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Sample records for affects neuropsychological function

  1. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

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    Platt Illeane

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used sensitive neurological endpoints. The present study reports on the results of neuropsychological testing and hair mercury concentrations in adults (>17 yrs living in fishing communities of Baixada Cuiabana (Mato Grosso in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in six villages on the Cuiaba River. Participants included 129 men and women older than 17 years of age. They were randomly selected in proportion to the age range and number of inhabitants in each village. Questionnaire information was collected on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States. Results Mercury exposures in this population were associated with fish consumption. The hair mercury concentration in the 129 subjects ranged from 0.56 to 13.6 μg/g; the mean concentration was 4.2 ± 2.4 micrograms/g and the median was 3.7 μg/g. Hair mercury levels were associated with detectable alterations in performance on tests of fine motor speed and dexterity, and concentration. Some aspects of verbal learning and memory were also disrupted by mercury exposure. The magnitude of the effects increased with hair mercury concentration

  2. Does outcome of neuropsychological treatment in patients with unilateral spatial neglect after stroke affect functional outcome?

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    Matano, A; Iosa, M; Guariglia, C; Pizzamiglio, L; Paolucci, S

    2015-12-01

    .039) effectively predict the response to neuropsychological treatment. The outcome of the whole rehabilitation resulted affected by the outcome of neuropsychological treatment in patients with USN, being a low score at Barrage test at the beginning of therapy a negative predictor of USN recovery. Patients with USN after stroke can benefit of a specific training for reducing USN also in terms of functional outcome. Further, the simple use of Barrage test could provide important prognostic information about recovery.

  3. Neuropsychological function in Tourette syndrome.

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    Como, P G

    2001-01-01

    The accumulated body of scientific evidence regarding intellectual function, presence of learning disorders, and specific neuropsychological deficits in TS suggests that difficulties in these areas are present in a significant percentage of patients with TS. Despite the numerous methodological shortcomings of past neuropsychological studies of TS, relatively robust and consistent findings have emerged. The literature to date has suggested that intellectual ability is normally distributed in TS. Whether or not individuals with TS have significant discrepancies between their verbal and nonverbal abilities remains unclear. The prevalence of learning disabilities in TS has been reported to be similar to the base rates reported for the general population, although there is evidence to suggest that the prevalence of LDs in children with TS may actually be lower and specific for difficulties in math and written language. Specific cognitive deficits in TS consist of visuomotor integration problems, impaired fine motor skill, and executive dysfunction. The presence of comorbid conditions, notably ADHD and OCD, appears to significantly increase the likelihood that an individual with TS will also have learning problems or some demonstrable cognitive impairment. The presence of a learning disability, specific academic deficiency, or cognitive deficit may pose a greater obstacle for persons with TS than the tic disorder itself. This is particularly salient for children with TS, who may be at a higher risk for poor school performance and academic failure. The psychosocial impact of these problems is also far-reaching. Given the recent emphasis on the early detection of academic and learning problems, it would seem prudent that children with TS who are suspected of having neuropsychological difficulties be evaluated as soon as possible. There are numerous educational interventions and accommodations available to children with LDs and/or specific academic weaknesses that can work

  4. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

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    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  5. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

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    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  6. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke′s encephalopathy

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    Sushree Sangita Behura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Wernicke′s encephalopathy (WE is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1 deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion, oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia. Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning, which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. Materials and Methods: In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. Discussion: As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs ( global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings, the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases.Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but

  7. The neuropsychological function of children with achondroplasia.

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    Wigg, Kimberley; Tofts, Louise; Benson, Suzanne; Porter, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    The current observational study had three specific objectives: (i) to document any neuropsychological impairment in a sample of children with achondroplasia; (ii) to explore individual variability; and (iii) to determine the functional impact of any impairments. Fourteen children aged between 6 and 15 years with a medically confirmed diagnosis of achondroplasia (FGFR 3 mutation positive) underwent a comprehensive standardized neuropsychological evaluation. On average, while generally still within normal limits, significantly lower scores compared to standardized means were identified on: Full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, working memory, arithmetic, attention, executive functioning and aspects of day-to-day emotional, social, and behavioral functioning. Clinically significant levels of impairment at a group level were identified on measures of: arithmetic, attention, and executive functioning. There was variability among the group and for most measures scores ranged from impaired to within normal limits. A high percentage of children were impaired on measures of: verbal IQ, attention and executive functioning. Results of this study suggest a need for individual neuropsychological evaluation and monitoring of children with achondroplasia and suggest verbal IQ, arithmetic, attention, and executive functioning are particularly common areas of impairment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Emotions Are Rising: The Growing Field of Affect Neuropsychology.

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    McDonald, Skye

    2017-10-01

    Thirty years ago, the neuropsychology of emotion started to emerge as a mainstream topic. Careful examination of individual patients showed that emotion, like memory, language, and so on, could be differentially affected by brain disorders, especially in the right hemisphere. Since then, there has been accelerating interest in uncovering the neural architecture of emotion, and the major steps in this process of discovery over the past 3 decades are detailed in this review. In the 1990s, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans provided precise delineation of lesions in the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, insula and somatosensory cortex as underpinning emotion disorders. At the same time, functional MRI revealed activation that was bilateral and also lateralized according to task demands. In the 2000s, converging evidence suggested at least two routes to emotional responses: subcortical, automatic and autonomic responses and slower, cortical responses mediating cognitive processing. The discovery of mirror neurons in the 1990s reinvigorated older views that simulation was the means to recognize emotions and empathize with others. More recently, psychophysiological research, revisiting older Russian paradigms, has contributed new insights into how autonomic and other physiological indices contribute to decision making (the somatic marker theory), emotional simulation, and social cognition. Finally, this review considers the extent to which these seismic changes in understanding emotional processes in clinical disorders have been reflected in neuropsychological practice. (JINS, 2017, 23, 719-731).

  9. The affective neuropsychology of confabulation and delusion.

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    Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the scientific understanding of the role of emotion in confabulation and delusion. I argue that the significance of emotion in the pathogenesis of these symptoms was obscured by academic polarisation between psychodynamic and neurocognitive traditions and was also often obfuscated by rigid distinctions between psychogenic and neurogenic explanations. This tradition of epistemic dualism was implicitly maintained in the fields of cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychiatry. This paper focuses on memory-related confabulation following ventromedial frontal lobe lesions, awareness-related confabulation following right perisylvian lesions, and delusions of various aetiologies. Ambiguity regarding the definition and taxonomy of symptoms renders direct comparison difficult, but certain overriding principles are becoming discernible. Recent findings suggest that emotion and motivation influence both confabulation and delusion. These influences may be instigated directly by neural dysfunction or indirectly by life changes and altered social circumstances, or by a combination of these. Importantly, the rejection of epistemic dualism in the conceptualisation of both symptoms can allow us to study them in parallel and draw conclusions about the relation between cognition and emotion. Specifically, confabulation and delusion can be described as faulty attempts to balance the conflicting demands of accurate and self-serving reality representation.

  10. Neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression

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    Gro Strømnes Dybedal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature describing neurocognitive function in patients with late-life depression (LLD show inconsistent findings in regard to incidence and main deficits. Reduced information processing speed is in some studies found to explain deficits in higher order cognitive function, while other studies report specific deficits in memory and executive function. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of neuropsychological functioning in non-demented LLD patients.Methods; A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered to a group of hospitalized LLD patients and healthy control subjects. Thirty-nine patients without dementia, 60 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for current episode of major depression, and 18 nondepressed control subjects were included. The patient group was characterized by having a long lasting current depressive episode of late-onset depression and by being non-responders to treatment with antidepressants. Neurocognitive scores were calculated for the domains of information processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, and language. Number of impairments (performance below the 10th percentile of the control group per domain for each participant was calculated. Results: Nearly half of the patients had a clinically significant cognitive impairment in at least one neurocognitive domain. Relative to healthy control subjects, LLD patients performed significantly poorer in the domains of information processing speed and executive function. Executive abilities were most frequently impaired in the patient group (39 % of the patients. Even when controlling for differences in processing speed, patients showed more executive deficits than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling for processing speed, patients still showed impaired executive function compared to healthy controls. Reduced executive function thus appears to be the core neurocognitive deficit in LLD. Executive function seems

  11. Personality disorder symptomatology and neuropsychological functioning in closed head injury.

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    Ruocco, Anthony C; Swirsky-Sacchetti, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Despite an emerging literature characterizing the neuropsychological profiles of borderline, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders, relations between personality disorder traits and neurocognitive domains remain unknown. The authors examined associations among Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality disorder scales and eight neuropsychological domains in 161 patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation following closed head injury. Most personality disorder scales were associated with some decrement in cognitive function, particularly speeded processing, executive function, and language, while histrionic and narcissistic scales had positive relations with neuropsychological functioning. Results suggest that many personality disorder traits are related to neurocognitive function, particularly those functions subserved by frontal and temporal regions.

  12. Molecular markers of neuropsychological functioning and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Edwards, Melissa; Balldin, Valerie Hobson; Hall, James; O'Bryant, Sid

    2015-03-01

    The current project sought to examine molecular markers of neuropsychological functioning among elders with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD) and determine the predictive ability of combined molecular markers and select neuropsychological tests in detecting disease presence. Data were analyzed from 300 participants (n = 150, AD and n = 150, controls) enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium. Linear regression models were created to examine the link between the top five molecular markers from our AD blood profile and neuropsychological test scores. Logistical regressions were used to predict AD presence using serum biomarkers in combination with select neuropsychological measures. Using the neuropsychological test with the least amount of variance overlap with the molecular markers, the combined neuropsychological test and molecular markers was highly accurate in detecting AD presence. This work provides the foundation for the generation of a point-of-care device that can be used to screen for AD.

  13. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

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    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities

  14. Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research

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    Crunelle, C.L.; Veltman, D.J.; Booij, J.; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K.; van den Brink, W.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulant dependence is associated with neuropsychological impairments. Here, we summarize and integrate the existing neuroimaging literature on the neural substrates of neuropsychological (dys)function in stimulant dependence, including cocaine, (meth-)amphetamine, ecstasy and nicotine dependence,

  15. Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research

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    Crunelle, Cleo L.; Veltman, Dick J.; Booij, Jan; Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; den Brink, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Stimulant dependence is associated with neuropsychological impairments. Here, we summarize and integrate the existing neuroimaging literature on the neural substrates of neuropsychological (dys) function in stimulant dependence, including cocaine, (meth-) amphetamine, ecstasy and nicotine

  16. Functional brain imaging in neuropsychology over the past 25 years.

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    Roalf, David R; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-11-01

    Outline effects of functional neuroimaging on neuropsychology over the past 25 years. Functional neuroimaging methods and studies will be described that provide a historical context, offer examples of the utility of neuroimaging in specific domains, and discuss the limitations and future directions of neuroimaging in neuropsychology. Tracking the history of publications on functional neuroimaging related to neuropsychology indicates early involvement of neuropsychologists in the development of these methodologies. Initial progress in neuropsychological application of functional neuroimaging has been hampered by costs and the exposure to ionizing radiation. With rapid evolution of functional methods-in particular functional MRI (fMRI)-neuroimaging has profoundly transformed our knowledge of the brain. Its current applications span the spectrum of normative development to clinical applications. The field is moving toward applying sophisticated statistical approaches that will help elucidate distinct neural activation networks associated with specific behavioral domains. The impact of functional neuroimaging on clinical neuropsychology is more circumscribed, but the prospects remain enticing. The theoretical insights and empirical findings of functional neuroimaging have been led by many neuropsychologists and have transformed the field of behavioral neuroscience. Thus far they have had limited effects on the clinical practices of neuropsychologists. Perhaps it is time to add training in functional neuroimaging to the clinical neuropsychologist's toolkit and from there to the clinic or bedside. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Chronic exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and neuropsychological functioning in farm workers: a review.

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    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris Andrés; Iglesias, Verónica Paz; Muñoz, María Pía; Cornejo, Claudia Alejandra; Achu, Eduardo; Baumert, Brittney; Hanchey, Arianna; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that acute poisoning from exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides in agricultural workers causes adverse health effects. However, neuropsychological and cognitive effects of chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides remain controversial. To identify, evaluate, and systematize existing evidence regarding chronic exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects in farmworkers. Using the PubMed search engine, a systematic review process was implemented and replicated according to the PRISMA statement. Eligibility criteria included workers over 18 years of age exposed to OP pesticides as well as assessment of neuropsychological and cognitive functioning. Search terms were in English and Spanish languages and included organophosphate and workers. Of the search results, 33 of 1,256 articles meet eligibility criteria. Twenty-four studies found an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and low neuropsychological performance in workers. We classified nine of the studies to have study design limitations. Studies indicated occupational exposure to OP pesticides is linked to difficulties in executive functions, psychomotor speed, verbal, memory, attention, processing speed, visual-spatial functioning, and coordination. Nine studies find no relationship between OP pesticides exposure and neuropsychological performance. Overall, evidence suggests an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects. However, there is no consensus about the specific cognitive skills affected.

  18. Orbital and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Functioning in Parkinson's Disease: Neuropsychological Evidence

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    Poletti, Michele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2012-01-01

    A recent paper (Zald & Andreotti, 2010) reviewed neuropsychological tasks that assess the function of the orbital and ventromedial portions of the prefrontal cortex (OMPFC). Neuropathological studies have shown that the function of the OMPFC should be preserved in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) but becomes affected in the advanced…

  19. Longitudinal assessment of neuropsychological function in major depression.

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    Douglas, Katie M; Porter, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    Neuropsychological impairment is a core component of major depression, yet its relationship to clinical state is unclear. The aims of the present review were to determine which neuropsychological domains and tasks were most sensitive to improvement in clinical state in major depression and to highlight the methodological issues in such research. Studies that included a baseline and at least one follow-up neuropsychological testing session in adults with major depression were identified using MEDLINE, Web of Science and ScienceDirect databases. Thirty studies were included in the review. Findings in younger adult populations suggested that improvement in mood was most strongly related to improved verbal memory and verbal fluency, while measures of executive functioning and attention tended to remain impaired across treatment. In late-life major depression, improved psychomotor speed was most closely related to treatment response, but there was much inconsistency between study findings, which may be due to methodological issues. In major depression, particular neuropsychological domains are more strongly related to clinical state than others. The findings from the present review suggest that the domains most sensitive to clinical state are verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency and psychomotor speed. In contrast, measures of attention and executive functioning perhaps represent more trait-like markers of major depression. With further methodologically sound research, the changes in neuropsychological function associated with treatment response may provide a means of evaluating different treatment strategies in major depression.

  20. Biochemical markers and neuropsychological functioning in distal urea cycle disorders.

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    Waisbren, Susan E; Cuthbertson, David; Burgard, Peter; Holbert, Amy; McCarter, Robert; Cederbaum, Stephen

    2018-02-08

    Urea cycle disorders often present as devastating metabolic conditions, resulting in high mortality and significant neuropsychological damage, despite treatment. The Urea Cycle Disorders Longitudinal Study is a natural history study that collects data from regular clinical follow-up and neuropsychological testing. This report examines links between biochemical markers (ammonia, glutamine, arginine, citrulline) and primary neuropsychological endpoints in three distal disorders, argininosuccinic acid synthetase deficiency (ASD or citrullinemia type I), argininosuccinic acid lyase deficiency (ASA or ALD), and arginase deficiency (ARGD). Laboratory results and test scores from neuropsychological evaluations were assessed in 145 study participants, ages 3 years and older, with ASD (n = 64), ASA (n = 65) and ARGD (n = 16). Mean full scale IQ was below the population mean of 100 ± 15 for all groups: (ASD = 79 ± 24; ASA = 71 ± 21; ARGD = 65 ± 19). The greatest deficits were noted in visual performance and motor skills for all groups. While ammonia levels remain prominent as prognostic biomarkers, other biomarkers may be equally valuable as correlates of neuropsychological functioning. Cumulative exposure to the biomarkers included in the study proved to be highly sensitive indicators of neuropsychological outcomes, even when below the cut-off levels generally considered toxic. Blood levels of biomarkers obtained on the day of neuropsychological evaluations were not correlated with measures of functioning for any disorder in any domain. The importance of cumulative exposure supports early identification and confirms the need for well-controlled management of all biochemical abnormalities (and not just ammonia) that occur in urea cycle disorders.

  1. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

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    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as Reproduction II ( b = -.0020, p = .026) and log of the Trail Making Test, Part B (b = .0001, p = .044). Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Cannabis use in male and female first episode of non-affective psychosis patients: Long-term clinical, neuropsychological and functional differences.

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    Esther Setién-Suero

    Full Text Available Numerous studies show the existence of a high prevalence of cannabis use among patients with psychosis. However, the differences between men and women who debut with a first episode of psychosis (FEP regarding cannabis use have not been largely explored. The aim of this study was to identify the specific sex factors and differences in clinical evolution associated with cannabis use.Sociodemographic characteristics at baseline were considered in our sample of FEP patients to find differences depending on sex and the use of cannabis. Clinical, functional and neurocognitive variables at baseline, 1-year, and 3-years follow-up were also explored.A total of 549 patients, of whom 43% (N = 236 were cannabis users, 79% (N = 186 male and 21% (N = 50 female, were included in the study. There was a clear relationship between being male and being a user of cannabis (OR = 5.6. Cannabis users were younger at illness onset. Longitudinal analysis showed that women significantly improved in all three dimensions of psychotic symptoms, both in the subgroup of cannabis users and in the non-users subgroup. Conversely, subgroups of men did not show improvement in the negative dimension. In cognitive function, only men presented a significant time by group interaction in processing speed, showing a greater improvement in the subgroup of cannabis users.Despite knowing that there is a relationship between cannabis use and psychosis, due to the high prevalence of cannabis use among male FEP patients, the results showed that there were very few differences in clinical and neurocognitive outcomes between men and women who used cannabis at the start of treatment compared to those who did not.

  3. The Reality Monitoring Deficit as a Common Neuropsychological Correlate of Schizophrenic and Affective Psychosis

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    Enrico Smeraldi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Neuropsychological functioning has been a key point in the study of psychotic disorders. The main aim of these studies is to give a description of the neurocognitive “profile” of schizophrenia, with only little attention being paid to the common and discriminating features of different psychotic disorders. Recent studies support the hypothesis that patients affected by psychiatric disorders with psychotic symptoms have specific abnormalities of reality testing of ongoing perception, which become evident with source monitoring task. Ninety-eight patients and 50 controls were studied. Patients were divided by diagnosis and previous history of psychotic features and were administered Source Monitoring Task to test reality testing of ongoing perception. Frequencies of correct and false attributions were recorded. To obtain measures of observer sensitivity and response biases, a signal detection analysis was performed. Aims: Studying neuropsychological correlate of psychosis in euthymic mood disordered patients and patients with schizophrenia with or without delusions. Results: Patients with psychotic features use more lax criteria in evaluating self-generated, but not perceived stimuli compared to patients without psychotic features. Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis of selective biases in reality monitoring as neuropsychological correlates of psychosis.

  4. Intergenerational Transmission of Neuropsychological Executive Functioning

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    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Puttler, Leon I.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between parent and child executive functioning were examined, controlling for the critical potential confound of IQ, in a family study involving 434 children (130 girls and 304 boys) and 376 parents from 204 community recruited families at high risk for the development of substance use disorder. Structural equation modeling found…

  5. Neuropsychological functioning and brain structure in schizophrenia.

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    Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Barbadillo, Laura; Pelayo-Terán, José Maria; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José Manuel

    2007-08-01

    Cognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia that are already evident at early phases of the illness. The study of specific relationships between cognition and brain structure might provide valuable clues about neural basis of schizophrenia and its phenomenology. The aim of this article was to review the most consistent findings of the studies exploring the relationships between cognitive deficits and brain anomalies in schizophrenia. Besides several important methodological shortcomings to bear in mind before drawing any consistent conclusion from the revised literature, we have attempted to systematically summarize these findings. Thus, this review has revealed that whole brain volume tends to positively correlate with a range of cognitive domains in healthy volunteers and female patients. An association between prefrontal morphological characteristics and general inability to control behaviour seems to be present in schizophrenia patients. Parahippocampal volume is related to semantic cognitive functions. Thalamic anomalies have been associated with executive deficits specifically in patients. Available evidence on the relationship between cognitive functions and cerebellar structure is still contradictory. Nonetheless, a larger cerebellum appears to be associated with higher IQ in controls and in female patients. Enlarged ventricles, including lateral and third ventricles, are associated with deficits in attention, executive and premorbid cognitive functioning in patients. Several of these reported findings seem to be counterintuitive according to neural basis of cognitive functioning drawn from animal, lesion, and functional imaging investigations. Therefore, there is still a great need for more methodologically stringent investigations that would help in the advance of our understanding of the cognition/brain structure relationships in schizophrenia.

  6. The role of neuropsychological performance in the relationship between chronic pain and functional physical impairment

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    Pulles, W.L.J.A.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective.  In this study, the relationship between pain intensity, neuropsychological, and physical function in adult chronic pain patients was examined. Design.  Thirty participants with chronic pain completed neuropsychological tests tapping mental processing speed, memory, and executive

  7. Differences in Neuropsychological Functioning Between Homicidal and Nonviolent Schizophrenia Samples.

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    Stratton, John; Cobia, Derin J; Reilly, James; Brook, Michael; Hanlon, Robert E

    2018-02-07

    Few studies have compared performance on neurocognitive measures between violent and nonviolent schizophrenia samples. A better understanding of neurocognitive dysfunction in violent individuals with schizophrenia could increase the efficacy of violence reduction strategies and aid in risk assessment and adjudication processes. This study aimed to compare neuropsychological performance between 25 homicide offenders with schizophrenia and 25 nonviolent schizophrenia controls. The groups were matched for age, race, sex, and handedness. Independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare the schizophrenia groups' performance on measures of cognition, including composite scores assessing domain level functioning and individual neuropsychological tests. Results indicated the violent schizophrenia group performed worse on measures of memory and executive functioning, and the Intellectual Functioning composite score, when compared to the nonviolent schizophrenia sample. These findings replicate previous research documenting neuropsychological deficits specific to violent individuals with schizophrenia and support research implicating fronto-limbic dysfunction among violent offenders with schizophrenia. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Neuropsychology and Advances in Memory Function

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    B. Gordon

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the functional and neural bases of several aspects of memory are described including long term cortical memory storage, the transition from immediate to permanent memory mediated by medial temporal structures, working memory, memory retrieval, and implicit memory. These are linked to current data on the nature of anterograde and retrograde amnesia in the degenerative diseases, and also to issues in the clinical diagnosis of memory impairments. Understanding the bases of memory can inform the diagnosis of memory impairments in degenerative diseases, and the patterns of impairment seen in the degenerative diseases can help contribute to knowledge of the mechanisms of normal memory.

  9. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacInnes, W.D.; Golden, C.J.; Gillen, R.W.; Sawicki, R.F.; Quaife, M.; Uhl, H.S.; Greenhouse, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the 133 xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning

  10. Neuropsychological function in patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

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    Weider, Siri; Indredavik, Marit Saebø; Lydersen, Stian; Hestad, Knut

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the neuropsychological performance of patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) compared with healthy controls (HCs). An additional aim was to investigate the effect of several possible mediators on the association between eating disorders (EDs) and cognitive function. Forty patients with AN, 39 patients with BN, and 40 HCs who were comparable in age and education were consecutively recruited to complete a standardized neuropsychological test battery covering the following cognitive domains: verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, speed of information processing, visuospatial ability, working memory, executive function, verbal fluency, attention/vigilance, and motor function. The AN group scored significantly below the HCs on eight of the nine measured cognitive domains. The BN group also showed inferior performance on six cognitive domains. After adjusting for possible mediators, the nadir body mass index (lowest lifetime BMI) and depressive symptoms explained all findings in the BN group. Although this adjustment reduced the difference between the AN and HC groups, the AN group still performed worse than the HCs regarding verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, visuospatial ability, working memory, and executive functioning. Patients with EDs scored below the HCs on several cognitive function measures, this difference being most pronounced for the AN group. The nadir BMI and depressive symptoms had strong mediating effects. Longitudinal studies are needed to identify the importance of weight restoration and treatment of depressive symptoms in the prevention of a possible cognitive decline. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Neuropsychological functioning related to specific characteristics of nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, C; Dhondt, K; Roels, S P; Raes, A; Groen, L-A; Hoebeke, P; Walle, J Vande

    2015-08-01

    There is a high comorbidity demonstrated in the literature between nocturnal enuresis and several neuropsychological dysfunctions, with special emphasis on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the majority of the psychological studies did not include full non-invasive screening and failed to differentiate between monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) and non-MNE patients. The present study primarily aimed to investigate the association between nocturnal enuresis and (neuro)psychological functioning in a selective homogeneous patient group, namely: children with MNE and associated nocturnal polyuria (NP). Secondly, the study investigated the association between specific characteristics of nocturnal enuresis (maximum voided volume, number of wet nights and number of nights with NP) and ADHD-inattentive symptoms, executive functioning and quality of life. The psychological measurements were multi-informant (parents, children and teachers) and multi-method (questionnaires, clinical interviews and neuropsychological testing). Thirty children aged 6-16 years (mean 10.43 years, SD 3.08) were included. Of them, 80% had at least one psychological, motor or neurological difficulty. The comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, especially the predominantly inattentive presentation, was most common. According to the teachers, a low maximum voided volume (corrected for age) was associated with more attention problems, and a high number of nights with NP was associated with more behaviour-regulation problems. No significant correlations were found between specific characteristics of enuresis and quality of life. Details are demonstrated in Table. The children were recruited from a tertiary referral centre, which resulted in selection bias. Moreover, NP was defined as a urine output exceeding 100% of the expected bladder capacity for age (EBC), and not according to the expert-opinion-based International Children's Continence Society norm of 130% of EBC. The definition

  12. Differential neuropsychological functioning between adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and/or conduct disorder (CD) and the mediation effects of the neuropsychological functions in the relationship between ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms to increase our understanding about these frequently co-occurring disorders. Adolescents aged 11-18 years were interviewed by the Kiddie epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to confirm their previous and current ADHD status and other psychiatric diagnoses. The performance of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery was compared among four groups: (1) ADHD with CD (ADHD+CD), regardless of ODD; (2) ADHD with ODD (ADHD+ODD) without CD; (3) ADHD without ODD/CD (ADHD-only); and (4) typically developing controls. Mediation effects of neuropsychological functioning were tested. All three ADHD groups had impaired spatial working memory and short-term memory. Deficits in verbal memory and response inhibition were found in ADHD+ODD, but not in ADHD-only. ADHD+CD did not differ from typically developing controls in verbal working memory, signal detectability, and response inhibition. Spatial working memory partially mediated the association between ADHD and CD symptoms and alerting/signal detectability of arousal partially mediated the association between ADHD and ODD symptoms. There were both common and distinct neuropsychological deficits between adolescents with ADHD who developed ODD only and who developed CD. ADHD comorbid with CD may be a different disease entity and needs different treatment strategies in addition to treating ADHD, while ADHD+ODD may be a severe form of ADHD and warrants intensive treatment for ADHD symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Differential neuropsychological functioning between adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with and without comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and/or conduct disorder (CD and the mediation effects of the neuropsychological functions in the relationship between ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms to increase our understanding about these frequently co-occurring disorders. Methods: Adolescents aged 11–18 years were interviewed by the Kiddie epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to confirm their previous and current ADHD status and other psychiatric diagnoses. The performance of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery was compared among four groups: (1 ADHD with CD (ADHD+CD, regardless of ODD; (2 ADHD with ODD (ADHD+ODD without CD; (3 ADHD without ODD/CD (ADHD-only; and (4 typically developing controls. Mediation effects of neuropsychological functioning were tested. Results: All three ADHD groups had impaired spatial working memory and short-term memory. Deficits in verbal memory and response inhibition were found in ADHD+ODD, but not in ADHD-only. ADHD+CD did not differ from typically developing controls in verbal working memory, signal detectability, and response inhibition. Spatial working memory partially mediated the association between ADHD and CD symptoms and alerting/signal detectability of arousal partially mediated the association between ADHD and ODD symptoms. Conclusion: There were both common and distinct neuropsychological deficits between adolescents with ADHD who developed ODD only and who developed CD. ADHD comorbid with CD may be a different disease entity and needs different treatment strategies in addition to treating ADHD, while ADHD+ODD may be a severe form of ADHD and warrants intensive treatment for ADHD symptoms. Keywords: arousal, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, mediator

  14. Successful neuropsychological rehabilitation in a patient with Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffieux, N; Colombo, F; Gentaz, E; Annoni, J-M; Chouiter, L; Roulin Hefti, S; Ruffieux, A; Bihl, T

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to describe the neuropsychological rehabilitation of a 16-year-old patient who presented a Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome (CCAS) following a bilateral cerebellar hemorrhage. The patient presented severe and diffuse cognitive deficits, massive behavioral disorders, and emotion regulation difficulties. The cognitive rehabilitation was performed in the chronic phase (one year after the onset of the hemorrhage) using a transdisciplinary neurobehavioral approach based on the patient's favorite interest (soccer). A significant behavioral and cognitive improvement was observed. The patient became progressively independent in all activities of daily living and was discharged home. The Functional Independence Measure at discharge was 124/126 (vs. 37/126 at entry). The patient was able to complete his schooling despite the mild cognitive and behavioral sequelae. This first description of the use of neurobehavioral therapy in a case of chronic CCAS suggests that (a) major clinical improvement can occur more than one year after the onset of the CCAS, showing the importance of long-term and intensive neurorehabilitation; and (b) when the cerebellum cannot properly play its regulator role in cognition, neuropsychological intervention through a behavioral and cognitive approach can be of great help by acting as an external modulator to help the patient regain control over himself.

  15. Optimizing Neuropsychological Assessments for Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronilla Battista

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR. Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency.

  16. Brain Connectivity and Neuropsychological Functioning in Recently Treated Testicular Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amidi, Ali; Agerbæk, Mads; Leemans, Alexander

    neuropsychological functioning. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has well-known neurotoxic side effects and neural populations such as progenitor cells, oligodendrocytes, and hippocampal neurons are exceptionally vulnerable to even small concentrations of cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to investigate...... the possible adverse effects of BEP on brain white matter connectivity and neuropsychological functioning in recently treated men with TC....

  17. Neuropsychological Profile Related with Executive Function of Chinese Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Neuropsychological Measures and Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Feng; Shuai, Lan; Zhang, Jin-Song; Wang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Teng-Fei; Tan, Xin; Pan, Jing-Xue; Shen, Li-Xiao

    2018-03-20

    Previous studies have found that schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed difficulties in neuropsychological function. This study aimed to assess neuropsychological function in Chinese preschoolers with ADHD using broad neuropsychological measures and rating scales and to test whether the pattern and severity of neuropsychological weakness differed among ADHD presentations in preschool children. The 226 preschoolers (163 with ADHD and 63 controls) with the age of 4-5 years were included and assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and a series of tests to investigate neuropsychological function. Preschoolers with ADHD showed higher scores in all domains of the BRIEF-P (inhibition: 30.64 ± 5.78 vs.20.69 ± 3.86, P ADHD subtypes, all ADHD presentations had higher scores in several domains of the BRIEF-P (P ADHD-combined symptoms (ADHD-C) group had the poorest ratings on inhibition and the ability to Plan/Organize. For neuropsychological measures, the results suggested that the ADHD-C group had poorer performances than the ADHD-predominantly inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I) group on Statue tasks (F = 7.34, η 2 = 0.12, P ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive symptoms group had significantly poorer performances compared to the ADHD-C group in the Block Construction task (F = 4.89, η 2 = 0.067, P = 0.003). However, no significant group differences were found between the ADHD-I group and normal control. Based on the combined evaluation of performance-based neuropsychological tests and the BRIEF-P, preschoolers with ADHD show difficulties of neuropsychological function in many aspects.

  18. Sleep disturbance and neuropsychological function in young children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Heather E; Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, aged 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance--including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness--(all p ≤ .01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p ≤ .01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep.

  19. Long-term effects of amyloid, hypometabolism, and atrophy on neuropsychological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenkoppele, R.; van der Flier, W.M.; Verfaillie, S.C.J.; Vrenken, H.; Versteeg, A.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Sikkes, S.A.; Twisk, J.; Adriaanse, S.M.; Zwan, M.D.; Boellaard, R.; Windhorst, A.D.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.; Lammertsma, A.A.; van Berckel, B.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess how amyloid deposition, glucose hypometabolism, and cerebral atrophy affect neuropsychological performance in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and controls over time. Methods: A total of 41 patients with AD dementia,

  20. [Neuropsychological models of autism spectrum disorders - behavioral evidence and functional imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziobek, Isabel; Bölte, Sven

    2011-03-01

    To review neuropsychological models of theory of mind (ToM), executive functions (EF), and central coherence (CC) as framework for cognitive abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Behavioral and functional imaging studies are described that assess social-cognitive, emotional, and executive functions as well as locally oriented perception in ASD. Impairments in ToM and EF as well as alterations in CC are frequently replicated phenomena in ASD. Especially problems concerning social perception and ToM have high explanatory value for clinical symptomatology. Brain activation patterns differ between individuals with and without ASD for ToM, EF, und CC functions. An approach focussing on reduced cortical connectivity seems to be increasingly favored over explanations focussing on single affected brain sites. A better understanding of the complexities of ASD in future research demands the integration of clinical, neuropsychological, functional imaging, and molecular genetics evidence. Weaknesses in ToM and EF as well as strengths in detail-focussed perception should be used for individual intervention planning.

  1. The effect of nabilone on neuropsychological functions related to driving ability: an extended case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzthaler, Ilsemarie; Bodner, Thomas; Kemmler, Georg; Entner, Tanja; Wissel, Joerg; Berger, Thomas; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    The primary goal of this prospective extended case series was to obtain the first data about the potential influence of nabilone intake on driving ability related neuropsychological functions. Six patients were investigated within a placebo controlled, double-blind crossover study of this synthetic cannabinoid (2 mg/day) in patients with multiple sclerosis and spasticity associated pain. Five neuropsychological functions (reaction time, working memory, divided attention, psychomotor speed and mental flexibility) were assessed. No indication was found of a deterioration of any of the five investigated neuropsychological functions during the 4-week treatment period with nabilone. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Neuropsychological assessment of language functions during functional magnetic resonance imaging: development of new tasks. Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersten, Ewa; Jakuciński, Maciej; Kuliński, Radosław; Koziara, Henryk; Mroziak, Barbara; Nauman, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    Due to the complex and extended cerebral organization of language functions, the brain regions crucial for speech and language, i.e. eloquent areas, have to be affected by neurooncological surgery. One of the techniques that may be helpful in pre-operative planning of the extent of tumour removal and estimating possible complications seems to be functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The aim of the study was to develop valid procedures for neuropsychological assessment of various language functions visualisable by fMRI in healthy individuals. In this fMRI study, 10 healthy (with no CNS pathology), right-handed volunteers aged 25-35 were examined using four tasks designed to measure different language functions, and one for short-term memory assessment. A 1.5-T MRI scanner performing ultrafast functional (EPI) sequences with 4-mm slice thickness and 1-mm interslice gap was used to detect the BOLD response to stimuli present-ed in a block design (30-second alternating blocks of activity and rest). The analyses used the SPM software running in a MATLAB environment, and the obtained data were interpreted by means of colour-coded maps superimposed on structural brain scans. For each of the tasks developed for particular language functions, a different area of increased neuronal activity was found. The differential localization of function-related neuronal activity seems interesting and the research worth continuing, since verbal communication failure may result from impairment of any of various language functions, and studies reported in the literature seem to focus on verbal expression only.

  3. Neuropsychological function and cerebral metabolites in HIV-infected youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, R; Sarma, M K; Thomas, M A; Chang, L; Natha, U; Wright, M; Hayes, J; Nielsen-Saines, K; Michalik, D E; Deville, J; Church, J A; Mason, K; Critton-Mastandrea, T; Nazarian, S; Jing, J; Keller, M A

    2012-12-01

    The effects of HIV on brain metabolites and cognitive function are not well understood. Sixteen HIV+youths (15 vertical, 1 transfusion transmissions) receiving combination antiretroviral therapy and 14 age-matched HIV- youths (13-25 years of age) were evaluated with brain two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3 Tesla (T) and a neuropsychological battery that assessed three cognitive domains (attention/processing speed, psychomotor ability, and executive function). The relationship between brain metabolite ratios and cognitive performance was explored. Compared to HIV- controls, HIV+ subjects had higher sycllo-inositol (Scy)/total creatine (tCr) (+32%, p = 0.016) and higher Scy/total choline (tCho) (+31%, p = 0.018) on 2D-MRS in the right frontal lobe. HIV+ subjects also had higher glutamate (Glu)/tCr (+13%, p = 0.022) and higher Glu/tCho (+15%, p = 0.048) than controls. HIV+ subjects demonstrated poorer attention/processing speed (p = 0.011, d = 1.03) but similar psychomotor and executive function compared to HIV- controls. The attention/processing score also correlated negatively with the ratio of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) to tCr on 2D-MRS (r = -0.75, p = 0.0019) in the HIV- controls, but not in the HIV+ subjects (Fisher's r-z transformation, p < 0.05). Our results suggest that attention/processing speed is impacted by early HIV infection and is associated with right hemisphere NAA/tCr. Scy and Glu ratios are also potential markers of brain health in chronic, lifelong HIV infection in perinatally infected youths receiving antiretroviral therapy.

  4. Comparison of Neuropsychological Functioning Between Adults With Early- and Late-Onset DSM-5 ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to compare the visually dependent neuropsychological functioning among adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) ADHD who recalled symptom onset by and after age 7 and non-ADHD controls. We divided the participants, aged 17 to 40 years, into three groups-(a) ADHD, onset DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing adult ADHD are not too lax regarding neuropsychological functioning.

  5. Review of neuropsychological functioning in treated phenylketonuria: an information processing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbren, S E; Brown, M J; de Sonneville, L M; Levy, H L

    1994-12-01

    Phenylketonuria is no longer associated with mental retardation and other devastating neurological effects. Nonetheless, learning disabilities and IQ loss are common, even in early-treated individuals. Until recently, IQ was used as the sole measure of mental functioning in this population. As specific academic deficits were recognized and as a greater variety of tests became available, evaluation of children with phenylketonuria has included neuropsychological testing. A review of the 21 published reports highlights the areas of consensus and the need for additional well designed studies in the future. Problem solving, particularly abstract reasoning and executive functions, appears to be impaired in children with phenylketonuria. Reaction time, or speed of mental processing, appears to be the other important area affected in PKU. An information processing model is presented as a paradigm for further research and development of remedial strategies for children with phenylketonuria.

  6. Neuropsychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchella, Chiara; Federico, Angela; Martini, Alice; Tinazzi, Michele; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Tamburin, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    Neuropsychological testing is a key diagnostic tool for assessing people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment, but can also help in other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. While cognitive screening tests offer gross information, detailed neuropsychological evaluation can provide data on different cognitive domains (visuospatial function, memory, attention, executive function, language and praxis) as well as neuropsychiatric and behavioural features. We should regard neuropsychological testing as an extension of the neurological examination applied to higher order cortical function, since each cognitive domain has an anatomical substrate. Ideally, neurologists should discuss the indications and results of neuropsychological assessment with a clinical neuropsychologist. This paper summarises the rationale, indications, main features, most common tests and pitfalls in neuropsychological evaluation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Neuropsychological correlates of cognitive, emotional-affective and auto-activation apathy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Roberta; Turchetta, Chiara Stella; Caruso, Giulia; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Augusto Giovanni

    2018-01-31

    Apathy symptoms include different dimensions: cognitive (C), emotional-affective (E-Aff) and auto-activation; they have been related to dysfunctions of the dorsolateral, orbito-basal prefrontal cortex and the subcortical frontal connections to the basal ganglia, respectively. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), an association has been found between apathy severity and both executive deficits and atrophy of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex; however, it is not clear whether these associations concern only the cognitive aspects of apathy. Furthermore, whether there is an association in AD between E-aff apathy and theory of mind (ToM),the cognitive functions subsumed by the orbito-basal prefrontal cortex, has not been investigated. Aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between C, E-Aff and auto-activation apathy and performance on tasks investigating executive and ToM cognitive functions in AD. For this purpose, 20 AD patients with apathy and 20 matched controls were submitted to an executive and ToM neuropsychological assessment. Apathy was assessed with a weekly diary (ApD) created specifically to assist caregivers in quantifying the C, E-Aff and auto-activation symptomatology of apathy. Correlational analyses showed that AD patients' scores on the Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST) and Emotion Attribution tasks were correlated with most ApD scores. However, regression analyses showed that C diary scores were predicted by MCST performance, E-Aff diary scores by performance on the E-Attribution task and ApD scores measuring auto-activation apathy were predicted by both the MCST and the Emotion Attribution scores. These results confirm the co-occurrence of apathy and executive-function deficits in AD and suggest a specific association between AD patients' executive deficits and the cognitive component of apathy. Furthermore, they document, for the first time, an association between poor performance on tests assessing ToM abilities and the emotional-affective

  8. Sex differences in neuropsychological performance and social functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Simonsen, Carmen; Hellvin, Tone; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A

    2011-07-01

    To investigate sex differences in neurocognition and social functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and the possible role of sex as a moderator of this relationship. Participants with schizophrenia (60 women/94 men), bipolar I disorder (55 women/51 men), and healthy controls (158 women/182 men) were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery and a social functioning questionnaire. We found significant main effects of sex for neuropsychological tests (p neuropsychological tests (except attention and working memory). Both clinical groups performed below healthy controls for all neuropsychological tests (except attention). Post hoc comparisons of persons with schizophrenia and healthy controls yielded significant interaction effects (p neuropsychological tests (California Verbal Learning Test II [CVLT-II], Color-Word Interference, and Interference/Switching), with men with schizophrenia being disproportionally disadvantaged compared with their female counterparts. Regression analyses investigating sex as a moderator between neurocognition and social functioning showed that neurocognition predicted social functioning in schizophrenia, whereas sex predicted social functioning in healthy controls. Sex was not a moderator in any of the three groups. This study is the first to find neurocognitive sex differences for bipolar disorder and replicated previous findings for schizophrenia. The data did not support the hypothesis that sex is a moderator between neurocognition and social functioning. Clinical implications include the use of different cognitive remediation strategies based on sex. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Impairment of neuropsychological function in patients with hemodynamic cerebral ischemia and efficacy of bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasoh, Masayuki

    1999-01-01

    In order to evaluate the relation between neuropsychological functions and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the author analyzed neuropsychological examination and the cerebral blood flow and metabolism of patients before and after bypass surgery. Twenty-five patients were defined by clinical and laboratory criteria as suffering from hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. All patients had one or more episodes of focal cerebral ischemia due to unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery occlusion. Computerized tomography scans either were normal or showed evidence of watershed infarction. Based on these criteria, superficial temporal artery-proximal middle cerebral artery anastomosis was performed. The baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) were studied using positron emission computerized tomography (PET) and the acetazolamide test. Neuropsychological evaluations including Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, Mini-Mental State and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and PET study were completed one month after the last ischemic event and 3-6 months after the operation. A significant negative correlation was observed between OEF and neuropsychological functions. Postoperative neuropsychological functions showed significant improvement. Significant correlations were observed for ΔWAIS-R (preoperative WAIS-R postoperative WAIS-R) versus preoperative CMRO 2 (r=0.52), for ΔWAIS-R versus preoperative OEF (r=0.47). In view of these findings, the author concludes that elevation of OEF impairs neuropsychological functions and bypass surgery improves neuropsychological functions in patients with normal CMRO 2 and elevated OEF. (author)

  10. Impairment of neuropsychological function in patients with hemodynamic cerebral ischemia and efficacy of bypass surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasoh, Masayuki [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-08-01

    In order to evaluate the relation between neuropsychological functions and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the author analyzed neuropsychological examination and the cerebral blood flow and metabolism of patients before and after bypass surgery. Twenty-five patients were defined by clinical and laboratory criteria as suffering from hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. All patients had one or more episodes of focal cerebral ischemia due to unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery occlusion. Computerized tomography scans either were normal or showed evidence of watershed infarction. Based on these criteria, superficial temporal artery-proximal middle cerebral artery anastomosis was performed. The baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) were studied using positron emission computerized tomography (PET) and the acetazolamide test. Neuropsychological evaluations including Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, Mini-Mental State and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and PET study were completed one month after the last ischemic event and 3-6 months after the operation. A significant negative correlation was observed between OEF and neuropsychological functions. Postoperative neuropsychological functions showed significant improvement. Significant correlations were observed for {delta}WAIS-R (preoperative WAIS-R postoperative WAIS-R) versus preoperative CMRO{sub 2} (r=0.52), for {delta}WAIS-R versus preoperative OEF (r=0.47). In view of these findings, the author concludes that elevation of OEF impairs neuropsychological functions and bypass surgery improves neuropsychological functions in patients with normal CMRO{sub 2} and elevated OEF. (author)

  11. Neuropsychological presentation and adaptive skills in high-functioning adolescents with visual impairment: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, R; Pring, L; Schepers, A; Isaacs, D P; Dale, N J

    2017-01-01

    Studies in infants and young children with congenital visual impairment (VI) have indicated early developmental vulnerabilities, conversely research with older children and adults have highlighted areas of cognitive strength. A minimal amount is known, however, about the possible combination of strengths and weaknesses in adolescence, and this present study therefore aims to explore the neuropsychological presentation and adaptive behavior profile in high-functioning adolescents with congenital VI. Participants completed a battery of commonly used neuropsychological measures assessing memory, executive function, and attention. The measures utilized focused on auditory neuropsychological function, because only subtests that could be completed with auditory administration were suitable for this sample. Parents completed standardized measures of adaptive behavior, executive function, and social communication. Compared to aged-based norms for normal sight, adolescents with VI demonstrated strengths in aspects of working memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, performance across the neuropsychological battery was within or above the average range for the majority of the sample. In contrast, parent-report measures indicated areas of weakness in adaptive functioning, social communication, and behavioral executive functioning. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence that relative to fully sighted peers, high-functioning adolescents with VI present with an uneven profile of cognitive and adaptive skills, which has important implications for assessment and intervention.

  12. Neuropsychological predictors of performance-based measures of functional capacity and social skills in individuals with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Burton, Cynthia Z; Vella, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2018-04-13

    Neuropsychological abilities may underlie successful performance of everyday functioning and social skills. We aimed to determine the strongest neuropsychological predictors of performance-based functional capacity and social skills performance across the spectrum of severe mental illness (SMI). Unemployed outpatients with SMI (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression; n = 151) were administered neuropsychological (expanded MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery), functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief; UPSA-B), and social skills (Social Skills Performance Assessment; SSPA) assessments. Bivariate correlations between neuropsychological performance and UPSA-B and SSPA total scores showed that most neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with each performance-based measure. Forward entry stepwise regression analyses were conducted entering education, diagnosis, symptom severity, and neuropsychological performance as predictors of functional capacity and social skills. Diagnosis, working memory, sustained attention, and category and letter fluency emerged as significant predictors of functional capacity, in a model that explained 43% of the variance. Negative symptoms, sustained attention, and letter fluency were significant predictors of social skill performance, in a model explaining 35% of the variance. Functional capacity is positively associated with neuropsychological functioning, but diagnosis remains strongly influential, with mood disorder participants outperforming those with psychosis. Social skill performance appears to be positively associated with sustained attention and verbal fluency regardless of diagnosis; however, negative symptom severity strongly predicts social skills performance. Improving neuropsychological functioning may improve psychosocial functioning in people with SMI. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. [Neuropsychological evaluation of the executive functions by means of virtual reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent-Martínez, Gema; Luna-Lario, Pilar; Bombín-González, Igor; Cifuentes-Rodríguez, Alicia; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier; Díaz-Orueta, Unai

    2014-05-16

    Executive functions include a wide range of self regulatory functions that allow control, organization and coordination of other cognitive functions, emotional responses and behaviours. The traditional approach to evaluate these functions, by means of paper and pencil neuropsychological tests, shows a greater than expected performance within the normal range for patients whose daily life difficulties would predict an inferior performance. These discrepancies suggest that classical neuropsychological tests may not adequately reproduce the complexity and dynamic nature of real life situations. Latest developments in the field of virtual reality offer interesting options for the neuropsychological assessment of many cognitive processes. Virtual reality reproduces three-dimensional environments with which the patient interacts in a dynamic way, with a sense of immersion in the environment similar to the presence and exposure to a real environment. Furthermore, the presentation of these stimuli, as well as distractors and other variables, may be controlled in a systematic way. Moreover, more consistent and precise answers may be obtained, and an in-depth analysis of them is possible. The present review shows current problems in neuropsychological evaluation of executive functions and latest advances in the consecution of higher preciseness and validity of the evaluation by means of new technologies and virtual reality, with special mention to some developments performed in Spain.

  14. Neuropsychological function in relation to dysmenorrhea in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Afsane; Sadeghnia, Hamidreza; Avan, Amir; Mirmousavi, Seyed Jamal; Moslem, Alireza; Eslami, Saeed; Heshmati, Masoud; Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2017-08-01

    Hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle may affect emotional regulation. We aimed to investigate the association between dysmenorrhea (the severe abdominal pain and cramps associated with menstruation) and cognitive abilities, emotional function and sleep patterns in adolescent girls. Moreover, we evaluated the frequency of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in our population and then divided them into 4 groups: subjects with only PMS; subjects with only dysmenorrhea; individuals with both PMS and dysmenorrhea and normal subjects. In this cross sectional study, 897 adolescent girls who had entered menarche were recruited. Of these, 35.9% had only dysmenorrhea, 14.9% had only PMS, 32.7% had both PMS and dysmenorrhea while 16.5% had no PMS and/or dysmenorrhea (Normal). We assessed the tests for cognitive, emotional function and sleep patterns were compared for these groups. Individuals in the dysmenorrhea group had significantly higher depression, aggression, insomnia, daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea scores compared to normal controls and the PMS group, but did not have significantly different cognitive ability (P value Dysmenorrhea is highly prevalent among adolescents and appears to be associated with depressive mood, a tendency to aggressive behavior and sleep disorders among adolescent girls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Function and Manganese in Air, Blood, Hair, and Toenails in Ohio Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: This study compares manganese (Mn) in air, blood, hair, and toenails and neuropsychological function of 110 women and 76 men, environmentally exposed to Mn in air (Mn-air) in two Ohio towns from a ferromanganese smelter and a soil Mn-packaging facility.Method: Biomark...

  16. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well…

  17. The role of neuropsychological functioning in cancer survivors' return to work one year after diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; de Boer, Angela; Spelten, Evelien; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Verbeek, Jos H. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and the ability to work in cancer survivors. Methods: The study involved a consecutive cohort of 45 patients who had received a primary diagnosis of cancer, were gainfully employed at

  18. Neuropsychological and socio-occupational functioning in young psychiatric outpatients: a longitudinal investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico S C Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical symptoms and neuropsychological deficits are longitudinally associated with functional outcome in chronic psychiatric cohorts. The current study extended these findings to young and early-course psychiatric outpatients, with the aim of identifying cognitive markers that predict later socio-occupational functioning. METHODS: At baseline, 183 young psychiatric outpatients were assessed. Ninety-three returned for follow-up (M = 21.6 years old; SD = 4.5 with an average re-assessment interval of 21.6 months (SD = 7.0, and primary diagnoses of major depressive disorder (n = 34, bipolar disorder (n = 29, or psychosis (n = 30. The primary outcome measure was cross-validated with various other functional measures and structural equation modelling was used to map out the interrelationships between predictors and later functional outcome. RESULTS: Good socio-occupational functioning at follow-up was associated with better quality of life, less disability, current employment and being in a romantic relationship. The final structural equation model explained 47.5% of the variability in functional outcome at follow-up, with baseline neuropsychological functioning (a composite of memory, working memory and attentional switching the best independent predictor of later functional outcome. Notably, depressive and negative symptoms were only associated with functioning cross-sectionally. Diagnosis at follow-up was not associated with functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Neuropsychological functioning was the single best predictor of later socio-occupational outcome among young psychiatric outpatients. Therefore, framing psychiatric disorders along a neuropsychological continuum is likely to be more useful in predicting functional trajectory than traditional symptom-based classification systems. The current findings also have implications for early intervention utilising cognitive remediation approaches.

  19. Assessment of cognitive functions after prophylactic and therapeutic whole brain irradiation using neuropsychological testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penitzka, S.; Wannenmacher, M.; Steinvorth, S.; MIT, Cambridge, MT; Sehlleier, S.; Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg; Fuss, M.; Texas Univ., San Antonio, TX; Wenz, F.; Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Aim of this study was the assessment of neuropsychological changes after whole brain irradiation. Patients and Method: 64 patients were tested before, and 29 after whole brain irradiation, including 28 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and 36 patients with cerebral metastases before therapeutic cranial irradiation (TCI), as well as 14 patients after PCI and 15 after TCI (Table 1). Intelligence, attention and memory were assessed applying a 90-minute test battery of standardized, neuropsychological tests (Table 3). Results: Patients with SCLC showed test results significantly below average before PCI (n=28, mean IQ=83, SD=17). Neither after PCI, nor after TCI the tested neuropsychological functions decreased significantly (Tables 4, 5). A comparison between SCLC-patients with and without cerebral metastases before whole brain irradiation showed better test-results in patients with cerebral metastases and fewer cycles of preceding chemotherapy (Table 7). Conclusion: Neuropsychological capacity in patients with SCLC was impaired even before PCI. Possible reason is the preceding chemotherapy. Whole brain irradiation did not induce a significant decline of cognitive functions in patients with PCI or TCI. A decline in a longer follow-up nevertheless seems possible. (orig.) [de

  20. Neuropsychological deficits associated with uraemic encephalopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although uraemic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) often present with impaired cognitive functions, little information exists concerning the identification of some of the neuropsychological processes. underlying overt behaviour that affect adjustment to ESRD. The results of a neuropsychological investigation of a ...

  1. Neuropsychological Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Washers: Drug-Naive Without Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Ali Akbar; Shariat, Seyed Vahid; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dolatshahi, Behrooz

    2017-01-01

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a complex and heterogeneous neuropsychiatric syndrome. Contamination obsessions and washing/cleaning compulsions are the most frequent clinical OCD subtypes. The current study aimed at examining the neuropsychological impairments in drug-naive obsessive-compulsive (OC) washers without depressive symptoms and their association with the severity of symptoms. In the current causal-comparative study, 35 patients with diagnostic and statistical mental disorders class (DSM)-IV diagnosed with washing-subtype OCD and 35 healthy subjects were selected by the convenience sampling method and evaluated by computerized neuropsychology battery and clinical tests as Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Go/No-Go Test, Digits Forward (DF), Digits Backward (DB), Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-28. The patients were matched to the comparison group with regard to age, gender, intelligence quotient (IQ), education, and handedness. All the tests were standardized in Iran. SPSS version 20.00 was used for descriptive and analytical data analysis. There was no statistically significant different between the OCD washing and the control groups regarding socio-demographic variables or IQ. There were significant differences between the OC washer and the healthy control groups on the neuropsychological functioning. The obtained results suggested that OC washers performed significantly worse on neuropsychological measures than the controls. There was no significant association between the severity of OC symptoms and the neuropsychological functions in the OCD washing group. It was concluded that executive function impairment, which is a core feature in OC washers was trait-like in nature.

  2. Neuropsychological function in a child with 18p deletion syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian L; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H; Braaten, Ellen B

    2014-09-01

    We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to joint attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice.

  3. Neuropsychological Function in Patients With Acute Tetraplegia and Sleep Disordered Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Rachel; Spong, Jo; Graco, Marnie; Berlowitz, David J

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between apnea severity and neuropsychological function in patients with acute-onset tetraplegia and sleep disordered breathing. Polysomnography and neuropsychological testing were performed on 104 participants (age M = 45.60, SD = 16.38; 10 female) across 11 international sites, 2 months postinjury (M = 60.70 days, SD = 39.48). Neuropsychological tests assessed attention, information processing, executive function, memory, learning, mood, and quality of life. More severe sleep apnea was associated with poorer attention, information processing, and immediate recall. Deficits did not extend to memory. Higher preinjury intelligence and being younger reduced the associations with sleep disordered breathing; however, these protective factors were insufficient to counter the damage to attention, immediate recall, and information processing associated with sleep disordered breathing. These data suggest that new spinal cord injury may function as a model of "acute sleep apnea" and that more widespread sleep apnea-related deficits, including memory, may only be seen with longer exposure to apnea. These findings have important implications for functioning and skill acquisition during rehabilitation and, as such, highlight the importance of sleep health following tetraplegia. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Neuropsychological heterogeneity in executive functioning in autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.; Sinzig, J.; Booth, R.; Happé, F.

    2014-01-01

    In most research it is common to report results on a group level. For example, various studies report that children and adults with autism show executive function deficits. However, studies often differ in the pattern of findings. We believe this might be partly due to the heterogeneity of the

  5. Cerebral pathology and neuropsychological effects. Differential effects of cranial radiation as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) has been associated with an increased incidence of neuropsychological impairments and pathologic changes in the CNS among children. However, findings regarding a causal relationship between CRT and neurobehavioral impairments and the differential impact of CRT as a function of treatment age have been equivocal. Inconsistent findings may be attributed to the current research focus on description of impairments to the neglect of a larger theoretical framework and the failure of investigators to integrate findings from the various disciplines involved in assessing CRT effects. Two theories regarding the etiology of CRT effects on neuropsychological functions have been proposed. The myelination hypothesis suggests that CRT effects are attributable to direct effects on myelin synthesis. Findings indicating that the child is in a state of particular vulnerability to teratogens due to the rapid growth phase of myelin during the first 48 months of life provide the basis for this hypothesis. The myelination hypothesis predicts a differential effect for CRT as a function of age/maturation. The vascular hypothesis proposes that CRT effects are due to pathological changes in vascular tissues. Results indicating prominent white matter changes among some CRT recipients provide the basis for this hypothesis. The vascular hypothesis predicts no age effect or an inverse age effect; it places more emphasis on the relationship between indices of cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological test performance. Two basic mechanisms underlying the effects of CRT are outlined to provide a theoretical framework on which future research may be based. 29 references

  6. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki A; Kemp, Andrew H; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model. Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  7. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Johnson

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model.Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21 with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23 with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20 with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples.The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired.Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  8. Exploring associations between self-regulatory mechanisms and neuropsychological functioning and driver behaviour after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rike, Per-Ola; Johansen, Hans J; Ulleberg, Pål; Lundqvist, Anna; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this prospective one-year follow-up study was to explore the associations between self-regulatory mechanisms and neuropsychological tests as well as baseline and follow-up ratings of driver behaviour. The participants were a cohort of subjects with stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) who were found fit to drive after a multi-disciplinary driver assessment (baseline). Baseline measures included neuropsychological tests and ratings of self-regulatory mechanisms, i.e., executive functions (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version; BRIEF-A) and impulsive personality traits (UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale). The participants rated pre-injury driving behaviour on the Driver Behaviour Qestionnaire (DBQ) retrospectively at baseline and after one year of post-injury driving (follow-up). Better performance on neuropsychological tests was significantly associated with more post-injury DBQ Violations. The BRIEF-A main indexes were significantly associated with baseline and follow-up ratings of DBQ Mistakes and follow-up DBQ Inattention. UPPS (lack of) Perseverance was significantly associated with baseline DBQ Inattention, whereas UPPS Urgency was significantly associated with baseline DBQ Inexperience and post-injury DBQ Mistakes. There were no significant changes in DBQ ratings from baseline (pre-injury) to follow-up (post-injury). It was concluded that neuropsychological functioning and self-regulatory mechanisms are related to driver behaviour. Some aspects of driver behaviour do not necessarily change after brain injury, reflecting the influence of premorbid driving behaviour or impaired awareness of deficits on post-injury driving behaviour. Further evidence is required to predict the role of self-regulatory mechanisms on driver behaviour and crashes or near misses.

  9. Regional specific groundwater arsenic levels and neuropsychological functioning: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Johnson, Leigh; Mauer, Cortney; Barber, Robert; Hall, James; O'Bryant, Sid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the link between geographic information system (GIS)-estimated regional specific groundwater levels and neuropsychological functioning in a sample of individuals with and without cognitive impairment. This cross-sectional study design analyzed data from 1390 participants (733 Alzheimer's disease, 127 Mild Cognitive Impairment, and 530 with normal cognition) enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium. GISs analyses were used to estimate regional specific groundwater arsenic concentrations using the Environmental Systems Research Institute and arsenic concentrations from the Texas Water Development Board. In the full cohort, regional specific arsenic concentrations were positively associated with language abilities (p = 0.008), but associated with poorer verbal memory, immediate (p = 0.008), and delayed (p arsenic being related with cognition most prominently among mild cognitive impairment cases. Overall, estimated regional specific groundwater arsenic levels were negatively associated with neuropsychological performance.

  10. Neuropsychological functioning, coping, and quality of life among returning war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L; Morissette, Sandra B; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Meyer, Eric C; Kruse, Marc I; Gulliver, Suzy B; Dolan, Sara L

    2016-08-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that action- and emotion-focused coping strategies would mediate the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and quality of life among a sample of returning Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. Veterans (N = 130) who served as part of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan completed a diagnostic assessment of PTSD, a battery of questionnaires assessing coping style, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and quality of life, and neuropsychological tests measuring attention, learning and memory, working memory, inhibition, executive control, and visual motor coordination. Executive control, immediate and delayed verbal recall, and visual motor coordination were associated with quality of life. However, after controlling for the effects of combat exposure, PTSD, and probable TBI, no measure of neuropsychological functioning was directly associated with quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that delayed verbal recall influenced quality of life through its effect on action-focused coping. Although replication is needed, these findings indicate that delayed verbal recall may indirectly influence quality of life among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans through its association with action-focused coping strategies. Psychologists who are working with veterans that are experiencing memory difficulties and poor quality of life may consider focusing on improving coping skills prior to rehabilitation of memory deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Neuropsychological Functioning, Coping, and Quality of Life among Returning War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L.; Morissette, Sandra B.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Meyer, Eric C.; Kruse, Marc I.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Dolan, Sara L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The present research tested the hypothesis that action- and emotion-focused coping strategies would mediate the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and quality of life among a sample of returning Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. Method Veterans (N = 130) who served as part of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, completed a diagnostic assessment of PTSD, a battery of questionnaires assessing coping style, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and quality of life, and neuropsychological tests measuring attention, learning and memory, working memory, inhibition, executive control, and visual motor coordination. Results Executive control, immediate and delayed verbal recall, and visual motor coordination were associated with quality of life. However, after controlling for the effects of combat exposure, PTSD, and probable TBI, no measure of neuropsychological functioning was directly associated with quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that delayed verbal recall influenced quality of life through its effect on action-focused coping. Conclusions Although replication is needed, these findings indicate that delayed verbal recall may indirectly influence quality of life among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans through its association with action-focused coping strategies. Psychologists who are working with veterans that are experiencing memory difficulties and poor quality of life may consider focusing on improving coping skills prior to rehabilitation of memory deficits. PMID:26891248

  12. Beyond functional architecture in cognitive neuropsychology: a reply to Coltheart (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, David C; Patterson, Karalyn

    2010-01-01

    We (Patterson & Plaut, 2009) argued that cognitive neuropsychology has had a limited impact on cognitive science due to a nearly exclusive reliance on (a) single-case studies, (b) dissociations in cognitive performance, and (c) shallow, box-and-arrow theorizing, and we advocated adopting a case-series methodology, considering associations as well as dissociations, and employing explicit computational modeling in studying "how the brain does its cognitive business." In reply, Coltheart (2010) claims that our concern is misplaced because cognitive neuropsychology is concerned only with studying the mind, in terms of its "functional architecture," without regard to how this is implemented in the brain. In this response, we do not dispute his characterization of cognitive neuropsychology as it has typically been practiced over the last 40 years, but we suggest that our understanding of brain structure and function has advanced to the point where studying the mind without regard to the brain is unwise and perpetuates the field's isolation. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. SPECT neuroimaging and neuropsychological functions in different stages of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Pavlos; Messinis, Lambros; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia; Constantoyannis, Costantinos

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated differences and associations between cortical perfusion, nigrostriatal dopamine pathway and neuropsychological functions in different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). We recruited 53 non-demented PD patients divided into four groups according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging system and 20 healthy controls who were used in the comparison of the neuropsychological findings. Each patient underwent two separate brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies (perfusion and dopamine transporter binding) as well as neuropsychological evaluation. Perfusion images of each patient were quantified and compared with a normative database provided by the NeuroGam software manufacturers. Mean values obtained from the cortical areas and neuropsychological measures in the different groups were also compared by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for disease duration and educational level. We found cognitive deficits especially in the late PD stages (HY 3, 4 and 5) compared to the early stages (HY 1 and 2) and associations between cognitive decrements and cortical perfusion deterioration mainly in the frontal and posterior cortical areas. Compared with controls, PD patients showed impairments of cognition and cerebral perfusion that increased with clinical severity. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between the performance on the phonemic fluency task and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left frontal lobe. Dopamine transporter binding in the left caudate nucleus significantly correlated with blood flow in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but not with measures of executive functions. There are significant cognitive and perfusion deficits associated with PD progression, implying a multifactorial neurodegeneration process apart from dopamine depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). (orig.)

  14. SPECT neuroimaging and neuropsychological functions in different stages of Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Pavlos [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Patras (Greece); Messinis, Lambros; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurology, Neuropsychology Section, Patras (Greece); Kefalopoulou, Zinovia; Constantoyannis, Costantinos [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Patras (Greece)

    2010-06-15

    The present study investigated differences and associations between cortical perfusion, nigrostriatal dopamine pathway and neuropsychological functions in different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). We recruited 53 non-demented PD patients divided into four groups according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging system and 20 healthy controls who were used in the comparison of the neuropsychological findings. Each patient underwent two separate brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies (perfusion and dopamine transporter binding) as well as neuropsychological evaluation. Perfusion images of each patient were quantified and compared with a normative database provided by the NeuroGam software manufacturers. Mean values obtained from the cortical areas and neuropsychological measures in the different groups were also compared by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for disease duration and educational level. We found cognitive deficits especially in the late PD stages (HY 3, 4 and 5) compared to the early stages (HY 1 and 2) and associations between cognitive decrements and cortical perfusion deterioration mainly in the frontal and posterior cortical areas. Compared with controls, PD patients showed impairments of cognition and cerebral perfusion that increased with clinical severity. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between the performance on the phonemic fluency task and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left frontal lobe. Dopamine transporter binding in the left caudate nucleus significantly correlated with blood flow in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but not with measures of executive functions. There are significant cognitive and perfusion deficits associated with PD progression, implying a multifactorial neurodegeneration process apart from dopamine depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). (orig.)

  15. Effects of different forms of central nervous system prophylaxis on neuropsychologic function in childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, J.H.; Glidewell, O.J.; Sibley, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of the late effects on intellectual and neuropsychologic function of three different CNS prophylaxis regimens was conducted in 104 patients treated for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Of the children studied, 33 were randomized to treatment with intrathecal (IT) methotrexate alone, 36 to IT methotrexate plus 2,400 rad cranial irradiation, and 35 to IT methotrexate plus intravenous intermediate dose methotrexate. All patients were in their first (complete) continuous remission, were a minimum of one year post-CNS prophylaxis and had no evidence of CNS disease at the time of evaluation. In contrast to the other two treatment groups, children whose CNS prophylaxis included cranial irradiation attained significantly lower mean Full Scale IQs, performed more poorly on the Wide Range Achievement Test, a measure of school abilities, and exhibited a greater number of difficulties on a variety of other neuropsychologic measures. The poorer performance of the irradiated group was independent of sex of the patient, time since treatment and age at diagnosis. These data suggest that the addition of 2,400 rad cranial irradiation to CNS prophylaxis in ALL puts these children at greater risk for mild global loss in intellectual and neuropsychologic ability

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow changes and neuropsychological functioning in early and late onset alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, B.; Ulug, B.; Ergun, E.; Erbas, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Chronic alcoholism is strongly associated with morphologic and functional abnormalities in the brain. The age-of-onset of alcoholism symptoms might be of discriminating value and can be used to subdivide the population into more homogeneous groups. The aim of the study was to compare late and early onset alcoholism with regard to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and neuropsychological functioning. Methods: Ten late onset (Type I) and thirteen early onset (Type II) male alcoholics were included in the study, the criterion being the age of onset for alcohol abuse. Six healthy, age-matched, male volunteers were included as a control group. rCBF changes were assessed using Tc-99m-HMPAO/SPECT after a detoxification period. Transaxial slices were assessed visually and semi quantitatively. Regional mean counts were divided to the mean counts of cerebellar and occipital regions to obtain semiquantitative ratios for superior frontal, middle frontal, inferior frontal, temporal and parietal lobes for the left and right hemispheres. The neuropsychological battery consisted of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Word Fluency Test. Results: Type I and II groups had significantly asymmetric blood flow in the frontal region compared to control group (Left frontal percentage; Type I%46.8±2, Type II=48.3±2.3, Control=50.8±3, p=0.008). The semiquantitative ratios for the frontal subregions were lower for the patients compared to those of control group, however, statistically significant difference was observed only for the ratio of superior frontal region to occipital region in type I patients, for both left and right. The difference between the two subgroups was not statistically significant. Both groups of alcoholic patients also displayed impairment in frontal lobe functions and non-verbal memory. No significant difference was detected between the alcoholic subgroups on neuropsychological measures. There was no significant correlation

  17. The association of pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking with child neuropsychological functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Kjærsgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Denny, Clark H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking on child neuropsychological functioning. Design: Prospective follow-up study. Setting and population: 154 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods: Participants were sampled based on maternal...... of Executive Function (BRIEF) was completed by the mothers and a preschool teacher. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, child’s age at testing, child’s sex, and maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy were considered potential confounders. Main outcome measures: Performance...... and sustained attention. Assessment of pre-pregnancy drinking provides additional information regarding potential prenatal alcohol exposure and its implications for child neurodevelopment....

  18. Sleep disturbance relates to neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Sharon L; Rogers, Naomi L; Lewis, Simon J G; Terpening, Zoë; Ip, Tony; Diamond, Keri; Norrie, Louisa; Hickie, Ian B

    2011-07-01

    Sleep-wake disturbance in older people is a risk factor for depression onset and recurrence. The aim of this study was to determine if objective sleep-wake disturbance in late-life depression relates to neuropsychological functioning. Forty-four older patients with a lifetime history of major depression and 22 control participants underwent psychiatric, medical and neuropsychological assessments. Participants completed self-report sleep measures, sleep diaries and wore wrist actigraphy for two weeks. Outcome measures included sleep latency, the number and duration of nocturnal awakenings and the overall sleep efficiency. Patients with depression had a greater duration of nocturnal awakenings and poorer sleep efficiency, in comparison to control participants. Sleep disturbance in patients was associated with greater depression severity and later ages of depression onset. It also related to poorer psychomotor speed, poorer verbal and visual learning, poorer semantic fluency as well as poorer performance on tests of executive functioning. These relationships largely remained significant after controlling for depression and estimated apnoea severity. This sample had only mild levels of depression severity and results require replication in patients with moderate to severe depression. The inclusion of polysomnography and circadian markers would be useful to delineate the specific features of sleep-wake disturbance that are critical to cognitive performance. Sleep-wake disturbance in older patients with depression is related to neuropsychological functioning and to later ages of illness onset. This study suggests that common neurobiological changes may underpin these disease features, which may, in turn, warrant early identification and management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuropsychological function in individuals with morbid obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargénius, Hanna L; Lydersen, Stian; Hestad, Knut

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown cognitive dysfunction to be present in a significant number of individuals with obesity. The objective of this study was to assess the neuropsychological profile of morbidly obese patients referred to weight-loss treatment. An extensive battery of neuropsychological tests with well-known normative data covering various cognitive domains was administered to 96 patients. The test results were transformed to z-scores for comparisons with normative data. As a means of determining level of cognitive impairment within the group, deficit scores were applied. Group comparisons on the different cognitive domains were conducted between patients with depressive symptoms and patients reporting no such symptoms. As illustrated in mean z-scores, the patients demonstrated lower performance compared to normative data on visual memory (mean -.26, CI -.43 to -.09, p  = .003), speed of information processing (mean -.22, CI -.34 to -.09, p  = .001), executive functions (mean -.28, CI -.40 to -.16, p  ability, motor function, and working memory. The deficit scores, however, revealed working memory and motor function to be significantly impaired within the group as well. Patients with depressive symptoms differed from patients without such symptoms on visual memory (mean .43, CI .07 to .80, p  = .021). Some characteristic cognitive weaknesses and strengths were evident at the group level, although pronounced variation was observed. Deficits in executive functions, information processing, and attention should be taken into consideration in clinical practice.

  20. Effects of radiation therapy on neuropsychological functioning in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.W.H.; Hung, B.K.M.; Woo, E.K.W.; Tai, P.T.H.; Choi, D.T.K.

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen patients who had a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who were treated with radiation therapy were followed up after a median duration of 5.5 years and given a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results were compared with a comparable group of newly diagnosed NPC patients awaiting radiation therapy. The irradiated group was significantly poorer in overall IQ, non-verbal memory recall, and reported a substantially greater number of memory related complaints. These results contrast with the complacent general assumption that radiation therapy has a negligible effect on adult functioning. (author)

  1. Recent and Long-Term Soccer Heading Exposure Is Differentially Associated With Neuropsychological Function in Amateur Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitch, Cara F; Zimmerman, Molly E; Lubin, Naomi; Kim, Namhee; Lipton, Richard B; Stewart, Walter F; Kim, Mimi; Lipton, Michael L

    2018-02-01

    The present study examined the relative contribution of recent or long-term heading to neuropsychological function in amateur adult soccer players. Soccer players completed a baseline questionnaire (HeadCount-12m) to ascertain heading during the prior 12 months (long-term heading, LTH) and an online questionnaire (HeadCount-2w) every 3 months to ascertain heading during the prior 2 weeks (recent heading, RH). Cogstate, a battery of six neuropsychological tests, was administered to assess neuropsychological function. Generalized estimating equations were used to test if LTH or RH was associated with neuropsychological function while accounting for the role of recognized concussion. A total of 311 soccer players completed 630 HeadCount-2w. Participants had an average age of 26 years. Participants headed the ball a median of 611 times/year (mean=1,384.03) and 9.50 times/2 weeks (mean=34.17). High levels of RH were significantly associated with reduced performance on a task of psychomotor speed (p=.02), while high levels of LTH were significantly associated with poorer performance on tasks of verbal learning (p=.03) and verbal memory (p=.04). Significantly better attention (p=.02) was detectable at moderately high levels of RH, but not at the highest level of RH. One hundred and seven (34.4%) participants reported a lifetime history of concussion, but this was not related to neuropsychological function and did not modify the association of RH or LTH with neuropsychological function. High levels of both RH and LTH were associated with poorer neuropsychological function, but on different domains. The clinical manifestations following repetitive exposure to heading could change with chronicity of exposure. (JINS, 2018, 24, 147-155).

  2. The role of neuropsychological performance in the relationship between chronic pain and functional physical impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulles, Wiesje L J A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2011-12-01

      In this study, the relationship between pain intensity, neuropsychological, and physical function in adult chronic pain patients was examined.   Thirty participants with chronic pain completed neuropsychological tests tapping mental processing speed, memory, and executive function. Pain intensity was measured with three visual analog scales and the Pain Rating Index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire. A grip strength test, the 6-minute walk test, the Unipedal Stance Test and the Lifting Low Test were administered in order to obtain a performance-based measure of physical capacity. Self-reported physical ability was assessed with the Disability Rating Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Functioning, and Role Physical scales. Psychosocial function was examined using the Mental Health and Role Emotional subscales of the Short Form-36.   The study was set in two outpatient physical therapy clinics in The Netherlands.   The analysis showed that a lower mental processing speed was related to a higher level of pain, as well as to a lower performance-based and self-reported physical functioning. In addition, both performance-based and self-reported physical function revealed an inverse correlation with pain intensity. Psychosocial function turned out to be an important mediator of the relationship between pain and self-reported, but not performance-based, physical function. Mental processing speed, on the other hand, was found to mediate the relationship between pain and performance-based physical functioning.   The results suggest that in chronic pain patients, mental processing speed mediates the relationship between pain and physical function. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Neuropsychological test performance and prediction of functional capacities among Spanish-speaking and English-speaking patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, D A; Rubert, M P; Argüelles, T; Duara, R

    1995-03-01

    Neuropsychological measures have been widely used by clinicians to assist them in making judgments regarding a cognitively impaired patient's ability to independently perform important activities of daily living. However, important questions have been raised concerning the degree to which neuropsychological instruments can predict a broad array of specific functional capacities required in the home environment. In the present study, we examined 127 English-speaking and 56 Spanish-speaking patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and determined the extent to which various neuropsychological measures and demographic variables were predictive of performance on functional measures administered within the clinical setting. Among English-speaking AD patients, Block Design and Digit-Span of the WAIS-R, as well as tests of language were among the strongest predictors of functional performance. For Spanish-speakers, Block Design, The Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) and Digit Span had the optimal predictive power. When stepwise regression was conducted on the entire sample of 183 subjects, ethnicity emerged as a statistically significant predictor variable on one of the seven functional tests (writing a check). Despite the predictive power of several of the neuropsychological measures for both groups, most of the variability in objective functional performance could not be explained in our regression models. As a result, it would appear prudent to include functional measures as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation for dementia.

  4. Psychotic Experiences and Neuropsychological Functioning in a Population-based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollon, Josephine; David, Anthony S; Morgan, Craig; Frissa, Souci; Glahn, David; Pilecka, Izabela; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    Psychotic experiences in early life are associated with neuropsychological impairment and the risk for later psychiatric disorders. Psychotic experiences are also prevalent in adults, but neuropsychological investigations spanning adulthood are limited, and confounding factors have not been examined rigorously. To characterize neuropsychological functioning in adults with psychotic experiences while adjusting for important sociodemographic characteristics and familial factors and investigating the effect of age. The South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study is a population-based household survey of physical and mental health in individuals 16 years or older conducted from June 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010, in 2 London boroughs. The study included 1698 participants from 1075 households. Data were analyzed from May 6, 2014, to April 22, 2015. Psychotic experiences measured using the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. Neuropsychological functioning measured using tests assessing verbal knowledge (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading), working memory (Spatial Delayed Response Task), memory (Visual Object Learning Task), and processing speed (digit symbol coding task). A composite IQ score of general cognitive ability was calculated. A total of 1677 participants with a mean (SD) age of 40 (17) years were included in the analysis. Compared with the group without psychotic experiences, the 171 (9.7%) adults with psychotic experiences did not show a statistically significant impairment on mean (SD) measures of IQ (95.25 [16.58] vs 100.45 [14.77]; Cohen d, -0.22; P = .06) or processing speed (40.63 [13.06] vs 42.17 [13.79]; Cohen d, -0.03; P = .73) but were impaired on measures of verbal knowledge (31.36 [15.78] vs 38.83 [12.64]; Cohen d, -0.37; P = .003), working memory (20.97 [4.12] vs 22.51 [3.26]; Cohen d, -0.34; P = .005), and memory (43.80 [8.45] vs 46.53 [7.06]; Cohen d, -0.28; P = .01). Only participants 50 years and older with psychotic

  5. Luria’s model of the functional units of the brain and the neuropsychology of dreaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Téllez A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, neuropsychology has focused on identifying the brain mechanisms of specific psychological processes, such as attention, motor skills, perception, memory, language, and consciousness, as well as their corresponding disorders. However, there are psychological processes that have received little attention in this field, such as dreaming. This study examined the clinical and experimental neuropsychological research relevant to dreaming, ranging from sleep disorders in patients with brain damage, to brain functioning during REM sleep, using different methods of brain imaging. These findings were analyzed within the framework of Luria’s Three Functional Unit Model of the Brain, and a proposal was made to explain certain of the essential characteristics of dreaming. This explanation describes how, during dreaming, an activation of the First Functional Unit occurs, comprising the reticular formation of the brainstem; this activates, in turn, the Second Functional Unit — which is formed by the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes and Unit L, which is comprised of the limbic system, as well as simultaneous hypo-functioning of the Third Functional Unit (frontal lobe. This activity produces a perception of hallucinatory images of various sensory modes, as well as a lack of inhibition, a non-selfreflexive thought process, and a lack of planning and direction of such oneiric images. Dreaming is considered a type of natural confabulation, similar to the one that occurs in patients with frontal lobe damage or schizophrenia. The study also suggests that the confabulatory, bizarre, and impulsive nature of dreaming has a function in the cognitiveemotional homeostasis that aids proper brain function throughout the day.

  6. Cognitive functioning and adjudicative competence: defendants referred for neuropsychological evaluation in a psychiatric inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Beth C; Marcopulos, Bernice A; Brand, Jesse G; Campbell, Kristen T; Kent, Julie-Ann

    2017-11-01

    A paucity of peer-reviewed research exists regarding the relation between cognitive functioning and adjudicative competence, despite increasing awareness of cognitive deficits associated with serious mental illness. This retrospective study sought to add to and expand upon existing research by considering performance validity and court determinations of competence, when available. We compared demographic and cognitive variables of a group of defendants with presumed valid testing admitted to an inpatient psychiatric facility for evaluation of adjudicative competence and referred for neuropsychological evaluation (n = 45) and compared individuals determined by the evaluator and/or the court to be competent (n = 30) and incompetent (n = 15). Defendants who were incompetent were more likely to be diagnosed with a cognitive disorder, with a medium effect size. There was a difference in tests of immediate and delayed memory as measured by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), with medium to large effects, and high delayed memory scores were helpful in ruling out incompetence (Negative predictive power = 85.71%). These results provide support for the relationship between cognitive functioning and trial competence, particularly at high and low levels of performance.

  7. Acute effects of ayahuasca on neuropsychological performance: differences in executive function between experienced and occasional users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; Fábregas, Josep Maria; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Riba, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine, has been shown to increase regional cerebral blood flow in prefrontal brain regions after acute administration to humans. Despite interactions at this level, neuropsychological studies have not found cognitive deficits in abstinent long-term users. Here, we wished to investigate the effects of acute ayahuasca intake on neuropsychological performance, specifically on working memory and executive function. Twenty-four ayahuasca users (11 long-term experienced users and 13 occasional users) were assessed in their habitual setting using the Stroop, Sternberg, and Tower of London tasks prior to and following ayahuasca intake. Errors in the Sternberg task increased, whereas reaction times in the Stroop task decreased and accuracy was maintained for the whole sample following ayahuasca intake. Interestingly, results in the Tower of London showed significantly increased execution and resolution times and number of movements for the occasional but not the experienced users. Additionally, a correlation analysis including all subjects showed that impaired performance in the Tower of London was inversely correlated with lifetime ayahuasca use. Acute ayahuasca administration impaired working memory but decreased stimulus-response interference. Interestingly, detrimental effects on higher cognition were only observed in the less experienced group. Rather than leading to increased impairment, greater prior exposure to ayahuasca was associated with reduced incapacitation. Compensatory or neuromodulatory effects associated with long-term ayahuasca intake could underlie preserved executive function in experienced users.

  8. Endocrine profiles and neuropsychologic correlates of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Monica; Gambera, Alessandro; Bonini, Luisa; Peroni, Maria; Neri, Francesca; Scagliola, Pasquale; Nacinovich, Renata

    2007-04-01

    To determine trigger factors and neuropsychologic correlates of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) in adolescence and to evaluate the correlations with the endocrine-metabolic profile. Cross-sectional comparison of adolescents with FHA and eumenorrheic controls Academic medical institution Twenty adolescent girls with FHA (aged <18 years) and 20 normal cycling girls All subjects underwent endocrine-gynecologic (hormone) and neuropsychiatric (tests and interview) investigations. A separate semistructured interview was also used to investigate parents. Gonadotropins, leptin, prolactin, androgens, estrogens, cortisol, carrier proteins (SHBG, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1), and metabolic parameters (insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, thyroid hormones) were assayed in FHA and control subjects. All girls were evaluated using a test for depression, a test for disordered eating, and a psychodynamic semistructured interview. Adolescents with FHA showed a particular susceptibility to common life events, restrictive disordered eating, depressive traits, and psychosomatic disorders. The endocrine-metabolic profile was strictly correlated to the severity of the psychopathology. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea in adolescence is due to a particular neuropsychologic vulnerability to stress, probably related to familial relationship styles, expressed by a proportional endocrine impairment.

  9. White versus gray matter function as seen on neuropsychological testing following bone marrow transplant for acute leukemia in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona S Anderson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiona S Anderson1, Alicia S Kunin-Batson1, Joanna L Perkins2, K Scott Baker31Divisions of Pediatric Clinical Neuroscience; 2Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Children’s Hospitals and Clinics, Minneapolis, MN, USA and 3Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Current theory suggests that neurocognitive late effects of treatments for childhood cancer such as difficulties with attention, processing speed and visual-motor ability are the result of white matter damage. Neuroimaging studies have produced a variety of white matter findings. However, although white matter is thought to be differentially affected, previous studies have not demonstrated a discrepancy between white and gray matter function. The present study included 36 children treated for childhood leukemia with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT. Their performance on neurocognitive measures traditionally thought to measure white matter was compared to performance on measures thought to measure gray matter function. Composite white and gray matter standard scores were created based on neuropsychological measures that individuals with known white or gray matter damage perform poorly. As predicted, composite white matter scores (mean = 98.1 were significantly lower (t = 2.26, p = 0.03 than composite gray matter scores (mean = 102.5. Additionally, as gray matter performance increased, the difference between gray and white matter scores increased (R = 0.353, p = 0.035. Overall, the results of this study support the current theory that white matter damage is responsible for the more subtle neurocognitive late effects resulting from treatment for childhood leukemia.Keywords: late effects of cancer treatment, leukemia, neuropsychology, white matter, brain function

  10. A neuropsychological investigation of multitasking in HIV infection: implications for everyday functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J Cobb; Woods, Steven Paul; Vigil, Ofilio; Heaton, Robert K; Schweinsburg, Brian C; Ellis, Ronald J; Grant, Igor; Marcotte, Thomas D

    2011-07-01

    A subset of individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment experience related deficits in "real world" functioning (i.e., independently performing instrumental activities of daily living [IADL]). While performance-based tests of everyday functioning are reasonably sensitive to HIV-associated IADL declines, questions remain regarding the extent to which these tests' highly structured nature fully captures the inherent complexities of daily life. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive and ecological validity of a novel multitasking measure in HIV infection. Participants included 60 individuals with HIV infection (HIV+) and 25 demographically comparable seronegative adults (HIV-). Participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, questionnaires assessing mood and everyday functioning, and a novel standardized test of multitasking, which involved balancing the demands of four interconnected performance-based functional tasks (i.e., financial management, cooking, medication management, and telephone communication). HIV+ individuals demonstrated significantly worse overall performance, fewer simultaneous task attempts, and increased errors on the multitasking test as compared to the HIV- group. Within the HIV+ sample, multitasking impairments were modestly associated with deficits on standard neuropsychological measures of executive functions, episodic memory, attention/working memory, and information processing speed, providing preliminary evidence for convergent validity. More importantly, multivariate prediction models revealed that multitasking deficits were uniquely predictive of IADL dependence beyond the effects of depression and global neurocognitive impairment, with excellent sensitivity (86%), but modest specificity (57%). Taken together, these data indicate that multitasking ability may play an important role in successful everyday functioning in HIV+ individuals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights

  11. Desmopressin (melt) therapy in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria results in improved neuropsychological functioning and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, Charlotte; Dhondt, Karlien; Roels, Sanne P; Raes, Ann; Hoebeke, Piet; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Vande Walle, Johan

    2016-09-01

    There is a high comorbidity between nocturnal enuresis, sleep disorders and psychological problems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a decrease in nocturnal diuresis volume not only improves enuresis but also ameliorates disrupted sleep and (neuro)psychological dysfunction, the major comorbidities of this disorder. In this open-label, prospective phase IV study, 30 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) underwent standardized video-polysomnographic testing and multi-informant (neuro)psychological testing at baseline and 6 months after the start of desmopressin treatment in the University Hospital Ghent, Belgium. Primary endpoints were the effect on sleep and (neuro)psychological functioning. The secondary endpoint was the change in the first undisturbed sleep period or the time to the first void. Thirty children aged between 6 and 16 (mean 10.43, standard deviation 3.08) years completed the study. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and a prolonged first undisturbed sleep period. Additionally, (neuro)psychological functioning was improved on several domains. The study demonstrates that the degree of comorbidity symptoms is at least aggravated by enuresis (and/or high nocturnal diuresis rate) since sleep and (neuro)psychological functioning were significantly ameliorated by treatment of enuresis. These results indicate that enuresis is not such a benign condition as has previously been assumed.

  12. Random Number Generation in HIV Disease: Associations with Neuropsychological Functions and Activities of Daily Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, David P; Woods, Steven Paul; Doyle, Katie L; Verduzco, Marizela

    2017-02-01

    HIV is associated with frontostriatal dysregulation and executive dysfunction. This study evaluated whether HIV-infected individuals evidence deficits in random number generation (RNG), which is a strategic task requiring paced, rule-guided production of digits. In total, 74 HIV+ adults and 54 seronegative comparison participants completed a comprehensive research neuropsychological battery. Participants produced a random digit sequence by avoiding any order and using numbers 1 through 10 for 100 s at a pace of 1 digit/s. Outcomes included intrusions, repetitions, seriation (1-2-3-4), and cycling (median length of gaps between repeating digits). HIV disease was associated with higher levels of seriation and cycling (ps  .10). Among HIV+ individuals, higher seriation was associated with neuropsychological performance including poorer auditory attention, verbal learning, and delayed memory, whereas higher cycling scores were associated with poorer delayed memory and verbal fluency (ps random sequences, which showed medium associations with higher order verbal abilities and may contribute to greater declines in everyday functioning outcomes. Future studies might examine RNG's role in health behaviors such as medical decision-making or medication adherence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Neuropsychological Impairment in Detoxified Alcohol-Dependent Subjects with Preserved Psychosocial Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Martelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChronic alcoholism and its related cognitive impairments are associated with increased social, relational, and professional deficits which have a variable overall impact on social integration. These impairments are known to have varying severities and have rarely been studied among healthy alcohol-dependent subjects with preserved psychosocial functioning. Thus, the objective of this study is to describe neuropsychological performance in this particular population.MethodTwenty-nine socially adjusted alcohol-dependent men, hospitalized for a first or second withdrawal and abstinent for 3 weeks minimum, were compared to 29 healthy non-alcoholic controls. All subjects underwent clinical and psychiatric examination, neuropsychological tests of memory (M, working memory (WM, and executive functions (EF. Comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests or Mann–Whitney U tests.ResultsNo group differences were found on the Self-Reported Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR or in the Mini-Mental State Examination. Compared to controls, patients had greater episodic, spatial, and WM deficits as well as slightly altered executive functions. In contrast, their executive functions (spontaneous flexibility, criteria generation, rule maintenance, and inhibitory control were relatively preserved.ConclusionOur sample of socially and professionally integrated alcoholic patients shows fewer cognitive deficits than described in previous studies. Our results suggest that early on, alcohol-dependent subjects develop compensatory adaptation processes to preserve social function and adaptation. Minor cognitive impairments should be screened early in the disease to integrate cognitive interventions into the health-care plan to thus eventually prevent further socio-professional marginalization.

  14. Anterior temporal cortex and semantic memory: reconciling findings from neuropsychology and functional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T; Hocking, Julia; Noppeney, Uta; Mechelli, Andrea; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Patterson, Karalyn; Price, Cathy J

    2006-09-01

    Studies of semantic impairment arising from brain disease suggest that the anterior temporal lobes are critical for semantic abilities in humans; yet activation of these regions is rarely reported in functional imaging studies of healthy controls performing semantic tasks. Here, we combined neuropsychological and PET functional imaging data to show that when healthy subjects identify concepts at a specific level, the regions activated correspond to the site of maximal atrophy in patients with relatively pure semantic impairment. The stimuli were color photographs of common animals or vehicles, and the task was category verification at specific (e.g., robin), intermediate (e.g., bird), or general (e.g., animal) levels. Specific, relative to general, categorization activated the antero-lateral temporal cortices bilaterally, despite matching of these experimental conditions for difficulty. Critically, in patients with atrophy in precisely these areas, the most pronounced deficit was in the retrieval of specific semantic information.

  15. The relationship between neuropsychological tests of visuospatial function and lobar cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Davor N; Miller, Justin B; Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Bird, Christopher; Banks, Sarah J

    2018-06-01

    Tests of visuospatial function are often administered in comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. These tests are generally considered assays of parietal lobe function; however, the neural correlates of these tests, using modern imaging techniques, are not well understood. In the current study we investigated the relationship between three commonly used tests of visuospatial function and lobar cortical thickness in each hemisphere. Data from 374 patients who underwent a neuropsychological evaluation and MRI scans in an outpatient dementia clinic were included in the analysis. We examined the relationships between cortical thickness, as assessed with Freesurfer, and performance on three tests: Judgment of Line Orientation (JoLO), Block Design (BD) from the Fourth edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised Copy Trial (BVMT-R-C) in patients who showed overall average performance on these tasks. Using a series of multiple regression models, we assessed which lobe's overall cortical thickness best predicted test performance. Among the individual lobes, JoLO performance was best predicted by cortical thickness in the right temporal lobe. BD performance was best predicted by cortical thickness in the right parietal lobe, and BVMT-R-C performance was best predicted by cortical thickness in the left parietal lobe. Performance on constructional tests of visuospatial function appears to correspond best with underlying cortical thickness of the parietal lobes, while performance on visuospatial judgment tests appears to correspond best to temporal lobe thickness. Future research using voxel-wise and connectivity techniques and including more diverse samples will help further understanding of the regions and networks involved in visuospatial tests.

  16. Neuropsychological functioning in older people with type 2 diabetes: the effect of controlling for confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimakopoulou, K G; Hampson, S E; Morrish, N J

    2002-04-01

    Neuropsychological functioning was examined in a group of 33 older (mean age 62.40 +/- 9.62 years) people with Type 2 diabetes (Group 1) and 33 non-diabetic participants matched with Group 1 on age, sex, premorbid intelligence and presence of hypertension and cardio/cerebrovascular conditions (Group 2). Data statistically corrected for confounding factors obtained from the diabetic group were compared with the matched control group. The results suggested small cognitive deficits in diabetic people's verbal memory and mental flexibility (Logical Memory A and SS7). No differences were seen between the two samples in simple and complex visuomotor attention, sustained complex visual attention, attention efficiency, mental double tracking, implicit memory, and self-reported memory problems. These findings indicate minimal cognitive impairment in relatively uncomplicated Type 2 diabetes and demonstrate the importance of control and matching for confounding factors.

  17. Effects of central-nervous-system irradiation on neuropsychologic functioning of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, S.S.; Marten, G.W.; Pitner, S.E.; Duenas, D.A.; Powazek, M.

    1975-01-01

    Two neuropsychologic studies were performed to determine the long-term effects of ''prophylactic'' cranial or craniospinal irradiation on the psychologic and neurologic functions of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia. In a prospective study, 34 patients with leukemia who received either craniospinal irradiation or cranial irradiation combined with intrathecal methotrexate were evaluated by standardized neurologic and psychologic examinations before and after irradiation. Their performance was compared with that of 27 controls who received irradiation to parts of the body other than the cranium. In a retrospective study, 11 patients with leukemia receiving prophylactic craniospinal irradiation and 12 controls with the disease not receiving such therapy were followed from the second year after either irradiation or the initial hematologic remission. Eighteen months after irradiation in the prospective study and four years after irradiation in the retrospective study, no noteworthy neurologic or psychologic differences were found between subjects and controls

  18. Effects of Two Concussions on the Neuropsychological Functioning and Symptom Reporting of High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Geling, Olga; Arnold, Monica; Oshiro, Ross

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of two sports-related concussions on neuropsychological functioning and symptom reporting, the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was administered to 483 high school athletes. Three groups of athletes were determined based on the number of previous concussions: no concussion (n = 409), 1 concussion (n = 58), and 2 concussions (n = 16). The results showed that the three groups did not differ in terms of their ImPACT composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Reaction Time, and Processing Speed) and the Total Symptom Score. As there are only a few studies that have reported the sequelae of 2 concussions in high school athletes, it is premature to declare that a repeated concussion does not have persistent neurocognitive effects on high school athletes.

  19. Parent-of-Origin Effects in ADHD: Distinct Influences of Paternal and Maternal ADHD on Neuropsychological Functioning in Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thissen, A.J.A.M.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Altink, M.E.; Oosterlaan, J.; Buitelaar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined parent-of-origin effects in transmission of ADHD and neuropsychological functioning. Proof of these effects can identify more etiologically homogeneous ADHD subgroups and facilitate genetic studies. Method: The authors included 238 ADHD and 147 control families. ADHD

  20. Depressive and conduct disorder symptoms in youth living with HIV: the independent and interactive roles of coping and neuropsychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Christina; Morris, Mary; Armistead, Lisa; Koenig, Linda J; Demas, Penelope; Ferdon, Corinne; Bachanas, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research suggests the importance of psychosocial characteristics (e.g., coping and social support) for positive adaptation among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV. However, little is known about how these traits interact with cognitive abilities to impact emotional and behavioral adjustment. This study examined whether coping skills and executive functioning interact in their association with psychological adjustment in HIV-positive youth. Data from Project Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS (ALPHA), a study to examine psychosocial, behavioral and neuropsychological functioning of youth with behaviorally acquired HIV, were used. Fifty-nine participants, aged 14-23, diagnosed with HIV prior to age 20 and receiving care in one of two HIV clinics in Atlanta or New York City, were recruited, consented and enrolled. Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), conduct disorder (Adolescent Symptom Index), and use of positive and negative coping strategies (Kidcope). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) assessed abstract reasoning (categories completed) and cognitive inflexibility (perseverative errors). In this sample of HIV-positive youth, depressive symptoms were best predicted by an interactive combination of negative coping skills and poor neuropsychological functioning. Neuropsychological functioning (cognitive inflexibility) and negative coping skills were directly associated with conduct disorder symptoms. Results highlight the importance of including neuropsychological assessment in the evaluation of HIV-positive youth, particularly those with emotional or behavioral problems.

  1. Effect of STA-proximal MCA bypass. Improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neuropsychological function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Akira; Funayama, Masayuki; Miura, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki

    1998-01-01

    We investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in patients with hemodynamic ischemia by positron emission tomography (PET) and thermal diffusion flow meter. We also studied neuropsychological functions to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization. Bypass surgery of the superficial temporal artery to the proximal middle cerebral artery was performed on 26 patients satisfying the following categories: stenosis or occlusive lesion in main cerebral arteries; no marked focus of infarction on CT or MRI. PET was performed before and 1 month after the operation, and CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were analyzed. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) was also calculated after acetazolamide challenge. CBF during the operation was continuously measured with a thermal diffusion flow meter. CO 2 response of CBF was analyzed before and after anastomosis. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated by Hasegawa dementia scale revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised (WAIS-R). Before the operation, increase in OEF accorded with the decrease in CBF, and a significant relationship between both CBF and CVRC, and OEF and CVRC was found. A decrease in CVRC was noted prior to a decrease in CBF and elevation of OEF. CVRC caused by acetazolamide might reflect CO 2 reactivity. Significant improvement of CBF and CVRC, and normalization of OEF were observed after the operation. Also, significant improvement of neuropsychological function was observed by HDS-R and WAIS-R. Disturbance in neuropsychological function might reflect elevation of OEF. (author)

  2. Using pupil size and heart rate to infer affective states during behavioral neurophysiology and neuropsychology experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitz, Andrew R; Chacko, Ravi V; Putnam, Philip T; Rudebeck, Peter H; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2017-03-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a valuable research model because of their behavioral, physiological and neuroanatomical similarities to humans. In the absence of language, autonomic activity can provide crucial information about cognitive and affective states during single-unit recording, inactivation and lesion studies. Methods standardized for use in humans are not easily adapted to NHPs and detailed guidance has been lacking. We provide guidance for monitoring heart rate and pupil size in the behavioral neurophysiology setting by addressing the methodological issues, pitfalls and solutions for NHP studies. The methods are based on comparative physiology to establish a rationale for each solution. We include examples from both electrophysiological and lesion studies. Single-unit recording, pupil responses and heart rate changes represent a range of decreasing temporal resolution, a characteristic that impacts experimental design and analysis. We demonstrate the unexpected result that autonomic measures acquired before and after amygdala lesions are comparable despite disruption of normal autonomic function. Species and study design differences can render standard techniques used in human studies inappropriate for NHP studies. We show how to manage data from small groups typical of NHP studies, data from the short behavioral trials typical of neurophysiological studies, issues associated with longitudinal studies, and differences in anatomy and physiology. Autonomic measurement to infer cognitive and affective states in NHP is neither off-the-shelf nor onerous. Familiarity with the issues and solutions will broaden the use of autonomic signals in NHP single unit and lesion studies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The neuropsychology of hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are a psychopathological phenomenon with neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and pathophysiological correlates in specific brain areas. They can affect any of the senses, but auditory and visual hallucinations predominate. Verbal hallucinations reveal no gross organic lesions while visual hallucinations are connected to defined brain lesions. Functional neuroimaging shows impairments in modality specific sensory systems with the hyperactivity of the surrounding cerebral cortex. Disinhibition and expansion of the inner speech was noted with impaired internal monitoring in auditory verbal hallucinations. The subcortical areas and modal-specific associative cortex and cingulate cortex are essential for the occurrence of hallucinations.

  4. The ties that bind: the relationship between caregiver burden and the neuropsychological functioning of TBI survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehan, Tara; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; de los Reyes, Carlos José; Quijano, María Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Advances in medical and assistive technology have increased the likelihood of survival following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Consequently, families frequently must provide care to individuals with TBI. Because they are rarely prepared for the associated demanding medical needs and financial burden, family caregivers are at risk for physical and emotional problems, which can negatively influence their individual and family functioning. Whereas scholars have examined the influence of survivor functioning on caregiver burden, few have explicitly recognized that caregiver burden also influences survivor functioning. Results of a multivariate linear regression suggest that, in a sample of 51 pairs of TBI survivors and their caregivers living in Colombia, survivors receiving care from a family member who reported a higher level of burden had poorer objective neuropsychological functioning than those receiving care from a family member who reported a lower level of burden, after controlling for survivor education and history of occupational therapy. Therefore, a family-focused approach might maximize intervention effectiveness, especially for Latin American and Hispanic families, which tend to be characterized by a strong sense of familism. The emphasis on family can create problems in a healthcare system that views the individual as the primary unit.

  5. Effectiveness of computerized cognitive rehabilitation training on symptomatological, neuropsychological and work function in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2013-06-01

    There has been plenty of interest in cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia here in Korea since the year 2000. But the efficacy studies of cognitive remediation intervention are still deficient. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a computer-assisted cognitive remediation program and conduct a clinical trial in a group of schizophrenic patients. Sixty patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to a computerized cognitive rehabilitation (Cog-trainer) group plus usual rehabilitation (UR) or to a usual rehabilitation (UR) group only. Clinical, neuropsychological and functional outcome variables were assessed at baseline and after intervention. The Cog-trainer group received 20 sessions of computerized cognitive remediation training over 3 months. This training program consists of 10 units, with each unit being divided into three stages: (i) practice; (ii) application; and (iii) advanced. Compared to the UR group, the Cog-trainer exhibited a significant improvement in attention, concentration and working memory. The Cog-trainer group also showed improvement in the work quality subscale of the work behavior inventory. However, there were no significant benefits of computerized cognitive remediation where symptoms were concerned. These results indicate that computerized cognitive rehabilitation training can contribute to an improvement in the cognitive function of people with schizophrenia. The changes in cognitive outcomes can also contribute to improvement in job functioning. Further study of generalization to other functional outcome measures will be necessary. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to confirm the maintenance of such improvements. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Neuropsychological function in adults after high dose fractionated radiation therapy of skull base tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glosser, Guila; McManus, Pat; Munzenrider, John; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Fullerton, Barbara; Adams, Judy; Urie, Marcia M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long term effects of high dose fractionated radiation therapy on brain functioning prospectively in adults without primary brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with histologically confirmed chordomas and low grade chondrosarcomas of the skull base were evaluated with neuropsychological measures of intelligence, language, memory, attention, motor function and mood following surgical resection/biopsy of the tumor prior to irradiation, and then at about 6 months, 2 years and 4 years following completion of treatment. None received chemotherapy. Results: In the patients without tumor recurrence or radiation necrosis, there were no indications of adverse effects on cognitive functioning in the post-acute through the late stages after brain irradiation. Even in patients who received doses of radiation up to 66 Cobalt Gy equivalent through nondiseased (temporal lobe) brain tissue, memory and cognitive functioning remained stable for up to 5 years after treatment. A mild decline in psycho-motor speed was seen in more than half of the patients, and motor slowing was related to higher radiation doses in midline and temporal lobe brain structures. Conclusion: Results suggest that in adults, tolerance for focused radiation is relatively high in cortical brain structures

  7. Neuropsychology of domestic violence: a comparative preliminary study of executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-García, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In neuropsychological studies of executive functioning in domestic violence offenders, the different investigations conducted have only studied differences within this group or in relation to control groups of non-offenders. To minimize the limitations in relation to comparison groups, the purpose of this study was to compare executive functioning in domestic violence offenders in relation to different groups of offenders (i.e. sexual, violent and non-violent) and a control group of non-offenders, with all groups matched on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Executive functioning was tested of all participants with the Trail Making Test (direct and derived scores). Compared with the control group, the domestic violence offenders and sex offenders exhibited the poorest performance on the Trail Making Test part B (time) and on the B-A derived index; whereas, the violent offenders group (i.e. convicted of assault, wounding, homicide etc.) showed a high number of errors in part B. These findings suggest that domestic violence offenders exhibit similar performance on the TMT as sex offenders, where both have poorer cognitive flexibility and executive control. Other violent offenders exhibited different patterns of difficulty on this test (e.g. more impulsivity responses). Executive functioning may be a central psychological process that could help explain the interrelations between domestic and sexual aggression, and could be a relevant construct for common treatment of domestic batterers and sex offenders. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. The impact of obesity on neuropsychological functioning in adults with and without major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R Restivo

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests obesity exerts a negative impact on cognition. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is also linked to problems in cognitive functioning. Obesity is highly prevalent in individuals with MDD and is linked to a failure to return to a full level of functioning. The study's objective was to investigate the effect of obesity on cognitive impairment in participants with MDD.This study compared cognitive performance in obese individuals with MDD and two control populations (obese individuals without a psychiatric illness and non-obese controls. A standardized battery of neuropsychological tests specifically designed to assess performance in declarative memory, executive functioning, processing speed and attention was administered. Mood ratings, physical measurements, nutritional and health questionnaires were also completed.We observed a consistent pattern across measures of memory, executive functioning, attention and processing speed. Whereas healthy controls performed better than both bariatric groups across the majority of measures administered, bariatric controls tended to outperform bariatric MDD patients.The overall sample size of our study was small and thus largely explorative in nature. However, it provides compelling results (while controlling for extraneous variables such as medication load, nutritional status and common metabolic comordidities that strongly urges for further investigation and study replication with larger sample sizes.We found obesity has a subtle impact on cognition in obese individuals, and when obesity is present in individuals with MDD, this impact may be significant. It is important to minimize all modifiable variables that can add to cognitive burden in this population.

  9. Neuropsychological and social cognitive function in young people at genetic risk of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, C; Green, M J; Rowland, J E; Roberts, G; Frankland, A; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D; Joslyn, C; Lau, P; Wright, A; Levy, F; Lenroot, R K; Mitchell, P B

    2016-03-01

    Impairments in key neuropsychological domains (e.g. working memory, attention) and social cognitive deficits have been implicated as intermediate (endo) phenotypes for bipolar disorder (BD), and should therefore be evident in unaffected relatives. Neurocognitive and social cognitive ability was examined in 99 young people (age range 16-30 years) with a biological parent or sibling diagnosed with the disorder [thus deemed to be at risk (AR) of developing BD], compared with 78 healthy control (HC) subjects, and 52 people with a confirmed diagnosis of BD. Only verbal intelligence and affective response inhibition were significantly impaired in AR relative to HC participants; the BD participants showed significant deficits in attention tasks compared with HCs. Neither AR nor BD patients showed impairments in general intellectual ability, working memory, visuospatial or language ability, relative to HC participants. Analysis of BD-I and BD-II cases separately revealed deficits in attention and immediate memory in BD-I patients (only), relative to HCs. Only the BD (but not AR) participants showed impaired emotion recognition, relative to HCs. Selective cognitive deficits in the capacity to inhibit negative affective information, and general verbal ability may be intermediate markers of risk for BD; however, the extent and severity of impairment in this sample was less pronounced than has been reported in previous studies of older family members and BD cases. These findings highlight distinctions in the cognitive profiles of AR and BD participants, and provide limited support for progressive cognitive decline in association with illness development in BD.

  10. Neuropsychological function after endovascular and neurosurgical treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeto, Peter; Loch Macdonald, R; Ornstein, Tisha J; Schweizer, Tom A

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is treated with either surgical clipping or endovascular coiling, though the latter is the preferred treatment method given its more favorable functional outcomes. However, neuropsychological functioning after treatment is rarely taken into account. In this meta-analysis, the authors synthesized relevant data from the literature and compared neuropsychological functioning in patients after coiling and clipping of SAH. They hypothesized that the coiled patients would outperform the clipped patients; that group differences would be greater with higher posterior circulation rupture rates, in older patients, and in more recent publications; that group differences would be smaller with greater rates of middle cerebral artery (MCA) rupture; and that anterior communicating artery (ACoA) rupture rates would not influence effect sizes. METHODS The MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched for clinical studies that compared neuropsychological functioning after either endovascular coiling or surgical clipping for SAH. Hedge's g and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random effects models. Patients who had undergone coiling or clipping were compared on test performance in 8 neuropsychological domains: executive functions, language, attention/processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory, spatial memory, visuospatial functions, and intelligence. Patients were also compared with healthy controls, and meta-regressions were used to explore the relation between effect sizes and publication year, delay between treatment and neuropsychological testing, mean patient age, and rates of posterior circulation, ACoA, and MCA ruptures. RESULTS Thirteen studies with 396 clipped cases, 314 coiled cases, and 169 healthy controls were included in the study. The coil-treated patients outperformed the clip-treated patients on executive function (g = 0.17, 95% CI 0.08-0.25) and language tests (g = 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.39), and all

  11. Working memory deficits in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: neuropsychological and neuroimaging correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendse, Evelien M; Hendriks, Marc Ph; Jansen, Jacobus Fa; Backes, Walter H; Hofman, Paul Am; Thoonen, Geert; Kessels, Roy Pc; Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2013-06-04

    Working memory is a temporary storage system under attentional control. It is believed to play a central role in online processing of complex cognitive information and may also play a role in social cognition and interpersonal interactions. Adolescents with a disorder on the autism spectrum display problems in precisely these domains. Social impairments, communication difficulties, and repetitive interests and activities are core domains of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and executive function problems are often seen throughout the spectrum. As the main cognitive theories of ASD, including the theory of mind deficit hypotheses, weak central coherence account, and the executive dysfunction theory, still fail to explain the broad spectrum of symptoms, a new perspective on the etiology of ASD is needed. Deficits in working memory are central to many theories of psychopathology, and are generally linked to frontal-lobe dysfunction. This article will review neuropsychological and (functional) brain imaging studies on working memory in adolescents with ASD. Although still disputed, it is concluded that within the working memory system specific problems of spatial working memory are often seen in adolescents with ASD. These problems increase when information is more complex and greater demands on working memory are made. Neuroimaging studies indicate a more global working memory processing or connectivity deficiency, rather than a focused deficit in the prefrontal cortex. More research is needed to relate these working memory difficulties and neuroimaging results in ASD to the behavioral difficulties as seen in individuals with a disorder on the autism spectrum.

  12. Sports-related and gender differences on neuropsychological measures of frontal lobe functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jeanne P; Atkinson, Thomas M; Dunham, Katherine T

    2004-01-01

    To determine similarities and differences in the performance of female and male athletes on neuropsychological measures of frontal lobe functioning. A cross-sectional study of male and female college-aged athletes involved in one of the following sports: hockey, basketball, softball, lacrosse, soccer, swimming, and track. Division III college. A total of 262 athletes (male, n=157; female, n=105) participated in the study. Controlled Oral Word Association (letters F, A, S), Cognitive Assessment System (Planned Codes, Planned Connections, Number Detection), and WAIS-R-NI Vocabulary were administered to all athletes. MANCOVA was performed with gender and sport as fixed factors. Female athletes displayed faster and more accurate performance on perceptual-motor tasks (Pgender and sport. Gender- and sport-specific performances on perceptual-motor and verbal fluency tasks were found. Adding cognitive components to base functions eliminates gender- and sports-related distinctions, suggesting that existing differences are related to basic, fundamental skills, which are inherent and practiced within the respective sport. Understanding the differences and similarities across sports and gender on various neurocognitive measures is relevant for determining group differences in studies examining the consequences of mild traumatic brain injury among athletes.

  13. Neuropsychological functioning in buprenorphine maintained patients versus abstinent heroin abusers on naltrexone hydrochloride therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Andrian, Virginia; Katsakiori, Paraskevi; Panagis, George; Georgiou, Vasileios; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2009-10-01

    Methadone and buprenorphine are among the most widely employed pharmacological treatments currently available for opioid addiction. Cognitive effects of buprenorphine in abstinent heroin abusers are nevertheless far from being understood. Neuropsychological performance of 18 buprenorphine-maintained patients (BMP) was evaluated relative to that of 32 currently abstinent heroin abusers on naltrexone hydrochloride therapy (FHAN), and 34 non-drug dependent controls. The three groups were demographically balanced. Clinical groups reported histories of similar patterns of drug use and had increased periods of abstinence from any illicit substance use including heroin. The BMP group performed poorer than controls on the RAVLT (encoding and delayed recall of verbal information), CTT (conceptual flexibility, executive functions) and the RBANS figure copy (visual perception) and delayed recall of visual information. There were no significant differences in any of the cognitive measures between the BMP and FHAN groups or between the FHAN group and controls. Furthermore, the non-differing percentage of abnormal cases between the two patient groups led us to infer that treatment with either BPM or FHAN is not accompanied by qualitative differences in the cognitive profiles of these patients. Overall, results suggest that treatment with naltrexone in abstinent heroin abusers may result in less impairment of cognitive functions compared to treatment with buprenorphine. These findings are relevant for improved prognosis and treatment strategies in opioid dependence.

  14. Is insomnia associated with deficits in neuropsychological functioning? Evidence from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Caspi, Avshalom; Gregory, Alice M; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2015-04-01

    People with insomnia complain of cognitive deficits in daily life. Results from empirical studies examining associations between insomnia and cognitive impairment, however, are mixed. Research is needed that compares treatment-seeking and community-based insomnia study samples, measures subjective as well as objective cognitive functioning, and considers participants' pre-insomnia cognitive function. We used data from the Dunedin Study, a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals, to examine whether insomnia in early midlife was associated with subjective and objective cognitive functioning. We also tested whether individuals with insomnia who reported seeking treatment for their sleep problems (treatment-seekers) showed greater impairment than other individuals with insomnia (non-treatment-seekers). The role of key confounders, including childhood cognitive ability and comorbid health conditions, was evaluated. Insomnia was diagnosed at age 38 according to DSM-IV criteria. Objective neuropsychological assessments at age 38 included the WAIS-IV IQ test, the Wechsler Memory Scale, and the Trail-Making Test. Childhood cognitive functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). A total of 949 cohort members were assessed for insomnia symptoms and other study measures at age 38. Although cohort members with insomnia (n = 186, 19.6%) had greater subjective cognitive impairment than their peers at age 38, they did not exhibit greater objective impairment on formal testing. Treatment-seekers, however, exhibited significant objective impairment compared to non-treatment-seekers. Controlling for comorbidity, daytime impairment, and medications slightly decreased this association. Childhood cognitive deficits antedated the adult cognitive deficits of treatment-seekers. Links between insomnia and cognitive impairment may be strongest among individuals who seek clinical treatment. Clinicians should take into account the

  15. Neuropsychological evaluation of deficits in executive functioning for ADHD children with or without learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kitty K; Anderson, Vicki; Castiello, Umberto

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates multiple aspects of executive functioning in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These areas include attentional components, impulsiveness, planning, and problem solving. The rationale of the study is based on neurophysiological studies that suggest frontal lobe dysfunction in ADHD. As frontal lobe functioning is related to abilities in executive control, ADHD is hypothesised to be associated with deficits in various areas of executive functioning. The specific effect of comorbidity of learning disability (LD) was also investigated. Eighty-three children with ADHD and 29 age-matched controls (age 7-13) participated in the study. A battery of neuropsychological tests was utilized to evaluate specific deficits in speed of processing, selective attention, switching attention, sustained attention, attentional capacity, impulsiveness, planning and problem solving. Findings indicated that children with ADHD have slower verbal responses and sustained attention deficit. Deficits in selective attention and attentional capacity observed were largely related to the presence of LD. No specific deficit associated with ADHD or the comorbidity of LD was identified in switching attention, impulsiveness, planning, and problem solving. These results revealed that ADHD is not associated with a general deficit in executive functioning. Instead, ADHD is related to a specific deficit in regulation for attentional resources. The importance of isolating the deficit related to LDs for examining the specific deficit associated with ADHD is highlighted. Results also emphasised the importance of isolating the effect of lower level of abilities (e.g., speed of processing) and the utilization of specific definition for the examination of executive functions.

  16. Schizophrenia, culture and neuropsychology: sensory deficits, language impairments and social functioning in Chinese-speaking schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Chen, S; Chen, C-M; Khan, F; Forchelli, G; Javitt, D C

    2012-07-01

    While 20% of schizophrenia patients worldwide speak tonal languages (e.g. Mandarin), studies are limited to Western-language patients. Western-language patients show tonal deficits that are related to impaired emotional processing of speech. However, language processing is minimally affected. In contrast, in Mandarin, syllables are voiced in one of four tones, with word meaning varying accordingly. We hypothesized that Mandarin-speaking schizophrenia patients would show impairments in underlying basic auditory processing that, unlike in Western groups, would relate to deficits in word recognition and social outcomes. Altogether, 22 Mandarin-speaking schizophrenia patients and 44 matched healthy participants were recruited from New York City. The auditory tasks were: (1) tone matching; (2) distorted tunes; (3) Chinese word discrimination; (4) Chinese word identification. Social outcomes were measured by marital status, employment and most recent employment status. Patients showed deficits in tone-matching, distorted tunes, word discrimination and word identification versus controls (all pneuropsychology and language among Mandarin-speaking schizophrenia patients. As predicted, patients were highly impaired in both tone and auditory word processing, with these two measures significantly correlated. Tonally impaired patients showed significantly worse employment-status function than tonally intact patients, suggesting a link between sensory impairment and employment status outcome. While neuropsychological deficits appear similar cross-culturally, their consequences may be language- and culture-dependent.

  17. Comparisons of Korsakoff and Non-Korsakoff Alcoholics on Neuropsychological Tests of Prefrontal Brain Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Kirkley, Shalene M.; Gansler, David A.; Couture, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that alcoholics exhibit particular deficits in brain systems involving the prefrontal cortex, but few studies have directly compared patients with and without Korsakoff’s syndrome on measures of prefrontal integrity. Methods Neuropsychological tasks sensitive to dysfunction of frontal brain systems were administered, along with standard tests of memory, intelligence, and visuospatial abilities, to 50 healthy, abstinent, nonamnesic alcoholics, 6 patients with alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder (Korsakoff’s syndrome), 6 brain-damaged controls with right hemisphere lesions, and 82 healthy nonalcoholic controls. Results Korsakoff patients were impaired on tests of memory, fluency, cognitive flexibility, and perseveration. Non-Korsakoff alcoholics showed some frontal system deficits as well, but these were mild. Cognitive deficits in non-Korsakoff alcoholics were related to age, duration of abstinence (less than 5 years), duration of abuse (more than 20 years), and amount of alcohol intake. Conclusions Abnormalities of frontal system functioning are most apparent in alcoholics with Korsakoff’s syndrome. In non-Korsakoff alcoholics, factors contributing to cognitive performance are age, duration of abstinence, duration of alcoholism, and amount of alcohol consumed. PMID:15100620

  18. The Mediterranean diet and age-related cognitive functioning: A systematic review of study findings and neuropsychological assessment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alissa; Bryan, Janet; Murphy, Karen

    2017-10-01

    The primary aims of this review were to identify studies investigating the association between the MedDiet pattern and age-related cognitive function, to determine the current status of knowledge, and to ascertain whether a lack of standardization with the operationalization of age-related cognitive function and differences in the chosen neuropsychological assessment methodology impacted on the results and findings. The systematic review protocol for this paper was carried out following the statement and general principles of PRISMA and the UK Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD). A systematic search of electronic databases yielded two cross-sectional studies, two cross-sectional/prospective studies, and 11 prospective studies for inclusion. Among this group of studies, conflicting results and conclusions regarding the efficacy of the MedDiet as a therapeutic approach for age-related cognitive function were found. Of importance, clear differences among studies in relation to neuropsychological assessment methodology were identified. Such disparity appeared to be one plausible factor contributing to the lack of consensus among study findings. One of the important challenges for future research will be to aim toward some kind of standardized neuropsychological assessment criteria. This type of endeavor will enable the ability to validate with greater confidence, whether or not adherence to a MedDiet does promote benefit for age-related cognitive function.

  19. Effect of STA-proximal MCA bypass. Improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neuropsychological function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Akira; Funayama, Masayuki; Miura, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-11-01

    We investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in patients with hemodynamic ischemia by positron emission tomography (PET) and thermal diffusion flow meter. We also studied neuropsychological functions to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization. Bypass surgery of the superficial temporal artery to the proximal middle cerebral artery was performed on 26 patients satisfying the following categories: stenosis or occlusive lesion in main cerebral arteries; no marked focus of infarction on CT or MRI. PET was performed before and 1 month after the operation, and CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were analyzed. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) was also calculated after acetazolamide challenge. CBF during the operation was continuously measured with a thermal diffusion flow meter. CO{sub 2} response of CBF was analyzed before and after anastomosis. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated by Hasegawa dementia scale revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised (WAIS-R). Before the operation, increase in OEF accorded with the decrease in CBF, and a significant relationship between both CBF and CVRC, and OEF and CVRC was found. A decrease in CVRC was noted prior to a decrease in CBF and elevation of OEF. CVRC caused by acetazolamide might reflect CO{sub 2} reactivity. Significant improvement of CBF and CVRC, and normalization of OEF were observed after the operation. Also, significant improvement of neuropsychological function was observed by HDS-R and WAIS-R. Disturbance in neuropsychological function might reflect elevation of OEF. (author)

  20. The association of pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking with child neuropsychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmodel, U S; Kjaersgaard, M I S; Denny, C H; Bertrand, J; Skogerbø, Å; Eriksen, H-L F; Bay, B; Underbjerg, M; Mortensen, E L

    2015-12-01

    To examine the effects of pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking on child neuropsychological functioning. Prospective follow-up study. 154 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption before pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children at Five (TEACh-5), and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). The Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) was completed by the mothers and a preschool teacher. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, child's age at testing, child's sex, and maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy were considered potential confounders. Performance on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the TEACh-5, the MABC, and the BRIEF. Intake of 15-21 drinks/week on average prior to pregnancy was not associated with any of the outcomes, but intake of ≥22 drinks/week on average was associated with a significantly lower adjusted mean full scale IQ and lower adjusted means in overall attention and sustained attention score, but not in selective attention score or any of the BRIEF index scores or MABC scores. Intake of ≥22 drinks/week before pregnancy was associated with lower mean full scale IQ, overall attention and sustained attention. Assessment of pre-pregnancy drinking provides additional information regarding potential prenatal alcohol exposure and its implications for child neurodevelopment. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  2. Neuropsychological functions and rCBF SPECT in Parkinson's disease patients considered candidates for deep brain stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Paulos; Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Constantoyannis, Costas; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we examined relationships between neuropsychological functions and brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed at presurgical evaluation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Twenty advanced non-demented PD patients, candidates for DBS surgery, underwent perfusion brain SPECT study and neuropsychological assessment prior to surgery (range: 30-50 days). Patients were further assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) scale. During all assessments patients were ''on'' standard medication. NeuroGam software, which permits voxel by voxel analysis, was used to compare the brain perfusion of PD patients with a normal database adjusted for sex and age. Neuropsychological scores were compared to age, education and sex-adjusted normative databases. Our results indicated that the distribution of rCBF showed significant differences when compared to an age- and sex-adjusted normative database. We found impaired blood flow in 17 (85%) of our patients in the left prefrontal lobe, in 14 (70%) in the right prefrontal lobe and in 11 (55%) in the left frontal and right parietal lobes. Neuropsychological testing revealed that 18 (90%) of our patients had significant impairments in measures of executive functions (set-shifting) and 15 (75%) in response inhibition. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between measures of visual attention, executive functions and the right frontal lobe region. The presence of widespread blood flow reduction was observed mainly in the frontal lobes of dementia-free patients with advanced PD. Furthermore, performance on specific cognitive measures was highly related to perfusion brain SPECT findings. (orig.)

  3. Neuropsychological functions and rCBF SPECT in Parkinson's disease patients considered candidates for deep brain stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Paulos [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Patras (Greece); Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurology, Neuropsychology Section, Patras (Greece); Constantoyannis, Costas; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Patras (Greece)

    2009-11-15

    In the present study, we examined relationships between neuropsychological functions and brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed at presurgical evaluation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Twenty advanced non-demented PD patients, candidates for DBS surgery, underwent perfusion brain SPECT study and neuropsychological assessment prior to surgery (range: 30-50 days). Patients were further assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) scale. During all assessments patients were ''on'' standard medication. NeuroGam software, which permits voxel by voxel analysis, was used to compare the brain perfusion of PD patients with a normal database adjusted for sex and age. Neuropsychological scores were compared to age, education and sex-adjusted normative databases. Our results indicated that the distribution of rCBF showed significant differences when compared to an age- and sex-adjusted normative database. We found impaired blood flow in 17 (85%) of our patients in the left prefrontal lobe, in 14 (70%) in the right prefrontal lobe and in 11 (55%) in the left frontal and right parietal lobes. Neuropsychological testing revealed that 18 (90%) of our patients had significant impairments in measures of executive functions (set-shifting) and 15 (75%) in response inhibition. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between measures of visual attention, executive functions and the right frontal lobe region. The presence of widespread blood flow reduction was observed mainly in the frontal lobes of dementia-free patients with advanced PD. Furthermore, performance on specific cognitive measures was highly related to perfusion brain SPECT findings. (orig.)

  4. Maternal Thyroid Function in Early Pregnancy and Neuropsychological Performance of the Child at 5 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Andersen, Stig; Liew, Zeyan; Vestergaard, Peter; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine and corroborate the hypothesis. To estimate the association between maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and neuropsychological performance of the child at 5 years of age. Follow-up study. A cohort of 1153 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) were measured in stored biobank sera from early pregnancy. Child neuropsychological test results (Wechsler Intelligence Scale/Test of Everyday Attention), test of motor function (Movement Assessment Battery), and results of parent and teacher reports (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function/Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Altogether 145 children (12.6%) were born to mothers with abnormal thyroid function in the early pregnancy. High maternal TSH and low fT4 were associated with lower child verbal intelligence quotient (adjusted mean difference TSH ≥ 10 mIU/L vs 0.1 to 2.49 mIU/L, -8.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), -15 to -2.4]; fT4 function was also associated with adverse motor function and teacher-reported problems of executive function and behavior, and these associations were dominated by exposure to maternal hypothyroxinemia. Maternal thyroid hormone abnormalities were associated with adverse neuropsychological function of the child at 5 years of age. For intelligence, marked hypothyroidism was important, whereas for motor function and executive and behavior problems, maternal hypothyroxinemia was predominant. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  5. Acute central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of total body irradiation (TBI) measured using neuropsychological testing of attention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Lohr, Frank; Hacke, Werner; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute normal tissue damage of low irradiation doses to the healthy, adult central nervous system (CNS) using neuropsychological testing of attention functions. Methods and Materials: Neuropsychological testing (IQ, attention [modified Trail-Making Test A, Digit Symbol Test, D2 Test, Wiener Determination Machine]) was used to examine 40 patients (43 ± 10 years) before and immediately after the first fraction (1.2 Gy) of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) at the University of Heidelberg. The patients received antiemetic premedication. Test results are given as mean percentiles ± standard deviation, with 50 ± 34 being normal. Thirty-eight control patients (53 ± 15 years) were studied to quantify the influence of hospitalization, stress, and repeated testing. Results: The patients showed normal baseline test results (IQ = 101 ± 14, attention = 54 ± 28) and no decrease in test results after 1.2 Gy TBI. Attention functions improved (66 ± 25) corresponding to a practice effect of repeated testing that was seen in the control group, although alternate versions of the tests were used (IQ = 104 ± 10, attention before = 42 ± 29, attention after = 52 ± 31). Conclusion: Our data show no deterioration of neuropsychologic test results acutely after 1.2 Gy whole body exposure in adult patients without CNS disease receiving antiemetic medication

  6. Neurological soft signs in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and the relationships to neuropsychological functions

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    Li Hui-jie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances. Methods Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants. Results People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI.

  7. Drug-related decrease in neuropsychological functions of abstinent drug users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holst, Ruth Janke; Schilt, Thelma

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews neuropsychological performance in frequent users of cocaine, (meth)amphetamines, ecstasy, opiates, alcohol, and cannabis. We searched the scientific literature published in the last five years, focusing on studies that required at least 2 weeks of abstinence from drug use, and

  8. Neuropsychological Functioning in Childhood-Onset Psychosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Kimberly; Willcutt, Erik G.; Davalos, Deana B.; Ross, Randal G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few…

  9. Neuropsychological and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis function in female patients with melancholic and non-melancholic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Ioannis; Zervas, Iannis M; Pantelis, Chris; Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Papakosta, Vassiliki-Maria; Boufidou, Fotini; Nikolaou, Chrissoula; Papageorgiou, Charalambos; Soldatos, Costas R; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2008-06-01

    Executive function deficits in depression implicate involvement of frontal-striatal circuits. However, studies of hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) function suggest that stress-related brain changes of hippocampus may also implicate prefrontal-hippocampal circuits, which may explain the profile of both executive dysfunction and memory deficits. In this study we examined the performance of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) on tasks of memory and executive function in relation to melancholic features and to cortisol levels. Our hypothesis was that raised cortisol levels in melancholic patients would correlate with these deficits. Forty female MDD patients, 20 having melancholic features (MEL vs. Non-MEL), and 20 sex-age- and education-matched normal controls were investigated using the Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery (CANTAB), to assess memory (paired associative learning, PAL; short-term recognition memory, SRM) and executive (intradimensional/extradimensional set-shifting, ID/ED; Stockings of Cambridge, SOC) functions. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels were measured. The MDD patients performed worse than controls on PAL and both executive tasks. The MEL group differed from controls on all tests, and differed from the non-MEL only at the ED stage of the ID/ED task. Patient cortisol levels were within the normal range and did not correlate with neuropsychological performance for any group. MDD patients showed neuropsychological deficits on tasks of executive function and memory, supporting the model of frontal-temporal dysfunction. MEL vs. non-MEL performed worse overall and demonstrated a qualitative difference in set shifting, perhaps implicating more extensive prefrontal involvement. Cortisol levels did not correlate with depression severity or the observed deficits.

  10. Neurodegenerative cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers tau and amyloid beta predict functional, quality of life, and neuropsychological outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joswig, Holger; Korte, Wolfgang; Früh, Severin; Epprecht, Lorenz; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Fournier, Jean-Yves; Stienen, Martin Nikolaus

    2018-04-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers might be useful in predicting outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). It was the aim to determine whether tau and amyloid beta CSF concentrations predict functional, health-related quality of life (hrQoL), and neuropsychological outcomes after aSAH. Ventricular CSF was obtained from n = 24 aSAH patients at admission (D0), day 2 (D2), and day 6 (D6). CSF total (t)Tau, phosphorylated (p)Tau (181P) , and amyloid beta (1-40 and 1-42) (Aβ40/Aβ42) levels were compared between patients with favorable and unfavorable functional (modified Rankin Scale (mRS)), hrQoL (Euro-Qol (EQ-5D)), and neuropsychological outcomes at 3 (3 m) and 12 months (12 m). Patients with unfavorable functional (mRS 4-6) and hrQoL outcome (EQ-5D z-score ≤ - 1.0) at 3 and 12 m had higher CSF tTau/pTau and lower Aβ40/Aβ42 at D0, D2, and D6 with varying degrees of statistical significance. In terms of predicting neuropsychological outcome, CSF pTau showed a statistically significant correlation with the z-scores of executive function (r = - 0.7486, p = 0.008), verbal memory (r = - 0.8101, p = 0.002), attention (r = - 0.6498, p = 0.030), and visuospatial functioning (r = - 0.6944, p = 0.017) at 3 m. At 12 m, CSF pTau had statistically significant correlations with the z-scores of verbal memory (r = - 0.7473, p = 0.008) and visuospatial functioning (r = - 0.6678, p = 0.024). In conclusion, higher tTau/pTau and lower Aβ40/Aβ42 CSF levels predict unfavorable long-term functional and hrQoL outcomes. Neuropsychological deficits correlate with increased CSF tTau and pTau concentrations.

  11. Improved Behavior and Neuropsychological Function in Children With ROHHAD After High-Dose Cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Rane, Shruti; McReynolds, Lisa J; Steppan, Diana A; Chen, Allen R; Paz-Priel, Ido

    2016-07-01

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare, generally progressive, and potentially fatal syndrome of unclear etiology. The syndrome is characterized by normal development followed by a sudden, rapid hyperphagic weight gain beginning during the preschool period, hypothalamic dysfunction, and central hypoventilation, and is often accompanied by personality changes and developmental regression, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. We describe 2 children who had symptomatic and neuropsychological improvement after high-dose cyclophosphamide treatment. Our experience supports an autoimmune pathogenesis and provides the first neuropsychological profile of patients with rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Long-term classroom functioning and its association with neuropsychological and academic performance following traumatic brain injury during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Schultz, Hanna; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2017-07-01

    The present study utilized ecobehavioral assessment to examine classroom functioning several years following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) or orthopedic injury (OI) and its association with injury factors, neuropsychological abilities, and academic performance. Participants included 39 children with moderate to severe TBI and 51 children with OI sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. At 7.2 (± 1.3) years post injury, ecobehavioral assessment was used to examine classroom functioning. Additional outcomes included neuropsychological tests, parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior, and teacher ratings of academic performance. Groups were compared on measures controlling for demographic characteristics, and associations among outcomes were examined using linear regression. Children with TBI showed lower academic engagement relative to children with OI, as well as more frequent individual teacher attention for children with more severe injuries. For children with TBI, difficulties in classroom functioning were associated with lower cognitive flexibility and higher parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior. Lower scores on a test of fluid reasoning and a greater frequency of individual teacher attention were also associated with lower academic performance in children with TBI. Difficulties in classroom functioning are evident several years after early childhood TBI and were associated with greater injury severity, neuropsychological weaknesses, and poorer academic performance. Children with impaired cognitive flexibility and fluid reasoning skills were at greatest risk for these difficulties and associated weaknesses in academic performance. Instructional interactions may be a potential target for intervention to promote academic progress in at-risk children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Self-esteem and symptoms of depression in children with seizures: relationships with neuropsychological functioning and family variables over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Joan K; Perkins, Susan M; Johnson, Cynthia S; Fastenau, Philip S; Byars, Anna W; deGrauw, Ton J; Dunn, David W

    2010-10-01

    To test over time the relationships of neuropsychological functioning to mental health in children following a first recognized seizure and, of primary importance, to determine if the strength of these relationships differs based on risk and protective factors. In a larger prospective study, 135 children with a first seizure (ages 8-14 years) and 73 healthy sibling controls completed neuropsychological testing at baseline and 36 months. Structured telephone interviews were used to obtain data from children on mental health and family environment; major caregiving parents provided data on demographic and family variables. Data analyses included correlation coefficients and linear regression models. Children with seizures showed an overall trend for improvement in mental health. More children with seizures than siblings had declines in processing speed. Declines in neuropsychological functioning were correlated with worse mental health. With regard to risk and protective factors, higher parent education protected against decline in self-esteem related to decline in processing speed. Better family functioning and greater parental support protected against decline in self-esteem related to decrease in verbal memory and learning. Older child age protected against increase in depressive symptoms related to decline in processing speed. Seizure onset had a negative impact on mental health in children with declines in cognitive functioning except for older children and those with more family resources. Children should be assessed for declines in processing speed and, if found, those subgroups of children with less educated or more anxious parents and those in less supportive families should be targeted for interventions. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Executive function in weight loss and weight loss maintenance: a conceptual review and novel neuropsychological model of weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettens, Katelyn M; Gorin, Amy A

    2017-10-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing literature examining executive functions as they relate to weight status and initial weight loss. Further, we propose a novel conceptual model of the relationships between EF, initial weight loss, and weight loss maintenance, mapping specific executive functions onto strategies known to be associated with both phases of the weight control process. Implications for the development of more efficacious weight loss maintenance interventions are discussed.

  15. Neuropsychological functioning among individuals infected with hepatitis C: a comparison of pre- and post-transplant performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Sakamoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available t is well established that patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD experience cognitive and mood problems; however, little is known about changes in cognitive and emotional functioning following liver transplantation, especially over the past decade with the epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection taking over as the leading indication for liver transplantation. Seventeen patients with ESLD secondary to chronic HCV were assessed pre- and post-liver transplantation using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. After an average of four years post-transplant, patients demonstrated significant improvements in most cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms. However, 18% of liver recipients continued to exhibit mild cognitive impairment mainly in areas of attention/executive functioning, motor speed, and learning. Liver transplantation is a life-extending surgery that reverses most, but not all, cognitive and mood difficulties. It is crucial to evaluate cognition after liver transplantation, especially in these three domains, and to consider the effect on daily functioning.

  16. Neuropsychological functioning of an Asperger child with exceptional skill in arranging picture stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conson, Massimiliano; Salzano, Sara; Grossi, Dario

    2011-08-01

    A striking special ability in arranging picture stories was reported in an Asperger child (C.M.) showing an exceptional performance on Wechsler picture arrangement subtest. Neuropsychological examination did not disclose visuoperceptual and spatial defects, or working memory, attention and executive disorders, but revealed an attentional bias towards local details of complex structures. A specific assessment of C.M.'s understanding of picture stories demonstrated that, with respect to normal controls, he showed an enhanced ability to detect causal links among elements of a story. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that savantism can be related to strong systemizing in autism.

  17. Neuropsychological measures of attention and memory function in schizophrenia: relationships with symptom dimensions and serum monoamine activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Uwe

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some clinical symptoms or cognitive functions have been related to the overall state of monoamine activity in patients with schizophrenia, (e.g. inverse correlation of the dopamine metabolite HVA with delusions or visual-masking performance. However, profiles (as presented here of the relations of the activity of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin to neuropsychologic (dysfunctions in major patient sub-groups with their very different symptomatic and cognitive characteristics have not been reported. Methods Serum measures of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin turnover were examined by regression analyses for the prediction of performance on 10 neuropsychological measures reflecting left- and right-hemispheric and frontal-, parietal- and temporal-lobe function in 108 patients with schizophrenia and 63 matched controls. The neuropsychological battery included tests of verbal fluency, Stroop interference, trail-making, block-design, Mooney faces recognition, picture-completion, immediate and delayed visual and verbal recall. Paranoid and nonparanoid subgroups were based on ratings from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Groups with high and low ratings of ideas-of-reference and thought-disorder were formed from a median split on the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results Verbal-fluency and Stroop-interference (left frontal and fronto-cingulate function were negatively associated with noradrenergic turnover in nonparanoid and thought-disordered patients. High dopamine turnover related to speeded trail-making (frontal modulation of set switching in those with many ideas-of-reference. In contrast, low dopamine turnover predicted poor recall in nonparanoid patients and those with little thought disorder. Serotonin metabolism did not independently contribute to the prediction any measure of cognitive performance. But, with regard to the relative activity between monoaminergic systems, increased

  18. Neuropsychological Assessment in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, William R., Sr.; And Others

    The nature of neuropsychological assessment and its application in the school environment are discussed. Neuropsychology is the study of how the brain and nervous system affect thinking and behavior. A complete neuropsychological assessment requires gathering and analyzing information on a child's: (1) physical, social, and psychological…

  19. Neuropsychology of Illiteracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rosselli

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that analysis of illiteracy can not only discern the influence of schooling background on neuropsychological test performance, but also contributes to obtaining a better understanding about the cerebral organization of cognitive activity. Brain organization of cognition, and cognitive sequelae of brain pathology in illiterates are reviewed. It is concluded that: (1 cognitive abilities, as measured by standard neuropsychological tests, are significantly influenced by schooling background; and (2 educational and cultural variables may affect the degree (albeit, not the direction of hemispheric dominance for language, and other cognitive abilities. A more bilateral representation of cognitive abilities in illiterates is hypothesized.

  20. Differences in attentional functioning between preterm and full-term children underline the importance of new neuropsychological detection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, V; Fuiko, R; Leiss, U; Brandstetter, S; Hayde, M; Bartha-Doering, E; Klebermaß-Schrehof, K; Weiler, L J

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate specific attentional components in preterm born children who had not yet started school. Between January and December 2011, we assessed 52 preterm and 52 full-term children aged between five years five months and six years two months, of comparable age and gender, at the Medical University of Vienna. Different attentional components were evaluated through selected subtests of the Test of Attentional Performance and the German version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Each child's behaviour was also evaluated using parental ratings and descriptive item-based evaluation during neuropsychological assessment. Children born preterm showed poor attentional performance in sustained attention, focused attention and distractibility, as well as reductions in processing speed in divided attention and flexibility tasks. Children born preterm also showed decreased volitional attention compared with automatic attention. No problems were detected in alertness or inhibition. In addition, a higher rate of aborted tests, decreased motivation and poorer parental ratings were detected among the preterm population compared with full-term born children. Our results highlighted differences in attentional functioning between preterm and full-term children, indicating the importance of new neuropsychological techniques for the detection of specific attentional disorders. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Program of neuropsychological stimulation of cognition in students: Emphasis on executive functions - development and evidence of content validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Oliveira Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The goal of this study was to describe the construction process and content validity evidence of an early and preventive intervention program for stimulating executive functions (EF in Elementary School children within the school environment. Methods: The process has followed the recommended steps for creating neuropsychological instruments: internal phase of program organization, with literature search and analyses of available materials in the classroom; program construction; analysis by expert judges; data integration and program finalization. To determine the level of agreement among the judges, a Content Validity Index (CVI was calculated. Results: Content validity was evidenced by the agreement among the experts with regards to the program, both in general and for each activity. All steps taken were deemed necessary because they contributed to the identification of positive aspects and possible flaws in the process Conclusion: The steps also helped to adapt stimuli and improve program tasks and activities. Methodological procedures implemented in this study can be adopted by other researchers to create or adapt neuropsychological stimulation and rehabilitation programs. Furthermore, the methodological approach allows the reader to understand, in detail, the technical and scientific rigor adopted in devising this program.

  2. Neuropsychological functioning and antiretroviral treatment in HIV/AIDS: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A; Brew, Bruce J

    2009-06-01

    This article presents a review of studies that have investigated the neuropsychological effects of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV-1 infection. It provides a brief overview of the era of monotherapy, dual-therapy, and an extended overview of the current era of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). This review highlights that while CART has had a dramatic effect on the incidence and the severity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), HAND, in its mild form, still remains prevalent. New causes of this sustained prevalence are poor CNS penetration of some antiretroviral agents, drug resistance, poor adherence, potential neurotoxicity, co-morbidities such as the long-term CART side effects in relation to cardio-vascular disease, and chronic HIV brain infection that may facilitate the expression of new forms of neurodegenerative processes. The review emphasizes the need to address methodological limitations of published studies and the need for large and representative cross-disciplinary longitudinal investigations across the HIV illness span.

  3. Functional competency and cognitive ability in mild Alzheimer's disease: relationship between ADL assessed by a relative/ carer-rated scale and neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Saito, Masahiko

    2005-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by multiple cognitive deficits and affects functional competency to perform daily activities (ADL). As this may contribute to the patient's overall disability, it is important to identify factors that compromise competency. The relationship between different cognitive domains and functional activities in AD was studied. The functional competency of 73 Japanese AD patients, most with mild dementia, was assessed using a 27-item relative/carer-rating scale covering 7 ADL: managing finances, using transportation, taking precautions, self-care, housekeeping, communication and taking medicine. Cognitive assessment used 16 neuropsychological tests from the Japanese version of the WAIS-R and COGNISTAT, covering 9 cognitive domains: orientation, attention, episodic memory, semantic memory, language, visuoperceptual and construction abilities, computational ability, abstract thinking, and psychomotor speed. Multiple regression analysis by the stepwise method indicated that functional competency could, for the most part, be predicted from test scores for orientation, abstract thinking and psychomotor speed. The results of this study suggest that impairment of these three cognitive domains plays an important role in the functional deterioration of AD.

  4. Delusion disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of delusions, were mainly focused on specific forms of this disorder. Comparatively small number of investigations were concerned with cognitive deficiencies accompanying the delusions. The substance of this study includes the detection of neuropsychological disfunctions in patients with persistent delusion disorder, and in tracing of these cognitive distortions to appropriate brain regions. Besides, characteristics of attribution style in these patients are analysed, from the aspect of their connections with unadjusted localized input for their reasoning system. The investigation is designed as a comparative study. The sample includes: a group of patients with persistent delusion disorder; a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia; a group of healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery that represents the following cognitive functions: attention, memory, vizuospatial and vizuoconstruction organization, executive ability, verbal divergent thinking. Projective Rorschach's method was used for estimation of attribution style.

  5. Brain size and neuropsychological functioning in long-term survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy Levy, Jean M; Hunger, Stephen P

    2013-10-01

    With the increased survival of pediatric cancer patients the interest in the late effects of treatments is rapidly increasing. Long-term survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) now approach 90%. Treatment for ALL includes intensified central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy, which is associated with risks for long-term neurocognitive effects. It is becoming clear that current therapies can have not only a detrimental effect on IQ, processing speed, and memory, but also on structural changes that lead to permanent alterations of the organization of the CNS. Understanding how the CNS is affected by the treatments is a critical step in evaluating current therapies and developing interventions to decrease the incidence and severity of long-term changes in brain anatomy and function.

  6. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N

    2009-05-27

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and 'weak' central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region of GW's cortex was the only area thicker (while areas such as the superior and medial prefrontal, middle temporal and motor cortices were thinner) than that of a neurotypical control group. Taken from the perspective of learning/practice-based models, skills in domains (e.g. calendars, art, music) that capitalize upon strengths often associated with ASD, such as detail-focused processing, are probably further enhanced through over-learning and massive exposure, and reflected in atypical brain structure.

  7. Neuropsychological heterogeneity in multiple sclerosis / Heterogeneidade neuropsicológica na esclerose múlipla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Paula Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a progressively disabling neurological disease which symptoms affect sensory, motor and psychological functioning. Several clinical neurological and psychological variables influence the neuropsychological profile in MS, which is extremely heterogeneous. The main objective of the present study was to investigate if it is possible to statistically stratify control subjects and MS patients from neurological, socio-demographic and neuropsychological dimensions. With this purpose we applied cluster analysis procedures to five neuropsychological instruments selected according to diagnostic accuracy from a pool of 9 neuropsychological tests. The sample was composed of 45 healthy controls and 35 MS patients with similar socio-demographic characteristics. The results indicated an ideal solution with 4 different clusters according to two dimensions: "cognitive" and "psychosocial" functioning, which represent independent but non-disjunctive aspects of neuropsychological functioning in MS.

  8. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  9. Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2011-01-01

    Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the…

  10. How do memory and attention change with pregnancy and childbirth? A controlled longitudinal examination of neuropsychological functioning in pregnant and postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Dustin M; Hill, Kyle R; Jones, Rochelle; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Larson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on cognitive functioning in pregnancy and postpartum is mixed, with most research showing deficits in memory and attention during pregnancy or no difference between pregnant participants and controls with little emphasis on the postpartum period. In the current study, we used a longitudinal controlled design and 42 primarily not depressed participants to compare pregnant women in the third trimester and approximately three months postpartum with matched controls over the same time period on neuropsychological domains including memory, attention, learning, visuospatial, and executive functioning. We also evaluated the role of mood and quality of life as potential moderators of cognitive functioning in pregnancy/postpartum. Results indicated no differences between controls and pregnant/postpartum women on neuropsychological measures at any time points. Self-reported memory difficulties, however, were higher in the pregnant/postpartum women. Pregnant and postpartum women had worse self-reported mood and quality of life than controls. Mood and quality of life slightly moderated specific measures of attention and verbal fluency; however, neither mood nor quality of life moderated overall neuropsychological functioning in either group. Number of previous pregnancies had no effect on the study findings. Results suggest differences in subjective memory complaints, but no differences in objective neuropsychological test results between controls and pregnant/postpartum women who are primarily not diagnosed with depression.

  11. The Assesment of Cognitive Functions With Neuropsychologic and Neurophysiologic Tests in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Erer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In our study, we aimed to evaluate cognitive dysfunctions in type II diabetes mellitus (DM regarding duration, prognosis and complications of the disease. We used transcranial doppler (TCD ultrasonography to evaluate cerebral perfusion and hemodynamics and performed mini-mental state examination (MMSE, neuropsychometric tests (NPT, event related evoked potentials (ERP, auditory and visual P300 wave latancies. METHODS: 48 patients (29 females and 19 males with type 2 DM, aged between 40-65 (mean 53 years, and 20 normal (10 males, 10 females cases as control group were involved in the study. Routine biochemical tests, cranial tomography (CT imaging methods and the tests which evaluate cognitive functions, MMSE, NPT, and ERP were performed in subjects. Mean current speed and pulsatility index were measured in 62 patients by using TCD. RESULTS: The scores of MMSE, auditory and visual P300 waves mean latancies were found statistically significant in patients with DM when compared to control group. Although there was no statistical significance in mean cerebral artery velocity values between two groups, there was significant correlation between pulsatility indexes. Especially verbal, visual memory and concentration modalities of NPT was significalty affected when compared to normal control group. CONCLUSION: In previous studies, different results have been reported about effects of DM on cognitive functions. We consider that this study may differ from others, as it was carried out on a group of middle aged diabetes subjects and many modalities associated with cognition were evaluated together. We also meant to draw attention to the possibility that, independent from other risk factors, diabetes mellitus may have a memory and attention related effect on cognition, and that chronic diseases such as diabetes may play a critical role in the development of dementia

  12. Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Monica; Dazzan, Paola; Fisher, Helen L; Morgan, Craig; Morgan, Kevin; Reichenberg, Abraham; Zanelli, Jolanta; Fearon, Paul; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Pariante, Carmine M

    2011-06-01

    A history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis. The potential impact of diagnosis (schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and gender on this association was also examined. Data were available for 138 first-episode psychosis patients and 138 geographically-matched controls recruited from a catchment area based organisation. History of childhood trauma was obtained using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed through a comprehensive and standardised neuropsychological test battery. A history of childhood trauma was associated with worse cognitive performances, predominantly in affective psychoses, and in male patients. No association between a history of childhood trauma and cognition was found amongst female patients, or female controls. The results need replication, but underline the necessity of investigating biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying these subjects' sensitivity to the negative effect of childhood stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuropsychological diagnostics of neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera B. Nikishina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of neuropsychological studies of the patients with neurosarcoidosis. The obtained results show that typical manifestations of neurosarcoidosis are disorders of motor functions. They appear in the speed reduction of actions and their accuracy, which prove peripheral neuropathy and myopathy at the functional level as clinical signs of neurosarcoidosis. Specific manifestations of neurosarcoidosisare determinedby topographical localization of granulomatoma.

  14. Advances in functional brain imaging technology and developmental neuro-psychology: their applications in the Jungian analytic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchkovsky, Leon

    2017-06-01

    Analytical psychology shares with many other psychotherapies the important task of repairing the consequences of developmental trauma. The majority of analytic patients come from compromised early developmental backgrounds: they may have experienced neglect, abuse, or failures of empathic resonance from their carers. Functional brain imagery techniques including Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery (fMRI), allow us to track mental processes in ways beyond verbal reportage and introspection. This independent perspective is useful for developing new psychodynamic hypotheses, testing current ones, providing diagnostic markers, and monitoring treatment progress. Jung, with the Word Association Test, grasped these principles 100 years ago. Brain imaging techniques have contributed to powerful recent advances in our understanding of neurodevelopmental processes in the first three years of life. If adequate nurturance is compromised, a range of difficulties may emerge. This has important implications for how we understand and treat our psychotherapy clients. The paper provides an overview of functional brain imaging and advances in developmental neuropsychology, and looks at applications of some of these findings (including neurofeedback) in the Jungian psychotherapy domain. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  15. Development and content validity of the CENA Program for Educational Training on the Neuropsychology of Learning, with an emphasis on executive functions and attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureza, Janice R.; Fonseca, Rochele P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The importance of executive functions (EF) in childhood development, and their role as indicators of health, well-being, professional and academic success have been demonstrated by several studies in the literature. FE are cognitive processes that aim to control and manage behavior to achieve specific goal and included skills planning, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, (executive) attention and the central executive component of working memory (WM). In the context of education, the EF are crucial for continued learning and efficient academic performance due to their involvement in several components of the educational process. Objective The aim of this article was to describe the development and content validity of the CENA Program for Educational Training on the Neuropsychology of Learning, with an emphasis on executive functions and attention. Methods The study involved seven specialists (four responsible for evaluating the program, and three involved in brainstorming), and was carried out in three stages: Background research: neuropsychology and education; Program development - author brainstorming and Evaluation by expert judges The goals, language and methods. Results CENA Program were considered adequate, attesting to its content validity as a school-based neuropsychological intervention. Conclusion Teacher training in school neuropsychology may be an important area for future investment and contribute to academic achievement and student development in the Brazilian education system. PMID:29213497

  16. Improved Neuropsychological and Neurological Functioning Across Three Antiretroviral Regimens in Diverse Resource-Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5199, the International Neurological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K.; Jiang, H.; Kumwenda, J.; Supparatpinyo, K.; Evans, S.; Campbell, T. B.; Price, R.; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N.; La Rosa, A.; Santos, B.; Silva, M. T.; Montano, S.; Kanyama, C.; Faesen, S.; Murphy, R.; Hall, C.; Marra, C. M.; Marcus, C.; Berzins, B.; Allen, R.; Housseinipour, M.; Amod, F.; Sanne, I.; Hakim, J.; Walawander, A.; Nair, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5199 compared the neurological and neuropsychological (NP) effects of 3 antiretroviral regimens in participants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in resource-limited settings. Methods. Participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and Zimbabwe were randomized to 3 antiretroviral treatment arms: A (lamivudine-zidovudine plus efavirenz, n = 289), B (atazanavir, emtricitabine, and didanosine-EC, n = 293), and C (emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate plus efavirenz, n = 278) as part of the ACTG PEARLS study (A5175). Standardized neurological and neuropsychological (NP) screening examinations (grooved pegboard, timed gait, semantic verbal fluency, and finger tapping) were administered every 24 weeks from February 2006 to May 2010. Associations with neurological and neuropsychological function were estimated from linear and logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations. Results. The median weeks on study was 168 (Q1 = 96, Q3 = 192) for the 860 participants. NP test scores improved (P  .10). Significant country effects were noted on all NP tests and neurological outcomes (P < .01). Conclusions. The study detected no significant differences in neuropsychological and neurological outcomes between randomized ART regimens. Significant improvement occurred in neurocognitive and neurological functioning over time after initiation of ARTs. The etiology of these improvements is likely multifactorial, reflecting reduced central nervous system HIV infection, better general health, and practice effects. This study suggests that treatment with either of the World Health Organization –recommended first-line antiretroviral regimens in resource-limited settings will improve neuropsychological functioning and reduce neurological dysfunction. Clinical trials registration.  NCT00096824. PMID:22661489

  17. Validating neuropsychological subtypes of ADHD: how do children with and without an executive function deficit differ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD)....

  18. [Neuropsychological profiles associated with the children's oral language disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Guzón, P A; Conde-Guzón, M J; Bartolomé-Albistegui, M T; Quirós-Expósito, P

    Oral language disorders constitute a group of syndromes with a high prevalence among the childhood population. They form a heterogeneous group that ranges from simple problems in articulating a phoneme (dyslalias) to severe disorders affecting communication, such as children's dysarthrias and aphasias. In this paper our objective is to review the neuropsychological profiles of children who manifest different oral language disorders. Due to the wide range of clinical pictures and causations covered by children's oral language disorders, very few systematic reviews have been conducted to obtain an overall view of the neuropsychological profiles of these children. Although the linguistic signs and symptoms of these disorders are well understood, the associated neuropsychological signs and symptoms have not been studied. In some cases, these neuropsychological signs cause greater learning problems in children than the actual language problems themselves. Childhood language disorders are associated with different neuropsychological problems. The most commonly associated neuropsychological deficits are problems involving memory, attention, executive functions, motor dysfunctions, temporal perception, tactile recognition, body scheme, spatial orientation and difficulties in visual discrimination. Mnemonic disorders (essentially in short-term and working auditory memory) are usually a common denominator in the different clinical pictures that make up language disorders. The mnemonic impairment associated to dyslalias deserves special attention as this disorder is sometimes similar to that seen in language problems deriving from clinical pictures with important neurological alterations.

  19. Does neurocognitive function affect cognitive bias toward an emotional stimulus? Association between general attentional ability and attentional bias toward threat

    OpenAIRE

    Hakamata, Yuko; Matsui, Mie; Tagaya, Hirokuni

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although poorer cognitive performance has been found to be associated with anxiety, it remains unclear whether neurocognitive function affects biased cognitive processing toward emotional information. We investigated whether general cognitive function evaluated with a standard neuropsychological test predicts biased cognition, focusing on attentional bias toward threat. Methods: One hundred and five healthy young adults completed a dot-probe task measuring attentional bias and ...

  20. Influence of personality and neuropsychological ability on social functioning and self-management in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierck, Esther; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-10-30

    A majority of bipolar patients (BD) show functional difficulties even in remission. In recent years cognitive functions and personality characteristics have been associated with occupational and psychosocial outcomes, but findings are not consistent. We assessed personality and cognitive functioning through a range of tests in BD and control participants. Three cognitive domains-verbal memory, facial-executive, and spatial memory-were extracted by principal component analysis. These factors and selected personality dimensions were included in hierarchical regression analysis to predict psychosocial functioning and the use of self-management strategies while controlling for mood status. The best determinants of good psychosocial functioning were good verbal memory and high self-directedness. The use of self-management techniques was associated with a low level of harm-avoidance. Our findings indicate that strategies to improve memory and self-directedness may be useful for increasing functioning in individuals with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Executive Functions as Endophenotypes in ADHD: Evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about executive functions among unaffected siblings of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is lack of such information from non-Western countries. We examined verbal and nonverbal executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls to test whether executive…

  2. Validating Neuropsychological Subtypes of ADHD: How Do Children "with" and "without" an Executive Function Deficit Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD). Method: Children with ADHD - EFD (n = 22) and children with ADHD + EFD (n = 26) were compared on aspects of…

  3. Theory of mind, empathy and neuropsychological functioning in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: a controlled study of 20 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Elisa; Sorarù, Gianni; Kleinbub, Johann Roland; Calvo, Vincenzo; Vallesi, Antonino; Querin, Giorgia; Marcato, Sonia; Grasso, Irene; Palmieri, Arianna

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have described brain involvement, mainly at frontal level, in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a rare adult-onset motor neuron disease caused by a CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The aim of our research was to investigate the poorly characterized neuropsychological and psychological profile of these patients, on the basis of previous literature. We administered a neuropsychological screening and tests relating to cognitive and affective empathy, attributed to the theory of mind (ToM) framework, to 20 males with SBMA, and to age- and education-matched controls. Although patients' neuropsychological performance was unimpaired, a clear dissociation emerged between their cognitive and affective empathy. Patients had distinctive deficits in mentalizing, as assessed with the Faux Pas Test, whilst affective empathy (i.e., sharing experience), assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test, appeared to be preserved. The likely implications of subtle frontal lobe impairments on the one hand, and a protective influence of androgen insensitivity in these patients on the other, are discussed in the light of our results.

  4. The impacts of substance abuse and dependence on neuropsychological functions in a sample of patients from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Yasser A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A lot of studies were directed to explore the relation between drug abuse and neuropsychological functions. Some studies reported that even after a long duration of disappearance of withdrawal or intoxication symptoms, many patients have obvious deterioration of cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the substance use disorders and the executive functions. Methods Two groups were selected for this study. An experimental group consisted of 154 patients and further subdivided according to the substance used into three different subgroups: opioid, amphetamine and alcohol groups which included 49, 56 and 49 patients respectively. The control group was selected matching the experimental group in the demographic characteristics and included 100 healthy persons. Tools used were: Benton visual retention tests, color trail making test, Stroop colors-word test, symbol digit modalities test, the five dots cognitive flexibility test, and TAM verbal flexibility test. All the data were subjected to statistical analysis Results The study showed that the group of drug-dependent subjects performed significantly worse than the comparison group on all measures Also, there were significant differences among the subgroups as the alcoholic group was much worse followed by the amphetamine then the opioids groups. Patients with longer duration of dependence and multiple hospital readmissions were much worse in comparison to patients with shorter duration of dependence and less readmission. Conclusion The study confirmed that the functions of specific brain regions underlying cognitive control are significantly impaired in patients of drug addiction. This impairment was significantly related to type of substance, duration of use and number of hospitalization and may contribute to most of behavioral disturbances found in addicts and need much attention during tailoring of treatment programs.

  5. Neuropsychologic function in children with brain tumors. III. Interval changes in the six months following treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhern, R.K.; Kun, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-six children with primary brain tumors were studied prospectively with regard to their sensorimotor, intellectual, academic, and emotional status. Serial evaluations were conducted after surgery (pre-irradiation) and six months after the completion of radiation therapy. The timing of the second evaluation was chosen so as to antedate the late effects of irradiation. Children over 6 years old displayed significant improvement of intellectual function over time, with only 11% exhibiting deterioration on one or more cognitive parameters. In contrast, 68% of younger children clinically deteriorated in one or more areas of intellectual functioning, with prominent difficulties in memory and selective attention for age. Children under 6 years old with supratentorial tumors were less likely than those with posterior fossa tumors to improve their cognitive performance. At the second evaluation, 23% of the patients were functioning below normal (IQ less than 80) intellectually, with 50% of the younger children and 11% of the older children receiving special educational assistance. Approximately 40-50% of the patients manifested emotional adjustment problems at each evaluation. The results are discussed in terms of the clinical need to follow similar patient populations with formal psychological assessments over time, and in terms of the difficulties involved in defining factors that determine the functional status of children surviving brain tumors

  6. Relations of neuropsychological functioning and depressive symptoms to school achievement in children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kollerová, Lenka; Preiss, M.; Janošová, Pavlína

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2012), s. 250-251 ISSN 0887-0446. [Conference of European Health Psychology Society: Resilience and Health /26./. 21.08.2012-25.08.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2325 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : depressive symptoms * executive functions * school achievement Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  7. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C.E.; Happé, F.; Wheelwright, S.J.; Ecker, C.; Lombardo, M.V.; Johnston, P.; Daly, E.; Murphy, C.M.; Spain, D.; Lai, M-C.; Chakrabarti, B; Sauter, D.A.; MRC AIMS Consortium, [Unknown; Baron-Cohen, S.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of

  8. Clinical pain and neuropsychological functioning in Parkinson's Disease: Are they related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, G.; Weeda, W.D.; Vlaar, A.M.M.; Weinstein, H.C.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Pain is an important nonmotor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Brain areas such as the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex play an important role in the processing of pain. Since these brain areas are also involved in cognitive functioning, for example, episodic memory and

  9. Complaints about impairments in executive functions in Parkinson's disease : The association with neuropsychological assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerts, Janneke; Van Beilen, Marije; Leenders, Klaus L.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    Impairments in executive functions are frequently reported in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about patients' experience regarding these impairments. This knowledge is crucial because if patients do not experience their cognitive impairments they do not report them to their

  10. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pruša

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis, a disease that affects many organic systems. Decline in cognitive abilities and emotional changes can appear in acute and chronic stage of the disease beside somatic difficulties. Early antibiotic therapy is of great importance in recovery. Attention and concentration deficits, memory deficits, impaired executive functioning, depression and other symptoms reduce work efficiency and life quality of people with Lyme borreliosis. Neuropsychological deficits can be explained with central nervous system impairment and partly also with reactive psychological factors. On account of symptomatic complexity, broad differential diagnostic and unreliable diagnostic technology neuropsychological evaluation can help to correctly diagnose and accurately treat this disease, and thus to enable appropriate cognitive rehabilitation and psychotherapeutic assistance.

  11. Neuropsychological functioning in early-onset first-episode psychosis: comparison of diagnostic subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Arantzazu; Rapado, Marta; Arango, Celso; Robles, Olalla; de la Serna, Elena; González, Cristina; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José Manuel; Andrés, Patricia; Mayoral, María; Bombín, Igor

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the nature and extent of cognitive impairment in first-episode early-onset psychosis (FE-EOP) soon after their stabilisation and to search for potential differences according to specific diagnostic sub-groups of patients. As part of a Spanish multicentre longitudinal study, 107 FE-EOP patients and 98 healthy controls were assessed on the following cognitive domains: attention, working memory, executive functioning, and verbal learning and memory. Three diagnostic categories were established in the patient sample: schizophrenia (n = 36), bipolar disorder (n = 19), and other psychosis (n = 52). Patients performed significantly worse than controls in all cognitive domains. The three diagnostic sub-groups did not differ in terms of impaired/preserved cognitive functions or degree of impairment. FE-EOP patients show significant cognitive impairment that, during this early phase, seems to be non-specific to differential diagnosis.

  12. A Re-Examination of Neuropsychological Functioning in Persian Gulf War Era Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    headache, numbness, dizziness), musculoskeletal (joint pain, backache, neck ache), dermatologic (skin rash, eczema , skin allergies), and gastrointestinal...as well as the influence of exposure on emotional and personality bol Digit Modalities, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, WAIS-I1I Digit functioning...another study (Axelrod & Milner, 1997) 80 White were reanalyzed considering " emotional factors" such When comparing performance on olfactory tests among

  13. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's Autism Res 2014, 7: 568–581. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24903974

  14. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms: neuropsychological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanò, Eva; Gagliano, Antonella; Magazù, Angela; Sferro, Caterina; Calarese, Tiziana; Mannarino, Erminia; Calamoneri, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms is classified among childhood benign partial epilepsies. The absence of neurological and neuropsychological deficits has long been considered as a prerequisite for a diagnosis of benign childhood partial epilepsy. Much evidence has been reported in literature in the latest years suggesting a neuropsychological impairment in this type of epilepsy, particularly in the type with Rolandic paroxysms. The present work examines the neuropsychological profiles of a sample of subjects affected by the early-onset benign childhood occipital seizures (EBOS) described by Panayotopulos. The patient group included 22 children (14 males and 8 females; mean age 10.1+/-3.3 years) diagnosed as having EBOS. The patients were examined with a set of tests investigating neuropsychological functions: memory, attention, perceptive, motor, linguistic and academic (reading, writing, arithmetic) abilities. The same instruments have been given to a homogeneous control group as regards sex, age, level of education and socio-economic background. None of the subjects affected by EBOS showed intellectual deficit (mean IQ in Wechsler Full Scale 91.7; S.D. 8.9). Results show a widespread cognitive dysfunction in the context of a focal epileptogenic process in EBOS. In particular, children with EBOS show a significant occurrence of specific learning disabilities (SLD) and other subtle neuropsychological deficits. We found selective dysfunctions relating to perceptive-visual attentional ability (pmemory abilities (psupports the hypothesis that epilepsy itself plays a role in the development of neuropsychological impairment. Supported by other studies that have documented subtle neuropsychological deficits in benign partial epilepsy, we stress the importance of reconsidering its supposed "cognitive benignity", particularly in occipital types.

  16. Assessment of fitness to drive after acquired brain injury: The role of neuropsychological tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette

    It is a well established fact that Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) can affect fitness to drive. Some cognitive functions have been emphasized as particular important when driving e.g. attention, reaction time, visual perception, and executive functioning. Research attempts have been made in order...... to identify a neuropsychological test battery to predict driving ability. However, there is no consensus as to which test such a test battery should consist of. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between some neuropsychological test results and the results of an on-road test.......g. WCST will not predict the driving ability of this group. This illustrates that many things can affect the predictive value a neuropsychological test and the belief that neuropsychological testing on its own cannot predict fitness to drive. As findings in the field of driving assessment of older people...

  17. HISTORY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Varako

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The article reviews the history of neuropsychological rehabilitation. It begins with the description of first rehabilitation programs developed by Paul Broca and Shepherd Franz. Franz’s experimental work for motor recovery in monkeys and correlation between active movement or affected limb immobilization and rehabilitation outcomes are described in further details. Special focus is given on ideas of famous German neurologist and psychiatrist Kurt Goldstein, who laid the foundation for modern approach in rehabilitation. Goldstein developed the idea of connection between rehabilitation and patient’s daily life. He also pointed out the necessity of psychological care of patients with brain damage.Russian neuropsychological approach is presented by its founders L.S. Vygotskiy and A.R. Luriya. Aspects of higher mental processes structure and options of its correction such as “cognitive prosthesis” are described in the sense of the approach.Y. Ben-Yishay, G. Prigatano, B. Wilson represent neuropsychological rehabilitation of the second half of the 20th century. The idea of a holistic approach for rehabilitation consists of such important principles as patient’s active involvement in a process of rehabilitation, work of a special team of rehabilitation professionals, inclusion of patient’s family members. The short review of a new rehabilitation approach for patients in coma, vegetative states and critical patients under resuscitation is given. 

  18. The neuropsychology of face perception: beyond simple dissociations and functional selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Anthony P; Adolphs, Ralph

    2011-06-12

    Face processing relies on a distributed, patchy network of cortical regions in the temporal and frontal lobes that respond disproportionately to face stimuli, other cortical regions that are not even primarily visual (such as somatosensory cortex), and subcortical structures such as the amygdala. Higher-level face perception abilities, such as judging identity, emotion and trustworthiness, appear to rely on an intact face-processing network that includes the occipital face area (OFA), whereas lower-level face categorization abilities, such as discriminating faces from objects, can be achieved without OFA, perhaps via the direct connections to the fusiform face area (FFA) from several extrastriate cortical areas. Some lesion, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings argue against a strict feed-forward hierarchical model of face perception, in which the OFA is the principal and common source of input for other visual and non-visual cortical regions involved in face perception, including the FFA, face-selective superior temporal sulcus and somatosensory cortex. Instead, these findings point to a more interactive model in which higher-level face perception abilities depend on the interplay between several functionally and anatomically distinct neural regions. Furthermore, the nature of these interactions may depend on the particular demands of the task. We review the lesion and TMS literature on this topic and highlight the dynamic and distributed nature of face processing.

  19. The dynamic functional capacity theory: A neuropsychological model of intense emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Klineburger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The music-evoked emotion literature implicates many brain regions involved in emotional processing but is currently lacking a model that specifically explains how they temporally and dynamically interact to produce intensely pleasurable emotions. A conceptual model, the dynamic functional capacity theory (DFCT, is proposed and provides a foundation for the further understanding of how brain regions interact to produce intensely pleasurable emotions. The DFCT claims that brain regions mediating emotion and arousal regulation have a limited functional capacity that can be exceeded by intense stimuli. The prefrontal cortex is hypothesized to abruptly deactivate when this happens, resulting in the inhibitory release of sensory cortices, the limbic system, the reward-circuit, and the brainstem reticular activating system, causing “unbridled” activation of these areas. This process is hypothesized to produce extremely intense emotions. This theory may provide—music-evoked emotion researchers and music therapy researchers—a theoretical foundation for continued research and complement current theories of emotion.

  20. Investigating emotion in moral cognition: a review of evidence from functional neuroimaging and neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Liane; Koenigs, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Human moral decision-making has long been a topic of philosophical debate, and, more recently, a topic for empirical investigation. Central to this investigation is the extent to which emotional processes underlie our decisions about moral right and wrong. Neuroscience offers a unique perspective on this question by addressing whether brain regions associated with emotional processing are involved in moral cognition. We conduct a narrative review of neuroscientific studies focused on the role of emotion in morality. Specifically, we describe evidence implicating the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a brain region known to be important for emotional processing. Functional imaging studies demonstrate VMPC activation during tasks probing moral cognition. Studies of clinical populations, including patients with VMPC damage, reveal an association between impairments in emotional processing and impairments in moral judgement and behaviour. Considered together, these studies indicate that not only are emotions engaged during moral cognition, but that emotions, particularly those mediated by VMPC, are in fact critical for human morality.

  1. Neuropsychological, physical, and functional mobility measures associated with falls in cognitively impaired older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Morag E; Delbaere, Kim; Lord, Stephen R; Mikolaizak, A Stefanie; Brodaty, Henry; Close, Jacqueline C T

    2014-08-01

    Older people with cognitive impairment have an elevated fall risk, with 60% falling annually. There is a lack of evidence for fall prevention in this population, in part due to limited understanding of risk factors. This study examined fall risk in older people with cognitive impairment with an emphasis on identifying explanatory and modifiable risk factors. One hundred and seventy-seven community-dwelling older people with mild-moderate cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination 11-23/Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised Falls were recorded prospectively for 12 months with the assistance of carers. Of the 174 participants available to follow-up, 111 (64%) fell at least once and 71 (41%) at least twice. Higher fall rates were associated with slower reaction time, impaired balance (sway on floor and foam, semitandem, near-tandem, tandem stance), and reduced functional mobility (co-ordinated stability, timed up-and-go, steps needed to turn 180°, sit-to-stand, gait velocity). Higher fall rates were also associated with increased medication use (central nervous system, total number) and poorer performances in cognitive (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised: visuospatial domain, cube drawing; Trail-Making Test) and psychological (Geriatric Depression Scale, Goldberg Anxiety Scale, Falls Efficacy Scale-International) tests. Multivariate analysis identified increased sway on foam, co-ordinated stability score, and depressive symptoms to be significantly and independently associated with falls while controlling for age, years of education, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised score. This study identified several risk factors of falls in older people with cognitive impairment, a number of which are potentially modifiable. Future research involving targeted interventions addressing medication use, balance, mood, and functional performance may prove useful for fall prevention in this population. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford

  2. Exposure to metals during pregnancy and neuropsychological development at the age of 4 years

    OpenAIRE

    Forns, Joan; Fort, Marta; Casas, Maribel; Cáceres, Alejandro; Guxens, M.; Gascón, Mireia I.; García-Esteban, R.; Júlvez, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is insufficient epidemiological evidence for deciding whether prenatal exposure to the current low-levels of metals in developed countries may affect neuropsychological function in early childhood. Objectives: Our goal was to evaluate potential neurotoxic effects of prenatal exposure to seven metals (cobalt, copper, arsenic, cadmium, antimony, thallium and lead), during the 1st and 3rd trimester of pregnancy, on child neuropsychological development at 4 years of age. Materia...

  3. Neuropsychology, Social Cognition and Global Functioning Among Bipolar, Schizophrenic Patients and Healthy Controls: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eCaletti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD, schizophrenic patients (SKZ and healthy controls (HC. The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30, euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 18. Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however the differences did not influence the results. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to schizophrenic patients, even in ecological tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p

  4. The current state of research on ayahuasca: A systematic review of human studies assessing psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Balthazar, Fermanda M; Bouso, José C; Hallak, Jaime Ec

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, the use of ayahuasca (AYA) - a β-carboline- and dimethyltryptamine-rich hallucinogenic botanical preparation traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian tribes for ritual and therapeutic purposes - has spread from South America to Europe and the USA, raising concerns about its possible toxicity and hopes of its therapeutic potential. Thus, it is important to analyze the acute, subacute, and long-term effects of AYA to assess its safety and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of human studies assessing AYA effects on psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging. Papers published until 16 December 2015 were included from PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. The review included 28 full-text articles. Acute AYA administration was well tolerated, increased introspection and positive mood, altered visual perceptions, activated frontal and paralimbic regions and decreased default mode network activity. It also improved planning and inhibitory control and impaired working memory, and showed antidepressive and antiaddictive potentials. Long-term AYA use was associated with increased cortical thickness of the anterior cingulate cortex and cortical thinning of the posterior cingulate cortex, which was inversely correlated to age of onset, intensity of prior AYA use, and spirituality. Subacute and long-term AYA use was not associated with increased psychopathology or cognitive deficits, being associated with enhanced mood and cognition, increased spirituality, and reduced impulsivity. Acute, subacute, and long-term AYA use seems to have low toxicity. Preliminary studies about potential therapeutic effects of AYA need replication due to their methodological limitations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Neuropsychological and psychopathological differentiation of delirium

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    ICD-10 and DSM-IV differ in their definitions of delirium. The DSM-IV definition centers around a disorder of attention and cognitive functions, whereas ICD-10 describes delirium as a broader neuropsychological and psychopathological syndrome, e.g. hallucinations, emotional and psychomotor disorder. When neuropsychological and psychopathological symptoms of delirium are assessed simultaneously, our question was, if there are core symptoms of delirium, i.e. neuropsychological and psychopat...

  6. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  7. Effects of Perinatal Exposure to PCBs on Neuropsychological Functions in the Rotterdam Cohort at 9 Years of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, H.J.I.; Emmen, H.H.; Mulder, P.G.H.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.

    2004-01-01

    PCBs are known for their neurotoxic properties, especially on the developing brain. To increase insight into the neurotoxic effects of PCB exposure, the authors studied the effects of perinatal exposure to environmental levels of these compounds on different neuropsychological domains. In 9-year-old

  8. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE IN A SAMPLE OF INSTITUTIONALIZED CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Maia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the results of a descriptive and exploratory study, with the intent to understand the results of a 21 male schizophrenic patients interned in a Portuguese Mental Health Care Centre, evaluated with neuropsychological test. We tried also to link these tests with variables such as schooling, family contact or lengh of internment. The assessment instruments were: Digits Series and Vocabulary Task, both from WAIS, Raven Progressive Matrices, Rey’s Complex Figures, Luria’s Series Neuropsychological Screening, Clock Task - Neuropsychological Screening and Visual Search and Attention Test. Results show that there is not an attention deficit clinically significant, even that data suggests light attention affection; also variables like family contact and schooling appear as protective factors of memory and also seems to be important for the planning / organization functions.

  9. Sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans beyond combat exposure, PTSD, and mild TBI history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L; Morissette, Sandra B; Rowland, Jared A; Dolan, Sara L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans after accounting for effects of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. This was a cross-sectional assessment study evaluating combat exposure, PTSD, mTBI history, sleep quality, and neuropsychological functioning. One hundred and nine eligible male Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans completed an assessment consisting of a structured clinical interview, neuropsychological battery, and self-report measures. Using partial least squares structural equation modeling, combat experiences and mTBI history were not directly associated with sleep quality. PTSD was directly associated with sleep quality, which contributed to deficits in neuropsychological functioning independently of and in addition to combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Combat experiences and PTSD were differentially associated with motor speed. Sleep affected cognitive function independently of combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Sleep quality also contributed to cognitive deficits beyond effects of PTSD. An evaluation of sleep quality may be a useful point of clinical intervention in combat veterans with cognitive complaints. Improving sleep quality could alleviate cognitive complaints, improving veterans' ability to engage in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Does neurocognitive function affect cognitive bias toward an emotional stimulus? Association between general attentional ability and attentional bias toward threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko eHakamata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although poorer cognitive performance has been found to be associated with anxiety, it remains unclear whether neurocognitive function affects biased cognitive processing toward emotional information. We investigated whether general cognitive function evaluated with a standard neuropsychological test predicts biased cognition, focusing on attentional bias toward threat.Methods: One hundred and five healthy young adults completed a dot-probe task measuring attentional bias and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS measuring general cognitive function, which consists of five domains: immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, and delayed memory. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between attentional bias and cognitive function. Results: The attentional domain was the best predictor of attentional bias toward threat (β = -0.26, p = 0.006. Within the attentional domain, digit symbol coding was negatively correlated with attentional bias (r = -0.28, p = 0.005.Conclusions: The present study provides the first evidence that general attentional ability, which was assessed with a standard neuropsychological test, affects attentional bias toward threatening information. Individual cognitive profiles might be important for the measurement and modification of cognitive biases.

  11. A Neuropsychological Profile for Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum? Cognitive, Academic, Executive, Social, and Behavioral Functioning in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siffredi, Vanessa; Anderson, Vicki; McIlroy, Alissandra; Wood, Amanda G; Leventer, Richard J; Spencer-Smith, Megan M

    2018-05-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), characterized by developmental absence of the corpus callosum, is one of the most common congenital brain malformations. To date, there are limited data on the neuropsychological consequences of AgCC and factors that modulate different outcomes, especially in children. This study aimed to describe general intellectual, academic, executive, social and behavioral functioning in a cohort of school-aged children presenting for clinical services to a hospital and diagnosed with AgCC. The influences of age, social risk and neurological factors were examined. Twenty-eight school-aged children (8 to 17 years) diagnosed with AgCC completed tests of general intelligence (IQ) and academic functioning. Executive, social and behavioral functioning in daily life, and social risk, were estimated from parent and teacher rated questionnaires. MRI findings reviewed by a pediatric neurologist confirmed diagnosis and identified brain characteristics. Clinical details including the presence of epilepsy and diagnosed genetic condition were obtained from medical records. In our cohort, ~50% of children experienced general intellectual, academic, executive, social and/or behavioral difficulties and ~20% were functioning at a level comparable to typically developing children. Social risk was important for understanding variability in neuropsychological outcomes. Brain anomalies and complete AgCC were associated with lower mathematics performance and poorer executive functioning. This is the first comprehensive report of general intellectual, academic, executive social and behavioral consequences of AgCC in school-aged children. The findings have important clinical implications, suggesting that support to families and targeted intervention could promote positive neuropsychological functioning in children with AgCC who come to clinical attention. (JINS, 2018, 24, 445-455).

  12. History of neuropsychology in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.; Barr, W.B.; Bielauskas, L.A.

    2018-01-01

    German neuroscientists played a crucial role in the foundation of neuropsychology. In the 19th century, Gall formulated new assumptions with respect to the nature and localization of mental functions in the brain. Wernicke popularized an approach in which mental functions were represented as

  13. Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozman J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are: 1 to show the role of clinical experience for the theoretical contributions of L.S. Vygotsky, and 2 to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed. Therefore, medical psychology is fundamental for forming a systemic approach to psychology. The assessment of neurological patients at the neurological hospital of Moscow University permitted L.S. Vygotsky to create, in collaboration with A.R. Luria, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions and their relationship to cultural conditions. In his studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vygotsky also set out 3 steps of systemic development: interpsychological, then extrapsychological, then intrapsychological. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria in the late 1920s created a program to compensate for the motor subcortical disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD through a cortical (visual mediation of movements. We propose to distinguish the objective mediating factors — like teaching techniques and modalities — from subjective mediating factors, like the individual’s internal representation of his/her own disease. The cultural-historical approach in contemporary neuropsychology forces neuropsychologists to re-analyze and re-interpret the classic neuropsychological syndromes; to develop new assessment procedures more in accordance with the patient’s conditions of life; and to reconsider the concept of the social brain as a social and cultural determinant and regulator of brain functioning. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria proved that a defect interferes with a child’s appropriation of his/her culture, but cultural means can help the child overcome the defect. In this way, the cultural-historical approach became, and still is, a methodological basis for remedial education.

  14. Behavior, neuropsychology and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean; Hermens, Daniel F; Lagopoulos, Jim

    Cognitive neuroscientists in the late 20th century began the task of identifying the part(s) of the brain concerned with normal behavior as manifest in the psychological capacities as affective powers, reasoning, behaving purposively and the pursuit of goals, following introduction of the 'functional magnetic resonance imaging' (fMRI) method for identifying brain activity. For this research program to be successful two questions require satisfactory answers. First, as the fMRI method can currently only be used on stationary subjects, to what extent can neuropsychological tests applicable to such stationary subjects be correlated with normal behavior. Second, to what extent can correlations between the various neuropsychological tests on the one hand, and sites of brain activity determined with fMRI on the other, be regarded as established. The extent to which these questions have yet received satisfactory answers is reviewed, and suggestions made both for improving correlations of neuropsychological tests with behavior as well as with the results of fMRI-based observations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Mild cognitive impairment: a concept and diagnostic entity in need of input from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Mark W; Smith, Glenn E

    2014-02-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individuals with subtle cognitive declines or mis-diagnose MCI in those who are otherwise cognitively normal on a broader neuropsychological battery of tests. The assembled articles highlight the perils of relying on these conventional criteria for MCI diagnosis and reveal how the reliability of diagnosis is improved when sound neuropsychological approaches are adopted. When these requirements are met, we illustrate with a second series of articles that neuropsychological measures associate strongly with biomarkers and often reflect pathology beyond or instead of typical AD distributions. The final set of articles reveal that people with MCI demonstrate mild but identifiable functional difficulties, and a challenge for neuropsychology is how to incorporate this information to better define MCI and distinguish it from early dementia. Neuropsychology is uniquely positioned to improve upon the state of the science in MCI research and practice by providing critically important empirical information on the specific cognitive domains affected by the predominant neurodegenerative disorders of late life as well as on the diagnostic decision-making strategies used in studies. When such efforts to more comprehensively assess neuropsychological functions are undertaken, better characterizations of spared and impaired cognitive and functional abilities result and lead to more convincing associations with other biomarkers as well as to prediction of clinical outcomes.

  16. A metaphysical and neuropsychological assessment of musical tones to affect the brain, relax the mind and heal the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pretorius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been empirically established through many controlled studies that one of the most rewarding experiences known to humanity is listening to music, especially because it affects various parts of the brain and causes emotional arousal. The aim of this article is to do a succinct study on music and its effect on, especially, the nervous system, by referring to various empirical studies undertaken on the subject. The article, therefore, has a twofold purpose: (1 to show that throughout history, music has played a special role in various cultures and religions, especially as a healing tool and (2 to demonstrate that sound frequencies and vibrations found in music have the potential to realign the emotions of the nervous system and bring the body back into harmony by reducing stress.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article�s challenge and purpose are to show that science and religion are not in conflict, but rather that together they can benefit both disciplines and make better sense of complicated topics, especially those related to how natural science and religion deal with the human body and health, and its relationship to the mind.

  17. TECHNOLOGY & NEUROPSYCHOLOGY: TOWARDS A CYBER – NEUROPSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Soto-Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Technologies have penetrated all walks of human beings. Numerous technological advances have been developed in the field of neuropsychology, but they are not usually used in daily care. In this regard, it are developed some reflections on the difficulties and of the process of implementing technology solutions in the field of neuropsychology.

  18. A dose-effect analysis of children's exposure to dental amalgam and neuropsychological function: the New England Children's Amalgam Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Daniel, David; Zhang, Annie; Tavares, Mary A; McKinlay, Sonja

    2007-09-01

    The New England Children's Amalgam Trial (NECAT) was a five-year randomized trial of 534 6- to 10-year-old children that compared the neuropsychological outcomes of those whose caries were restored using dental amalgam with the outcomes of those those whose caries were restored using mercury-free resin-based composite. The primary intention-to-treat analyses did not reveal significant differences between the treatment groups on the primary or secondary outcomes of the administered psychological tests: Full-Scale IQ score on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, General Memory Index of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and Visual-Motor Composite of the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities. To determine whether treatment group assignment, a dichotomous measure of exposure, was sufficiently sensitive to detect associations between mercury exposure and these outcomes, the authors conducted analyses to evaluate the associations between the primary and secondary outcomes and two continuously distributed indexes of potential exposure, surface-years of amalgam and urinary mercury excretion. Neither index of mercury exposure was significantly associated with any of the three outcomes. The authors found no evidence that exposure to mercury from dental amalgam was associated with any adverse neuropsychological effects over the five-year period after placement of amalgam restorations. Analyses of the outcomes of the NECAT study indicate that use of dental amalgam was not associated with an increase in children's risk of experiencing neuropsychological dysfunction.

  19. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  20. Cyber-Neuropsychology: application of new technologies in neuropsychological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Ramos, Mercedes; Franco-Martín, Manuel A; Soto-Pérez, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation deals with the study of cerebral functioning through the persons' performance. It makes it possible to collaborate the clinical diagnosis and to provide information on deficit and skills. Specialized care in rural environments is uncommon, and often means impossibility to access some services. This study has aimed to evaluate the possibility of using neuropsychological evaluation by internet videoconferences. Our research was based on the traditional and online application of the SCIP-S to 30 subjects who were diagnosed with schizophrenia. The 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups (Group A and B). Both groups underwent the two conditions inversely. The results show some differences and similarities when the results in both types of applications SCIP-S are compared. In conclusion, cyber-neuropsychology is possible and may be a complement and alternative to traditional assessment when they cannot develop.

  1. ADHD Dimensions and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms in Relation to Self-Report and Laboratory Measures of Neuropsychological Functioning in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A; Rapport, Hannah F; Rondon, Ana T; Becker, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    This study examined ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms in relation to self-report and laboratory measures of neuropsychological functioning in college students. College students ( N = 298, aged 17-25, 72% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, SCT, depression, sleep, functional impairment, and executive functioning (EF). Participants also completed a visual working memory task, a Stroop test, and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). ADHD inattentive and SCT symptoms were strong predictors of self-reported EF, with inattention the strongest predictor of Time Management and Motivation and SCT the strongest predictor of Self-Organization/Problem Solving. SCT (but not inattention) was associated with Emotion Regulation. No relationships were found between self-reported symptoms and laboratory task performance. Between-group analyses were largely consistent with regression analyses. Self-reported ADHD and SCT symptoms are strongly associated with college students' self-reported EF, but relationships with laboratory task measures of neuropsychological functioning are limited.

  2. Surgical results in patients with unruptured asymptomatic cerebral aneurysms. Significance of evaluation of neuropsychological function, magnetic resonance images and cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumon, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Hideaki; Igase, Keiji; Nagato, Shigeyuki; Fukumoto, Shinya; Iwata, Shinji; Ohue, Shiro; Ohnishi, Takanori

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated neuropsychological function, magnetic resonance (MR) images and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with unruptured asymptomatic cerebral aneurysms. Among consecutive operations (n=73) on 70 patients since 2000, direct surgery was performed in 53 operations on 50 patients, and intravascular surgery was performed in 20 operations on 20 patients. Surgical results of direct surgery were studied. Direct surgery was selected mainly for patients with small and anterior circulation aneurysms. MR imaging was conducted 1 week after surgery, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) examination and CBF measurement using 133 Xe-SPECT were done before and 1 month after surgery. Abnormal neurological findings were recognized postoperatively in 26% of surgeries. Among them, visual disturbance was permanent in 4% of surgeries, all of which were surgeries for paraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysms. WAIS-R results deteriorated in 26% of surgeries at 1 month and at least in 5% of surgeries at 1 year after surgery. MR images at 1 week after surgery revealed brain damage in 30% of surgeries and subdural fluid collection in 19% of surgeries. Patients with large brain damage or thick subdural fluid collection frequently showed neurological deficits and/or WAISR deterioration. These complications were recognized frequently in patients with ACoA aneurysms. Resting CBF decreased significantly in the area supplied by the anterior cerebral artery and anterior border zone on the operated side postoperatively. The brain damage and subdural fluid collection were observed frequently and caused neurological deficits and neuropsychological dysfunction, although these were usually transient. It may be necessary to evaluate neuropsychological function, MRI and CBF in patients with unruptured asymptomatic cerebral aneurysms to improve surgical results. (author)

  3. Does selenium supplementation affect thyroid function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Cold, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selenium is present in the active site of proteins important for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation in different doses on thyroid function, under conditions of suboptimal dietary selenium intake....... DESIGN: The Danish PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with SElenium pilot study (DK-PRECISE) is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 491 males and females aged 60-74 years were randomized to 100 μg (n=124), 200 μg (n=122), or 300 μg (n=119) selenium-enriched yeast......=0.015), respectively, per 100 μg/day increase, with insignificant differences between 6 months and 5 years. No significant effects were found for FT3 and FT3:FT4 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In euthyroid subjects, selenium supplementation minutely and dose-dependently affects thyroid function, when compared...

  4. Assessment of cognitive functions after prophylactic and therapeutic whole brain irradiation using neuropsychological testing; Erfassung kognitiver Funktionen nach prophylaktischer und therapeutischer Ganzhirnbestrahlung mittels neuropsychologischer Testverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penitzka, S.; Wannenmacher, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie; Steinvorth, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie; MIT, Cambridge, MT (United States). Dept. of Brain and Cognitive Sciences; Sehlleier, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Abt. Strahlentherapie; Fuss, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie; Texas Univ., San Antonio, TX (United States). Health Science Center; Wenz, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim (Germany). Sektion Radioonkologie

    2002-05-01

    Purpose: Aim of this study was the assessment of neuropsychological changes after whole brain irradiation. Patients and Method: 64 patients were tested before, and 29 after whole brain irradiation, including 28 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and 36 patients with cerebral metastases before therapeutic cranial irradiation (TCI), as well as 14 patients after PCI and 15 after TCI (Table 1). Intelligence, attention and memory were assessed applying a 90-minute test battery of standardized, neuropsychological tests (Table 3). Results: Patients with SCLC showed test results significantly below average before PCI (n=28, mean IQ=83, SD=17). Neither after PCI, nor after TCI the tested neuropsychological functions decreased significantly (Tables 4, 5). A comparison between SCLC-patients with and without cerebral metastases before whole brain irradiation showed better test-results in patients with cerebral metastases and fewer cycles of preceding chemotherapy (Table 7). Conclusion: Neuropsychological capacity in patients with SCLC was impaired even before PCI. Possible reason is the preceding chemotherapy. Whole brain irradiation did not induce a significant decline of cognitive functions in patients with PCI or TCI. A decline in a longer follow-up nevertheless seems possible. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Ziel der Studie war die Erfassung moeglicher Veraenderungen der neuropsychologischen Leistungsfaehigkeit nach Ganzhirnbestrahlung. Patienten und Methode: Untersucht wurden 64 Patienten vor und 29 Patienten nach Ganzhirnbestrahlung. Es handelte sich um 28 Patienten mit kleinzelligem Bronchialkarzinom (SCLC) vor prophylaktischer Ganzhirnbestrahlung (PCI) und um 36 Patienten mit Hirnmetastasen vor therapeutischer Ganzhirnbestrahlung (TCI). Es wurden 14 Patienten nach PCI und 15 Patienten nach TCI getestet. Zur Anwendung kam eine 90-minuetige Testbatterie standardisierter, neuropsychologischer Testverfahren zur Messung

  5. [Neuropsychology of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    2012-07-16

    Dreams are a universal human experience and studying them from the point of view of neuroscience, consciousness, emotions and cognition is quite a challenge for researchers. Thus, dreams have been addressed from a number of different perspectives ranging from philosophy to clinical medicine, as well as psychiatry, psychology, artificial intelligence, neural network models, psychophysiology or neurobiology. The main models are grounded on the biological function of dreams, especially those based on processes involving the consolidation of memory and forgetting, and models of simulation. Similarly, current models are developed upon the neurobiology and the neuropsychology of the REM phases of sleep and how they are differentiated from wakefulness. Thus, neurobiologically speaking, dreams are related to the role of acetylcholine and, neuropsychologically, to the activation of the limbic and paralimbic regions, the activation of the basal ganglia, the activation of cortical areas with a specific modality (especially Brodmann's areas 19, 22 and 37) and the deactivation of the ventromedial, parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate. Dreams can be considered a state of consciousness that is characterised by a reduced control over their content, visual images and activation of the memory, and which is mediated by motivational incentives and emotional salience.

  6. Neuropsychological assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven W; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Uc, Ergun Y; Johnson, Amy M; Rizzo, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities can be an important contributor to the driving problems encountered by older adults, and neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical approach to evaluating this aspect of driving safety risk. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate several commonly used neuropsychological tests in the assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurological disease. A further goal of this study was to identify brief combinations of neuropsychological tests that sample performances in key functional domains and thus could be used to efficiently assess driving safety risk. A total of 345 legally licensed and active drivers over the age of 50, with no neurologic disease (N = 185), probable Alzheimer's disease (N = 40), Parkinson's disease (N = 91), or stroke (N = 29), completed vision testing, a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests, and an 18-mile drive on urban and rural roads in an instrumented vehicle. Performances on all neuropsychological tests were significantly correlated with driving safety errors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify 3 key cognitive domains assessed by the tests (speed of processing, visuospatial abilities, and memory), and several brief batteries consisting of one test from each domain showed moderate corrected correlations with driving performance. These findings are consistent with the notion that driving places demands on multiple cognitive abilities that can be affected by aging and age-related neurological disease, and that neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical off-road window into the functional status of these cognitive systems.

  7. International growth of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-five years ago, the field of neuropsychology was well established in North America, Europe, and Australia, with less presence elsewhere. This article discusses the development of neuropsychology over the last 25 years in other regions. The growth of neuropsychology in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Central and South America, and New Zealand is reviewed. Sources drawn on include a 2016 edition of The Clinical Neuropsychologist describing the practice of neuropsychology in 18 countries; papers on the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America (Arango-Lasprilla, Stevens, Paredes, Ardila, & Rivera, 2016), the history of neuropsychology in Asia (Lee, Wang, & Collinson, 2016), and neuropsychology in Central America (Judd, 2017); INSNET; and personal communications. There has been tremendous variability in the development of neuropsychology across these regions over the last 25 years. Obstacles to the growth of neuropsychology have included economic constraints on health care provision, limited availability of appropriate assessment and treatment methods, linguistic diversity and illiteracy, stigma toward and/or lack of awareness of neuropsychological disorders, lack of graduate training and clinical supervision, absence of accreditation of neuropsychologists as a clinical profession, poor pay, and diminished visibility of the field within the regional culture. Despite these obstacles, neuropsychological research and practice is establishing itself in these regions and has grown significantly over the last quarter century. Major challenges remain in establishing awareness of the significance of and developing culturally appropriate methods of assessing and rehabilitating cognitive aspects of brain disorders, training programs, recognition as a profession, and dedicated funding for neuropsychology positions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Pulmonary Function Affects Language Performance in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewina O Lee

    2014-04-01

    associated with better ES performance (B = 6.64, SE = 2.43, p = .01. Higher FVC and FEV1 were related to better MN performance, but this did not reach statistical significance (FVC: B = 3.68, SE = 2.16, p = .09; FEV1: B = 4.92, SE = 2.64, p = .06. Higher FVC (B = 3.98, SE = 1.44, p = .01 and FEV1 (B = 4.79, SE = 1.75, p = .01 were associated with better ANT performance. The positive association between PF and BNT performance was marginally significant (FVC: B = 4.19, SE = 2.18, p = .06; FEV1: B = 3.51, SE = 2.66, p = .10. Discussion and Conclusion Better PF was associated with higher accuracy on sentence processing and naming-based lexical retrieval tasks, consistent with the conclusion that pulmonary function affects older adults’ language performance. Our findings support the emerging thesis that language changes in aging are influenced by health-related physiological and neural mechanisms (e.g., Albert et al., 2009; Cahana-Amitay et al., 2013. From a clinical perspective, these findings highlight the promise of targeting PF as an intervention for improving language abilities among the elderly.

  9. Neuropsychological, neurological and functional outcome following pallidotomy for Parkinson's disease. A consecutive series of eight simultaneous bilateral and twelve unilateral procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R; Gregory, R; Hines, N; Carroll, C; Hyman, N; Papanasstasiou, V; Leather, C; Rowe, J; Silburn, P; Aziz, T

    1998-04-01

    Intellectual, psychological and functional outcomes were evaluated in a consecutive series of 20 Parkinsonian patients who had unilateral (UPVP) or simultaneous bilateral posteroventral pallidotomy (BPVP) using Image Fusion and Stereoplan (Radionics Inc., Boston, Mass., USA) with stimulation for lesion localization. Comprehensive baseline and 3-month postoperative neuropsychological and neurological assessment protocols were administered together with questionnaire measures of functional disability, quality of life and psychological symptomatology. Changes in patients' clinical presentation and scores on psychometric tests, questionnaires and observational rating scales were then examined. We observed no new neuropsychiatric sequelae directly related to pallidotomy. Cognitive sequelae were restricted to selective reductions in categorical verbal fluency following UPVP (P improvement on neurological rating scales; following UPVP, Total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores improved by 27% (P improvement was 53% (P improvements in 'quality of life' also achieved statistical significance on a number of both physical and psychosocial questionnaire subscales.

  10. The Effect of Prior Caffeine Consumption on Neuropsychological Test Performance: A Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Elizabeth R; Lesk, Valerie E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the prior consumption of 200 mg of pure caffeine affected neuropsychological test scores in a group of elderly participants aged over 60 years. Using a double-blind placebo versus caffeine design, participants were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. A neuropsychological assessment testing the domains of general cognitive function, processing speed, semantic memory, episodic memory, executive function, working memory and short-term memory was carried out. Significant interaction effects between age, caffeine and scores of executive function and processing speed were found; participants who had received caffeine showed a decline in performance with increasing age. This effect was not seen for participants who received placebo. The results highlight the need to consider and control prior caffeine consumption when scoring neuropsychological assessments in the elderly, which is important for accuracy of diagnosis and corresponding normative data. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Thalamic Functional Connectivity in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Longitudinal Associations With Patient-Reported Outcomes and Neuropsychological Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sarah D; Coronado, Rogelio A; Clemons, Lori R; Abraham, Christine M; Pruthi, Sumit; Conrad, Benjamin N; Morgan, Victoria L; Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Archer, Kristin R

    2016-08-01

    (1) To examine differences in patient-reported outcomes, neuropsychological tests, and thalamic functional connectivity (FC) between patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and individuals without mTBI and (2) to determine longitudinal associations between changes in these measures. Prospective observational case-control study. Academic medical center. A sample (N=24) of 13 patients with mTBI (mean age, 39.3±14.0y; 4 women [31%]) and 11 age- and sex-matched controls without mTBI (mean age, 37.6±13.3y; 4 women [36%]). Not applicable. Resting state FC (3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner) was examined between the thalamus and the default mode network, dorsal attention network, and frontoparietal control network. Patient-reported outcomes included pain (Brief Pain Inventory), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), posttraumatic stress disorder ([PTSD] Checklist - Civilian Version), and postconcussive symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire). Neuropsychological tests included the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Tower test, Trails B, and Hotel Task. Assessments occurred at 6 weeks and 4 months after hospitalization in patients with mTBI and at a single visit for controls. Student t tests found increased pain, depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and postconcussive symptoms; decreased performance on Trails B; increased FC between the thalamus and the default mode network; and decreased FC between the thalamus and the dorsal attention network and between the thalamus and the frontoparietal control network in patients with mTBI as compared with controls. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated that increased FC between the thalamus and the dorsal attention network from baseline to 4 months was associated with decreased pain and postconcussive symptoms (corrected P<.05). Findings suggest that alterations in thalamic FC occur after mTBI, and improvements in pain and postconcussive symptoms are correlated with

  12. 人脑神经心理功能的DTI研究%Diffusion tensor imaging research on some neuropsychological function of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冠勇; 刘远健

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨MR弥散张量成像( DTI)技术在记忆、学习、语言、音乐及思维活动相关脑区白质纤维的研究进展。方法在 Medline 和 Embase 数据库,以“diffusion tensor imaging”与“memory”、“study”、“language”、“music”、“cognition”等为关键词,检索2015年6月之前发表的MR DTI技术研究有关心理神经功能的文章进行分析总结。对检索到100余篇文献进行筛选,以近5年发表在较权威期刊者优先纳入,主要文献32篇。结果人脑白质纤维通过记忆、学习、语言、音乐及认知活动可发生重塑性改变。结论 MR DTI技术作为一种能无创显示活体内脑白质纤维变化的技术,可广泛应用于各种认知训练及神经心理功能研究。%Objective To explore the progress of neuropsychological profile on memory, study, language, music, and cognition with diffusion tensor imaging(DTI). Methods A computer-based online database of Medline and Embase were undertaken to identify all articles about neuropsychological activities and diffusion tensor imaging with the key words of "memory, study, language, music, and cognition"published from January 2004 to June 2015. The search involved in more than 100 articles, as the key 32 of them were issued on authority magazines recently. Results The white matter fiber of human brain can be changed and remodeled through memory, learning, language, music and cognitive activity. Conclusions As a kind of technology to display the changing white matter construction of brain in vivo, magnetic resonance DTI are widely used in research on a variety of neuropsychological function as well as cognitive training.

  13. Effect of demographic data on neuropsychological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Evlice

    2016-09-01

    Material and Methods: Between 2014-2016 years; mini mental state examination, forward and backward digit span, verbal fluency (semantic and lexical, clock drawing, verbal and visual memory tests were performed to healthy people. The presence of correlation between neuropsychological tests and gender, age and education were researched in healthy people. Results: Hundred subjects (60 female, 40 male were included to study. No difference was observed between male and female subjects on neuropsychological tests. There was negative correlation between age and mini mental state examination, digit span and semantic fluency tests. And also there was positive correlation between education and all neuropsychological tests (except verbal memory test. Conclusion: The mean neuropsychological test scores in healthy people were not shown differences by gender, but they were affected by age and education. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 528-532

  14. The neuropsychological correlates of borderline personality disorder and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGris, Jeannette; van Reekum, Rob

    2006-03-01

    In subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD), compared with subjects who attempted suicide, to review neuropsychological (NP) function that may predispose to suicidal behaviour along a continuum of high and low lethality. We undertook electronic searches of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Biosos Reviews, and Cinhal. The searches were restricted to English-language publications from 1985 onward. The search terms borderline personality disorder, suicide, suicide attempt, self-harm behaviour, neuropsychological, executive function (EF), neurocognitive, and neuropsychological function produced 29 neuropsychology studies involving BPD and 7 neuropsychology studies of suicide attempters, regardless of psychiatric diagnosis. Of the BPD studies, 83% found NP impairment in one or more cognitive domains, irrespective of depression, involving specific or generalized deficits linked to the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal regions. The functions most frequently reported (in 71% to 86% of BPD studies) are response-inhibitory processes affecting executive function performance that requires speeded attention and visuomotor skills. Decision making and visual memory impairment are also most frequently affected; 60% to 67% of BPD studies report attentional impairment, verbal memory impairment, and visuospatial organizational impairment. Least affected processes in BPD appear to involve spatial working memory, planning, and possibly, IQ. The similarities in NP deficits found in BPD and suicide-attempt studies involve decision making and Trails performances. BPD studies, however, reflect more frequent impairment on the Stroop Test and Wisconsin Card Sort Test performance than the suicide-attempt studies, whereas verbal fluency appears to be more frequently impaired in those attempting suicide. Impaired EF and disinhibitory processes, as indicated by verbal fluency, Trails, and Stroop performance, primarily associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortical regions may

  15. A 2-YEAR PRELIMINARY LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING IN HASHIMOTO’S THYROIDITIS UNDER LEVOTHYROXINE TREATMENT: ONLY TRAIL MAKING TEST IS MAKING A DIFFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaitsa Giannouli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined longitudinally depression, stress and cognition in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis (HT under levothyroxine (LT4 treatment. Although HT is claimed to cause several mood changes and cognitive deficits in patients who are left untreated, we still know little about the longitudinal profile of these patients when they are under stable treatment. Sixteen middle-aged euthyroid HT women and sixteen healthy control women were examined with a detailed neuropsychological battery covering different cognitive functions (attention, visual and verbal memory, executive functions and mood, and with thyroid functions tests at three time points at one and two years post-baseline. Depression and perceived stress, along with verbal and visual memory were found to be stable at a two-year retesting in euthyroid HT women. Only TMT-Parts A and B deteriorated at one and two years in euthyroid HT. Although impaired performance in attention and executive deficits are linked with heighted levels of depression and stress, here they were not accompanied by changes in mood. The present study failed to detect any noticeable changes longitudinally in the cognitive and emotional function in euthyroid HT women under stable and continuous LT4 treatment. Patients’ restricted deficits may indicate that the decline in attention and executive functioning performance might be related to the effects of a specific progressive degenerative process associated with the disorder, rather than the effects of aging.

  16. Neuropsychology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Keshav; Sadasivan, Akila

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue with the objective to provide information on neuropsychology in India. Information was gathered from a literature search and personal communication with professionals working in the field of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology as a specialization started in India approximately 40 years ago. The early years witnessed the use of Western tools for assessing patients with organic brain damage. Subsequent years saw the development of indigenous tools for use with the vast majority of the Indian population and also a few Western tests adapted to suit the needs of the unique Indian clientele. The starting of the Neuropsychology unit at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore in 1975 resulted in changing of the course of training and practice of Neuropsychology. The field of assessments has witnessed indigenous tests being developed, while rehabilitation programs have brought about a decline in cognitive deficits in several clinical conditions. Currently, work within the field of neuropsychology has focused on child, geriatric, acquired brain injury, and forensic populations with a development of unique rehabilitations to suit needs of several clinical conditions. However, there are very few neuropsychologists in the country, and only one nodal training center, which limits the availability of training to the large population of the country. Despite the shortcomings, the field of neuropsychology has received much attention in the recent years with the number of referrals and professionals increasing.

  17. Neuropsychology in Multiple Sclerosis: A literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodneys Mauricio Jiménez Morales

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by demyelination and degeneration. The objective of this article is to offer a review of the latest scientific discoveries in the field of neuropsychology in ME. A description is presented of the most frequent neuropsychological manifestations and their probable association with other factors such as: school level, fatigue, disability, cerebral dysfunction, time and clinical form of evolution, as well as depression and other states of mind starting from recent evidences in the scientific community. Also addressed is the development of tests and valid sensitive neuropsychological sets to evaluate cognitive functions. The use of sensitive and specific test facilitates the evaluation of neuropsychological alterations associated to ME, besides other socio-demographic and clinical-evaluative factors to contemplate in the exploration.

  18. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  19. Neuropsychology in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky Shejet, Feggy; Velez Garcia, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper explores the diverse pathways that have led to the development of neuropsychology in Mexico. The authors conducted a review of the literature and their own experiences to describe the seminal events and people relevant to the development of this area of research and practice. The master's degree is the usual level of educational attainment for those who wish to practice clinical neuropsychology. As of now, there is not a board certification process in neuropsychology, although there is one in clinical psychology. Neuropsychology and other mental health disciplines in Mexico and Latin America have historically been poorly funded, and have lacked optimal means of communication as to research findings and clinical initiatives and standards. However, there is reason to think that this will be improved upon in coming years.

  20. Clinical and cognitive factors affecting psychosocial functioning in remitted patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantakopoulos, G; Ioannidi, N; Typaldou, M; Sakkas, D; Oulis, P

    2016-01-01

    Impaired interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning is very often observed in patients with bipolar disorder, not only at the acute stages of the illness but in remission as well. This finding raises the question of multiple factors that might affect psychosocial functioning in bipolar patients, such as residual subsyndromal symptoms and neuropsychological deficits. Social cognition impairment, especially impaired Theory of Mind (ToM), might also play an important role in bipolar patients' every-day functioning, similarly to what was found in patients with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effect of clinical and cognitive factors on the psychosocial functioning of patients with bipolar disorder during remission, assessing ToM along with a broad range of basic cognitive functions. Forty-nine patients with bipolar disorder type I in remission and 53 healthy participants were assessed in general intelligence, working memory, attention, speed processing, verbal learning and memory, and executive functions using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. The Faux Pas Recognition Test was used to assess ToM. The two groups were matched for gender, age and education level. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were also administered to the patients. Every-day functioning was assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). In order to examine the contribution of many factors in psychosocial functioning, we used hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Bipolar patients presented significant impairment compared to healthy participants in all the basic cognitive functions tested with the exception of verbal memory. Moreover, patients had significant poorer performance than healthy controls in overall psyand cognitive ToM but not in affective ToM as measured by Faux Pas. Psychosocial functioning in patient group was

  1. Affective symptoms and cognitive functions in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Elberling, Tina V; Hørding, Merete

    2007-01-01

    of cognitive deficits) had decreased significantly, with further normalisation 1-year after treatment initiation. In conclusion, patients had subjective reports of cognitive deficits in the toxic phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis but comprehensive neuropsychological testing revealed no cognitive impairment......In the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis patients often have subjective cognitive complaints. Continuing controversy exists about the nature of these symptoms and whether they persist after treatment. This prospective study included 31 consecutively referred, newly diagnosed, and untreated....... No significant differences between the patient and the control group on neuropsychological test performances were found. Thyroid levels did not correlate with the neuropsychological test performances or psychiatric ratings. After reaching euthyroidism the level of affective symptoms (including reports...

  2. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology.

  3. Selection criteria for internships in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, David; Odland, Anthony P; Ritchie, Abigail S; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2012-01-01

    Criteria used in the evaluation and selection of applicants for clinical neuropsychology internships were identified by a survey of programs that met guidelines for specialty training. The number of internships that offer training with specialization in clinical neuropsychology has more than doubled during the past 10 years. Supervising neuropsychologists from 75 programs replied to the survey, yielding a 72.8% response rate. Clinical experience in neuropsychological assessment, specialization in clinical neuropsychology during graduate education, personal interview, and letters of recommendation were reported to be the most salient selection criteria. Practica that provide experience with flexible or functional systems assessment approaches at university-affiliated or VA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) medical centers and doctoral curricula that follow International Neuropsychological Society/Division 40 course guidelines, with teaching and supervision provided by neuropsychologists, were preferred prerequisites to internship. These results are consistent with selection criteria reported over a decade ago and indicate continued endorsement of the vertically integrated model of education and training outlined by the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

  4. Language and Dementia: Neuropsychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Daniel; Goral, Mira

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews recent evidence for the relationship between extralinguistic cognitive and language abilities in dementia. A survey of data from investigations of three dementia syndromes (Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia) reveals that, more often than not, deterioration of conceptual organization appears associated with lexical impairments, whereas impairments in executive function are associated with sentence- and discourse-level deficits. These connections between extralinguistic functions and language ability also emerge from the literature on cognitive reserve and bilingualism that investigates factors that delay the onset and possibly the progression of neuropsychological manifestation of dementia.

  5. 15q11.2 CNV affects cognitive, structural and functional correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfarsson, M O; Walters, G B; Gustafsson, O; Steinberg, S; Silva, A; Doyle, O M; Brammer, M; Gudbjartsson, D F; Arnarsdottir, S; Jonsdottir, G A; Gisladottir, R S; Bjornsdottir, G; Helgason, H; Ellingsen, L M; Halldorsson, J G; Saemundsen, E; Stefansdottir, B; Jonsson, L; Eiriksdottir, V K; Eiriksdottir, G R; Johannesdottir, G H; Unnsteinsdottir, U; Jonsdottir, B; Magnusdottir, B B; Sulem, P; Thorsteinsdottir, U; Sigurdsson, E; Brandeis, D; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Stefansson, H; Stefansson, K

    2017-04-25

    Several copy number variants have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and these variants have been shown to also influence cognitive abilities in carriers unaffected by psychiatric disorders. Previously, we associated the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion with specific learning disabilities and a larger corpus callosum. Here we investigate, in a much larger sample, the effect of the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion on cognitive, structural and functional correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We report that the deletion confers greatest risk of the combined phenotype of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We also show that the deletion associates with a smaller left fusiform gyrus. Moreover, tailored functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments using phonological lexical decision and multiplication verification tasks demonstrate altered activation in the left fusiform and the left angular gyri in carriers. Thus, by using convergent evidence from neuropsychological testing, and structural and functional neuroimaging, we show that the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion affects cognitive, structural and functional correlates of both dyslexia and dyscalculia.

  6. [Neuropsychological rehabilitation in wartime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Molina, Alberto; Roig-Rovira, Teresa

    2013-11-16

    The decrease in the rate of mortality due to brain damage during the First World War resulted in a large number of veterans with neurological or neuropsychological sequelae. This situation, which was unknown up until then, called for the development of new therapeutic approaches to help them reach acceptable levels of autonomy. This article reviews the relationship between neuropsychological rehabilitation and warfare, and describes the contributions made by different professionals in this field in the two great conflicts of the 20th century. The First World War was to mark the beginning of neuropsychological rehabilitation as we know it today. Some of the most outstanding contributions in that period were those made by Goldstein and Popplereuter in Germany or Franz in the United States. The Second World War was to consolidate this healthcare discipline, the leading figures at that time being Zangwill in England and Luria in the Soviet Union. Despite being of less importance, geopolitically speaking, the study also includes the Yom Kippur War, which exemplifies how warfare can stimulate the development of neuropsychological intervention programmes. Today's neuropsychological rehabilitation programmes are closely linked to the interventions used in wartime by Goldstein, Zangwill or Luria. The means employed may have changed, but the aims are still the same, i.e. to help people with brain damage manage to adapt to their new lives.

  7. Neuropsychological sex differences associated with age of initiated use among young adult cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Natania A; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision making and age of initiated use, specifically that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother's education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females.

  8. Pediatric neuropsychology: toward subspecialty designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Wills, Karen; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Armstrong, Kira; Westerveld, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology is a rapidly expanding field of study in the psychological sciences whose practitioners are expert in the assessment, treatment, and research of individuals with known or suspected central nervous system disease or disorder. Pediatric neuropsychology has emerged as a distinct subspecialty area with related education, training, and clinical expertise for a growing number of neuropsychologists. This paper details the numerous steps taken by two affiliated organizations, the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and its membership organization, the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, in the interest of the larger pediatric neuropsychology community and in pediatric neuropsychology subspecialty development.

  9. Metal ions to affect thyroid functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Mikio

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of physiological action of the trace elements that exert effects to internal secretion organs has not much been specified. The reasons are presumed as the elements exert effects to many enzyme groups, change the structural constitution, or modify the permeability of matters. As the metallic elements that exert effects to thyroid, there are more than ten kinds including Li, Ca, Co, Br, I, Hg, Pb and Se. In this report, the knowledge that the authors observed about the effects of Mn, I and Li which are apt to accumulate on thyroid is introduced. Mn and I were quantitatively determined by activation analysis, and Li by atomic absorption spectrometry. There is the report that the excessive intake of Mn causes human thyroid tumor. By the shortage of Mn, the restriction of energy metabolism, growth delay, sterility, bone abnormality and motion disorder arise. The contents of Mn and I in the periphery of thyroid tumors were examined by activation analysis. When an antipsychotic Li is administered, the function of thyroid is often lowered. Those effects are explained. In the case of Mn excess and Mn shortage, the new problem that the hormone residue in globulin tended to increase arose. The similar phenomenon occurred also in the case of I. The reason is unknown at present. (K.I.)

  10. The Impact of Subcortical Band Heterotopia and Associated Complications on the Neuropsychological Functioning of a 13-Year-Old Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Beata S.; Hill, James M.; Ming, Sue X.

    2007-01-01

    Motor impairment in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high functioning autism (HFA) has been reported previously. This study presents results of a quantitative assessment of neuromotor skills in 14-22 year old HFA/AS. Sixteen HFA/AS and 16 IQ-matched controls were assessed by the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA). The HFA/AS group showed…

  11. The predictive value of measures of social cognition for community functioning in schizophrenia : Implications for neuropsychological assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G.H M; Withaar, F.K.; Evans, J.J; van den Bosch, R.J.; Timmerman, M.E.; Brouwer, W.H.

    The objective of this study was to examine the unique contribution of social cognition to the prediction of community functioning and to explore the relevance of social cognition for clinical practice. Forty-six schizophrenia patients and 53 healthy controls were assessed with tests of social

  12. Major Depressive Disorder Is Associated with Broad Impairments on Neuropsychological Measures of Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are now widely acknowledged as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), and it has been proposed that executive function (EF) may be particularly impaired in patients with MDD. However, the existence and nature of EF impairments associated with depression remain strongly debated. Although many studies have…

  13. Neuropsychological assessment and differential diagnosis in young-onset dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Emilia J; Barczak, Anna; Harciarek, Michał

    2015-06-01

    Although Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, there are several conditions (ie, frontotemporal dementia or Huntington's disease) associated with a relatively earlier onset. This article provides arguments in favor of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in the differential diagnosis of young-onset dementia, as episodic memory impairment is not observed early in the course of most types of young-onset dementia that predominantly affect the domains of behavior, executive, language, and/or motor function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Neuropsychological performance in neurofibromatosis type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Del Castillo, Lilia; Martínez Bermejo, Antonio; Portellano Pérez, José Antonio; Tirado Requero, Pilar; Garriz Luis, Alexandra; Velázquez Fragua, Ramón

    2017-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder with various clinical manifestations that affect the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as the skin, bones and endocrine and vascular system. There is still insufficient knowledge of neuropsychological effects of NF1 on children, and there is some controversy about the cognitive deficits that defines the cognitive profile of patients affected by this disorder. In this study an analysis is made of the neuropsychological performance of a group of patients affected by NF1, compared with a control group of healthy children. A comparison was made between the neuropsychological performance of a group of 23 boys and girls with a mean age of 8.7 years (+/-1.39) and diagnosed with NF1, and a control group consisting of 21 healthy children, with mean age of 8.9 years (+/- 1.41) and with similar socio-demographic characteristics. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) was applied to evaluate the subjects of both groups. The group of patients affected with NF1 showed a lower performance in every primary index of WISC IV: Verbal Comprehension Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, Processing Speed Index, and full Scale IQ. Only in two subscales were no statistically significant differences observed: similarities and coding. The results show subtle and generalised neuropsychological alterations in the sample of children affected with NF1, which affect most of cognitive domains that have been evaluated. Proper specific and early neuropsychological treatment should be provided in order to prevent the high risk for these children of presenting learning difficulties and school failure. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Marshall L; Mavrolefteros, George; Close, David

    2002-01-01

    To examine the relationship between premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological deficit in schizophrenia, this report examined retrospective ratings of social and school adjustment during three age epochs (childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) as predictors of neurocognitive performance in 61 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized schizophrenia outpatients. Results indicated greater cognitive deficits when premorbid adjustment was unfavorable, particularly for measures of attention and executive functions. Premorbid number and quality of peer relationships and psychosocial adaptation to the school environment were more closely related to neuropsychological performance during adulthood than were premorbid withdrawal and premorbid academic performance. Early onset of poor premorbid adjustment rather than deterioration from childhood to adolescence was associated with greater neuropsychological disturbance in adulthood. It is suggested that childhood onset of premorbid deficits in selective areas of social and academic adjustment appears to influence the cognitive performance seen in adult schizophrenia. This study is consistent with findings from other related reports; it extends these findings to a larger and clinically stabilized sample.

  16. The neuropsychological profile of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Sandra; Wicklund, Alissa H; Salmon, David P

    2012-04-01

    Neuropsychological assessment has featured prominently over the past 30 years in the characterization of dementia associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Clinical neuropsychological methods have identified the earliest, most definitive cognitive and behavioral symptoms of illness, contributing to the identification, staging, and tracking of disease. With increasing public awareness of dementia, disease detection has moved to earlier stages of illness, at a time when deficits are both behaviorally and pathologically selective. For reasons that are not well understood, early AD pathology frequently targets large-scale neuroanatomical networks for episodic memory before other networks that subserve language, attention, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. This chapter reviews the pathognomonic neuropsychological features of AD dementia and how these differ from "normal," age-related cognitive decline and from other neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia, including cortical Lewy body disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and cerebrovascular disease.

  17. The Neuropsychological Profile of Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Sandra; Wicklund, Alissa H.; Salmon, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessment has featured prominently over the past 30 years in the characterization of dementia associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Clinical neuropsychological methods have identified the earliest, most definitive cognitive and behavioral symptoms of illness, contributing to the identification, staging, and tracking of disease. With increasing public awareness of dementia, disease detection has moved to earlier stages of illness, at a time when deficits are both behaviorally and pathologically selective. For reasons that are not well understood, early AD pathology frequently targets large-scale neuroanatomical networks for episodic memory before other networks that subserve language, attention, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. This chapter reviews the pathognomonic neuropsychological features of AD dementia and how these differ from “normal,” age-related cognitive decline and from other neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia, including cortical Lewy body disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:22474609

  18. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  19. Neuropsychological findings associated with Panayiotopoulos syndrome in three children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Samantha L; Gabriel, Marsha T; Perry, M Scott

    2016-01-01

    Panayiotopoulos syndrome is a common idiopathic benign epilepsy that has a peak age of onset in early childhood. The syndrome is multifocal and shows significant electroencephalogram (EEG) variability, with occipital predominance. Although a benign syndrome often refers to the absence of neurological and neuropsychological deficits, the syndrome has recently been associated with cognitive impairments. Also, despite frequent occipital EEG abnormalities, research regarding the visual functioning of patients is less reported and often contradictory. The purpose of this study was to gain additional knowledge regarding the neurocognitive functioning of patients with Panayiotopoulos syndrome and specifically to address any visual processing deficits associated with the syndrome. Following diagnosis of the syndrome based on typical clinical and electrophysiological criteria, three patients, aged 5, 8, and 10years were referred by epileptologists for neuropsychological evaluation. Neuropsychological findings suggest that the patients had notable impairments on visual memory tasks, especially in comparison with verbal memory. Further, they demonstrated increased difficulty on picture memory suggesting difficulty retaining information from a crowded visual field. Two of the three patients showed weakness in visual processing speed, which may account for weaker retention of complex visual stimuli. Abilities involving attention were normal for all patients, suggesting that inattention is not responsible for these visual deficits. Academically, the patients were weak in numerical operations and spelling, which both rely partially on visual memory and may affect achievement in these areas. Overall, the results suggest that patients with Panayiotopoulos syndrome may have visual processing and visual memory problems that could potentially affect their academic capabilities. Identifying such difficulties may be helpful in creating educational and remedial assistance programs for

  20. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  1. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters a...

  2. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  3. Recent advances in the neuroimaging and neuropsychology of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, A Sophia

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the recent advances in understanding of cerebral palsy (CP) and outlines how these advances could inform pediatric neuropsychological rehabilitation. Three main areas are discussed: the improved delineation of differing presentations resulting from more advanced imaging techniques with emerging links to function; a brief review of research examining neuropsychological functioning of children with CP and their quality of life and participation; and lastly, some of the evidence for efficacious interventions and the extent to which these interventions are derived from neuropsychological theory and practice. Advances and gaps in knowledge in addition to suggestions of areas for future focus in research and practice are discussed throughout the article.

  4. Anatomo-clinical overlapping maps (AnaCOM): a new method to create anatomo-functional maps from neuropsychological tests and structural MRI scan of subjects with brain lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkingnehun, Serge R. J.; du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Zhang, Sandy X.; Levy, Richard; Dubois, Bruno

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a new technique to analyze correlations between brain anatomy and its neurological functions. The technique is based on the anatomic MRI of patients with brain lesions who are administered neuropsychological tests. Brain lesions of the MRI scans are first manually segmented. The MRI volumes are then normalized to a reference map, using the segmented area as a mask. After normalization, the brain lesions of the MRI are segmented again in order to redefine the border of the lesions in the context of the normalized brain. Once the MRI is segmented, the patient's score on the neuropsychological test is assigned to each voxel in the lesioned area, while the rest of the voxels of the image are set to 0. Subsequently, the individual patient's MRI images are superimposed, and each voxel is reassigned the average score of the patients who have a lesion at that voxel. A threshold is applied to remove regions having less than three overlaps. This process leads to an anatomo-functional map that links brain areas to functional loss. Other maps can be created to aid in analyzing the functional maps, such as one that indicates the 95% confidence interval of the averaged scores for each area. This anatomo-clinical overlapping map (AnaCOM) method was used to obtain functional maps from patients with lesions in the superior frontal gyrus. By finding particular subregions more responsible for a particular deficit, this method can generate new hypotheses to be tested by conventional group methods.

  5. Lying in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. Iron nutrition and premenopausal women: effects of poor iron status on physical and neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a nutritionally essential trace element that functions through incorporation into proteins and enzymes, many of which contribute to physical and neuropsychological performance. Poor iron status, including iron deficiency (ID; diminished iron stores) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA; poor iron stores and diminished hemoglobin), affects billions of people worldwide. This review focuses on physical and neuropsychological outcomes associated with ID and IDA in premenopausal women, as the prevalence of ID and IDA is often greater in premenopausal women than other population demographics. Recent studies addressing the physiological effects of poor iron status on physical performance, including work productivity, voluntary activity, and athletic performance, are addressed. Similarly, the effects of iron status on neurological performance, including cognition, affect, and behavior, are summarized. Nutritional countermeasures for the prevention of poor iron status and the restoration of decrements in performance outcomes are described.

  7. Neuropsychology and socioeconomic aspects of Klinefelter syndrome: new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakkebæk, Anne; Wallentin, Mikkel; Gravholt, Claus H

    2015-06-01

    To summarize recent important studies on neuropsychology and epidemiology of Klinefelter syndrome. PubMed was searched for 'Klinefelter', 'Klinefelter's' and 'XXY' in titles and abstracts. Relevant studies were obtained and reviewed, as well as other articles selected by the authors. Klinefelter syndrome is the most common sex-chromosome disorder in humans, affecting one in 660 men. The key findings in Klinefelter syndrome are small testes, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and cognitive impairment. Klinefelter syndrome scores significantly below education matched controls on a range of cognitive tests with verbal skills displaying the largest effects. Boys with Klinefelter syndrome are often in the need of speech therapy and many suffer from learning disability and may benefit from special education. New studies are elucidating aspects of cognitive functioning and suggesting that neuropsychological treatment may be of value. The socioeconomic status and educational level of Klinefelter syndrome is severely affected with many struggling to achieve any or only shorter education, resulting in low-income levels and early retirement. In addition, few become fathers and fewer live with a partner compared with controls. Medical treatment is mainly testosterone replacement therapy in order to alleviate acute and long-term consequences of hypogonadism, as well as, treating or preventing the frequent comorbidity. The neurocognitive phenotype of Klinefelter syndrome is being unraveled and the need for psychological and cognitive treatment in many cases is evident. The neurocognitive deficits no doubt influence the socioeconomic status of many Klinefelter syndrome patients, which is clearly inferior to age-matched controls.

  8. Interdependence of episodic and semantic memory: Evidence from neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    GREENBERG, DANIEL L.; VERFAELLIE, MIEKE

    2010-01-01

    Tulving's (1972) theory of memory draws a distinction between general knowledge (semantic memory) and memory for events (episodic memory). Neuropsychological studies have generally examined each type of memory in isolation, but theorists have long argued that these two forms of memory are interdependent. Here we review several lines of neuropsychological research that have explored the interdependence of episodic and semantic memory. The studies show that these forms of memory can affect each...

  9. Does Subacromial Osteolysis Affect Shoulder Function after Clavicle Hook Plating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate whether subacromial osteolysis, one of the major complications of the clavicle hook plate procedure, affects shoulder function. Methods. We had performed a retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with a Neer II lateral clavicle fracture or Degree-III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from July 2012 to December 2013. All these patients had undergone surgery with clavicle hook plate and were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of subacromial osteolysis. By using the Constant-Murley at the first follow-up visit after plates removal, we evaluated patients’ shoulder function to judge if it has been affected by subacromial osteolysis. Results. We have analyzed clinical data for these 72 patients, which shows that there is no significant difference between group A (39 patients and group B (33 patients in age, gender, injury types or side, and shoulder function (the Constant-Murley scores are 93.38±3.56 versus 94.24±3.60, P>0.05. Conclusion. The occurrence of subacromial osteolysis is not rare, and also it does not significantly affect shoulder function.

  10. [Neuropsychological performance in patients with myasthenia gravis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizaguirre, María Bárbara; Aguirre, Florencia; Yastremiz, Cecilia; Vanotti, Sandra; Villa, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular transmission. Controversial findings had been reported about cognitive impairment in this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive pattern of patients with myasthenia gravis. There were enrolled 24 patients with myasthenia gravis, anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies (ACRA) positive, and 24 healthy controls. age 43.9 ± 14.8, years of education 10.9 ± 3.3. age 44.5 ± 15.4, years of education 11.5 ± 3.3. The following areas were evaluated: verbal memory: (long-term storage, retrieval, delayed recall) of the Selective Remained Test; attention: Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT 2 and 3 seconds); executive functions: analogies and numbers-letters sequence. Also, it was administered the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II). About 33.3% of patients obtained abnormal performance in two or more cognitive tests. 37.5% showed deterioration in attention; 33.3% in verbal memory; 29.2% in executive functions. Significant differences between patients and healthy controls were found in long-term storage (p = 0.001); retrieval (p = 0.007); delayed recall (p = 0.000); PASAT 3 (p = 0.009); PASAT 2 (p = 0.009) and analogies (p = 0.003). Evidence of depression was found: mild in 4.2% of patients; moderate in 25% and severe in 29.2%. Neuropsychological performance declines in patients with myasthenia gravis: attention was more affected than other cognitive areas.

  11. Neuropsychological performance in patients with myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Bárbara Eizaguirre

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular transmission. Controversial findings had been reported about cognitive impairment in this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive pattern of patients with myasthenia gravis. There were enrolled 24 patients with myasthenia gravis, anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies (ACRA positive, and 24 healthy controls. Patients: age 43.9 ± 14.8, years of education 10.9 ± 3.3. Controls: age 44.5 ± 15.4, years of education 11.5 ± 3.3. The following areas were evaluated: verbal memory: (long-term storage, retrieval, delayed recall of the Selective Remained Test; attention: Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT 2 and 3 seconds; executive functions: analogies and numbers-letters sequence. Also, it was administered the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II. About 33.3% of patients obtained abnormal performance in two or more cognitive tests. 37.5% showed deterioration in attention; 33.3% in verbal memory; 29.2% in executive functions. Significant differences between patients and healthy controls were found in long-term storage (p = 0.001; retrieval (p = 0.007; delayed recall (p = 0.000; PASAT 3 (p = 0.009; PASAT 2 (p = 0.009 and analogies (p = 0.003. Evidence of depression was found: mild in 4.2% of patients; moderate in 25% and severe in 29.2%. Neuropsychological performance declines in patients with myasthenia gravis: attention was more affected than other cognitive areas

  12. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health: clinical findings from a sample of healthy, cognitively intact older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, W David; Harrison, David W; Wright, James W

    2008-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in the potential health-related benefits of antioxidant- and phytochemical-rich dark chocolate and cocoa. The objective of the study was to examine the short-term (6 wk) effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health in healthy older adults. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, parallel-group clinical trial was used. Participants (n = 101) were randomly assigned to receive a 37-g dark chocolate bar and 8 ounces (237 mL) of an artificially sweetened cocoa beverage or similar placebo products each day for 6 wk. No significant group (dark chocolate and cocoa or placebo)-by-trial (baseline, midpoint, and end-of-treatment assessments) interactions were found for the neuropsychological, hematological, or blood pressure variables examined. In contrast, the midpoint and end-of-treatment mean pulse rate assessments in the dark chocolate and cocoa group were significantly higher than those at baseline and significantly higher than the midpoint and end-of-treatment rates in the control group. Results of a follow-up questionnaire item on the treatment products that participants believed they had consumed during the trial showed that more than half of the participants in both groups correctly identified the products that they had ingested during the experiment. This investigation failed to support the predicted beneficial effects of short-term dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on any of the neuropsychological or cardiovascular health-related variables included in this research. Consumption of dark chocolate and cocoa was, however, associated with significantly higher pulse rates at 3- and 6-wk treatment assessments.

  13. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  14. Descartes' pineal neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U

    1998-02-01

    The year 1996 marked the quattrocentenary of Descartes' birth. This paper reviews his pineal neuropsychology. It demonstrates that Descartes understood the true anatomical position of the pineal. His intraventricular pineal (or glande H) was a theoretical construct which allowed him to describe the operations of his man-like "earthen machine." In the Treatise of Man he shows how all the behaviors of such machines could then be accounted for without the presence of self-consciousness. Infrahuman animals are "conscious automata." In Passions of the Soul he adds, but only for humans, self-consciousness to the machine. In a modern formulation, only humans not only know but know that they know. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  15. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Neuropsychological late effects of treatment for acute leukemia in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncadin, Caroline; Hitzler, Johann; Downie, Andrea; Montour-Proulx, Isabelle; Alyman, Cheryl; Cairney, Elizabeth; Spiegler, Brenda J

    2015-05-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have an elevated risk of developing acute leukemia, but little is known about treatment-related neuropsychological morbidity because they are systematically excluded from research in this area. The current study investigated neuropsychological outcomes in children with DS treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared to children with DS with no history of cancer. Participants were 4 to 17 years of age at testing and were administered measures of intelligence, academic achievement, language, visual-motor and fine-motor skills, and adaptive function. Patients had been off treatment for at least 2 years. The AML group (N = 12) had significantly lower verbal intelligence and receptive vocabulary compared to controls (N = 21). By contrast, the ALL group (N = 14) performed significantly worse than controls on measures of verbal intelligence, spelling, receptive and expressive vocabulary, visual-motor skills, and adaptive function. Patients with DS treated for AML may have specific post-treatment morbidity in verbal function, whereas those treated for ALL have broader morbidity affecting multiple neuropsychological domains and overall adaptive function. We hypothesize that the broader impairment profile of ALL survivors may be related to a combination of the longer duration of central nervous system-directed treatment for ALL compared to AML and the concomitant limited access to intervention opportunities during active treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aas, Monica

    2011-06-01

    A history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis. The potential impact of diagnosis (schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and gender on this association was also examined.

  18. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-12-01

    ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Neuropsychological Correlates of Hazard Perception in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Katalina; Suhr, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Hazard perception, the ability to identify and react to hazards while driving, is of growing importance in driving research, given its strong relationship to real word driving variables. Furthermore, although poor hazard perception is associated with novice drivers, recent research suggests that it declines with advanced age. In the present study, we examined the neuropsychological correlates of hazard perception in a healthy older adult sample. A total of 68 adults age 60 and older who showed no signs of dementia and were active drivers completed a battery of neuropsychological tests as well as a hazard perception task. Tests included the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Wechsler Test of Adult Reading, Trail Making Test, Block Design, Useful Field of View, and the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Color Word Interference Test. Hazard perception errors were related to visuospatial/constructional skills, processing speed, memory, and executive functioning skills, with a battery of tests across these domains accounting for 36.7% of the variance in hazard perception errors. Executive functioning, particularly Trail Making Test part B, emerged as a strong predictor of hazard perception ability. Consistent with prior work showing the relationship of neuropsychological performance to other measures of driving ability, neuropsychological performance was associated with hazard perception skill. Future studies should examine the relationship of neuropsychological changes in adults who are showing driving impairment and/or cognitive changes associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment or dementia.

  20. Relations between brain volumes, neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaire in prematurely born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Annika; Haataja, Leena; Rautava, Liisi; Väliaho, Anniina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Korkman, Marit

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between brain volumes at term equivalent age and neuropsychological functions at 5 years of age in very low birth weight (VLBW) children, and to compare the results from a neuropsychological assessment and a parental questionnaire at 5 years of age. The study group included a regional cohort of 97 VLBW children and a control group of 161 children born at term. At term equivalent age, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on the VLBW children, and analysed for total and regional brain volumes. At 5 years of age, a psychologist assessed the neuropsychological performance with NEPSY II, and parents completed the Five to fifteen (FTF) questionnaire on development and behaviour. The results of the control group were used to give the age-specific reference values. No significant associations were found between the brain volumes and the NEPSY II domains. As for the FTF, significant associations were found between a smaller total brain tissue volume and poorer executive functions, between a smaller cerebellar volume and both poorer executive functions and motor skills, and, surprisingly, between a larger volume of brainstem and poorer language functions. Even after adjustment for total brain tissue volume, the two associations between the cerebellar volume and the FTF domains remained borderline significant (P = 0.05). The NEPSY II domains Executive Functioning, Language and Motor Skills were significantly associated with the corresponding FTF domains. In conclusion, altered brain volumes at term equivalent age appear to affect development still at 5 years of age. The FTF seems to be a good instrument when used in combination with other neuropsychological assessment.

  1. Affective functioning after delirium in elderly hip fracture patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slor, Chantal J; Witlox, Joost; Jansen, René W M M; Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David J; Tieken, Esther; Houdijk, Alexander P J; van Gool, Willem A; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Jonghe, Jos F M

    2013-03-01

    Delirium in elderly patients is associated with various long-term sequelae that include cognitive impairment and affective disturbances, although the latter is understudied. For a prospective cohort study of elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, baseline characteristics and affective and cognitive functioning were assessed preoperatively. During hospital admission, presence of delirium was assessed daily. Three months after hospital discharge, affective and global cognitive functioning was evaluated again in patients free from delirium at the time of this follow-up. This study compared baseline characteristics and affective functioning between patients with and without in-hospital delirium. We investigated whether in-hospital delirium is associated with increased anxiety and depressive levels, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms three months after discharge. Among 53 eligible patients, 23 (43.4%) patients experienced in-hospital delirium after hip fracture repair. Patients who had experienced in-hospital delirium showed more depressive symptoms at follow-up after three months compared to the 30 patients without in-hospital delirium. This association persisted in a multivariate model controlling for age, baseline cognition, baseline depressive symptoms, and living situation. The level of anxiety and symptoms of PTSD at follow-up did not differ between both groups. This study suggests that in-hospital delirium is associated with an increased burden of depressive symptoms three months after discharge in elderly patients who were admitted to the hospital for surgical repair of hip fracture. Symptoms of depression in patients with previous in-hospital delirium cannot be fully explained by persistent (sub)syndromal delirium or baseline cognitive impairment.

  2. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    to just one or two single factors. The current article reviews important factors affecting the functional prognosis, and clinicians are encouraged to include all factors potentially influencing the outcome of patients with hip fracture in their individualised treatment and rehabilitation plan. Especially......Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patients....... A variety of factors such as age, prefracture function and health status, fracture type, pain, anaemia, muscle strength, and the early mobility level have been shown to influence patient outcome. Thus, the outcome of patients with hip fracture is considered multi-factorial, and can therefore not be related...

  3. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child

  4. The stakeholders' project in neuropsychological report writing: a survey of neuropsychologists' and referral sources' views of neuropsychological reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postal, Karen; Chow, Clifton; Jung, Sharon; Erickson-Moreo, Kalen; Geier, Flannery; Lanca, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Though some neuropsychological groups have proposed criteria and suggestions for clinical report writing there has never been professional consensus or accepted published guidelines on how to write reports. Given the paucity of guidelines and the evolving practice climate, we sought to survey neuropsychologists and referral source stakeholders to understand current report writing practices. The data were collected in two SurveyMonkey surveys via professional list servs, email, and LinkedIn clinical interest groups. Results of the survey indicate many neuropsychologists spend multiple hours writing reports that they believe will not be read completely by stakeholders. A striking 73% of referral sources reported slow turnaround time of neuropsychological reports negatively affected their patient care. Referral sources reported they value the diagnosis/impression and recommendations sections the most; in contrast, they did not find the history, behavioral observations, emotional functioning, or descriptions of cognitive domains sections as useful. The survey findings highlight the disjuncture between what neuropsychologists typically do in their practice of report writing versus what they believe is useful for patients and referral sources. The survey also highlights differences between writing practices of neuropsychologists and what referral sources identify as the most valuable aspects of reports to assist them in caring for their patients.

  5. Neuropsychological sequelae of postradiation somnolence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.A.; Ch'ien, L.T.; Lancaster, W.; Williams, S.; Cummins, J.

    1983-01-01

    Postirradiation somnolence syndrome in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with cranial irradiation has been identified as a possible precursor of later cognitive dysfunction. To test this, the neuropsychological evaluation of 48 children who developed somnolence syndrome was compared with that of 31 children who did not have the syndrome at approximately 1 1/2 and 3 3/4 years after treatment. No differences in performance between the two groups were found on many measures of neuropsychological functioning with the exception of fine motor speed. Children without somnolence syndrome scored somewhat less than normal on measures of academic achievement. No other differences from normal performance were noted in either group. The results of the study indicated that if children with somnolence are at greater risk for the development of cognitive dysfunction than those not manifesting the syndrome, such risks occur at a time farther from treatment than 3 to 4 years

  6. Paranoid schizophrenia versus schizoaffective disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough. These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. Objective. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. Methods. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31, inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30 and healthy subjects (n=30. Results. Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. Conclusion. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive deficits were registered.

  7. Paranoid Schizophrenia versus Schizoaffective Disorder: Neuropsychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leposavić, Ljubica; Leposavić, Ivana; Šaula-Marojević, Bijana; Gavrilović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough.These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31), inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=30). Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive, deficits were registered.

  8. Age-related changes of adaptive and neuropsychological features in persons with Down Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ghezzo

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years, from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy.

  9. How Cognitive Neuroscience could be more biological – and what it might learn from Clinical Neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eFrisch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three widespread assumptions of Cognitive-affective Neuroscience are discussed: First, mental functions are assumed to be localized in circumscribed brain areas which can be exactly determined, at least in principle (localizationism. Second, this assumption is associated with the more general claim that these functions (and dysfunctions, such as in neurological or mental diseases are somehow generated inside the brain (internalism. Third, these functions are seen to be biological in the sense that they can be decomposed and finally explained on the basis of elementary biological causes (i. e. genetic, molecular, neurophysiological etc., causes that can be identified by experimental methods as the gold standard (isolationism. Clinical neuropsychology is widely assumed to support these tenets. However, by making reference to the ideas of Kurt Goldstein, one of its most important founders, I argue that none of these assumptions is sufficiently supported. From the perspective of a clinical-neuropsychological practitioner, assessing and treating brain damage sequelae reveals a quite different picture of the brain as well as of us brain carriers, making the organism (or person in its specific environment the crucial reference point. This conclusion can be further elaborated: All experimental and clinical research on humans presupposes the notion of a situated, reflecting, and interacting subject, which precedes all kinds of scientific decomposition, however useful. These implications support the core assumptions of the embodiment approach to brain and mind, and, as I argue, Goldstein and his clinical-neuropsychological observations are part of its very origin, for both theoretical and historical reasons.

  10. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  11. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Abnormal GABAergic function and negative affect in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephan F; Demeter, Elise; Phan, K Luan; Tso, Ivy F; Welsh, Robert C

    2014-03-01

    Deficits in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system have been reported in postmortem studies of schizophrenia, and therapeutic interventions in schizophrenia often involve potentiation of GABA receptors (GABAR) to augment antipsychotic therapy and treat negative affect such as anxiety. To map GABAergic mechanisms associated with processing affect, we used a benzodiazepine challenge while subjects viewed salient visual stimuli. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients and 13 healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they viewed salient emotional images. Subjects received intravenous lorazepam (LRZ; 0.01 mg/kg) or saline in a single-blinded, cross-over design (two sessions separated by 1-3 weeks). A predicted group by drug interaction was noted in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) as well as right superior frontal gyrus and left and right occipital regions, such that psychosis patients showed an increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, rather than the decreased signal exhibited by the comparison group. A main effect of reduced BOLD signal in bilateral occipital areas was noted across groups. Consistent with the role of the dmPFC in processing emotion, state negative affect positively correlated with the response to the LRZ challenge in the dmPFC for the patients and comparison subjects. The altered response to LRZ challenge is consistent with altered inhibition predicted by postmortem findings of altered GABAR in schizophrenia. These results also suggest that negative affect in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder is associated-directly or indirectly-with GABAergic function on a continuum with normal behavior.

  13. The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, Carissa L; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The development of robust neuropsychological measures of social and affective function-which link critical dimensions of mental health to their underlying neural circuitry-could be a key step in achieving a more pathophysiologically-based approach to psychiatric medicine. In this article, we summarize research indicating that self-reflection (the inward attention to personal thoughts, memories, feelings, and actions) may be a useful model for developing such a paradigm, as there is evidence that self-reflection is (1) measurable with self-report scales and performance-based tests, (2) linked to the activity of a specific neural circuit, and (3) dimensionally related to mental health and various forms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuropsychological Outcomes at Mid-Life Following Moderate to Severe Malnutrition in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waber, Deborah P.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Zichlin, Miriam; McGaughy, Jill; Girard, Jonathan M.; Galler, Janina R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare neuropsychological profiles of adults who had experienced an episode of moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition confined to the first year of life with that of a healthy community comparison group. Method We assessed neuropsychological functioning in a cohort of Barbadian adults, all of whom had birth weight >2500g. The previously malnourished group (N=77, Mean age = 38 years, 53% male) had been hospitalized during the first year of life for moderate to severe protein energy malnutrition and subsequently enrolled in a program providing nutrition education, home visits, and subsidized foods to 12 years of age. They also had documented, adequate nutrition throughout childhood and complete catch-up in growth by the end of adolescence. The healthy comparison group (N=59, Mean age = 38 years, 54% male) were recruited as children from the same classrooms and neighborhoods. Results Adjusted for effects of standard of living during childhood and adolescence and current intellectual ability level, there were nutrition group differences on measures of cognitive flexibility and concept formation, as well as initiation, verbal fluency, working memory, processing speed, and visuospatial integration. Behavioral and cognitive regulation were not affected. Conclusions Postnatal malnutrition confined to the first year of life is associated with neurocognitive compromise persisting into mid-life. Early malnutrition may have a specific neuropsychological signature, affecting response initiation to a somewhat greater extent than response inhibition. PMID:24635710

  15. Cognitive Screening Tests Versus Comprehensive Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A National Academy of Neuropsychology Education Paper†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Glen, Tannahill; Puente, Antonio E; Denney, Robert L; Ruff, Ronald M; Hostetter, Gayle; Bianchini, Kevin J

    2017-06-01

    The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Screening tests are generally brief and narrow in scope, they can be administered during a routine clinical visit, and they can be helpful for identifying individuals in need of more comprehensive assessment. Some screening tests can also be helpful for monitoring treatment outcomes. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments are multidimensional in nature and used for purposes such as identifying primary and secondary diagnoses, determining the nature  and severity of a person's cognitive difficulties, determining functional limitations, and planning treatment and rehabilitation. Cognitive screening tests are expected to play an increasingly important role in identifying individuals with cognitive impairment and in determining which individuals should be referred for further neuropsychological assessment. However, limitations of existing cognitive screening tests are present and cognitive screening tests should not be used as a replacement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Prospective memory functioning: a new area of investigation in the clinical neuropsychology and rehabilitation of Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alberto; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    The integrity of prospective memory (PM) is likely crucial for independent human behavior. PM refers to the ability to execute an intention after a certain delay. Its impaired functioning may significantly affect the correct execution of common daily activities, such as taking a pill at a certain time or complying with future plans. The results of recent studies indicate that PM is impaired pervasively and early in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we reviewed studies investigating the characteristics of PM disorders in these individuals and the potential for cognitive rehabilitation. The PM profiles of individuals with MCI and PD indicate that interventions aimed at enhancing the different cognitive processes underlying their PM disorders could be useful. At the current state of the art, however, no evidence-based protocols are available. Therefore, the discussion proposed here should be considered an attempt to identify some valuable perspectives for future research and interventions.

  17. Working memory in early Alzheimer's disease: a neuropsychological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J D; Howard, R J

    2010-02-01

    Reports of the extent of working memory (WM) impairment in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been inconsistent. Using the model of WM proposed by Baddeley, neuropsychological evidence for the impairment of WM in early AD is evaluated. Literature searches were performed using Medline, PsycINFO and Embase databases. Individual papers were then examined for additional references not revealed by computerised searches. Phonological loop function is intact at the preclinical and early stages of AD, becoming more impaired as the disease progresses. In mild AD, there is impairment on tasks assessing visuospatial sketchpad (VSS) function; however, these tasks also require executive processing by the central executive system (CES). There is evidence that the CES is impaired in mild AD and may be affected in the earlier preclinical stage of the disease. Episodic buffer function may be impaired but further research is required. Future research into central executive functioning at the earliest stages of the disease, combined with further longitudinal studies, needs to be carried out. Tasks to assess the proposed functions of the episodic buffer and specific tests of the VSS suitable for AD subjects need to be developed and validated. Learning more about these processes and how they are affected in AD is important in understanding and managing the cognitive deficits seen in the early stages of AD.

  18. Neuropsychological improvement in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy after posterior decompression surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshimaru, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy sometimes complain of cognitive dysfunction, which may be coincidence. However, cognitive dysfunction may be related to disorders of the cervical spine and/or spinal cord. This study investigated cognitive dysfunction in patients with cervical spinal disorders. A total of 79 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (40 women and 39 men, mean age 61.2 years) underwent cervical laminoplasty between January 2006 and July 2007. Ten of these 79 patients (7 women and 3 men, mean age 65.2 years) complained of moderate to severe memory disturbances. These 10 patients underwent neuroimaging studies and a battery of neuropsychological tests consisting of the mini-mental state examination, Kohs Block Design Test, Miyake Memory Test, Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and 'kana-hiroi' test before and 3 months after surgery. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no organic brain lesions in the 10 patients, but single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated reduced regional cerebral blood flow in the posterior cortical areas in eight patients before surgery. Neuropsychological test scores showed statistically significant improvement after surgery in the Kohs Block Design Test and the BVRT, which measure visuospatial perception and reflect the function of the parietal and/or occipital lobes (p<0.05). The practice effect may have contributed to the neuropsychological improvements, but this study suggests that cervical spinal disorders may affect cognitive functions and that surgical treatment can ameliorate such effects. (author)

  19. Shifts of community composition and population density substantially affect ecosystem function despite invariant richness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaak, Jurg W.; Baert, Jan M.; Baird, Donald J.; Eisenhauer, Nico; Maltby, Lorraine; Pomati, Francesco; Radchuk, Viktoriia; Rohr, Jason R.; Brink, van den Paul J.; Laender, De Frederik

    2017-01-01

    There has been considerable focus on the impacts of environmental change on ecosystem function arising from changes in species richness. However, environmental change may affect ecosystem function without affecting richness, most notably by affecting population densities and community

  20. Does the reduction of inferior turbinate affect lower airway functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Ozlem; Ozkahraman, Mehtap; Ozkarafakili, Mufide Arzu; Akpinar, Meltem; Korkut, Arzu Yasemin; Kurt Dizdar, Senem; Uslu Coskun, Berna

    2017-11-06

    Although the nose and lungs are separate organs, numerous studies have reported that the entire respiratory system can be considered as a single anatomical and functional unit. The upper and lower airways affect each other either directly or through reflex mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the radiofrequency ablation of persistent inferior turbinate hypertrophy on nasal and pulmonary function. Twenty-seven patients with bilateral persistent inferior turbinate hypertrophy without septal deviation were included in this study. All of the patients were evaluated using anterior rhinoscopy, nasal endoscopy, acoustic rhinometry, a visual analogue scale, and flow-sensitive spirometry on the day before and 4 months after the radiofrequency ablation procedure. The post-ablation measurements revealed that the inferior turbinate ablation caused an increase in the mean cross-sectional area and volume of the nose, as well as in the forced expiratory volume in 1s, forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow of the patients. These differences between the pre- and post-ablation results were statistically significant. The post-ablation visual analogue scale scores were lower when compared with the pre-ablation scores, and this difference was also statistically significant. This study demonstrated that the widening of the nasal passage after the reduction of the inferior turbinate size had a favorable effect on the pulmonary function tests. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Atorvastatin affects negatively respiratory function of isolated endothelial mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniarek, Izabela; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to elucidate the direct effects of two popular blood cholesterol-lowering drugs used to treat cardiovascular diseases, atorvastatin and pravastatin, on respiratory function, membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species formation in mitochondria isolated from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 cell line). Hydrophilic pravastatin did not significantly affect endothelial mitochondria function. In contrast, hydrophobic calcium-containing atorvastatin induced a loss of outer mitochondrial membrane integrity, an increase in hydrogen peroxide formation, and reductions in maximal (phosphorylating or uncoupled) respiratory rate, membrane potential and oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. The atorvastatin-induced changes indicate an impairment of mitochondrial function at the level of ATP synthesis and at the level of the respiratory chain, likely at complex I and complex III. The atorvastatin action on endothelial mitochondria was highly dependent on calcium ions and led to a disturbance in mitochondrial calcium homeostasis. Uptake of calcium ions included in atorvastatin molecule induced mitochondrial uncoupling that enhanced the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain by atorvastatin. Our results indicate that hydrophobic calcium-containing atorvastatin, widely used as anti-atherosclerotic agent, has a direct negative action on isolated endothelial mitochondria. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Plant functional diversity affects climate-vegetation interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Vivienne P.; Raddatz, Thomas; Reick, Christian H.; Claussen, Martin

    2018-04-01

    We present how variations in plant functional diversity affect climate-vegetation interaction towards the end of the African Humid Period (AHP) in coupled land-atmosphere simulations using the Max Planck Institute Earth system model (MPI-ESM). In experiments with AHP boundary conditions, the extent of the green Sahara varies considerably with changes in plant functional diversity. Differences in vegetation cover extent and plant functional type (PFT) composition translate into significantly different land surface parameters, water cycling, and surface energy budgets. These changes have not only regional consequences but considerably alter large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns and the position of the tropical rain belt. Towards the end of the AHP, simulations with the standard PFT set in MPI-ESM depict a gradual decrease of precipitation and vegetation cover over time, while simulations with modified PFT composition show either a sharp decline of both variables or an even slower retreat. Thus, not the quantitative but the qualitative PFT composition determines climate-vegetation interaction and the climate-vegetation system response to external forcing. The sensitivity of simulated system states to changes in PFT composition raises the question how realistically Earth system models can actually represent climate-vegetation interaction, considering the poor representation of plant diversity in the current generation of land surface models.

  3. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2∙- production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined.

  4. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Functional roles affect diversity-succession relationships for boreal beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloise Gibb

    Full Text Available Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of "functional" groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species. We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies. Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience.

  6. Oculomotor and neuropsychological effects of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian S. Hill

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive enhancement has become an important target for drug therapies in schizophrenia. Treatment development in this area requires assessment approaches that are sensitive to procognitive effects of antipsychotic and adjunctive treatments. Ideally, new treatments will have translational characteristics for parallel human and animal research. Previous studies of antipsychotic effects on cognition have relied primarily on paper-and-pencil neuropsychological testing. No study has directly compared neurophysiological biomarkers and neuropsychological testing as strategies for assessing cognitive effects of antipsychotic treatment early in the course of schizophrenia. Anti psychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia were tested before treatment with risperidone and again 6 weeks later. Matched healthy participants were tested over a similar time period. Test-retest reliability, effect sizes of within-subject change, and multivariate/univariate analysis of variance were used to compare 3 neurophysiological tests (visually guided saccade, memory-guided saccade, and antisaccade with neuropsychological tests covering 4 cognitive domains (executive function, attention, memory, and manual motor function. While both measurement approaches showed robust neurocognitive impairments in patients prior to risperidone treatment, oculomotor biomarkers were more sensitive to treatment-related effects on neurocognitive function than traditional neuropsychological measures. Further, unlike the pattern of modest generalized cognitive improvement suggested by neuropsychological measures, the oculomotor findings revealed a mixed pattern of beneficial and adverse treatment related effects. These findings warrant further investigation regarding the utility of neurophysiological biomarkers for assessing cognitive outcomes of antipsychotic treatment in clinical trials and in early-phase drug development.

  7. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Ghayour Najafabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n=9 and nonfasting (n=8 groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan. Digit span test (DST and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p<0.05. Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p<0.05. Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p<0.05. Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p<0.05. The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes.

  8. ALFF Value in Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Acts as a Potential Marker Monitoring Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Progression: a Neuropsychological, Voxel-Based Morphometry, and Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjia; Fu, Xiaoling; Cui, Fang; Yang, Fei; Ren, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Xiaolan; Chen, Zhaohui; Ling, Li; Huang, Xusheng

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-four participants matched for age, sex, and educational background were enrolled as the sporadic ALS group (n = 22) and the control group (n = 22). All participants completed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (SCWT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Frontal Assessment Battery. The participants underwent a series of 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Resting-state functional MRI (Rs-fMRI) using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was performed. Three-dimensional T1-weighted anatomical images obtained by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to conduct correlation analyses and group comparisons with the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics. The results indicated that the decreased gray matter (GM) volume in the bilateral precentral gyri and increased ALFF values in the right parahippocampal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, left anterior cingulate gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and left middle occipital gyrus were identified in the sporadic ALS group. The increased ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus was positively correlated with ALS progression rate. The ALS patients exhibited poor performances on cognitive and executive tests, which were significantly or marginally significantly correlated with the ALFF values in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the frontal, temporal, and parahippocampal cortices. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence of an extramotor involvement and suggest that the ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus could represent a potential marker to monitor disease progression.

  9. Preliminary effects of pagoclone, a partial GABAA agonist, on neuropsychological performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela F Caveney

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Angela F Caveney1, Bruno Giordani1, George M Haig21Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Neurosciences Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USAAbstract: Pagoclone is a novel cyclopyrrolone that acts as a partial GABAA receptor agonist. Preclinical studies suggest that pagoclone may have clinical utility as an anxiolytic agent, as well as a reduced incidence of side-effects. The present study was conducted to determine whether pagoclone would affect healthy individuals’ performances on neuropsychological measures as a function of dose within the projected therapeutic range. Twelve healthy adult subjects were randomly assigned to dosage groups in a 3-way crossover study. Participants were administered neuropsychological measures six hours following dosing on Day 1 and Day 6 of administration of the drug. Dose effects were noted on measures of alertness, learning, and memory and movement time. Significant effects were also noted on measures of alertness, learning and memory, information processing and psychomotor speed. Overall, the results of this small, preliminary study do not support a finding of behavioral toxicity for these doses of pagoclone. Rather, a pattern was found of transient and mild negative effects on learning and memory scores at the highest dose administered, though these changes were small and no longer evident by the sixth day of use.Keywords: pagoclone, cyclopyrrolone, neuropsychological, memory, generalized anxiety disorder

  10. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology and Neuropsychological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Naumann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is now recognized as a distinctive disorder with specific pathophysiology and neurochemical abnormalities. Findings on the role of the neuropeptide hypocretin are opening new avenues of research and new strategies for therapy. Recently, neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for reduced memory performance on standard memory tests in addition to subjective complaints of forgetfulness which may be related to changes in attentional processing. Further studies are, however, necessary to clarify the neuropsychological profile in narcolepsy. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding narcolepsy.

  11. Neuropsychology: music of the hemispheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Walsh, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit.......Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit....

  12. Avaliação neuropsicológica das funções executivas: considerações metodológicas Neuropsychological assessment of executive functions: methodological questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pelo estudo das funções executivas tem crescido nos últimos anos. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar algumas questões metodológicas e conceituais relacionadas à avaliação neuropsicológica das funções executivas. As principais limitações e dicotomias relacionadas às funções executivas são apresentadas e a importância de um modelo teórico que fundamente os instrumentos de avaliação e suas interpretações clinicas analisada. Conclui-se que as evidências provenientes da investigação das funções executivas ainda não permitem a compreensão satisfatória desses processos. Sugere-se, a adoção de um modelo específico para o estudo das funções executivas.The article aims to review methodological and conceptual issues related to neuropsychological assessment of executive functions. The main limitations and dichotomies of current studies related to executive functions are presented and the importance of theoretical support to validate the instruments and their clinical interpretation are discussed. There is still the need of additional evidences on executive functions that allow a complete understanding of all the processes involved. Finally, it is suggested the adoption of a specific model that may guide the study of the executive functions.

  13. Neuropsychology of reward learning and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G; Choate, Victoria; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Levitt, James J; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2014-11-01

    We used the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT) to examine the relationship of reward learning to both neuropsychological functioning and symptom formation in 65 individuals with schizophrenia. Results indicated that compared to controls, participants with schizophrenia showed significantly reduced reward learning, which in turn correlated with reduced intelligence, memory and executive function, and negative symptoms. The current findings suggested that a disease-related disturbance in reward learning may underlie both cognitive and motivation deficits, as expressed by neuropsychological impairment and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  15. Specific and generalized neuropsychological deficits: a comparison of patients with various first-episode psychosis presentations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zanelli, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that compromised neuropsychological function is frequently observed in schizophrenia. Neurocognitive dysfunction has often been reported in other psychotic disorders, although there are inconsistencies in the literature. In the context of four distinct diagnostic groups, the authors compared neuropsychological performance among patients experiencing their first psychotic episode.

  16. The Neuropsychology of Imagery Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-25

    B. (1985). Agnosia . In K. M. Heilman and E. Valenstein (Eds.), Clinical Neuropsychology. New York: Oxford University Press. Biederman, I. (1987...Campion, J. (1987). Apperceptive agnosia : the specification and description of constructs. In Humphreys, G. W., and Riddoch, M. J. (1987a) (Eds...R. (1986). Disorders of complex visual processing: agnosias , achromatopsia, Balint’s syndrome and related difficulties of orientation and

  17. Neuropsychological Aspects of Epilepsy Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpherts, W.C.J. (Willem Cornelis Johan)

    2003-01-01

    Only a small number of patients with epilepsy undergo a neurosurgical operation in which the area from which epileptic neurons generate seizures is removed. From a neuropsychological perspective several different assessments and outcomes are being looked at. Chapter 2 deals with research on the

  18. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  19. Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, R. S.; Manor, O.; Gross-Tsur, V.

    1997-01-01

    Classification of arithmetic disorders is predicated on neuropsychological features and associated learning disabilities. Assesses the compatibility of these classifications on a nonreferred, population-based cohort of children (N=139) with developmental dyscalculia. Concludes that children with dyscalculia and disabilities in reading and/or…

  20. Cognitive profile and disorders affecting higher brain functions in paediatric patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucheret Paz, E; López Ballent, A; Puga, C; García Basalo, M J; Baliarda, F; Ekonen, C; Ilari, R; Agosta, G

    2017-04-18

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurocutaneous syndrome often associated with specific cognitive deficits that are rarely monitored during follow-up of these patients. The purpose of our study is two-fold. First, we aimed to describe the cognitive profile of patients with NF1 and detect disorders in higher brain functions associated with the disease. Second, we identified the reasons for consultation associated with school performance in these patients. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 24 paediatric patients (ages 5 to 16) with NF1 who underwent neuropsychological assessment. The most frequent reasons for consultation were attention deficits (58.33%), learning disorders (25%), poor motor coordination (25%), and language impairment (0.8%). Although 96% of the patients displayed impairments in at least one of the assessed areas, only 83.34% of the parents had reported such impairments. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was present in 58.33% of the patients, whereas 33.33% had nonverbal learning disabilities, 20.83% had expressive language disorder, 8.33% had borderline intellectual functioning, 4.16% had mental retardation, and only 4.16% showed no cognitive impairment. Higher brain functions are frequently impaired in paediatric patients with NF1. Although many parents report such disorders, they can go undetected in some cases. Neuropsychological assessment is recommended for all paediatric patients with NF1 to detect cognitive impairment and provide early, effective rehabilitation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterogeneidade neuropsicológica na esclerose múlipla Neuropsychological heterogeneity in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Paula Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A esclerose múltipla (EM é uma doença neurológica progressiva e incapacitante, cujos sintomas afetam o funcionamento motor, sensorial e psicológico. Diversas variáveis clínicas e psicossociais influenciam o perfil neuropsicológico na EM, que é extremamente heterogêneo. O objetivo principal do presente estudo foi investigar a possibilidade de estratificar estatisticamente portadores de EM e controles a partir das dimensões neurológica, sócio-demográfica e neuropsicológica de funcionamento. A partir desse objetivo, foi conduzido um procedimento de análise de conglomerados utilizando cinco instrumentos neuropsicológicos, selecionados dentre uma gama de nove medidas, de acordo com a acurácia diagnóstica. A amostra foi constituída por 45 pessoas saudáveis e 35 portadores de EM com características sócio-demográficas semelhantes. Os resultados indicaram uma solução ideal com quatro conglomerados a partir de duas dimensões, funcionamento "cognitivo" e "psicossocial", que representam aspectos independentes, porém não disjuntivos, do funcionamento neuropsicológico na EM.Multiple sclerosis (MS is a progressively disabling neurological disease which symptoms affect sensory, motor and psychological functioning. Several clinical neurological and psychological variables influence the neuropsychological profile in MS, which is extremely heterogeneous. The main objective of the present study was to investigate if it is possible to statistically stratify control subjects and MS patients from neurological, socio-demographic and neuropsychological dimensions. With this purpose we applied cluster analysis procedures to five neuropsychological instruments selected according to diagnostic accuracy from a pool of 9 neuropsychological tests. The sample was composed of 45 healthy controls and 35 MS patients with similar socio-demographic characteristics. The results indicated an ideal solution with 4 different clusters according to two

  2. [Suspected Alzheimer's disease. Selection of outpatients for neuropsychological assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S A; Henry, M; Deike, R; Ebert, A D; Wallesch, C-W

    2008-04-01

    Incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD) is frequently suspected by neurologists and psychiatrists, but diagnosis is difficult to establish. The aim of this report was to analyse to what extent suspicion is confirmed by a comprehensive neuropsychological examination intended to distinguish different types of dementia. Descriptive data analysis was used for investigating the differential diagnoses of 47 outpatients with suspected AD referred to a department of neuropsychology by physicians in private practice. Data analysis was based upon the NINCDS-ADRDA diagnostic criteria of AD. Only 38% of the outpatients examined with suspected AD met the NINCDS-ADRDA diagnostic criteria for AD or mixed dementia from a neuropsychological point of view, whereas 22% met criteria for other types of dementia. The remaining patients met criteria for distinct differential diagnoses (23%) or lacked pathological findings in neuropsychological functions (17%). Neuropsychology is an essential part in the differential diagnosis of mild to moderate dementias. It can aid in differential therapeutic considerations concerning the treatment of dementia, for example in selecting appropriate treatments or avoiding expensive but inappropriate ones.

  3. Commentary: the postdoctoral residency match in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Prior to 1994, there were no organized recruitment guidelines for the specialty. From 1994 to 2001, the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology (APPCN) facilitated a uniform notification date where member programs agreed to not make offers prior to a specified date. In 2001, APPCN partnered with National Matching Services to administer a computerized match recruitment system. Presently, not all programs participate in the match. This often results in students applying to 'match' and 'non-match' programs which can lead to significant stress on the part of applicants and program directors. This issue has recently become the focus of journal articles and public discussions. The goals of this paper were to review the history of postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology, review the benefits of coordinated recruitment systems, review the structure and function of the computerized match, and explain why the computerized match for postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology is beneficial for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology.

  4. A twin study of the neuropsychological consequences of stimulant abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Rosemary; Lyons, Michael J; Eisen, Seth A; Xian, Hong; Chantarujikapong, Sunanta; Seidman, Larry J; Faraone, Stephen V; Tsuang, Ming T

    2003-03-01

    Previous studies document neuropsychological deficits associated with stimulant abuse, but findings are inconsistent. We identified 50 twin pairs in which only 1 member had heavy stimulant abuse (cocaine and/or amphetamines) ending at least 1 year before the evaluation. The co-twin control research design controls for familial vulnerability and makes it easier to identify neuropsychological deficits that are consequences of stimulant abuse. Subjects were administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery organized into the following 5 functions: attention, executive functioning, motor skills, intelligence, and memory. Multivariate tests showed that abusers performed significantly worse than nonabusers on functions of attention and motor skills. Within each of these functions, univariate tests showed that abusers performed significantly worse on certain tests of motor skills and attention. In contrast, abusers performed significantly better on one test of attention measuring visual vigilance. Within the abuser group, higher levels of stimulant use were largely uncorrelated with neuropsychological test scores, although a few significant correlations indicated better functioning with more stimulant use. With ideal controls, this study demonstrates that deficits in attention and motor skills persist after 1 year of abstinence from stimulant use and raises hypotheses regarding relative strengths on a vigilance task among abusers.

  5. Affective functioning after delirium in elderly hip fracture patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slor, Chantal J.; Witlox, Joost; Jansen, René W. M. M.; Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David J.; Tieken, Esther; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; van Gool, Willem A.; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Jonghe, Jos F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Delirium in elderly patients is associated with various long-term sequelae that include cognitive impairment and affective disturbances, although the latter is understudied. For a prospective cohort study of elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, baseline characteristics and affective and

  6. Neuropsychological Treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The syndrome of attention deficit disorder is one of the most frequent pictures of disabilities in pre-scholars. The present study analyses the results of fulfillment of tasks for mechanisms of control and spatial functions. 14 pre-scholars with attention deficit disorder took part in the study. The neuropsychological evaluation was applied before…

  7. The Relationship between Neuropsychological and Ecological Measurements of Executive Functioning in Childhood and the Prediction of Mathematics Performance. A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla-Silvestre, Lorena; Presentación-Herrero, María Jesús; Gil-Gómez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study explored the variables of executive functioning (EF) that permitted the evaluation of EF both at home and at school. The objective was to compare the results of the evaluations of these functions in children aged 5 to 6 years, and see to what extent these variables predicted mathematics performance best. Method: Sixty-six…

  8. Affective functioning after delirium in elderly hip fracture patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slor, C.J.; Witlox, J.; Jansen, R.W.M.M.; Adamis, D.; Meagher, D.J.; Tieken, E.; Houdijk, A.P.J.; van Gool, W.A.; Eikelenboom, P.; de Jonghe, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Delirium in elderly patients is associated with various long-term sequelae that include cognitive impairment and affective disturbances, although the latter is understudied. Methods: For a prospective cohort study of elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, baseline

  9. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery of the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moleiro, Carla; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana

    2013-01-01

    analysis (CFA) was used to investigate the dimensions of a structured set of neuropsychological tests administered to a multicenter, international sample of independent older adults (LADIS study). Six hundred and thirty-eight older adults completed baseline neuropsychological, clinical, functional...... and motor assessments, which were repeated each year for a 3-year follow-up. CFA provided support for a 3-factor model. These factors involve the dimensions of executive functions, memory functions, and speed and motor control abilities. Performance decreased in most neuropsychological measures. Results...

  10. Effects of Marathi-Hindi Bilingualism on Neuropsychological Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H.; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. After controlling for demographic variables, the association between bilingualism and cognitive performance was examined. Degree of bilingualism predicted better performance on the switching (Color Trails-2) and inhibition (Stroop Color-Word) components of executive functioning; but not for the abstraction component (Halstead Category Test). In the verbal domain, bilingualism was more closely associated with noun generation (where the languages share many cognates) than verb generation (which are more disparate across these languages), as predicted. However, contrary to our hypothesis that the bilingualism “disadvantage” would be attenuated on noun generation, bilingualism was associated with an advantage on these measures. These findings suggest distinct patterns of bilingualism effects on cognition for this previously unexamined language pair, and that the rate of cognates may modulate the association between bilingualism and verbal performance on neuropsychological tests. PMID:22206622

  11. Effects of Marathi-Hindi bilingualism on neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. After controlling for demographic variables, the association between bilingualism and cognitive performance was examined. Degree of bilingualism predicted better performance on the switching (Color Trails-2) and inhibition (Stroop Color-Word) components of executive functioning; but not for the abstraction component (Halstead Category Test). In the verbal domain, bilingualism was more closely associated with noun generation (where the languages share many cognates) than verb generation (which are more disparate across these languages), as predicted. However, contrary to our hypothesis that the bilingualism "disadvantage" would be attenuated on noun generation, bilingualism was associated with an advantage on these measures. These findings suggest distinct patterns of bilingualism effects on cognition for this previously unexamined language pair, and that the rate of cognates may modulate the association between bilingualism and verbal performance on neuropsychological tests.

  12. Temperament Affects Sympathetic Nervous Function in a Normal Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Methods Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean vers...

  13. Indications and expectations for neuropsychological assessment in routine epilepsy care: Report of the ILAE Neuropsychology Task Force, Diagnostic Methods Commission, 2013-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Baxendale, Sallie; Barr, William; Hamed, Sherifa; Langfitt, John; Samson, Séverine; Watanabe, Masako; Baker, Gus A; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Hermann, Bruce P; Smith, Mary-Lou

    2015-05-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Diagnostic Methods Commission charged the Neuropsychology Task Force with the job of developing a set of recommendations to address the following questions: (1) What is the role of a neuropsychological assessment? (2) Who should do a neuropsychological assessment? (3) When should people with epilepsy be referred for a neuropsychological assessment? and (4) What should be expected from a neuropsychological assessment? The recommendations have been broadly written for health care clinicians in established epilepsy settings as well as those setting up new services. They are based on a detailed survey of neuropsychological assessment practices across international epilepsy centers, and formal ranking of specific recommendations for advancing clinical epilepsy care generated by specialist epilepsy neuropsychologists from around the world. They also incorporate the latest research findings to establish minimum standards for training and practice, reflecting the many roles of neuropsychological assessment in the routine care of children and adults with epilepsy. The recommendations endorse routine screening of cognition, mood, and behavior in new-onset epilepsy, and describe the range of situations when more detailed, formal neuropsychological assessment is indicated. They identify a core set of cognitive and psychological domains that should be assessed to provide an objective account of an individual's cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial functioning, including factors likely contributing to deficits identified on qualitative and quantitative examination. The recommendations also endorse routine provision of feedback to patients, families, and clinicians about the implications of the assessment results, including specific clinical recommendations of what can be done to improve a patient's cognitive or psychosocial functioning and alleviate the distress of any difficulties identified. By canvassing the breadth and depth

  14. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plas...

  15. Factors Affecting Cognitive Function in Older Adults: A Turkish Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Akdag, Beyza; Telci, Emine Aslan; Cavlak, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the influential factors of cognitive function in older adults. Methods: In this study, 377 older adults (mean age: 74.71 ± 6.15 years) were examined. The Hodkinson Abbreviated Mental Test (HAMT) was used to describe cognitive function of the individuals. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL-4) survey tool was used to measure the quality of life. Possible influential factors of cognitive function w...

  16. Affective functioning and social cognition in Noonan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingbermühle, P.A.M.; Egger, J.I.M.; Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Burgt, C.J.A.M. van der; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Noonan syndrome (NS) is a common genetic disorder, characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heart defects and a mildly lowered IQ. Impairments in psychosocial functioning have often been suggested, without, however, systematic investigation in a clinical group. In

  17. Seed treatments affect functional and antinutritional properties of amaranth flours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping germination and flour air classification, on the functional properties and antinutritional factors of Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds were studied. Thermal treatments increased the water absorption with a maximum value of

  18. Prospective study of neuropsychological sequelae in children with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordeaux, J.D.; Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Francis, D.J.; van Eys, J.

    1988-01-01

    Surgery and radiotherapy are the primary modalities of treatment for pediatric brain tumors. Despite the widespread use of these treatments, little is known of their acute effects (within one year posttreatment) on neuropsychological functions. An understanding of acute treatment effects may provide valuable feedback to neurosurgeons and a baseline against which delayed sequelae may be evaluated. This study compares pre- and posttherapy neuropsychological test performance of pediatric brain tumor patients categorized into two groups on the basis of treatment modalities: surgery (n = 7) and radiotherapy (n = 7). Treatment groups were composed of children aged 56 to 196 months at the time of evaluation with heterogeneous tumor diagnoses and locations. Comparisons of pretherapy findings with normative values using confidence intervals indicated that both groups performed within the average range on most measures. Outstanding deficits at baseline were observed on tests of fine-motor, psychomotor, and timed language skills, and are likely to be attributable to tumor-related effects. Comparisons of pre- versus posttherapy neuropsychological test findings indicated no significant interval changes for either group. Results suggest that surgery and radiotherapy are not associated with acute effects on neuropsychological functions

  19. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering-Silveira, Evelyn; Lopez, Enrique; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Shirakawa, Itiro; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Da Silveira, Dartiu X

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychologically adolescents who use ayahuasca in a religious context. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to adolescents who use ayahuasca. These subjects were compared to a matched control group of adolescents who did not use ayahuasca. The controls were matched with regards to sex, age, and education. The neuropsychological battery included tests of speeded attention, visual search, sequencing, psychomotor speed, verbal and visual abilities, memory, and mental flexibility. The statistical results for subjects from matched controls on neuropsychological measures were computed using independent t-tests. Overall, statistical findings suggested that there was no significant difference between the two groups on neuropsychological measures. Even though, the data overall supports that there was not a difference between ayahuasca users and matched controls on neuropsychological measures, further studies are necessary to support these findings.

  20. [Neuropsychology of Tourette's disorder: cognition, neuroimaging and creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espert, R; Gadea, M; Alino, M; Oltra-Cucarella, J

    2017-02-24

    Tourette's disorder is the result of fronto-striatal brain dysfunction affecting people of all ages, with a debut in early childhood and continuing into adolescence and adulthood. This article reviews the main cognitive, functional neuroimaging and creativity-related studies in a disorder characterized by an excess of dopamine in the brain. Given the special cerebral configuration of these patients, neuropsychological alterations, especially in executive functions, should be expected. However, the findings are inconclusive and are conditioned by factors such as comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, age or methodological variables. On the other hand, the neuroimaging studies carried out over the last decade have been able to explain the clinical symptoms of Tourette's disorder patients, with special relevance for the supplementary motor area and the anterior cingulate gyrus. Finally, although there is no linear relationship between excess of dopamine and creativity, the scientific literature emphasizes an association between Tourette's disorder and musical creativity, which could be translated into intervention programs based on music.

  1. The number processing and calculation system: evidence from cognitive neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Alcañiz, M P; Alameda-Bailén, J R

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology focuses on the concepts of dissociation and double dissociation. The performance of number processing and calculation tasks by patients with acquired brain injury can be used to characterise the way in which the healthy cognitive system manipulates number symbols and quantities. The objective of this study is to determine the components of the numerical processing and calculation system. Participants consisted of 6 patients with acquired brain injuries in different cerebral localisations. We used Batería de evaluación del procesamiento numérico y el cálculo, a battery assessing number processing and calculation. Data was analysed using the difference in proportions test. Quantitative numerical knowledge is independent from number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Recodification is independent from qualitative numerical knowledge and calculation. Quantitative numerical knowledge and calculation are also independent functions. The number processing and calculation system comprises at least 4 components that operate independently: quantitative numerical knowledge, number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Therefore, each one may be damaged selectively without affecting the functioning of another. According to the main models of number processing and calculation, each component has different characteristics and cerebral localisations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive function in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Maj Vinberg; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2006-01-01

    . Cognitive performance of 203 High-Risk and Low-Risk twins was compared. RESULTS: Healthy twins discordant for unipolar disorder showed lower performance on almost all measures of cognitive function: selective and sustained attention, executive function, language processing and working and declarative memory...... impairment found seemed to be related to genetic liability, as the MZ High-Risk twins showed significant impairment on selective and sustained attention, executive function, language processing and working and declarative memory, whereas the DZ High-Risk twins presented with significantly lower scores only......, and also after adjustment for demographic variables, subclinical symptoms and minor psychopathology. Healthy twins discordant for bipolar disorder showed lower performance on tests measuring episodic and working memory, also after adjustment for the above-mentioned covariables. The discrete cognitive...

  3. Temperament affects sympathetic nervous function in a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2012-09-01

    Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean version of the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Autonomic nervous function was determined by measuring skin temperature in a resting state, which was recorded for 5 minutes from the palmar surface of the left 5th digit using a thermistor secured with a Velcro® band. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between temperament and skin temperature. A higher harm avoidance score was correlated with a lower skin temperature (i.e. an increased sympathetic tone; r=-0.343, p=0.004) whereas a higher persistence score was correlated with a higher skin temperature (r=0.433, p=0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that harm avoidance was able to predict the variance of skin temperature independently, with a variance of 7.1% after controlling for sex, blood pressure and state anxiety and persistence was the factor predicting the variance of skin temperature with a variance of 5.0%. These results suggest that high harm avoidance is related to an increased sympathetic nervous function whereas high persistence is related to decreased sympathetic nervous function in a normal population.

  4. [Mindful neuropsychology: Mindfulness-based cognitive remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacka, E; Lavault, S; Pelissolo, A; Bagnis Isnard, C

    2018-02-01

    Mindfulness based interventions (MBI) have recently gained much interest in western medicine. MBSR paradigm is based on teaching participants to pay complete attention to the present experience and act nonjudgmentally towards stressful events. During this mental practice the meditator focuses his or her attention on the sensations of the body. While the distractions (mental images, thoughts, emotional or somatic states) arise the participant is taught to acknowledge discursive thoughts and cultivate the state of awareness without immediate reaction. The effectiveness of these programs is well documented in the field of emotional response regulation in depression (relapse prevention), anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder or eating disorders. Furthermore, converging lines of evidence support the hypothesis that mindfulness practice improves cognition, especially the ability to sustain attention and think in a more flexible manner. Nevertheless, formal rehabilitation programs targeting cognitive disturbances resulting from psychiatric (depression, disorder bipolar, schizophrenia) or neurologic conditions (brain injury, dementia) seldom rely on MBI principles. This review of literature aims at discussing possible links between MBI and clinical neuropsychology. We conducted a review of literature using electronic databases up to December 2016, screening studies with variants of the keywords ("Mindfulness", "MBI", "MBSR", "Meditation") OR/AND ("Cognition", "Attention", "Executive function", "Memory", "Learning") RESULTS: In the first part, we describe key concepts of the neuropsychology of attention in the light of Posner's model of attention control. We also underline the potential scope of different therapeutic contexts where disturbances of attention may be clinically relevant. Second, we review the efficacy of MBI in the field of cognition (thinking disturbances, attention biases, memory and executive processes impairment or low metacognitive abilities

  5. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lifelong dietary intervention does not affect hematopoietic stem cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazare, Seka; Ausema, Albertina; Reijne, Aaffien C; van Dijk, Gertjan; van Os, Ronald; de Haan, Gerald

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a profound functional decline during normal aging. Because caloric or dietary restriction has been shown to delay multiple aspects of the aging process in many species, we explored the consequences of lifelong caloric restriction, or conversely, lifelong

  7. Heme isomers substantially affect heme's electronic structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    Inspection of heme protein structures in the protein data bank reveals four isomers of heme characterized by different relative orientations of the vinyl side chains; remarkably, all these have been reported in multiple protein structures. Density functional theory computations explain this as du...

  8. Some performance effects of age and low blood alcohol levels on a computerized neuropsychological test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    COGSCREEN is a computerized test battery developed for the Federal Aviation Administration as an airman neuropsychological screening instrument for cognitive functioning. This study explored a multifaceted application of the sensitivity of the batter...

  9. Alginate overproduction affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentzer, Morten; Teitzel, G.M.; Balzer, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    -resistant communities of microorganisms organized in biofilms. Although biofilm formation and the conversion to mucoidy are both important aspects of CF pathogenesis, the relationship between them is at the present unclear. In this study, we report that the overproduction of alginate affects biofilm development...... on an abiotic surface. Biofilms formed by an alginate- overproducing strain exhibit a highly structured architecture and are significantly more resistant to the antibiotic tobramycin than a biofilm formed by an isogenic nonmucoid strain. These results suggest that an important consequence of the conversion...

  10. Examining health-related quality of life, adaptive skills, and psychological functioning in children and adolescents with epilepsy presenting for a neuropsychological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Lauren E; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Titus, Jeffrey B

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize 132 children and adolescents (mean age = 10 years, 11 months) with epilepsy in terms of psychosocial functioning and to determine the extent to which adaptive skills and psychological functioning predict health-related quality of life (HRQOL), above and beyond demographic and epilepsy-specific characteristics. A chart review was conducted to obtain demographic and epilepsy-specific information as well as caregiver responses on the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) Parent Report and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE). In addition to Full Scale IQ and age at seizure onset, the BASC-2 Clinical and Adaptive Skills subscales also predicted HRQOL, indicating that this measure may be particularly helpful in predicting HRQOL above and beyond information routinely collected in a medical setting. It is imperative to evaluate children with epilepsy for psychosocial difficulties and diminished HRQOL to ensure the provision of comprehensive quality care and intervention services. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuropsychological Correlates of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G.; Kubicki, Marek; Gurrera, Ronald J.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Frumin, Melissa; McCarley, Robert W.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (n = 41) and healthy comparison participants (n = 46) completed neuropsychological measures of intelligence, memory, and executive function. A subset of each group also completed magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies (fractional anisotropy and cross-sectional area) of the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and cingulate bundle (CB). Patients with schizophrenia showed reduced levels of functioning across all neuropsychological measures. In addition, selective neuropsychological–DTI relationships emerged. Among patients but not controls, lower levels of declarative–episodic verbal memory correlated with reduced left UF, whereas executive function errors related to performance monitoring correlated with reduced left CB. The data suggested abnormal DTI patterns linking declarative–episodic verbal memory deficits to the left UF and executive function deficits to the left CB among patients with schizophrenia. PMID:15506830

  12. Lipid Bilayer Composition Affects Transmembrane Protein Orientation and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie D. Hickey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm membranes change in structure and composition upon ejaculation to undergo capacitation, a molecular transformation which enables spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome reaction and be capable of fertilization. Changes to the membrane environment including lipid composition, specifically lipid microdomains, may be responsible for enabling capacitation. To study the effect of lipid environment on proteins, liposomes were created using lipids extracted from bull sperm membranes, with or without a protein (Na+ K+-ATPase or -amylase. Protein incorporation, function, and orientation were determined. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET confirmed protein inclusion in the lipid bilayer, and protein function was confirmed using a colourometric assay of phosphate production from ATP cleavage. In the native lipid liposomes, ATPase was oriented with the subunit facing the outer leaflet, while changing the lipid composition to 50% native lipids and 50% exogenous lipids significantly altered this orientation of Na+ K+-ATPase within the membranes.

  13. Risk factors affecting somatosensory function after sagittal split osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Torben Henrik; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Helleberg, M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate potential individual and intraoperative risk factors associated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and to correlate the findings with postoperative changes in somatosensory function. Patients and Methods A total of 18 men and 29 women (mean...... and free dissection of the inferior alveolar nerve during BSSO increased self-reported changes in lower lip sensation and lower lip tactile threshold after BSSO (P discrimination (P

  14. How Does Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Affect Right Heart Function and Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Celic, Vera; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ilic, Sanja; Zivanovic, Vladimir; Marjanovic, Tamara

    2016-02-01

    Right heart function and mechanics have not been investigated in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Our aim was to investigate right ventricular (RV) and right atrial (RA) function and deformation as evaluated by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and speckle-tracking 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in these individuals. We included 39 untreated women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and 39 healthy women matched by age. All participants underwent laboratory analyses that included thyroid hormone levels and comprehensive 2DE and 3DE examinations. Three-dimensional echocardiographic RV volumes were significantly elevated in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (P < .05), whereas the 3DE RV ejection fraction was reduced in this group, but with borderline significance. Two-dimensional echocardiographic longitudinal RV and RA strain were significantly reduced in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Two-dimensional echocardiographic RV systolic and early diastolic strain rates were reduced, whereas late diastolic strain rates were increased in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The same changes were detected in RA mechanics among the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The thyrotropin (TSH) level correlated with the left ventricular mass index, transmitral early diastolic peak flow velocity (E)/late diastolic flow velocity (A) ratio, tricuspid E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, 2DE RA, strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the mitral E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume were independently associated with the TSH level. Right ventricular and RA function as evaluated by 3DE and speckle-tracking 2DE is significantly impaired in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The TSH level correlated with parameters for RV function and mechanics in the whole study population. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Development of affective theory of mind across adolescence: disentangling the role of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Nora C; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence. Affective theory of mind and three subcomponents of executive functions (inhibition, updating, and shifting) were measured. Affective theory of mind was positively related to age, and all three executive functions. Specifically, inhibition explained the largest amount of variance in age-related differences in affective theory of mind.

  16. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

  17. Measurement in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  18. Neuropsychology of Reward Learning and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, Paul G.; Choate, Victoria; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Levitt, James J.; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    We used the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT) to examine the relationship of reward learning to both neuropsychological functioning and symptom formation in 65 individuals with schizophrenia. Results indicated that compared to controls, participants with schizophrenia showed significantly reduced reward learning, which in turn correlated with reduced intelligence, memory and executive function, and increased negative symptoms. The current findings suggested that a disease-related disturbance in reward...

  19. Genes affecting β-cell function in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløyel, Tina; Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial disease resulting from an immune-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Several environmental and genetic risk factors predispose to the disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified around 50 genetic regions...... that affect the risk of developing T1D, but the disease-causing variants and genes are still largely unknown. In this review, we discuss the current status of T1D susceptibility loci and candidate genes with focus on the β cell. At least 40 % of the genes in the T1D susceptibility loci are expressed in human...... islets and β cells, where they according to recent studies modulate the β-cell response to the immune system. As most of the risk variants map to noncoding regions of the genome, i.e., promoters, enhancers, intergenic regions, and noncoding genes, their possible involvement in T1D pathogenesis as gene...

  20. Comparative study of the neuropsychological and neuroimaging evaluations in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Rodrigo Genaro; Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Ciasca, Sylvia Maria

    2006-06-01

    We analyzed retrospectively the neuroimaging exams of children with a confirmed diagnosis of dyslexia and correlated our findings with the evaluation of higher cortical functions. We studied 34 medical files of patients of the Ambulatory of Neuro-difficulties in Learning, FCM/UNICAMP. All of them had been sent to the ambulatory with primary or secondary complaints of difficulties at school and were submitted to neuropsychological evaluation and imaging exam (SPECT). From the children evaluated 58.8% had exams presenting dysfunction with 47% presenting hypoperfusion in the temporal lobe. As for the higher cortical functions, the most affected abilities were reading, writing and memory. There was significance between the hypoperfused areas and the variables schooling, reading, writing, memory and mathematic reasoning. The SPECTs showed hypoperfusion in areas involved in the reading and writing processes. Both are equivalent in terms of involved functional areas and are similar in children with or without specific dysfunctions in neuroimaging.

  1. Changes of pressure and humidity affect olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Michael; Welsch, Heiko; Zahnert, Thomas; Hummel, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the question whether olfactory function changes in relation to barometric pressure and humidity. Using climate chambers, odor threshold and discrimination for butanol were tested in 75 healthy volunteers under hypobaric and hyperbaric, and different humidity conditions. Among other effects, olfactory sensitivity at threshold level, but not suprathreshold odor discrimination, was impaired in a hypobaric compared to a hyperbaric milieu, and thresholds were lower in humid, compared to relatively dry conditions. In conclusion, environmental conditions modulate the sense of smell, and may, consecutively, influence results from olfactory tests.

  2. Pattern of neuropsychological performance among HIV positive patients in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Thomas D

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined cognitive functioning of HIV positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa. It cannot be assumed that HIV positive patients in Africa exhibit the same declines as patients in high-resource settings, since there are differences that may influence cognitive functioning including nutrition, history of concomitant disease, and varying HIV strains, among other possibilities. Part of the difficulty of specifying abnormalities in neuropsychological functioning among African HIV positive patients is that there are no readily available African normative databases. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the pattern of neuropsychological performance in a sample of HIV positive patients in comparison to HIV negative control subjects in Uganda. Methods The neuropsychological test scores of 110 HIV positive patients (WHO Stage 2, n = 21; WHO Stage 3, n = 69; WHO Stage 4, n = 20 were contrasted with those of 100 control subjects on measures of attention/concentration, mental flexibility, learning/memory, and motor functioning. Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA revealed significant group differences on measures of verbal learning and memory, speed of processing, attention and executive functioning between HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects. Conclusion Ugandan patients with HIV demonstrated relative deficits on measures of verbal learning and memory, speed of processing, attention, and executive functioning compared to HIV negative controls. These results from a resource limited region where clades A and D are prevalent are consistent with previous findings in the developed world where clade B predominates.

  3. Visual function affects prosocial behaviors in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoli, Dac A; Smith, Merideth D; Leys, Monique J; Jain, Priyanka; Odom, J Vernon

    2016-02-01

    Eye-related pathological conditions such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration commonly lead to decreased peripheral/central field, decreased visual acuity, and increased functional disability. We sought to answer if relationships exist between measures of visual function and reported prosocial behaviors in an older adult population with eye-related diagnoses. The sample consisted of adults, aged ≥ 60 years old, at an academic hospital's eye institute. Vision ranged from normal to severe impairment. Medical charts determined the visual acuities, ocular disease, duration of disease (DD), and visual fields (VF). Measures of giving help were via validated questionnaires on giving formal support (GFS) and giving informal support; measures of help received were perceived support (PS) and informal support received (ISR). ISR had subscales: tangible support (ISR-T), emotional support (ISR-E), and composite (ISR-C). Visual acuities of the better and worse seeing eyes were converted to LogMAR values. VF information converted to a 4-point rating scale of binocular field loss severity. DD was in years. Among 96 participants (mean age 73.28; range 60-94), stepwise regression indicated a relationship of visual variables to GFS (p T (p prosocial behavior in older adults.

  4. Does vitamin C deficiency affect cognitive development and function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(-/-) mice...... and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age......-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies....

  5. Neuropsychological alterations in mercury intoxication persist several years after exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Taub, Anita; Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2008-01-01

    Elemental mercury is a liquid toxic metal widely used in industry. Occupational exposure occurs mainly via inhalation. Previously, neuropsychological assessment detected deficits in former workers of a fluorescent lamp plant who had been exposed to elemental mercury vapor and were away from exposure for several years at the time of examination. The purpose of this work was to reexamine these functions after 18 months in order to evaluate their progression. Thirteen participants completed tests of attention, inhibitory control, verbal/visual memory, psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, visuomotor ability, executive function, semantic knowledge, and depression and anxiety inventories on 2 separate occasions. At baseline, the former workers indicated slower psychomotor and information processing speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory impairment, and increased depression and anxiety symptoms compared to controls (Precovery of functions, the neuropsychological effects related to mercury exposure are found to persist for many years.

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND BRITISH APPROACHES TO NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Mukhitova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the Russian and British approaches to restoration of the highest mental functions in patients with neurological disorders.The applicability of development of effective programs for neuropsychological rehabilitation of neurological patients is represented, where one of the main directions is the reconstruction of higher mental functions.Results. This article shows the importance of cooperation and understanding of specialists among the multidisciplinary team in medical rehabilitation system. The history of origin of the concept «multidisciplinary approach» is cited, it was spoken about by V. M. Bekhterev for the first time, emphasizing the necessity of multidisciplinary study of neuropsychic system of a healthy and ill person. Special aspects of rehabilitation process in Russia and in England were considered. Results of the comparison of neuropsychological rehabilitation models of two countries were presented. Conclusions. Further guidelines of cooperation between Russian and foreign neuropsychologists were identified. The attention is focused on determination of rehabilitation potential and inclusion of the patient and his family in rehabilitation process as it allows to solve problems of insufficiency of motivation, a self-assessment and to prevent emotional violations, increasing quality of life of patients. 

  7. Do blue-light filtering intraocular lenses affect visual function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Alenka; Pompe, Manca Tekavcic

    2014-11-01

    To study different aspects of visual function, macular changes, and subjective differences between the eye with an ultraviolet (UV) and blue-light filtering intraocular lens (IOL) and the fellow eye with a UV-light filtering IOL. Thirty patients (60 eyes) with senile cataract had both cataracts extracted, and an IOL was implanted at least 2 years before clinical evaluation. In one eye, AcrySof SA60AT (a UV-light filtering IOL) was implanted, whereas in the contralateral eye, AcrySof IQ SN60WF (a blue-light filtering IOL) was implanted. Each patient underwent visual acuity testing, color vision testing (Ishihara and Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue tests), and contrast sensitivity (CS) testing. The macula was evaluated with optical coherence tomography and with clinical examination. Patients were asked if they noted any difference between the implanted IOLs concerning visual impression. Subjective visual quality was evaluated using the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire. There was a borderline statistically significant difference in the mean best-corrected visual acuity (p = 0.05). As regards color vision, no significant changes in Ishihara and Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue error scores were detected between both eyes (p = 0.48 and p = 0.59, respectively). Analysis of CS showed no significant difference between the groups at any spatial frequency. There were also no statistically significant differences in central macular thickness and total macular volume between the two IOL groups (p = 0.72 and p = 0.61, respectively). In both IOL groups, three eyes developed an epiretinal membrane, and six eyes developed early signs of age-related macular degeneration. This study showed no significant effects of a blue-light filtering IOL on visual acuity and no influence on color perception and CS. After more than 2 years, there were no significant differences in macular changes between the IOL groups. Clinical evidence of the effect of a blue-light filtering IOL on

  8. Neuropsychological deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS: a South India experience

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    Jamuna Rajeswaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a terminal progressive degenerative neurological disorder studies suggest that approximately 35% to 52% of ALS patients experience cognitive deficits which may be identified early in the course of the disease. Cognitive deficits being the integral part of the disease has not been studied in the Indian setting. This is one of the first studies assessing the pattern of cognitive impairment in ALS in the Indian condition. The objective is to examine the neuropsychological profile of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Cognitive function was studied in 20 ALS patients: mean age 45.85±13.9 years (22-65. Neuropsychological test battery was administered. In all 21 test were administered individually in 4-5 sessions which lasted for 7-8 hours. The results show that the majority of patients were from lower/middle socio-economic background. Scores were compared with gender, age and education specific norms, wherein scores falling below 15th percentile of the normative data were treated as deficits. ALS-associated cognitive impairments include deficiencies in visual attention, working memory, fluency, cognitive flexibility, response inhibition, planning, problem solving, and visual-perceptual skills.These impairments indicate executive dysfunction. In conclusion ALS is a disease that affects higher cognitive frontal functions, especially the EF.

  9. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  10. Construct Validity of Neuropsychological Tests in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N.; Aldarondo, Felito; Goldstein, Gerald; Huegel, Stephen G.; Gilbertson, Mark; van Kammen, Daniel P.

    1998-01-01

    The construct validity of neuropsychological tests in patients with schizophrenia was studied with 39 patients who were evaluated with a battery of six tests assessing attention, memory, and abstract reasoning abilities. Results support the construct validity of the neuropsychological tests in patients with schizophrenia. (SLD)

  11. Estudio neuropsicológico basado en la creatividad, las inteligencias múltiples y la función ejecutiva en el ámbito educativo (Neuropsychological Study based on Creativity, Multiple Intelligences and Executive Function in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Castillo-Delgado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años la neuropsicología supone un enfoque de gran interés en su aplicación en el ámbito educativo. Por ello, es fundamental estudiar la relación que existe entre diferentes funciones cognitivas, en aras de optimizar el aprendizaje del alumnado. Método: La investigación se realizó en un colegio público de Sevilla, con participantes (n=29 de edades comprendidas entre 8 y 10 años, escolarizados en el cuarto curso de Educación Primaria. Se les aplicaron diferentes pruebas para evaluar las inteligencias múltiples, la creatividad y las funciones ejecutivas. Posteriormente se analizó la relación entre las variables estudiadas. Resultados: El análisis estadístico muestra que existe relación significativa entre creatividad gráfica e inteligencia interpersonal, entre creatividad verbal e inteligencia lingüística, y entre creatividad total e inteligencia interpersonal; Sin embargo no se encontraron valores significativos entre las variables de creatividad y función ejecutiva. Conclusiones: Es necesario realizar más investigaciones para esclarecer las posibles relaciones existentes entre Creatividad e Inteligencias Múltiples. Abstract: Neuropsychology is a focus of great interest in their application in education. Therefore, it is essential to study the relationship between different cognitive functions in order to optimize student learning. Method: The research was conducted in a Public School in Seville, with participants (n=29 aged, between 8 and 10 years, they are enrolled in the fourth year of Primary Education. Different tests were applied to evaluate multiple intelligences, creativity and executive functions. Then the relationship between the variables studied was analyzed. Results: Statistical analysis shows that there is significant relationship between graphic creativity and interpersonal intelligence, including verbal linguistic intelligence and creativity, and between full creativity and interpersonal

  12. Atmospheric turbulence affects wind turbine nacelle transfer functions

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    C. M. St. Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their potential as a valuable source of individual turbine power performance and turbine array energy production optimization information, nacelle-mounted anemometers have often been neglected because complex flows around the blades and nacelle interfere with their measurements. This work quantitatively explores the accuracy of and potential corrections to nacelle anemometer measurements to determine the degree to which they may be useful when corrected for these complex flows, particularly for calculating annual energy production (AEP in the absence of other meteorological data. Using upwind meteorological tower measurements along with nacelle-based measurements from a General Electric (GE 1.5sle model, we calculate empirical nacelle transfer functions (NTFs and explore how they are impacted by different atmospheric and turbulence parameters. This work provides guidelines for the use of NTFs for deriving useful wind measurements from nacelle-mounted anemometers. Corrections to the nacelle anemometer wind speed measurements can be made with NTFs and used to calculate an AEP that comes within 1 % of an AEP calculated with upwind measurements. We also calculate unique NTFs for different atmospheric conditions defined by temperature stratification as well as turbulence intensity, turbulence kinetic energy, and wind shear. During periods of low stability as defined by the Bulk Richardson number (RB, the nacelle-mounted anemometer underestimates the upwind wind speed more than during periods of high stability at some wind speed bins below rated speed, leading to a steeper NTF during periods of low stability. Similarly, during periods of high turbulence, the nacelle-mounted anemometer underestimates the upwind wind speed more than during periods of low turbulence at most wind bins between cut-in and rated wind speed. Based on these results, we suggest different NTFs be calculated for different regimes of atmospheric stability and turbulence

  13. [The links between neuropsychology and neurophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarska-Weryńska, Urszula; Biedroń, Agnieszka; Kaciński, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish current scope of knowledge regarding associations between neurophysiological functioning, neuropsychology and psychoterapy. A systematic review was performed including 93 publications from Science Server, which contains the collections of Elsevier, Springer Journals, SCI-Ex/ICM, MEDLINE/PubMed, and SCOPUS. The works have been selected basing on following key words: 'neuropsychology, neurocognitive correlates, electrodermal response, event related potential, EEG, pupillography, electromiography' out of papers published between 2004-2015. Present reports on the use of neurophysiological methods in psychology can be divided into two areas: experimental research and research of the practical use of conditioning techniques and biofeedback in the treatment of somatic disease. Among the experimental research the following have been distinguished: research based on the startle reflex, physiological reaction to novelty, stress, type/amount of cognitive load and physiological correlates of emotion; research on the neurophysiological correlates of mental disorders, mostly mood and anxiety disorders, and neurocognitive correlates: of memory, attention, learning and intelligence. Among papers regarding the use of neurophysiological methods in psychology two types are the most frequent: on the mechanisms of biofeedback, related mainly to neuro- feedback, which is a quickly expanding method of various attention and mental disorders'treatment, and also research of the use of conditioning techniques in the treatment of mental disorders, especially depression and anxiety. A special place among all the above is taken by the research on electrophysiological correlates of psychotherapy, aiming to differentiate between the efficacy of various psychotherapeutic schools (the largest amount of publications regard the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) in patients of different age groups and different diagnosis.

  14. The Neuropsychology of Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J Megan; Duperrouzel, Jacqueline; Vega, Melanie; Gonzalez, Raul

    2016-07-01

    Engagement in risky sexual behavior (RSB) is a significant public health concern. A growing body of literature is elucidating the role of brain systems and neuropsychological constructs implicated in RSB, which may pave the way for novel insights and prevention efforts. In this article, we review studies incorporating neuropsychology into the study of RSB across the lifespan. The review of the literature on the neuropsychology of RSB is separated into three different sections by age of participants. Background is presented on research associating RSB with neurocognitive processes and the brain systems involved. Given the overlap between RSBs and substance use, studies addressing these problems in tandem are also discussed. Neurocognitive constructs are implicated in RSB, including impulsivity, decision-making, and working memory. Thus far, evidence suggest that neuropsychological factors are associated with engagement in RSB. More research on the influence of neuropsychological factors on engagement in RSB is necessary and may help inform future prevention efforts. (JINS, 2016, 22, 586-594).

  15. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  16. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  17. White matter correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Rex E Jung

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus have similar levels of neuropsychological dysfunction (i.e., 20-50% as those with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (NPSLE. We hypothesized a gradient between cognition and white matter integrity, such that strongest brain-behavior relationships would emerge in NPSLE, intermediate in non-NPSLE, and minimal in controls. We studied thirty-one patients (16 non-NPSLE; 15 NPSLE, ranging in age from 18 to 59 years old (100% female, and eighteen age and gender matched healthy controls. DTI examinations were performed on a 1.5T scanner. A broad neuropsychological battery was administered, tapping attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning. The Total z-score consisted of the combined sum of all neuropsychological measures. In control subjects, we found no significant FA-Total z-score correlations. NPSLE, non-NPSLE, and control subjects differed significantly in terms of Total z-score (NPSLE = -2.25+/-1.77, non-NPSLE = -1.22+/-1.03, Controls = -0.10+/-.57; F = 13.2, p<.001. In non-NPSLE subjects, FA within the right external capsule was significantly correlated with Total z-score. In NPSLE subjects, the largest FA-Total z-score clusters were observed within the left anterior thalamic radiation and right superior longitudinal fasciculus. In subsequent analyses the largest number of significant voxels linked FA with the Processing Speed z-score in NPSLE. The current results reflect objective white matter correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction in both NPSLE and (to a lesser degree in non-NPSLE. non-NPSLE and NPSLE subjects did not differ significantly in terms of depression, as measured by the GDI; thus, previous hypotheses suggesting moderating effects of depression upon neuropsychological performance do not impact the current FA results.

  18. The cerebellum: its role in language and related cognitive and affective functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Hyo Jung; Paquier, Philippe; Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The traditional view on the cerebellum as the sole coordinator of motor function has been substantially redefined during the past decades. Neuroanatomical, neuroimaging and clinical studies have extended the role of the cerebellum to the modulation of cognitive and affective processing. Neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated cerebellar connectivity with the supratentorial association areas involved in higher cognitive and affective functioning, while functional neuroimaging and clinical studies have provided evidence of cerebellar involvement in a variety of cognitive and affective tasks. This paper reviews the recently acknowledged role of the cerebellum in linguistic and related cognitive and behavioral-affective functions. In addition, typical cerebellar syndromes such as the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) and the posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) will be briefly discussed and the current hypotheses dealing with the presumed neurobiological mechanisms underlying the linguistic, cognitive and affective modulatory role of the cerebellum will be reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal head growth and child neuropsychological development at age 14 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álamo-Junquera, Dolores; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; Ballester, Ferran; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Forns, Joan; Turner, Michelle C; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Rodriguez-Dehli, Cristina; Julvez, Jordi

    2015-05-01

    We sought to assess the association between prenatal head growth and child neuropsychological development in the general population. We evaluated 2104 children at the age of 14 months from a population-based birth cohort in Spain. Head circumference (HC) was measured by ultrasound examinations at weeks 12, 20, and 34 of gestation and by a nurse at birth. Head growth was assessed using conditional SD scores between weeks 12-20 and 20-34. Trained psychologists assessed neuropsychological functioning using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Head size measurements at birth were transformed into a 3-category variable: microcephalic (psychomotor scores. In particular, no associations were found between HC at birth and mental scores (coefficient, 0.04; 95% confidence interval, -0.02 to 0.09) and between interval head growth (20-34 weeks) and mental scores (0.31; 95% confidence interval, -0.36 to 0.99). Upon stratification by microcephalic, normocephalic, or macrocephalic head size, results were imprecise, although there were some significant associations in the microcephalic and macrocephalic groups. Adjustment by various child and maternal cofactors did not affect results. The minimum sample size required for present study was 883 patients (β=2, α=0.05, power=0.80). Overall prenatal and perinatal HC was not associated with 14-month-old neuropsychological development. Findings suggest HC growth during uterine life among healthy infants may not be an important marker of early-life neurodevelopment but may be marginally useful with specific populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Negative Affect on Cognition: Anxiety, Not Anger, Impairs Executive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Grant S.; Moons, Wesley G.; Tewell, Carl A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these two affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in parti...

  1. Neuropsychology, autobiographical memory and hippocampal volume in younger and older patients with chronic schizophrenia

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    Christina Josefa Herold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older patients with chronic schizophrenia to 23 younger patients and an older healthy control group (N = 21 with respect to AM, additional neuropsychological parameters and hippocampal volume. Personal episodic and semantic memory was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Additional neuropsychological parameters were assessed by using a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analysed with an automated region-of-interest procedure. While hippocampal volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment were more pronounced in the older than in the younger patients, both groups showed equivalent reduced AM performance for recent personal episodes. In the patient group significant correlations between left hippocampal volume and recent autobiographical episodes as well as personal semantic memories arose. Verbal memory and working memory were significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume, executive functions, however, were associated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. These findings underline the complexity of AM and its impairments in the course of schizophrenia in comparison to rather progressive neuropsychological deficits and address the importance of hippocampal contribution.

  2. Neuropsychology, autobiographical memory, and hippocampal volume in "younger" and "older" patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christina Josefa; Lässer, Marc Montgomery; Schmid, Lena Anna; Seidl, Ulrich; Kong, Li; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Essig, Marco; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM) has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence, less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older patients with chronic schizophrenia to 23 younger patients and an older healthy control group (N = 21) with respect to AM, additional neuropsychological parameters, and hippocampal volume. Personal episodic and semantic memory was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Additional neuropsychological parameters were assessed by using a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed with an automated region-of-interest procedure. While hippocampal volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment were more pronounced in the older than in the younger patients, both groups showed equivalent reduced AM performance for recent personal episodes. In the patient group, significant correlations between left hippocampal volume and recent autobiographical episodes as well as personal semantic memories arose. Verbal memory and working memory were significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume; executive functions, however, were associated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. These findings underline the complexity of AM and its impairments in the course of schizophrenia in comparison to rather progressive neuropsychological deficits and address the importance of hippocampal contribution.

  3. Neuropsychological alterations in mercury intoxication persist several years after exposure

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    Elaine Cristina Zachi

    Full Text Available Abstract Elemental mercury is a liquid toxic metal widely used in industry. Occupational exposure occurs mainly via inhalation. Previously, neuropsychological assessment detected deficits in former workers of a fluorescent lamp plant who had been exposed to elemental mercury vapor and were away from exposure for several years at the time of examination. Objectives: The purpose of this work was to reexamine these functions after 18 months in order to evaluate their progression. Methods: Thirteen participants completed tests of attention, inhibitory control, verbal/visual memory, psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, visuomotor ability, executive function, semantic knowledge, and depression and anxiety inventories on 2 separate occasions. Results: At baseline, the former workers indicated slower psychomotor and information processing speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory impairment, and increased depression and anxiety symptoms compared to controls (P<0.05. Paired comparisons of neuropsychological functioning within the exposed group at baseline and 1.5 years later showed poorer immediate memory performance (P<0.05. There were no differences on other measures. Conclusions: Although the literature show signs of recovery of functions, the neuropsychological effects related to mercury exposure are found to persist for many years.

  4. The neuropsychology and functional anatomy of timing.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, C. R. G.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis explores the neural correlates of motor and perceptual timing. Motor timing involves the production of a timed movement (e.g. dancing), whereas perceptual timing requires a perceptual judgement (e.g. deciding which of two events lasted longer). A body of research has investigated this type of timing, concentrating on millisecond- and seconds-range intervals. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and cerebellar pathology exhibit motor and perceptual timing deficits, which has led ...

  5. Neuropsychological Care and Rehabilitation of Cancer Patients With Chemobrain: Strategies For Evaluation and Intervention Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Johnson-Greene, Douglas; Burish, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumors and their various treatments such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy can deleteriously affect a large number of cancer patients and survivors on multiple dimensions of psychosocial and neurocognitive functioning. Oncology researchers and clinicians are increasingly cognizant of the negative effects of cancer and its treatments on the brain and its mental processes and cognitive outcomes. Nevertheless, effective interventions to treat cancer and treatment-related neurocognitive dysfunction (CRND), also known as chemobrain, are still lacking. The paucity of data on effective treatments for CRND is due, at least partly, to difficulties understanding its etiology, and a lack of reliable methods for assessing its presence and severity. This paper provides an overview of the incidence, etiology, and magnitude of CRND, and discusses the plausible contributions of psychological, motor function, and linguistic and behavioral complications to CRND. Strategies for reliable neuropsychological screening and assessment, and development and testing of effective ways to mitigate CRND are also discussed. PMID:24671433

  6. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  7. [The Influence of the Functional State of Brain Regulatory Structures on the Programming, Selective Regulation and Control of Cognitive Activity in Children. Report I: Neuropsychological and EEG Analysis of Age-Related Changes in Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 9-12 Years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, A; Machinskaya, R I; Lomakin, D I

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in brain regulatory functions in children aged from 9 to 12 years with typical development were studied by means of neuropsychological and EEG analysis. The participants of the study were 107 children without learning difficulties and behavior deviations; they were devided into three groups (9-10, 10-11 and 11-12 years). The neuropsychological tests revealed nonlinear age-related changes in different executive brain functions. The group of 10-11-year-old children showed better results in programming, in- hibition of impulsive reactions and in the perception of socially relevant information than the group of 9-10- year-old children. At the same time, these children had more difficulties with selective activity regulation as compared with the younger group. The difficulties were mainly caused by switching from one element of the program to another and by retention of learned sequence of actions. These children also showed a lower level of motivation for task performance. The children aged 11-12 years had less difficulties with selective activity regulation; however, impulsive behavior was more frequent; these children also had a higher level of task performance motivation than in children aged 10-11 years. The analysis of resting state EEG revealed age-related differences in deviated EEG patterns associated with non-optimal functioning of fronto-thalamic system and hypothalamic structures. The incidence of these two types of EEG patterns was significantly higher in children aged 10-11 years as compared with children aged 9-10 years. The EEG of the groups of 10-11 and 11-12-years-old children did not show any significant differences.

  8. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oades, Robert D; Wild-Wall, Nele; Juran, Stephanie A; Sachsse, Jan; Oknina, Ljubov B; Röpcke, Bernd

    2006-02-08

    The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN) registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively). MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis), the right temporal locus extended more antero-laterally (illness progression), and the right frontal source moved

  9. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachsse Jan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. Methods MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively. Results MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis, the right temporal locus extended more antero

  10. Ethical considerations in geriatric neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas A; Bush, Shane S

    2008-01-01

    The practice of geriatric neuropsychology demands specialized training and experience that enables the practitioner to appreciate the unique challenges and opportunities that are encountered when working with older adults. In addition to maintaining advanced knowledge regarding medical and psychological conditions, assessment issues, and treatment needs specific to older persons, clinicians working with older adults must be prepared to recognize and confront ethical dilemmas that arise. For example, ethical challenges related to professional competence, informed consent, assessment, and privacy and confidentiality may be prominent when working with older persons. Maintaining an emphasis on "positive ethics" and utilizing an ethical decision-making model will promote the practitioner's ability to avoid, identify, and resolve ethical challenges. The present article reviews (1) the concept of positive ethics, (2) a comprehensive ethical decision-making model, and (3) ethical issues that are commonly encountered by geriatric neuropsychologists. A case vignette is presented to illustrate the application of the aforementioned tools to promote ethical practice.

  11. Suicide behavior and neuropsychological assessment of type I bipolar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; Neves, Fernando Silva; Abrantes, Suzana Silva Costa; Fuentes, Daniel; Corrêa, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychological deficits are often described in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Some symptoms and/or associated characteristics of BD can be more closely associated to those cognitive impairments. We aimed to explore cognitive neuropsychological characteristics of type I bipolar patients (BPI) in terms of lifetime suicide attempt history. We studied 39 BPI outpatients compared with 53 healthy controls (HC) matched by age, educational and intellectual level. All subjects were submitted to a neuropsychological assessment of executive functions, decision-making and declarative episodic memory. When comparing BDI patients, regardless of suicide attempt history or HC, we observed that bipolar patients performed worse than controls on measures of memory, attention, executive functions and decision-making. Patients with a history of suicide attempt performed worse than non-attempters on measures of decision-making and there were a significant negative correlation between the number of suicide attempts and decision-making results (block 3 and net score). We also found significant positive correlation between the number of suicide attempts and amount of errors in Stroop Color Word Test (part 3). The sample studied can be considered small and a potentially confounding variable - medication status - were not controlled. Our results show the presence of neuropsychological deficits in memory, executive functions, attention and decision-making in BPI patients. Suicide attempts BPI scored worse than non-suicide attempt BPI on measures of decision-making. More suicide attempts were associated with a worse decision-making process. Future research should explore the relationship between the association between this specific cognitive deficits in BPIs, serotonergic function and suicide behavior in bipolar patients as well other diagnostic groups.

  12. The enacted unconscious: a neuropsychological model of unconscious processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginot, Efrat

    2017-10-01

    Integrating neuropsychology with psychoanalytic thinking and experience, this paper offers a new view of the unconscious that veers away from more traditional conceptualizations. Rather, it emphasizes the ever-present influence of ongoing unconscious processes on much of our behaviors and mental states. Importantly, this new understanding is based on the functional unity of the brain/mind. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Neuropsychology of the Deficit Syndrome: New Data and Meta-analysis of Findings To Date

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Alex S.; Saperstein, Alice M.; Gold, James M.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    The deficit syndrome is thought to characterize a pathophysiologically distinct subgroup of patients with schizophrenia. Supporting this notion, prior research examining the neuropsychological correlates of the deficit syndrome has suggested the presence of a differential impairment in frontal and parietal functions. This article reports findings from 2 studies attempting to replicate and extend previous reports of a differential neuropsychological impairment in deficit schizophrenia. In the ...

  14. Concept of inclusion on the section of Vygotskian socio-cultural theory and neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kobal Grum, Darja

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of inclusion of children with special needs from the context of contemporary fi ndings in neuropsychology as well as from the context of the psychology of L.S. Vygotsky and his theory of socio- cultural development. In contrast to the classical physiological models that treated deficits and defects in brain functioning as final and "non-serviceable", the contemporary neuropsychological advancements show the significance of brain plastic changes, which enable t...

  15. Concept of inclusion on the section of Vygotskian socio-cultural theory and neuropsychology:

    OpenAIRE

    Kobal Grum, Darja

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of inclusion of children with special needs from the context of contemporary fi ndings in neuropsychology as well as from the context of the psychology of L.S. Vygotsky and his theory of socio- cultural development. In contrast to the classical physiological models that treated deficits and defects in brain functioning as final and "non-serviceable", the contemporary neuropsychological advancements show the significance of brain plastic changes, which enable t...

  16. Interdependence of episodic and semantic memory: evidence from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Daniel L; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2010-09-01

    Tulving's (1972) theory of memory draws a distinction between general knowledge (semantic memory) and memory for events (episodic memory). Neuropsychological studies have generally examined each type of memory in isolation, but theorists have long argued that these two forms of memory are interdependent. Here we review several lines of neuropsychological research that have explored the interdependence of episodic and semantic memory. The studies show that these forms of memory can affect each other both at encoding and at retrieval. We suggest that theories of memory should be revised to account for all of the interdependencies between episodic and semantic memory; they should also incorporate forms of memory that do not fit neatly into either category.

  17. The neuropsychological and neuroradiological correlates of slowly progressive visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Aresi, Anna; Reati, Fabiola; Riva, Alice; Gobbo, Clara; Bizzi, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    The case of a 64-year-old woman affected by slowly progressive visual agnosia is reported aiming to describe specific cognitive-brain relationships. Longitudinal clinical and neuropsychological assessment, combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography (PET) were used. Sequential neuropsychological evaluations performed during a period of 9 years since disease onset showed the appearance of apperceptive and associative visual agnosia, alexia without agraphia, agraphia, finger agnosia, and prosopoagnosia, but excluded dementia. MRI showed moderate diffuse cortical atrophy, with predominant atrophy in the left posterior cortical areas (temporal, parietal, and lateral occipital cortical gyri). 18FDG-PET showed marked bilateral posterior cortical hypometabolism; proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging disclosed severe focal N-acetyl-aspartate depletion in the left temporoparietal and lateral occipital cortical areas. In conclusion, selective metabolic alterations and neuronal loss in the left temporoparietooccipital cortex may determine progressive visual agnosia in the absence of dementia.

  18. The Technology Crisis in Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Justin B; Barr, William B

    2017-08-01

    Neuropsychology has fallen reliant on outdated and labor intensive methods of data collection that are slow, highly inefficient, and expensive, and provide relatively data-poor estimates of human behavior despite rapid technological advance in most other fields of medicine. Here we present a brief historical overview of current testing practices in an effort to frame the current crisis, followed by an overview of different settings in which technology can and should be integrated. Potential benefits of laboratory based assessments, remote assessments, as well as passive and high-frequency data collection tools rooted in technology are discussed, along with several relevant examples and how these technologies might be deployed. Broader issues of data security and privacy are discussed, as well as additional considerations to be addressed within each setting. Some of the historical barriers to adoption of technology are also presented, along with a brief discussion of the remaining uncertainties. While by no means intended as a comprehensive review or prescriptive roadmap, our goal is to show that there are a tremendous number of advantages to technologically driven data collection methods, and that technology should be embraced by the field. Our predictions are that the comprehensive assessments of the future will likely entail a combination of lab-based assessments, remote assessments, and passive data capture, and leading the development of these efforts will cement the role of neuropsychology at the forefront of cognitive and behavioral science. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Neuropsychological correlates of decision making in patients with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Franke-Sievert, Christiane; Jacoby, Georg E; Markowitsch, Hans J; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2007-11-01

    In addition to the core psychopathology of bulimia nervosa (BN), patients with BN often show impulsive behavior that has been related to decision making deficits in other patient groups, such as individuals with anorexia nervosa and pathological gamblers. However, it remains unclear whether BN patients also show difficulties in decision making. In this study, 14 patients with BN and 14 healthy comparison subjects, matched for age, gender, education, body mass index, and intelligence, were examined with the Game of Dice Task (M. Brand, E. Fujiwara, et al., 2005), a gambling task that has fixed winning probabilities and explicit rules for gains and losses, as well as with a neuropsychological test battery and personality questionnaires. On the task, the patients with BN chose the disadvantageous alternatives more frequently than did the comparison subjects. Performance on the Game of Dice Task was related to executive functioning but not to other neuropsychological functions, personality, or disease-specific variables in the BN group. Thus, in patients with BN, decision making abnormalities and executive reductions can be demonstrated and might be neuropsychological correlates of the patients' dysfunctional everyday-life decision making behavior. Neurocognitive functions should be considered in the treatment of BN. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. The emergence of psychopathy: implications for the neuropsychological approach to developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, R J R

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, I am going to examine the disorder of psychopathy and consider how genetic anomalies could give rise to the relatively specific neuro-cognitive impairments seen in individuals with this disorder. I will argue that genetic anomalies in psychopathy reduce the salience of punishment information (perhaps as a function of noradrenergic disturbance). I will argue that the ability of the amygdala to form the stimulus-punishment associations necessary for successful socialization is disrupted and that because of this, individuals with psychopathy do not learn to avoid actions that will harm others. It is noted that this model follows the neuropsychological approach to the study of developmental disorders, an approach that has been recently criticized. I will argue that these criticisms are less applicable to psychopathy. Indeed, animal work on the development of the neural systems necessary for emotion, does not support a constructivist approach with respect to affect. Importantly, such work indicates that while environmental effects can alter the responsiveness of the basic neural architecture mediating emotion, environmental effects do not construct this architecture. However, caveats to the neuropsychological approach with reference to this disorder are noted.

  1. The neuropsychology of repeated 1- and 3-meter springboard diving among college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillmer, Eric A

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the neuropsychological effects of repeated springboard diving. It was hypothesized that the impact velocity, which can range from 20 to 30 mph, and accompanying deceleration in the water may lead to concussions and affect the diver's cognitive function. Six varsity National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 springboard divers participated in the study. Each diver performed a total of 50 practice dives from either the 1- or 3-m springboard. After each set of 10 dives, the participants were immediately evaluated at poolside using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color Word Test, and the Trail Making Test B. Baseline testing revealed, consistent with their athletic specialty, clear neurocognitive strengths among the divers on tests sensitive to proprioception, motor speed, and visual-spatial organization. Results from the serial assessments indicated no detectable neuropsychological deficits among competitive divers compared to baseline testing. Skilled diving at the collegiate level appears to be a safe sport and water appears to present the perfect medium for gradual deceleration. More studies, however, are warranted for 5-, 7.5-, and 10-m platform diving since the impact velocity of the diver from these heights is higher.

  2. A neuropsychological rehabilitation program for patients with Multiple Sclerosis based on the model of the ICF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusswald, Gisela; Mildner, Christa; Zebenholzer, Karin; Auff, Eduard; Lehrner, Johann

    2014-01-01

    Forty to sixty percent of MS patients suffer from cognitive impairments. Cognitive deficits are a great burden for patients affected. In particular they may lead to a reduced quality of life, loss of work and problems with the social environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate a specific neuropsychological rehabilitation program for MS patients according to the ICF to be able to meet more properly individual requirements on the therapy level of function as well as of activities and participation. Forty patients with MS were randomised in an intervention (IG) - and a control group (CG). The outcome measure of the IG, who started an intensive computer based home training of attention and attended psychological counselling was compared to the untrained CG. In specific domains of attention (simple and cued alertness and divided attention) significant group differences between CG and IG could be found. The IG reported an improvement of mental fatigue and retardation. These findings support the idea that a neuropsychological rehabilitation program, which based on the model of ICF, could improve cognitive impairment and could also have a positive influence of activities and participation.

  3. Performance norms for a rhesus monkey neuropsychological testing battery: acquisition and long-term performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, M R; Taffe, M A; Polis, I; Roberts, A C; Robbins, T W; Koob, G F; Bloom, F E; Gold, L H

    1999-10-25

    A computerized behavioral battery based upon human neuropsychological tests (CANTAB, CeNeS, Cambridge, UK) has been developed to assess cognitive behaviors of rhesus monkeys. Monkeys reliably performed multiple tasks, providing long-term assessment of changes in a number of behaviors for a given animal. The overall goal of the test battery is to characterize changes in cognitive behaviors following central nervous system (CNS) manipulations. The battery addresses memory (delayed non-matching to sample, DNMS; spatial working memory, using a self-ordered spatial search task, SOSS), attention (intra-/extra-dimensional shift, ID/ED), motivation (progressive-ratio, PR), reaction time (RT) and motor coordination (bimanual task). As with human neuropsychological batteries, different tasks are thought to involve different neural substrates, and therefore performance profiles should assess function in particular brain regions. Monkeys were tested in transport cages, and responding on a touch sensitive computer monitor was maintained by food reinforcement. Parametric manipulations of several tasks demonstrated the sensitivity of performance to increases in task difficulty. Furthermore, the factors influencing difficulty for rhesus monkeys were the same as those shown to affect human performance. Data from this study represent performance of a population of healthy normal monkeys that will be used for comparison in subsequent studies of performance following CNS manipulations such as infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (NeuroAIDS) or drug administration.

  4. MRI-defined subcortical ischemic vascular disease: baseline clinical and neuropsychological findings. The LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Kalska, Hely; Ylikoski, Raija

    2009-01-01

    of global cognitive function, psychomotor speed, attention and executive functions, verbal fluency, and working memory. CONCLUSION: In this population of nondisabled older adults with WML, SIVD was related to specific clinical and functional characteristics. Neuropsychological features included psychomotor...... slowing as well as deficits in attention and executive functions....

  5. Clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry: conceptualizing theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Kelly; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J; Cumner, Marnie; Brewer, Warrick J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, clinical neuropsychology has made significant contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, particularly in neurological conditions. During the past several decades, neuropsychology has also become established as an important discipline in psychiatric settings. Cognition is increasingly recognized as being core to psychiatric illnesses and predictive of functional outcomes, augmenting theories regarding symptomatology and illness progression. Adult-type psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and other psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, substance-related, and personality disorders) typically emerge during adolescence or young adulthood, a critical neurodevelopmental period. Clinical neuropsychological assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients is particularly valuable in informing clinical formulation and intervention and can be therapeutic across a number of levels. This article articulates the theoretical considerations and practical challenges and applications of clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry. The importance of considering the neurodevelopmental context and its relationship to current theoretical models underpinning clinical practice are discussed.

  6. Prospective analysis of neuropsychological deficits following resection of benign skull base meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweckberger, Klaus; Hallek, Eveline; Vogt, Lidia; Giese, Henrik; Schick, Uta; Unterberg, Andreas W

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Resection of skull base tumors is challenging. The introduction of alternative treatment options, such as radiotherapy, has sparked discussion regarding outcome in terms of quality of life and neuropsychological deficits. So far, however, no prospective data are available on this topic. METHODS A total of 58 patients with skull base meningiomas who underwent surgery for the first time were enrolled in this prospective single-center trial. The average age of the patients was 56.4 ± 12.5 years. Seventy-nine percent of the tumors were located within the anterior skull base. Neurological examinations and neuropsychological testing were performed at 3 time points: 1 day prior to surgery (T1), 3-5 months after surgery (T2), and 9-12 months after surgery (T3). The average follow-up duration was 13.8 months. Neuropsychological assessment consisted of quality of life, depression and anxiety, verbal learning and memory, cognitive speed, attention and concentration, figural memory, and visual-motor speed. RESULTS Following surgery, 23% of patients showed transient neurological deficits and 12% showed permanent new neurological deficits with varying grades of manifestation. Postoperative quality of life, however, remained stable and was slightly improved at follow-up examinations at T3 (60.6 ± 21.5 vs 63.6 ± 24.1 points), and there was no observed effect on anxiety and depression. Long-term verbal memory, working memory, and executive functioning were slightly affected within the first months following surgery and appeared to be the most vulnerable to impairment by the tumor or the resection but were stable or improved in the majority of patients at long-term follow-up examinations after 1 year. CONCLUSIONS This report describes the first prospective study of neuropsychological outcomes following resection of skull base meningiomas and, as such, contributes to a better understanding of postoperative impairment in these patients. Despite deterioration in a minority

  7. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence.

  8. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Nishinaka

    Full Text Available In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk.Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used.Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts.Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence.

  9. Oscar Marin and the Creation of a Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I

    2015-09-01

    During the 1980s, the Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory at Good Samaritan Hospital, Portland, Oregon, made important strides in the study of brain injury. Created and headed by Oscar Marin and the author, in affiliation with the University of Oregon, the lab brought together students, fellows, and visiting experts in neurology, psychology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, neurobiology, neurophysiology, and computation. Their patient-focused collaborations produced groundbreaking research in language and its disorders, bradyphrenia, neglect, cerebellar function and impairment, and the psychology of music. The lab hosted the meeting that they documented in the influential 1985 book Attention and Performance XI: Mechanisms of Attention. The lab's members have gone on to lead distinguished careers and continue making major contributions to cognitive neuroscience.

  10. Brain Evolution and Human Neuropsychology: The Inferential Brain Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. PMID:22459075

  11. Neuropsychological and Cognitive Correlates of Recovery in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jessica A; Brodrick, Brooks; Van Enkevort, Erin; McAdams, Carrie J

    2017-11-01

    To identify clinical or cognitive measures either predictive of illness trajectory or altered with sustained weight recovery in adult women with anorexia nervosa. Participants were recruited from prior studies of women with anorexia nervosa (AN-C) and in weight-recovery following anorexia nervosa (AN-WR). Participants completed a neuropsychological battery at baseline and clinical assessments at both baseline and follow-up. Groups based on clinical outcome (continued eating disorder, AN-CC; newly in recovery, AN-CR; sustained weight-recovery, AN-WR) were compared by using one-way ANOVAs with Bonferroni-corrected post hoc comparisons. Women with continued eating disorder had poorer neuropsychological function and self-competence at baseline than AN-CR. AN-CR showed changes in depression and externalizing bias, a measure of self-related attributions. AN-WR differed from both AN-CC and AN-CR at baseline in externalizing bias, but only from AN-CC at outcome. Neuropsychological function when recently ill may be a prognostic factor, while externalizing bias may provide a clinical target for recovery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. Neuropsychological effects and attitudes in patients following electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, Miriam; Edwards, Christopher L; Sudhakar, Shiv; McDougald, Camela; Raynor, Renee; Johnson, Stephanie; Byrd, Goldie; Whitfield, Keith; Jonassaint, Charles; Romero, Heather; Edwards, Lekisha; Wellington, Chante'; Hill, LaBarron K; Sollers, James; Logue, Patrick E

    2008-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on neuropsychological test performance. Forty-six patients completed brief neuropsychological and psychological testing before and after receiving ECT for the treatment of recalcitrant and severe depression. Neuropsychological testing consisted of the Levin Selective Reminding Test (Levin) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Edition (WMS-R). Self-report measures included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Short-Term Memory Questionnaire (STMQ), and several other measures of emotional functioning and patient attitudes toward ECT. The mean number of days between pre-ECT and post-ECT testing was 24. T-test revealed a significant decrease in subjective ratings of depression as rated by the BDI, t(45) = 9.82, P Objective ratings of memory appeared impaired following treatment, and patients' self-report measures of memory confirmed this decline. More specifically, repeated measures MANOVA [Wilks Lambda F(11,30) = 4.3, p memory (p recall (p visual designs (p memory functioning, and post-ECT self-reports may not be reliable.

  13. Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: implications for neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Valdez, Candelaria Ramírez, Aída GarcíaLaboratory of Psychophysiology, School of Psychology, University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, MéxicoAbstract: Circadian variations have been found in human performance, including the efficiency to execute many tasks, such as sensory, motor, reaction time, time estimation, memory, verbal, arithmetic calculations, and simulated driving tasks. Performance increases during the day and decreases during the night. Circadian rhythms have been found in three basic neuropsychological processes (attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. The time course of circadian rhythms in cognitive performance may be modified significantly in patients with brain disorders, due to chronotype, age, alterations of the circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation, type of disorder, and medication. This review analyzes the recent results on circadian rhythms in cognitive performance, as well as the implications of these rhythms for the neuropsychological assessment of patients with brain disorders such as traumatic head injury, stroke, dementia, developmental disorders, and psychiatric disorders.Keywords: human circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, neuropsychological assessment, attention, working memory, executive functions

  14. Effects on neuropsychological performance and sleep quality in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Staub

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS may have impaired neuropsychological performance. The aim of the study is to assess neuropsychological function in OSAS patients before and on continous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy to assess different neuropsychological tests – especially of sensomotor memory – in OSAS patients, and to relate neuropsychological test results to polysomnographic findings. Therefore, 36 normal controls and 18 OSAS patients performed tests of attention capacity and memory with retrieval in the evening and the following morning. Six weeks later, the tests were repeated (patients on CPAP. Controls performed significantly better than patients in the tests of attention and of memory of facts without and on CPAP therapy. Moreover, good compliance of CPAP therapy was not associated with better performance. However, there was no significant difference between controls and patients in the tests of sensomotor memory. The neuropsychological results depended on oxygen values, the arousal index, and sleep stages. There is no group difference in overnight improvement in the neuropsychological tests, which could indicate that sleep has an important function in homeostatic regulation rather than in consolidation.

  15. Lessons from cognitive neuropsychology for cognitive science: a reply to Patterson and Plaut (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, Max

    2010-01-01

    A recent article in this journal (Patterson & Plaut, 2009) argued that cognitive neuropsychology has told us very little over the past 30 or 40 years about "how the brain accomplishes its cognitive business." This may well be true, but it is not important, because the principal aim of cognitive neuropsychology is not to learn about the brain. Its principal aim is instead to learn about the mind, that is, to elucidate the functional architecture of cognition. I show that this is so (a) via extensive quotations from leading figures in this field and (b) by analysis of the subject matter of articles in the leading journal in the field, Cognitive Neuropsychology. Recent reviews of the past 25 years of work in this field (Coltheart & Caramazza, 2006) have concluded that cognitive neuropsychology has told us much about the functional architecture of cognition in a variety of cognitive domains. Patterson and Plaut (2009) did not consider this aim of cognitive neuropsychology. Therefore, their conclusions that cognitive neuropsychology has not been successful, and that this is because the particular methods it uses are flawed, are not justified. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. [Clinical neuropsychology in perspective: future challenges based on current developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier

    2012-02-01

    New lines of translational, interdisciplinary research are emerging among different fields of the neurosciences, which often point at clinical neuropsychology as the hinge discipline capable of linking the basic findings with their clinical implications and thereby endow them with some meaning for phenomenological experience. To establish the great lines of progress made in the fields of neuroscience and neuropsychology in recent years, so as to be able to foresee the strategic lines and priorities of neuroscience in the near future. To achieve this aim, the first step will be to identify the changes of paradigm that have taken place in the areas of neuroscience and psychology in the last two decades. The next step will be to propose new topics and fields of application that these changes in paradigm offer and demand from neuroscience. The false dichotomies of genes versus environment, mind versus brain, and reason versus emotion are considered, as are the new applications of neuropsychology to the understanding of psychopathological disorders, from the neurodegenerative to neurodevelopment, from 'dirty' drugs to cognitive and affective enhancers.

  17. Deviations in upper limb function of the less-affected side in congenital hemiparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, B.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we examined upper-limb function of the less-affected side in young adolescents with congenital hemiparesis (cerebral palsy: CP). Five participants with hemiparetic CP and five control participants performed a cyclical reach-and-grasp task with the less-affected hand towards

  18. Development of Affective Theory of Mind Across Adolescence: Disentangling the Role of Executive Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vetter, N.C.; Altgassen, A.M.; Phillips, L.H.; Mahy, C.E.V.; Kliegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across

  19. A critical appraisal of the role of neuropsychological deficits in preschool ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöwall, Douglas; Thorell, Lisa B

    2018-03-14

    The present study aimed at improving our understanding of the role of neuropsychological deficits in preschool Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study included 52 children in the ADHD group and 72 controls (age 4-6 years). Both laboratory measures and teacher reports of executive deficits (i.e., working memory, inhibition, and shifting), delay-related behaviors (i.e., the preference for minimizing delay), and emotional functions (i.e., emotion recognition and regulation) were included. Variable-oriented analyses were complemented with person-oriented analyses (i.e., identifying the proportion of patients considered impaired). Results showed that the ADHD group differed from controls with regard to all measures of executive functioning and most measures of delay-related behaviors, but few differences were found for emotional functioning. A substantial subgroup (23%) of children with ADHD did not have a neuropsychological deficit in any domain. There were subgroups with executive or delay-related deficits only, but no pure emotional subgroup. The overlap between different neuropsychological deficits was much larger when teacher reports were used as opposed to laboratory measures. Regarding functional impairments, large mean differences were found between the ADHD group and controls. However, neuropsychological deficits were not able to explain individual variations in daily life functioning among children with ADHD. In conclusion, the present study identified some important methodological and theoretical issues regarding the role of neuropsychological functioning in preschool ADHD.

  20. Profession of neuropsychology in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lillian; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Ardila, Alfredo; Rivera, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures used, rehabilitation techniques employed, population targeted, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 808 professionals working in neuropsychology from 17 countries in Latin America completed an online survey between July 2013 and January 2014. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 36.76 years (range 21-74 years). The majority of professionals working in neuropsychology in Latin America have a background in psychology, with some additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice, universities, or private clinics and are quite satisfied with their work. Those who identify themselves as clinicians primarily work with individuals with learning problems, ADHD, mental retardation, TBI, dementia, and stroke. The majority respondents cite the top barrier in the use of neuropsychological instruments to be the lack of normative data for their countries. The top perceived barriers to the field include: lack of academic training programs, lack of clinical training opportunities, lack of willingness to collaborate between professionals, and lack of access to neuropsychological instruments. There is a need in Latin America to increase regulation, improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally-relevant instruments.

  1. Clinical neuropsychology practice and training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura A; Guger, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper provides information about professional neuropsychology issues in Canada and is part of a special issue addressing international perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology. Information was gathered from literature searches and personal communication with other neuropsychologists in Canada. Canada has a rich neuropsychological history. Neuropsychologists typically have doctoral-level education including relevant coursework and supervised practical experience. Licensure requirements vary across the 10 provinces and there are regional differences in salary. While training at the graduate and internship level mirrors that of our American colleagues, completion of a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology is not required to obtain employment in many settings and there are few postdoctoral training programs in this country. The majority of neuropsychologists are employed in institutional settings (e.g. hospitals, universities, rehabilitation facilities), with a growing number entering private practice or other settings. There are challenges in providing neuropsychological services to the diverse Canadian population and a need for assessment measures and normative data in multiple languages. Canadian neuropsychologists face important challenges in defining ourselves as distinct from other professions and other psychologists, in maintaining funding for high-quality training and research, in establishing neuropsychology-specific training and practice standards at the provincial or national level, and ensuring the clinical care that we provide is efficient and effective in meeting the needs of our patient populations and consumers, both within and outside of the publically funded health care system.

  2. Neuropsychological findings in personality disorders: A.R. Luria’s Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluzhnikov I.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information concerning the features of cognitive processes in personality disorders, as well as the brain mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these diseases. Luria’s neuropsychological approach demonstrated its heuristicity in estimating the cognitive status of patients with mental disorders and can be employed to identify the brain bases of non-psychotic mental disorders (including personality disorders. The objective of this research is to study the features of neurocognitive functioning in patients with schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder (against the norm, employing Luria’s neuropsychological methodology. Hypotheses: 1 While both types of personality disorders are related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the specificity of the neurocognitive functioning of each personality disorder will be observed in addition to general neuropsychological signs. Specific neuropsychological symptoms point to different brain deficits, which allows conclusion to be drawn regarding differences in the pathogenesis of each personality disorder; and 2 Luria’s methodology neuropsychology is adequate for the study of neurocognitive functioning in personality disorders. The study was conducted using qualitative and quantitative analyses (according to Luria of neuropsychological testing data in a group of fifty male patients aged 19,2±3,7 years with pathocharacteristic domain disorders. The group consisted of 30 schizoid personality disorder patients and 20 schizotypal personality disorder patients. Statistically significant differences (p <0,005 in neurocognitive function (regulatory processes, memory, spatial function between the healthy controls and patients with personality disorders were observed. Specific cognitive disorders pointing to the dysfunction of front-thalamoparietal connections were characteristic of both groups. Lateral differences were discovered for both patient groups. The

  3. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Tibiofemoral osteoarthritis affects quality of life and function in elderly Koreans, with women more adversely affected than men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inje; Kim, Hyun Ah; Seo, Young-Il; Song, Yeong Wook; Hunter, David J; Jeong, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2010-06-22

    worse WOMAC and SF-12 scores compared to men, regardless of the presence of radiographic knee OA after adjustment of age, BMI and OA severity. OA subjects had significantly worse performance score for usual walk and chair stands compared to non-OA subjects, but the ORs were no more significant after adjustment of sex. Knee OA negatively affects the QoL and physical function in both genders, but women are more adversely affected than men.

  5. Tibiofemoral osteoarthritis affects quality of life and function in elderly Koreans, with women more adversely affected than men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter David J

    2010-06-01

    -OA after adjustment of age, BMI and sex. Women had worse WOMAC and SF-12 scores compared to men, regardless of the presence of radiographic knee OA after adjustment of age, BMI and OA severity. OA subjects had significantly worse performance score for usual walk and chair stands compared to non-OA subjects, but the ORs were no more significant after adjustment of sex. Conclusions Knee OA negatively affects the QoL and physical function in both genders, but women are more adversely affected than men.

  6. Autistic traits and neuropsychological performance in 6- to-10-year-old children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyseni, Fjola; Blanken, Laura M E; Muetzel, Ryan; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya

    2018-04-23

    Clinical studies of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide evidence for poorer neuropsychological performance within specific domains compared to age, gender, and sometimes IQ-matched controls. Since recent evidence suggests that autistic symptoms form a spectrum that extends into the general population, it was our goal to evaluate the nature of the relationship between autistic traits and neuropsychological performance across the continuum in the general population. We examined neuropsychological performance across five different domains in 1019 6-to-10-year-old children participating in a population-based study of child development. Autistic traits were assessed when the children were 6 years of age using the Social Responsiveness Scale and ASD diagnoses were obtained via medical records. Neuropsychological functioning was measured using the NEPSY-II-NL and included the domains of attention and executive function, memory and learning, sensorimotor functioning, language, and visuospatial functioning. We found that children with higher autistic traits showed significantly lower neuropsychological performance in all domains investigated and that this association remained even after excluding children with the highest autistic traits or confirmed ASD. When comparing 41 children with confirmed ASD diagnosis to typically developing controls, children with ASD showed significantly lower neuropsychological performance across all domains. Taken together, our results suggest that children with both ASD and subclinical autistic traits have lower neuropsychological performance. Thus, this may provide an understanding of why some children without an ASD diagnosis may require some additional assistance within academic settings.

  7. Impact of neuropsychological rehabilitation on activities of daily living and community reintegration of patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Amrita; Singh, Amool Ranjan; Khan, Nawab Akhtar; Jahan, Masroor; Raman, Rajesh; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2018-01-01

    The present study was targeted to observe the impact of neuropsychological rehabilitation on activities of daily living (ADL) and community reintegration of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Based on purposive sampling technique, ten patients with TBI falling in the age range of 20-40 years and fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were chosen from All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mysuru, India. A quasi-experimental design, i.e., nonequivalent control group design was chosen for the study. Patients were assessed on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Adults, Cognitive Symptoms Checklist, and Community Integration Questionnaire. Patients in experimental group were given neuropsychological rehabilitation for 6 months. Brainwave-R and Talking Pen were used as rehabilitative tools. Patients with TBI have significant neuropsychological deficits observed in memory, visuo-spatial organization, arithmetic, spelling, writing, fine motor coordination, and executive functioning. Neuropsychological deficits have a major impact on ADL and community reintegration. Neuropsychological rehabilitation is effective in rehabilitating neuropsychological deficits, which in turn leads to improvement in ADL and community reintegration. Neuropsychological rehabilitation should be one of the major goals in rehabilitation procedures for patients with TBI in order to bring overall improvement in them.

  8. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  9. Earthworm functional traits and interspecific interactions affect plant nitrogen acquisition and primary production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriuzzi, Walter; Schmidt, Olaf; Brussaard, L.; Faber, J.H.; Bolger, T.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a greenhouse experiment to test how the functional diversity of earthworms, the dominant group of soil macro-invertebrates in many terrestrial ecosystems, affects nitrogen cycling and plant growth. Three species were chosen to represent a range of functional traits: Lumbricus terrestris

  10. Neuropsychological findings in a patient with Kernohan's notch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, V L; Sherer, M

    1996-05-01

    This case report describes the use of neuropsychological testing to Iocalize and diagnose lesions The testing was instrumental in disentangling contradictory symptoms to reveal a Kernohan's notch (later confirmed by MRI), thus ruling out incorrect diagnoses We describe the case of a 36-year-old right-handed man who developed a left epidural hematoma after suffering head trauma from a blunt instrument Sequelae 2 months post-injury included left hemiparesis (ipsilateral to the lesion), dysphonic speech, severe naming/word-finding deficits, and severe memory impairment This patient's symptom pattern presented somewhat of a mystery as his cognitive deficits appeared consistent with left hemisphere damage, while his left motor symptoms suggested right hemisphere damage Medical records were inconsistent Deficits on neuropsychological testing at 3 months post-injury included impairment in verbal and visual memory, confrontation naming, and left-sided motor function Attention, visual-spatial skills, nonverbal problem solving, and right motor speed and coordination were intact A herniation syndrome, Kernohan's notch, was considered to be the most likely explanation This phenomenon occurs when a mass occupying lesion causes significant midline shift of the midbrain, pressing the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorium This pressure produces an ischemic infact in the region of the corticospinal (motor) pathways Subsequent MRI confirmed a lesion in the right cerebral crus The pattern of neuropsychological finding in this patient is discussed.

  11. Cognitive neuropsychology and its vicissitudes: The fate of Caramazza's axioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallice, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology is characterized as the discipline in which one draws conclusions about the organization of the normal cognitive systems from the behaviour of brain-damaged individuals. In a series of papers, Caramazza, later in collaboration with McCloskey, put forward four assumptions as the bridge principles for making such inferences. Four potential pitfalls, one for each axiom, are discussed with respect to the use of single-case methods. Two of the pitfalls also apply to case series and group study procedures, and the other two are held to be indirectly testable or avoidable. Moreover, four other pitfalls are held to apply to case series or group study methods. It is held that inferences from single-case procedures may profitably be supported or rejected using case series/group study methods, but also that analogous support needs to be given in the other direction for functionally based case series or group studies. It is argued that at least six types of neuropsychological method are valuable for extrapolation to theories of the normal cognitive system but that the single- or multiple-case study remains a critical part of cognitive neuropsychology's methods.

  12. Italian neuropsychology in the second half of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Boller, François; Grossi, Dario; Gainotti, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Since the early 1960s, human neuropsychology, the study of brain-behavior interrelations, mainly based on the analysis of their pathological variations, brought about by brain damage, has had a remarkable systematical development in Italy. All this started in Milan, with the neurologist Ennio de Renzi, and his collaborators (Luigi Vignolo, then Anna Basso, Pietro Faglioni, Hans Spinnler, François Boller, and, more autonomously, Edoardo Bisiach), in the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases. Scientists of the "Milan group" investigated several neuropsychological deficits caused by focal hemispheric lesions in large series of left- and right-brain-damaged patients, and control participants, comparable for cultural and demographic variables. Standardized tests and advanced statistical methods were used, which also applied to the diagnosis and rehabilitation of aphasia. Subsequently, neuropsychology developed in Italy extensively, reaching high international reputation. Leading neuropsychologists have been the neurologists Guido Gainotti (Rome), and Franco Denes (Padua), the physicians and psychologists Luigi Pizzamiglio (Rome), and Carlo Umiltà (Parma, with fruitful interactions with the neurophysiologists Giovanni Berlucchi, Giacomo Rizzolatti, and Carlo Marzi, from the school of Giuseppe Moruzzi in Pisa) A second scientific generation of neuropsychologists has then developed in the 1970s, trained by the abovementioned scientists, further boosting and spreading high-level basic and applied research (diagnosis and rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits of patients with brain damage or dysfunction throughout the life span, from childhood to the elderly). Available techniques include structural and functional imaging (CT, PET, SPET, MRI and fMRI Scans, DTI), electrophysiological recording (EEG, ERPs), non-invasive brain stimulation (TMS, tES), and their combined use.

  13. Syndromic analysis in child neuropsychology: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solovieva Yu.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neuropsychology is a science with its own specific concepts, terms, and methods of analysis of disturbances in psychological development. One of the essential concepts of neuropsychological methodology, according to A.R. Luria, is that of a neuropsychological syndrome, which takes into account both the functional organization of the brain and the behavioral system. However, this concept isn’t mentioned in the majority of his publications, and thus is not well known by neuropsychologists. There is no clear understanding of this concept within the works of modern neuropsychologists. This omission has a strong influence on the way analysis and interpretation of developmental difficulties is carried out today. Objective. The objective of this study is to present an example of the successful application of qualitative syndromic analysis to the case of a Mexican preschool child with developmental problems and learning disabilities. Design. The clinical analysis was applied to the case of a 6 year old girl with learning disabilities, whose difficulties had been attributed primarily to a low level of general brain activation. Results. The authors assert that the advantages of A.R. Luria’s syndromic approach to clinical cases of difficulties in development and learning disabilities, are that it opens up the potential for finding the general causes on different levels: neuronal maturation, brain mechanisms, activity and personality. Conclusion. The authors conclude that the topic of syndromic analysis in child neuropsychology requires further scientific discussion. The necessity for revising levels of analysis of clinical cases should be taken in account.

  14. Neuropsychological sequelae of medulloblastoma in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Joel H.; Crowe, Amy Bassell; Larson, David A.; Sneed, Penny K.; Gutin, Philip H.; McDermott, Michael W.; Prados, Michael D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the neuropsychological consequences of medulloblastoma in adults. Methods: Patients 18 years of age or older who had medulloblastoma and at least 3 years of disease-free survival were eligible. A battery of tests was conducted to assess global intellectual functioning, verbal ability, visuospatial ability, memory, reasoning, and academic proficiency. For the verbal memory performance, each patient was matched with two normal controls selected on the basis of age, sex, and level of education. Results: Review of the Neuro-Oncology database revealed 24 patients eligible for the study. Of these, 10 patients (6 good-risk and 4 poor-risk) agreed to participate; 7 patients were lost to follow-up; 5 lived too far away to come to the testing site, and 2 refused testing. There were four men and six women; their mean age was 36.5 years at testing and 29.9 years at surgical diagnosis. Mean dose of whole brain radiation was 34.5 Gy. Mean interval between diagnosis and testing was 79.1 months. Test results demonstrated below average intelligence quotients (mean intelligence quotient 90.2; range 67-103) and specific deficits in memory, reasoning, visuospatial ability, and arithmetic. Conclusion: Adults with medulloblastoma in a prolonged disease-free status may suffer significant cognitive deficits. We recommend further controlled, prospective studies to evaluate cognitive outcomes in this patient population in the hope that interventional strategies could be developed, or treatment modified to minimize such toxicities

  15. Neuropsychology of the Prodrome to Psychosis in the NAPLS Consortium: Relationship to Family History and Conversion to Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Meyer, Eric C.; Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Christensen, Bruce K.; Hawkins, Keith; Heaton, Robert; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Heinssen, Robert; Cornblatt, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Context Early detection and prospective evaluation of clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals who may develop schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders is critical for predicting psychosis onset and for testing preventive interventions. Objective To elucidate the neuropsychology of the CHR syndrome, to determine the association of neuropsychological function with conversion to psychosis and family history (FH) of psychosis, and to examine whether baseline neuropsychological functioning predicts subsequent psychosis. Design, Setting, and Participants Longitudinal study with 2 1/2 years follow-up of 304 prospectively identified CHR individuals meeting Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) criteria, 52 non-CHR persons with a FH of psychosis in first- or second-degree relatives (“family HR”/FHR), and 193 normal controls with neither a FH of psychosis nor a CHR syndrome, all of whom had baseline neuropsychological evaluations, recruited across eight centers as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). Main Measures A neurocognitive composite score, eight individual neuropsychological measures, an IQ estimate, and HR status. Results Global (“composite”) neuropsychological functioning was comparably impaired in CHR and FHR groups compared to controls, but profiles differed significantly between groups. Neuropsychological functioning in the CHR group was significantly lower in persons who progressed to psychosis than in those who did not, and worst in the subgroup with a FH of psychosis. Tests of processing speed and verbal learning and memory were most sensitive in discriminating CHR from controls, although reductions were less severe than in established schizophrenia. Neuropsychological functioning did not contribute uniquely to the prediction of psychosis beyond clinical criteria, but worse verbal memory predicted more rapid conversion. Conclusion These findings document that CHR individuals have significant neuropsychological

  16. Childhood obstructive sleep apnea associates with neuropsychological deficits and neuronal brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C Halbower

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with neuropsychological deficits of memory, learning, and executive function. There is no evidence of neuronal brain injury in children with OSA. We hypothesized that childhood OSA is associated with neuropsychological performance dysfunction, and with neuronal metabolite alterations in the brain, indicative of neuronal injury in areas corresponding to neuropsychological function.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 31 children (19 with OSA and 12 healthy controls, aged 6-16 y group-matched by age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Participants underwent polysomnography and neuropsychological assessments. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was performed on a subset of children with OSA and on matched controls. Neuropsychological test scores and mean neuronal metabolite ratios of target brain areas were compared. Relative to controls, children with severe OSA had significant deficits in IQ and executive functions (verbal working memory and verbal fluency. Children with OSA demonstrated decreases of the mean neuronal metabolite ratio N-acetyl aspartate/choline in the left hippocampus (controls: 1.29, standard deviation [SD] 0.21; OSA: 0.91, SD 0.05; p = 0.001 and right frontal cortex (controls: 2.2, SD 0.4; OSA: 1.6, SD 0.4; p = 0.03.Childhood OSA is associated with deficits of IQ and executive function and also with possible neuronal injury in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. We speculate that untreated childhood OSA could permanently alter a developing child's cognitive potential.

  17. Loneliness in late-life depression: structural and functional connectivity during affective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, N M L; Liu, H-L; Lin, C; Huang, C-M; Wai, Y-Y; Lee, S-H; Lee, T M C

    2016-09-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) in the elderly was reported to present with emotion dysregulation accompanied by high perceived loneliness. Previous research has suggested that LLD is a disorder of connectivity and is associated with aberrant network properties. On the other hand, perceived loneliness is found to adversely affect the brain, but little is known about its neurobiological basis in LLD. The current study investigated the relationships between the structural connectivity, functional connectivity during affective processing, and perceived loneliness in LLD. The current study included 54 participants aged >60 years of whom 31 were diagnosed with LLD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of an affective processing task were collected. Network-based statistics and graph theory techniques were applied, and the participants' perceived loneliness and depression level were measured. The affective processing task included viewing affective stimuli. Structurally, a loneliness-related sub-network was identified across all subjects. Functionally, perceived loneliness was related to connectivity differently in LLD than that in controls when they were processing negative stimuli, with aberrant networking in subcortical area. Perceived loneliness was identified to have a unique role in relation to the negative affective processing in LLD at the functional brain connectional and network levels. The findings increas our understanding of LLD and provide initial evidence of the neurobiological mechanisms of loneliness in LLD. Loneliness might be a potential intervention target in depressive patients.

  18. Neuropsychology in Japan: history, current challenges, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maiko

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this special issue was to describe the cross-cultural differences in neuropsychology throughout the world. The current state of neuropsychology in Japan is discussed in this manuscript. Information on six topics, including (1) the history of Japanese neuropsychology, (2) licensure system, (3) job opportunities, (4) neuropsychological clinical services, (5) neuropsychological tests, and (6) neuropsychological research, was gathered via literature searches, official organization websites, and personal communication with clinical psychologists and other professionals in Japan. Neuropsychology reached Japan from the west in the late 1800s, a period of rapid political and social modernization. Professional associations were founded in the 1960s and 1970s and continued to grow. The need for neuropsychological assessment in Japan is growing; however, credential requirements for neuropsychologists have not yet been established. To practice clinical psychology in Japan, one must obtain a Master's degree and pass a licensure examination that is administered by a private professional foundation. Clinical psychologists often conduct neuropsychological tests; however, they have little training in neuropsychological assessment. While many western neuropsychological tests have been translated into Japanese and are used in clinical settings, the majority of translated tests have not been standardized and their psychometric properties remain poorly understood. Standardization and development of normative data in Japan is warranted. Given that needs for neuropsychological services are increasing, it is essential for clinical psychologists in Japan to improve their skills in neuropsychological evaluations. Japanese graduate schools must work to establish neuropsychology programs to educate and train clinical neuropsychologists.

  19. Emotion regulation strategies mediate the associations of positive and negative affect to upper extremity physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Nemati-Rezvani, Hora; Fischerauer, Stefan F; Ring, David; Chen, Neal; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2017-05-01

    The Gross process model of emotion regulation holds that emotion-eliciting situations (e.g. musculoskeletal illness) can be strategically regulated to determine the final emotional and behavioral response. Also, there is some evidence that innate emotional traits may predispose an individual to a particular regulating coping style. We enrolled 107 patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal illness in this cross-sectional study. They completed self-report measures of positive and negative affect, emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), upper extremity physical function, pain intensity, and demographics. We used Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping approach to process analysis to infer the direct effect of positive and negative affect on physical function as well as their indirect effects through activation of emotion regulation strategies. Negative affect was associated with decreased physical function. The association was partly mediated by expressive suppression (b (SE)=-.10 (.05), 95% BCa CI [-.21, -.02]). Positive affect was associated with increased physical function. Cognitive reappraisal partially mediated this association (b (SE)=.11 (.05), 95% BCa CI [.03, .24]). After controlling for pain intensity, the ratio of the mediated effect to total effect grew even larger in controlled model comparing to uncontrolled model (33% vs. 26% for expressive suppression and 32% vs. 30% for cognitive reappraisal). The relationships between affect, emotion regulation strategies and physical function appear to be more dependent on the emotional response to an orthopedic condition rather than the intensity of the nociceptive stimulation of the pain. Findings support integration of emotion regulation training in skill-based psychotherapy in this population to mitigate the effect of negative affect and enhance the influence of positive affect on physical function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impairment of executive function and attention predicts onset of affective disorder in healthy high-risk twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether measures of cognitive function can predict onset of affective disorder in individuals at heritable risk.......To investigate whether measures of cognitive function can predict onset of affective disorder in individuals at heritable risk....

  1. Plant species and functional group combinations affect green roof ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Macivor, J Scott; Macdougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-03-12

    Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms governing biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in green

  2. Family Environments and Children's Executive Function: The Mediating Role of Children's Affective State and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhong-Hua; Yin, Wen-Gang

    2016-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that inadequate family environments (family material environment and family psychosocial environment) are not only social problems but also factors contributing to adverse neurocognitive outcomes. In the present study, the authors investigated the relationship among family environments, children's naturalistic affective state, self-reported stress, and executive functions in a sample of 157 Chinese families. These findings revealed that in inadequate family material environments, reduced children's cognitive flexibility is associated with increased naturalistic negative affectivity and self-reported stress. In addition, naturalistic negative affectivity mediated the association between family expressiveness and children's cognitive flexibility. The authors used a structural equation model to examine the mediation model hypothesis, and the results confirmed the mediating roles of naturalistic negative affectivity and self-reported stress between family environments and the cognitive flexibility of Chinese children. These findings indicate the importance of reducing stress and negative emotional state for improving cognitive functions in children of low socioeconomic status.

  3. Psychosocial functioning in prepubertal major depressive disorders. II. Interpersonal relationships after sustained recovery from affective episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Antich, J; Lukens, E; Davies, M; Goetz, D; Brennan-Quattrock, J; Todak, G

    1985-05-01

    Psychosocial relationships with parents, peers, and siblings, as well as school functioning, were measured at two points in time by parental interview in 21 prepubertal children: during an episode of major depression and after they had sustained an affective recovery from the index episode for at least four months. School functioning was completely normalized, but deficits in the child's intrafamilial and extra-familial relationships had improved only partially. The pattern of improvement was merely quantitative. Moderate deficits during the depressive episode reached, after affective recovery, the level of the normal control group. In contrast, severe deficits only improved to a moderate level of severity. It is suggested that treating the affective disorder is not sufficient in many children with major depression and that efficacy studies of psychotherapeutic interventions in affectively recovered children are needed.

  4. Neuropsychological predictors of dementia in late-life major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Guy G; Wagner, H Ryan; Burke, James R; Plassman, Brenda L; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Steffens, David C

    2013-03-01

    Major depressive disorder is a likely risk factor for dementia, but some cases of major depressive disorder in older adults may actually represent a prodrome of this condition. The purpose of this study was to use neuropsychological test scores to predict conversion to dementia in a sample of depressed older adults diagnosed as nondemented at the time of neuropsychological testing. Longitudinal, with mean follow-up of 5.45 years. Outpatient depression treatment study at Duke University. Thirty nondemented individuals depressed at the time of neuropsychological testing and later diagnosed with incident dementia; 149 nondemented individuals depressed at the time of neuropsychological testing and a diagnosis of cognitively normal. All participants received clinical assessment of depression, were assessed to rule out prevalent dementia at the time of study enrollment, completed neuropsychological testing at the time of study enrollment, and were diagnosed for cognitive disorders on an annual basis. Nondemented, acutely depressed older adults who converted to dementia during the study period exhibited broadly lower cognitive performances at baseline than acutely depressed individuals who remained cognitively normal. Discriminant function analysis indicated that 2 neuropsychological tests, Recognition Memory (from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological battery) and Trail Making B, best predicted dementia conversion. Depressed older adults with cognitive deficits in the domains of memory and executive functions during acute depression are at higher risk for developing dementia. Some cases of late-life depression may reflect a prodrome of dementia in which clinical manifestation of mood changes may co-occur with emerging cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Neuropsychological evaluation of a case of organic personality disorder due to penetrating brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz de la Torre, J C; Pérez-Ríos, M

    1996-06-01

    In this paper, an organic personality disorder case by penetrating brain injury, predominantly localized in the right frontal lobe, is presented. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging (CT scan studies) were performed. We assessed the main cognitive aspect: orientation, attention, memory, intelligence, language, visual-spatial functioning, motor functioning, executive functioning and personality. The results obtained, point out disorders in the patient's behavior and in the executive functions. Likewise, other cognitive functions as: attention, memory, language and visual-spatial functioning, show specific deficits.

  6. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Adults with Comorbid ADHD and Borderline/Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, E.; Bramham, J.; Young, S.; Paliokostas, E.; Xenitidis, K.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to characterise the neuropsychological functioning of adults with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and intellectual disability. Individuals with ADHD and mild-borderline range intelligence (N=59) and individuals with ADHD and normal intellectual functioning (N=95) were compared on attentional and response…

  7. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 ± 0.9 µg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05. In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03. The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  8. A systematic review of neuropsychological outcomes following posterior fossa tumor surgery in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlik, Emily; Woodrome, Stacey E; Abdel-Baki, Mohamed; Geller, Thomas J; Elbabaa, Samer K

    2015-10-01

    Central nervous system tumors are the most common solid tumors in the pediatric population. As children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors are surviving into adolescence and adulthood, more research is being focused on the long-term cognitive outcomes of the survivors. This review examines the literature on different cognitive outcomes of survivors of different childhood posterior fossa CNS tumor types. The authors reviewed the literature for articles published from 2000 to 2012 about long-term neuropsychological outcomes of children diagnosed with posterior fossa brain tumors before the age of 18, which distinguished between histological tumor types, and had a minimum follow-up of 3 years. The literature search returned 13 articles, and a descriptive analysis was performed comparing intelligence quotient (IQ), attention/executive function, and memory components of 456 survivors of childhood posterior fossa tumors. Four articles directly compared astrocytoma and medulloblastoma survivors and showed medulloblastoma survivors fared worse in IQ, attention/executive function, and memory measurements. Five articles reporting medulloblastomas found IQ, attention, and memory scores to be significantly below the standardized means. Articles examining astrocytoma survivors found IQ scores within the normal range for the population. Survivors of ependymomas reported 2/23 survivors impaired on IQ scores, while a second study reported a significant number of ependymoma survivors lower than the expected population norm. Tumor histopathology and the type of postoperative adjuvant therapy seem to have a significant impact on the long-term neuropsychological complications of pediatric posterior fossa CNS tumor survivors. Age at diagnosis and treatment factors are important variables that affect the outcomes of the survivors.

  9. Cognitive change in patients with Huntington disease on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglinger, Leigh J; Duff, Kevin; Allison, Jessica; Theriault, Danielle; O'Rourke, Justin J F; Leserman, Anne; Paulsen, Jane S

    2010-07-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with cognitive, motor, and psychiatric deterioration over time. Although there is currently no cure for HD, there has been a surge of clinical trials available to patients with HD over the past 5 years. However, cognitive measures have generally been lacking from these trials. A brief, repeatable neuropsychological battery is needed to assess cognitive endpoints. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) may be useful for assessing change in interventional studies or for clinical monitoring. A total of 38 patients with HD were assessed using the RBANS, other cognitive tests, and the standardized HD battery (Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, UHDRS) at two clinic visits approximately 16 months apart. The RBANS Attention Index, as well as individual subtest scores on Coding, Digit Span, List Recognition, Figure Copy, and Figure Recall all declined significantly over this interval. Performance on the UHDRS cognitive tests (Symbol Digit Modalities; Stroop Color, and Stroop Word) also declined, as did functional capacity. Results suggest that cognitive changes were detected both on established cognitive tasks used in HD research and on the RBANS in patients with measurable functional decline. The RBANS provided additional information about other cognitive domains affected (e.g., memory) and may be a useful measure for tracking longitudinal change.

  10. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  11. [Progress on neuropsychology and event-related potentials in patients with brain trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ri-xia; Cai, Wei-xiong; Tang, Tao; Huang, Fu-yin

    2010-02-01

    With the development of information technology, as one of the research frontiers in neurophysiology, event-related potentials (ERP) is concerned increasingly by international scholars, which provides a feasible and objective method for exploring cognitive function. There are many advances in neuropsychology due to new assessment tool for the last years. The basic theories in the field of ERP and neuropsychology were reviewed in this article. The research and development in evaluating cognitive function of patients with syndrome after brain trauma were focused in this review, and the perspectives for the future research of ERP was also explored.

  12. Neuropsychological evaluation of patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with combination chemotherapy or radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasa, S; Olsnes, B T; Mastekaasa, A

    1988-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests were used to evaluate possible central nervous system dysfunction in patients treated with chemotherapy. Ninety-five patients with non-small cell lung cancer limited disease were randomized to either radiotherapy (2.8 Gyx15) or combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. In order to evaluate cognitive functions three neuropsychological tests were applied: Trail Making, Benton Visual Retention Test and Verbal Learning. Changes in the patients' test scores before and after treatment were compared. The chemotherapy patients showed reduced performance on some of the neuropsychological tests compared to the radiotherapy group. This indicates a treatment related effect on the central nervous system, possibly caused by the combination chemotherapy.

  13. Neuropsychological evaluation of patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with combination chemotherapy or radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasa, S.; Olsnes, B.T.; Mastekaasa, A.

    1988-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests were used to evaluate possible central nervous system dysfunction in patients treated with chemotherapy. Ninety-five patients with non-small cell lung cancer limited disease were randomized to either radiotherapy (2.8 Gyx15) or combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. In order to evaluate cognitive functions three neuropsychological tests were applied: Trail Making, Benton Visual Retention Test and Verbal Learning. Changes in the patients' test scores before and after treatment were compared. The chemotherapy patients showed reduced performance on some of the neuropsychological tests compared to the radiotherapy group. This indicates a treatment related effect on the central nervous system, possibly caused by the combination chemotherapy. (orig.)

  14. Trends on the application of serious games to neuropsychological evaluation: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares-Rodríguez, Sonia; Pérez-Rodríguez, Roberto; Anido-Rifón, Luis; Fernández-Iglesias, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    The dramatic technological advances witnessed in recent years have resulted in a great opportunity for changing the way neuropsychological evaluations may be performed in clinical practice. Particularly, serious games have been posed as the cornerstone of this still incipient paradigm-shift, as they have characteristics that make them especially advantageous in trying to overcome limitations associated with traditional pen-and-paper based neuropsychological tests: they can be easily administered and they can feature complex environments for the evaluation of neuropsychological constructs that are difficult to evaluate through traditional tests. The objective of this study was to conduct a scoping literature review in order to map rapidly the key concepts underpinning this research area during the last 25years on the use of serious games for neuropsychological evaluation. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus and IEEE Xplore databases were systematically searched. The main eligibility criteria were to select studies published in a peer-reviewed journal; written in English; published in the last 25years; focused on the human population, and classified in the neuropsychological field. Moreover, to avoid risk of bias, studies were selected by consensus of experts, focusing primarily in psychometric properties. Therefore, selected studies were analyzed in accordance with a set of dimensions of analysis commonly used for evaluating neuropsychological tests. After applying the selected search strategy, 57 studies -including 54 serious games- met our selection criteria. The selected studies deal with visuospatial capabilities, memory, attention, executive functions, and complex neuropsychological constructs such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Results show that the implementation of serious games for neuropsychological evaluation is tackled in several different ways in the selected studies, and that studies have so far been mainly exploratory, just aiming at testing the

  15. Static high-gradient magnetic fields affect the functionality of monocytic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syrovets, T.; Schmidt, Z.; Buechele, B.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Dempsey, N.; Simmet, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-2 ISSN 0892-6638 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : static high-gradient * magnet ic fields * affect the functionality * monocytic cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)

  16. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  17. Inflammatory conditions affect gene expression and function of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Crop (Meindert); C.C. Baan (Carla); S.S. Korevaar (Sander); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); M. Pescatori (Mario); A. Stubbs (Andrew); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); M.H. Dahlke (Marc); E. Eggenhofer (Elke); W. Weimar (Willem); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThere is emerging interest in the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for the prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases, graft-versus-host disease and allograft rejection. It is, however, unknown how inflammatory conditions affect phenotype and function of MSC. Adipose

  18. Positive affective functioning in anhedonic individuals' daily life : Anything but Flat and Blunted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heininga, V E; Van Roekel, E; Ahles, J J; Oldehinkel, A J; Mezulis, A H

    2017-01-01

    Background Anhedonia, the decreased interest and pleasure, is often described as 'flat' or 'blunted' positive affect (PA). Yet, little is known about PA functioning in anhedonic individuals' daily lives. The current study investigates PA reactivity to pleasurable experiences in anhedonia together

  19. Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in Zambia. ... The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of age, education and reading ability on neuropsychological tests in Zambia. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Online cognition : Factors facilitating reliable online neuropsychological test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, H.E.M.; Vermeulen, I.E.; Murre, J.M.J.; Schagen, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Online neuropsychological test batteries could allow for large-scale cognitive data collection in clinical studies. However, the few online neuropsychological test batteries that are currently available often still require supervision or lack proper psychometric evaluation. In this paper,

  1. Online cognition : factors facilitating reliable online neuropsychological test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Heleen E M; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Murre, Jaap M J; Schagen, Sanne B

    OBJECTIVE: Online neuropsychological test batteries could allow for large-scale cognitive data collection in clinical studies. However, the few online neuropsychological test batteries that are currently available often still require supervision or lack proper psychometric evaluation. In this paper,

  2. Lifting the veil: how to use clinical neuropsychology to assess dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, James R; Piguet, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Neurologists often struggle to interpret the results of neuropsychological testing, even though cognitive assessments are an integral component of the diagnostic process in dementia syndromes. This article reviews the principles underlying clinical neuropsychology, background on common neuropsychological tests, and tips on how to interpret the results when assessing patients with dementia. General cognitive screening tools, appropriate for use by general neurologists and psychiatrists, as well as specific cognitive tests examining the main cognitive domains (attention and orientation, memory, visuospatial function, language and executive function) in patients with dementia are considered. Finally, the pattern of deficits, helpful in defining clinical dementia phenotypes and sometimes in predicting the underlying molecular pathology, are outlined. Such clinicopathological associations will become invaluable as disease-modifying treatments for dementia are developed and implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. The Economics of Healthcare Shape the Practice of Neuropsychology in the Era of Integrated Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskin, Neil H

    2018-05-01

    The healthcare system in the United States is in the midst of a major transformation that has affected all healthcare specialties, including clinical psychology/neuropsychology. If this shift in the economics of healthcare reimbursement continues, it promises to impact clinical practice patterns for neuropsychologists far into the next decade.

  4. Multidisciplinary baseline assessment of homosexual men with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection. III. Neurologic and neuropsychological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Y; Marder, K; Bell, K; Chen, J; Dooneief, G; Goldstein, S; Mindry, D; Richards, M; Sano, M; Williams, J

    1991-02-01

    We explored the possibility that neurologic and neuropsychological changes constitute the earliest detectable manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Without knowledge of HIV status, we assessed neurologic signs and symptoms and administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to 208 homosexual men, of whom 84 were HIV negative, 49 were HIV positive and asymptomatic, 29 were mildly symptomatic, and 46 had significant medical symptoms but not the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. There was no difference between the HIV-negative and HIV-positive men in the frequency of neurologic signs or of defective or borderline performance on any neuropsychological test. However, HIV-positive men performed slightly but significantly worse than HIV-negative men on tests of verbal memory, executive function, and language. Similar results were obtained when comparisons were limited to HIV-positive medically asymptomatic and HIV-negative men. There was no degradation of neurologic status or neuropsychological performance across stages of HIV severity, but neurologic and neuropsychological summary scores correlated with CD4/CD8 ratios in the HIV-positive group. Ratings of neurologic signs and symptoms correlated with neuropsychological summary scores in the HIV-positive group only. Cognitive complaints were more frequent in the HIV-positive men; they correlated with actual test performance in the HIV-positive but not HIV-negative men. The constellation of subjective and objective neuropsychological and neurologic findings suggests the possibility of a definable syndrome associated with HIV infection in asymptomatic individuals.

  5. Neuropsychology, Autobiographical Memory, and Hippocampal Volume in “Younger” and “Older” Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christina Josefa; Lässer, Marc Montgomery; Schmid, Lena Anna; Seidl, Ulrich; Kong, Li; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Essig, Marco; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM) has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence, less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older patients with chronic schizophrenia to 23 younger patients and an older healthy control group (N = 21) with respect to AM, additional neuropsychological parameters, and hippocampal volume. Personal episodic and semantic memory was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Additional neuropsychological parameters were assessed by using a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed with an automated region-of-interest procedure. While hippocampal volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment were more pronounced in the older than in the younger patients, both groups showed equivalent reduced AM performance for recent personal episodes. In the patient group, significant correlations between left hippocampal volume and recent autobiographical episodes as well as personal semantic memories arose. Verbal memory and working memory were significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume; executive functions, however, were associated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. These findings underline the complexity of AM and its impairments in the course of schizophrenia in comparison to rather progressive neuropsychological deficits and address the importance of hippocampal contribution. PMID:25954208

  6. Time to get rid of the 'Modular' in neuropsychology: a unified theory of anosognosia as aberrant predictive coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive neuroscience, being more inclusive and ambitious in scope than cognitive neuropsychology, seems to have taken the place of the latter within the modern neurosciences. Nevertheless, recent advances in the neurosciences afford neuropsychology with epistemic possibilities that simply did not exist even 15 years ago. Human lesion studies still have an important role to play in shaping such possibilities, particularly when combined with other methods of enquiry. I first outline theoretical and methodological advances within the neurosciences that can inform and shape the rebirth of a dynamic, non-modular neuropsychology. I then use an influential computational theory of brain function, the free energy principle, to suggest an unified account of anosognosia for hemiplegia as a research example of the potential for transition from a modular, cognitive neuropsychology to a dynamic, computational and even restorative neuropsychology. These and many other adjectives that can flexibly, take the place of 'cognitive' next to 'neuropsychology' will hopefully designate the much needed rebirth and demarcation of a field, neuropsychology itself, that has somehow lost its place within the modern neurosciences and yet seems to have a unique and important role to play in the future understanding of the brain. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Empirical Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Case Definition for Neuropsychological Impairment in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Miriam H; Brooks, Brian L; Barrowman, Nick; Aglipay, Mary; Keightley, Michelle; Anderson, Peter; Yeates, Keith O; Osmond, Martin H; Zemek, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Neuropsychological assessment aims to identify individual performance profiles in multiple domains of cognitive functioning; however, substantial variation exists in how deficits are defined and what cutoffs are used, and there is no universally accepted definition of neuropsychological impairment. The aim of this study was to derive and validate a clinical case definition rule to identify neuropsychological impairment in children and adolescents. An existing normative pediatric sample was used to calculate base rates of abnormal functioning on eight measures covering six domains of neuropsychological functioning. The dataset was analyzed by varying the range of cutoff levels [1, 1.5, and 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the mean] and number of indicators of impairment. The derived rule was evaluated by bootstrap, internal and external clinical validation (orthopedic and traumatic brain injury). Our neuropsychological impairment (NPI) rule was defined as "two or more test scores that fall 1.5 SDs below the mean." The rule identifies 5.1% of the total sample as impaired in the assessment battery and consistently targets between 3 and 7% of the population as impaired even when age, domains, and number of tests are varied. The NPI rate increases in groups known to exhibit cognitive deficits. The NPI rule provides a psychometrically derived method for interpreting performance across multiple tests and may be used in children 6-18 years. The rule may be useful to clinicians and scientists who wish to establish whether specific individuals or clinical populations present within expected norms versus impaired function across a battery of neuropsychological tests.

  8. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  9. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano

    Full Text Available Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1 leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2 triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel, conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been

  10. Factors affecting aging cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, JeeWon; Kang, Se-Won; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    The study purpose was to determine factors affecting aging cognitive function of 3,645 community-dwelling older adults in Korea. The Hasegawa Dementia Scale assessed aging cognitive function, blood analyses and anthropometrics assessed cardio-metabolic risk factors, and the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korean Version assessed depressive symptoms. Participants with poor aging cognitive function were more likely to be in the late age group (≥75 y) and currently smoking and have a medical history of stroke, high body mass index, and high level of depressive symptoms; they were also less likely to engage in regular meals and physical activities. Regular meals and physical activities may be primary factors for clinical assessment to identify older adults at risk for aging cognitive function. With aging, depressive symptoms and other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours should be managed to prevent cognitive function disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes: more than IQ scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Glen P

    2002-01-01

    Improved survival in preterm infants has broadened interest in cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes. The incidence of major disabilities (moderate/severe mental retardation, neurosensory disorders, epilepsy, cerebral palsy) has remained consistent, but high prevalence/low severity dysfunctions (learning disabilities, ADHD, borderline mental retardation, specific neuropsychological deficits, behavioral disorders) have increased. The follow-up literature contains methodologic problems that make generalizations regarding outcome difficult, and these are discussed. Although mean IQs of former VLBW infants generally are in the low average range and are 3-9 points below normal birth weight peers, these scores mask subtle deficits in: visual-motor and visual-perceptual abilities, complex language functions, academics (reading, mathematics, spelling and writing), and attentional skills. There is an increased incidence of non-verbal learning disabilities, need for special educational assistance, and behavioral disorders in children born prematurely. Males have more problems, and there is a trend for worsening outcome over time, due to emergence of more subtle deficits in response to increased performance demands. In addition to IQ and achievement testing in follow-up, there should be evaluation of executive functions and attention, language, sensorimotor functions, visuospatial processes, memory and learning, and behavioral adjustment. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. [Neuropsychological subtypes of the inattention and hyperactivity syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchepareborda, M C

    1999-02-01

    One of the commonest neurological development disorders is the syndrome of inattention with hyperactivity, ADHD. The complex neurobiological network which intervenes in paying attention permits us to maintain a basal state of alertness, to focalize and maintain attention for long periods, select the stimulus-signal required and analyze its components, and also to simultaneously carry out processes of input-output and performance (tutorial, controlling). Damage to the various systems participating in 'paying attention' leads to a syndrome of inattention, with or without hyperactivity. The distinction into clinical sub-types (combined, mainly lacking attention or mainly hyperactive and impulsive) gives a primary differentiation of the syndrome. However, from the neuropsychological point of view, some degree of heterogeneity within the groups which defines academic behaviour and conduct may also be recognized. This type of study permits a more specific neuro-cognitive and pharmacological approach. Some clinical characteristics of the syndrome of inattention improve with different drugs, such as the state of alterness (methylphenidate), impulsivity (pipamperone) and selective attention (tiapride). However, this treatment is symptomatic and in most cases is useful to accompany the ultimate biological development of the neocortical control mechanisms. A neuro-cognitive approach which permits acquisition of habits of control, functional strategies, sequential planning of activities and per- and post-functional surveillance is fundamental. The EFE programme for training executive functions is directed towards working with the damaged processing mechanisms in each neuropsychological subtype.

  13. Neuropsychological Evaluation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmon, David C.; Smerz, Jessica M.

    2005-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of Tourettes syndrome is reviewed for the purpose of presenting a clinically relevant account of the neuropsychology of the disorder for the clinician who is behaviorally oriented. The neuropathology and neuropsychological deficits typically found in Tourettes are reviewed, and a neuropsychological test battery is…

  14. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  15. Approaching neuropsychological tasks through adaptive neurorobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychological phenomena have been modelized mainly, by the mainstream approach, by attempting to reproduce their neural substrate whereas sensory-motor contingencies have attracted less attention. In this work, we introduce a simulator based on the evolutionary robotics platform Evorobot* in order to setting up in silico neuropsychological tasks. Moreover, in this study we trained artificial embodied neurorobotic agents equipped with a pan/tilt camera, provided with different neural and motor capabilities, to solve a well-known neuropsychological test: the cancellation task in which an individual is asked to cancel target stimuli surrounded by distractors. Results showed that embodied agents provided with additional motor capabilities (a zooming/attentional actuator) outperformed simple pan/tilt agents, even those equipped with more complex neural controllers and that the zooming ability is exploited to correctly categorising presented stimuli. We conclude that since the sole neural computational power cannot explain the (artificial) cognition which emerged throughout the adaptive process, such kind of modelling approach can be fruitful in neuropsychological modelling where the importance of having a body is often neglected.

  16. Early-Treated Phenylketonuria: Neuropsychologic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The neuropsychologic performance of 27 children (about 6 to 13 years old) with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) was evaluated and correlated with their serum phenylalanine concentrations at several ages. (Author/SEW) Journal Availability: The Journal of Pediatrics; The C. V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63141.

  17. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  18. Use of the Rorschach test in neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ožura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rorschach test is widely used as a part of the assessment in clinical psychology in the world. It is also often used as a part of neuropsychological assessment in our unit at Division of Neurology in Ljubljana. We are presenting a review of clinically relevant information for the use of the Rorschach test in clinical practice with an emphasis on neuropsychology. The Rorschach test was considered a controversial instrument in the past. We are presenting a summary of research on its utility and psychometric characteristics. The number of studies in the field of neuropsychological application of the Rorschach test is limited. We describe theoretical models of cognitive processes involved in the process of solving the Rorschach test as a problem solving test apart from projection processes. The test however still lacks a theoretical basis formed on the brain behavior relations that is needed for every neuropsychological test. Nevertheless we noticed a recent growing interest in the published literature for finding neurological correlates of the response process in this test. Our research with patients with multiple sclerosis performed is described. We state implications for further research.

  19. Affective disorders and functional (non-epileptic) seizures in persons with epilepsy.

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    Johnson, Keith A; Macfarlane, Matthew D; Looi, Jeffrey Cl

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence, assessment and management of affective disorders as well as functional (non-epileptic) seizures in people with epilepsy. This paper comprises a selective review of the literature of the common affective manifestations of epilepsy. Affective disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbidity seen in people with epilepsy and assessment and management parallels that of the general population. Additionally, people with epilepsy may experience higher rates of mood instability, irritability and euphoria, classified together as a group, interictal dysphoric disorder and resembling an unstable bipolar Type II disorder. Functional seizures present unique challenges in terms of identification of the disorder and a lack of specific management. Given their high prevalence, it is important to be able to recognise affective disorders in people with epilepsy. Management principles parallel those in the general population with specific caution exercised regarding the potential interactions between antidepressant medications and antiepileptic drugs. Functional seizures are more complex and require a coordinated approach involving neurologists, psychiatrists, general practitioners, nursing and allied health. There is very limited evidence to guide psychological and behavioural interventions for neurotic disorders in epilepsy and much more research is needed. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  20. A Proposed Functional Abilities Classification Tool for Developmental Disorders Affecting Learning and Behaviour

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    Benjamin Klein

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with developmental disorders affecting learning and behaviour (DDALB (e.g., attention, social communication, language, and learning disabilities, etc. require individualized support across multiple environments to promote participation, quality of life, and developmental outcomes. Support to enhance participation is based largely on individual profiles of functioning (e.g., communication, cognitive, social skills, executive functioning, etc., which are highly heterogeneous within medical diagnoses. Currently educators, clinicians, and parents encounter widespread difficulties in meeting children’s needs as there is lack of universal classification of functioning and disability for use in school environments. Objective: a practical tool for functional classification broadly applicable for children with DDALB could facilitate the collaboration, identification of points of entry of support, individual program planning, and reassessment in a transparent, equitable process based on functional need and context. We propose such a tool, the Functional Abilities Classification Tool (FACT based on the concepts of the ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. FACT is intended to provide ability and participation classification that is complementary to medical diagnosis. For children presenting with difficulties, the proposed tool initially classifies participation over several environments. Then, functional abilities are classified and personal factors and environment are described. Points of entry for support are identified given an analysis of functional ability profile, personal factors, environmental features, and pattern of participation. Conclusion: case examples, use of the tool and implications for children, agencies, and the system are described.

  1. Functions and sources of perceived social support among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China.

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    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-06-01

    While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS.

  2. Latent profile analysis of neuropsychological measures to determine preschoolers' risk for ADHD.

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    Rajendran, Khushmand; O'Neill, Sarah; Marks, David J; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2015-09-01

    Hyperactive/Inattentive preschool children show clear evidence of neuropsychological dysfunction. We examined whether patterns and severity of test scores could reliably identify subgroups of preschoolers with differential risk for ADHD during school-age. Typically developing (TD: n = 76) and Hyperactive/Inattentive (HI: n = 138) 3-4 year olds were assessed annually for 6 years (T1-T6). Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to form subgroups among the HI group based on objective/neuropsychological measures (NEPSY, Actigraph and Continuous Performance Test). Logistic regression assessed the predictive validity of empirically formed subgroups at risk for ADHD diagnosis relative to the TD group and to each other from T2 to T6. Latent profile analysis yielded two subgroups of HI preschoolers: (a) selectively weak Attention/Executive functions, and (b) pervasive neuropsychological dysfunction across all measures. Both subgroups were more likely to have ADHD at all follow-up time-points relative to the TD group (OR range: 11.29-86.32), but there were no significant differences between the LPA-formed subgroups of HI children at any time-point. Objective/neuropsychological measures distinguish HI preschoolers from their TD peers, but patterns and severity of neuropsychological dysfunction do not predict risk for ADHD during school-age. We hypothesize that trajectories in at-risk children are influenced by subsequent environmental and neurodevelopmental factors, raising the possibility that they are amenable to early intervention. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Comparison of neuropsychological performance between students from public and private Brazilian schools.

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    Casarin, Fabíola Schwengber; Wong, Cristina Elizabeth Izábal; Parente, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2012-11-01

    Neuropsychological assessment reveals that certain cognitive changes that take place during the neural development process may be associated with biopsychosocial issues. A substantial body of research has focused on cognitive development in children and adults, but few such studies have been carried out on adolescents. Therefore, research into the processing of neuropsychological functions in adolescents, taking into account the role of major socio-cultural factors such as school type (public vs. private), is highly relevant. The present study sought to assess whether differences in neuropsychological development exist between adolescent students of public (government-funded) and private schools. A total of 373 grade-matched students between the ages of 12 and 18, 190 from public schools and 183 from private schools, took part in the study. All subjects had no self-reported neurologic or psychiatric conditions and sensory disorders. The NEUPSILIN Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery was administered to this sample. Comparison of mean scores (one-way ANCOVA with socioeconomic score and age as covariates) showed that adolescents attending private schools generally outperformed their public-school peers in tasks involving sustained attention, memory (working and visual), dictated writing, and constructional and reflective abilities. We conclude that school type should be taken into account during standardization of neuropsychological assessment instruments for adolescent and, probably, child populations.

  4. MENTAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: Overview and development of a protocol for neuropsychological assessment.

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    María del Mar Sánchez-Joya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The last decades have brought great advances in the understanding of child neurodevelopment and knowledge of cognitive processes that occur in the brain from an early age. As a result and thanks to the large number of standardized and scientifically guaranteed neuropsychological tests that are available today, we can assess and diagnose with high specificity, deficits or delays in the acquisition of cognitive functions. Besides, it allows knowing the strengths or normality points of children with various pathologies. Objective: To present the concepts and a neuropsychological assessment protocol for mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation. Development: First, the authors present a general model of neuropsychological assessment in childhood. Second, he concept, classification and aetiology of mental retardation is revised and it is proposed a neuropsychological profile. Finally, the paradigms of pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation are shown. Conclusion: Based on standardized and validated test for child neuropsychological assessment, children cognitive disorders can be accurately identified to plan each child's cognitive stimulation, and thus optimize the results of the therapy.

  5. Neuropsychological Profiles of Written Expression Learning Disabilities Determined by Concordance-Discordance Model Criteria.

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    Fenwick, Melanie E; Kubas, Hanna A; Witzke, Justin W; Fitzer, Kim R; Miller, Daniel C; Maricle, Denise E; Harrison, Gina L; Macoun, Sarah J; Hale, James B

    2016-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have disparate neuropsychological processing deficits that interfere with academic achievement in spelling, writing fluency, and/or written expression (WE). Although there are multiple potential causes of WE SLD, there is a paucity of research exploring this critical academic skill from a neuropsychological perspective. This study examined the neuropsychological profiles of WE SLD subtypes defined using the concordance-discordance model (C-DM) of SLD identification. Participants were drawn from a sample of 283 children (194 boys, 89 girls) aged 6 years to 16 years old (M(age) = 9.58 years, SD = 2.29 years) referred for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations in school settings and subsequently selected based on C-DM determined spelling, writing fluency, and WE SLD. WE SLD subtypes differed on several psychomotor, memory, and executive function measures (F range = 2.48-5.07, p range = .049 to <.001), suggesting that these children exhibit distinct patterns of neuropsychological processing strengths and weaknesses. Findings have relevance for differential diagnosis of WE subtypes, discriminating WE SLD subtypes from low WE achievement, and developing differentiated evidence-based instruction and intervention for children with WE SLD. Limitations and future research will be addressed.

  6. Brain Regions and Neuropsychological Deficits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Murat Erdem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological factors had been shown to play an important role in the emergence of obsessive-compulsive disorder by the information obtained from the methods developed over the years. According to the neuropsychological perspective, the defects had been detected mainly in executive functions, in attention, memory, visual-spatial functions; and abnormalities had been described in the frontal lobe, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus regions of the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The main and the most repeated abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are dysfunctions in executive function and visual memory. Dysfunctions of the inhibitory processes associated with the dominant frontal area lead to an insufficiency on the inhibition of verbal functions. Excessive activation of the orbitofrontal cortex that mediate the behavioral response suppression function in obsessive-compulsive disorder demonstrated by functional imaging techniques. Repeated-resistant behaviors (eg: compulsions are composed by the deteriorations of the inhibitions of motor or cognitive programs in basal ganglions provided through cycles of frontal lobe. The findings of clinical observations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder could be considered as a reflection of excessive work in 'error detection system' which is the cause of the thoughts that something goes wrong and efforts to achieve perfection. As neurobiological, this finding is observed as excessive activity in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex representing the ability of humans to provide and detect errors. It is is expected to develop the vehicles that are more sensitive to the characteristics of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to the neuropsychological tests, using electrophysiological and advanced functional imaging techniques will put forward a better underlying the physiopathology of this disorder in order to

  7. Multi-parametric neuroimaging evaluation of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis and its correlation with neuropsychological presentations

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    Tu Min-Chien

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX is a rare genetic disorder. Recent studies show that brain damage in CTX patients extends beyond the abnormalities observed on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We studied the MRI and 99 mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT findings of CTX patients and made a correlation with the neuropsychological presentations. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and 3D T1-weighted images of five CTX patients were compared with 15 age-matched controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was use to delineate gray matter (GM and white matter (WM volume loss. Fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, and eigenvalues derived from DTI were used to detect WM changes and correlate with neuropsychological results. SPECT functional studies were used to correlate with GM changes. Results Cognitive results showed that aside from moderate mental retardation, the patient group performed worse in all cognitive domains. Despite the extensive GM atrophy pattern, the cerebellum, peri-Sylvian regions and parietal-occipital regions were correlated with SPECT results. WM atrophy located in the peri-dentate and left cerebral peduncle areas corresponded with changes in diffusion measures, while axial and radial diffusivity suggested both demyelinating and axonal changes. Changes in FA and MD were preceded by VBM in the corpus callosum and corona radiata. Cognitive results correlated with FA changes. Conclusion In CTX, GM atrophy affected the perfusion patterns. Changes in WM included atrophy, and axonal changes with demyelination. Disconnection of major fiber tracts among different cortical regions may contribute to cognitive impairment.

  8. Physical Activity Level of Ambulatory Stroke Patients: Is it Related to Neuropsychological Factors?

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    Ersöz Hüseyinsinoğlu, Burcu; Kuran Aslan, Gökşen; Tarakci, Devrim; Razak Özdinçler, Arzu; Küçükoğlu, Hayriye; Baybaş, Sevim

    2017-06-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for stroke and stroke recurrence. There is insufficient knowledge about the physical activity (PA) level in stroke patients who are ambulatory in the subacute phase. Our aim was to compare the PA level between ambulatory stroke patients and a population of the same age and to investigate neuropsychological factors that could affect the PA level in the same stroke group. Eighty-five subacute stroke patients and 58 healthy subjects were included. Patients' demographic features, disease-related features, and comorbidities were recorded. The PA level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Version and a pedometer (OMRON Walking style II). The Apathy Rating Scale was applied to determine the apathy level. Depression level was investigated by the Geriatric Depression Scale. The standardized Mini-mental State Examination was performed to assess the cognitive status. The PA level was significantly higher in the healthy group than in the stroke group (plevel of men was significantly higher than that of women (p=0.03). Participants who were classified as level 4 had a lower PA level than those who were classified as level 5 according to the Functional Ambulation Category. There was no relationship between the PA level and the apathy, cognitive, and depression levels in the stroke patients (p>0.05). Subacute stroke patients have a lower PA level than healthy subjects. This is not related to neuropsychological factors. The reasons for minor deficits related to ambulation should be researched further while developing strategies for increasing the PA level of subacute stroke patients.

  9. [Forensic neuropsychology at the challenge of the relationship between cognition and emotion in psychopathy].

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    Alcázar-Córcoles, M A; Verdejo-García, A; Bouso-Saiz, J C

    The relationship between frontal lobe damage and criminality is especially complex. The neural substrates of psychopathic behavior seem to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the frontal lobes and the limbic system. AIM. To analyze the repercussions that brain structural and functional abnormalities in psychopathic individuals may have for forensic neuropsychology. Consistent evidence indicate that response inhibition problems in psychopathic subjects are linked to structural or functional damage in the frontal cortex. Furthermore, the prefrontal cortex, along with the amygdala and the hippocampus forms the limbic system, which is an important neural substrate of emotion processing; therefore the psychopath's capacity of affective processing could also be impaired. The theoretical frameworks of the somatic marker and mirror neuron hypotheses, along with the empirical study of executive functions may contribute to explain the inability of the psychopathic subjects to feel empathy, which is one of the main inhibitors of violence and antisocial behavior. The relationship between frontal lobe dysfunction and antisocial behavior arises an important legal issue. In order to consider some type of minor liability in the case of psychopaths it is suggested to gather further research data about the relationship between frontal lobe dysfunction and the ability to inhibit antisocial behavior by making an adequate use of empathy and emotional ties.

  10. Could laser-assisted dissection of the pre-epiglottic space affect functional outcome after ESL?

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    Bertolin, Andy; Lionello, Marco; Russo, Simone; Rizzotto, Giuseppe; Lucioni, Marco

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of preepiglottic space (PES) dissection in the endoscopic supraglottic laryngectomy (ESL). A retrospective cohort study. We retrospectively compared 15 patients who underwent ESL with 15 patients matched for clinical stage who underwent open partial horizontal laryngectomy (OPHL). The functional outcomes were assessed in terms of hospital stay; need for nasal feeding tube (NFT) and tracheostomy, as well as duration of their use; postoperative complications; aspiration pneumonia rates; voice quality; and dysphagia. Among the ESL cases, combined dissection of the epiglottis and PES (type III) had a negative impact on functional outcomes. ESL patients experienced shorter hospital stays, as well as shorter use of NFT and tracheostomy, than patients who had OPHL. Combined dissection of the epiglottis and PES (ESL type III) negatively affected functional outcome in patients undergoing ESL, a procedure generally related to significantly better functional outcomes than OPHL type I. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:1371-1378, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. School children with neuropsychological handicap: coping strategies and parents' impact.

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    Krener, P; Cranston, C

    1990-01-01

    One hundred forty six boys (mean age 9 years 1 months, SD = two years, nine months) and forty one girls (mean age 8 years 6 months, SD = three years, three months) received medical, developmental, psychoeducational, and psychiatric evaluations in a multidisciplinary developmental pediatric clinic. Two hundred fifty variables were analyzed by developing ten scales to quantitatively evaluate neuropsychological risk factors, family and parent functioning, and outcome measures of academic achievement, social adjustment and coping or psychiatric symptom pattern. Higher academic achievement, and lower behavioral symptomatology were associated with high IQ scores but not with higher scores on neurobehavioral risk factors. Chief complaints reported by parents did not correlate with their children's final psychiatric diagnoses and also were found to be independent of children's coping styles observed in the office. Problem parenting, as observed in the pediatrician's office, was associated with behavioral problems, and also with decreased competence on language measures and lower academic achievement in relation to IQ. In this sample, assessing parenting yielded a stronger prediction of the child's school and behavioral functioning than did taking a detailed history of neuropsychological risk factors.

  12. Specific learning disabilities in children: deficits and neuropsychological profile.

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    Kohli, Adarsh; Malhotra, Savita; Mohanty, Manju; Khehra, Nitasha; Kaur, Manreet

    2005-06-01

    The public is gradually becoming aware of specific learning disabilities (SLDs), which are very often the cause of academic difficulties. The aim of the study was to assess the SLDs in the clinic population at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh using the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences SLD index and subsequently to assess the children's neuropsychological functions using a battery of tests. Thirty-five children in the age range of 7-14 years (both boys and girls) were recruited as the cohort, diagnosed clinically and assessed using the battery of tests for SLDs and neuropsychological tests consisting of the PGIMER memory scale for children, the Wisconsin card sorting test, the Bender visuo-motor gestalt test and Malin's intelligence scale for Indian children. The study revealed deficits in language and writing skills and impairments in specific areas of memory, executive functions and perceptuo-motor tasks. Identification of SLDs is useful in drawing up a treatment plan specific for a particular child.

  13. Cognitive and affective dimensions of difficulties in emotional functioning in somatoform disorders and borderline personality disorder.

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    van Dijke, Annemiek; van der Hart, Onno; van Son, Maarten; Bühring, Martina; van der Heijden, Peter; Ford, Julian D

    2013-01-01

    To study difficulties in emotional functioning in two mental disorders that have been associated with difficulties in identifying and modulating emotions: borderline personality disorder (BPD) and somatoform disorder (SoD). In 472 psychiatric inpatients, difficulties in emotional functioning were measured using the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire. Profiles of difficulties in emotional functioning were identified, suggesting that patients diagnosed with BPD with or without SoD were more likely to report difficulty identifying emotions and less likely to report reduced ability to fantasize or 'pensée opératoire' (externally oriented thinking) than patients diagnosed with SoD only and patients with mixed anxiety and affective disorders. SoD patients were more likely to report reduced ability to phantasize or pensée opératoire than difficulty identifying emotions. Patients with mixed anxiety and affective disorders were more likely to report reduced ability to experience emotions than patients diagnosed with BPD and/or SoD. By using a finer-grained perspective on difficulties in emotional functioning some evidence was found for the existence of cognitive-emotional profiles that may provide more clinically relevant information than alexithymia as just a unitary construct. Further research on cognitive-emotional profiles of difficulties in emotional functioning is needed to advance the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Factors affecting cognitive function according to gender in community-dwelling elderly individuals

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    Miwon Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aimed to identify the factors affecting the cognitive function of elderly people in a community by gender. METHODS We obtained 4,878 secondary data of people aged ≥65 years in 2016 at a dementia prevention center in Gyeyang-gu, Incheon. Data were obtained through Mini-Mental Status Examination optimized for screening dementia and a questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, and hierarchical regression. RESULTS There were significant differences in cognitive function according to gender, and the differences were significant even when age was controlled, but gender differences disappeared when education was controlled. Age, education, social activities, number of comorbid diseases, and alcohol drinking affected cognitive function through interaction with gender, but interaction with gender disappeared when education was controlled. Regression analysis showed that depression, cohabitant, social activities etc., had a significant impact on both men and women under controlled education and age. In men, the effect of social activities was greater than that of women, and hyperlipidemia had the effect only in women. CONCLUSIONS The differences in gender-related cognitive functions were due to differences in gender education period. The period of education is considered to have a great influence on cognitive function in relation to the economic level, occupation, and social activity.

  15. Major depressive disorder, cognitive symptoms, and neuropsychological performance among ethnically diverse HIV+ men and women.

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    Fellows, Robert P; Byrd, Desiree A; Morgello, Susan

    2013-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), cognitive symptoms, and mild cognitive deficits commonly occur in HIV-infected individuals, despite highly active antiretroviral therapies. In this study, we compared neuropsychological performance and cognitive symptoms of 191 HIV-infected participants. Results indicated that participants with a formal diagnosis of current MDD performed significantly worse than participants without MDD in all seven neuropsychological domains evaluated, with the largest effect sizes in information processing speed, learning, and memory. In addition, a brief assessment of cognitive symptoms, derived from a comprehensive neuromedical interview, correlated significantly with neurocognitive functioning. Participants with MDD reported more cognitive symptoms and showed greater neurocognitive deficits than participants without MDD. These findings indicate that HIV-infected adults with MDD have more cognitive symptoms and worse neuropsychological performance than HIV-infected individuals without MDD. The results of this study have important implications for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).

  16. Cross-Cultural Considerations in Pediatric Neuropsychology: A Review and Call to Attention.

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    Olson, Katie; Jacobson, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    In the search to understand the basis of performance discrepancies, many clinicians are recognizing that, often, factors with no direct relationship to brain functioning influence performance on neuropsychological measures of cognition among children and adolescents. The emergent research on cross-cultural neuropsychology indicates that while the test performance discrepancies do indeed exist, they can be explained by a number of other factors, some of which are known and others that have yet to be operationalized or even identified. While a review of all such factors is beyond the scope of this article, an examination of those that have received the most attention is presented: factors associated with the examinee, factors associated with the neuropsychological measures, cultural competency of the examiner, and factors at the organizational/political level.

  17. Adaptation gap hypothesis: How differences between users’ expected and perceived agent functions affect their subjective impression

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    Takanori Komatsu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe an “adaptation gap” that indicates the differences between the functions of artificial agents that users expect before starting their interactions and the functions they perceive after their interactions. We investigated the effect of this adaptation gap on users’ impressions of artificial agents because any variations in impression before and after the start of an interaction determines whether the user feels that this agent is worth interacting with. The results showed that positive or negative signs of the adaptation gap and subjective impression scores of agents before the experiment significantly affected the users’ final impressions of the agents.

  18. Intermediate Filaments as Organizers of Cellular Space: How They Affect Mitochondrial Structure and Function.

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    Schwarz, Nicole; Leube, Rudolf E

    2016-07-05

    Intermediate filaments together with actin filaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton, which is a complex and highly dynamic 3D network. Intermediate filaments are the major mechanical stress protectors but also affect cell growth, differentiation, signal transduction, and migration. Using intermediate filament-mitochondrial crosstalk as a prominent example, this review emphasizes the importance of intermediate filaments as crucial organizers of cytoplasmic space to support these functions. We summarize observations in different mammalian cell types which demonstrate how intermediate filaments influence mitochondrial morphology, subcellular localization, and function through direct and indirect interactions and how perturbations of these interactions may lead to human diseases.

  19. DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: a combined structural and functional MRI study.

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    Opmeer, Esther M; van Tol, Marie-José; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J A; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A; Penninx, Brenda W; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISC1 differentially modulates brain function during executive and memory processing, and morphology in regions relevant for depression and anxiety disorders (affective disorders). 128 participants, with (n = 103) and without (controls; n = 25) affective disorders underwent genotyping for Ser704Cys (with Cys-allele considered as risk-allele) and structural and functional (f) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during visuospatial planning and emotional episodic memory tasks. For both voxel-based morphometry and fMRI analyses, we investigated the effect of genotype in controls and explored genotypeXdiagnosis interactions. Results are reported at p < 0.05 FWE small volume corrected. In controls, Cys-carriers showed smaller bilateral (para)hippocampal volumes compared with Ser-homozygotes, and lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC during visuospatial planning. In anxiety patients, Cys-carriers showed larger (para)hippocampal volumes and more ACC activation during visuospatial planning. In depressive patients, no effect of genotype was observed and overall, no effect of genotype on episodic memory processing was detected. We demonstrated that Ser704Cys-genotype influences (para)hippocampal structure and functioning the dorsal PFC during executive planning, most prominently in unaffected controls. Results suggest that presence of psychopathology moderates Ser704Cys effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing two mechanisms by which rational and irrational beliefs may affect the functionality of inferences.

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    Bond, F W; Dryden, W; Briscoe, R

    1999-12-01

    This article describes a role playing experiment that examined the sufficiency hypothesis of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT). This proposition states that it is sufficient for rational and irrational beliefs to refer to preferences and musts, respectively, if those beliefs are to affect the functionality of inferences (FI). Consistent with the REBT literature (e.g. Dryden, 1994; Dryden & Ellis, 1988; Palmer, Dryden, Ellis & Yapp, 1995) results from this experiment showed that rational and irrational beliefs, as defined by REBT, do affect FI. Specifically, results showed that people who hold a rational belief form inferences that are significantly more functional than those that are formed by people who hold an irrational belief. Contrary to REBT theory, the sufficiency hypothesis was not supported. Thus, results indicated that it is not sufficient for rational and irrational beliefs to refer to preferences and musts, respectively, if those beliefs are to affect the FI. It appears, then, that preferences and musts are not sufficient mechanisms by which rational and irrational beliefs, respectively, affect the FI. Psychotherapeutic implications of these findings are considered.

  1. Directive and incentive functions of affective action consequences: an ideomotor approach.

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    Eder, Andreas B; Rothermund, Klaus; De Houwer, Jan; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Five experiments examined whether affective consequences become associated with the responses producing them and whether anticipations of positive and negative action outcomes influence action control differently. In a learning phase, one response produced pleasant and another response unpleasant visual effects. In a subsequent test phase, the same actions were carried out in response to a neutral feature of affective stimuli. Results showed that responses were faster when the irrelevant valence of the response cue matched the valence of the response outcome, but only when the responses still produced outcomes. These results suggest that affective action consequences have a directive function in that they facilitate the selection of the associated response over other responses, even when the response outcome is unpleasant (Experiment 4A). Results of another experiment showed that affective action consequences can also have an incentive function in that responses with pleasant outcomes are generally facilitated relative to responses with unpleasant outcomes. However, this motivational effect was seen only in a free-choice test (Experiment 5). The results suggest that behavioral impulses induced by ideomotor processes are constrained by the motivational evaluation of the anticipated action outcome. A model that integrates motivational factors into ideomotor theory is presented.

  2. Affective symptoms in schizophrenia are strongly associated with neurocognitive deficits indicating disorders in executive functions, visual memory, attention and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Thika, Supaksorn; Anderson, George; Galecki, Piotr; Maes, Michael

    2018-01-03

    The aim of this study was to assess the neurocognitive correlates of affective symptoms in schizophrenia. Towards this end, 40 healthy controls and 80 schizophrenia patients were investigated with six tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), assessing spatial working memory, paired-association learning, one touch stocking, rapid visual information (RVP), emotional recognition test and intra/extradimensional set shifting. The Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAMA) Rating Scales and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) as well as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were also used. There were highly significant associations between all 6 CANTAB tests and HDRS, HAMA and CDSS (except RVP) scores. The most significant items associating with neurocognitive impairments in schizophrenia were self-depreciation (CDSS), fatigue, psychomotor retardation and agitation, psychic and somatic anxiety (HDRS), fears, cognitive symptoms, somatic-muscular, genito-urinary and autonomic symptoms and anxious behavior (HAMA). The selected HDRS and HAMA symptoms indicate fatigue, fears, anxiety, agitation, retardation, somatization and subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) and are therefore labeled "FAARS". Up to 28.8% of the variance in the 6 CANTAB measurements was explained by FAARS, which are better predictors of neurocognitive impairments than the PANSS negative subscale score. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are best predicted by FAARS combined with difficulties in abstract thinking. In conclusion, depression and anxiety symptoms accompanying the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with neurocognitive deficits indicating disorders in executive functions, attention, visual memory, and social cognition. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia reflect difficulties in abstract thinking and FAARS, including subjective cognitive complaints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Predicting neuropsychological test performance on the basis of temporal orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A; Bartels, Jared M; Bergner, CariAnn M; Paolo, Anthony M

    2009-05-01

    Temporal orientation is often disrupted in the context of psychiatric or neurological disease; tests assessing this function are included in most mental status examinations. The present study examined the relationship between scores on the Temporal Orientation Scale (TOS) and performance on a battery of tests that assess memory, language, and cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with Alzheimer's disease (N = 55). Pearson-product moment correlations showed that, in all but two instances, the TOS was significantly correlated with each neuropsychological measure, p values < or = .05. Also, severely disoriented (i.e., TOS score < or = -8) patients were consistently 'impaired' on memory tests but not on tests of language and general cognitive functioning.

  4. Neuropsychological significance of areas of high signal intensity on brain MRIs of children with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B D; Slopis, J M; Schomer, D; Jackson, E F; Levy, B M

    1996-06-01

    Of children with neurofibromatosis (NF), 40% have a cognitive or learning impairment. Approximately 60% also have anomalous areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted brain MRIs. The association of these hyperintensities and neuropsychological status is not fully understood. We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and a standard clinical MRI to determine the impact of hyperintensity presence, number, and location on cognitive status in 84 children (8 to 16 years) with NF type 1. These children underwent standard clinical MRI using a GE 1.5-tesla scanner (except one child who was examined with a 1.0-tesla scanner). We conducted three types of analyses: Hyperintensity presence or absence.-Scores of children with (55%) and without hyperintensities (45%) were compared using t tests. No statistically significant differences between groups in intellectual functioning or any neuropsychological variable were found. Number of hyperintensities-The number of hyperintensity locations per child ranged from one to fi