealth of information suggests that heavy long-term use of the drug may have neurobehavioral consequences in some individuals. In humans, heavy cocaine use is accompanied by neuropathological changes that might serve as substrates for cognitive dysfunctions. Similarly, methamphetamine users suffer from cognitive abnormalities that may be consequent to alterations in structures and functions. Here, we detail the evidence for these neuropsychological consequences. The review suggests that improving the care of our patients will necessarily depend on the better characterization of drug-induced cognitive phenotypes because they might inform the development of better pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with the goal of improving cognitive functions in these subsets of drug users.

  3. Neuropsychological Consequences of Chronic Drug Use: Relevance to Treatment Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Heavy use of drugs impacts of the daily activities of individuals in these activities. Several groups of investigators have indeed documented changes in cognitive performance by individuals who have a long history of chronic drug use. In the case of marijuana, a wealth of information suggests that heavy long-term use of the drug may have neurobehavioral consequences in some individuals. In humans, heavy cocaine use is accompanied by neuropathological changes that might serve as substrates for cognitive dysfunctions. Similarly, methamphetamine users suffer from cognitive abnormalities that may be consequent to alterations in structures and functions. Here, we detail the evidence for these neuropsychological consequences. The review suggests that improving the care of our patients will necessarily depend on the better characterization of drug-induced cognitive phenotypes because they might inform the development of better pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with the goal of improving cognitive functions in these subsets of drug users. PMID:26834649

  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder, dissociation, and neuropsychological performance in Latina victims of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Vélez, Giselle M; González-Viruet, Maribella; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Pérez-Mojica, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the memory, attention/concentration, and executive functioning of 12 women with histories of child sexual abuse with a control group of 12 women without childhood abuse. Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and various instruments assessing post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation. The child sexual abuse group had lower performance than the control group on long- and short-term visual and verbal memory and presented more limited performance on executive functioning tasks. Functioning in these areas showed a negative correlation with post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative symptoms. These findings suggest that child sexual abuse is associated with memory and executive functioning deficits and supports the idea that people with trauma histories and increased post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation symptoms may have alterations in neuropsychological functioning. PMID:24393090

  5. Neuropsychology of music – a rapidly growing branch of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Habe

    2010-01-01

    Relationship between brain and music is of interest to musicians, psychologists and neuroscientists. In recent years no other area of psychology of music has seen as much advancement as neuropsychology of music. The aim of the article is to present some main issues in the neuropsychology of music abroad and in Slovenia, to classify research studies into larger categories and to predict the future development of this field.There are different levels of inquiry into the neuropsychology of music...

  6. Neuropsychological Decline in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Libon, David J.; Xie, Sharon X.; Wang, Xingmei; Massimo, Lauren; Moore, Peachie; Vesely, Luisa; Khan, Alea; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H Branch; Hurtig, Howard I.; Grossman, Murray; Liang, Tsao-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have assessed whether the patterns of neuropsychological impairment in patients with different frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) subtypes remain distinct over the duration of their illness or devolve into a common, undifferentiated neuropsychological state. A longitudinal neuropsychological analysis was obtained over 100 months assessing executive control, language/naming, and visuoconstruction in 441 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and four FTLD subtypes, ...

  7. Ictal Neuropsychological Assessment in a Patient with Transient Global Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Ju-Young; Chae, Hee-Yun; Huh, So-Young; Kim, Meyung-Kug; Yoo, Bong-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary amnestic syndrome characterized by anterograde amnesia and variable retrograde amnesia without other focal neurological deficits. Neuropsychological tests during attack in TGA have been rarely reported. We report a 62-year-old man with TGA who was evaluated with detailed neuropsychological tests during attack. Ictal neuropsychological tests showed encoding failure in verbal and visual memory with frontal/executive dysfunction.

  8. Neuropsychology of music: a rapidly growing branch of psychology:

    OpenAIRE

    Habe, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    Relationship between brain and music is of interest to musicians, psychologists and neuroscientists. In recent years no other area of psychology of music has seen as much advancement as neuropsychology of music. The aim of the article is to present some main issues in the neuropsychology of music abroad and in Slovenia, to classify research studies into larger categories and to predict the future development of this field. There are different levels of inquiry into the neuropsychology of musi...

  9. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine. PMID:19420889

  10. Neuropsychological correlates of behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease, frontal variant of frontotemporal, subcortical vascular, and lewy body dementias: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Roberta; Monaco, Marco; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological correlates of behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) in patients affected by various forms of dementia, namely Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontal-variant frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). 21 fvFTD, 21 LBD, 22 AD, and 22 SIVD patients matched for dementia severity received a battery of neuropsychological tests and the Neuropsychiatry Inventory (NPI). The possible association between performance on neuropsychological tests and severity of BPSD was assessed by correlational analysis and multivariate regression. BPSD were present in 99% of patients. Most behavioral symptoms were not related to a particular dementia group or to a specific cognitive deficit. Euphoria and disinhibition were predicted by fvFTD diagnosis. Hallucinations correlated with the severity of visuospatial deficits in the whole sample of patients and were predicted by LBD diagnosis. Apathy, which was found in all dementia groups, correlated with executive functions and was predicted by both reduced set-shifting aptitude and fvFTD diagnosis. The results confirm the high prevalence of BPSD in the mild to moderate stages of dementia and show that most BPSD are equally distributed across dementia groups. Most of the cognitive and behavioral symptoms are independent dimensions of the dementia syndromes. Nevertheless, hallucinations in LBD and euphoria and disinhibition in fvFTD are related to the structural brain alterations that are responsible for cognitive decline in these dementia groups. Finally, apathy arises from damage in the frontal cortical areas that are also involved in executive functions. PMID:24254701

  11. The Extended Fronto-Striatal Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Convergence from Event-Related Potentials, Neuropsychology and Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita eMelloni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, basal ganglia (BG and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC- and their related cognitive functions, such as monitoring and inhibition. Then, we assessed the ERPs that are directly related to the FSMOCD, including the error-related negativity (ERN, N200 and P600. Several OCD studies present enhanced ERN and N2 responses during conflict tasks as well as an enhanced P600 during working memory tasks. Evidence from ERP studies (especially regarding ERN and N200 amplitude enhancement, neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings suggests abnormal activity in the OFC, ACC and BG in OCD patients. Moreover, additional findings from these analyses suggest dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex involvement, which might be related to executive function deficits. Thus, these convergent results suggest the existence of a self-monitoring imbalance involving inhibitory deficits and executive dysfunctions. OCD patients present an impaired ability to monitor, control, and inhibit intrusive thoughts, urges, feelings and behaviors. In the current model, this imbalance is triggered by an excitatory role of the BG (associated with cognitive or motor actions without volitional control and inhibitory activity of the OFC as well as excessive monitoring of the ACC to block excitatory impulses. This imbalance would interact with the reduced activation of the parietal-DLPC network, leading to executive dysfunction. ERP research may provide further insight regarding the temporal dynamics of action monitoring and executive functioning in OCD.

  12. The extended fronto-striatal model of obsessive compulsive disorder: convergence from event-related potentials, neuropsychology and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Margherita; Urbistondo, Claudia; Sedeño, Lucas; Gelormini, Carlos; Kichic, Rafael; Ibanez, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD) and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP) studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), basal ganglia (BG), and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and their related cognitive functions, such as monitoring and inhibition. Then, we assessed the ERPs that are directly related to the FSMOCD, including the error-related negativity (ERN), N200, and P600. Several OCD studies present enhanced ERN and N2 responses during conflict tasks as well as an enhanced P600 during working memory (WM) tasks. Evidence from ERP studies (especially regarding ERN and N200 amplitude enhancement), neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings suggests abnormal activity in the OFC, ACC, and BG in OCD patients. Moreover, additional findings from these analyses suggest dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex involvement, which might be related to executive function (EF) deficits. Thus, these convergent results suggest the existence of a self-monitoring imbalance involving inhibitory deficits and executive dysfunctions. OCD patients present an impaired ability to monitor, control, and inhibit intrusive thoughts, urges, feelings, and behaviors. In the current model, this imbalance is triggered by an excitatory role of the BG (associated with cognitive or motor actions without volitional control) and inhibitory activity of the OFC as well as excessive monitoring of the ACC to block excitatory impulses. This imbalance would interact with the reduced activation of the parietal-DLPC network, leading to executive dysfunction. ERP research may provide further insight regarding the temporal dynamics of action monitoring and executive functioning in OCD. PMID:23015786

  13. Meta-analysis of academic interventions derived from neuropsychological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Haegele, Katherine; Rodriguez, Megan; Schmitt, Braden; Cooper, Maureen; Clayton, Kate; Hutcheson, Shannon; Conner, Cynthia; Hosp, John; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M

    2016-03-01

    Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to inclusion criteria, which resulted in 37 articles that were included in the current study. Each article was coded based on how the data were used (screening-86% or designing interventions-14%), size of the group for which interventions were delivered (small group-45%, individual students-45%, or entire classroom-10%), and type of data collected (cognitive functions-24%, reading fluency-33%, phonemic/phonological awareness-35%, or mixed-8%). A corrected Hedges' g was computed for every study and reported for variables of interest. A Fail-safe N was also computed to determine how many studies with a zero effect would have to be found to change the conclusions. The data resulted in a small effect (g = 0.17) for measures of cognitive functioning, but moderate effects of g = 0.43 and g = 0.48 for measures of reading fluency and phonemic/phonological awareness. There were few studies that examined measures of cognitive functioning within the intervention process. Taken together with previous research, the data do not support the use of cognitive measures to develop interventions but instead favor more direct measures of academic skills (e.g., reading fluency) in a skill-by-treatment interaction. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26192390

  14. Neuropsychological effects of irradiation and chemotherapy treatments upon children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case study of monozygotic twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous attempts have been made to determine the effects of irradiation and chemotherapy upon cognitive functioning when used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). While many studies have demonstrated a deleterious effect, others have found no significant changes in neuropsychological functioning. The uncertainty regarding the cognitive effects of these treatments is exemplified via a presentation of monozygotic twins who were evaluated via neuropsychological tests. The children received similar induction-consolidation therapy which included intrathecal methotrexate and cranial irradiation. Neuropsychological tests yielded almost identical I.Q. patterns, however, subtle differences were noted between the children when abstract reasoning abilities, achievement tests scores, motor speed, grip strength, performance on complex tasks requiring haptic sensitivity, and fingertip sensitivity were observed. This discussion also summarizes the previous findings related to cognitive function after chemotherapy and radiation therapy and some of the confounding factors which have been noted

  15. Neuropsychological effects of irradiation and chemotherapy treatments upon children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case study of monozygotic twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, M.T.; Souheaver, G.T.; Berry, D.H.

    Numerous attempts have been made to determine the effects of irradiation and chemotherapy upon cognitive functioning when used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). While many studies have demonstrated a deleterious effect, others have found no significant changes in neuropsychological functioning. The uncertainty regarding the cognitive effects of these treatments is exemplified via a presentation of monozygotic twins who were evaluated via neuropsychological tests. The children received similar induction-consolidation therapy which included intrathecal methotrexate and cranial irradiation. Neuropsychological tests yielded almost identical I.Q. patterns, however, subtle differences were noted between the children when abstract reasoning abilities, achievement tests scores, motor speed, grip strength, performance on complex tasks requiring haptic sensitivity, and fingertip sensitivity were observed. This discussion also summarizes the previous findings related to cognitive function after chemotherapy and radiation therapy and some of the confounding factors which have been noted.

  16. Fish oil affects immune function in 9 to 12 month old infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, Tanja;

    Background - n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are thought to affect immune function and may affect immune maturation in early life. Objective - To examine if fish oil supplementation in late infancy could modify immune function. Design - A 2×2 intervention with fish oil (3.4 ± 1.1 ml/day) or...... no fish oil and cow’s milk or infant formula from 9 to 12 month of age in 64 healthy Danish infants. Before and after the intervention we measured the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte (RBC) membranes, plasma IgE levels, C-reactive protein and soluble IL-2 receptors (sIL-2R) as well as cytokine...

  17. Componentes atencionais e de funções executivas em meninos com TDAH: dados de uma bateria neuropsicológica flexível Attentional components and executive functions in children with ADHD: data of a flexible neuropsychological battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosana Alves Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho de sete meninos com diagnóstico comprovado de TDAH (G1 e 14 controles saudáveis (G2 em tarefas neuropsicológicas. MÉTODO: G1 e G2 foram pareados por sexo, idade e escolaridade em tarefas atencionais e executivas (Fluência Verbal e Discurso Narrativo da Bateria MAC, Teste de Cancelamento dos Sinos - versão infantil, Geração Aleatória de Números, Go-no Go do NEUPSILIN-Inf e N-Back auditivo. RESULTADOS: Destacaram-se diferenças entre os grupos quanto à atenção concentrada seletiva, à memória de trabalho, ao automonitoramento, à iniciação e à inibição. CONCLUSÃO: Foi possível verificar contribuições incipientes para um raciocínio de relações intercomponentes das FE e atencionais em pacientes com TDAH.OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of seven boys with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD (G1 and 14 healthy controls (G2 in neuropsychological tasks. METHOD: G1 and G2 were matched by gender, age and educational level. They were assessed through attentional and executive tasks (verbal fluency and narrative discourse from MAC Battery, Bells Test - children's version, Number Random Generation, Go-no Go and auditory N-Back. RESULTS: There were remarkable differences between groups for sustained focused attention, working memory, self-monitoring, initiation and inhibition. CONCLUSION: Contributions for incipient comprehension of relationships among cognitive components in ADHD patients could be identified.

  18. DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: a combined structural and functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opmeer, Esther M; van Tol, Marie-José; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J A; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A; Penninx, Brenda W; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISC1 differentially modulates brain function during executive and memory processing, and morphology in regions relevant for depression and anxiety disorders (affective disorders). 128 participants, with (n = 103) and without (controls; n = 25) affective disorders underwent genotyping for Ser704Cys (with Cys-allele considered as risk-allele) and structural and functional (f) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during visuospatial planning and emotional episodic memory tasks. For both voxel-based morphometry and fMRI analyses, we investigated the effect of genotype in controls and explored genotypeXdiagnosis interactions. Results are reported at p < 0.05 FWE small volume corrected. In controls, Cys-carriers showed smaller bilateral (para)hippocampal volumes compared with Ser-homozygotes, and lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC during visuospatial planning. In anxiety patients, Cys-carriers showed larger (para)hippocampal volumes and more ACC activation during visuospatial planning. In depressive patients, no effect of genotype was observed and overall, no effect of genotype on episodic memory processing was detected. We demonstrated that Ser704Cys-genotype influences (para)hippocampal structure and functioning the dorsal PFC during executive planning, most prominently in unaffected controls. Results suggest that presence of psychopathology moderates Ser704Cys effects. PMID:25533973

  19. Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-01-01

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a si...

  20. Investigating the specificity of neuropsychological performance in bulimic outpatients : a comparison with anxious and depressed outpatients

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Eating Disorder research has highlighted the role of neuropsychological functioning, informing the treatment of Anorexia Nervosa. There is ambiguity in the data relating to cognitive impairment in Bulimia Nervosa, with the latest review providing inconclusive results. Executive function impairments in the area of set shifting and inhibition reported in BN are proposed to relate to traits of compulsivity and impulsivity. Other psychological disorders have also demonstrated execu...

  1. Differences between Early and Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease in Neuropsychological Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Francisca; Pinto, Paula; Cunha, Catarina; Lemos, Raquel; Letra, Liliana; Simões, Mário; Santana, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Although patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) share clinical and histological features regardless of age of onset, the hypothesis that early onset AD constitutes a distinct subgroup prevails. Some authors suggest that early attention or language impairment constitute patterns of differentiation in terms of neuropsychological profile, between these groups. However, investigations are not consensual in terms of cognitive domains affected in each group. Aim: To investigate whether there is early...

  2. In your place: neuropsychological evidence for altercentric remapping in embodied perspective taking

    OpenAIRE

    Becchio, Cristina; Del Giudice, Marco; Dal Monte, Olga; Latini-Corazzini, Luca; Pia, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are able to mentally adopt the spatial perspective of others and represent the visual world from their point of view. Here, we present neuropsychological evidence that information inaccessible from an egocentric perspective can be accessed from the perspective of another person. Patients affected by left neglect were asked to describe arrays of objects from their own egocentric perspective, from an opposite perspective (disembodied perspective taking), and from the point of view of ano...

  3. The effect of age of disease onset on neuropsychological performance in Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Hietanen, M; Teräväinen, H

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and eight noninstitutionalized patients with Parkinson's disease were studied to find out whether the age of disease onset affects patients' cognitive, memory and psychomotor performance. "Early onset" patients (whose disease began before 60 years of age) showed a wide spectrum of impairments in neuropsychological performance compared with age-matched normal subjects. However, only one (2%) of these patients was demented according to DSM III criteria. Dementia was more frequent in...

  4. Affective response to a loved one's pain: insula activity as a function of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Mazzola

    Full Text Available Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone. Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion.

  5. Longitudinal outcomes of very low birth weight: neuropsychological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Minich, Nori M; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen

    2004-03-01

    To investigate the effects of very low birth weight (VLBW, &1500 g) on the development of neuropsychological skills, we assessed 67 children with birth weight learning, and perceptual-motor and organizational abilities. This group also made slower age-related progress than the control group on tests of perceptual-motor and executive functions. Environmental factors moderated group differences in change on other cognitive measures. These results revealed further evidence for slower skill development in both VLBW groups relative to controls, as well as"catch-up" growth in the 750-1499 g group on some measures. The findings suggest age-related changes in the cognitive sequelae of VLBW that depend on the skill assessed, the degree of VLBW, and environmental factors. PMID:15012835

  6. Thiamine deficiency induced neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological alterations: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans. PMID:24235882

  7. Neuropsychological profile in a large group of heart transplant candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mapelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported that patients with end-stage heart disease can have cognitive deficits ranging from mild to severe. Little is known, however, about the relationship between cognitive performance, neurophysiological characteristics and relevant clinical and instrumental indexes for an extensive evaluation of patients with heart failure, such as: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and other haemodynamic measures, maximum oxygen uptake during cardiopulmonary exercise testing, comorbidities, major cardiovascular risk factors and disease duration. Our purpose was to outline the cognitive profiles of end-stage heart disease patients in order to identify the cognitive deficits that could compromise the quality of life and the therapeutic adherence in end-stage heart disease patients, and to identify the variables associated with an increased risk of cognitive deficits in these patients. METHODS: 207 patients with end-stage cardiac disease, candidates for heart transplant, were assessed by complete neuropsychological evaluation and by electroencephalographic recording with EEG spectral analysis. RESULTS: Pathological scores in one or more of the cognitive tests were obtained by 86% of the patients, while 36% performed within the impaired range on five or more tests, indicating poor performance across a broad range of cognitive domains. The executive functions were the cognitive domain most impaired (70%. Poor performances were not related to the aetiology of heart disease, but rather to cerebral dysfunction secondary to haemodynamic impairment and to comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Severe heart failure induces significant neurophysiological and neuropsychological alterations, which may produce an impairment of cognitive functioning and possibly compromise the quality of life of patients and the therapeutic adherence.

  8. Neuropsychological and neuroradiological correlates in Huntington's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Starkstein, S E; Brandt, J.; Folstein, S; Strauss, M.; Berthier, M L; Pearlson, G.D.; Wong, D.; McDonnell, A.; Folstein, M

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of cortical and subcortical atrophy were made on CT scans of 34 patients with Huntington's disease. Significant correlations were found between the bicaudate ratio (BCR) and an eye movement scale (r = 0.44, p less than 0.01), and activities of daily living scale (r = 0.57, p less than 0.001) and the Mini-Mental State Exam (r = 0.49, p less than 0.01). No correlations were found between BCR values and severity of chorea or voluntary motor impairment. A detailed neuropsychological ...

  9. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    and psycho-educational sessions with a neuropsychologist in the acute care setting. The intervention group completed self-report scales in the acute setting and after the intervention at admission to sub-acute rehabilitation. The control group completed the self-report scales only at admission to sub.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  10. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-01-01

    This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are...

  11. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of strengthening exercise for early dementia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerokhin, Vadim; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Hogan, Michael J; Dunnam, Mina; Huber, Daniel; Osborne, Sandra; Shulan, Mollie

    2012-01-01

    Research demonstrates a positive effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in older adults. Unfortunately, aerobic exercise is often contraindicated for older adults due to cardiovascular and functional limitations. Low-intensity strengthening exercise may offer a practical alternative, but the neuropsychological benefits and potential neurophysiological mechanisms are less well understood. The current study evaluated the effects of a 10-week strengthening exercise intervention on cognitive functioning and EEG in a sample of 13 older adults with early dementia, and 9 normative controls. Results revealed beneficial effects of strengthening exercise on verbal memory coupled with frontal beta and delta power asymmetries and N200 amplitude asymmetry. Results point to increased cognitive efficiency following 10 weeks of strengthening exercise. The findings suggest it is feasible to conduct a strengthening intervention with early dementia patients, and to gather neuropsychological and neurophysiological data to evaluate outcomes. Strengthening exercise may serve as a useful alternative to aerobic exercise. PMID:22136405

  12. Psychosocial Functioning in Depressive Patients: A Comparative Study between Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar affective disorder (BAD are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression. Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT. Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P=0.031 with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression.

  13. The protective function of personal growth initiative among a genocide-affected population in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Laura E R; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Forgeard, Marie J C; Jayawickreme, Nuwan

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the extent to which individual differences in personal growth initiative (PGI) were associated with lower reports of functional impairment of daily activities among a genocide-affected population in Rwanda. PGI measures an individual's motivation to develop as a person and the extent to which he or she is active in setting goals that work toward achieving self-improvement. We found that PGI was negatively associated with functional impairment when controlling for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other demographic factors. Our results suggest that PGI may constitute an important mindset for facilitating adaptive functioning in the aftermath of adversity and in the midst of psychological distress, and as such they might have practical applications for the development of intervention programs. PMID:26147518

  14. Neuropsychological profiles of victims of financial elder exploitation at the los angeles county elder abuse forensic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stacey; Rakela, Benjamin; Liu, Pi-Ju; Navarro, Adria E; Bernatz, Susan; Wilber, Kathleen H; Allen, Robin; Homeier, Diana; Homier, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The current article examines neuropsychological correlates of financial elder exploitation in a sample of older adults who have been documented victims of financial elder exploitation. The purpose of this exploratory study was twofold. First, a subsample of the referrals at the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center (LACEAFC) was compared to community dwelling adults in terms of the specific cognitive domains linked to financial capacity including memory, calculation, and executive functioning. Next, the correlation between presence of neuropsychological data and the likelihood of filing a case with the LA County's District Attorney office was examined. Twenty-seven LACEAFC cases and 32 controls were assessed. Overall, the forensic center group performed worse than a community-based age-matched control group on the MMSE, calculation, and executive functioning (ps neuropsychological data was significantly correlated to an increased likelihood of a case being filed. PMID:24848863

  15. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands. PMID:27164912

  16. Language and Brain: Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzolo, Francis J.

    1981-01-01

    An examination of the neuropsychology of written language is provided. An historical review of language disorders is presented to provide a framework for understanding the brain mechanisms underlying the reading process. Recent neuropsychological studies of developmental reading disability are discussed. Two distinct forms of the disorder are…

  17. Meta-Analysis of Academic Interventions Derived from Neuropsychological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Haegele, Katherine; Rodriguez, Megan; Schmitt, Braden; Cooper, Maureen; Clayton, Kate; Hutcheson, Shannon; Conner, Cynthia; Hosp, John; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to…

  18. How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

  19. Phthalate esters affect maturation and function of primate testis tissue ectopically grafted in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose R; Bondareva, Alla; Tang, Lin; Avelar, Gleide F.; Coyle, Krysta M.; Modelski, Mark; Alpaugh, Whitney; Conley, Alan; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; França, Luiz R; Meyers, Stuart; Dobrinski, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Di-n-Butyl (DBP) and Di-(2-EthylHexyl) (DEHP) phthalates can leach from daily-use products resulting in environmental exposure. In male rodents, phthalate exposure results in reproductive effects. To evaluate effects on the immature primate testis, testis fragments from 6-month-old rhesus macaques were grafted subcutaneously to immune-deficient mice, which were exposed to 0, 10, or 500 mg/kg of DBP or DEHP for 14 weeks or 28 weeks (DBP only). DBP exposure reduced the expression of key steroidogenic genes, indicating that Leydig cell function was compromised. Exposure to 500 mg/kg impaired tubule formation and germ cell differentiation and reduced numbers of spermatogonia. Exposure to 10 mg/kg did not affect development, but reduced Sertoli cell number and resulted in increased expression of inhibin B. Exposure to DEHP for 14 week also affected steroidogenic genes expression. Therefore, long-term exposure to phthalate esters affected development and function of the primate testis in a time and dosage dependent manner. PMID:25450860

  20. A newly recognized autosomal recessive syndrome affecting neurologic function and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa A; Tzschach, Andreas; Oystreck, Darren T; Hassan, Hamdy H; AlDrees, Abdulmajeed; Elmalik, Salah A; El Khashab, Heba Y; Wienker, Thomas F; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Bosley, Thomas M

    2013-06-01

    Genetic factors represent an important etiologic group in the causation of intellectual disability. We describe a Saudi Arabian family with closley related parents in which four of six children were affected by a congenital cognitive disturbance. The four individuals (aged 18, 16, 13, and 2 years when last examined) had motor and cognitive delay with seizures in early childhood, and three of the four (sparing only the youngest child) had progressive, severe cognitive decline with spasticity. Two affected children had ocular malformations, and the three older children had progressive visual loss. The youngest had normal globes with good functional vision when last examined but exhibited the oculodigital sign, which may signify a subclinical visual deficit. A potentially deleterious nucleotide change (c.1A>G; p.Met1Val) in the C12orf57 gene was homozygous in all affected individuals, heterozygous in the parents, and absent in an unaffected sibling and >350 normal individuals. This gene has no known function. This family manifests a autosomal recessive syndrome with some phenotypic variability that includes abnormal development of brain and eyes, delayed cognitive and motor milestones, seizures, and a severe cognitive and visual decline that is associated with a homozygous variant in a newly identified gene. PMID:23633300

  1. The Relationship of Neuropsychological Variables to Driving Status Following Holistic Neurorehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy KavithaPerumparaichallai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the cognitive and driving outcomes of a holistic neurorehabilitation program and to examine the relationship between the neuropsychological variables of attention, speed of information processing, and visuospatial functioning and driving outcomes. Methods: One hundred and twenty eight individuals with heterogeneous neurological etiologies who participated in a holistic neurorehabilitation program. Holistic neurorehabilitation consisted of therapies focusing on physical, cognitive, language, emotional, and interpersonal functioning, including training in compensatory strategies. Neuropsychological testing was administered at admission and prior to starting driving or program discharge. Subtests of processing speed, working memory, and perceptual reasoning from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Trail Making Test were included. Results: At the time of discharge, 54% of the individuals returned to driving. Statistical analyses revealed that at the time of discharge: the sample as a group made significant improvements on cognitive measures included in the study; the driving and non-driving groups differed significantly on aspects of processing speed, attention, abstract reasoning, working memory, and visuospatial functions. Further, at the time of admission, the driving group performed significantly better than the non-driving group on several neuropsychological measures. Conclusions: Cognitive functions of attention, working memory, visual-motor coordination, motor and mental speed, and visual scanning significantly contribute to predicting driving status of individuals after neurorehabilitation. Holistic neurorehabilitation facilitates recovery and helps individuals gain functional independence after brain injury.

  2. Assessment of neuropsychological changes in patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) after radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate neuropsychological effects of radiosurgery in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), with special focus on attention and memory. This report describes the study setup and presents the first results during a follow-up of up to 1 year. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients were studied before, acutely after radiosurgery, and during the regular follow-up (subacute phase: Weeks 6-12, chronic phase: Months 6-12). Radiosurgery was performed using a modified linear accelerator (minimum doses to the target volume: 15-22 Gy, median 20 Gy). Estimated whole brain dose was 0.5 to 2 Gy. Neuropsychological testing included assessment of general intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (modified Trail-Making Test A, Digit Symbol Test, D2 Test, Wiener Determination Machine) and memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Benton Visual Retention Test). During follow-up, alternate test versions were used. Neuropsychological deficits were defined as a test score of at least one standard deviation (SD) below the mean of the normal distribution. Results: The pretherapeutic evaluation revealed marked deviations from the normal population; 24% had deficits in intelligence (range 23-31% in different subtests), attention (35%, 23-59%) and memory (48%, 31-61%). The overall percentage of aberrant results was reduced by 12% (memory) to 14% (attention) in the chronic phase up to 12 months after therapy. The improvement in test scores was significant (p < 0.05) in 3 of 4 subtests of attention functions. Conclusions: The acute tolerance of radiosurgery seems to be very good in these patients, showing no relevant increase in number of patients with neuropsychological deficits. Although the long-term follow-up needs to be further increased, our data indicate a tendency to slight improvement in the overall neuropsychological performance of AVM patients in the chronic phase after radiosurgery

  3. Cerebral perfusion and neuropsychological follow up in mild traumatic brain injury: acute versus chronic disturbances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metting, Zwany; Spikman, Jacoba M; Rödiger, Lars A; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2014-04-01

    In a subgroup of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) residual symptoms, interfering with outcome and return to work, are found. With neuropsychological assessment cognitive deficits can be demonstrated although the pathological underpinnings of these cognitive deficits are not fully understood. As the admission computed tomography (CT) often is normal, perfusion CT imaging may be a useful indicator of brain dysfunction in the acute phase after injury in these patients. In the present study, directly after admission perfusion CT imaging was performed in mild TBI patients with follow-up neuropsychological assessment in those with complaints and a normal non-contrast CT. Neuropsychological tests comprised the 15 Words test Immediate Recall, Trailmaking test part B, Zoo Map test and the FEEST, which were dichotomized into normal and abnormal. Perfusion CT results of patients with normal neuropsychological test scores were compared to those with abnormal test scores. In total eighteen patients were included. Those with an abnormal score on the Zoo Map test had a significant lower CBV in the right frontal and the bilateral parieto-temporal white matter. Patients with an abnormal score on the FEEST had a significant higher MTT in the bilateral frontal white matter and a significant decreased CBF in the left parieto-temporal grey matter. No significant relation between the perfusion CT parameters and the 15 Words test and the Trailmaking test part B was present. In conclusion, impairments in executive functioning and emotion perception assessed with neuropsychological tests during follow up were related to differences in cerebral perfusion at admission in mild TBI. The pathophysiological concept of these findings is discussed. PMID:24556319

  4. Acute effects of heat on neuropsychological changes and physiological responses under noise condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S K; Tripathi, S R; Pradhan, C K; Kashyap, S K

    1990-09-01

    To examine the effects of heat and noise individually and jointly on certain physiological responses and cognitive and neuromotor based functions, 12 male participants were tested under 6 experimental conditions which resulted by combining 3 levels of heat (25 degrees, 30 degrees and 35 degrees C) and 2 levels of white noise (70 and 100 dB). The experiment was carried out in a controlled climatic chamber following two 6 x 6 latin square designs. The results indicated elevations in heart rate, oxygen uptake and body temperature due to the independent effect of heat or the combined effects of heat and noise. The independent action of noise was found to be depressive on the first two responses. On the neuropsychological effects, the heat adversely affected the speed in card sorting (by design configuration) and digit symbol tests, and also the accuracy and error rate in the reasoning ability test. The noise caused performance improvements in critical flicker frequency (simultaneous) and in error rates in card sorting (by design configuration). The combined effects of heat and noise indicated higher error rates in card sorting (by face value), decreased accuracy in reasoning ability and improvements in performance in accuracy scores and error rates in digit symbol test. PMID:2279778

  5. Functional connectivity of pain-mediated affect regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Niedtfeld

    Full Text Available Affective instability and self-injurious behavior are important features of Borderline Personality Disorder. Whereas affective instability may be caused by a pattern of limbic hyperreactivity paired with dysfunctional prefrontal regulation mechanisms, painful stimulation was found to reduce affective arousal at the neural level, possibly underlying the soothing effect of pain in BPD.We used psychophysiological interactions to analyze functional connectivity of (para- limbic brain structures (i.e. amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex in Borderline Personality Disorder in response to painful stimulation. Therefore, we re-analyzed a dataset from 20 patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and 23 healthy controls who took part in an fMRI-task inducing negative (versus neutral affect and subsequently applying heat pain (versus warmth perception.Results suggest an enhanced negative coupling between limbic as well as paralimbic regions and prefrontal regions, specifically with the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, when patients experienced pain in addition to emotional arousing pictures. When neutral pictures were combined with painful heat sensation, we found positive connectivity in Borderline Personality Disorder between (para-limbic brain areas and parts of the basal ganglia (lentiform nucleus, putamen, as well areas involved in self-referential processing (precuneus and posterior cingulate.We found further evidence for alterations in the emotion regulation process in Borderline Personality Disorder, in the way that pain improves the inhibition of limbic activity by prefrontal areas. This study provides new insights in pain processing in BPD, including enhanced coupling of limbic structures and basal ganglia.

  6. Is there an association between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in patients with affective disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne M; Kessing, Lars V; Munkholm, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients with affective disorders experience cognitive dysfunction in addition to their affective symptoms. The relationship between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive function is controversial with several studies reporting no correlation between subjective...... and objective deficits. Aims: To investigate whether there is a correlation between subjectively reported and objectively measured cognitive function in patients with affective disorders, and whether subjective complaints predict objectively measured dysfunction. Methods: The study included 45 participants; 15...... with bipolar disorder (BD), 15 with unipolar disorder (UD) and 15 healthy individuals. Participants' subjectively experienced cognitive function and objective cognitive function were assessed with the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ) and the Screen...

  7. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaNutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching.Keywords: eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, neuropsychology, cognitive performance

  8. Neuropsychological rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Chantsoulis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the basic forms of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. More broadly, we discussed cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT which constitutes a fundamental component in therapeutic interaction at many centres worldwide. Equally presented is a comprehensive model of rehabilitation, the fundamental component of which is CRT. It should be noted that the principles of this approach first arose in Poland in the 1970s, in other words, several decades before their appearance in other programmemes. Taken into consideration are four factors conditioning the effectiveness of such a process: comprehensiveness, earlier interaction, universality and its individualized character. A comprehensive programmeme of rehabilitation covers: cognitive rehabilitation, individual and group rehabilitation with the application of a therapeutic environment, specialist vocational rehabilitation, as well as family psychotherapy. These training programmemes are conducted within the scope of the ‘Academy of Life,’ which provides support for the patients in their efforts and shows them the means by which they can overcome existing difficulties. Equally emphasized is the close cooperation of the whole team of specialists, as well as the active participation of the family as an essential condition for the effectiveness of rehabilitation and, in effect, a return of the patient to a relatively normal life. Also presented are newly developing neurothechnologies and the neuromarkers of brain injuries. This enables a correct diagnosis to be made and, as a result, the selection of appropriate methods for neuropsychological rehabilitation, including neurotherapy.

  9. Bipolar affective disorders: Assessment of functional brain changes by means of Tc99m HMPAO neurospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affective Bipolar Disorder (ABD) is observed in all countries of the world with a prevalence fluctuating between 3 and 6.5%. The nature of its clinical manifestations and clinical evolution constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge even for the most experienced clinician. We have analysed by means of NeuroSPECT the neuro functional cortical and subcortical expression of a cohort of 44 eutimic patients with DSM IV criteria compatible with the diagnosis of ABD. The results were expressed in functional 3 dimensional images normalized for volume and compared to a normal data base matched for the age of the patient. Quantitative analyses considered the maximal regional perfusion in each Brodmann area with behavioral significance. The results were expressed in standard deviations with respect to the control population and we considered these findings as a continual variable susceptible to statistical analyses. In the cortex we report the presence of increased perfusion in subregions of areas 8, 9 and 10 of Brodmann (executive area) also in area 7 of Brodmann (posterior parietal lobe). We describe also relative decreased perfusion in areas 24 and 32 (internal frontal lobe), area 25 (affective area), area 21, 22 and 38 (temporal lobe). In subcortical structures we report increased perfusion in thalamus, caudate, and lentiform nucleous with values superior to 3 standard deviations above the normal controls. These findings can constitute neurofunctional markers of ABD that can be used as a clinical diagnostic tool. These findings suggest the participation of cortical/subcortical circuits as the probable etiologic substratum in affective bipolar disorders. Keys: Affective Bipolar Disorders (Au)

  10. The Functional Effect of Teacher Positive and Neutral Affect on Task Performance of Students with Significant Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungho; Singer, George H. S.; Gibson, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The study uses an alternating treatment design to evaluate the functional effect of teacher's affect on students' task performance. Tradition in special education holds that teachers should engage students using positive and enthusiastic affect for task presentations and praise. To test this assumption, we compared two affective conditions. Three…

  11. Failure to identify an acute exercise effect on executive function assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chih Wang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute aerobic exercise failed to influence executive function as assessed by the WCST, revealing that this classical neuropsychological test tapping executive function may not be sensitive to acute exercise. Our findings suggest that acute exercise does not broadly affect the entire family of executive functions, or its effect on a specific aspect of executive function may be task-dependent, as proposed by Etnier and Chang (2009.

  12. Ultra-endurance exercise induces stress and inflammation and affects circulating hematopoietic progenitor cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, I; Kröpfl, J M; Fuchs, R; Pekovits, K; Mangge, H; Raggam, R B; Gruber, H-J; Prüller, F; Hofmann, P; Truschnig-Wilders, M; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Haushofer, A C; Kessler, H H; Mächler, P

    2015-10-01

    Although amateur sports have become increasingly competitive within recent decades, there are as yet few studies on the possible health risks for athletes. This study aims to determine the impact of ultra-endurance exercise-induced stress on the number and function of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) and hematological, inflammatory, clinical, metabolic, and stress parameters in moderately trained amateur athletes. Following ultra-endurance exercise, there were significant increases in leukocytes, platelets, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, tissue enzymes, blood lactate, serum cortisol, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Ultra-endurance exercise did not influence the number of CPCs but resulted in a highly significant decline of CPC functionality after the competition. Furthermore, Epstein-Barr virus was seen to be reactivated in one of seven athletes. The link between exercise-induced stress and decline of CPC functionality is supported by a negative correlation between cortisol and CPC function. We conclude that ultra-endurance exercise induces metabolic stress and an inflammatory response that affects not only mature hematopoietic cells but also the function of the immature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fraction, which make up the immune system and provide for regeneration. PMID:25438993

  13. Antioxidant and functional properties of tea protein as affected by the different tea processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Haixia; Ning ZHANG; Ma, Lishuai

    2013-01-01

    The Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was used to optimize alkali extraction of protein from tea. Three independent extraction variables (extraction time: X1; extraction temperature: X2; alkali concentration: X3) were evaluated. The antioxidant and functional properties of tea protein as affected by different tea processing were compared. The optimum conditions were: extraction time of 85 min, extraction temperature of 80 °C, and alkali concentration of 0.15 M. Und...

  14. Distinct Neuropsychological Correlates in Positive and Negative Formal Thought Disorder Syndromes: The Thought and Language Disorder Scale in Endogenous Psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Arne; Fährmann, Paul; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Grosvald, Michael; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of formal thought disorder (FTD) symptoms and subsyndromes with neuropsychological dimensions is as yet unclear. Evidence for a dysexecutive syndrome and semantic access impairments has been discussed in positive FTD, albeit focusing mostly on patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the correlation of the full range of positive and negative as well as subjective and objective FTD with neuropsychological domains in different patient groups. Patients with ICD-10 schizophrenia (n = 51), depression (n = 51), and bipolar mania (n = 18), as well as healthy subjects (n = 60), were interviewed with the Rating Scale for the Assessment of Objective and Subjective Formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) and assessed using a multidimensional neuropsychological test battery (executive function, semantic and lexical verbal fluency, attention, working memory, and abstract thinking). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for age and word knowledge, revealed significant results for the objective positive FTD dimension and executive dysfunctions. Objective negative FTD was associated with deficits in lexico-semantic retrieval, as well as attention and working memory dysfunctions. The results suggest that different neuropsychological substrates correlate with the multidimensional and phenomenologically different FTD syndromes. FTD is a complex, multidimensional syndrome with a variety of neuropsychological impairments, which should be accounted for in future studies investigating the pathogenesis of FTD. PMID:27058747

  15. Aging. Aging-induced type I interferon signaling at the choroid plexus negatively affects brain function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; David, Eyal; Castellano, Joseph M.; Miller, Omer; Kertser, Alexander; Berkutzki, Tamara; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Bezalel, Dana; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Amit, Ido; Schwartz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive decline is affected by factors produced inside and outside the brain. We found in aged mice and humans, that the choroid plexus (CP), an epithelial interface between the brain and the circulation, shows a type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent expression profile, often associated with anti-viral responses. This signature was induced by brain-derived signals present in the cerebrospinal fluid of aged mice. Blocking IFN-I signaling within the brain of cognitively-impaired aged mice, using IFN-I receptor neutralizing antibody, led to partial restoration of cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis, and reestablished IFN-II-dependent CP activity, lost in aging. Our data identify an aging-induced IFN-I signature at the CP, and demonstrate its negative influence on brain function, thereby suggesting a potential target for therapeutic intervention for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25147279

  16. Developing fragility functions for the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gokon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragility functions in terms of flow depth, flow velocity and hydrodynamic force are developed to evaluate structural vulnerability in the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami. First, numerical simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation are conducted to reproduce the features of tsunami inundation. To validate the results, flow depths measured in field surveys and waveforms measured by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART gauges are utilized. Next, building damage is investigated by manually detecting changes between pre- and post-tsunami high-resolution satellite images. Finally, the data related to tsunami features and building damage are integrated using GIS, and tsunami fragility functions are developed based on the statistical analyses.

  17. The subcellular localization of IGFBP5 affects its cell growth and migration functions in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Aysegul

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5 has been shown to be associated with breast cancer metastasis in clinical marker studies. However, a major difficulty in understanding how IGFBP5 functions in this capacity is the paradoxical observation that ectopic overexpression of IGFBP5 in breast cancer cell lines results in suppressed cellular proliferation. In cancer tissues, IGFBP5 resides mainly in the cytoplasm; however, in transfected cells, IGFBP5 is mainly located in the nucleus. We hypothesized that subcellular localization of IGFBP5 affects its functions in host cells. Methods To test this hypothesis, we generated wild-type and mutant IGFBP5 expression constructs. The mutation occurs within the nuclear localization sequence (NLS of the protein and is generated by site-directed mutagenesis using the wild-type IGFBP5 expression construct as a template. Next, we transfected each expression construct into MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells to establish stable clones overexpressing either wild-type or mutant IGFBP5. Results Functional analysis revealed that cells overexpressing wild-type IGFBP5 had significantly lower cell growth rate and motility than the vector-transfected cells, whereas cells overexpressing mutant IGFBP5 demonstrated a significantly higher ability to proliferate and migrate. To illustrate the subcellular localization of the proteins, we generated wild-type and mutant IGFBP5-pDsRed fluorescence fusion constructs. Fluorescence microscopy imaging revealed that mutation of the NLS in IGFBP5 switched the accumulation of IGFBP5 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the protein. Conclusion Together, these findings imply that the mutant form of IGFBP5 increases proliferation and motility of breast cancer cells and that mutation of the NLS in IGFBP5 results in localization of IGFBP5 in the cytoplasm, suggesting that subcellular localization of IGFBP5 affects its cell growth and migration functions in the

  18. Heavy alcohol consumption in individuals with HIV infection: Effects on neuropsychological performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rothlind, Johannes C.; GREENFIELD, TANYA M.; BRUCE, ANNE V.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Flenniken, Derek L.; LINDGREN, JOSELYN A.; Weiner, Michael W.

    2005-01-01

    Higher rates of alcohol use have been reported in HIV+ individuals compared to the general population. Both heavy alcohol use and HIV infection are associated with increased risk of neuropsychological (NP) impairment. We examined effects of heavy active alcohol use and HIV on NP functioning in a large sample of community-residing HIV+ individuals and HIV− controls. The four main study groups included 72 HIV− light/non-drinkers, 70 HIV− heavy drinkers (>100 drinks per month), 70 HIV+ light/non...

  19. Attentional Control and Intelligence: MRI Orbital Frontal Gray Matter and Neuropsychological Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, Paul G.; Motoaki Nakamura; Margaret Niznikiewicz; Levitt, James J.; Newell, Dominick T.; Martha E. Shenton; McCarley, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control is a key function of working memory that is hypothesized to play an important role in psychometric intelligence. To test the neuropsychological underpinnings of this hypothesis, we examined full-scale IQ, as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), and attentional control, as measured by Trails B response time and Wisconsin Card Sorting (WCS) test perseverative errors in 78 healthy participants, 25 of whom also had available magnetic reso...

  20. Functional Connectivity under Anticipation of Shock: Correlates of Trait Anxious Affect versus Induced Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijsterbosch, Janine; Smith, Stephen; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-09-01

    Sustained anxiety about potential future negative events is an important feature of anxiety disorders. In this study, we used a novel anticipation of shock paradigm to investigate individual differences in functional connectivity during prolonged threat of shock. We examined the correlates of between-participant differences in trait anxious affect and induced anxiety, where the latter reflects changes in self-reported anxiety resulting from the shock manipulation. Dissociable effects of trait anxious affect and induced anxiety were observed. Participants with high scores on a latent dimension of anxious affect showed less increase in ventromedial pFC-amygdala connectivity between periods of safety and shock anticipation. Meanwhile, lower levels of induced anxiety were linked to greater augmentation of dorsolateral pFC-anterior insula connectivity during shock anticipation. These findings suggest that ventromedial pFC-amygdala and dorsolateral pFC-insula networks might both contribute to regulation of sustained fear responses, with their recruitment varying independently across participants. The former might reflect an evolutionarily old mechanism for reducing fear or anxiety, whereas the latter might reflect a complementary mechanism by which cognitive control can be implemented to diminish fear responses generated due to anticipation of aversive stimuli or events. These two circuits might provide complementary, alternate targets for exploration in future pharmacological and cognitive intervention studies. PMID:25961638

  1. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xujie [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bachhuka, Akash [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Vasilev, Krasimir [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); School of Advanced Manufacturing, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH{sub 2}), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH{sub 3}), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH{sub 2}) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH{sub 3}). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH{sub 2} modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH{sub 3} modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  2. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xujie; Feng, Qingling; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (sbnd NH2), carboxyl (sbnd COOH) and methyl (sbnd CH3), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (sbnd COOH and sbnd NH2) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (sbnd CH3). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the sbnd NH2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the sbnd COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the sbnd CH3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  3. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH2), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH3), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH2) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH3). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  4. Japanese encephalitis virus disrupts cell-cell junctions and affects the epithelial permeability barrier functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Agrawal

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is a neurotropic flavivirus, which causes viral encephalitis leading to death in about 20-30% of severely-infected people. Although JEV is known to be a neurotropic virus its replication in non-neuronal cells in peripheral tissues is likely to play a key role in viral dissemination and pathogenesis. We have investigated the effect of JEV infection on cellular junctions in a number of non-neuronal cells. We show that JEV affects the permeability barrier functions in polarized epithelial cells at later stages of infection. The levels of some of the tight and adherens junction proteins were reduced in epithelial and endothelial cells and also in hepatocytes. Despite the induction of antiviral response, barrier disruption was not mediated by secreted factors from the infected cells. Localization of tight junction protein claudin-1 was severely perturbed in JEV-infected cells and claudin-1 partially colocalized with JEV in intracellular compartments and targeted for lysosomal degradation. Expression of JEV-capsid alone significantly affected the permeability barrier functions in these cells. Our results suggest that JEV infection modulates cellular junctions in non-neuronal cells and compromises the permeability barrier of epithelial and endothelial cells which may play a role in viral dissemination in peripheral tissues.

  5. Arabidopsis AtADF1 is Functionally Affected by Mutations on Actin Binding Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hai Dong; Wei-Ping Tang; Jia-Yao Liu

    2013-01-01

    The plant actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) binds to both monomeric and filamentous actin,and is directly involved in the depolymerization of actin filaments.To better understand the actin binding sites of the Arabidopsis thaliana L.AtADF1,we generated mutants of AtADF1 and investigated their functions in vitro and in vivo.Analysis of mutants harboring amino acid substitutions revealed that charged residues (Arg98 and Lys100) located at the α-helix 3 and forming an actin binding site together with the N-terminus are essential for both G-and F-actin binding.The basic residues on the β-strand 5 (K82/A) and the α-helix 4 (R135/A,R137/A) form another actin binding site that is important for F-actin binding.Using transient expression of CFP-tagged AtADF1 mutant proteins in onion (Allium cepa) peel epidermal cells and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana L.plants overexpressing these mutants,we analyzed how these mutant proteins regulate actin organization and affect seedling growth.Our results show that the ADF mutants with a lower affinity for actin filament binding can still be functional,unless the affinity foractin monomers is also affected.The G-actin binding activity of the ADF plays an essential role in actin binding,depolymerization of actin polymers,and therefore in the control of actin organization.

  6. [Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome secondary to a cerebellar tumour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Carral, J; Carreras-Sáez, I; García-Peñas, J J; Fournier-Del Castillo, C; Villalobos-Reales, J

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome is characterized by disturbances of executive function, impaired spatial cognition, linguistic difficulties, and personality change. The case of an 11 year old boy is presented, with behavior problems, learning difficulties and social interaction problems. In the physical examination he had poor visual contact, immature behavior, reduced expressive language and global motor disability with gait dyspraxia, with no defined cerebellar motor signs. In the neuropsychological evaluation he has a full scale overall intellectual quotient of 84, with signs of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. A tumour affecting inferior cerebellar vermis was observed in the magnetic resonance imaging, which had not significantly grown during 5 years of follow up. The cerebellum participates in controlling cognitive and affective functions. Cerebellar pathology must be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with cognitive or learning disorder with associated behavioral and emotional components. PMID:24954915

  7. The importance of neuropsychological assessment for the evaluation of childhood learning disorders NAN Policy and Planning Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Cheryl H; Blackburn, Lynn B; Arffa, Sharon; Barth, Jeffrey T; Bush, Shane S; Koffler, Sandra P; Pliskin, Neil H; Reynolds, Cecil R; Ruff, Ronald M; Tröster, Alexander I; Moser, Rosemarie S; Elliott, Robert W

    2006-10-01

    When children experience learning difficulties, an appropriate evaluation of abilities and skills can provide the foundation for an accurate diagnosis and useful recommendations. When comprehensive information about a child's brain-related strengths and weaknesses is necessary to understand potential sources of the problem and implications for functioning, a neuropsychological evaluation is most often the best choice. This paper was written to help parents, educators, health care providers, and third-party payors to understand the nature of neuropsychological assessment and to choose the type of evaluation that will furnish relevant information for the child's educational planning. PMID:17071364

  8. Relationship of mercury to cognitive, affective and perceptual motor functioning in a normal sample in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sine, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Although the effects of toxic levels of mercury have been well documented, the effects of subclinical levels of mercury on normal populations have generally not been studied. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the impact of mercury risk factors on cognition, affect, psychopathology, and known mercury-related symptoms in a normal sample in Hawaii exposed to subclinical although elevated levels of elemental mercury through inhalation associated with volcanic activity and of methylmercury mostly through ingestion of large ocean species fish. The following summarizes the findings and conclusions of the study: 1) a four week test-retest reliability using 41 of the subjects showed that the 41 measures used in the study exhibited an average correlation of .78. Using all 413 subjects, the average internal consistency measured by Cronbach's ..cap alpha.. was .82 for the 17 affect, psychopathology, and symptom measures; 2) nine mercury source variables were used to predict the amount of total mercury in hair. Interestingly, none of the source variables predicted hair total mercury; 3) the source variables in addition to hair total mercury and statistical control variables were used to predict the twenty-two functioning variables in the four domains cited above with a relative absence of relationships noted. This finding indicates that the normal population in Hawaii appears not to be at risk; and 4) one historical mercury source variable, reported fish intake when young, related to six functioning variables - the psychopathology measures of Somatization, Obsessive-Compulsive and Anxiety as well as the Sensory, Affect and Mental symptoms - with Beta weights in the .15 to .20 range. The implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions offered for future research especially with respect to specific high risk subgroups.

  9. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taki

    Full Text Available Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  10. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are fixated forever.The author thinks children’s autism should be seen in context of the inter-game of biological factors, development and the stress.

  11. Toward a neuropsychology of memory in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, B L; Rosse, R B; Deutsch, S I

    1992-01-01

    Three brain regions that have been the focus of recent interest in the neuropathology of schizophrenia include the frontal lobes, the basal ganglia, and the temporal lobes. We tested patients with chronic schizophrenia on three memory tasks, the successful performance of which depends on the integrity of each of these three brain regions. Comparisons between chronic schizophrenic patients and normal control subjects yielded the following results: (a) patients were impaired in remembering the temporal order of previously presented events; (b) patients were impaired on a motor task of procedural learning; and (c) patients showed normal priming effects in an implicit memory task despite their recall deficit in an explicit memory task. The significance of these findings lies in their relation to neuropsychological findings in patients with dysfunction in frontal cortical, basal ganglia, and medial temporal lobe structures. PMID:1296215

  12. Earthworm-mycorrhiza interactions can affect the diversity, structure and functioning of establishing model grassland communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann G Zaller

    Full Text Available Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communities after a simulated seed rain of 18 grassland species comprising grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Moreover, effects of earthworms and/or AMF on water infiltration and leaching of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were determined after a simulated extreme rainfall event (40 l m(-2. AMF colonisation of all three plant functional groups was altered by earthworms. Seedling emergence and diversity was reduced by anecic earthworms, however only when AMF were present. Plant density was decreased in AMF-free mesocosms when both anecic and endogeic earthworms were active; with AMF also anecics reduced plant density. Plant shoot and root biomass was only affected by earthworms in AMF-free mesocosms: shoot biomass increased due to the activity of either anecics or endogeics; root biomass increased only when anecics were active. Water infiltration increased when earthworms were present in the mesocosms but remained unaffected by AMF. Ammonium leaching was increased only when anecics or a mixed earthworm community was active but was unaffected by AMF; nitrate and phosphate leaching was neither affected by earthworms nor AMF. Ammonium leaching decreased with increasing plant density, nitrate leaching decreased with increasing plant diversity and density. In order to understand the underlying processes of these interactions further investigations possibly under field conditions using more diverse belowground communities are required. Nevertheless, this study

  13. Proteomic Profiling in the Brain of CLN1 Disease Model Reveals Affected Functional Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, Saara; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Gotsopoulos, Athanasios; Soliymani, Rabah; Pezzini, Francesco; Scifo, Enzo; Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Tyynelä, Jaana; Baumann, Marc; Jalanko, Anu; Simonati, Alessandro; Lalowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are the most commonly inherited progressive encephalopathies of childhood. Pathologically, they are characterized by endolysosomal storage with different ultrastructural features and biochemical compositions. The molecular mechanisms causing progressive neurodegeneration and common molecular pathways linking expression of different NCL genes are largely unknown. We analyzed proteome alterations in the brains of a mouse model of human infantile CLN1 disease-palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (Ppt1) gene knockout and its wild-type age-matched counterpart at different stages: pre-symptomatic, symptomatic and advanced. For this purpose, we utilized a combination of laser capture microdissection-based quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS imaging to quantify/visualize the changes in protein expression in disease-affected brain thalamus and cerebral cortex tissue slices, respectively. Proteomic profiling of the pre-symptomatic stage thalamus revealed alterations mostly in metabolic processes and inhibition of various neuronal functions, i.e., neuritogenesis. Down-regulation in dynamics associated with growth of plasma projections and cellular protrusions was further corroborated by findings from RNA sequencing of CLN1 patients' fibroblasts. Changes detected at the symptomatic stage included: mitochondrial functions, synaptic vesicle transport, myelin proteome and signaling cascades, such as RhoA signaling. Considerable dysregulation of processes related to mitochondrial cell death, RhoA/Huntington's disease signaling and myelin sheath breakdown were observed at the advanced stage of the disease. The identified changes in protein levels were further substantiated by bioinformatics and network approaches, immunohistochemistry on brain tissues and literature knowledge, thus identifying various functional modules affected in the CLN1 childhood

  14. Neuropsychological profile of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Anna Roshini; Rajeswaran, Jamuna; Nalini, Atchayaram

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited myogenic disorder characterized by progressive muscle wasting. DMD is a fatal X-linked recessive disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 3,500 male live births. This disease has long been associated with intellectual impairment. Research has shown that boys with DMD have variable intellectual performance, indicating the presence of specific cognitive deficits. The aim of the study was to use a battery of intelligence, learning, and memory tests to identify a neuropsychological profile in boys with DMD. A total of 22 boys diagnosed with DMD in the age range of 6 to 10 years old were evaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the Memory for Designs Test. The data were interpreted using means, standard deviations, percentages, and percentiles. Normative data were also used for further interpretation. The results showed that boys with DMD had a significantly lower IQ (88.5). Verbal IQ (86.59) was found to be lower than Performance IQ (92.64). There was evidence of impaired performance on the Processing Speed, Freedom From Distractibility, and Verbal Comprehension Indexes. Specific deficits in information processing, complex attention, immediate verbal memory span, verbal working memory, verbal comprehension, vocabulary, visuoconstruction ability, and verbal learning and encoding were observed. However, perceptional organization, general fund of information, abstract reasoning, visual discrimination and acuity, visual learning and memory, and verbal memory were adequate. The neuropsychological findings support the hypothesis that these children have specific cognitive deficits as opposed to a global intellectual deficit. PMID:24279481

  15. Forensic neuropsychological evaluations in an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Lauren; Schrift, Michael; Pliskin, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Within the expanding field of clinical neuropsychology, the subspecialty of forensic neuropsychology has developed. Currently, there is considerable diversity within the discipline as to how practitioners approach test selection, reports, and number of hours billed. How individuals handle these issues is subject to debate, but what is clear is that there are no specific guidelines as to how to conduct these evaluations. The current study provides an introduction to the issues faced by clinical neuropsychologists completing forensic evaluations. In addition, the authors present how the relevant issues are addressed in one neuropsychology service housed within a university-affiliated academic medical center. PMID:19333065

  16. Outcomes assessment for forensic neuropsychology: recommendations and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalechstein, A D; van Gorp, W D

    1998-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are frequently retained by attorneys or the courts to assist in the resolution of legal disputes. Yet, an outcomes assessment demonstrating the utility of neuropsychological evaluations in the forensic arena has not been implemented, nor has a method for conducting an outcomes assessment of forensic neuropsychology been delineated. This article offers recommendations and considerations for the formulation of outcomes assessments. These include defining an outcomes assessment, identifying the consumers of forensic neuropsychological assessments, and specifying potential moderator and dependent variables in the context of study designs that may be feasibly implemented. Moreover, the ethical implications of outcomes assessments are discussed. PMID:16318446

  17. Plant species richness and functional traits affect community stability after a flood event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Felícia M; Wright, Alexandra J; Eisenhauer, Nico; Ebeling, Anne; Roscher, Christiane; Wagg, Cameron; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Pillar, Valério D

    2016-05-19

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events. It is therefore of major importance to identify the community attributes that confer stability in ecological communities during such events. In June 2013, a flood event affected a plant diversity experiment in Central Europe (Jena, Germany). We assessed the effects of plant species richness, functional diversity, flooding intensity and community means of functional traits on different measures of stability (resistance, resilience and raw biomass changes from pre-flood conditions). Surprisingly, plant species richness reduced community resistance in response to the flood. This was mostly because more diverse communities grew more immediately following the flood. Raw biomass increased over the previous year; this resulted in decreased absolute value measures of resistance. There was no clear response pattern for resilience. We found that functional traits drove these changes in raw biomass: communities with a high proportion of late-season, short-statured plants with dense, shallow roots and small leaves grew more following the flood. Late-growing species probably avoided the flood, whereas greater root length density might have allowed species to better access soil resources brought from the flood, thus growing more in the aftermath. We conclude that resource inputs following mild floods may favour the importance of traits related to resource acquisition and be less associated with flooding tolerance. PMID:27114578

  18. Aesthetic and Functional Rehabilitation of the Primary Dentition Affected by Amelogenesis Imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Salomé Marquezin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this case report was to describe the oral rehabilitation of a five-year-old boy patient diagnosed with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI in the primary dentition. AI is a group of hereditary disorders that affects the enamel structure. The patient was brought to the dental clinic complaining of tooth hypersensitivity during meals. The medical history and clinical examination were used to arrive at the diagnosis of AI. The treatment was oral rehabilitation of the primary molars with stainless steel crowns and resin-filled celluloid forms. The main objectives of the selected treatment were to enhance the esthetics, restore masticatory function, and eliminate the teeth sensitivity. The child was monitored in the pediatric dentistry clinic at four-month intervals until the mixed dentition stage. Treatment not only restored function and esthetic, but also showed a positive psychological impact and thereby improved perceived quality of life. The preventive, psychological, and curative measures of a young child with AI were successful. This result can encourage the clinicians to seek a cost-effective technique such as stainless steel crowns, and resin-filled celluloid forms to reestablish the oral functions and improve the child’s psychosocial development.

  19. Aesthetic and functional rehabilitation of the primary dentition affected by amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquezin, Maria Carolina Salomé; Zancopé, Bruna Raquel; Pacheco, Larissa Ferreira; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Pascon, Fernanda Miori

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case report was to describe the oral rehabilitation of a five-year-old boy patient diagnosed with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) in the primary dentition. AI is a group of hereditary disorders that affects the enamel structure. The patient was brought to the dental clinic complaining of tooth hypersensitivity during meals. The medical history and clinical examination were used to arrive at the diagnosis of AI. The treatment was oral rehabilitation of the primary molars with stainless steel crowns and resin-filled celluloid forms. The main objectives of the selected treatment were to enhance the esthetics, restore masticatory function, and eliminate the teeth sensitivity. The child was monitored in the pediatric dentistry clinic at four-month intervals until the mixed dentition stage. Treatment not only restored function and esthetic, but also showed a positive psychological impact and thereby improved perceived quality of life. The preventive, psychological, and curative measures of a young child with AI were successful. This result can encourage the clinicians to seek a cost-effective technique such as stainless steel crowns, and resin-filled celluloid forms to reestablish the oral functions and improve the child's psychosocial development. PMID:25705526

  20. The philosophical foundations of Aleksandr R. Luria's neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, Gavriela

    2003-12-01

    This article attempts to show that the cultural-historical psychological theory of Aleksandr R. Luria (Luriya) and his colleagues is based on the foundations of historical materialism. It argues in particular that Luria's psychology, neuropsychology, and brain theory are integrated in the same scientific research program and are based on the same philosophical premises, and that his theories must be interpreted in the Marxist context in which they are embedded. Luria's research program asserts that the development of higher mental functions depends on the appropriation of cultural means, particularly language, within social practice. Moreover, the brain structures underlying mental functions are also dependent on the appropriation of cultural means. Luria's clinical diagnosis and his program for rehabilitation of patients with brain lesions are based on his psychological theory and brain theory. The following analysis of Luria's comprehensive program will show that a socio-cultural non-reductive explanation of mental functions and their underlying brain structures may have implications for the philosophical discussion of the mind-brain problem. PMID:15025065

  1. [About the necessity of neuropsychological assessment in the civil law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwiłłowicz, W; Radziwiłłowicz, P

    2000-01-01

    Giving expert opinions within legal psychiatry in civil cases requires more and more strict co-operation of expert psychiatrists with psychologists. Assessment of the cognitive functions with the help of neuropsychological methods is an important diagnostic element that leads to giving the right opinion. The most frequent reasons for appointing experts in psychiatry and psychology are disorders of cognitive functions as a result of various brain injuries. Dementia syndromes are particularly often subjects of doubts in preparing expert opinions as they must be distinguished from other organic dysfunctions and from the age--associated memory impairment. Considering the evidence value the most important thing is to assess all the objective data included in the medical records and subsequently to assess the testimony of the witnesses Usually people from legal circles and families of the people who make declarations of will overvalue the importance of additional examinations. Those examinations are important but they do not settle the patient's psychic state because the decisive factor is not the kind of somatic disease but the influence of that disease on the psychic state. The neuropsychologist's role in giving medical statements is going to increase together with the tendency to objectivization and qualitative assessment of intensification of respective disorders of cognitive functions when examining patients in order to give expert opinions. PMID:11055184

  2. A case of chronic Wernicke’s Encephalopathy: a neuropsychological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eOudman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year old woman was referred to our Korsakoff Center because of extensive cognitive problems following acute Wernicke's Encephalopathy (WE. She had a relatively short history of alcohol abuse and was found lying on the floor in her home by her son. After five days without treatment she was diagnosed with WE in a general hospital. During the course of the disease minimal change to the acute situation occurred, with chronic confusion, attention deficits and incoherent behavior symptoms most notable unlike classical Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS. Neuropsychological assessment after four and sixteen months after admission to the hospital revealed global cognitive decline, with striking impairments in attentional, executive and memory functions. The present case study suggests that the state of confusion and the neuropsychological symptoms in WE can become chronic in case of very late treatment. We therefore recommend that confused alcoholics should receive appropriate parenteral thiamine according to the current clinical standards.

  3. Obsessive compulsive disorder networks: positron emission tomography and neuropsychology provide new insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Millet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation has shed new light on the central role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. We explored this structure from a functional perspective, synchronizing neuroimaging and cognitive measures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This case-control cross-sectional study compared 15 OCD patients without comorbidities and not currently on serotonin reuptake inhibitors or cognitive behavioural therapy with 15 healthy controls (matched for age, sex and education level on resting-state (18FDG-PET scans and a neuropsychological battery assessing executive functions. We looked for correlations between metabolic modifications and impaired neuropsychological scores. Modifications in glucose metabolism were found in frontal regions (orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral cortices, the cingulate gyrus, insula and parietal gyrus. Neuropsychological differences between patients and controls, which were subtle, were correlated with the metabolism of the prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. CONCLUSION: As expected, we confirmed previous reports of a PFC dysfunction in OCD patients, and established a correlation with cognitive deficits. Other regions outside the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsoparietal cortex and the insula, also appeared to be implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, providing fresh insights on the complexity of OCD syndromes.

  4. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADULT PATIENTS UNDER DIALYSIS IN A SPECIALIZED INSTITUTIONIN MEDELLIN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA DUARTE

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF have cognitive impairments and intellectual deficiencies comparedwith normal people. Objective: To analyze the neuropsychological characteristics in adult patients (18 to 65 years old,belonging to a dialysis program in the Instituto del Riñón [Kidney Institute] of Medellín-Colombia. Subjects andMethods: A non-randomized sample of 59 patients, aged between 23 to 64 years old, a neuropsychological tests batterywas applied to patients, which assessed attention, memory, language, visual abilities, motor skills, executive functionand intellectual level. Comparisons with means from general population were done, and analysis comparing gender,age, school grades, socio economic stratum, and some clinical characteristics (type of dialysis, time from the startingdialysis, number of hospitalizations, Kt/v level, hematocrit, depression, and number of hospitalizations. Results:Patients had significant low performance in almost all neuropsychological functions, compared with general population.Comparisons between age, education and socioeconomic strata groups showed differences on executive function,visual-motor, visual perception, attention, and intelligence tasks. None difference was found between the clinicalgroups. Conclusions: Patients with CRF had disseminated cognitive impairment compared to general population.

  5. Increased risk of neuropsychological disorders in children born preterm without major disabilities: a neurodevelopmental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipasquale Filippo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, preterm births have drastically increased and today represent 12.5% of total births. About 1.2% of preterm births characterize very preterm births (GA<32weeks that, with very low birth weight (BW<1500grams, are constantly found as risk factors of unfavourable neurological outcomes in longitudinal follow up studies. Actually, also “late preterm” children (preterm born from 33 to 36 weeks of gestational age, normally considered at low risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities, are supposed to represent a population of children to be monitored. Previous findings of a general cognitive impairment in children born preterm have gradually addressed the assessment of more specific neuropsychological skills and pointed out the importance to follow these children up to adolescent age. The neuroanatomical prerequisite of an abnormality in frontal lobe development and the correlation with various neuropsychological dysfunctions (fine and gross motor disabilities, executive function and working memory deficits, visual-constructional and attentional dysfunctions underline the interference of preterm birth with normal brain maturational phases. Though showing more demanding neurodevelopmental pathways than term peers, a large number of preterm children tend to functionally normalize in adolescence. The review supports the hypothesis of a neurodevelopmental model that can be at risk to influence dysfunctional neuropsychological outcome.

  6. Neuropsychological Test Performance in Cognitively Normal Spanish-speaking Nonagenarians with Little Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Schmeidler, James; Raventos, Henriette; Valerio, Daniel; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Carrión-Baralt, José R; Mora-Villalobos, Lara; Bolaños, Patricia; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    To find associations of age, sex, and education with neuropsychological test performance in cognitively normal Spanish-speaking Costa Rican nonagenarians with little education; to provide norms; and to compare their performance with similar Puerto Ricans. For 95 Costa Ricans (90-102 years old, 0-6 years of education), multiple regression assessed associations with demographics of performance on six neuropsychological tests. Analyses of covariance compared them with 23 Puerto Ricans (90-99 years old). Younger age and being female-but not education-were associated with better performance on some neuropsychological tests, in particular episodic memory. The Puerto Ricans performed better on learning and memory tasks. In cognitively intact Spanish-speaking nonagenarians with little or no education, education did not affect test performance. Additional studies of the effect of education on cognitive performance are warranted in other samples with extremely low education or old age. National differences in performance highlight the importance of group-specific norms. PMID:26883764

  7. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M; Henderson, Heather A; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical development than participants with ASD. In the hierarchical linear modeling analysis, there were no differences in face processing accuracy between participants with and without ASD, but participants with ASD were more confident in their decisions. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have metacognitive impairments and are overconfident in face processing. Additionally, greater metacognitive awareness was predictive of better face processing accuracy, suggesting that metacognition may be a pivotal skill to teach in interventions. PMID:26496991

  8. How measurement artifacts affect cerebral autoregulation outcomes: A technical note on transfer function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel-van den Abeelen, Aisha S S; de Jong, Daan L K; Lagro, Joep; Panerai, Ronney B; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is the mechanism that aims to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion during changes in blood pressure (BP). Transfer function analysis (TFA), the most reported method in literature to quantify CA, shows large between-study variability in outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of measurement artifacts in this variation. Specifically, the role of distortion in the BP and/or CBFV measurementon TFA outcomes was investigated. The influence of three types of artifacts on TFA outcomes was studied: loss of signal, motion artifacts, and baseline drifts. TFA metrics of signals without the simulated artifacts were compared with those of signals with artifacts. TFA outcomes scattered highly when more than 10% of BP signal or over 8% of the CBFV signal was lost, or when measurements contained one or more artifacts resulting from head movement. Furthermore, baseline drift affected interpretation of TFA outcomes when the power in the BP signal was 5 times the power in the LF band. In conclusion, loss of signal in BP and loss in CBFV, affects interpretation of TFA outcomes. Therefore, it is vital to validate signal quality to the defined standards before interpreting TFA outcomes. PMID:26935320

  9. In vitro study on human cytomegalovirus affecting early pregnancy villous EVT's invasion function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xiao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is the most common pathogen in uterus during pregnancy, which may lead to some serious results such as miscarriage, stillbirth, cerebellar malformation, fetus developmental retardation, but its pathogenesis has not been fully explained. The hypofunction of extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVT invasion is the essential pathologic base of some complications of pregnancy. c-erbB-2 is a kind of oncogene protein and closely linked with embryogenesis, tissue repair and regeneration. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP is one of the key enzymes which affect EVT migration and invasion function. The expression level changes of c-erbB-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 can reflect the changes of EVT invasion function. Results To explore the influence of HCMV on the invasion function of EVT, we tested the protein expression level changes of c-erbB-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in villous explant cultured in vitro infected by HCMV, with the use of immunohistochemistry SP method and western blot. We confirmed that HCMV can reproduce and spread in early pregnancy villus; c-erbB-2 protein mainly expressed in normal early pregnancy villous syncytiotrophoblast (ST remote plasma membrane and EVT, especially remote EVT cell membrane in villous stem cell column, little expressed in ST proximal end cell membrane and interstitial cells; MMP-2 protein primarily expressed in early pregnancy villous EVT endochylema and rarely in villous trophoblast (VT, ST and interstitial cells; MMP-9 protein largely expressed in early pregnancy villous mesenchyme, EVT and VT endochylema. Compared with control group, the three kinds of protein expression level in early pregnancy villus of virus group significantly decreased (P Conclusion HCMV can infect villus in vitro and cause the decrease of early pregnancy villous EVT's invasion function.

  10. Macrofauna assemblage composition and soil moisture interact to affect soil ecosystem functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, E. J.; Riutta, T.; Slade, E. M.

    2013-02-01

    Changing climatic conditions and habitat fragmentation are predicted to alter the soil moisture conditions of temperate forests. It is not well understood how the soil macrofauna community will respond to changes in soil moisture, and how changes to species diversity and community composition may affect ecosystem functions, such as litter decomposition and soil fluxes. Moreover, few studies have considered the interactions between the abiotic and biotic factors that regulate soil processes. Here we attempt to disentangle the interactive effects of two of the main factors that regulate soil processes at small scales - moisture and macrofauna assemblage composition. The response of assemblages of three common temperate soil invertebrates (Glomeris marginata Villers, Porcellio scaber Latreille and Philoscia muscorum Scopoli) to two contrasting soil moisture levels was examined in a series of laboratory mesocosm experiments. The contribution of the invertebrates to the leaf litter mass loss of two common temperate tree species of contrasting litter quality (easily decomposing Fraxinus excelsior L. and recalcitrant Quercus robur L.) and to soil CO2 fluxes were measured. Both moisture conditions and litter type influenced the functioning of the invertebrate assemblages, which was greater in high moisture conditions compared with low moisture conditions and on good quality vs. recalcitrant litter. In high moisture conditions, all macrofauna assemblages functioned at equal rates, whereas in low moisture conditions there were pronounced differences in litter mass loss among the assemblages. This indicates that species identity and assemblage composition are more important when moisture is limited. We suggest that complementarity between macrofauna species may mitigate the reduced functioning of some species, highlighting the importance of maintaining macrofauna species richness.

  11. Chronic Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects Uterine Function During Early Pregnancy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanxi; Davila, Juanmahel; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Flaws, Jodi A; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2016-05-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical widely used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention in female reproductive health due to its widespread toxic effects. Although BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, we addressed the effect of prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA on embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Our studies revealed that treatment of mice with BPA led to improper endometrial epithelial and stromal functions thus affecting embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Upon further analyses, we found that the expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) and its downstream target gene, HAND2 (heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2), was markedly suppressed in BPA-exposed uterine tissues. Previous studies have shown that HAND2 controls embryo implantation by repressing fibroblast growth factor and the MAPK signaling pathways and inhibiting epithelial proliferation. Interestingly, we observed that down-regulation of PGR and HAND2 expression in uterine stroma upon BPA exposure was associated with enhanced activation of fibroblast growth factor and MAPK signaling in the epithelium, thus contributing to aberrant proliferation and lack of uterine receptivity. Further, the differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, an event critical for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, was severely compromised in response to BPA. In summary, our studies revealed that chronic exposure to BPA impairs PGR-HAND2 pathway and adversely affects implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:27022677

  12. Training School Psychologists in Neuropsychological Assessment: Current Practices and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a survey of directors of school psychology programs support the notion that training in neuropsychological screening and assessment techniques is appropriate in the preparation of specialists in the area of school psychology. (Author)

  13. Neuropsychological-EEG Activation in Genetic Generalized Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, evaluated the effects of neuropsychological activation (NPA tasks on epileptiform discharges (ED in adolescents with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE and in comparison with hyperventilation and photic stimulation.

  14. A systematic review of neuropsychological performance in social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Pedersen, Anders Degn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the neuropsychological performance of patients with anxiety disorders, yet the literature does not provide a systematic review of the results concerning adult patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Aims: The primary...... aim of this paper is to review the literature on neuropsychological performance in adult patients with SAD. Methods: This paper is a systematic review of empirical studies investigating neuropsychological performance as assessed by cognitive tests. Results: 30 papers were located comprising a total...... number of 698 adult patients with SAD. The review revealed indication for decreased performance regarding visual scanning and visuoconstructional ability as well as some indication for verbal memory difficulties. Conclusion: The impact of possible confounding variables on the neuropsychological...

  15. Percived ethical misconduct: a survey of Neuropsychology professionals in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in the practice of neuropsychology in Mexico. Method: One hundred fourteen psychologists answered a survey which assessed perceptions of ethical misconduct in four areas of professional practice in the field of neuropsychology. Results: The area of professional training contained the highest percentage of perception of ethical misconduct, followed by research and publications, clinical care, and professional relationships. Conclusion: The high frequency of ethical misconduct perceived by neuropsychology professionals in Mexico is a cause for concern. The results suggest the need to create and implement a system to make sure that professionals follow the ethics standards required by the profession, and to provide consequences for those who fail to do so. The profession of neuropsychology and training of professionals in the field must be regularized in the country, to reduce the frequency of future ethical misconducts.

  16. Stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy: Two years of good neuropsychological outcomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíková, H.; Krámská, L.; Vojtěch, Z.; Lukavský, Jiří; Liščák, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2013), s. 423-432. ISSN 0920-1211 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : temporal lobe epilepsy * stereotactic surgery * neuropsychology outcome Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.190, year: 2013

  17. Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcome in Preterm Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Iannone; Clelia Tripaldi; Antonino Chindemi; Lorenzo Piscitelli; Antonio Mastrorocco; Silvano Palazzo; Luigi Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Few long-term studies have yet described neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins. Our aim was to assess, by long-term evaluation, neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins in order to define a correct follow-up program. Our study was a cohort one, with an index and a comparison group. Neonatal medical records of all preterm newborns admitted to our centre between 1991 and 1997 were reviewed and selected patients were recalled. The sample population included two matched groups of childre...

  18. Neuropsychological Decline After Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article “Neuropsychological decline after cath- eter ablation of atrial fibrillation” by Schwarz et al. is the first publication that focused on cognitive side effects of elective circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (PVI.1 Adverse neuropsychological changes after left atrial catheter ablation, as report- ed in this paper, were found in verbal memory and the result, conjoined with ischemic brain lesions, might represent cerebral side-effects of the ablation procedure.

  19. Key soil functional properties affected by soil organic matter - evidence from published literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brian

    2015-07-01

    The effect of varying the amount of soil organic matter on a range of individual soil properties was investigated using a literature search of published information largely from Australia, but also included relevant information from overseas. Based on published pedotransfer functions, soil organic matter was shown to increase plant available water by 2 to 3 mm per 10 cm for each 1% increase in soil organic carbon, with the largest increases being associated with sandy soils. Aggregate stability increased with increasing soil organic carbon, with aggregate stability decreasing rapidly when soil organic carbon fell below 1.2 to 1.5 5%. Soil compactibility, friability and soil erodibility were favourably improved by increasing the levels of soil organic carbon. Nutrient cycling was a major function of soil organic matter. Substantial amounts of N, P and S become available to plants when the soil organic matter is mineralised. Soil organic matter also provides a food source for the microorganisms involved in the nutrient cycling of N, P, S and K. In soils with lower clay contents, and less active clays such as kaolinites, soil organic matter can supply a significant amount of the cation exchange capacity and buffering capacity against acidification. Soil organic matter can have a cation exchange capacity of 172 to 297 cmol(+)/kg. As the cation exchange capacity of soil organic matter varies with pH, the effectiveness of soil organic matter to contribute to cation exchange capacity below pH 5.5 is often minimal. Overall soil organic matter has the potential to affect a range of functional soil properties.

  20. PARP1 gene knock-out increases resistance to retinal degeneration without affecting retinal function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Sahaboglu

    Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is a group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases affecting photoreceptors and causing blindness in humans. Previously, excessive activation of enzymes belonging to the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP group was shown to be involved in photoreceptor degeneration in the human homologous rd1 mouse model for RP. Since there are at least 16 different PARP isoforms, we investigated the exact relevance of the predominant isoform - PARP1 - for photoreceptor cell death using PARP1 knock-out (KO mice. In vivo and ex vivo morphological analysis using optic coherence tomography (OCT and conventional histology revealed no major alterations of retinal phenotype when compared to wild-type (wt. Likewise, retinal function as assessed by electroretinography (ERG was normal in PARP1 KO animals. We then used retinal explant cultures derived from wt, rd1, and PARP1 KO animals to test their susceptibility to chemically induced photoreceptor degeneration. Since photoreceptor degeneration in the rd1 retina is triggered by a loss-of-function in phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6, we used selective PDE6 inhibition to emulate the rd1 situation on non-rd1 genotypes. While wt retina subjected to PDE6 inhibition showed massive photoreceptor degeneration comparable to rd1 retina, in the PARP1 KO situation, cell death was robustly reduced. Together, these findings demonstrate that PARP1 activity is in principle dispensable for normal retinal function, but is of major importance for photoreceptor degeneration under pathological conditions. Moreover, our results suggest that PARP dependent cell death or PARthanatos may play a major role in retinal degeneration and highlight the possibility to use specific PARP inhibitors for the treatment of RP.

  1. Executive Function in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: the NIH EXAMINER battery

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Jane E.; Possin, Katherine L.; Girard, Jonathan M.; Rey-Casserly, Celiane

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ADHD increasingly highlight the role of neuropsychological impairment in ADHD; however, a consistent and identifiable pattern of performance on tests is not well established. The NIH EXAMINER battery provides measures of common variance across multiple executive function tests within specific domains and was used to characterize which executive functions are most affected in children with ADHD. Thirty-two children (24 male), ages 8–15 years (M=12.02, SD=2.29), diagnosed with ADHD ...

  2. Official position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology on serial neuropsychological assessments: the utility and challenges of repeat test administrations in clinical and forensic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Robert L; Sweet, Jerry J; Attix, Deborah K; Krull, Kevin R; Henry, George K; Hart, Robert P

    2010-11-01

    Serial assessments are now common in neuropsychological practice, and have a recognized value in numerous clinical and forensic settings. These assessments can aid in differential diagnosis, tracking neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses over time, and managing various neurologic and psychiatric conditions. This document provides a discussion of the benefits and challenges of serial neuropsychological testing in the context of clinical and forensic assessments. Recommendations regarding the use of repeated testing in neuropsychological practice are provided. PMID:21108148

  3. Sensory integration dysfunction affects efficacy of speech therapy on children with functional articulation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung LC

    2013-01-01

    = 70.393; P > 0.001 and interaction between the pre/post speech therapy treatment and groups (F = 11.119; P = 0.002.Conclusions: Speech therapy can improve the articulation performance of children who have functional articulation disorders whether or not they have SID, but it results in significantly greater improvement in children without SID. SID may affect the treatment efficiency of speech therapy in young children with articulation disorders.Keywords: children, functional articulation disorders, sensory integration dysfunction, speech therapy, efficacy

  4. Structure-mechanical function relations at nano-scale in heat-affected human dental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Tan; Sandholzer, Michael A; Le Bourhis, Eric; Baimpas, Nikolaos; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2014-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of dental materials related to their hierarchical structure is essential for understanding and predicting the effect of microstructural alterations on the performance of dental tissues in the context of forensic and archaeological investigation as well as laser irradiation treatment of caries. So far, few studies have focused on the nano-scale structure-mechanical function relations of human teeth altered by chemical or thermal treatment. The response of dental tissues to thermal treatment is thought to be strongly affected by the mineral crystallite size, their spatial arrangement and preferred orientation. In this study, synchrotron-based small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques were used to investigate the micro-structural alterations (mean crystalline thickness, crystal perfection and degree of alignment) of heat-affected dentine and enamel in human dental teeth. Additionally, nanoindentation mapping was applied to detect the spatial and temperature-dependent nano-mechanical properties variation. The SAXS/WAXS results revealed that the mean crystalline thickness distribution in dentine was more uniform compared with that in enamel. Although in general the mean crystalline thickness increased both in dentine and enamel as the temperature increased, the local structural variations gradually reduced. Meanwhile, the hardness and reduced modulus in enamel decreased as the temperature increased, while for dentine, the tendency reversed at high temperature. The analysis of the correlation between the ultrastructure and mechanical properties coupled with the effect of temperature demonstrates the effect of mean thickness and orientation on the local variation of mechanical property. This structural-mechanical property alteration is likely to be due to changes of HAp crystallites, thus dentine and enamel exhibit different responses at different temperatures. Our results enable an improved understanding of

  5. [Contributions of neuropsychology to anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Lario, P; Hernaez-Goni, P; Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    2016-05-01

    Limbic encephalitis generated by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies is an acute and severe neurological entity, which is more prevalent in young females and is associated to an underlying tumour. Since it leads to severe cognitive impairment, thought needs to be given to the contributions of neuropsychology to the diagnosis, development and treatment of the disease, which have received little attention from researchers to date. A review is conducted of the prior literature, evaluating the measurement of the cognitive symptoms (predominantly mnemonic and executive) associated to this disease. Valid, reliable neuropsychological instruments are proposed, and it is suggested that neuropsychological measures may be used as parameters to follow up these patients which help monitor their functionality in daily living once they have recovered from the acute phase. Similarly they can become a basis on which to assemble rehabilitation programmes that favour the accomplishment of personal autonomy and the patients' reintegration in the community. Nevertheless, we stress the need to include neuropsychologists and neuropsychiatrists in not only the detection but also the treatment of these patients so as to enable them to recover their personal independence and re-adapt to their natural settings. PMID:27113067

  6. Best practice guidelines for forensic neuropsychological examinations of patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Forensic examiners generally agree that their contributions to the forensic process have to be based on scientific principles, high ethical values, and sound clinical skills and judgment. In part I, the challenges of maintaining high ethical standards as a scientist-practitioner are addressed. In part II, the scientific strengths and weaknesses of our neuropsychological assessments are explored within the context of the 4 articles published in this issue. Specifically, Wood points out that while most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) compromise the prefrontal cortex (PFC), traditional neuropsychological examinations do not fully capture to what extent PFC damage disrupts cognitive, emotional, and social regulation. New advances in clinical neuroscience are presented to facilitate a more detailed understanding of PFC functioning. Schwarz et al examine how clinical neuropsychology services can adequately handle forensic consultations. Frederick and Bowden, meanwhile, identify the persistent weaknesses of various Symptom Validity Tests in reliably classifying poor effort and malingering. Bailey et al conclude that the findings from sport concussion studies cannot be generalized to clinical populations, who, as a rule, have more premorbid and comorbid vulnerabilities. Finally, part III provides guidelines based on the introductory article by Bigler and Brooks, as well as a synopsis of the main conclusions offered by the contributors in this journal issue. Guidelines for both the diagnosis of mild TBI and the diagnosis of postconcussional disorder are included. PMID:19333068

  7. Neuropsychological features and risk factors in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome: four case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, T Andrew; Reesman, Jennifer; Wodka, Ericka L; Gray, Robert; Suskauer, Stacy J; Turin, Elizabeth; Ferenc, Lisa M; Lin, Doris D M; Kossoff, Eric H; Comi, Anne M

    2010-01-01

    Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS) is a rare neurocutaneous disorder involving facial capillary malformation (port-wine birthmark) and vascular malformation of the brain that is frequently associated with epilepsy, stroke-like episodes, cognitive deficits, motor impairment, and/or visual field cut. The four cases presented here (ages 8-9, two females) illustrate the broad range of physiologic involvement and associated neuropsychological functioning in SWS, and argue against the idea of a "typical" SWS neuropsychological presentation. Rather, we highlight a preliminary collection of disease status/severity factors thought to impact neuropsychological presentation in SWS, including degree of cortical involvement (unilateral versus bilateral; posterior only versus posterior/anterior), age at time of seizure onset, extent of seizure control, history of stroke-like episodes, and magnitude of neurologic decline/deficit. We discuss the need for broad-based assessment in this medical population, as various impairment combinations (e.g., perceptual, language, executive) create unique presentations as well as the need for individualized intervention. PMID:20560093

  8. A cohort pilot study on HIV-associated neuropsychological impairments in haemophilia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Riva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the management of HIV infection with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, it is well known that HIV can directly infect the central nervous system (CNS and, as a result of such infection, neuropsychological impairments can be manifested. In this study we tried to determine whether seropositivity was associated with a poor neuropsychological performance in patients with hemophilia and HIV. Such a cohort of patients is very often underrepresented and understudied in the HIV literature. To amend such a gap, we carried out an extensive neuropsychological evaluation on these patients, and compared their performance with that of a group of seronegative hemophilia patients. The results revealed that HIV infection in HIV seropositive (HIV+ hemophilia patients was associated with deficits in attention, short-term memory, abstraction and visual recognition. Such results are still preliminary and explorative due to the small cohort of patients enrolled. However, the results do seem to have some important implications for day-to-day functioning, as the level of impairment detected may cause difficulties in completing common everyday tasks such as maintaining adherence to complex medication regimens, or maintaining social life activities. Continued research into the mechanisms related to HIV and neurocognitive dysfunction may provide targets for interventions that could have meaningful consequences in the real world for HIV hemophilia patients.

  9. Cognitive and other neuropsychological profiles in children with newly diagnosed benign rolandic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonhak Kwon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Although benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE is a benign condition, it may be associated with a spectrum of behavioral, psychiatric, and cognitive disorders. This study aimed to assess the cognitive and other neuropsychological profiles of children with BRE. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; In total, 23 children with BRE were consecutively recruited. All children underwent sleep electroencephalography (EEG and were assessed on a battery of comprehensive neuropsychological tests including the Korean versions of the Wechsler intelligence scale for children III, frontal executive neuropsychological test, rey complex figure test, Wisconsin card sorting test, attention deficit diagnostic scale, and child behavior checklist scale. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The study subjects included 13 boys and 10 girls aged 9.0±1.6 years. Our subjects showed an average monthly seizure frequency of 0.9±0.7, and a majority of them had focal seizures (70%. The spike index (frequency/min was 4.1±5.3 (right and 13.1±15.9 (left. Of the 23 subjects, 9 showed frequent spikes (&gt;10/min on the EEG. The subjects had normal cognitive and frontal executive functions, memory, and other neuropsychological sub-domain scores, even though 8 children (35% showed some evidence of learning difficulties, attention deficits, and aggressive behavior. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; Our data have limited predictive value; however, these data demonstrate that although BRE appears to be benign at the onset, children with BRE might develop cognitive, behavioral, and other psychiatric disorders during the active phase of epilepsy, and these problems may even outlast the BRE. Therefore, we recommend scrupulous follow-up for children with BRE.

  10. Neuropsychological assessments in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, perimesencephalic SAH, and incidental aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Kara; Dombek, Susanne; Martens, Tobias; Köppen, Johannes; Westphal, Manfred; Regelsberger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is known to be associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Neurosurgical manipulation on the brain itself has been reported to have influence on neuropsychological sequelae. The following is a comparative study on perimesencephalic and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients as well as elective aneurysm patients that was carried out to determine the isolated and combined impact of surgical manipulation and hemorrhage, respectively, on long-term neuropsychological outcome. Inclusion criteria were good neurological recovery at discharge (modified Rankin Scale 0 or 1) without focal neurological deficit. Standardized psychological testing covered attention, memory, executive functions, and mood. Thirteen aneurysmal SAH patients, 15 patients undergoing elective clipping, and 14 patients with perimesencephalic SAH were analyzed. Standardized neuropsychological testing and social/professional history questionnaires were performed 2 years (mean) after discharge. Memory impairment and slower cognitive processing were found in the aneurysmal and perimesencephalic SAH groups, while elective aneurysm patients showed signs of impaired attention. However, compared with norm data for age-matched healthy controls, all groups showed no significant test results. In contrast, signs of clinical depression were seen in 9/42 patients, 45 % of all patients complained of stress disorders and 55 % of patients were unable to work in their previous professions. Nearly normal neuropsychological test results on long-term follow-up in SAH patients were unexpected. However, a 50 % rate of unemployment accompanied with stress disorders and depression manifests insufficient social and workplace reintegration. Therefore, even more specific rehabilitation programs are required following inpatient treatment to attain full recovery. PMID:23949148

  11. Neurocognitive function in children with compensated hypothyroidism: lack of short term effects on or off thyroxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracken Stacey

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although thyroxin therapy clearly is beneficial to children with frank hypothyroidism there is little data on the effects of thyroxin in children with compensated or subclinical hypothyroidism. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of thyroxin therapy on cognitive function in children with compensated hypothyroidism. The hypothesis was that thyroxin therapy would change neuropsychological function. Methods Eleven patients with a history of sub clinical hypothyroidism entered the study. At the start of the study, six out of the 11 were on thyroxin therapy, while 5 were off therapy. All patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological testing and thyroid function tests at the start of study. Based on the results of thyroid function tests, two of the 5 patients who were off thyroxin were started back on thyroxin. All of the 6 patients who were on thyroxin were taken off thyroxin. All patients then underwent repeat neuropsychological testing and thyroid functions after an average of 91 days. Results Thyroxin therapy could not be shown to have an effect on neuropsychological function in this short term study. Our patients had attention problems as compared to the normal population. No significant differences were found between our subjects and normal population standards in verbal processing, visual processing, motor speed/coordination and achievement. Conclusion In this small, short term study, thyroxin therapy could not be shown to affect neuropsychological function in children with compensated hypothyroidism. These children may have attention problems but appear to have normal verbal and visual processing, motor speed/coordination and achievement.

  12. The neuropsychology of antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Katherine L; Demakis, George J

    2007-03-01

    Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) is a psychological disorder most commonly associated with the legal and criminal justice systems, as many persons arrested for the commission of illegal acts meet the diagnostic criteria for this disorder, such as deception, manipulation, disregard for the rights of others, and a lack of remorse for their behavior. Most researchers agree that this disorder stems from brain abnormalities, including the theories of frontal lobe dysfunction and differences in the autonomic nervous systems in individuals diagnosed with APD. The Integrated Emotional Systems (IES) model, a third model of APD, is itself not a brain abnormality, but provides an understanding of antisocial characteristics based on dysfunctions in select parts of the brain. Based on research using neuropsychological assessments and other techniques, several cognitive characteristics appear to exist among these individuals. Examples include cognitive inflexibility, attention deficits, and inappropriate processing of contextual cues in the environment, sometimes leading to poor behavioral choices. Further research is needed to help identify the cause of this disorder so that the most appropriate treatments can be made available to these individuals. PMID:17544650

  13. How the type of input function affects the dynamic response of conducting polymer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a growing interest in smart actuators typified by conducting polymer actuators, especially in their (i) fabrication, modeling and control with minimum external data and (ii) applications in bio-inspired devices, robotics and mechatronics. Their control is a challenging research problem due to the complex and nonlinear properties of these actuators, which cannot be predicted accurately. Based on an input-shaping technique, we propose a new method to improve the conducting polymer actuators’ command-following ability, while minimizing their electric power consumption. We applied four input functions with smooth characteristics to a trilayer conducting polymer actuator to experimentally evaluate its command-following ability under an open-loop control strategy and a simulated feedback control strategy, and, more importantly, to quantify how the type of input function affects the dynamic response of this class of actuators. We have found that the four smooth inputs consume less electrical power than sharp inputs such as a step input with discontinuous higher-order derivatives. We also obtained an improved transient response performance from the smooth inputs, especially under the simulated feedback control strategy, which we have proposed previously [X Xiang, R Mutlu, G Alici, and W Li, 2014 “Control of conducting polymer actuators without physical feedback: simulated feedback control approach with particle swarm optimization’, Journal of Smart Materials and Structure, 23]. The idea of using a smooth input command, which results in lower power consumption and better control performance, can be extended to other smart actuators. Consuming less electrical energy or power will have a direct effect on enhancing the operational life of these actuators. (paper)

  14. How the type of input function affects the dynamic response of conducting polymer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xingcan; Alici, Gursel; Mutlu, Rahim; Li, Weihua

    2014-10-01

    There has been a growing interest in smart actuators typified by conducting polymer actuators, especially in their (i) fabrication, modeling and control with minimum external data and (ii) applications in bio-inspired devices, robotics and mechatronics. Their control is a challenging research problem due to the complex and nonlinear properties of these actuators, which cannot be predicted accurately. Based on an input-shaping technique, we propose a new method to improve the conducting polymer actuators’ command-following ability, while minimizing their electric power consumption. We applied four input functions with smooth characteristics to a trilayer conducting polymer actuator to experimentally evaluate its command-following ability under an open-loop control strategy and a simulated feedback control strategy, and, more importantly, to quantify how the type of input function affects the dynamic response of this class of actuators. We have found that the four smooth inputs consume less electrical power than sharp inputs such as a step input with discontinuous higher-order derivatives. We also obtained an improved transient response performance from the smooth inputs, especially under the simulated feedback control strategy, which we have proposed previously [X Xiang, R Mutlu, G Alici, and W Li, 2014 “Control of conducting polymer actuators without physical feedback: simulated feedback control approach with particle swarm optimization’, Journal of Smart Materials and Structure, 23]. The idea of using a smooth input command, which results in lower power consumption and better control performance, can be extended to other smart actuators. Consuming less electrical energy or power will have a direct effect on enhancing the operational life of these actuators.

  15. Role of Affective Self-Regulatory Efficacy in Diverse Spheres of Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Gerbino, Maria; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2003-01-01

    Examined influence of perceived self-efficacy for affect regulation with older adolescents. Found that self-efficacy to regulate affect related to high efficacy to manage academic development, resist social pressures for antisocial activities, and engage with empathy in others' emotional experiences. Perceived self-efficacy for affect regulation…

  16. Novel function of perforin in negatively regulating CD4+T cell activation by affecting calcium signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enguang Bi; Kairui Mao; Jia Zou; Yuhan Zheng; Bing Sun; Chunjian Huang; Yu Hu; Xiaodong Wu; Weiwen Deng; Guomei Lin; Zhiduo Liu; Lin Tian; Shuhui Sun

    2009-01-01

    Perforin is a pore-forming protein engaged mainly in mediating target T cell death and is employed by cytotoxic Tlymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells. However, whether it also plays a role in conventional CD4+ T cell func-tion remains unclear. Here we report that in perforin-deficient (PKO) mice, CD4+ T cells are hyperproliferative in response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. This feature of hyperproliferation is accompanied by the enhancement both in cell division and in IL-2 secretion. It seems that the perforin deficiency does not influence T cell development in thymus spleen and lymph node. In vivo, perforin deficiency results in increased antigen-specific T cell prolifera-tion and antibody production. Furthermore, PKO mice are more susceptible to experimental autoimmune uveitis. To address the molecular mechanism, we found that after TCR stimulation, CD44 T cells from PKO mice display an increased intracellular calcium flux and subsequently enhance activation of transcription factor NFATI. Our results indicate that perforin plays a negative role in regulating CD4+ T cell activation and immune response by affecting TCR-dependent Ca2+ signaling.

  17. Identification of archaeal proteins that affect the exosome function in vitro

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    Palhano Fernando L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The archaeal exosome is formed by a hexameric RNase PH ring and three RNA binding subunits and has been shown to bind and degrade RNA in vitro. Despite extensive studies on the eukaryotic exosome and on the proteins interacting with this complex, little information is yet available on the identification and function of archaeal exosome regulatory factors. Results Here, we show that the proteins PaSBDS and PaNip7, which bind preferentially to poly-A and AU-rich RNAs, respectively, affect the Pyrococcus abyssi exosome activity in vitro. PaSBDS inhibits slightly degradation of a poly-rA substrate, while PaNip7 strongly inhibits the degradation of poly-A and poly-AU by the exosome. The exosome inhibition by PaNip7 appears to depend at least partially on its interaction with RNA, since mutants of PaNip7 that no longer bind RNA, inhibit the exosome less strongly. We also show that FITC-labeled PaNip7 associates with the exosome in the absence of substrate RNA. Conclusions Given the high structural homology between the archaeal and eukaryotic proteins, the effect of archaeal Nip7 and SBDS on the exosome provides a model for an evolutionarily conserved exosome control mechanism.

  18. Fish functional traits are affected by hydrodynamics at small spatial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracciali, C; Guzzo, G; Giacoma, C; Dean, J M; Sarà, G

    2016-02-01

    The Mediterranean damselfish Chromis chromis is a species with a broad distribution found both in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic as far south as the coast of Angola. We hypothesized that the species may have significant functional morphological plasticity to adapt along a gradient of environmental conditions. It is a non-migratory zooplanktivorous species and spends the daytime searching for food in the middle of the water column. Therefore, local hydrodynamics could be one of the environmental factors affecting traits of C. chromis with repercussions at the population level. We compared the body condition, individual growth and body shapes of damselfish collected under two different hydrodynamic conditions (low ∼10 cm s(-1) vs. high ∼20 cm s(-1)). Specimens showed higher body condition under high-hydrodynamics, where conditions offered greater amounts of food, which were able to support larger individuals. Individuals smaller than 60-mm were more abundant under low-hydrodynamics. Morphometric analysis revealed that high-hydrodynamics were favored by fish with a more fusiform body shape and body traits developed for propellant swimming. PMID:26707883

  19. Neuropsychological effects of cranial radiation: current knowledge and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is an invaluable therapeutic tool in the treatment of cancer, with well-established palliative and curative efficacy. As patient survival has improved, attention has focused on long-range treatment side effects. One such adverse effect, neuropsychological impairment, is incompletely understood. Much of the extant research has been directed at childhood leukemia survivors treated with low-dose whole-brain radiation. Less is known about the effects of high-dose focal or whole-brain radiation used in the treatment of brain lesions. This article reviews the scientific literature in this area, with greatest emphasis on methodologically rigorous studies. Research design considerations are discussed. Review findings suggest that low-dose whole-brain radiation (18 to 24 Gy) in children is associated with mild delayed IQ decline, with more substantial deficits occurring in children treated at a young age. A high incidence of learning disabilities and academic failure is observed in this population and may be caused by poor attention and memory rather than low intellectual level. Children who receive higher dose radiation for treatment of brain tumors experience more pronounced cognitive decline. At higher doses, whole-brain radiation, in particular, is linked to deleterious cognitive outcomes. Remarkably little is known about cognitive outcomes in irradiated adults. Preliminary findings indicate that certain cognitive functions, including memory, may be more vulnerable to decline than others. Suggestions for future research are proposed

  20. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological approaches to study of variants of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveyeva E. Yu.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review carries out analysis of empirical studies concerning neuropsychological and neurophysiological mechanisms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The current data, regarding malfunctions of brain systems at various levels of aetiopathogenesis (genetic, neurotrasmitting, functioning of separate brain structure, are discussed. The article regards the character of deficit in various components of psychic activity in people with ADHD, namely, executive functions and temporary storage (working memory, activating and neurodynamic components of activity, separate operational characteristics, and motivational impairments of patients with ADHD. The possibility of disclosing some clinical variants of the ADHD syndrome, differing in mechanisms, is also discussed in the article.