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Sample records for affects male type

  1. Does the early social environment affect structure and consistency of personality in wild-type male's rat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracceva, Giulia; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2011-09-01

    Animal personality has been extensively studied from a functional and evolutionary point of view. Less attention has been paid to the development of personality, its phenotypic plasticity, and the influence of manipulation of early environmental factors. Here we describe the effects of manipulating the sex ratio of the litter, at postnatal day (pnd) 3, in wild-type rats, on personality traits in adulthood. We measured the treatment effects on aggression, defensive burying, and open field behavior at pnd 90 and 120, as well as on their contextual generality, and stability over time (differential and structural consistency). Main effects of litter composition were found on open field behavior at pnd 120 but not on the other behaviors. Since correlations between behaviors changed over time irrespective of the specific treatment, whereas in previous studies on unmanipulated litters this was not the case we suggest that early handling may disrupt adult personality traits. Overall the data indicate that personality is less stable over time that often assumed, having both proximate and ultimate implications.

  2. The sterile male technique: irradiation negatively affects male fertility but not male courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magris, Martina; Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2015-04-01

    The sterile male technique is a common method to assign paternity, widely adopted due to its relative simplicity and low cost. Male sterility is induced by exposure to sub lethal doses of chemosterilants or irradiation, the dosage of which has to be calibrated for every species to provide successful male sterilisation, without affecting male physiology and behaviour. While the physiological effects of sterilisation are usually assessed for each study, the behavioural ones are rarely analysed in detail. Using the orb web spider Argiope keyserlingi as a model we first tested (1) the validity of the thread assay, which simulates male courtship behaviour in a standardised context, as a proxy representing courtship on a female web. We then investigated (2) the effectiveness of male sterilisation via irradiation and (3) its consequences on male courtship behaviour. Our results validate the thread assay and the sterile male technique as legitimate tools for the study of male courtship behaviour and fertilisation success. We show that these techniques are time and cost effective and reduce undesirable variation, thereby creating opportunities to study and understand the mechanisms underlying sexual selection. PMID:25794431

  3. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  4. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size. PMID:27420790

  5. Pesticide soil contamination mainly affects earthworm male reproductive parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EduardoBustos-Obregon; RogerIzigaGoicochea

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To explore the effect of exposure to commercial Parathion(Pc)on the reproductive parameters(sperm and cocoon production and genotoxicity on male germ cells),the survival,the body weight and the gross anatomical changes in Eisenia foetida.Methods:Three doses of Pc(1478,739and 444mg/kg of soil)and three thme intervals of exposure(5,15and30days)were used.Results:Alltreated amimals were affected.An acute genotoxic effect,revealed by DNAfragmentation(comet assay),was seen by 5days,Alterations in reproductive parameters were conspicuous in regard to the number of sperm,cocoons and worms born,and the histological observation of the gonads and seminal receptacles.In addition,the body weight and survival rate were decreased,Neuromuscular function was also affected.Conclusion:Earthworms are suitable bioindicators of chemical contamination of the soil,their advantage being their easy and economical handling.

  6. How Sexual Orientation and Physical Attractiveness Affect Impressions of Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Donald; And Others

    Stereotyped impressions of male homosexuals and the underlying importance of sexuality in social attraction and perceptions were investigated. Male (N=80) and female (N=80) college students responded to either an attractive or an unattractive photo of a male stimulus person, who was identified to half of the subjects as a homosexual. Compared to…

  7. Decreased cortisol production in male type 1 diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, MN; Luik, PT; van der Kleij, FGH; Boonstra, AH; Breukelman, H; Sluiter, WJ; Navis, GJ; Dullaart, RPF

    2003-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether cortisol production and the 11betaHSD-mediated cortisol to cortisone interconversion are different between type 1 diabetic patients and healthy subjects. Materials and methods Fourteen male, nonobese, normotensive type 1 diabetic patients without severe complications

  8. Male size composition affects male reproductive variance in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. spawning aggregations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua reproductive success, determined using experimental spawning groups and genetic paternity assignment of offspring, showed that within-group variance in male size correlated positively with the degree of male mating skew, predicting a decrease in male...... reproductive skew with decreasing size variation among males under natural conditions. (c) 2006 The Author Journal compilation (c) 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  9. Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanoa, Jasdeep Kaur; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra Sekhar; Arora, Jaspreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion) of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility. PMID:27536043

  10. Song type matching, song type switching and eavesdropping in male great tits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peake, Thomas More; Matessi, Giuliano; McGregor, Peter Kenneth;

    2005-01-01

    by changing the timing of songs. We examined the phenomenon of song type matching by presenting male great tits, Parus major, with simulated interactions in which one interactant switched song type such that it matched (or not) that sung by the opponent. Subjects responded to simulated intrusion by previously...... heard interactants by singing significantly shorter songs in response to males that switched (i.e. used two song types), regardless of whether or not matching occurred, compared with those that used one. Subjects also showed a significantly lower level of approach behaviour to males whose opponents had...... switched song types but not matched. Male great tits are therefore capable of extracting different kinds of information by eavesdropping on interactions between others and using that information when deciding how to respond to subsequent intrusion. These results confirm and expand our knowledge...

  11. Thinking about gender types: Cognitive organization of female and male types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, R.; Ashmore, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the content and dimensional structure of a large and representative sample of gender types. In Study 1, using an open-ended procedure, participants generated 306 different labels for female types (e.g. housewife, feminist, femme fatale, secretary, slob) and 310 for male types (e.g. worka

  12. The mental health of male victims and their children affected by legal and administrative partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joshua L; Douglas, Emily M; Hines, Denise A

    2016-07-01

    The authors recently developed a psychometrically valid measure of legal and administrative (LA) intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization (Hines, Douglas, & Berger, 2014). The current article explores the impact of actual and threatened LA aggression on the mental health of male physical IPV victims and their children. In the current study, a sample of 611 men who sought help after experiencing physical IPV from their female partners completed a survey assessing the types and extent of IPV that occurred in their relationship, including LA aggression, their own mental health outcomes, and the mental health of their oldest child. A series of OLS regressions indicated that after controlling for covariates, actual LA aggression was associated with more symptoms of PTSD and depression in male victims, and that both threatened and actual LA aggression were associated with higher levels of affective and oppositional defiant symptoms in the men's school age children. The current findings suggest that it is important to screen couples for the presence of LA aggression and male partners and their children should be referred for mental health treatment if LA aggression is occurring in the relationship. Aggr. Behav. 42:346-361, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26522849

  13. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  14. Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel

    2012-07-30

    A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents.

  15. Do cancer and treatment type affect distress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, J. M.; Reyners, A. K. L.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J. E. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined differences in distress levels and Distress Thermometer (DT) cutoff scores between different cancer types. The effect of socio-demographic and illness-related variables on distress was also examined. Methods One thousand three hundred fifty patients (response=51%) completed que

  16. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

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    Cettour-Rose Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  17. Investigation of Various Factors Affecting Development of Identity Confusion in Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Celale Tangul Ozcan; Ibrahim Durukan

    2011-01-01

    Various factors may influence on development of identity sense. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of various factors including age, number of siblings, birth order, level of income, parents’ level of education, family types and living in urban or rural on development of identity sense in male adolescents. The sample consisted of 537 male adolescents from a health technician vocational high school. Participants were given a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Sense of Id...

  18. Chronic mild stressors and diet affect gene expression differently in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuwen; Byers, Donna M; Irwin, Louis N

    2007-01-01

    While depression is reportedly more prevalent in women than men, a neurobiological basis for this difference has not been documented. Chronic mild stress (CMS) is a widely recognized animal model, which uses mild and unpredictable environmental stressors to induce depression. Studies of chronic stress, mainly in males, have reported an increase in the relative intake of "comfort food" as a means of counteracting the effects of stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that genes for certain neurotrophic factors, stress markers, and appetite regulators would be expressed differentially in male and female rats exposed to chronic, mild stressors with access to a preferred diet. Gene expression for neuropeptide Y was upregulated in females purely in response to stressors, whereas that for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in males and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in females responded primarily to diet. Genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), AVP, and the cocaine-amphetamine regulator of transcription (CART) in males, and leptin in females, showed a significant response to the interaction between stressors and diet. Every affected gene showed a different pattern of expression in males and females. This study confirms the intimate relationship between dietary intake and response to stress at the molecular level, and emphasizes the sex- and gene-specific nature of those interactions. Therefore, it supports a neurobiological basis for differences in the affective state response to stress in males and females. PMID:17917078

  19. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids. PMID:26616467

  20. SYMPATHETIC SKIN RESPONSE AND GALVANIC SKIN RESISTANCE IN MALES WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Saravanan Mohanraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder affects the nervous system due to alteration in various metabolic pathways. As neuropathy manifests in longstanding diabetes mellitus, autonomic nervous system also gets affected. The study was started based on the hypothesis that the sweat glands innervated by autonomic nervous system will be affected in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with clinical features of neuropathy. This study was undertaken to compare the sympathetic skin response (SSR and galvanic skin resistance (GSR in males with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in controls. METHODS Thirty males in the age group of 45-55 years, known to have diabetes mellitus and having a history of neuropathic symptoms served as subjects and thirty males in the same age group with no history of diabetes mellitus and neuropathy served as controls. SSR and GSR were recorded using Recorders and Medicare Systems 4 channel polygraph in the noise and light reduced research laboratory, Department of Physiology. All the recordings were done between 10-12 noon at ambient temperature. SSR was measured by deep inspiration and the GSR was measured in the supine and standing response. Comparison of latency and amplitude of the sympathetic skin response and the percentage of decrease in galvanic skin resistance was done. RESULT A statistically significant delay in the latency and a reduction in the amplitude of sympathetic skin response was observed in the diabetes patients. There was a lesser percentage of decrease in GSR in the diabetic patients. CONCLUSION This study shows that the SSR and GSR responses are significantly reduced in diabetic individuals and can be used as a diagnostic tool in the detection of diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

  1. Type of musical soundtrack affects behavior in gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Mentzoni, Rune A.; LABERG, JON CHRISTIAN; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Molde, Helge; STÅLE, PALLESEN

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: A long existing notion is that the presence of music might affect gambling behavior. In spite of this, little empirical research on the subject exists. The main aim of the present study was to corroborate and elaborate on the existing findings concerning gambling and music through a laboratory based experiment. Methods: A nonclinical sample of 101 undergraduate students (72 females, 29 males) played a computerized gambling task in which either a high-tempo or a low-tempo ...

  2. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Motoi Tamura; Chigusa Hoshi; Sachiko Hori

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0....

  3. Types of Monstrous Male Children in the Medieval Imaginary

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    Angela Giallongo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the important educational functions of monstrous children in some significant examples of Middle French and Italian literature. The focus on literary representations of four male children is inscribed in and linked to the emotional standards of adults’ behaviour.

  4. Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Affective Episodes Correlate in Male Individuals with Bipolar Disorder.

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    Armin Birner

    Full Text Available Cerebral white matter lesions (WML have been found in normal aging, vascular disease and several neuropsychiatric conditions. Correlations of WML with clinical parameters in BD have been described, but not with the number of affective episodes, illness duration, age of onset and Body Mass Index in a well characterized group of euthymic bipolar adults. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the associations between bipolar course of illness parameters and WML measured with volumetric analysis.In a cross-sectional study 100 euthymic individuals with BD as well as 54 healthy controls (HC were enrolled to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging using 3T including a FLAIR sequence for volumetric assessment of WML-load using FSL-software. Additionally, clinical characteristics and psychometric measures including Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM-IV, Hamilton-Depression, Young Mania Rating Scale and Beck's Depression Inventory were evaluated.Individuals with BD had significantly more (F = 3.968, p < .05 WML (Mdn = 3710 mm3; IQR = 2961 mm3 than HC (Mdn = 2185 mm3; IQR = 1665 mm3. BD men (Mdn = 4095 mm3; IQR = 3295 mm3 and BD women (Mdn = 3032 mm3; IQR = 2816 mm3 did not significantly differ as to the WML-load or the number and type of risk factors for WML. However, in men only, the number of manic/hypomanic episodes (r = 0.72; p < .001 as well as depressive episodes (r = 0.51; p < .001 correlated positively with WML-load.WML-load strongly correlated with the number of manic episodes in male BD patients, suggesting that men might be more vulnerable to mania in the context of cerebral white matter changes.

  5. Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II: an affected family saga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Mala; Chandra, Anil

    2007-09-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) type II or hereditary opalescent dentin is inherited in simple autosomal dominant mode with high penetrance and low mutation rate. It generally affects both the deciduous and permanent dentitions. DI type II corresponds to a localized form of mesodermal dysplasia, observed in histodifferentiation. Early diagnosis and treatment are therefore, fundamental, aiming at obtaining a favourable prognosis since late intervention makes treatment more complex. We present two cases of DI type II with the disease affecting three generations of a family in India, and briefly highlight the molecular basis of this disease.

  6. Two types of dominant male cichlid fish: behavioral and hormonal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcazar, Rosa M; Becker, Lisa; Hilliard, Austin T; Kent, Kai R; Fernald, Russell D

    2016-01-01

    Male African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, have been classified as dominant or subordinate, each with unique behavioral and endocrine profiles. Here we characterize two distinct subclasses of dominant males based on types of aggressive behavior: (1) males that display escalating levels of aggression and court females while they establish a territory, and (2) males that display a stable level of aggression and delay courting females until they have established a territory. To profile differences in their approach to a challenge, we used an intruder assay. In every case, there was a male-male confrontation between the resident dominant male and the intruder, with the intruder quickly taking a subordinate role. However, we found that dominant males with escalating aggression spent measurably more time attacking subordinates than did dominant males with stable aggression that instead increased their attention toward the females in their tank. There was no difference in the behavior of intruders exposed to either type of dominant male, suggesting that escalating aggression is an intrinsic characteristic of some dominant males and is not elicited by the behavior of their challengers. Male behavior during the first 15 min of establishing a territory predicts their aggressive class. These two types of dominant males also showed distinctive physiological characteristics. After the intruder assay, males with escalating aggression had elevated levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol, while those with stable aggression did not. These observations show that the same stimulus can elicit different behavioral and endocrine responses among A. burtoni dominant males that characterize them as either escalating or stable aggressive types. Our ability to identify which individuals within a population have escalating levels of aggressive responses versus those which have stable levels of aggressive responses when exposed to the same stimulus

  7. Two types of dominant male cichlid fish: behavioral and hormonal characteristics

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    Rosa M. Alcazar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Male African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, have been classified as dominant or subordinate, each with unique behavioral and endocrine profiles. Here we characterize two distinct subclasses of dominant males based on types of aggressive behavior: (1 males that display escalating levels of aggression and court females while they establish a territory, and (2 males that display a stable level of aggression and delay courting females until they have established a territory. To profile differences in their approach to a challenge, we used an intruder assay. In every case, there was a male-male confrontation between the resident dominant male and the intruder, with the intruder quickly taking a subordinate role. However, we found that dominant males with escalating aggression spent measurably more time attacking subordinates than did dominant males with stable aggression that instead increased their attention toward the females in their tank. There was no difference in the behavior of intruders exposed to either type of dominant male, suggesting that escalating aggression is an intrinsic characteristic of some dominant males and is not elicited by the behavior of their challengers. Male behavior during the first 15 min of establishing a territory predicts their aggressive class. These two types of dominant males also showed distinctive physiological characteristics. After the intruder assay, males with escalating aggression had elevated levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT, testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol, while those with stable aggression did not. These observations show that the same stimulus can elicit different behavioral and endocrine responses among A. burtoni dominant males that characterize them as either escalating or stable aggressive types. Our ability to identify which individuals within a population have escalating levels of aggressive responses versus those which have stable levels of aggressive responses when exposed to

  8. Acute downregulation of Type II and Type III iodothyronine deiodinases by photoperiod in peripubertal male and female Siberian hamsters.

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    Kampf-Lassin, August; Prendergast, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Availability of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) in the mediobasal hypothalamus plays a central role in seasonal reproductive responses to photoperiod. Across many vertebrates, Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2) is elevated under reproductively stimulatory long days (LD) and synthesizes the conversion of thyroxine to T3; Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) reduces T3 production and signaling, and is upregulated under reproductively-inhibitory short days (SD). In Siberian hamsters, regulation of hypothalamic T3 is dominated by dio3 expression, whereas dio2 expression is less-consistently affected by photoperiod. In adult hamsters, changes in deiodinase mRNA expression typically require several weeks to manifest, but it is not known whether or how quickly these mechanisms are engaged during the rapid responses to photoperiod observed in young, peri-pubertal hamsters. This experiment tested the hypotheses that (1) deiodinase responses to photoperiod are accelerated in juvenile hamsters and (2) photoperiodic downregulation of deiodinase expression occurs more rapidly than upregulation. Hypothalamic dio2 and dio3 mRNA expression was quantified in male and female Siberian hamsters that were weaned on postnatal day 18 (PND 18) into SD or remained in their natal LD, and on PND 31 were exposed to a single long or short day. In SD males and females, a single long day inhibited dio3 mRNA expression, but did not increase dio2 mRNA. In LD males, a single short day rapidly inhibited dio2 mRNA expression, but did not stimulate expression of dio3 mRNA. Downregulation of dio2 and dio3 mRNAs precedes gonadotrophin responses to day length. Rapid photoperiodic inhibition of deiodinase mRNAs may initiate changes in thyroid hormone signaling in advance of longer-term, melatonin-dependent, responses.

  9. Estradiol differentially affects auditory recognition and learning according to photoperiodic state in the adult male songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris

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    Rebecca M. Calisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how learning is affected in adults by hormone fluctuations experienced during adulthood is less understood. Previous reports have implicated the sex steroid hormone estradiol (E2 in both male and female vertebrate cognitive functioning. Here, we examined the effects of E2 on auditory recognition and learning in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. European starlings are photoperiodic, seasonally breeding songbirds that undergo different periods of reproductive activity according to annual changes in day length. We simulated these reproductive periods, specifically 1. photosensitivity, 2. photostimulation, and 3. photorefractoriness in captive birds by altering day length. During each period, we manipulated circulating E2 and examined multiple measures of learning. To manipulate circulating E2, we used subcutaneous implants containing either 17-β E2 and/or fadrozole (FAD, a highly specific aromatase inhibitor that suppresses E2 production in the body and the brain, and measured the latency for birds to learn and respond to short, male conspecific song segments (motifs. We report that photostimulated birds given E2 had higher response rates and responded with better accuracy than those given saline controls or FAD. Conversely, photosensitive, animals treated with E2 responded with less accuracy than those given FAD. These results demonstrate how circulating E2 and photoperiod can interact to shape auditory recognition and learning in adults, driving it in opposite directions in different states.

  10. Occurrence of two different intragenic deletions in two male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostacciuolo, M.L.; Miorin, M.; Vitiello, L.; Rampazzo, A.; Fanin, M.; Angelini, C.; Danieli, G.A. [Univ. of Padua (Italy)

    1994-03-01

    The occurrence of 2 different intragenic deletions (exons 10-44 and exon 45, respectively) is reported in 2 male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, both showing the same haplotype for DNA markers not included in the deleted segment. The 2 different deletions seem to have occurred independently in the same X chromosome. This finding, together with other reports, suggests possibly an increased predisposition to mutations within the DMD locus in some families. Therefore, when dealing with prenatal diagnosis, the investigation on fetal DNA cannot be restricted only to the region in which a mutation was previously identified in the family. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Citrus limon extract: possible inhibitory mechanisms affecting testicular functions and fertility in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nidhi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of 50% ethanolic leaf extract of Citrus limon (500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day) for 35 days on fertility and various male reproductive endpoints was evaluated in Parkes strain of mice. Testicular indices such as histology, 3β- and 17β-HSD enzymes activity, immunoblot expression of StAR and P450scc, and germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL and CASP- 3 expression were assessed. Motility, viability, and number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis, level of serum testosterone, fertility indices, and toxicological parameters were also evaluated. Histologically, testes in extract-treated mice showed nonuniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules. Treatment had adverse effects on steroidogenic markers in the testis and induced germ cell apoptosis. Significant reductions were noted in epididymal sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in Citrus-treated mice compared to controls. Fertility of the extract-treated males was also suppressed, but libido remained unaffected. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, alterations induced in the above parameters returned to control levels suggesting that Citrus treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Suppression of spermatogenesis may result from germ cell apoptosis because of decreased production of testosterone. The present work indicated that Citrus leaves can affect male reproduction. PMID:26787324

  12. Stressors affect the response of male and female rats to clomipramine in a model of behavioral despair (forced swim test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Daniele; Fedotova, Julia; Micale, Vincenzo; Sapronov, Nikolay S; Drago, Filippo

    2005-09-27

    blunted the hormonal response. However, severe shocks were followed by a surge of plasma corticosterone levels in both male and female clomipramine-treated rats. These results demonstrate that duration and intensity of stressful stimuli may deeply affect the behavioral response of rats in forced swim test and influence clomipramine effect in this behavioral model depending on gender-based variables, probably of the hormonal type. Plasma corticosterone levels correlate with the behavioral response to clomipramine treatment suggesting that reactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress may be involved in the antidepressant effect of this drug.

  13. Type 2 diabetes mellitus affects eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Sargyn; Oya Uygur-Bayramicli; Haluk Sargyn; Ekrem Orbay; Dilek Yavuzer; Ali Yayla

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in a group of type 2 diabetes and compared it with an age and sex matched non-diabetic group.METHODS: 40 diabetic patients (21 females, 19 males;56±7 years) and 40 non-diabetic dyspeptic patients (20females, 20 males; 54±9 years) were evaluated. Diabetic patients with dyspeptic complaints were referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopies; 2 corpus and 2 antral gastric biopsy specimens were performed on each patient. Patients with positive Hp results on histopathological examination comprised the study group. Non-diabetic dyspeptic patients seen at the Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic and with the same biopsy and treatment protocol formed the control group.A triple therapy with amoxycillin (1 g b.i.d), clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d) and omeprazole (20 mg b.i.d.) was given to both groups for 10 days. Cure was defined as the absence of Hp infection assessed by corpus and antrum biopsies in control upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed 6weeks after completing the antimicrobial therapy.RESULTS: The eradication rate was 50 % in the diabetic group versus 85 % in the non-diabetic control group (P<0.001).CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetic patients showed a significantly lower eradication rate than controls which may be due to changes in microvasculature of the stomach and to frequent antibiotic usage because of recurrent bacterial infections with the development of resistant strains.

  14. Investigation of Various Factors Affecting Development of Identity Confusion in Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celale Tangul Ozcan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Various factors may influence on development of identity sense. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of various factors including age, number of siblings, birth order, level of income, parents’ level of education, family types and living in urban or rural on development of identity sense in male adolescents. The sample consisted of 537 male adolescents from a health technician vocational high school. Participants were given a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF. Identity confusion was found in 15.3% of the sample. The mean score of SIAF reached peak level at 17 years old and then gradually decreased. The mean SIAF score of rural-based adolescents was significantly higher when compared with that of urban-based adolescents (p<0.05. The adolescents living in low income families showed significantly higher SIAF scores (p<0.05. The sons of fathers with low education (below 8 yrs had higher mean SIAF score (p<0.05. This study suggests that male adolescents who live in low income families and rural, and have father with low level of education are more likely to have identity confusion. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 131-138

  15. Mitochondrial DNA variation within P-type cytoplasmic male sterility of Plantago lanceolata L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, C.F.M.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Van Brederode, J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    MtDNA restriction fragment polymorphisms were found between cytoplasmic male-sterility types P and R of Plantago lanceolata with the homologous probe pPl311 and maize mtDNA fragments derived from the regions of atp1, cox1 and cox2. No mtDNA differences were observed between male-sterile and restored

  16. Choroidal Freckling in Pediatric Patients Affected by Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagge, Aldo; Nelson, Leonard B; Capris, Paolo; Traverso, Carlo Enrico

    2016-09-01

    Greater understanding of choroidal freckling in patients affected by neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) has changed the previous belief that choroidal lesions are unusual in eyes with this disease. In fact, the high frequency of freckling suggests that the choroid is a structure commonly affected in patients with NF1. A review of patients aged 16 years or younger was performed. Recent studies using near-infrared reflectance imaging have shown that choroidal freckling frequently occurred in pediatric patients. As a result of these findings, some authors have suggested that choroidal freckling should be considered as a new diagnostic criterion for NF1. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53(5):271-274.].

  17. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Tamura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05. Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05. The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01. The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05. This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health.

  18. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoi; Hoshi, Chigusa; Hori, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group) for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight) were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01). The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05). This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health. PMID:24336061

  19. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  20. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  1. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  2. Directional transduction of male sterile gene rfv1 of NIAN type in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na NIU; Gaisheng ZHANG; Yue CAO; Yu ZHANG; Fang WEI

    2008-01-01

    A new method for producing a NIAN type wheat maintenance line with the male sterile gene rfv1was described. That is the variety Xinong Fpl, a 1BL/1RS translocation line, as the acceptor and Triticum macha var. subletschchumicum, a non-1BL/1RS transloca-tion line, as the donor, a directional substitution back-cross was made and confirmed by chromosome of root tip preparations and SDS-PAGE analysis. The male ster-ile gene rfv1 of Triticum macha var. subletschchumicum was transferred to the genome of Xinong Fpl. A new NIAN type wheat maintenance line with the male sterile gene rfv1was bred. The method described was success-ful in breeding a new male sterile type for hybrid wheat production.

  3. Rival male relatedness does not affect ejaculate allocation as predicted by sperm competition theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Thomas

    Full Text Available When females are sexually promiscuous, the intensity of sperm competition for males depends on how many partners females mate with. To maximize fitness, males should adjust their copulatory investment in relation to this intensity. However, fitness costs associated with sperm competition may not only depend on how many males a female has mated with, but also how related rival males are. According to theoretical predictions, males should adjust their copulatory investment in response to the relatedness of their male rival, and transfer more sperm to females that have first mated with a non-sibling male than females that have mated to a related male. Here, for the first time, we empirically test this theory using the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. We expose male crickets to sperm competition from either a full sibling or non-sibling male, by using both the presence of a rival male and the rival male's actual competing ejaculate as cues. Contrary to predictions, we find that males do not adjust ejaculates in response to the relatedness of their male rival. Instead, males with both full-sibling and non-sibling rivals allocate sperm of similar quality to females. This lack of kin biased behaviour is independent of any potentially confounding effect of strong competition between close relatives; kin biased behaviour was absent irrespective of whether males were raised in full sibling or mixed relatedness groups.

  4. A Cmv2 QTL on chromosome X affects MCMV resistance in New Zealand male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marisela R; Lundgren, Alyssa; Sabastian, Pearl; Li, Qian; Churchill, Gary; Brown, Michael G

    2009-07-01

    NK cell-mediated resistance to viruses is subject to genetic control in humans and mice. Here we used classical and quantitative genetic strategies to examine NK-mediated murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) control in genealogically related New Zealand white (NZW) and black (NZB) mice. NZW mice display NK cell-dependent MCMV resistance while NZB NK cells fail to limit viral replication after infection. Unlike Ly49H(+) NK resistance in C57BL/6 mice, NZW NK-mediated MCMV control was Ly49H-independent. Instead, MCMV resistance in NZW (Cmv2) involves multiple genetic factors. To establish the genetic basis of Cmv2 resistance, we further characterized a major chromosome X-linked resistance locus (DXMit216) responsible for innate MCMV control in NZW x NZB crosses. We found that the DXMit216 locus affects early MCMV control in New Zealand F(2) crosses and demonstrate that the NZB-derived DXMit216 allele enhances viral resistance in F(2) males. The evolutionary conservation of the DXMit216 region in mice and humans suggests that a Cmv2-related mechanism may affect human antiviral responses.

  5. Choroidal Freckling in Pediatric Patients Affected by Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagge, Aldo; Nelson, Leonard B; Capris, Paolo; Traverso, Carlo Enrico

    2016-09-01

    Greater understanding of choroidal freckling in patients affected by neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) has changed the previous belief that choroidal lesions are unusual in eyes with this disease. In fact, the high frequency of freckling suggests that the choroid is a structure commonly affected in patients with NF1. A review of patients aged 16 years or younger was performed. Recent studies using near-infrared reflectance imaging have shown that choroidal freckling frequently occurred in pediatric patients. As a result of these findings, some authors have suggested that choroidal freckling should be considered as a new diagnostic criterion for NF1. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53(5):271-274.]. PMID:27637020

  6. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Zachary H; Beasley, James C; Rhodes, Olin E

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  7. Environmentally relevant exposure to 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol affects the telencephalic proteome of male fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J., E-mail: cmartyn@unb.ca [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (United States); Kroll, Kevin J.; Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Estrogens are key mediators of neuronal processes in vertebrates. As such, xenoestrogens present in the environment have the potential to alter normal central nervous system (CNS) function. The objectives of the present study were (1) to identify proteins with altered abundance in the male fathead minnow telencephalon as a result of low-level exposure to17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}), and (2) to better understand the underlying mechanisms of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) feedback in this important neuroendocrine tissue. Male fathead minnows exposed to a measured concentration of 5.4 ng EE{sub 2}/L for 48 h showed decreased plasma E{sub 2} levels of approximately 2-fold. Of 77 proteins that were quantified statistically, 14 proteins were down-regulated after EE{sub 2} exposure, including four histone proteins, ATP synthase, H+ transporting subunits, and metabolic proteins (lactate dehydrogenase B4, malate dehydrogenase 1b). Twelve proteins were significantly induced by EE{sub 2} including microtubule-associated protein tau (Mapt), astrocytic phosphoprotein, ependymin precursor, and calmodulin. Mapt showed an increase in protein abundance but a decrease in mRNA expression after EE{sub 2} exposure{sub ,} suggesting there may be a negative feedback response in the telencephalon to decreased mRNA transcription with increasing Mapt protein abundance. These results demonstrate that a low, environmentally relevant exposure to EE{sub 2} can rapidly alter the abundance of proteins involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, neuron network morphology, and long-term synaptic potentiation. Together, these findings provide a better understanding of the molecular responses underlying E{sub 2} feedback in the brain and demonstrate that quantitative proteomics can be successfully used in ecotoxicology to characterize affected cellular pathways and endocrine physiology.

  8. The copulatory plug delays ejaculation by rival males and affects sperm competition outcome in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, A; Lindholm, A K

    2016-08-01

    Females of many species mate with multiple males (polyandry), resulting in male-male competition extending to post-copulation (sperm competition). Males adapt to such post-copulatory sexual selection by altering features of their ejaculate that increase its competitiveness and/or by decreasing the risk of sperm competition through female manipulation or interference with rival male behaviour. At ejaculation, males of many species deposit copulatory plugs, which are commonly interpreted as a male adaptation to post-copulatory competition and are thought to reduce or delay female remating. Here, we used a vertebrate model species, the house mouse, to study the consequences of copulatory plugs for post-copulatory competition. We experimentally manipulated plugs after a female's first mating and investigated the consequences for rival male behaviour and paternity outcome. We found that even intact copulatory plugs were ineffective at preventing female remating, but that plugs influenced the rival male copulatory behaviour. Rivals facing intact copulatory plugs performed more but shorter copulations and ejaculated later than when the plug had been fully or partially removed. This suggests that the copulatory plug represents a considerable physical barrier to rival males. The paternity share of first males increased with a longer delay between the first and second males' ejaculations, indicative of fitness consequences of copulatory plugs. However, when males provided little copulatory stimulation, the incidence of pregnancy failure increased, representing a potential benefit of intense and repeated copulation besides plug removal. We discuss the potential mechanisms of how plugs influence sperm competition outcome and consequences for male copulatory behaviour.

  9. The copulatory plug delays ejaculation by rival males and affects sperm competition outcome in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, A; Lindholm, A K

    2016-08-01

    Females of many species mate with multiple males (polyandry), resulting in male-male competition extending to post-copulation (sperm competition). Males adapt to such post-copulatory sexual selection by altering features of their ejaculate that increase its competitiveness and/or by decreasing the risk of sperm competition through female manipulation or interference with rival male behaviour. At ejaculation, males of many species deposit copulatory plugs, which are commonly interpreted as a male adaptation to post-copulatory competition and are thought to reduce or delay female remating. Here, we used a vertebrate model species, the house mouse, to study the consequences of copulatory plugs for post-copulatory competition. We experimentally manipulated plugs after a female's first mating and investigated the consequences for rival male behaviour and paternity outcome. We found that even intact copulatory plugs were ineffective at preventing female remating, but that plugs influenced the rival male copulatory behaviour. Rivals facing intact copulatory plugs performed more but shorter copulations and ejaculated later than when the plug had been fully or partially removed. This suggests that the copulatory plug represents a considerable physical barrier to rival males. The paternity share of first males increased with a longer delay between the first and second males' ejaculations, indicative of fitness consequences of copulatory plugs. However, when males provided little copulatory stimulation, the incidence of pregnancy failure increased, representing a potential benefit of intense and repeated copulation besides plug removal. We discuss the potential mechanisms of how plugs influence sperm competition outcome and consequences for male copulatory behaviour. PMID:27206051

  10. Prenatal exposure to low doses of atrazine affects mating behaviors in male guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Kausalya

    2014-07-01

    Performing appropriate mating behaviors is crucial to male reproductive success, especially in species where mating is predominantly via female mate choice. Mating behaviors are hormonally regulated and may be sexually selected traits: courtship displays are selected via mate choice, while forced copulations and aggressive behaviors are selected for via intrasexual competition. Endocrine disrupting compounds interfere with proper hormonal functioning in exposed animals. Exposures during developmentally crucial life stages can have irreversible effects lasting through adulthood. I tested the effects of prenatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of a commonly used herbicide, atrazine (1 and 13.5μg/L) on mating behaviors in male guppies. Guppies were used as a model organism to test the effects of atrazine exposure on wildlife reproductive health. Adult female guppies were mated and exposed to the treatments throughout the gestation period, and offspring born to them were raised without further treatment. At adulthood, the males were tested for the effects of prenatal exposure on their mating behaviors such as courtship displays, gonopodium swings, forced copulatory attempts, and competitive and aggressive behaviors towards rivals who were not exposed to atrazine. I also tested female preference for treated males compared to control males. Atrazine-exposed males were less likely to perform the mating behaviors, and performed them less frequently, than control males. Atrazine exposure also made males less aggressive towards rivals. Females preferred untreated males over atrazine-treated males. In all cases, a non-monotonic pattern was seen, highlighting the significance of low-dose exposures.

  11. Genes affecting β-cell function in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløyel, Tina; Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial disease resulting from an immune-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Several environmental and genetic risk factors predispose to the disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified around 50 genetic regions...... that affect the risk of developing T1D, but the disease-causing variants and genes are still largely unknown. In this review, we discuss the current status of T1D susceptibility loci and candidate genes with focus on the β cell. At least 40 % of the genes in the T1D susceptibility loci are expressed in human...... islets and β cells, where they according to recent studies modulate the β-cell response to the immune system. As most of the risk variants map to noncoding regions of the genome, i.e., promoters, enhancers, intergenic regions, and noncoding genes, their possible involvement in T1D pathogenesis as gene...

  12. The development of cam-type deformity in adolescent and young male soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Agricola (Rintje); J.H.J.M. Bessems (Gert); A.Z. Ginai (Abida); M.P. Heijboer (Rien); R.A. van der Heijden (Rianne); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); H.H. Weinans (Harrie); J.H. Waarsing (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cam impingement is a well-recognized cause of hip pain and might cause osteoarthritis of the hip. Clinically, cam impingement is mostly observed in young, active male patients, but only a few studies have focused on the manifestation of cam-type deformities during skeletal de

  13. Genetically determined dosage of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) affects male reproductive parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Zilaitienė, Birutė;

    2011-01-01

    The detailed role of FSH in contributing to male testicular function and fertility has been debated. We have previously identified the association between the T-allele of the FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; G/T, -211 bp from the mRNA start) and significantly reduced male serum FSH....

  14. Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beika Lu

    2014-01-01

    The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment. However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster. We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male–male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male–male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions.

  15. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. As an exogeneous factor of possible influence, the meiotic effects of two types of radiation (fission neutrons and X-rays) administered at relatively low doses 2 and 3 hours before prometaphase-metaphase II (probably during metaphase-anaphase I), were determined in Rb4Bnr/+-males. (Auth.)

  16. Familiarity affects the assessment of female facial signals of fertility by free-ranging male rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Higham, James P.; Hughes, Kelly D.; Brent, Lauren J. N.; Dubuc, Constance; Engelhardt, Antje; Heistermann, Michael; Maestriperi, Dario; Laurie R. Santos; Stevens, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Animals signal their reproductive status in a range of sensory modalities. Highly social animals, such as primates, have access not only to such signals, but also to prior experience of other group members. Whether this experience affects how animals interpret reproductive signals is unknown. Here, we explore whether familiarity with a specific female affects a male's ability to assess that female's reproductive signals. We used a preferential looking procedure to assess signal discrimination...

  17. Quitting: In male versus female users of different types of tobacco at 8 months postintervention in a community setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srabana Misra Bhagabaty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: North-East India shows a very high prevalence of tobacco use. Very little is known about the factors that affects tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: Community-based tobacco cessation counseling was provided and follow-up visits were done until 8 months. Retrospective analysis was done on data set collected during the period of 2009-2010. Both sexes of age >15 years with mild, moderate and severe category of tobacco addiction and giving consent for the intervention were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to see the significance differences among categories. Results: Totally, 800 tobacco users were intervened and followed-up. Male:female ratio of tobacco use was 4.3:1. Against one female, 27 male smokers were found. At 8 months postintervention, maximum number of quit rate was amongst the users of smokeless tobacco (52% irrespective of their sex as well as in both sexes. The difference in quit rates between female smokeless tobacco users and female smokers was found statistically significant. No female smokers quitted tobacco whereas 46.6% male smokers quitted tobacco. Conclusion: Quit rate in females with different types of tobacco use habits differ significantly. There is an alarming disparity in the quit rates of male versus female smokers which needs further research. Capacity development of the cessation service providers toward the liberal use of nicotine replacement therapy and other chemo interventions in addition to counseling should be further facilitated.

  18. Female prairie vole mate-choice is affected by the males' birth litter composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males' birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowed us to estimate the probabilites of a pups' intrauterine position relative to siblings for various litter sizes. The typical prairie vole pup derived from a mixed-sex litter comprised of 4.4 pups, and had a 13% chance of being isolated from siblings in utero and a 22% chance of being between siblings in utero. Pups from single-sex litters tended to be larger at weaning than did pups from mixed-sex litters; however, male size did not influence female choice behavior. These results suggest that some aspect of the perinatal experience of prairie vole pups from single sex litters can influence social interactions later in life.

  19. Type of speech material affects Acceptable Noise Level test outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xaver eKoch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Acceptable Noise Level (ANL test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual's inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test-retest reliability. The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS, which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was

  20. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual's inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test-retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable across

  1. Parasites and health affect multiple sexual signals in male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín, J.; Amo de Paz, L.; López, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple advertising sexual traits may either advertise different characteristics of male condition or be redundant to reinforce reliability of signals. Research has focused on multiple visual traits. However, in animals that use different multiple additional sensory systems, such as chemoreception,

  2. Sex and Gender: How Being Male or Female Can Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Sex and Gender How Being Male or Female Can ... a major impact on your health. While both sexes are similar in many ways, researchers have found ...

  3. Male vocal competition is dynamic and strongly affected by social contexts in music frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guangzhan; Jiang, Fan; Yang, Ping; Cui, Jianguo; Brauth, Steven E; Tang, Yezhong

    2014-03-01

    Male-male vocal competition in anuran species is critical for mating success; however, it is also highly time-consuming, energetically demanding and likely to increase predation risks. Thus, we hypothesized that changes in the social context would cause male vocal competition to change in real time in order to minimize the costs and maximize the benefits of competition. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of repeating playbacks of either white noise (WN) or male advertisement calls on male call production in the Emei music frog (Babina daunchina), a species in which males build mud-retuse burrows and call from within these nests. Previous studies have shown that calls produced from inside burrows are highly sexually attractive (HSA) to females while those produced outside nests are of low sexual attractiveness (LSA). Results showed that most subjects called responsively after the end of WN playbacks but before the onset of conspecific call stimuli although call numbers were similar, indicating that while males adjusted competitive patterns according to the biological significance of signals, their competitive motivation did not change. Furthermore, these data indicate that the frogs had evolved the ability of interval timing. Moreover, when the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between playbacks was varied, the subjects preferentially competed with HSA calls when the ISI was short (preference rate comparable to that previously found for females in phonotaxis experiments and consistent with the idea that the mechanisms underlying both the male's competitive responses to rivals and the female's preferences toward potential mates coevolved under the same selective pressure. PMID:24030652

  4. Female attractiveness affects paternal investment: experimental evidence for male differential allocation in blue tits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahr Katharina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The differential allocation hypothesis (DAH predicts that individuals should adjust their parental investment to their current mate’s quality. Although in principle the DAH holds for both sexes, male adjustment of parental investment has only been tested in a few experimental studies, revealing contradictory results. We conducted a field experiment to test whether male blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus allocate their parental effort in relation to female ornamentation (ultraviolet colouration of the crown, as predicted by the DAH. Results We reduced the UV reflectance in a sample of females and compared parental care by their mates with that of males paired to sham-manipulated control females. As predicted by the DAH our results demonstrate that males paired with UV-reduced females invested less in feeding effort but did not defend the chicks less than males paired with control females. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies providing support for male differential allocation in response to female ornamentation.

  5. LPS alters pattern of sickness behavior but does not affect glutathione level in aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrotek, Sylwia; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Nowakowska, Anna; Kozak, Wiesław

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral symptoms of sickness, such as fever and motor activity are a coordinated set of changes that develop during infection. The aim of study was to compare the sickness behaviour (SB) in healthy old and young rats treated with pyrogenic dose of endotoxin and to check their glutathione level. Before experimentation male Wistar rats were selected according to standard body mass, motor activity, and white blood cells count. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli was used to provoke SB. The level of liver glutathione, interleukin (IL) -6, deep body temperature (Tb) and motor activity were measured. Glutathione level in old and young rats did not differ significantly. In both young and old rats LPS administration provoked fever (the mean value of Tb was 38.06 ± 0.01 °C in old rats, and 38.19 ± 0.06 °C in young rats). LPS injection affected night-time activity in both groups (12 h averages were 1.56 ± 0.40 counts in old LPS-treated rats vs 2.74 ± 0.53 counts in not-treated old rats and 3.44 ± 0.60 counts for young LPS-treated vs 4.28 ± 0.57 counts for young not-treated rats). The injection of LPS provoked an elevation of plasma IL-6 concentration (from values below the lowest detectable standard in not-treated groups of animals to 6322.82 ± 537.00 pg/mL in old LPS-treated rats and 7415.62 ± 451.88 pg/mL in young LPS-treated rats). Based on these data, we conclude that good health of aged rats prevents decrease in the glutathione level. Old rats are still able to develop SB in response to pyrogenic dose of LPS, although its components have changed pattern compared to young animals. PMID:26829940

  6. Cytomorphology and Cytochemical Localization of K-type and T-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Pollens in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ya-qin; ZHANG Gai-sheng; LIU Hong-wei; WANG Jun-wei

    2003-01-01

    By using the technology of microscopy,electron microscopy and enzyme cytochemical localization, comparison was made of the cytomorphology, ATPase and cytochrome oxidase activity in pollens during microspore formation and pollen development, for K-type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, T-type CMS lines and their maintainer lines on wheat. The results indicated that pollen abortion of the T-type CMS lines mainly occurred at the later mononucleate pollen stage, and cytomorphological changes of the abortive pollen began with a vacuolar membrane, and pollen aborting was related to a lack of ATPase activity in the nucleus and nucleolus during the mononucleate pollen stage. Pollen abortion of the K-type CMS lines took place mainly during the later binucleate and trinucleate stages, and cytomorphological changes of the abortion first began with mitochondria. The abortion was related to intine disruption.

  7. Reduced bone mass and muscle strength in male 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara H Windahl

    Full Text Available Androgens are important regulators of bone mass but the relative importance of testosterone (T versus dihydrotestosterone (DHT for the activation of the androgen receptor (AR in bone is unknown. 5α-reductase is responsible for the irreversible conversion of T to the more potent AR activator DHT. There are two well established isoenzymes of 5α-reductase (type 1 and type 2, encoded by separate genes (Srd5a1 and Srd5a2. 5α-reductase type 2 is predominantly expressed in male reproductive tissues whereas 5α-reductase type 1 is highly expressed in liver and moderately expressed in several other tissues including bone. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 5α-reductase type 1 for bone mass using Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Four-month-old male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had reduced trabecular bone mineral density (-36%, p<0.05 and cortical bone mineral content (-15%, p<0.05 but unchanged serum androgen levels compared with wild type (WT mice. The cortical bone dimensions were reduced in the male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice as a result of a reduced cortical periosteal circumference compared with WT mice. T treatment increased the cortical periosteal circumference (p<0.05 in orchidectomized WT mice but not in orchidectomized Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice demonstrated a reduced forelimb muscle grip strength compared with WT mice (p<0.05. Female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had slightly increased cortical bone mass associated with elevated circulating levels of androgens. In conclusion, 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated male mice have reduced bone mass and forelimb muscle grip strength and we propose that these effects are due to lack of 5α-reductase type 1 expression in bone and muscle. In contrast, the increased cortical bone mass in female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice, is an indirect effect mediated by elevated circulating androgen levels.

  8. Oxytocin Differentially Affects Sucrose Taking and Seeking in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycling female rats received vehicle or oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg, IP) injections before behavioral tests designed to assess general motor activity, as well as sucrose self-administration and seeking. Lower doses of oxytocin decreased motor activity in a novel environment in females relative to males. Likewise, lower doses of oxytocin in females decreased responding for sucrose during maintenance of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement to sucrose-conditioned cues. However, sucrose seeking in response to a sucrose prime was only decreased by the highest oxytocin dose in both sexes. In general, oxytocin had similar effects in both sexes. However, females were more sensitive to lower doses of oxytocin than males. These findings are consistent with the notion that oxytocin regulates many of the same behaviors in males and females, but that the effects are typically more profound in females. Therapeutic use of oxytocin should include sex as a factor in determining dose regimens. PMID:25647756

  9. Niemann-Pick Disease Type B in a 21 Year Old Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M A; Miah, M Z

    2016-04-01

    Niemann-pick disease is a group of autosomal recessive disorder of lipid storage with progressive accumulation of sphingomyelin and other lipids in the lysosomes of various tissues. We are reporting a 21 year old male who had hepatosplenomegaly, cherry red macula and normal cognitive function. Bone marrow biopsy showed plenty of foam cells and sphingomyelinase level was low, thus conforming our diagnosis. Survival into adulthood and absence of gross neurological involvement suggests Niemann-Pick disease type B. PMID:27277377

  10. The Effect of Resistance Training on Cardio-Metabolic Factors in Males with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalavand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes is one of the most important metabolic diseases in the world and exercise is a common advice to manage diabetes and reduce its complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training on blood glucose, blood pressure and resting heart rate in males with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods In this semi-experimental study, 20 males with type 2 diabetes with mean age of 46 ± 3.4 years old who met the inclusion criteria were selected. The participants were randomly assigned into resistance training (n = 10 and control (n = 10 groups. Resistance exercise training program was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week. Cardiovascular and biochemical parameters were measured before and after the intervention. To analyze the measured parameters changes t-test was used at P ≤ 0.05 significance level. Results After eight weeks, a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.002, glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.025 and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.022 was observed in the resistance group. In addition, there was a significant difference in blood sugar (P = 0.003 and glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.031 between the two groups. Conclusions Findings of this study confirmed the positive influence of resistance training to control blood glucose and blood pressure in males with type 2 diabetes.

  11. The smell of virgins: mating status of females affects male swimming behaviour in Oithona davisae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in the presence of virgin when compared with mated females and that the cue is waterborne. The ability to distinguish between virgin and mated females may reduce male mortality during mate search and the cost related to mating behaviour (precopula) in both sexes. We estimate that at realistic population densities...

  12. Test Administrator's Gender Affects Female and Male Students' Self-Estimated Verbal General Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Tuulia M.; Vormittag, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Effects of test administrator's gender on test takers' self-estimated verbal general knowledge and de facto verbal general knowledge were investigated. Based on three theories previously applied in research dealing with the effects of test administrator's ethnicity, it was expected male and female test takers to show higher scores under female…

  13. Females' Evaluations of Males as a Function of Affect Arousing Musical Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, James L.; Hamilton, Phyllis Ann

    Female subjects were asked to evaluate either an attractive or unattractive male stimulus person under one of the three experimental conditions; while listening to avant-garde, rock music, or no music at all. Responding on the Interpersonal Judgement Scale (IJS: Byrne, 1971) and a seven-point physical attractiveness scale, subjects indicated more…

  14. Choking under Pressure: When an Additional Positive Stereotype Affects Performance for Domain Identified Male Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.; Crisp, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to establish if the presentation of two positive stereotypes would result in choking under pressure for identified male mathematics students. Seventy-five 16 year old men, who had just commenced their AS-level study, were either made aware of their gender group membership (single positive stereotype), their school group…

  15. DIBROMOACETIC ACID AFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE COMPETENCE AND SPERM QUALITY IN THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently shown that Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) alters sperm quality in short duration tests. n this study, male rats were gavaged with 0, 2, 10, 50, 250 mg DBAA/kg/d for up to 49 d. Interim. and terminal measurements of sperm quality & reproductive outcome were made. BAA c...

  16. Hypergastrinemia and recurrent type 1 gastric carcinoid in a young Indian male: Necessity for antrectomy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viplove Senadhi; Niraj Jani

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are the most common neuroendocrine tumors. Gastric carcinoids represent 2% of all carcinoids and 1% of all gastric masses. Due to the widespread use of Esophagogastroduodenoscopy for evaluating a variety of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, the detection of early gastric carcinoids has increased. We highlight an alternative management of a young patient with recurrent type 1 gastric carcinoids with greater than 5 lesions, as well as lesions intermittently greater than 1 cm. Gastric carcinoids have a variable presentation and clinical course that is highly dependent on type. Type 1 gastric carcinoids are usually indolent and have a metastasis rate of less than 2%, even with tumors larger than 2 cm. There are a number of experts as well as organizations that recommend endoscopic resection for all type 1 gastric carcinoid lesions less than 1 cm, with a follow-up every 6-12 mo. They also recommend antrectomy for type 1 gastric carcinoids with greater than 5 lesions, lesions 1 cm or greater, or refractory anemia. However, the American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy guidelines state that type 1 gastric carcinoid surveillance is controversial based on the evidence and could not make an evidence-based position statement on the best treatment modality. Our report illustrates a rare cause of iron deficiency anemia in a young male (without any medical history) due to multiple recurrent gastric carcinoid type 1 lesions in the setting of atrophic gastritis causing hypergastrinemia, and in the absence of a vitamin B12 deficiency. Gastric carcinoid type 1 can present in young males without an autoimmune history, despite the known predilection for women aged 50 to 70 years. Type 1 gastric carcinoids can be managed by endoscopic resection in patients with greater than 5 lesions, even with lesions larger than 1 cm. This course of treatment enabled the avoidance of early antrectomy in our patient, who expressed a preference against more invasive measures at his

  17. Bilateral periventricular heterotopias in an X-linked dominant transmission in a family with two affected males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard-Blanluet, Marion; Sheen, Volney; Machinis, Kalotina; Neal, Jason; Apse, Kira; Danan, Claude; Sinico, Martine; Brugières, Pierre; Mage, Katia; Ratsimbazafy, Lanto; Elbez, Annie; Janaud, Jean-Claude; Amselem, Serge; Walsh, Christopher; Encha-Razavi, Férechté

    2006-05-15

    We report on the case of dizygotic twin boys, born prematurely to an asymptomatic mother. Bilateral periventricular heterotopias with enlarged ventricles were discovered at birth in both twins. One of the twins died prematurely of bronchopulmonary complications, and was shown to have several neuropathological anomalies (microgyria, thin corpus callosum, and reduced white matter). The surviving twin had mental retardation, without epilepsy. MRI of the mother showed asymptomatic periventricular heterotopias without ventricular enlargement. She had two affected daughters also with asymptomatic periventricular heterotopias. A point mutation in the last coding exon 48 of the Filamin A (FLNA) gene (7922c > t) was discovered on sequencing and segregated with the affected individuals. This family has a classical X-linked dominant BPNH pathology, with greater severity in males than females. The location of the FLNA mutation is discussed in light of the neuropathological anomalies and mental retardation in male patients.

  18. Study on the related risk factors with atherogenic index of plasma in male type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study related factors with atherogenic index of plasma in male type 2 diabetic patients. Methods 133 male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were divided into non-atherogenic phenom (N group) and atherogemic phenom(A group) according to the cutpoint of atherogenic index of plasma

  19. Female-borne cues affecting Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male behavior during courtship and mating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angelo Canale; Giovanni Benelli; Andrea Lucchi

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate courtship and mating behavior in Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti)-a koinobiont endophagous solitary parasitoid of the olive fruit fly,Bactrocera oleae (Rossi),and of other fruit flies-is essential to its mass rearing and management.Augmentative releases ofP.concolor for olive fruit fly control started in the Mediterranean areas in the 1950s and still continue with limited success.We determined the influence of visual and chemical cues on courtship and mating behavior of this braconid and the possible effect of the mating status of males and females in the perception of these cues.Our results suggest that integration of visual and chemical stimuli are fundamental for mate location and courtship.Indeed,the optimal response of the male was achieved when physical and chemical cues were simultaneously presented and vision and olfaction worked synergistically.

  20. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie;

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...... of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females...... and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels...

  1. Genetic variability of rice recurrent selection populations as affected by male sterility or manual recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia da Silveira Pinheiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the effect of male sterility or manual recombination on genetic variability of rice recurrent selection populations. The populations CNA-IRAT 4, with a gene for male sterility, and CNA 12, which was manually recombined, were evaluated. Genetic variability among selection cycles was estimated using14 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. A total of 926 plants were analyzed, including ten genitors and 180 individuals from each of the evaluated cycles (1, 2 and 5 of the population CNA-IRAT 4, and 16 genitors and 180 individuals from each of the cycles (1 and 2 of CNA 12. The analysis allowed the identification of alleles not present among the genitors for both populations, in all cycles, especially for the CNA-IRAT 4 population. These alleles resulted from unwanted fertilization with genotypes that were not originally part of the populations. The parameters of Wright's F-statistic (F IS and F IT indicated that the manual recombination expands the genetic variability of the CNA 12 population, whereas male sterility reduces the one of CNA-IRAT 4.

  2. Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    Type 1 diabetics have a well-recognised risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. Even in the absence of clinical signs there are detectable abnormalities of conduit vessel function. Our group has previously reported reversal of endothelial dysfunction in diabetics with pravastatin. In young asymptomatic smokers, taurine supplementation has a beneficial impact on macrovascular function, assessed by FMD, and shows an up-regulation of nitric oxide from monocyte-endothelial cell interactions. We hypothesise that taurine supplementation reverses early endothelial abnormalities in young male type 1 diabetics, as assessed by applanation tonometry, brachial artery ultrasound and laser Doppler fluximetry. Asymptomatic, male diabetics (n=9) were scanned prior to treatment and then randomised in a double-blind cross-over fashion to receive either 2 weeks placebo or taurine. Control patients (n=10) underwent a baseline scan. Assessed diabetics had detectable, statistically significant abnormalities when compared with controls, in both arterial stiffness (augmentation index) and brachial artery reactivity (FMD). Both of these parameters were returned to control levels with 2 weeks taurine supplementation. In conclusion, 2 weeks taurine supplementation reverses early, detectable conduit vessel abnormalities in young male diabetics. This may have important implications in the long-term treatment of diabetic patients and their subsequent progression towards atherosclerotic disease.

  3. Listening Text Type as a Variable Affecting Listening Comprehension Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Mehmet; Uçkun, Berrin

    2013-01-01

    Every foreign language learner feels inadequate, ineffective or helpless at a certain period in the language learning process. Of the main reasons of these feelings, anxiety has been pronounced more frequently than the other affective variables in the literature. The primary concern of this research was to investigate the influence of listening…

  4. Negative affectivity and social inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evaluating type-D personality and its assessment using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, Rob R.; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The obje

  5. Overexpression of AtTTP Affects ARF17 Expression and Leads to Male Sterility in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Hao Shi; Cheng Zhang; Xiao-Feng Xu; Jun Zhu; Que Zhou; Li-Juan Ma; Jin Niu; Zhong-Nan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Callose synthesis is critical for the formation of the pollen wall pattern. CalS5 is thought to be the major synthethase for the callose wall. In the Arabidopsis anther, ARF17 regulates the expression of CalS5 and is the target of miR160. Plants expressing miR160-resistant ARF17 (35S:5mARF17 lines) with increased ARF17 mRNA levels display male sterility. Here we report a zinc finger family gene, AtTTP, which is involved in miR160 maturation and callose synthesis in Arabidopsis. AtTTP is expre...

  6. Type A behavior pattern, parental history of hypertension, and cardiovascular reactivity in college males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M T; Lawler, K A; Mitchell, V P; Matthews, K A; Rakaczky, C J; Jamison, W

    1987-01-01

    Two risk factors for cardiovascular disorders, parental history of hypertension and the Type A behavior pattern, were investigated concurrently with respect to cardiovascular reactivity to challenging situations. Sixty-four college males were given both the Structured Interview (SI) and Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) for the Type A behavior pattern and a family health questionnaire to determine parental history of hypertension. The students were monitored for blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and pulse transit time (PTT) response to four tasks: cold pressor, isometric handgrip exercise, a reading comprehension task, and backwards digit span. Type As based on SI classification had significantly higher HR levels across all tasks than did Type Bs, as well as higher diastolic BP levels in the cold pressor task. No main effects for Type A-B using JAS classification were found. Positive parental history students had higher HR and shorter PTT levels across all the tasks. Type A and parental history did interact in a limited way on some tasks, but the interactions were also dependent on the Type A classification used. PMID:3830119

  7. Redescription of Dubiaranea argenteovittata (Araneae: Linyphiidae, type species of the genus, and description of the male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dubiaranea argenteovittata Mello-Leitão, 1943 was described from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, based on a female. We describe and illustrate the male of the species for the first time, and provide the first records for the states of Santa Catarina and Paraná. The redescription and illustrations of the female is based on the holotype and new material from the type locality. New distributional records are also provided for the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

  8. An Atypical Presentation of a Male with Oral-Facial-Digital Syndrome Type 1 Related Ciliopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ethan M.; Reynoso, Francis Jeshira; Pradhan, Madhura

    2016-01-01

    Background. Oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) is a rare condition with X-linked dominant inheritance caused by mutations in the Cxorf5 (OFD1) gene. This gene encodes the OFD1 protein located within centrosomes and basal bodies of primary cilia. Approximately 15–50% of patients with OFD1 progress to end-stage kidney disease following development of polycystic changes within the kidneys. This condition almost always causes intrauterine lethality in males. Description of Case Diagnosis and Treatment. A Caucasian male aged 9 years and 9 months presented with increased urinary frequency, increased thirst, and decreased appetite. Physical examination demonstrated short stature, hearing loss, photophobia, murmur, and hypogonadism. He had no other dysmorphic features. Laboratory results revealed anemia, renal insufficiency, and dilute urine with microscopic hematuria but no proteinuria. Ultrasound showed small kidneys with increased echogenicity but no evidence of cystic changes. A Ciliopathy Panel showed a novel and likely pathogenic deletion, approximately 7.9 kb, in the OFD1 gene encompassing exons 16, 17, and 19 (c.1654+833_2599+423del). Brain MRI did not demonstrate typical OFD1 findings. He is currently on chronic hemodialysis awaiting transplant from a living donor. Conclusions. We present a male patient with OFD1 mutation who lacks the classic OFD1 phenotype who presented with end-stage renal disease without evidence of polycystic changes within the kidneys.

  9. Chronic stress and social housing differentially affect neurogenesis in male and female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbroek, Christel; Boer, Johan A. den; Veenhuis, Maarten; Horst, Gert J. ter

    2004-01-01

    Stress plays an important role in the development of affective disorders. Women show a higher prevalence for these disorders than men. The course of a depression is thought to be positively influenced by social support. We have used a chronic stress model in which rats received foot-shocks daily for

  10. Cellular interference in craniofrontonasal syndrome: males mosaic for mutations in the X-linked EFNB1 gene are more severely affected than true hemizygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Stephen R.F.; Babbs, Christian; van den Elzen, Marijke E.P.; Goriely, Anne; Taylor, Stephen; McGowan, Simon J.; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Lonie, Lorne; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Akha, Elham Sadighi; Knight, Samantha J.L.; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli M.; Hoogeboom, Jeannette A.M.; Pober, Barbara R.; Toriello, Helga V.; Wall, Steven A.; Rita Passos-Bueno, M.; Brunner, Han G.; Mathijssen, Irene M.J.; Wilkie, Andrew O.M.

    2013-01-01

    Craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS), an X-linked disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations of EFNB1, exhibits a paradoxical sex reversal in phenotypic severity: females characteristically have frontonasal dysplasia, craniosynostosis and additional minor malformations, but males are usually more mildly affected with hypertelorism as the only feature. X-inactivation is proposed to explain the more severe outcome in heterozygous females, as this leads to functional mosaicism for cells with differing expression of EPHRIN-B1, generating abnormal tissue boundaries—a process that cannot occur in hemizygous males. Apparently challenging this model, males occasionally present with a more severe female-like CFNS phenotype. We hypothesized that such individuals might be mosaic for EFNB1 mutations and investigated this possibility in multiple tissue samples from six sporadically presenting males. Using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography, massively parallel sequencing and multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to increase sensitivity above standard dideoxy sequencing, we identified mosaic mutations of EFNB1 in all cases, comprising three missense changes, two gene deletions and a novel point mutation within the 5′ untranslated region (UTR). Quantification by Pyrosequencing and MLPA demonstrated levels of mutant cells between 15 and 69%. The 5′ UTR variant mutates the stop codon of a small upstream open reading frame that, using a dual-luciferase reporter construct, was demonstrated to exacerbate interference with translation of the wild-type protein. These results demonstrate a more severe outcome in mosaic than in constitutionally deficient males in an X-linked dominant disorder and provide further support for the cellular interference mechanism, normally related to X-inactivation in females. PMID:23335590

  11. ASSESSMENT OF SERUM LIPIDS IN TYPE II DIABETES MALE AND FEMALE PATIENTS

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    Annapurna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM often have both quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of lipoproteins that are responsible for increased incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Incidence of coronary heart disease is three to four folds higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to non - diabetics. It has been proposed that the composition of lipid particles in diabetic dyslipidemia is more atherogenic than other types of dyslipidemia. This study was conducted to asses s serum lipid profile in type diabetes male and female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 50 T2DM patients with history more than ten yrs diabetes. Diabetic patients with overt complications and patients on drugs like diuretics, s teroids, oral contraceptives and beta blockers etc are excluded from study. 5 ml of whole blood was collected via vena puncture with the help of a disposable syringe in between 7.00am and 8.00am. Fasting plasma glucose and different Lipid fractions were es timated using standard procedure. All values were expressed as mean ± S.D. Statistical significance of differences between control and study groups were evaluated by student’s t test. A p - value less than 0.05 were considered as significant. RESULTS: The se rum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly raised in both males and females . CONCLUSION: Hyperlipidaemia is a common finding among DM patients. DM patients should be screened and appropriate management should be instituted to reduce the risk of CHD and atherosclerosis

  12. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  13. Inhalation of diesel engine exhaust affects spermatogenesis in growing male rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, N.; Oonuki, Y

    1999-01-01

    We conducted experiments to determine whether diesel engine exhaust affects reproductive endocrine function in growing rats. The rats were assigned to three groups: a group exposed to total diesel engine exhaust containing 5.63 mg/m3 particulate matter, 4.10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, and 8.10 ppm nitrogen oxide; a group exposed to filtered exhaust without particulate matter; and a group exposed to clean air. Dosing experiments were performed for 3 months beginning at birth (6 hr/day for 5 days/we...

  14. Manifestations of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness in three daughters of an affected male: Demonstration of homozygosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bech-Hansen, N.T. (Alberta Children' s Hospital, Calgary (Canada) Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (United States)); Pearce, W.G. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1993-01-01

    X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1) is a hereditary retinal disorder in which clinical features in affected males usually include myopia, nystagmus, and impaired visual acuity. Electroretinography demonstrates a marked reduction in b-wave amplitude. In the study of a large Mennonite family with CSNB1, three of five sisters in one sibship were found to have manifestations of CSNB1. All the sons of these three sisters were affected. Each of the two nonmanifesting sisters had at least one unaffected son. Analysis of Xp markers in the region Xp21.1-Xp11.22 showed that the two sisters who were unaffected had inherited the same maternal X chromosome (i.e., M2). Two of the daughters who manifested with CSNB had inherited the other maternal X chromosome (M1). The third manifesting sister inherited a recombinant X chromosome with a crossover between TIMP and DXS255, which suggests that the CSNB1 locus lies proximal to TIMP. One of the affected daughters' sons had inherited the maternal M1 X chromosome, a finding consistent with that chromosome carrying a mutant CSNB gene; the other affected sons inherited the grandfather's X chromosome (i.e., P). Molecular analysis of DNA from three sisters with manifestations of CSNB is consistent with their being homozygous at the CSNB1 locus and with their mother being a carrier of CSNB1. 23 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 in a male infant: A case report with a novel sequence variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Senthilkumar; Kurepa, Dalibor; Shen, Yiping; Kakkilaya, Venkatakrishna; Ursin, Sussone; Chen, Harold

    2013-01-01

    We report a male infant with typical clinical, pathological and radiological features of otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD 2) with a novel sequence variation in the FLNA gene. His clinical manifestations include typical craniofacial features, cleft palate, hearing impairment, omphalocele, bowing of the long bones, absent fibulae and digital abnormalities consistent with OPD 2. Two hemizygous sequence variations in the FLNA gene were identified. The variation c.5290G>A/p.Ala1764Thr has been previously reported in a patient with periventricular nodular heterotopia, but subsequently it has been reported as a polymorphism. The other variation c.613T>C/p.Cys205Arg detected in the proband has not been previously reported and our analysis indicates that this is a novel disease-causing mutation for OPD2. PMID:27625837

  16. Herpes Simplex [corrected] Virus Type 2 Shedding From Male Circumcision Wounds in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mary K; Kigozi, Godfrey; Gray, Ronald H; Armour, Benjamin; Manucci, Jordyn; Serwadda, David; Redd, Andrew D; Nalugoda, Fred; Patel, Eshan U; Wawer, Maria J; Quinn, Thomas C; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2015-11-15

    A prospective observational study of 176 men coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was conducted to assess whether their sexual partners may be at an increased risk of HSV-2 from male circumcision (MC) wounds. Preoperative and weekly penile lavage samples were tested for penile HSV-2 shedding. Prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) were estimated using Poisson regression. Detectable penile HSV-2 shedding was present in 9.7% of men (17 of 176) before MC, compared with 12.9% (22 of 170) at 1 week (PRR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], .74-2.38) and 14.8% (23 of 155) at 2 weeks (PRR, 1.50; 95% CI, .86-2.62) after MC. HSV-2 shedding was lower among men with healed MC wounds (adjusted PRR, 0.62; 95% CI, .35-1.08). Men undergoing MC should be counseled on sexual abstinence and condom use.

  17. THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR.Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

  18. How various drugs affect anxiety-related behavior in male and female rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macúchová, E; Ševčíková, M; Hrebíčková, I; Nohejlová, K; Šlamberová, R

    2016-06-01

    Different forms of anxiety-related behavior have been reported after a single drug use of many abused substances, however, less is known about how males and females are affected differently from exposure to various drugs. Furthermore, chronic prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure was shown to predispose the animal to an increased sensitivity to drugs administrated in adulthood. Using the Elevated plus-maze test (EPM), the first aim of the present study was to examine how male and female rats are affected by acute drug treatment with subcutaneously (s.c.) administrated (a) MA (1mg/kg); (b) drugs with a similar mechanism of action to MA: amphetamine (AMP, 1mg/kg), cocaine (COC, 5mg/kg), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 5mg/kg); and (c) drugs with different mechanisms of action: morphine (MOR, 5mg/kg), and Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 2mg/kg). The second aim was to determine if prenatally MA-exposed (5mg/kg) animals show an increased sensitivity to adult drug treatment. The parameters analyzed were divided into two categories: anxiety-related behavior and anxiety-unrelated/exploratory behavior. Our results showed in female rats a decreased percentage of the time spent in the closed arms (CA) after MA, and an increased percentage of the time spent in the open arms (OA) after MA, AMP, and COC treatment, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect. In females, MDMA and THC treatment increased the percentage of the time spent in the CA. An increased percentage of the time spent in the CA was also seen after MOR treatment in females as well as in males, indicating an anxiogenic-like effect. As far as the interaction between prenatal MA exposure and adult drug treatment is concerned, there was no effect found. In conclusion, it seems that: (a) in some cases female rats are more vulnerable to acute drug treatment, in terms of either anxiogenic- or anxiolytic-like effects; (b) prenatal MA exposure does not sensitize animals to the anxiety-related effects of any of the

  19. Acute Aerobic Exercise and Plasma Levels of Orexin A, Insulin, Glucose, and Insulin Resistance in Males With Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The endocrine system disruptions are the main factors in metabolic disorders which are due to lifestyle changes, obesity, and aging. Insulin resistance is impaired glucose homeostasis in the presence of insulin and is related to many diseases such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute aerobic exercise on plasma levels of orexin A, insulin, glucose, and insulin resistance in males with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods Twenty subjects (mean age = 45.40 ± 5.42 years, mean weight = 80.91 ± 6.35 kg, body mass index = 25.41 ± 2.76 kg/m2 were randomly assigned into control and experimental groups, involving 10 people in each group. The exercise protocol consisted of one session of acute aerobic exercise on a treadmill at 60% maximal oxygen uptake and the same energy expenditure (300 kcal, which were determined by gas analyzers. Subjects were subjected to samplings before, immediately after, and 24 hours after the acute aerobic exercise. Results The analysis of findings in P ≤ 0.05 indicated that acute aerobic exercise caused a significant increase in plasma levels of orexin A and a significant decrease in plasma levels of glucose immediately after the aerobic activity, but insignificantly affected the plasma levels of insulin and insulin resistance. Conclusions It seems that in people with type 2 diabetes, acute aerobic exercise can decrease the plasma levels of glucose, possibly through increasing orexin A. In addition, negative energy balance is necessary to decrease the levels of insulin and insulin resistance during acute aerobic exercise.

  20. Combination of Vildagliptin and Pioglitazone in Experimental Type 2 Diabetes in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Rowaida; Sakr, Ahmed; Salama, Mona; El Sarha, Ashgan

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical Research The majority of studies on vildagliptin and pioglitazone have focused on their combination in glycemic control. The aim of the present study was to investigate their effects in combination on (i) hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and (ii) on organs involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes, pancreas, kidney and liver. Type 2 diabetes was induced using low-dose streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were treated for 4 weeks, with vildagliptin (10 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day) and their combination. Diabetic rats showed elevated fasting serum glucose, fasting serum insulin, serum transaminases together with a deleterious lipid profile and elevated serum creatinine and urea concentrations. Serum levels of the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitrite/nitrate were also elevated compared to normal rats. Oxidative stress was manifested by lowered hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Pancreatic sections from diabetic rats showed degenerated islets with poorly maintained architecture that was prevented by drug treatment. Pioglitazone was generally more effective than vildagliptin in the studied parameters except for the lipid profile where the effect of both drugs was comparable and for the liver enzymes and renal parameters where vildagliptin was more effective. The combination of vildagliptin and pioglitazone produced superior effects than either drug alone. Drug Dev Res 77 : 251-257, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27520857

  1. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita A Condorelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2; specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m. age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34-47 years were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients. The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05; moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05. Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05 in group A compared with group B.

  2. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  3. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  4. Transient inactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex affects both anxiety and decision-making in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie ede Visser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In both humans and rats high levels of anxiety impair decision-making in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT in male subjects. Expression of the immediate early gene c-fos as marker of neural activity in rat studies indicated a role of the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic and infralimbic region; mPFC in mediating the relationship between anxiety and decision-making. To delineate this relationship further and assess the underlying neurobiology in more detail, we inactivated in the present study the mPFC in male rats using a mixture of the GABA-receptor agonists muscimol and baclofen. Rats were exposed to the elevated plus maze (EPM to measure effects on anxiety and to the rodent version of the IGT (r-IGT. Inactivation led to increased levels of anxiety on the EPM, while not affecting general activity. The effect in the r-IGT (trials 61-120 was dependent on levels of performance prior to inactivation (trial 41-60: inactivation of the mPFC hampered task-performance in rats, which already showed a preference for the advantageous option, but not in rats which were still choosing in a random manner. These data suggest that the mPFC becomes more strongly involved as rats have learned task-contingencies, i.e. choose for the best long-term option. Furthermore they suggest, along with the data of our earlier study, that both anxiety and decision-making in rats are mediated through a neural circuitry including at least the mPFC. The data are discussed in relation to recent data of rodent studies on the neural circuitry underlying decision-making.

  5. Mutations in Exons of the CYP17- Ⅱ Gene Affect Sex Steroid Concentration in Male Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ruiqin; HU Jian; HAN Weiguo; ZHANG Jianan; WANG Qingqing; YUAN Yuren; LIU Qun; HE Feng; WEN Haishen; LI Jifang; SHI Bao; SHI Dan; LIU Miao; MU Weijie; ZHANG Yuanqing

    2012-01-01

    As a specific gene of fish,cytochrome P450c 17-Ⅱ (CYP17-Ⅱ) gene plays a key role in the growth,development and reproduction level of fish.In this study,the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17- Ⅱ gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-Ⅱ gene of Japanese flounder.They were c.G594A (p.G188R),c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D).SNP1 (c.G594A),located in exon 4 of CYP17-Ⅱ gene,was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI).Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI (P<0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG.SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-Ⅱ gene.The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6.Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG.The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder.However,the SNP3 (c.G 1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits.This study showed that CYP17-Ⅱgene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  6. Mutations that affect meiosis in male mice influence the dynamics of the mid-preleptotene and bouquet stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiosis pairs and segregates homologous chromosomes and thereby forms haploid germ cells to compensate the genome doubling at fertilization. Homologue pairing in many eukaryotic species depends on formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) during early prophase I when telomeres begin to cluster at the nuclear periphery (bouquet stage). By fluorescence in situ hybridization criteria, we observe that mid-preleptotene and bouquet stage frequencies are altered in male mice deficient for proteins required for recombination, ubiquitin conjugation and telomere length control. The generally low frequencies of mid-preleptotene spermatocytes were significantly increased in male mice lacking recombination proteins SPO11, MEI1, MLH1, KU80, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme HR6B, and in mice with only one copy of the telomere length regulator Terf1. The bouquet stage was significantly enriched in Atm -/-, Spo11 -/-, Mei1 m1Jcs/m1Jcs, Mlh1 -/-, Terf1 +/- and Hr6b -/- spermatogenesis, but not in mice lacking recombination proteins DMC1 and HOP2, the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair factor KU80 and the ATM downstream effector GADD45a. Mice defective in spermiogenesis (Tnp1 -/-, Gmcl1 -/-, Asm -/-) showed wild-type mid-preleptotene and bouquet frequencies. A low frequency of bouquet spermatocytes in Spo11 -/- Atm -/- spermatogenesis suggests that DSBs contribute to the Atm -/--correlated bouquet stage exit defect. Insignificant changes of bouquet frequencies in mice with defects in early stages of DSB repair (Dmc1 -/-, Hop2 -/-) suggest that there is an ATM-specific influence on bouquet stage duration. Altogether, it appears that several pathways influence telomere dynamics in mammalian meiosis

  7. Comparison of all morphotype males and various types stocking density of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man on growth and survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to appraise the effect of different stocking densities on three male morphotypes named blue claw (BC, orange claw (OC and small male (SM at harvest in all-male culture and assess the growth performance of BC, OC and SM in each isolated culture. Trials involving three stocking densities of all-male prawn viz., 20, 30 and 40 juvenile m−2 were carried out in replicates. After 4 months of culture, BC, OC and SM were sorted from all tanks and restocked at 5 m−2 in treatments BC, OC and SM respectively for 80 days. A difference in prawn density was significant (P < 0.05 affect adversely on morphotypes. The highest survival rate combined with good yields performance was from 20 juvenile m−2 stocking density with 21% BC, 62.5% OC and 16.5% SM respectively. In isolation culture, the average specific growth rate of the SM population (1.22 was significantly higher than that of the OC (1.01 and the BC (0.43 population. The survival rate of the SM population was 100% while others were 72%. Absolute weight of prawn was significantly greater in the OC male (23.87 g than the SM (19.57 g and the BC male (6.31 g. Impacts of isolated culture on population structure were much more pronounced in the SM population than others.

  8. Dynamic cerebral autoregulatory capacity is affected early in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Immink, Rogier V.; Stok, Wim J.; Karemaker, John M.; Secher, Niels H; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of endothelial dysfunction and microvascular complications with impaired autoregulation of tissue perfusion. Both microvascular disease and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy may affect cerebral autoregulation. We tested the hypothesis that in absence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, cerebral autoregulation is impaired in subjects with type 2 diabetes with microvascular complications but intact in subjects withou...

  9. Multiple pigment cell types contribute to the black, blue, and orange ornaments of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Verena A; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation.

  10. Increasing incidence of early onset type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: a study of Danish male birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, A; Andersen, P K; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen;

    1992-01-01

    of 1705 diabetic subjects were identified of whom 23 were not representative of idiopathic Type 1 diabetes. The cumulative rate of Type 1 diabetes development during the first 20 years of life increased from 2.37 to 2.90 per 1000 for the first eight and last eight birth cohorts, respectively. A log......To provide information of the incidence trends of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus we performed a cohort study of a series of Danish male birth cohorts. All male livebirths in Denmark between 1 January 1949 and 31 December 1964, were investigated regarding the development of Type 1......-linear analysis of the incidence revealed significantly increasing incidence rates, independent of age effects, with a maximum in the late 1970's. About 75% of the cases presented short duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis, and only very few cases were diagnosed incidentally. Cases were diagnosed relatively...

  11. Male accessory gland inlfammation prevalence in type2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly relfecting autonomic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosita A Condorelli; Enzo Vicari; Aldo E Calogero; Sandro La Vignera

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inlfammation or infection(MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type2 diabetes(DM2);speciifcally, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy(DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles(SVs) in DM2patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2patients(i.e.patients with and without symptoms that possibly relfect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2patients with a mean(± s.e.m.) age of 42.0±6.0years(range: 34–47years) were classiifed according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly relfect DAN(groupA: DM2 with symptoms possibly relfecting DAN,n=28patients and groupB: DM2 without symptoms possibly relfecting DAN,n=32patients). The patients in GroupA exhibited a signiifcantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in groupB patients(P<0.05); moreover, the GroupA patients exhibited a signiifcantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis(P<0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were signiifcantly higher(P<0.05) in groupA compared with groupB.

  12. The Effects of Different Types of Intruders on the Level and Characteristics of Territorial Defence Response of Domesticated Male Siamese Fighting Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullica JAROENSUTASINEE

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of types of intruders on the level and types of male aggressive acts at different stages of the egg guarding period in domesticated fighting fish (Betta splendens. The degree of aggressiveness was measured at two reproductive phases in response to three types of intruders: male, female and female that had laid eggs. The nest-holding males displayed the same level of aggressiveness towards intruders before and after the hatching of eggs. Male intruders elicited the highest number of aggressive acts followed by female, and mated female intruders. The highest incidence of gill cover erection, biting, and tail beating by nest-holding males was directed towards male intruders whilst female and mated female intruders were subject to lower and lowest incidence of these aggressive acts respectively. However, female intruders were attacked and chased most frequently and mated female intruders comparatively less frequently whereas male intruders were least subject to these types of aggression.

  13. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphism Q192R affects the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimbach Gerald

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1 is an HDL-associated enzyme with anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory properties that has been suggested to play an important protective role against coronary heart diseases and underlying atherogenesis. The common PON1 Q192R polymorphism (rs662, A>G, a glutamine to arginine substitution at amino acid residue 192, has been analyzed in numerous association studies as a genetic marker for coronary heart diseases, however, with controversial results. Findings To get a better understanding about the pathophysiological function of PON1, we analyzed the relationships between the Q192R polymorphism, serum paraoxonase activity and serum biomarkers important for atherogenesis. Genotyping a cohort of 49 healthy German males for the Q192R polymorphism revealed an allele distribution of 0.74 and 0.26 for the Q and R allele, respectively, typical for Caucasian populations. Presence of the R192 allele was found to be associated with a significantly increased paraoxonase enzyme activity of 187.8 ± 11.4 U/l in comparison to the QQ192 genotype with 60.5 ± 4.9 U/l. No significant differences among the genotypes were found for blood pressure, asymmetric dimethylarginine, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol. As expected, MIP-2 alpha a cytokine rather not related to atherosclerosis is not affected by the PON1 polymorphism. In contrast to that, the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha is enhanced in R192 carriers (163.8 ± 24.7 pg/ml vs 94.7 ± 3.2 pg/ml in QQ192 carriers. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that the common PON1 R192 allele may be a genetic risk factor for atherogenesis by inducing chronic low-grade inflammation.

  14. PARENTAL TYPE OF PERSONALITY, NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY AND FAMILY STRESSFUL EVENTS IN CHILDREN WITH CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovljević, Gordana; Čulić, Srđana; Benko, Marta; Kalebić Jakupčević, Katja; Stepan, Jasminka; Šprajc, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Psychological interactions between parents,children and social environment are very important for childhood health. The type of personality and stressful events are probably also cancer risk factors. We investigated personality types A/B and D (negative affectivity and social inhibition) in parents of children with cancer (PCC), as well as social environmental factors, and family / children’s stressful events before the appearance of cancer. Subjects and methods: Bortne...

  15. Does prey community composition affect the way different behavioral types interact with their environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Michael A; Wahl, David H

    2016-10-01

    We examined how different exploratory behavioral types of largemouth bass responded to differing prey communities by determining effects on growth, survival and diet in experimental ponds. We found evidence that non-explorer largemouth bass target young-of-year bluegill early on in life, but bluegill were not an important diet item by late summer. The presence of young-of-year bluegill as prey does appear to affect the foraging strategy of the two exploring types differently. In the absence of small bluegill, both behavioral types feed primarily on benthic invertebrates and zooplankton. When small bluegill were present, we saw a shift away from zooplankton as prey for largemouth bass. However, that shift was toward more benthic invertebrates for non-exploring behavioral types and toward terrestrial insects for exploring behavioral types. Thus, it appears that prey community composition can have important effects on the way in which different behavioral types interact with their environment.

  16. The Stigmatized Woman: The Professional Woman in a Male Sex-Typed Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine

    1985-01-01

    Applies Erving Goffman's stigma theory to impressions of 25 women in educational administration careers. Analyzes data from an earlier study to show how women administrators, confronted with male leadership norms, deviate, acquire stigma, and become marginal. Concludes with suggestions for change, citing 32 references. (MLH)

  17. Type 2 Deiodinase Disruption in Astrocytes Results in Anxiety-Depressive-Like Behavior in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocco, Barbara M L C; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro; Oliveira, Kelen C; Fernandes, Gustavo W; Fonseca, Tatiana L; Nascimento, Bruna P P; McAninch, Elizabeth A; Ricci, Esther; Kvárta-Papp, Zsuzsanna; Fekete, Csaba; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Gereben, Balázs; Bianco, Antonio C; Ribeiro, Miriam O

    2016-09-01

    Millions of levothyroxine-treated hypothyroid patients complain of impaired cognition despite normal TSH serum levels. This could reflect abnormalities in the type 2 deiodinase (D2)-mediated T4-to-T3 conversion, given their much greater dependence on the D2 pathway for T3 production. T3 normally reaches the brain directly from the circulation or is produced locally by D2 in astrocytes. Here we report that mice with astrocyte-specific Dio2 inactivation (Astro-D2KO) have normal serum T3 but exhibit anxiety-depression-like behavior as found in open field and elevated plus maze studies and when tested for depression using the tail-suspension and the forced-swimming tests. Remarkably, 4 weeks of daily treadmill exercise sessions eliminated this phenotype. Microarray gene expression profiling of the Astro-D2KO hippocampi identified an enrichment of three gene sets related to inflammation and impoverishment of three gene sets related to mitochondrial function and response to oxidative stress. Despite normal neurogenesis, the Astro-D2KO hippocampi exhibited decreased expression of four of six known to be positively regulated genes by T3, ie, Mbp (∼43%), Mag (∼34%), Hr (∼49%), and Aldh1a1 (∼61%) and increased expression of 3 of 12 genes negatively regulated by T3, ie, Dgkg (∼17%), Syce2 (∼26%), and Col6a1 (∼3-fold) by quantitative real-time PCR. Notably, in Astro-D2KO animals, there was also a reduction in mRNA levels of genes known to be affected in classical animal models of depression, ie, Bdnf (∼18%), Ntf3 (∼43%), Nmdar (∼26%), and GR (∼20%), which were also normalized by daily exercise sessions. These findings suggest that defects in Dio2 expression in the brain could result in mood and behavioral disorders. PMID:27501182

  18. Conceptualizing the Youthful Male Sex Offender: A Meta-Analytic Examination of Offender Characteristics by Offense Type

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Roger B.

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature demonstrates that, to date, no concerted effort has been made to conceptualize and develop typologies for youthful male sex offenders on the basis of offense type. Such typologies are deemed important to the understanding of possible developmental antecedents for sexual offending, as well as to the development of theory-driven, empirically based interventions and preventions. This study attempts to begin the conceptualization process through a meta-analytic examinat...

  19. Insulin therapy in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients: does it affect quality of life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauw, W.J.C. de; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Gerwen, W.H.E.M. van; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Weel, C. van

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strict glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic patients is recommended in a number of treatment protocols. However, although better glycaemic control prevents or postpones chronic diabetic complications, it remains uncertain how this affects quality of life in the short and long term. AIM:

  20. Niemann–Pick disease type C1 presenting with psychosis in an adolescent male

    OpenAIRE

    Sandu, Sabine; Jackowski-Dohrmann, Sabine; Ladner, Axel; Haberhausen, Michael; Bachmann, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Niemann?Pick disease, a neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder, is a rare disorder that is unknown to many clinicians. The disease, that often has its onset during childhood or adolescence, shows a polymorphic clinical picture, including psychiatric symptoms. Because of its infrequence, Niemann?Pick disease is diagnosed with an average delay of 6 years. This report presents a case of an adolescent male whose symptoms had led to various hospitalisations and psychiat...

  1. An affective computing algorithm based on temperament type in E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Biyun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper extracts five emotional features according to the emotions that may affect in learning,and introduces psychological theory to generate emotional susceptibility matrix and to draw personalized emotion vector by different learners' temperament type vectors,which all reflect the emotional state of the learners more realistically.This paper also recommends learners of different emotions and emotional intensity to learn the knowledge of different levels of difficulty,making learning more humane.Temperament type is a temperament doctrine evolved based on the Hippocratic humoral theory and can be a good expression of human personality foundation.Temperament type has been introduced into affective computing in the E-Learning in this paper so that computer can be better on the classification of the learner's personality and learning state and realistically be individualized.

  2. Analysis of male reproductive parameters in a murine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Cinthia Castro; Junior, Odair Aguiar; D’Almeida, Vânia

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) that is characterised by alpha-L-iduronidase (Idua) deficiency and continuous deposition of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which consequently interferes with cell signalling mechanisms and results in multisystemic and progressive symptoms. The animal model of MPS I (Idua-/-) has been widely studied to elucidate the consequences and progression of the disorder; however, studies specifically assessing the male reproductive tract are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate some of the reproductive characteristics of male MPS I mice in two phases of life. Reproductive organ biometry, sperm counts, sperm morphological evaluation, plasma testosterone measurements and histopathological, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in 3- and 6-month-old C57BL/6 Idua+/+ and Idua-/- mice. Seminal vesicle weights were decreased in both the 3- and 6-month-old Idua-/- mice. Decrease in sperm counts and the majority of the histopathological signs were observed in the 6-month-old Idua-/- mice. No differences were detected in the sperm morphological analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that seminiferous tubules from 3-month-old Idua-/- mice were more intensely stained with anti-caspase-3 than 3-month-old Idua+/+ mice, but no difference was found at 6 months. These results suggest that MPS I interferes with male reproductive parameters both in 3 and 6-month-old animals and histopathological signs are more pronounced in 6-month-old mice, indicating that the effects of the disorder may intensify with the disease progression. PMID:25031781

  3. Short periods of prenatal stress affect growth, behaviour and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in male guinea pig offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2005-08-01

    Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in HPA axis function will be associated with modification of anxiety-related behaviour. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light for 2 h on gestational days (GD) 50, 51, 52 (PS50) or 60, 61, 62 (PS60) (gestation length approximately 70 days). A control group was left undisturbed throughout pregnancy. Behaviour was assessed in male offspring on postnatal day (PND)25 and PND70 by measurement of ambulatory activity and thigmotaxis (wall-seeking behaviour) in a novel open field environment. Subsequent to behavioural testing, male offspring were cannulated (PND75) to evaluate basal and activated HPA axis function. Body weight was significantly decreased in adult PS50 and PS60 offspring and this effect was apparent soon after weaning. The brain-to-body-weight ratio was significantly increased in adult PS50 males. Basal plasma cortisol levels were elevated in PS50 male offspring throughout the 24 h sampling period compared with controls. In response to an ACTH challenge and to exposure to an acute stressor, PS60 male offspring exhibited elevated plasma cortisol responses. Plasma testosterone concentrations were strikingly decreased in PS50 offspring. Thigmotaxis in the novel environment was increased in PS50 male offspring at PND25 and PND70, suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In conclusion, prenatal stress during critical windows of neuroendocrine development programs growth, HPA axis function, and stress-related behaviour in adult male guinea pig offspring. Further, the nature of the effect is dependant on the timing of the maternal stress during pregnancy.

  4. Nutrition and dopamine: An intake of tyrosine in royal jelly can affect the brain levels of dopamine in male honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Precursors of neuroactive substances can be obtained from dietary sources, which can affect the resulting production of such substances in the brain. In social species, an intake of the precursor in food could be controlled by social interactions. To test the effects of dietary tyrosine on the brain dopamine levels in social insect colonies, male and worker honeybees were fed tyrosine or royal jelly under experimental conditions and the brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite were then measured. The results showed that the levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the brains of 4- and 8-day-old workers and 8-day-old males were significantly higher in tyrosine-fed bees than in control bees, but the levels in 4-day-old males were not. The brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite in 4- and 8-day-old males and workers were significantly higher in royal jelly-fed bees than in control bees, except for one group of 4-day-old workers. Food exchanges with workers were observed in males during 1-3 days, but self-feedings were also during 5-7 days. These results suggest that the brain levels of dopamine in males can be controlled by an intake of tyrosine in food via exchanging food with nestmates and by self-feeding. PMID:26868722

  5. Nutrition and dopamine: An intake of tyrosine in royal jelly can affect the brain levels of dopamine in male honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Precursors of neuroactive substances can be obtained from dietary sources, which can affect the resulting production of such substances in the brain. In social species, an intake of the precursor in food could be controlled by social interactions. To test the effects of dietary tyrosine on the brain dopamine levels in social insect colonies, male and worker honeybees were fed tyrosine or royal jelly under experimental conditions and the brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite were then measured. The results showed that the levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the brains of 4- and 8-day-old workers and 8-day-old males were significantly higher in tyrosine-fed bees than in control bees, but the levels in 4-day-old males were not. The brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite in 4- and 8-day-old males and workers were significantly higher in royal jelly-fed bees than in control bees, except for one group of 4-day-old workers. Food exchanges with workers were observed in males during 1-3 days, but self-feedings were also during 5-7 days. These results suggest that the brain levels of dopamine in males can be controlled by an intake of tyrosine in food via exchanging food with nestmates and by self-feeding.

  6. Familiarity with a female does not affect a male's courtship intensity in garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard SHINE; Jonathan K.WEBB; Amanda LANE; Robert T.MASON

    2012-01-01

    In many animal species,males direct more intense courtship towards females they have not previously encountered,than towards females with which they have previously mated.To test the factors responsible for this "Coolidge Effect",we need studies on a wide range of taxa-including those with mating systems in which we would not expect (based on current theory) that such an effect would be evident.The Coolidge Effect has been documented in several lizard species,but has not been looked for (and would not be expected) in snakes.We conducted experimental trials with red-sided garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis at a communal den in Manitoba,to see whether previous exposure to a female (either courting,or courting plus mating) modified male mate choice or courtship intensity.In keeping with prediction from theory (but contrary to an early anecdotal report),male garter snakes did not modify their courtship behaviour based upon their familiarity (or lack thereof) with a specific female.At least in large courting aggregations,male snakes may maximize their fitness by basing mate-choice upon immediate attributes of the female (body size,condition,mated status) and the intensity of competition (numbers and sizes of rival males) rather than information derived from previous sexual encounters.

  7. A new source of cytoplasmic male sterility found in wild beet and its relationship to other CMS types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Yuki; Shinada, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Masaki, Yusuke; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2010-04-01

    We found a number of male-sterile plants in a wild beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima) accession line, FR4-31. The inheritance study of the male sterility indicated the trait to be of the cytoplasmic type. The mitochondrial genome of FR4-31 proved to lack the male-sterility-associated genes preSatp6 and orf129, which are characteristic of the Owen CMS and I-12CMS(3) cytoplasms of beets, respectively. Instead, the truncated cox2 gene involved in G CMS originating from wild beets was present in the FR4-31 mitochondrial genome. In Southern hybridization using four mitochondrial gene probes, the FR4-31 cytoplasm showed patterns similar to those typical of the G cytoplasm. It is thus likely that the FR4-31 cytoplasm has a different CMS mechanism from both Owen CMS and I-12CMS(3), and that the FR4-31 and G cytoplasms resemble each other closely. A restriction map of the FR4-31 mitochondrial DNA was generated and aligned with those published for the Owen and normal fertile cytoplasms. The FR4-31 mitochondrial genome was revealed to differ extensively in arrangement from the Owen and normal genomes, and the male-sterile Owen and FR4-31 genomes seem to be derived independently from an ancestral genome.

  8. A new source of cytoplasmic male sterility found in wild beet and its relationship to other CMS types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Yuki; Shinada, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Masaki, Yusuke; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2010-04-01

    We found a number of male-sterile plants in a wild beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima) accession line, FR4-31. The inheritance study of the male sterility indicated the trait to be of the cytoplasmic type. The mitochondrial genome of FR4-31 proved to lack the male-sterility-associated genes preSatp6 and orf129, which are characteristic of the Owen CMS and I-12CMS(3) cytoplasms of beets, respectively. Instead, the truncated cox2 gene involved in G CMS originating from wild beets was present in the FR4-31 mitochondrial genome. In Southern hybridization using four mitochondrial gene probes, the FR4-31 cytoplasm showed patterns similar to those typical of the G cytoplasm. It is thus likely that the FR4-31 cytoplasm has a different CMS mechanism from both Owen CMS and I-12CMS(3), and that the FR4-31 and G cytoplasms resemble each other closely. A restriction map of the FR4-31 mitochondrial DNA was generated and aligned with those published for the Owen and normal fertile cytoplasms. The FR4-31 mitochondrial genome was revealed to differ extensively in arrangement from the Owen and normal genomes, and the male-sterile Owen and FR4-31 genomes seem to be derived independently from an ancestral genome. PMID:20616856

  9. 11-ketotestosterone induces male-type sexual behavior and gonadotropin secretion in gynogenetic crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Nakanishi, T

    1999-08-01

    To determine if a gynogenetic teleost might have a sexually bipotential brain, we tested whether implantation of 11-ketotestosterone (KT) induces male-type sexual behavior and gonadotropin (GTH) secretion in adult gynogenetic crucian carp, "ginbuna," Carassius auratus langsdorfii. KT-implanted female ginbuna were tested for male spawning behavior by pairing them with a stimulus female in which sexual receptivity and attractivity were induced by prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PG) injection. When KT-implanted female ginbuna were paired with a PG-injected stimulus female ginbuna, all the KT-implanted fish tested showed male spawning behavior in response to the PG-injected females. KT-implanted fish also showed female spawning behavior when they were injected with PG. When the KT-implanted female ginbuna were exposed to waterborne 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (a female sex pheromone that stimulates male-typical GTH secretion in goldfish), all the KT-implanted fish showed an elevation of plasma GTH levels in response to the pheromone. These results demonstrate that gynogenetically evolved ginbuna, like goldfish, is sexually plastic and can be behaviorally and endocrinologically masculinized by androgen treatment without behavioral defeminization. These results support our hypothesis that adult teleosts retain a sexually bipotential brain regardless of reproductive strategy, i.e., hermaphroditism, gonochorism, or gynogenesis. PMID:10417231

  10. Beta-carotene affects gene-expression in lungs of male and female Bcmo1-/-mice in opposite directions

    OpenAIRE

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R. W. L.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schooten, van, E.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms triggered by high dietary beta-carotene (BC) intake in lung are largely unknown. We performed microarray gene expression analysis on lung tissue of BC supplemented beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1 −/−) mice, which are—like humans—able to accumulate BC. Our main observation was that the genes were regulated in an opposite direction in male and female Bcmo1 −/− mice by BC. The steroid biosynthetic pathway was overrepresented in BC-supplemented male Bcmo1...

  11. Multiple pigment cell types contribute to the black, blue, and orange ornaments of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena A Kottler

    Full Text Available The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation.

  12. [Male participation in types of physical activities of a program for the elderly: a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Paulo Adão de; Streit, Inês Amanda; Sandreschi, Paula Fabricio; Fortunato, Artur Rodrigues; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon

    2014-08-01

    The article seeks to describe male participation on a physical activity program for the elderly in the south of Brazil over a ten-year period (2003-2013). The data of the study were extracted from a database and assessed using descriptive and inferential statistics and assessment of the thematic content. The first phase of the study was longitudinal (from 2003 to 2013) with 163 elderly participants, while the second phase was cross-sectional for the year of 2013 with 45 elderly individuals. Male participation was, on average, 3.5 times lower than female participation for all years assessed, and the activity most practiced was swimming. In the year 2013, the average age of the elderly men was 68 ± 7.8 years. Most of them are married, have tertiary education, good acquisitive power, positive self perception of health, one or more diagnosed diseases, and do not participate in any other physical activity outside the program. According to the elderly, the reasons for participating most cited was the search for quality of life and health and, for continuing to exercise, acquiring the taste for the physical activity. Understanding the profile of these individuals and of the reasons that motivate them are important tools to comprehend the issue and help to define public politics directed at this population group. PMID:25119086

  13. SDN-POA volume, sexual behavior, and partner preference of male rats affected by perinatal treatment with ATD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Houtsmuller (Elisabeth Judith); T. Brand (Teus); F.H. de Jonge (F.); R.N.J.M.A. Joosten (R. N J M A); N.E. van de Poll (N.); A.K. Slob (Koos)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe present study investigated 1) the importance of the aromatization process during the perinatal period for the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (SDN-POA) of male rats, and 2) the relationship between SDN-POA volume and parameters o

  14. R Region of S Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize Mitochondrial DNA is Transcribed in Both Directions and May Be Associated with Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGSai-Qun; ZHANGFang-Dong; XIAOHai-Lin; ZHENGYong-Lian

    2004-01-01

    It is well accepted that S type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in maize (Zea mays L.) isassociated with R region in mitochondrial genome. R region includes two open reading frames——orf355and orf77and it is speculated that orf77is an important candidate gene of CMS. RT-PCR showed that bothDNA strands of R region are transcribed. Nuclear background or developing stages of plant do not influencethe transcription of R region in the strand which also acts as template strand of cox Ⅰ/coxⅡ locating justupstream of R region, but they do influence the transcription of R region in the other strand (templatestrand of orf355-orf77). In tassel with nuclear background of rf3rf3, transcription of the template strand oforf355-orf77 is different from that in etiolated shoots with nuclear background of Rf3- or rf3rf3and tasselwith nuclear background of Rf3-. Compared to the same other three, it is truncated at about 238 base fromthe 5' end of R region. Rabbit antiserum against putative ORF77 expressed in Escherichia coliwas preparedbut Western blot did not detect ORF77 in plant materials. It seems that double-strand transcription of Rregion inhibits the translation of orf77and the transcribing mode of R region may be associated with malesterility.

  15. How type of excuse defense, mock juror age, and defendant age affect mock jurors' decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Pamela L; Heath, Wendy P; Grannemann, Bruce D

    2007-08-01

    The authors investigated the effects of mock juror age (younger vs. older), defendant age (22 vs. 65), and type of excuse defense used by defendants (a highly self-inflicted condition, Cocaine Dependency Disorder, vs. a less self-inflicted condition, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder) on mock juror decisions. Ninety-six younger and 96 older adults read a scenario and answered a questionnaire. Results indicated that the defendant using the highly self-inflicted excuse was more likely to receive a guilty verdict and a longer sentence than was the defendant using the less self-inflicted excuse. Older jurors were more certain of their verdicts and saw the defendant as more responsible for his condition than did younger jurors. Defendant age did not affect juror decisions. In addition, excuse type and juror age affected the jurors' perceptions of the victim's responsibility for the attack. The authors discuss the potential influence of juror age on perceptions of defendant responsibility. PMID:17955749

  16. Dynamic cerebral autoregulatory capacity is affected early in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Y.S.; Immink, R.V.; Stok, W.J.;

    2008-01-01

    ) and impaired in subjects with DM+ (30+/-5 degrees ; Pblood pressure oscillations by affected dynamic cerebral autoregulation. The steady-state response of MCA V(mean) to postural change was comparable for all groups (-12+/-6% in CTRL subjects......, -15+/-6% in subjects with DM- and -15+/-7% in subjects with DM+). HbA(1c) (glycated haemoglobin) and the duration of diabetes, but not blood pressure, were determinants of transfer function phase. In conclusion, dysfunction of dynamic cerebral autoregulation in subjects with Type 2 diabetes appears......Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of endothelial dysfunction and microvascular complications with impaired autoregulation of tissue perfusion. Both microvascular disease and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy may affect cerebral autoregulation. In the present study, we tested...

  17. BDNF val66met Polymorphism Affects Aging of Multiple Types of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Reese, Elizabeth D.; Horn, Marci M.; Sizemore, April N.; Unni, Asha K.; Meerbrey, Michael E.; Kalich, Allan G.; Rodrigue, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) influences activity-dependent secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the synapse, which is crucial for learning and memory. Individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the met allele have lower BDNF secretion than val homozygotes and may be at risk for reduced declarative memory performance, but it remains unclear which types of declarative memory may be affected and how aging of memory across the lifespan is impacted by the BDNF val66met poly...

  18. Analysis of Genetic Alterations in Patients Affected with Neurofibromatosis Type 2 and its Associated Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Caisa Marie

    2006-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant disorder with the clinical hallmark of bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS). Patients affected by a severe NF2 phenotype also presents with peripheral schwannomas, meningiomas and ependymomas. The closely related disorder schwannomatosis also displays multiple schwannomas, but never VS. Mutation screening of the NF2 gene in the above mentioned tumors did not identify mutations in numerous of cases. We analyzed the DNA sequence covering ...

  19. Singing on the wings! Male wing fanning performances affect female willingness to copulate in the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Donati, Elisa; Giunti, Giulia; Stefanini, Cesare; Canale, Angelo

    2016-08-01

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is a generalist endoparasitoid attacking more than 100 aphid species. In L. testaceipes, wing fanning is a main male courtship display evoked by a female-borne sex pheromone. However, no information is available on the characteristics and behavioral role of male fanning during courtship in this parasitoid. Here, the courtship behavior of a wild strain of L. testaceipes was quantified and the male wing fanning performances were analyzed through high-speed video recordings and examined in relation to mating success. Courtship sequence of wild L. testaceipes did not substantially differ from that previously reported for other populations mass reared on aphids. We observed that the male courtship duration did not affect mating success. However, video analysis revealed that the males producing high-frequency fanning signals achieved higher mating success over those that display low-frequency fanning. Wing fanning before successful and unsuccessful courtship differed in amplitude of wing movements and alignment toward the mate, highlighting that frontal courtship positively influence the female mating decisions. This study increases knowledge on sexual behavior in a key parasitoid of aphids, highlighting the importance of wing fanning among the range of sensory modalities used in the sexual communication of L. testaceipes. From a practical point of view, this information is useful in L. testaceipes-based biocontrol strategies, since it can help to establish parameters for quality checking of mass-reared wasps over time. PMID:25641835

  20. Singing on the wings! Male wing fanning performances affect female willingness to copulate in the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Donati, Elisa; Giunti, Giulia; Stefanini, Cesare; Canale, Angelo

    2016-08-01

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is a generalist endoparasitoid attacking more than 100 aphid species. In L. testaceipes, wing fanning is a main male courtship display evoked by a female-borne sex pheromone. However, no information is available on the characteristics and behavioral role of male fanning during courtship in this parasitoid. Here, the courtship behavior of a wild strain of L. testaceipes was quantified and the male wing fanning performances were analyzed through high-speed video recordings and examined in relation to mating success. Courtship sequence of wild L. testaceipes did not substantially differ from that previously reported for other populations mass reared on aphids. We observed that the male courtship duration did not affect mating success. However, video analysis revealed that the males producing high-frequency fanning signals achieved higher mating success over those that display low-frequency fanning. Wing fanning before successful and unsuccessful courtship differed in amplitude of wing movements and alignment toward the mate, highlighting that frontal courtship positively influence the female mating decisions. This study increases knowledge on sexual behavior in a key parasitoid of aphids, highlighting the importance of wing fanning among the range of sensory modalities used in the sexual communication of L. testaceipes. From a practical point of view, this information is useful in L. testaceipes-based biocontrol strategies, since it can help to establish parameters for quality checking of mass-reared wasps over time.

  1. An online positive affect skills intervention reduces depression in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Pietrucha, Martha E; Saslow, Laura R; Hult, Jen R; Moskowitz, Judith T

    2014-01-01

    Positive affect predicts improved glycemic control and longevity in adults with type 2 diabetes. We tested DAHLIA, a self-paced online intervention for type 2 diabetes that teaches positive affect skills such as savoring, gratitude, and acts of kindness. Participants (n=49) were randomized to the 5-week DAHLIA course or an emotion-reporting waitlist control. DAHLIA was understood and accepted by participants and showed good retention (78%). At post-intervention, DAHLIA participants showed a significantly greater decrease in depression than controls (-4.3 vs. +0.6 points on the CES-D, p =.05). Secondary analyses found that this effect was considerably stronger in intervention recipients recruited online than those recruited in person. Intervention recipients recruited online also showed significantly increased positive affect, reduced negative affect, and reduced perceived stress. There were no effects on measures of diabetes-specific efficacy or sense of burden, or preliminary measures of health behaviors. This successful feasibility and efficacy trial provides support for a larger trial focusing more specifically on health behavior. PMID:25214877

  2. Ectopic gynecomastia: report of occurrence in a male patient with type 1 diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Bruna S.; Scoppetta, Luiz Raphael Pereira Donoso; Moraes, Paula Camargo; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao, E-mail: brunass@einstein.b [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Imaging

    2010-08-15

    We report a case of breast tissue development at the usual insulin injection area, on both iliac fossa. There is no report in the literature that shows relation between hypertrophy, and/or increase of in vivo breast tissue and insulin stimulus. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ectopic gynecomastia reported in the literature. Male patient, 52 years, diabetic, sought to the Emergency Department due to abdominal pain. Abdomen computed tomography scan incidentally identified tissue with the same morphological and attenuation characteristics of the breast in the subcutaneous of both iliac fossa, at the usual insulin injection site. The patient was also submitted to complementary ultrasound exam. Ectopic gynecomastia is a possible entity, considering embryology and hormone aspects, but literature has no record of such cases in men. Another intriguing point is that the preeminence of the breast tissue occurred only at the chronic insulin injection area, a stimulating hormone, known to be mitogenic. (author)

  3. The effect of cholecalciferol and calcitriol on biochemical bone markers in HIV type 1-infected males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich Christian; Kolte, Lilian; Hitz, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1-infected patients have an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the bone metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients exposed to calcitriol and cholecalciferol. We also investigated the relationship between T cells and bone markers. We...... conducted a placebo-controlled randomized study running for 16 weeks including 61 HIV-1-infected males, of whom 51 completed the protocol. Nineteen participants were randomized to daily treatment with (A) 0.5-1.0 μg calcitriol and 1,200 IU (30 μg) cholecalciferol, 17 participants to (B) 1,200 IU......]. We determined naive CD4(+) and CD8(+), activated CD4(+) and CD8(+), and regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low) T lymphocytes. Baseline levels of P1NP and CTx correlated (coefficient 0.5, p...

  4. Mammalian E-type cyclins control chromosome pairing, telomere stability and CDK2 localization in male meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Martinerie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Loss of function of cyclin E1 or E2, important regulators of the mitotic cell cycle, yields viable mice, but E2-deficient males display reduced fertility. To elucidate the role of E-type cyclins during spermatogenesis, we characterized their expression patterns and produced additional deletions of Ccne1 and Ccne2 alleles in the germline, revealing unexpected meiotic functions. While Ccne2 mRNA and protein are abundantly expressed in spermatocytes, Ccne1 mRNA is present but its protein is detected only at low levels. However, abundant levels of cyclin E1 protein are detected in spermatocytes deficient in cyclin E2 protein. Additional depletion of E-type cyclins in the germline resulted in increasingly enhanced spermatogenic abnormalities and corresponding decreased fertility and loss of germ cells by apoptosis. Profound meiotic defects were observed in spermatocytes, including abnormal pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes, heterologous chromosome associations, unrepaired double-strand DNA breaks, disruptions in telomeric structure and defects in cyclin-dependent-kinase 2 localization. These results highlight a new role for E-type cyclins as important regulators of male meiosis.

  5. Song competition affects monoamine levels in sensory and motor forebrain regions of male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra B Sewall

    Full Text Available Male animals often change their behavior in response to the level of competition for mates. Male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii modulate their competitive singing over the period of a week as a function of the level of challenge associated with competitors' songs. Differences in song challenge and associated shifts in competitive state should be accompanied by neural changes, potentially in regions that regulate perception and song production. The monoamines mediate neural plasticity in response to environmental cues to achieve shifts in behavioral state. Therefore, using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, we compared levels of monoamines and their metabolites from male Lincoln's sparrows exposed to songs categorized as more or less challenging. We compared levels of norepinephrine and its principal metabolite in two perceptual regions of the auditory telencephalon, the caudomedial nidopallium and the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM, because this chemical is implicated in modulating auditory sensitivity to song. We also measured the levels of dopamine and its principal metabolite in two song control nuclei, area X and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA, because dopamine is implicated in regulating song output. We measured the levels of serotonin and its principal metabolite in all four brain regions because this monoamine is implicated in perception and behavioral output and is found throughout the avian forebrain. After controlling for recent singing, we found that males exposed to more challenging song had higher levels of norepinephrine metabolite in the CMM and lower levels of serotonin in the RA. Collectively, these findings are consistent with norepinephrine in perceptual brain regions and serotonin in song control regions contributing to neuroplasticity that underlies socially-induced changes in behavioral state.

  6. Neuropsychological performance and affective temperaments in Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ester; Holtzman, Jessica N; Tannenhaus, Lucila; Monchablon, Romina; Rago, Carlo Mario; Lolich, Maria; Vázquez, Gustavo H

    2016-04-30

    Affective temperament has been suggested as a potential mediator of the effect between genetic predisposition and neurocognitive functioning. As such, this report seeks to assess the extent of the correlation between affective temperament and cognitive function in a group of bipolar II subjects. 46 bipolar II outpatients [mean age 41.4 years (SD 18.2); female 58.9%] and 46 healthy controls [mean age 35.1 years (SD 18); female 56.5%] were evaluated with regard to their demographic and clinical characteristics, affective temperament, and neurocognitive performance. Crude bivariate correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were constructed between five affective temperament subscales and eight neurocognitive domains. Significant correlations were identified in bipolar patients between hyperthymic temperament and verbal memory and premorbid IQ; cyclothymic temperament and attention; and irritable temperament, attention, and verbal fluency. In adjusting for potential confounders of the relationship between temperament and cognitive function, the strongest mediating factors among the euthymic bipolar patients were found to be residual manic and depressive symptoms. It is therefore concluded that affective temperaments may partially influence the neurocognitive performance of both healthy controls and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II in several specific domains. PMID:27086230

  7. Intensive blood pressure control affects cerebral blood flow in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Davis, Shyrin C A T; Truijen, Jasper;

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with microvascular complications, hypertension, and impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Intensive blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients reduces their risk of stroke but may affect cerebral perfusion. Systemic hemodynamic...... variables and transcranial Doppler-determined cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), cerebral CO2 responsiveness, and cognitive function were determined after 3 and 6 months of intensive BP control in 17 type 2 diabetic patients with microvascular complications (T2DM+), in 18 diabetic patients without (T2DM......-) microvascular complications, and in 16 nondiabetic hypertensive patients. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity was lower in T2DM+ versus T2DM- and nondiabetic hypertensive patients (4.6±1.1 versus 6.0±1.6 [P

  8. Regression of gadolinium-enhanced lesions in patients affected by neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetta, Marta; Manara, Renzo; Perilongo, Giorgio; Clementi, Maurizio; Trevisson, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type I is a genetic condition with an autosomal dominant transmission characterized by neurocutaneous involvement and a predisposition to tumor development. Central nervous system manifestations include benign areas of dysmyelination and possibly hazardous glial tumors whose clinical management may result challenging. Here, we report on three patients diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis type I whose brain MRI follow-up showed the presence of gadolinium-enhancing lesions which spontaneously regressed. In none of the three cases, the lesions showed any clinical correlate and eventually presented a striking reduction in size while gadolinium enhancement disappeared despite no specific therapy administration during the follow-up. Although their nature remains undetermined, these lesions presented a benign evolution. However, they might be misdiagnosed as potentially life-threatening tumors. Hitherto, a similar behavior has been described only in scattered cases and we believe these findings may be of particular interest for the clinical management of patients affected by neurofibromatosis type I.

  9. McArdle disease does not affect skeletal muscle fibre type profiles in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertius Abraham Kohn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from glycogen storage disease V (McArdle disease were shown to have higher surface electrical activity in their skeletal muscles when exercising at the same intensity as their healthy counterparts, indicating more muscle fibre recruitment. To explain this phenomenon, this study investigated whether muscle fibre type is shifted towards a predominance in type I fibres as a consequence of the disease. Muscle biopsies from the Biceps brachii (BB (n = 9 or Vastus lateralis (VL (n = 8 were collected over a 13-year period from male and female patients diagnosed with McArdle disease, analysed for myosin heavy chain (MHC isoform content using SDS-PAGE, and compared to healthy controls (BB: n = 3; VL: n = 10. All three isoforms were expressed and no difference in isoform expression in VL was found between the McArdle patients and healthy controls (MHC I: 33±19% vs. 43±7%; MHC IIa: 52±9% vs. 40±7%; MHC IIx: 15±18% vs. 17±9%. Similarly, the BB isoform content was also not different between the two groups (MHC I: 33±14% vs. 30±11%; MHC IIa: 46±17% vs. 39±5%; MHC IIx: 21±13% vs. 31±14%. In conclusion, fibre type distribution does not seem to explain the higher surface EMG in McArdle patients. Future studies need to investigate muscle fibre size and contractility of McArdle patients.

  10. McArdle disease does not affect skeletal muscle fibre type profiles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Tertius Abraham; Noakes, Timothy David; Rae, Dale Elizabeth; Rubio, Juan Carlos; Santalla, Alfredo; Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Pinós, Tomas; Martín, Miguel A; Arenas, Joaquin; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from glycogen storage disease V (McArdle disease) were shown to have higher surface electrical activity in their skeletal muscles when exercising at the same intensity as their healthy counterparts, indicating more muscle fibre recruitment. To explain this phenomenon, this study investigated whether muscle fibre type is shifted towards a predominance in type I fibres as a consequence of the disease. Muscle biopsies from the Biceps brachii (BB) (n = 9) or Vastus lateralis (VL) (n = 8) were collected over a 13-year period from male and female patients diagnosed with McArdle disease, analysed for myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content using SDS-PAGE, and compared to healthy controls (BB: n = 3; VL: n = 10). All three isoforms were expressed and no difference in isoform expression in VL was found between the McArdle patients and healthy controls (MHC I: 33±19% vs. 43±7%; MHC IIa: 52±9% vs. 40±7%; MHC IIx: 15±18% vs. 17±9%). Similarly, the BB isoform content was also not different between the two groups (MHC I: 33±14% vs. 30±11%; MHC IIa: 46±17% vs. 39±5%; MHC IIx: 21±13% vs. 31±14%). In conclusion, fibre type distribution does not seem to explain the higher surface EMG in McArdle patients. Future studies need to investigate muscle fibre size and contractility of McArdle patients. PMID:25432515

  11. Inactivation of Adenovirus Type 5, Rotavirus WA and Male Specific Coliphage (MS2 in Biosolids by Lime Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B. Margolin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of lime to reduce or eliminate pathogen content is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the survival of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and the male specific bacteriophage, MS2, in various matrices. Each virus was initially evaluated independently in a reverse osmosis treated water matrix limed with an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide for 24-hr at 22 ± 5°C. In all R/O water trials, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa and MS2 were below detectable levels (<100.5 TCID50/mL and <1 PFU/mL respectively following 0.1-hr of liming. Adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and MS2, were inoculated into composted, raw and previously limed matrices, representative of sludge and biosolids, to achieve a final concentration of approximately 104 PFU or TCID50/mL. Each matrix was limed for 24-hr at 22 ± 5°C and 4 ± 2°C. In all trials virus was below detectable levels following a 24-hr incubation. The time required for viral inactivation varied depending on the temperature and sample matrix. This research demonstrates reduction of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and male-specific bacteriophage, in water, sludge and biosolids matrices following addition of an 8% calcium hydroxide slurry to achieve a pH of 12 for 2-hr reduced to 11.5 for 22-hr by addition of 0.1 N HCl. In these trials, MS2 was a conservative indicator of the efficacy of lime stabilization of adenovirus Type 5 and rotavirus Wa and therefore is proposed as a useful indicator organism.

  12. Decreased response inhibition in middle-aged male patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakura Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to examine whether patients with type 2 diabetes have cognitive deficits associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Methods Twenty-seven middle-aged patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 27 healthy controls underwent physical measurements and neuropsychological tasks. Response inhibition, reward prediction, and executive function were assessed by the Go/NoGo task, the reversal and extinction tasks, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. To examine the interactions of being overweight with diabetes on cognitive performance, performance data were analysed by two-way ANCOVA with diabetes and overweight as factors and age as a covariate. Results Patients with type 2 diabetes showed significantly decreased response inhibition in the Go/NoGo task (discriminability index: P = 0.001. There was an interaction of being overweight with diabetes on reaction time in the Go trials of the Go/NoGo task (P = 0.009. Being overweight was related to retained responses to the presentiment of reward in the extinction task (P = 0.029. The four groups showed normal cognitive performance in the WCST. Conclusions Our results showed that middle-aged, newly diagnosed and medication-free patients with type 2 diabetes have a particular neuropsychological deficit in inhibitory control of impulsive response, which is an independent effect of diabetes apart from being overweight.

  13. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. It is generally accepted that, when no chromosomal rearrangements are involved, man

  14. Molecular characterization of a new type of cytoplasmic male sterile sugar beet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢纬武; 康传红; 王继志; 王斌; 郭德栋

    1996-01-01

    A line (named Cl) of cytoplasmic sterility of sugar beet whose cytoplasm derived from Betacicla Turkey was obtained by interspecific hybrid. Its cytoplasm and a spontaneous male sterile cytoplasm from wild beet Beta maritima (named M) were compared with that of Owen’s sterile line (S-cms) and a common maintainer of them named N was used as control. RFLP and RAPD methods were mainly used in our experiments. The restriction fragment patterns of mtDNAs were found to be likely but for a few of specific low-lighted electrophoresis bands in Cl. The results of Southern hybridization of six heterogeneous mitochondrial genes as probes to digests of mtDNAs by six restriction enzymes showed to be analogous between S and M lines. But the Cl mtDNA was sorted out by hybridization of atpA probe. Difference of low-molecular-weight mitochondrial DNAs was found among the three sterile lines. Three RNA molecules weighing about 4.2kb stably existed in Cl mitochondria. Our results of RAPD also supported that the Cl cytoplas

  15. INFLUENCE OF MUSIC TYPE LISTENING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND SALIVARY CORTISOL IN MALES ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghaderi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fast and slow rhythm of music on anaerobic performance and salivary cortisol concentration in trained men. Thirty male physical education college students (ages: 25.66±3.89 yr, height: 176.65 ± 7.66 cm, body mass: 78.45±16.20 kg voluntary participated in this study and divided to three groups: fast music, slow music, and no music(control. All subjects performed the coninghum test following a 20% grate and 14.3km/h speed on the treadmill. For measuring of cortisol, not stimulated samples of saliva collected, 15 minutes befor and immediately 5 and 30 minute after the exercise. No significant differences were found in anaerobic performance among the three groups in pretest indicating homogeneity of the groups. However, salivary cortisol no significant in anaerobic performance 5 and 30 minute after exercise as well. Summarily, Music doed not have a positive effect on performance, this study provided some support for the hypothesis that listening fast and slow music not significantly impacted during supramaximal exercise.

  16. Visceral fat dominant distribution in male type 2 diabetic patients is closely related to hepatic insulin resistance, irrespective of body type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Yoshinori

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All previous studies that investigated the association between abdominal fat distribution and insulin resistance evaluated subcutaneous and visceral fat area and/or volume, but these values were not related to the body type of each subject. In the present study we have examined the association between abdominal fat distribution and peripheral (muscle/hepatic sensitivity to insulin using the visceral to abdominal subcutaneous fat area ratio (VF/SF ratio in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This ratio defines the predominancy of visceral or subcutaneous abdominal adiposity, independent of the body type of each individual. Methods Thirty-six type 2 diabetic male patients underwent a euglycemic insulin clamp (insulin infusion rate = 40 mU/m2·min with 3-3H-glucose to measure insulin-mediated total body (primarily reflects muscle glucose disposal (TGD and suppression of endogenous (primarily reflects liver glucose production (EGP in response to a physiologic increase in plasma insulin concentration. Abdominal subcutaneous (SF and intraabdominal visceral fat (VF areas were quantitated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the level of L4–5. Results TGD and TGD divided by steady state plasma insulin concentration during the insulin clamp (TGD/SSPI correlated inversely with body mass index (BMI, total fat mass (FM measured by 3H2O, SF and VF areas, while VF/SF ratio displayed no significant relationship with TGD or TGD/SSPI. In contrast, EGP and the product of EGP and SSPI during the insulin clamp (an index hepatic insulin resistance correlated positively with VF/SF ratio, but not with BMI, FM, VF or SF. Conclusion We conclude that, independent of the individual's body type, visceral fat dominant accumulation as opposed to subcutaneous fat accumulation is associated with hepatic insulin resistance, whereas peripheral (muscle insulin resistance is more closely related to general obesity (i.e. higher BMI and total FM

  17. Comparative clinical characteristics of depression in bipolar affective disorders types I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tyuvina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the clinical features of depression within bipolar affective disorders types I and II (BADI and BADII.Patients and methods. An examination was made in 100 depressive patients, including 25 with BADI, 37 with BADII, and 38 with recurrent depressive disorder (RDD (a comparison group. The patients' status was evaluated in accordance with the ICD-10 and DSM-V affective disorder criteria, by using a specially developed questionnaire.Results. BAD-related depression has features distinguishing it from RDD: sexual preference (men; an earlier age of disease onset; a shorter duration, but a higher frequency of exacerbations; a greater tendency for the continuum; a more marked decrease in social and family adaptation; development in people with predominantly hyperthymic premorbid; more frequently a family history of affective disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism; high comorbidity with metabolic diseases and psychoactive substance abuse; worse health more commonly in autumn and winter; a predominant anxious affect and an obviously decreasing interest in the structure of depression; a higher incidence of atypical sleep, appetite, and weight disorders; high suicidal activity; higher motor retardation (in BADI; relatively small involvement of somatic complaints in BAD I and frequent panic attacks in BADII.Conclusion. Knowledge of the specific features of BAD-related depression will be able to make a more accurate differential diagnosis and to perform more effective treatment in these patients.

  18. Exposure to altered gravity during specific developmental periods differentially affects growth, development, the cerebellum and motor functions in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1.65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge during discrete periods of time: the 2nd week of pregnancy [gestational day (G) 8 through G15; group A], the 3rd week of pregnancy (G15 through birth on G22/G23; group B), the 1st week of nursing [birth through postnatal day (P) 6; group C], the 2nd and 3rd weeks of nursing (P6 through P21; group D), the combined 2nd and 3rd weeks of pregnancy and nursing (G8 through P21; group E) and stationary control (SC) neonates (group F). Prenatal exposure to hypergravity resulted in intrauterine growth retardation as reflected by a decrease in the number of pups in a litter and lower average mass at birth. Exposure to hypergravity immediately after birth impaired the righting response on P3, while the startle response in both males and females was most affected by exposure during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth. Hypergravity exposure also impaired motor functions, as evidenced by poorer performance on a rotarod; while both males and females exposed to hypergravity during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth performed poorly on P21, male neonates were most dramatically affected by exposure to hypergravity during the second week of gestation, when the duration of their recorded stay on the rotarod was one half that of SC males. Cerebellar mass was most reduced by later postnatal exposure. Thus, for the developing rat cerebellum, the postnatal period that overlaps the brain growth spurt is the most vulnerable to hypergravity. However, male motor behavior is also affected by midpregnancy exposure to

  19. Genetic analysis of fertility restoring genes for AL-type male sterility in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaofang; Tian Xiaoming; Nie Yingbin; Mu Peiyuan; Han Xinnian; Sang Wei; Cui Fengjuan; Xu Hongjun; Xiang Jishan

    2013-01-01

    In order to screen molecular markers linked to fertility restoring genes and further improve the breeding efficiency of restorer lines,in this study,wheat varieties 18A,18B and 99AR144-1 were used as experimental materials to establish F2 fertility-segregating population. Plant quantitative trait“major gene+polygene mixed mo-del”separation analysis method and simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers were adopted for genetic analysis of four generations,including the parents (P1 and P2),and hybrid (Fl and F2) populations. The results show that AL-type fertility restoring gene is controlled by two pairs of additive-dominant-epistatic genes and addi-tive-dominant polygene;two primers linked to fertility restoring genes were selected by SSR molecular markers, including Xgwm95 on chromosome 2A and Barc61 on chromosome 1B,with the linkage distance of 15.0 cM and 18.0 cM,respectively. Based on verification,these two markers are reliable for distinguishing AL-type wheat ste-rile lines and restorer lines.

  20. Emulsifier type, metal chelation and pH affect oxidative stability of n-3-enriched emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions is affected by the type of surfactant used as emulsifier. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of real food emulsifiers as well as metal chelation by EDTA and pH on the oxidative stability of a 10% n-3...... to their ability to chelate iron, scavenge free radicals, interfere with interactions between the lipid hydroperoxides and iron as well as to form a physical harrier around the oil droplets....

  1. Triacylglycerol Accumulation is not primarily affected in Myotubes established from Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake, and glycogen synthesis (GS) in human myotubes from healthy, lean, and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), exposed to increasing palmitate (PA) and oleate (OA) concentra......In the present study, we investigated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake, and glycogen synthesis (GS) in human myotubes from healthy, lean, and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), exposed to increasing palmitate (PA) and oleate (OA......-stimulated FA uptake (P<0.001), but did not correlate with insulin-stimulated glucose uptake for PA or OA (P>0.05). These results indicate that (1) TAG accumulation is not primarily affected in skeletal muscle tissue of obese and T2D; (2) induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is followed by TAG...... skeletal muscle of obese and T2D subjects is adaptive....

  2. Maternal high-fat diet inversely affects insulin sensitivity in dams and young adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Zardooz, Homeira

    2016-09-01

    This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams. In HF offspring intra-abdominal fat mass, plasma leptin, and corticosterone levels decreased. Following IPGTT, the plasma insulin level of HF dams was higher than the controls. In HF offspring plasma insulin level was not significantly different from the controls, but a steeper decrease of their plasma glucose concentration was observed. PMID:27604865

  3. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  4. A Study Of The Relation Between IQ And Personality Types Among Male And Female Students Of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaee D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologists have been thinking that some personality types may have a higher IQ comparing with the other types, and this could be considered as a general belief. Eysenck, the eminent British psychologist, described the introverted people to have a higher. Intelligence comparing with the extroverted people. Materials and Methods: We maintain two objectives from this study. Firstly if there is a relation between the IQ and personality types or not and secondly the mean IQ of which group is higher and thirdly, what is the relation between sexes. Results: 297 students were selected randomly from Tabriz University and Tabriz Medical Sciences University. Every examination was given both Raven IQ test and Eysenck personality inventory and examination answered the both tests at the same time. Both tests were evaluated by the standard scoring system. The results of both tests were extracted then statistical evaluations ofx and t-test were done. No significant and meaningful relation was found between IQ and personality types pf Eysenck ( introversion- extroversion, neuroticism, emotion stability among male and female students. Also introverted students and extroverted students did not have significant differences in the mean of IQ. Conclusion: Altogether these kinds of findings seem to be interesting, judging about psychological and behavioral characteristic of people needs more studies, and a single IQ or personality test is not sufficient. Therefore reaching an exact conclusion as a scientific fact will be possible by further researches.

  5. In vitro selenium accessibility in pet foods is affected by diet composition and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelst, Mariëlle; Hesta, Myriam; Alexander, Lucille G; Gray, Kerry; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H; Du Laing, Gijs; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Goethals, Klara; Janssens, Geert P J

    2015-06-28

    Se bioavailability in commercial pet foods has been shown to be highly variable. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary factors associated with in vitro accessibility of Se (Se Aiv) in pet foods. Se Aiv is defined as the percentage of Se from the diet that is potentially available for absorption after in vitro digestion. Sixty-two diets (dog, n 52; cat, n 10) were in vitro enzymatically digested: fifty-four of them were commercially available (kibble, n 20; pellet, n 8; canned, n 17; raw meat, n 6; steamed meat, n 3) and eight were unprocessed (kibble, n 4; canned, n 4) from the same batch as the corresponding processed diets. The present investigation examined if Se Aiv was affected by diet type, dietary protein, methionine, cysteine, lysine and Se content, DM, organic matter and crude protein (CP) digestibility. Se Aiv differed significantly among diet types (Pextrusion (n 4) revealed no effect on Se Aiv (P =0·297). These differences in Se Aiv between diet types warrant quantification of diet type effects on in vivo Se bioavailability. PMID:25994047

  6. Types of Adolescent Male Dating Violence Against Women, Self-Esteem, and Justification of Dominance and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Aguado, Maria Jose; Martinez, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    The recognition of the seriousness of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the need to prevent it has led to the study of its inception in relationships established in adolescence. This study uses latent class analysis to establish a typology of male adolescents based on self-reports of violence against a girl in dating relationships. The participants were 4,147 boys in Spain aged 14 to 18 years from a probabilistic sample. Four discrete, identifiable groups were derived based on 12 indicators of emotional abuse, intimidation, coercion, threats, physical violence, and violence transmitted via communication technologies. The first group consists of non-violent adolescent boys. A second group comprises those boys who isolate and control their partners. Boys who exert only medium-level emotional abuse form the third group, whereas the fourth is formed by teenage boys who frequently engage in all types of violence. Compared with the non-violent adolescents in a multinomial logistic regression, the other groups show lower self-esteem and display a greater justification of male dominance and IPV against women; greater justification of aggression in conflict resolution; they have also received more dominance and violence messages from adults in their family environment; and they perceive IPV behaviors against women as abuse of lesser importance. PMID:25326012

  7. Types of Adolescent Male Dating Violence Against Women, Self-Esteem, and Justification of Dominance and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Aguado, Maria Jose; Martinez, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    The recognition of the seriousness of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the need to prevent it has led to the study of its inception in relationships established in adolescence. This study uses latent class analysis to establish a typology of male adolescents based on self-reports of violence against a girl in dating relationships. The participants were 4,147 boys in Spain aged 14 to 18 years from a probabilistic sample. Four discrete, identifiable groups were derived based on 12 indicators of emotional abuse, intimidation, coercion, threats, physical violence, and violence transmitted via communication technologies. The first group consists of non-violent adolescent boys. A second group comprises those boys who isolate and control their partners. Boys who exert only medium-level emotional abuse form the third group, whereas the fourth is formed by teenage boys who frequently engage in all types of violence. Compared with the non-violent adolescents in a multinomial logistic regression, the other groups show lower self-esteem and display a greater justification of male dominance and IPV against women; greater justification of aggression in conflict resolution; they have also received more dominance and violence messages from adults in their family environment; and they perceive IPV behaviors against women as abuse of lesser importance.

  8. Factors affecting Male-female Friendships among Youth in Shiraz City, With an emphasis on Globalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Khajenoori

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Social relations among people, with different age and sex groups are an important source for sociological studies. To be more specific, studying friendly relationships between the sexes, especially among youth, is of crucial importance in the field of family sociology, marriage. In this study, while reviewing previous research and existing theories on friendly relationships, we developed a theoretical framework, which is based on perspectives of Giddens on globalization and intimacy. The re search is quantitative and used survey method to collect data. The sample includes 531 young males and females living in Shiraz, who were selected through multi-stage random sampling. The data was collected through self-report questionnaire. Our bivariate analysis indicates that using modern information and communication technologies and modern lifestyle are the two independent variables which have the greatest impact on tendency towards friendship with the opposite sex. Also, our multivariate analysis show that friends’ pressure, degree of religiosity (as a lifestyle, using modern information and communication technologies, and family pressure, taken together, explain 36% of the variance of dependent variable.

  9. Human Herpes Virus Type 2 (HSV2), Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the Male Genital Tract and Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Courtot Anne Marie; Pallier Coralie; Testart Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of infection of the human male genital tract by human herpes virus type 2 (HSV2) or human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is well established and their sexual transmission has been the object of many studies. Moreover, medically assisted procreation, which helps in numerous fertility problems, raises the question of new viral risks linked to the application of these new technologies. In this review, we shall consider current knowledge in terms of the presence of HSV2 and HCMV in the different parts of the genital tract of immunocompetent or immunodepressed men. We shall also consider the possibility of viral transmission by the sexual act or by the various techniques used in medically assisted procreation. We shall describe studies in human beings and in animals.

  10. Comparison of Tissue Transglutaminase Activity During Young Panicle Development in Honglian-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Xun; ZHANG Zai-jun; LI Yang-sheng; ZHU Ying-guo

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the changes of tissue transglutaminase activity, the leaves and young panicles of rice at different developmental stages were excised from the Honglian-type cytoplasmic male sterile line, Yuetai A and its maintainer line, Yuetai B, respectively. An ELISA measurement protocol for tissue transglutaminase activity detection in rice was well established. The results indicated that the tissue transglutaminase activity was regulated positively by calcium cation, and the tissue transglutaminase activity in senescent leaves was remarkably higher than that in young leaves. No distinct difference was noted between Yuetai A and Yuetai B. Moreover, from the tetrad to binucleate stages the tissue transglutaminase activity increased gradually with the progression of the young panicle development and up to maximum at binucleate stage in Yuetai A. However, no similar changes were observed in Yuetai B. This indicates that the tissue transglutaminase is involved in cell programmed death in abortive pollen.

  11. Hybrid male sterility between the fresh- and brackish-water types of ninespine stickleback Pungitius pungitius (Pisces, Gasterosteidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Nagai, Terumi; Goto, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Two ecologically distinct forms, fresh- and brackish-water types, of ninespine stickleback co-exist in several freshwater systems on the coast of eastern Hokkaido. Recent genetic analyses of 13 allozyme loci revealed genetic separation between the two types even though their spawning grounds were in close proximity. On the other hand, there is only a small difference in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence between the two types suggesting that they diverged quite recently or that mtDNA introgression occurred between them. To test for postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms and hybrid mediated gene flow, we examined the viability and reproductive performance of reciprocal F1 hybrids. The hybrids grew to the adult size normally and both sexes expressed secondary sexual characters in the reciprocal crosses. The female hybrids were reciprocally fertile, while the male hybrids were reciprocally sterile. Histological and flow-cytometric analyses of the hybrid testis revealed that the sterility pattern was classified as 'gametic sterility,' with gonads of normal size but abnormal spermatogenesis. To our knowledge, the present finding is a novel example of one sex hybrid sterility in the stickleback family (Gasterosteidae).

  12. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

  13. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population. PMID:27547313

  14. Runx1 Regulates Myeloid Precursor Differentiation Into Osteoclasts Without Affecting Differentiation Into Antigen Presenting or Phagocytic Cells in Both Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, David N; Yang, Xiaochuan; Kalinowski, Judith; Jastrzebski, Sandra; Drissi, Hicham; Lorenzo, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 1 (Runx1), a master regulator of hematopoiesis, is expressed in preosteoclasts. Previously we evaluated the bone phenotype of CD11b-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice and demonstrated enhanced osteoclasts and decreased bone mass in males. However, an assessment of the effects of Runx1 deletion in female osteoclast precursors was impossible with this model. Moreover, the role of Runx1 in myeloid cell differentiation into other lineages is unknown. Therefore, we generated LysM-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice, which delete Runx1 equally (∼80% deletion) in myeloid precursor cells from both sexes and examined the capacity of these cells to differentiate into osteoclasts and phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells. Both female and male LysM-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice had decreased trabecular bone mass (72% decrease in bone volume fraction) and increased osteoclast number (2-3 times) (P nuclear factor-κB ligand to stimulate osteoclast formation and fusion in female and male mice without affecting other myeloid cell fates. In turn, increased osteoclast activity in LysM-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice likely contributed to a decrease in bone mass. These dramatic effects were not due to increased osteoclast precursors in the deleted mutants and argue that inhibition of Runx1 in multipotential myeloid precursor cells is important for osteoclast formation and function. PMID:27267711

  15. Patients affected with Fabry disease have an increased incidence of progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness: an investigation of twenty-two hemizygous male patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chassaing Augustin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabry disease (FD, OMIM 301500 is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to the deficient activity of alpha-galactosidase A, a lysosomal enzyme. While the progressive systemic deposition of uncleaved glycosphingolipids throughout the body is known to have protean clinical manifestations, few data are available regarding the cochlear involvement. Methods We non-invasively investigated cochlear functions in 22 consecutive hemizygous males (age 19–64 years, mean 39 affected with classic FD. Conventional audiometry, tympanometry, ABR audiometry, otoacoustic emissions were performed in all patients, together with medical history record and physical examination as part of an exhaustive baseline evaluation prior to enzyme replacement therapy. Results A total of 12 patients (54.5% with classic FD were found to have abnormal audition. Five patients had progressive hearing loss and seven patients (32% experienced sudden deafness. In addition, a hearing loss on high-tone frequencies was found in 7 out of the 10 remaining patients without clinical impairment, despite their young age at time of examination. The incidence of hearing loss appeared significantly increased in FD patients with kidney failure (P tinnitus aurium was also found in six patients (27%. Conclusion This is the first evidence of a high incidence of both progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness in a cohort of male patients affected with classic Fabry disease. The exact pathophysiologic mechanism(s of the cochlear involvement deserves further studies.

  16. The Effect of Regular Aerobic Training on Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) in Males With Type II Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasemalipour; Eizadi; Hajirasouli

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of literature suggests that systemic inflammation is associated with obesity, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three months of aerobic training on serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), as an inflammatory cytokine, in males with type II diabetes. Patients and Methods Twenty-four adu...

  17. Anti-diabetic effects of polysaccharides from Talinum triangulare in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Zhou, Qing; Yin, Jiao-jiao; Yao, Yong; Zhang, Jiu-liang

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of the polysaccharides obtained from Talinum triangulare (TTP). Two TTP doses (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg · bw/d) were administered orally to normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic male Kunming mice, respectively. The TTP hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects were evaluated by testing the fast blood glucose (FBG) level, fasting serum insulin (FINS), and serum lipids (TC, TG, HDL, LDL) as well as the body, hepar and kidney weights. After four weeks administration, the low-dose group 150 mg/kg · bw/d) and high-dose group (300 mg/kg · bw/d) showed a marked FBG fall rate of 29.85% and 41.18% (FBG fall rate% = ((Diabetic control--TTP group)/Diabetic control) × 100%). The results of FBG and serum lipids indicate that TTP possess significant hypoglycemic effect, but no significant hypolipidemic effect. These results suggest the potential use of TTP as a functional food for the treatment of type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). PMID:25236607

  18. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) induces cognitive deficits and affects GABAB receptors and IGF-1 receptors in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jenny; Grönbladh, Alfhild; Hallberg, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the abuse of the club drug gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has become increasingly popular among adolescents. The drug induces euphoria but can also result in sedation, anaesthesia as well as short-term amnesia. In addition, the abuse of GHB causes cognitive impairments and the mechanism by which GHB induces these impairments is not clarified. The present study investigates the impact of GHB treatment on spatial learning and memory using a water maze (WM) test in rats. Furthermore, the behavioural data is combined with an autoradiographic analysis of the GABAB and the IGF-1 receptor systems. The results demonstrate that the animals administered with GHB display an impaired performance in the WM test as compared to controls. In addition, significant alterations in GABAB and IGF-1 receptor density as well as GABAB receptor functionality, were observed in several brain regions associated with cognitive functions e.g. hippocampus. To conclude, our findings suggest that GHB treatment can affect spatial learning and memory, and that this outcome at least to some extent is likely to involve both GABAB and IGF-1 receptors.

  19. Flow variation and substrate type affect dislodgement of the freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakauskas, David M.; Wilson, Sarah J.; Wilzbach, Margaret A.; Som, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    We quantified microscale flow forces and their ability to entrain the freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa, the intermediate host for 2 myxozoan parasites (Ceratomyxa shasta and Parvicapsula minibicornis) that cause substantial mortalities in salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest. In a laboratory flume, we measured the shear stress associated with 2 mean flow velocities and 3 substrates and quantified associated dislodgement of polychaetes, evaluated survivorship of dislodged polychaetes, and observed behavioral responses of the polychaetes in response to increased flow. We used a generalized linear mixed model to estimate the probability of polychaete dislodgement for treatment combinations of velocity (mean flow velocity  =  55 cm/s with a shear velocity  =  3 cm/s, mean flow velocity  =  140 cm/s with a shear velocity  =  5 cm/s) and substrate type (depositional sediments and analogs of rock faces and the filamentous alga, Cladophora). Few polychaetes were dislodged at shear velocities affected by both substrate type and velocity. After accounting for substrate, odds of dislodgement were 8× greater at the higher flow. After accounting for velocity, probability of dislodgement was greatest from fine sediments, intermediate from rock faces, and negligible from Cladophora. Survivorship of dislodged polychaetes was high. Polychaetes exhibited a variety of behaviors for avoiding increases in flow, including extrusion of mucus, burrowing into sediments, and movement to lower-flow microhabitats. Our findings suggest that polychaete populations probably exhibit high resilience to flow-mediated disturbances.

  20. Identification of cell types, tissues and pathways affected by risk loci in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Zhao, Pan; Shen, Changbing; Shen, Songke; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zuo, Xianbo; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Xuejun; Yin, Xianyong

    2016-04-01

    Many common variants have been found associated with the risk of psoriasis, but the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown, mostly owing to the difficulty in dissecting the mechanism of each variant using representative cell type and tissue in biological experiments. We applied an integrative method SNPsea which has been developed by investigators in Broad, to identify the most relevant cell types, tissues, and pathways to psoriasis by assessing the condition specificity affected by psoriasis genome-wide association studies-implicated genes. We employed this software on 89 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with genome-wide significance in Han Chinese and Caucasian populations. We found significant evidence for peripheral blood CD56 + NK cells (P = 1.30 × 10(-7)), Langerhans cells (P = 4.96 × 10(-6)) and CD14+ monocytes (P psoriasis. We suggested that the DNase I hypersensitivity sites in CD14+ cells were active in psoriasis (P = 2.20 × 10(-16)). In addition, we discovered that biotic stimulus response, cytokine production and NF-κB pathways were significantly activated in psoriasis (P psoriasis that will help guide biological experiments for psoriasis risk variants in future. PMID:26563434

  1. Different inactivating mutations of the mineralocorticoid receptor in fourteen families affected by type I pseudohypoaldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorato, Paola; Lapeyraque, Anne-Laure; Armanini, Decio; Kuhnle, Ursula; Khaldi, Yasmina; Salomon, Rémi; Abadie, Véronique; Di Battista, Eliana; Naselli, Arturo; Racine, Alain; Bosio, Maurizio; Caprio, Massimiliano; Poulet-Young, Véronique; Chabrolle, Jean-Pierre; Niaudet, Patrick; De Gennes, Christiane; Lecornec, Marie-Hélène; Poisson, Elodie; Fusco, Anna Maria; Loli, Paola; Lombès, Marc; Zennaro, Maria-Christina

    2003-06-01

    We have analyzed the human mineralocorticoid receptor (hMR) gene in 14 families with autosomal dominant or sporadic pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1), a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized by neonatal renal salt wasting and failure to thrive. Six heterozygous mutations were detected. Two frameshift mutations in exon 2 (insT1354, del8bp537) and one nonsense mutation in exon 4 (C2157A, Cys645stop) generate truncated proteins due to premature stop codons. Three missense mutations (G633R, Q776R, L979P) differently affect hMR function. The DNA binding domain mutant R633 exhibits reduced maximal transactivation, although its binding characteristics and ED(50) of transactivation are comparable with wild-type hMR. Ligand binding domain mutants R776 and P979 present reduced or absent aldosterone binding, respectively, which is associated with reduced or absent ligand-dependent transactivation capacity. Finally, P979 possesses a transdominant negative effect on wild-type hMR activity, whereas mutations G633R and Q776R probably result in haploinsufficiency in PHA1 patients. We conclude that hMR mutations are a common feature of autosomal dominant PHA1, being found in 70% of our familial cases. Their absence in some families underscores the importance of an extensive investigation of the hMR gene and the role of precise diagnostic procedures to allow for identification of other genes potentially involved in the disease. PMID:12788847

  2. Identification of cell types, tissues and pathways affected by risk loci in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Zhao, Pan; Shen, Changbing; Shen, Songke; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zuo, Xianbo; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Xuejun; Yin, Xianyong

    2016-04-01

    Many common variants have been found associated with the risk of psoriasis, but the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown, mostly owing to the difficulty in dissecting the mechanism of each variant using representative cell type and tissue in biological experiments. We applied an integrative method SNPsea which has been developed by investigators in Broad, to identify the most relevant cell types, tissues, and pathways to psoriasis by assessing the condition specificity affected by psoriasis genome-wide association studies-implicated genes. We employed this software on 89 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with genome-wide significance in Han Chinese and Caucasian populations. We found significant evidence for peripheral blood CD56 + NK cells (P = 1.30 × 10(-7)), Langerhans cells (P = 4.96 × 10(-6)) and CD14+ monocytes (P psoriasis. We suggested that the DNase I hypersensitivity sites in CD14+ cells were active in psoriasis (P = 2.20 × 10(-16)). In addition, we discovered that biotic stimulus response, cytokine production and NF-κB pathways were significantly activated in psoriasis (P psoriasis that will help guide biological experiments for psoriasis risk variants in future.

  3. Mutation types and aging differently affect revertant fiber expansion in dystrophic mdx and mdx52 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Echigoya

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, one of the most common and lethal genetic disorders, and the mdx mouse myopathies are caused by a lack of dystrophin protein. These dystrophic muscles contain sporadic clusters of dystrophin-expressing revertant fibers (RFs, as detected by immunohistochemistry. RFs are known to arise from muscle precursor cells with spontaneous exon skipping (alternative splicing and clonally expand in size with increasing age through the process of muscle degeneration/regeneration. The expansion of revertant clusters is thought to represent the cumulative history of muscle regeneration and proliferation of such precursor cells. However, the precise mechanisms by which RFs arise and expand are poorly understood. Here, to test the effects of mutation types and aging on RF expansion and muscle regeneration, we examined the number of RFs in mdx mice (containing a nonsense mutation in exon 23 and mdx52 mice (containing deletion mutation of exon 52 with the same C57BL/6 background at 2, 6, 12, and 18months of age. Mdx mice displayed a significantly higher number of RFs compared to mdx52 mice in all age groups, suggesting that revertant fiber expansion largely depends on the type of mutation and/or location in the gene. A significant increase in the expression and clustering levels of RFs was found beginning at 6months of age in mdx mice compared with mdx52 mice. In contrast to the significant expansion of RFs with increasing age, the number of centrally nucleated fibers and embryonic myosin heavy chain-positive fibers (indicative of cumulative and current muscle regeneration, respectively decreased with age in both mouse strains. These results suggest that mutation types and aging differently affect revertant fiber expansion in mdx and mdx52 mice.

  4. Dyadic dynamics of HIV risk among transgender women and their primary male sexual partners: the role of sexual agreement types and motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Reisner, Sari L; Darbes, Lynae A; Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Nemoto, Toru; Operario, Don

    2016-01-01

    Transgender women - individuals assigned a male sex at birth who identify as women, female, or on the male-to-female trans feminine spectrum - are at high-risk of HIV worldwide. Prior research has suggested that transgender women more frequently engage in condomless sex with primary cisgender (i.e., non-transgender) male partners compared with casual or paying partners, and that condomless sex in this context might be motivated by relationship dynamics such as trust and intimacy. The current study examined sexual agreement types and motivations as factors that shape HIV risk behaviors in a community sample of 191 transgender women and their cisgender primary male partners who completed a cross-sectional survey. Overall, 40% of couples had monogamous, 15% open, and 45% discrepant sexual agreements (i.e., partners disagreed on their type of agreement). Actor-partner interdependence models were fit to examine the influence of sexual agreement type and motivations on extra-dyadic HIV risk (i.e., condomless sex with outside partners) and intra-dyadic HIV serodiscordant risk (i.e., condomless sex with serodiscordant primary partners). For male partners, extra-dyadic risk was associated with their own and their partners' sexual agreement motives, and male partners who engaged in extra-dyadic HIV risk had an increased odds of engaging in HIV serodiscordant intra-dyadic risk. Study findings support inclusion of the male partners of transgender women into HIV prevention efforts. Future research is warranted to explore the interpersonal and social contexts of sexual agreement types and motivations in relationships between transgender women and their male partners to develop interventions that meet their unique HIV prevention needs. PMID:26273720

  5. Life table and male mating competitiveness of wild type and of a chromosome mutation strain of Tetranychus urticae in relation to genetic pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Males of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae) from a strain, homozygous for a structural chromosome mutation (T) were competed against males from a standard (wild-type) strain for mating of wild-type fermales. The T-males exhibited only a slight reduction in male mating competitiveness. The debilitating influence of ageing on male mating competitiveness was equal for males of both strains. Life-table studies on both strains showed that the net reproductive rate (R0) of the T-strain was 53.3, which was higher than the R0-value of the standard strain (43.3). This difference was caused by the higher rate of age-dependent mortality of adult females of the standard strain. Also differences between both strains in the total sex-ratio were observed; the T-strain produced significantly fewer males and more females than the standard strain. The mean generation time of both strains was almost equal (14 days). The values of the intrinsic rate of increase (rsub(m)) for the T-strain and the standard strain were 0.286 and 0.273, respectively. The life-table data correspond well with those published elsewhere on Tetranychus urticae. The feasibility of T-strains for application in genetic pest control considering the use of structural chromosome mutations as a 'transport mechanism' for conditional lethals is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes between a wheat K-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS line and its maintainer line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Dongcheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondria, semiautonomous organelles that function as manufacturers of cellular ATP, have their own genome that has a slow rate of evolution and rapid rearrangement. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, a common phenotype in higher plants, is closely associated with rearrangements in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, and is widely used to produce F1 hybrid seeds in a variety of valuable crop species. Novel chimeric genes deduced from mtDNA rearrangements causing CMS have been identified in several plants, such as rice, sunflower, pepper, and rapeseed, but there are very few reports about mtDNA rearrangements in wheat. In the present work, we describe the mitochondrial genome of a wheat K-type CMS line and compare it with its maintainer line. Results The complete mtDNA sequence of a wheat K-type (with cytoplasm of Aegilops kotschyi CMS line, Ks3, was assembled into a master circle (MC molecule of 647,559 bp and found to harbor 34 known protein-coding genes, three rRNAs (18 S, 26 S, and 5 S rRNAs, and 16 different tRNAs. Compared to our previously published sequence of a K-type maintainer line, Km3, we detected Ks3-specific mtDNA (> 100 bp, 11.38% and repeats (> 100 bp, 29 units as well as genes that are unique to each line: rpl5 was missing in Ks3 and trnH was absent from Km3. We also defined 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 13 protein-coding, albeit functionally irrelevant, genes, and predicted 22 unique ORFs in Ks3, representing potential candidates for K-type CMS. All these sequence variations are candidates for involvement in CMS. A comparative analysis of the mtDNA of several angiosperms, including those from Ks3, Km3, rice, maize, Arabidopsis thaliana, and rapeseed, showed that non-coding sequences of higher plants had mostly divergent multiple reorganizations during the mtDNA evolution of higher plants. Conclusion The complete mitochondrial genome of the wheat K-type CMS line Ks3 is very different from that of

  7. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Pleger

    Full Text Available The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  8. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  9. Does the Early Social Environment Affect Structure and Consistency of Personality in Wild-Type Male Rats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracceva, Giulia; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2011-01-01

    Animal personality has been extensively studied from a functional and evolutionary point of view. Less attention has been paid to the development of personality, its phenotypic plasticity, and the influence of manipulation of early environmental factors. Here we describe the effects of manipulating

  10. Considerations affecting dietary behaviour of immigrants with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.E. Kohinor; K. Stronks; M. Nicolaou; J.A. Haafkens

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural factors affecting the dietary behaviour of Dutch Surinamese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. In this qualitative study, 32 Surinamese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in semi-structured intervi

  11. Structural and Expressional Variations of the Mitochondrial Genome Conferring the Wild Abortive Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Lan Liu; Hong Xu; Jing-Xin Guo; Yao-Guang Liu

    2007-01-01

    The so-called "wild abortive" (WA) type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) derived from a wild rice species Oryza rufipogon has been extensively used for hybrid rice breeding. However, extensive analysis of the structure of the related mitochondrial genome has not been reported, and the CMS-associated gene(s) remain unknown. In this study, we exploited a mitochondrial genome-wide strategy to examine the structural and expressional variations in the mitochondrial genome conferring the CMS. The entire mitochondrial genomes of a CMS-WA line and two normal fertile rice lines were amplified by Long-polymerase chain reaction into tilling fragments of up to 15.2 kb. Restriction and DNA blotting analyses of these fragments revealed that structural variations occurred in several regions in the WA mitochondrial genome, as compared to those of the fertile lines. All of the amplified fragments covering the entire mitochondrial genome were used as RNA blot probes to examine the mitochondrial expression profile among the CMS-WA and fertile lines. As a result, only two mRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between the CMS-WA and the fertile lines, which were detected by a probe containing the nadS and orf153 genes and the other having the ribosomal protein gene rp15, respectively. These mRNAs are proposed to be the candidates for further identification and functional studies of the CMS gene.

  12. Mapping of Rice Fertility-Restoring Genes for ID-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in a Restorer Line R68

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An F2 population derived from the cross Zhong 9NR68 was used to map the fertility-restoring (Rf) gene for ID-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS).Two bulks (a fertile bulk and a sterile bulk) were constructed by pooling equal amount of ten highly fertile lines and ten highly sterile lines,respectively.Four hundred and thirteen pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers,which evenly distributed on 12 chromosomes of rice,were selected for analyzing polymorphisms between the parents and between the two bulks.The primer RM283 on chromosome 1 and the primers RM5756,RM258,RM6100 and RM171 on chromosome 10 were found to be polymorphic between the parents and between the two bulks.These five SSR markers were linked to fertility-restoring genes.A total of 82 excessive sterile lines were selected from Zhong 9NR68 F2 population to estimate the genetic distance between five SSR markers and fertility-restoring genes respectively.The results indicated that one Rf gene was linked to RM283 located on chromosome 1 at a distance of 6.7 cM,and the other Rfgene was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 10 flanked by RM258 and RM6100 at the distances of 8.0 cM and 2.4 cM,respectively.

  13. Ageing differentially affects neural processing of different conflict types – an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarethe eKorsch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interference control and conflict resolution is affected by ageing. There is increasing evidence that ageing does not compromise interference control in general but rather shows distinctive effects on different components of interference control. Different conflict types, (e.g. stimulus-stimulus (S-S or stimulus-response (S-R conflicts trigger different cognitive processes and thus activate different neural networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we used a combined Flanker and Stimulus Response Conflict (SRC task to investigate the effect of ageing on S-S and S-R conflicts. Behavioral data analysis revealed larger SRC effects in elderly. fMRI Results show that both age groups recruited similar regions (caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus and middle occipital gyrus during Flanker conflict processing. Furthermore, elderly show an additional activation pattern in parietal and frontal areas. In contrast, no common activation of both age groups was found in response to the SRC. These data suggest that ageing has distinctive effects on S-S and S-R conflicts.

  14. Meat quality traits in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) as affected by muscle type and animal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, P; Lepetit, J; Renerre, M; Touraille, C

    1997-02-01

    Meat quality traits were determined in the major muscles of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) at different slaughter ages (6, 10, 14, 17 or ≥20 months). A mean ultimate pH value of 5.5 was reached within around 3 h post mortem, but this value was 6.1 in animals that had suffered a preslaughter stress (transportation and fasting). The collagen and pigment contents varied widely among the muscles. The protein and pigment contents increased with animal age, but this effect was perceptible only between 6 and 14 months. The other chemical constituents were little affected by muscle type or animal age. The intense red colour of emu meat, due to a high pigment content, was very sensitive to oxidation, thus limiting the storage of fresh meat under aerobic conditions to short periods of time. Despite a rapid post-mortem tenderization (≤24 h), the residual myofibrillar strength obtained after extended ageing remained intermediate between those reported for chicken and beef. The tenderness of meat, cooked to 60 °C, differed between muscles and decreased with increasing age, thus reflecting the changes occuring in the concentration and in the heat stability of the intramuscular connective tissue.

  15. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. PMID:26010021

  16. [Affective disorders and dementia of the frontal lobe type. Hypothesis of a pathogenic relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, J P; Favel, P; Rémy, C; Sanabria, E; Bidault, E

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of some dysthymic states towards dementia is now rarely considered whereas it was well known at the beginning of the century. In French the final stage of this evolution was known as "démence vésanique". In recent years it has been noted that a proportion of patients with presenile dementia do not have Alzheimer's disease (AD) but a particular type of cognitive impairment., called dementia of the frontal lobe type (DFT), characterised by clinical and neuropsychological signs of frontal lobe disorder as well as an anterior defect of cerebral perfusion or metabolism. The onset of DFT is insiduous and marked by personality changes and inappropriate affect. It has not yet been reported as starting with true dysthymic disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Ten right handed patients (F/M = 9/1) became dysthymic in their fifties (m = 49.8 + 7.6 yr). All initially met the DSM III-R criteria for mood disorders. They were all treated with the standard drugs or ECT. Although initially responsive all the patients relapsed and their dysthymic disorders became less typical in presentation. At a mean age of 63.6 +/- 2.9 yrs a particular type of dementia became evident. None of the patients had a previous history of mood disorder or a family history of dementia. The demented patients received thorough clinical examinations and 8/10 were tested with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). All had XCT and HMPAO-SPECT scans using a rotating gamma camera. Three patients had a MRI Scan. RESULTS. The main symptoms were apathy and a lack of spontaneity as a result of which the patients were no longer able to live alone. HMPAO-SPECT: All the patients had clear hypoperfusion of the frontal and temporal lobes with seven showing a left predominance. XCT: A moderate degree of cortical atrophy, more pronounced in the frontal lobes, was observed in 6 patients. In 3 of them a previous XCT scan had been normal. MRI: Subcortical white matter hyperintensities were seen in the 3

  17. Type of frame dependence: variation in media frames affecting attitudes via audience frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. van Drunen; H.G. Boomgaarden; R. Vliegenthart

    2012-01-01

    In this paper two suggested processes of framing theory (Scheufele, 1999) are tested: frame setting (media affecting audience frames) and the individual effects process (audience frames affecting attitudes or behavior). Media frames may affect opinions and behavior, however these effects are not dir

  18. Effect of angiotensin Ⅱ type Ⅰ receptor blocker losartan on bone deterioration in orchiectomized male hypertensive and normotensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-feng; QIN Ling; Timothy CY Kwok; Benson HY Yeung; LI Guo-dong; LIU Fan

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological study showed that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) in older people,especially male subjects,which suggested that angiotensin Ⅱ may have a detrimental effect on bone.Therefore,blocking its effect may have a beneficial effect on bone health.Methods Six-month-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were used.Animals of each model were randomly assigned to the following four groups:Group 1,SHAM operated+vehicle;Group 2,orchidectomy (ORX)+vehicle; Group 3,ORX+low-dose losartan (10 mg.kg-1·d-1); and Group 4,ORX+high-dose losartan (25 mg.kg-1.d-1).Blood pressure was recorded weekly.SHAM and ORX operations were performed,followed by daily losartan and vehicle treatment from day 4 after operation for 16 weeks.Serum and 24-hour urine samples were collected for measurement of bone turnover markers before euthanasia and then the left femur was collected for measurements of BMD and microarchitecture before mechanical test.Results Urine deoxypyridinoline/urine creatinine (DPD/Cr) ratio was significantly higher in SHR than in WKY.BMD and microarchitecture parameters also showed bone deterioration in SHR.After ORX,serum osteocalcin concentration decreased and urine DPD/Cr ratio increased significantly accompanied by a significant decrease in cortical and trabecular BMD and cortical bone thickness in both WKY and SHR.High-dose losartan significantly increased DPD in urine in both SHR and WKY.Apart from marginal favorable changes in bone architecture in WKY treated with high-dose losartan,losartan did not show significant effect on BMD,bone area,bone microarchitecture,and mechanical properties in both SHR and WKY.Conclusion Angiotensin Ⅱ type Ⅰ receptor blocker losartan was not able to demonstrate significant effect on ORX-induced bone deterioration in both hypertensive and normotensive rats.

  19. Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome of mixed anatomical variant (combined male and female type with mixed germ cell tumor of left intra-abdominal testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS is a rare form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism characterized by retention of Müllerian duct derivatives in a phenotypically and karyotypically male patient. Deficiency of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH secretion or resistance to AMH action due to defective AMH-II receptor is presumed to cause such syndrome in the majority of cases. About 158 PMDS cases have been reported so far, out of which 31 cases are associated with testicular neoplasms. Herein, we describe an interesting case of young male initially diagnosed and treated for inguinal hernia, but finally diagnosed as “PMDS of mixed anatomical variant (combined male and female type with mixed germ cell tumor of left intra-abdominal testis” comprising components of seminoma and yolk sac tumor and treated successfully.

  20. Characterization of housekeeping genes in zebrafish: male-female differences and effects of tissue type, developmental stage and chemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callard Gloria V

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research using the zebrafish model has experienced a rapid growth in recent years. Although real-time reverse transcription PCR (QPCR, normalized to an internal reference ("housekeeping" gene, is a frequently used method for quantifying gene expression changes in zebrafish, many commonly used housekeeping genes are known to vary with experimental conditions. To identify housekeeping genes that are stably expressed under different experimental conditions, and thus suitable as normalizers for QPCR in zebrafish, the present study evaluated the expression of eight commonly used housekeeping genes as a function of stage and hormone/toxicant exposure during development, and by tissue type and sex in adult fish. Results QPCR analysis was used to quantify mRNA levels of bactin1, tubulin alpha 1(tuba1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd, TATA-box binding protein (tbp, beta-2-microglobulin (b2m, elongation factor 1 alpha (elfa, and 18s ribosomal RNA (18s during development (2 – 120 hr postfertilization, hpf; in different tissue types (brain, eye, liver, heart, muscle, gonads of adult males and females; and after treatment of embryos/larvae (24 – 96 hpf with commonly used vehicles for administration and agents that represent known environmental endocrine disruptors. All genes were found to have some degree of variability under the conditions tested here. Rank ordering of expression stability using geNorm analysis identified 18s, b2m, and elfa as most stable during development and across tissue types, while gapdh, tuba1, and tpb were the most variable. Following chemical treatment, tuba1, bactin1, and elfa were the most stably expressed whereas tbp, 18s, and b2m were the least stable. Data also revealed sex differences that are gene- and tissue-specific, and treatment effects that are gene-, vehicle- and ligand-specific. When the accuracy of QPCR analysis was tested using

  1. How the type of input function affects the dynamic response of conducting polymer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a growing interest in smart actuators typified by conducting polymer actuators, especially in their (i) fabrication, modeling and control with minimum external data and (ii) applications in bio-inspired devices, robotics and mechatronics. Their control is a challenging research problem due to the complex and nonlinear properties of these actuators, which cannot be predicted accurately. Based on an input-shaping technique, we propose a new method to improve the conducting polymer actuators’ command-following ability, while minimizing their electric power consumption. We applied four input functions with smooth characteristics to a trilayer conducting polymer actuator to experimentally evaluate its command-following ability under an open-loop control strategy and a simulated feedback control strategy, and, more importantly, to quantify how the type of input function affects the dynamic response of this class of actuators. We have found that the four smooth inputs consume less electrical power than sharp inputs such as a step input with discontinuous higher-order derivatives. We also obtained an improved transient response performance from the smooth inputs, especially under the simulated feedback control strategy, which we have proposed previously [X Xiang, R Mutlu, G Alici, and W Li, 2014 “Control of conducting polymer actuators without physical feedback: simulated feedback control approach with particle swarm optimization’, Journal of Smart Materials and Structure, 23]. The idea of using a smooth input command, which results in lower power consumption and better control performance, can be extended to other smart actuators. Consuming less electrical energy or power will have a direct effect on enhancing the operational life of these actuators. (paper)

  2. How the type of input function affects the dynamic response of conducting polymer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xingcan; Alici, Gursel; Mutlu, Rahim; Li, Weihua

    2014-10-01

    There has been a growing interest in smart actuators typified by conducting polymer actuators, especially in their (i) fabrication, modeling and control with minimum external data and (ii) applications in bio-inspired devices, robotics and mechatronics. Their control is a challenging research problem due to the complex and nonlinear properties of these actuators, which cannot be predicted accurately. Based on an input-shaping technique, we propose a new method to improve the conducting polymer actuators’ command-following ability, while minimizing their electric power consumption. We applied four input functions with smooth characteristics to a trilayer conducting polymer actuator to experimentally evaluate its command-following ability under an open-loop control strategy and a simulated feedback control strategy, and, more importantly, to quantify how the type of input function affects the dynamic response of this class of actuators. We have found that the four smooth inputs consume less electrical power than sharp inputs such as a step input with discontinuous higher-order derivatives. We also obtained an improved transient response performance from the smooth inputs, especially under the simulated feedback control strategy, which we have proposed previously [X Xiang, R Mutlu, G Alici, and W Li, 2014 “Control of conducting polymer actuators without physical feedback: simulated feedback control approach with particle swarm optimization’, Journal of Smart Materials and Structure, 23]. The idea of using a smooth input command, which results in lower power consumption and better control performance, can be extended to other smart actuators. Consuming less electrical energy or power will have a direct effect on enhancing the operational life of these actuators.

  3. Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Soils as Affected by Soil Types and Metal Load Quantity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two series of soil subsamples, by spiking copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in anorthogonal design, were prepared using red soil and brown soil, respectively. The results indicated that heavymetal fractions in these soil subsamples depended not only on soil types, but also on metal loading quantityas well as on interactions among metals in soil. Lead and Cu in red soil appeared mostly in weakly specificallyadsorbed (WSA), Fe and Mn oxides bound (OX), and residual (RES) fractions. Zinc existed in all fractionsexcept organic bound one, and Cd was major in water soluble plus exchangeable (SE) one. Different fromthe results of red soil, Pb and Cu was present in brown soil in all fractions except organic one, but over 75%of Zn and 90% of Cd existed only in SE fraction. Meanwhile, SE fraction for any metal in red soil was lowerthan that in brown soil and WSA and OX fractions were higher. It is in agreement with low cation exchangecapacity and large amounts of metal oxides included in red soil. Metal fractions in soil, especially for watersoluble plus exchangeable one, were obviously influenced by other coexisting metals. The SE fraction ofheavy metals increased with increasing loading amounts of metals in red soil but not obviously in brown soil,which suggest that metal availability be easily affected by their total amounts spiked in red soil. In addition,more metals in red soil were extracted with 0.20 mol L-1 NH4Cl (pH 5.40) than that with 1.0 mol L-1Mg(NO3)2 (pH 7.0), but the reverse happened in brown soil, implicating significantly different mechanismsof metal desorption from red soil and brown soil.

  4. 几种类型甘蓝雄性不育的研究 与显性不育系的利用%Investigation of Different Types of Male Sterility and Application of Dominant Male Sterility in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方智远; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 王晓武; 庄木

    2001-01-01

    Several types of male sterility (MS) in cabbage were investigated. The results indicated that using male sterility in 81132 controlled by a recessive gene only 50% male sterile plants can be achieved. Nigra cytoplasmic male sterility in CMSn78091 is associated with small nectar glands and un-fully opened flowers. Radish cytoplasmic male sterility in R1cc409 has problems of poor seed setting and chlorosis at low temperature. It is difficult to apply these three materials in cabbage breeding. Male sterile material CMSR29551 with improved radish male sterile cytoplasm has very stable male sterility and no problem of chlorosis at low temperatures. Several MS lines were developed after backcrossing it with different inbred lines. However,it was found that after several generations of backcrossing,hybrid vigor of the male sterile lines decreased,which limited its application in practical breeding. Male sterile line CMSR3625 with another improved radish cytoplasm has not only promising plant growth,flowering and seed setting characteristics,but also high combining ability. It showed good prospect in cabbage breeding. Male sterility controlled by dominant male sterile gene has perfect economic characteristics and male sterility. Two hybrids,which have passed the test of Committee of National Agricultural Variety Examination and Approving, were developed.%隐性不育材料83121ms,不育株率仅50%。黑芥胞质不育材料CMSN78091不育花不能完全开放,蜜腺小。萝卜胞质不育材料CMSR1409等及其转育后代开花结实性状不良,且低温下叶色黄化,以上3类不育材料在甘蓝实际育种中应用困难。改良的萝卜胞质不育材料CMSR29551等及其转育后代低温下叶色不黄化,在其转育后代中筛选出几份开花结实性状较好的不育系,但多代回交后不育系配制的F1杂种优势弱,应用有局限性。改良的萝卜胞质不育系CMSR3625等,植株性状、开花结实特性

  5. Short-term exposure to low concentrations of the synthetic androgen methyltestosterone affects vitellogenin and steroid levels in adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lene; Goto-Kazeto, Rie; Trant, John M; Nash, Jon P; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2006-03-10

    Short-term effects of methyltestosterone (MT) on the endocrine system of adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) were examined. Males were exposed to 0, 4.5, 6.6, 8.5, 19.8, 35.9, 62.3 ng MT/l and ethinylestradiol (EE2) (26.4 ng/l) for 7 days. Several physiological endpoints that may be affected by endocrine disrupters were analysed, specifically vitellogenin (VTG) concentration, estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT) content, brain aromatase activity and gene expression of CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 in the testis. Exposure to the lowest MT concentration (4.5 ng MT/l), and the EE2 increased the concentration of VTG significantly compared to solvent control group. Exposure to higher concentrations of MT did not increase VTG levels. Endogenous KT and T levels decreased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner in response to the MT exposure and the lowest effective concentrations were 6.4 and 8.5 ng MT/l, respectively. The levels of KT and T were also significantly suppressed by EE2 when compared to the solvent control group. Significant decreases in endogenous E2 levels were found in some MT groups but it was not possible to distinguish a simple concentration-response relationship. No effects of MT or EE2 on the brain aromatase activity or on testicular gene expression of CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 were detected. The results show that androgens such as MT can act as endocrine disrupters even at very low concentrations.

  6. Fried, Grilled or Baked Foods? They May Affect Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 2 Diets Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Type 2 Diets About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  7. Collagen Type II Enhances Chondrogenesis in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells by Affecting Cell Shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, ZuFu; Doulabi, Behrouz Zandieh; Huang, ChunLing; Bank, Ruud A.; Helder, Marco N.

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors c

  8. Collagen type II enhances chondrogenesis in adipose tissue-derived stem cells by affecting cell shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Lu; B.Z. Doulabi; C. Huang; R.A. Bank; M.N. Helder

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors c

  9. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coor...

  10. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Kieronczyk, B; Rawski, M;

    2014-01-01

    fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C...... were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork...... of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v...

  11. Increased dosage of RAB39B affects neuronal development and could explain the cognitive impairment in male patients with distal Xq28 copy number gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmarsenille, Lieselot; Giannandrea, Maila; Fieremans, Nathalie; Verbeeck, Jelle; Belet, Stefanie; Raynaud, Martine; Vogels, Annick; Männik, Katrin; Õunap, Katrin; Jacqueline, Vigneron; Briault, Sylvain; Van Esch, Hilde; D'Adamo, Patrizia; Froyen, Guy

    2014-03-01

    Copy number gains at Xq28 are a frequent cause of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Here, we report on a recurrent 0.5 Mb tandem copy number gain at distal Xq28 not including MECP2, in four male patients with nonsyndromic mild ID and behavioral problems. The genomic region is duplicated in two families and triplicated in a third reflected by more distinctive clinical features. The X-inactivation patterns in carrier females correspond well with their clinical symptoms. Our mapping data confirm that this recurrent gain is likely mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination between two directly oriented Int22h repeats. The affected region harbors eight genes of which RAB39B encoding a small GTPase, was the prime candidate since loss-of-function mutations had been linked to ID. RAB39B is expressed at stable levels in lymphocytes from control individuals, suggesting a tight regulation. mRNA levels in our patients were almost two-fold increased. Overexpression of Rab39b in mouse primary hippocampal neurons demonstrated a significant decrease in neuronal branching as well as in the number of synapses when compared with the control neurons. Taken together, we provide evidence that the increased dosage of RAB39B causes a disturbed neuronal development leading to cognitive impairment in patients with this recurrent copy number gain.

  12. The genetic background affects the vascular response in T-type calcium channels 3.2 deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Hansen, Pernille B L

    2016-01-01

    -type channels are the dominant Ca(2+) entry pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells, however, T-type calcium channels are also expressed in the cardiovascular system where they play a functional role in the regulation of both contraction and vasodilation in (Chen et al. 2003; Hansen et al. 2001). This article......Voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav ) are important regulators of vascular tone and are attractive targets for pharmacological treatment of hypertension. The clinical used calcium blockers are often not selective for one channel but affect several types of calcium channels (Hansen 2015). L...

  13. Linkage of the VNTR/insulin-gene and type I diabetes mellitus: Increased gene sharing in affected sibling pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owerbach, D.; Gabbay, K.H. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Ninety-six multiplex type I diabetic families were typed at the 5' flanking region of the insulin gene by using a PCR assay that better resolves the VNTR into multiple alleles. Affected sibling pairs shared 2, 1, and 0 VNTR alleles - identical by descent - at a frequency of .47, .45, and .08, respectively, a ratio that deviated from the expected 1:2:1 ratio (P<.001). These results confirm linkage of the chromosome 11p15.5 region with type I diabetes mellitus susceptibility. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Male Pattern Alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baldness (alopecia), or androgenetic alopecia, is the patterned balding of a man. Although the condition may affect ... dihydrotestosterone – play a role in this form of balding. Who's At Risk Male pattern baldness affects many ...

  15. Type 2 Diabetes and Edentulism as Chronic Co-Morbid Factors Affecting Indian Elderly: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ladha, Komal; Tiwari, Bhawana

    2013-01-01

    In past 50 years, type 2 diabetes has emerged as one of the major public health problem. India leads the world with the largest number of diabetic patients and has a huge elderly population. The present article discusses the effect of diabetes and edentulism on the overall general health of elderly. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and edentulism in Indian elderly and their inter-relationship has been discussed. Dentists must provide optimum oral care with special attention towards comprehen...

  16. Swim Training Improves HOMA-IR in Type 2 Diabetes Induced by High Fat Diet and Low Dose of Streptozotocin in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rafigheh Ghiasi; Farhad Ghadiri Soufi; Mohammad hossein Somi; Gisou Mohaddes; Fariba Mirzaie Bavil; Roya Naderi; Mohammad Reza Alipour

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Insulin resistance plays a key role in the onset and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications. In this study, we evaluated the effect of swim training on insulin resistance in diabetic rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10): sedentary control (Con), sedentary diabetic (Dia), swim trained control (Exe) and swim trained diabetic (Dia+Exe) rats. Diabetes was induced by high fat diet (HFD) and a...

  17. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  18. Schizo-affective disorder (Schneiderian positive), manic type: a comparison with mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, E H; Surawicz, F G

    1982-06-01

    Manic patients with (N = 12) and without (N = 27) Schneiderian first rank symptoms (SFRS) were compared with regard to age, age at illness onset, presence of good prognostic signs, psychopathologic variables, treatment, and family history. The lack of group differences seen on many variables is consistent with the notion that SFRS do not define a separate schizo-affective manic subtype with differences in etiology or outcome.

  19. Naproxen, a Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug, Can Affect Daily Hypobaric Hypoxia-Induced Alterations of Monoamine Levels in Different Areas of the Brain in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ananda Raj; Dutta, Goutam; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2016-06-01

    Goswami, Ananda Raj, Goutam Dutta, and Tusharkanti Ghosh. Naproxen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug can affect daily hypobaric hypoxia-induced alterations of monoamine levels in different areas of the brain in male rats. High Alt Med Biol. 17:133-140, 2016.-The oxidative stress (OS)-induced prostaglandin (PG) release, in hypobaric hypoxic (HHc) condition, may be linked with the changes of brain monoamines. The present study intends to explore the changes of monoamines in hypothalamus (H), cerebral cortex (CC), and cerebellum (CB) along with the motor activity in rats after exposing them to simulated hypobaric condition and the role of PGs on the daily hypobaric hypoxia (DHH)-induced alteration of brain monoamines by administering, an inhibitor of PG synthesis, naproxen. The rats were exposed to a decompression chamber at 18,000 ft for 8 hours per day for 6 days after administration of vehicle or naproxen (18 mg/kg body wt.). The monoamine levels (epinephrine, E; norepinephrine, NE; dopamine, DA; and 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in CC, CB, and H were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection, and the locomotor behavior was measured by open field test. The NE and DA levels were decreased in CC, CB, and H of the rat brain in HHc condition. The E and 5-HT levels were decreased in CC, but in H and CB, they remained unaltered in HHc condition. These DHH-induced changes of monoamines in brain areas were prevented after administration of naproxen in HHc condition. The locomotor behavior remained unaltered in HHc condition and after administration of naproxen in HHc condition. The DHH-induced changes of monoamines in the brain in HHc condition are probably linked with PGs that may be induced by OS. PMID:26894935

  20. B-type nuclear lamin and the nuclear pore complex Nup107-160 influences maintenance of the spindle envelope required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Tanabe, Karin; Katsube, Hiroka

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In higher eukaryotes, nuclear envelope (NE) disassembly allows chromatin to condense and spindle microtubules to access kinetochores. The nuclear lamina, which strengthens the NE, is composed of a polymer meshwork made of A- and B-type lamins. We found that the B-type lamin (Lam) is not fully disassembled and continues to localize along the spindle envelope structure during Drosophila male meiosis I, while the A-type lamin (LamC) is completely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Among the nuclear pore complex proteins, Nup107 co-localized with Lam during this meiotic division. Surprisingly, Lam depletion resulted in a higher frequency of cytokinesis failure in male meiosis. We also observed the similar meiotic phenotype in Nup107-depleted cells. Abnormal localization of Lam was found in the Nup-depleted cells at premeiotic and meiotic stages. The central spindle microtubules became abnormal and recruitment of a contractile ring component to the cleavage sites was disrupted in Lam-depleted cells and Nup107-depleted cells. Therefore, we speculate that both proteins are required for a reinforcement of the spindle envelope, which supports the formation of central spindle microtubules essential for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis. PMID:27402967

  1. B-type nuclear lamin and the nuclear pore complex Nup107-160 influences maintenance of the spindle envelope required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Hayashi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In higher eukaryotes, nuclear envelope (NE disassembly allows chromatin to condense and spindle microtubules to access kinetochores. The nuclear lamina, which strengthens the NE, is composed of a polymer meshwork made of A- and B-type lamins. We found that the B-type lamin (Lam is not fully disassembled and continues to localize along the spindle envelope structure during Drosophila male meiosis I, while the A-type lamin (LamC is completely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Among the nuclear pore complex proteins, Nup107 co-localized with Lam during this meiotic division. Surprisingly, Lam depletion resulted in a higher frequency of cytokinesis failure in male meiosis. We also observed the similar meiotic phenotype in Nup107-depleted cells. Abnormal localization of Lam was found in the Nup-depleted cells at premeiotic and meiotic stages. The central spindle microtubules became abnormal and recruitment of a contractile ring component to the cleavage sites was disrupted in Lam-depleted cells and Nup107-depleted cells. Therefore, we speculate that both proteins are required for a reinforcement of the spindle envelope, which supports the formation of central spindle microtubules essential for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis.

  2. B-type nuclear lamin and the nuclear pore complex Nup107-160 influences maintenance of the spindle envelope required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Tanabe, Karin; Katsube, Hiroka; Inoue, Yoshihiro H

    2016-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, nuclear envelope (NE) disassembly allows chromatin to condense and spindle microtubules to access kinetochores. The nuclear lamina, which strengthens the NE, is composed of a polymer meshwork made of A- and B-type lamins. We found that the B-type lamin (Lam) is not fully disassembled and continues to localize along the spindle envelope structure during Drosophila male meiosis I, while the A-type lamin (LamC) is completely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Among the nuclear pore complex proteins, Nup107 co-localized with Lam during this meiotic division. Surprisingly, Lam depletion resulted in a higher frequency of cytokinesis failure in male meiosis. We also observed the similar meiotic phenotype in Nup107-depleted cells. Abnormal localization of Lam was found in the Nup-depleted cells at premeiotic and meiotic stages. The central spindle microtubules became abnormal and recruitment of a contractile ring component to the cleavage sites was disrupted in Lam-depleted cells and Nup107-depleted cells. Therefore, we speculate that both proteins are required for a reinforcement of the spindle envelope, which supports the formation of central spindle microtubules essential for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis. PMID:27402967

  3. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Method: Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5 to 18 years old enrolled in 58…

  4. Is Infant Initiation of Joint Attention by Pointing Affected by Type of Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Fabia; Perucchini, Paola; March, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of two experiments studying the effects of type of interaction on infant production of declarative pointing. In Experiment 1, intensity of social presence was manipulated in adult-infant interaction with 12-19-month-olds (no social presence; adult responding only; adult also initiating joint attentional bids).…

  5. Peripheral nerve pathology in patients with severely affected complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Bodde, Marlies I.; van den Dungen, Johannes; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is a chronic pain syndrome with no clinical evidence of nerve injury; however, recently, changes in muscle tissue have been found in case of CRPS-I. Our aim was to search for histological changes in peripheral nerves of amputated limbs from patients wit

  6. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Enhances HIV-1 Susceptibility by Affecting Langerhans Cell Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marein A. W. P.; de Witte, Lot; Taylor, Maureen E.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2010-01-01

    Genital herpes is the most prevalent viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide and is mainly caused by HSV type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-2 infection enhances HIV-1 susceptibility, even in the absence of clinical symptoms. In this study, we investigated the effect of HSV-2 on HIV-1 transmission by mucosal

  7. Coping personality type and environment enrichment affect aggression at weaning in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melotti, L.; Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Held, S.; Mendl, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different environmental treatments and personality types on aggression at mixing of newly weaned domestic piglets. From birth to weaning, 16 litters were housed with their dams in either barren (B) or larger, substrate-enriched (E) environments. At 15 days old,

  8. Soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type affect pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Jacobaea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Veen, van J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Secondary metabolites like pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) play a crucial part in plant defense. We studied the effects of soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type on pyrrolizidine alkaloids in roots and shoots of Jacobaea vulgaris. We used clones of two genotypes from a dune area (Meijendel), propagat

  9. Network-based analysis of affected biological processes in type 2 diabetes models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manway Liu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder associated with multiple genetic, epigenetic, developmental, and environmental factors. Animal models of type 2 diabetes differ based on diet, drug treatment, and gene knockouts, and yet all display the clinical hallmarks of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in peripheral tissue. The recent advances in gene-expression microarray technologies present an unprecedented opportunity to study type 2 diabetes mellitus at a genome-wide scale and across different models. To date, a key challenge has been to identify the biological processes or signaling pathways that play significant roles in the disorder. Here, using a network-based analysis methodology, we identified two sets of genes, associated with insulin signaling and a network of nuclear receptors, which are recurrent in a statistically significant number of diabetes and insulin resistance models and transcriptionally altered across diverse tissue types. We additionally identified a network of protein-protein interactions between members from the two gene sets that may facilitate signaling between them. Taken together, the results illustrate the benefits of integrating high-throughput microarray studies, together with protein-protein interaction networks, in elucidating the underlying biological processes associated with a complex disorder.

  10. Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Clare L; Williams, Patricia A.; Dalby, Matthew J; Garden, Karen; Lynn M. Thomson; Richardson, Anthony J.; Gratz, Silvia W.; Ross, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insolubl...

  11. Does Type of Child Risk Affect Whether Mothers Seek Assistance for Intimate Partner Violence From Civil or Criminal Court?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jane E; Renner, Lynette M; Goodman, Lisa A; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether risks to children of intimate partner violence survivors affected the type of legal assistance accessed. We hypothesized that the level and type of perceived child risk would be associated with whether women sought a protection order in civil court or filed charges against a current or former intimate partner in criminal court. Using data from a sample of predominantly African American women (N=293), we found that some forms of child risk were positively associated with seeking a civil order of protection but negatively associated with pressing criminal charges. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are presented. PMID:26438617

  12. Does Type of Child Risk Affect Whether Mothers Seek Assistance for Intimate Partner Violence From Civil or Criminal Court?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jane E; Renner, Lynette M; Goodman, Lisa A; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether risks to children of intimate partner violence survivors affected the type of legal assistance accessed. We hypothesized that the level and type of perceived child risk would be associated with whether women sought a protection order in civil court or filed charges against a current or former intimate partner in criminal court. Using data from a sample of predominantly African American women (N=293), we found that some forms of child risk were positively associated with seeking a civil order of protection but negatively associated with pressing criminal charges. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are presented.

  13. Using NURBS type phantoms for the investigation of morphological factors affecting pulmonary anthropo-radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As existing phantoms used for the calibration of dosimetry measurements, notably in anthropo-radiometry, exhibit a poor anatomic realism because of their crude geometries, compositions and densities, and some other drawbacks, the authors, within the frame of improvement of calibration techniques, report the combined use of Mesh and NURBS-type phantoms (Non Uniform Rational B-Splines) which allow smooth shapes and finer geometries to be replicated. More precisely, they report the application of this type of phantoms to the modelling of a thorax and of a ribcage. They describe the protocols used to generate these phantoms and how some variations are introduced to take morphological characteristics (for example a female thorax) as well as various gamma ray distributions into account. Results are discussed in terms of validation of phantoms, and morphology variation

  14. Breeding of Nuclear Male Sterile Line in Qingmaye Type of Chinese cabbage%青麻叶结球白菜雄性不育系的转育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻凤英; 宋连玖; 王玉龙; 刘晓晖; 赵冰; 丘玉秀

    2001-01-01

    The male sterile line 3A was being used as a source o f male sterility,the fertile line Qingmaye Hei227 as goal parent,the gene of m ale sterility was transferred to the Qingmaye type of Chinese cabbage by crossi ng,self,sibling and test crossing.The male sterile line of Qingmaye type S10 w as obtained,its sterility percent and degree were all 100%,its nectary and see d were all normal.Its horticultural characters were same as Qingmaye type.The co mbining ability of S10 and its combinations was tested.The transferring me thod of genetic male sterile line was discussed.%利用核型雄性不育系3A作为不育源,以青麻叶材料黑227为目标亲本,经过杂交、自交、兄妹交、测交等转育手段,将雄性不育基因转育到青麻叶结球白菜上,获得了青麻叶类型雄性不育系S10,其不育株率和不育度均为100%,蜜腺正常,结籽正常,农艺性状与青麻叶类型结球白菜基本相同。对育成的雄性不育系S10进行了配合力测定,并对所配组合做了品比试验。

  15. Properties of buffalo Mozzarella cheese as affected by type of coagulante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal S. Ahmed

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Mozzarella is one of several pasta filata or stretched curd cheeses that originated in Italy. The name pasta filata refers to a unique plasticizing and texturing treatments of the fresh curd in hot water that imparts to the finished cheese its characteristic fibrous structure and melting properties. Mozzarella cheese made from standardized buffalo milk with 3 and 1.5% fat. The effect of coagulant types (calf rennet, chymosin and Mucor miehei rennet on the cheese properties was carried out. Material and methods. Fresh raw buffalo milk and starter cultures of Streptococcus salvarius ssp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus were used. The coagulants were calf rennet powder (HA-LA, microbial rennet powder (formase ISOTL from Mucor miehei and chymosin derived by fermentation (CDF. Milk, curd, whey,kneading water and cheese were analysed. The slab gel electrophoresis patterns of Mozzarella cheese were also applied. Statistical analyses were also applied on the obtained data. Results. Recovery of DM of both curd and cheese decreased in case of using Mucor miehei rennet while the recovery of TP and fat content in both curd and cheese and their loss to whey and kneading water were nearly the same. Soluble nitrogen and soluble tyrosine and tryptophan contents elevated with increasing the storage period. Increasing rate of the soluble nitrogen in case of using Mucor miehei rennet was higher compared to that made with the other types of coagulant. TVFA content increased with advancing the storage period, also increased with increasing the fat content of the original milk fat used. No effect can be seen due to the coagulant types. The meltability increased with storage period progress. While the effect of the type of coagulant enzyme hade neglect effect on meltability fat leakage and oiling off. Mozzarella cheese made with Mucor miehei rennet obtained the highest firmness compared with those made using calf rennet, or

  16. A Study Of The Relation Between IQ And Personality Types Among Male And Female Students Of Tabriz

    OpenAIRE

    Vafaee D; Dadashzadeh H; Farvareshi M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Psychologists have been thinking that some personality types may have a higher IQ comparing with the other types, and this could be considered as a general belief. Eysenck, the eminent British psychologist, described the introverted people to have a higher. Intelligence comparing with the extroverted people. Materials and Methods: We maintain two objectives from this study. Firstly if there is a relation between the IQ and personality types or not and secondly the mean IQ of which...

  17. Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Schillo, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background Clean indoor air (CIA) policies that include free-standing bars and restaurants have been adopted by communities to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, most notably employees working in restaurants and free-standing bars. However, due to the perception of negative economic effects on alcohol-licensed hospitality businesses, partial CIA policies (those that provide an exemption for free-standing bars) have been proposed as a means to reduce the risk of economic effects of comprehensive CIA policies applied to all worksites. Objective To determine if partial CIA produce differential economic effects compared to comprehensive CIA policies using bar and restaurant employment per capita. Design, setting, and subjects Ten cities in the state of Minnesota were studied from 2003 to 2006. Economic data were drawn from monthly employment in bars and restaurants, and a pooled time-series was completed to evaluate three types of local CIA policies: Comprehensive, partial, or none beyond the state law. Results Communities with a comprehensive CIA policy had a decrease of 9 employees per 10,000 residents compared with communities with a partial CIA policies (p=0.10). Communities with any type of CIA policy (partial or comprehensive) had an increase of 3 employees per 10,000 residents compared to communities without any CIA policies (p=0.36). Conclusion There were no significant differential economic effects by CIA policy type in Minnesota cities. These findings support the adoption of comprehensive CIA policies to provide all employees protection from environmental tobacco smoke exposure. PMID:19184432

  18. Contributions au probleme d'affectation des types d'avion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Nicolas

    In this thesis, we approach the problem of assigning aircraft types to flights (what is called aircraft fleet assignment) in a strategic planning context. The literature mentions many studies considering this problem on a daily flight schedule basis, but the proposed models do no allow to consider many elements that are either necessary to assure the practical feasibility of the solutions, or relevant to get more beneficial solutions. After describing the practical context of the problem (Chapter 1) and presenting the literature on the subject (Chapter 2), we propose new models and solution approaches to improve the quality of' the solutions obtained. The general scheme of the thesis is presented in Chapter 3. We summarize here the models and solution approaches that we propose; and present the main elements of our conclusions. First, in Chapter 4, we consider the problem of aircraft fleet Assignment over a weekly flight schedule, integrating into the objective an homogeneity factor for driving the choice of the aircraft types for the flights with the same flight number over the week. We present an integer linear model based on a time-space multicommodity network. This model includes, among others, decision variables relative to the aircraft type assigned to each flight and to the dominant aircraft type assigned to each flight number. We present in Chapter 5 the results of a research project made in collaboration with Air Canada within a consulting contract. The project aimed at analyzing the relevance for the planners of using an optimization software to help them to first identify non profitable flight legs in the network, and second to efficiently establish the aircraft fleet assignment. In this chapter, we propose an iterative approach to take into account the fact that the passenger demand is not known on a leg basis, but rather on an origin-destination and departure time basis. Finally, in Chapter 6, we propose a model and a solution approach that aim at

  19. Brief maternal exposure of rats to the xenobiotics dibutyl phthalate or diethylstilbestrol alters adult-type Leydig cell development in male offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Ivell; Kee Heng; Helen Nicholson; Ravinder Anand-Ivell

    2013-01-01

    Maternal exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics or phthalates has been implicated in the distortion of early male reproductive development,referred to in humans as the testicular dysgenesis syndrome.It is not known,however,whether such early gestational and/or lactational exposure can influence the later adult-type Leydig cell phenotype.In this study,Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP; from gestational day (GD) 14.5 to postnatal day (PND) 6) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; from GD14.5 to GD16.5) during a short gestational/lactational window,and male offspring subsequently analysed for various postnatal testicular parameters.All offspring remained in good health throughout the study.Maternal xenobiotic treatment appeared to modify specific Leydig cell gene expression in male offspring,particularly during the dynamic phase of mid-puberty,with serum INSL3 concentrations showing that these compounds led to a faster attainment of peak values,and a modest acceleration of the pubertal trajectory.Part of this effect appeared to be due to a treatment-specific impact on Leydig cell proliferation during puberty for both xenobiotics.Taken together,these results support the notion that maternal exposure to certain xenobiotics can also influence the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population,possibly through an effect on the Leydig stem cell population.

  20. The Effect of Regular Aerobic Training on Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α in Males With Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemalipour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background A growing body of literature suggests that systemic inflammation is associated with obesity, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three months of aerobic training on serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α, as an inflammatory cytokine, in males with type II diabetes. Patients and Methods Twenty-four adult obese males aged 38 to 48 years and Body Mass Index (BMI of 30 to 36 kg/m 2 with type II diabetes were randomly divided to exercise (n = 12 and control (n = 12 groups. The exercise group completed an aerobic training program (for three months, three times/week and the control group did not participate in the exercise program. Fasting serum TNF-α and all anthropometrical markers were measured before and after the training program. Data was analyzed by independent-paired sample T test. Results Exercise training resulted in a significant increase in body weight (P < 0.001, body fat percentage (P < 0.001, BMI (P < 0.001 and abdominal circumference (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference in serum TNF-a before-compared to after-training program (P = 0.83. Conclusions Based on these data, we conclude that the aerobic training program does not have an anti-inflammatory property with emphasis on serum TNF-α in type II diabetic patients.

  1. Introgression of Gene for Non-Pollen Type Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterility to Thai Rice Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANEE Sreewongchai; WEERACHAI Matthayatthaworn; CHALERMPOL Phumichai; PRAPA Sripichitt

    2014-01-01

    For the two-line hybrid rice system, pol en sterility is regulated by recessive gene that responds to temperature. The recessive gene controlling thermo-sensitive genetic male sterility (TGMS) is expressed when the plants are grown in conditions with higher or lower critical temperatures. To transfer tgms gene(s) control ing TGMS to Thai rice cultivars by backcross breeding method, a male sterile line was used as a donor parent while Thai rice cultivars ChaiNat 1, PathumThani 1, and SuphanBuri 1 were used as recurrent parents. The BC2F2 lines were developed from backcrossing and selfing. Moreover, the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for identifying tgms gene and the linked marker was used for assisting selection in backcrossing. The identification lines were confirmed by pol en observation. The results showed the success of introgression of the tgms gene into Thai rice cultivars. These lines will be tested for combining ability and used as female parent in hybrid rice production in Thailand.

  2. An ultrastructural and histochemical study of the flexor tibialis muscle fiber types in male and female stick insects (Eurycantha calcarata, L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilehvarian, Ali Asghar

    2015-10-01

    In this study the ultrastructural and histochemical characteristics of the flexor tibialis muscle fibers of the specialized metathoracic legs in the male and those of homologous and unspecialized ones in the female stick insects, Eurycantha calcarata, L, were examined. For the ultrastructural analysis, the muscle was divided longitudinally and vertically to produce a total of 12 sample parts e.g., anterior-dorsal-distal (ADD), posterior-ventral-medial (PVM) and so on. Light and electron microscopes were used to observe the muscle tissue. The methods for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) and nicotine adenine dinucleotide- tetrazolium (NADH-TR) staining were modified from the methods of (Stokes et al., '79; Anttila et al., 2009; Anttila and Manttari, 2009). Sections with thickness of 22 μm, were cut from the anterior and the posterior surfaces of the muscle, using a cryostat. The histochemical and ultrastructural results showed that the muscles of both the male and the female were mixtures of physiological fiber types, with predominantly fast fibers. The muscles were composed of fibers with different staining properties for both mATPase and NADH-TR activities. The population of fibers within the muscles was heterogeneous. The differences between the population of the male and that of the female were significant. The means of most criteria e.g., mitochondrial amount and sarcoplasmic reticulum area predicted that the muscle of the male contained more fast fibers than the female. The histochemical examination also showed that the muscle of the male contained more fibers stained darkly for mATPase and lightly for NADH-TR. PMID:26173440

  3. An ultrastructural and histochemical study of the flexor tibialis muscle fiber types in male and female stick insects (Eurycantha calcarata, L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilehvarian, Ali Asghar

    2015-10-01

    In this study the ultrastructural and histochemical characteristics of the flexor tibialis muscle fibers of the specialized metathoracic legs in the male and those of homologous and unspecialized ones in the female stick insects, Eurycantha calcarata, L, were examined. For the ultrastructural analysis, the muscle was divided longitudinally and vertically to produce a total of 12 sample parts e.g., anterior-dorsal-distal (ADD), posterior-ventral-medial (PVM) and so on. Light and electron microscopes were used to observe the muscle tissue. The methods for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) and nicotine adenine dinucleotide- tetrazolium (NADH-TR) staining were modified from the methods of (Stokes et al., '79; Anttila et al., 2009; Anttila and Manttari, 2009). Sections with thickness of 22 μm, were cut from the anterior and the posterior surfaces of the muscle, using a cryostat. The histochemical and ultrastructural results showed that the muscles of both the male and the female were mixtures of physiological fiber types, with predominantly fast fibers. The muscles were composed of fibers with different staining properties for both mATPase and NADH-TR activities. The population of fibers within the muscles was heterogeneous. The differences between the population of the male and that of the female were significant. The means of most criteria e.g., mitochondrial amount and sarcoplasmic reticulum area predicted that the muscle of the male contained more fast fibers than the female. The histochemical examination also showed that the muscle of the male contained more fibers stained darkly for mATPase and lightly for NADH-TR.

  4. Type of packaging affects the colour stability of vitamin E enriched beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassu, Renata T; Uttaro, Bethany; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Zawadski, Sophie; Juárez, Manuel; Dugan, Michael E R

    2012-12-01

    Colour stability is a very important parameter for meat retail display, as appearance of the product is the deciding factor for consumers at time of purchase. This study investigated the possibility of extending appearance shelf-life through the combined use of packaging method (overwrapping - OVER, modified atmosphere - MAP, vacuum skin packaging - VSP and a combination of modified atmosphere and vacuum skin packaging - MAPVSP) and antioxidants (vitamin E enriched beef). Retail attributes (appearance, lean colour, % surface discolouration), as well as colour space analysis of images for red, green and blue parameters were measured over 18days. MAPVSP provided the most desirable retail appearance during the first 4days of retail display, while VSP-HB had the best colour stability. Overall, packaging type was more influential than α-tocopherol levels on meat colour stability, although α-tocopherol levels (>4μgg(-1) meat) had a protective effect when using high oxygen packaging methods. PMID:22953936

  5. The response of male and female black poplar (Populus nigra L. subspecies betulifolia (Pursh) W. Wettst.) cuttings to different water table depths and sediment types: implications for flow management and river corridor biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Francine M. R.; Barsoum, Nadia; Richards, Keith S.; Winfield, Mark; Hayes, Adrian

    2000-10-01

    Management of river flows has altered the pattern of flood arrival times and reduced their frequency and duration on many European floodplains. Floodplain tree species depend on floods both to provide new sites for their regeneration and to recharge water tables at various depths in the rooting zone. A reduction in floods is one factor that has led to loss of river corridor biodiversity, with early successional tree species from the Salicaceae being particularly adversely affected. Members of the Salicaceae are dioecious and it is possible that the males and females of these species have measurably different water table requirements, which might lead to spatial segregation of the sexes on a floodplain. This paper describes an investigation that was carried out into the response of male and female black poplar (Populus nigra L. subspecies betulifolia (Pursh) W. Wettst.) to different soil moisture conditions. An experiment was set up on an alluvial island in the River Great Ouse (UK) in which cuttings of male and female black poplar were grown in different sediment types with different water table levels. The experiment was carried out over two field seasons in 1997 and 1998. Results showed that females tended to prefer wetter and more nutrient-rich sites than males but that there was considerable overlap in their requirements. A complementary genetic study showed very little genetic variation in the experimental population, which may also partially explain the relatively low level of variation between the two sexes found in the study. It is suggested that some limited spatial segregation of the sexes does occur in response to soil moisture availability and that river flow management which aims to maintain or increase river corridor biodiversity may need to take this into account.

  6. Aflatoxins of type B and G affect porcine dendritic cell maturation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrzad, Jalil; Devriendt, Bert; Baert, Kim; Cox, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The toxic effects of highly carcinogenic mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins (AF), on key antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DC), are largely unknown. To elucidate the effect of AF on DC function, porcine monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) were treated with a mixture of several AF (i.e., AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) and the phagocytic capacity, the membrane expression level of several DC activation markers, the T-cell proliferation-inducing capacity, and the cytokine secretion pattern were assessed. As compared to untreated MoDC, AF significantly up-regulated the expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD25 and CD80/86. However, the phagocytic activity of MoDC was not affected by AF treatment. While the cytokine secretion pattern of AF-treated MoDC was similar to control MoDC, the T-cell proliferation-inducing capacity of MoDC was increased upon aflatoxin treatment. The results indicate that a mixture of naturally occurring AF enhances the antigen-presenting capacity of DC, which could explain the observed immunotoxicity of AF by breaking down tolerance and further emphasizes the need to reduce the admissible level of AF in agricultural commodities.

  7. Flagellin FliC Phosphorylation Affects Type 2 Protease Secretion and Biofilm Dispersal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyanarayanan, Tanujaa; Periasamy, Saravanan; Lin, Miao-Hsia; Ishihama, Yasushi; Swarup, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation has a major role in controlling the life-cycle and infection stages of bacteria. Proteome-wide occurrence of S/T/Y phosphorylation has been reported for many prokaryotic systems. Previously, we reported the phosphoproteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. In this study, we show the role of S/T phosphorylation of one motility protein, FliC, in regulating multiple surface-associated phenomena of P. aeruginosa PAO1. This is the first report of occurrence of phosphorylation in the flagellar protein, flagellin FliC in its highly conserved N-terminal NDO domain across several Gram negative bacteria. This phosphorylation is likely a well-regulated phenomenon as it is growth phase dependent in planktonic cells. The absence of phosphorylation in the conserved T27 and S28 residues of FliC, interestingly, did not affect swimming motility, but affected the secretome of type 2 secretion system (T2SS) and biofilm formation of PAO1. FliC phosphomutants had increased levels and activities of type 2 secretome proteins. The secretion efficiency of T2SS machinery is associated with flagellin phosphorylation. FliC phosphomutants also formed reduced biofilms at 24 h under static conditions and had delayed biofilm dispersal under dynamic flow conditions, respectively. The levels of type 2 secretome and biofilm formation under static conditions had an inverse correlation. Hence, increase in type 2 secretome levels was accompanied by reduced biofilm formation in the FliC phosphomutants. As T2SS is involved in nutrient acquisition and biofilm dispersal during survival and spread of P. aeruginosa, we propose that FliC phosphorylation has a role in ecological adaptation of this opportunistic environmental pathogen. Altogether, we found a system of phosphorylation that affects key surface related processes such as proteases secretion by T2SS, biofilm formation and dispersal. PMID:27701473

  8. Site variation in methane oxidation as affected by atmospheric deposition and type of temperate forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumme, Rainer; Borken, Werner

    1999-06-01

    Factors controlling methane oxidation were analyzed along a soil acidity gradient (pH(H2O) 3.9 to 5.2) under beech and spruce forests in Germany. Mean annual methane oxidation ranged from 0.1 to 2.5 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1 and was correlated with base saturation (r2 = 0.88), soil pH (r2 = 0.77), total nitrogen (r2 = 0.71), amount of the organic surface horizon (r2 = 0.49) and bulk density of the mineral soil (r2 = 0.43). At lower pHs the formation of an organic surface horizon was promoted. This horizon did not have any methane oxidation capacity and acted like a gas diffusion barrier, which decreased the methane oxidation capacity of the soil. In contrast, on sites at the higher end of the pH range, higher burrowing activity of earthworms increased macroporosity and thereby gas diffusivity and methane oxidation. Gas diffusivity was also affected by litter shape: broad beech leaves reduced methane oxidation more than spruce needles. An increase in methane oxidation of most soil samples following sieving indicates that diffusion is the main limiting factor for methane oxidation. However, this "sieving effect" was less in soils with a pH below 5 than in soils with a pH above 5, which we attribute to a direct effect of soil acidity. We discuss our results using a hierarchical concept for the "short-term" and "long-term" controls on methane oxidation in forest ecosystems.

  9. Synonymous codon usage affects the expression of wild type and F508del CFTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kalpit; Cheng, Yi; Hahn, Brian; Bridges, Robert; Bradbury, Neil A; Mueller, David M

    2015-03-27

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel composed of 1480 amino acids. The major mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis results in loss of amino acid residue, F508 (F508del). Loss of F508 in CFTR alters the folding pathway resulting in endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation. This study investigates the role of synonymous codon in the expression of CFTR and CFTR F508del in human HEK293 cells. DNA encoding the open reading frame (ORF) for CFTR containing synonymous codon replacements was expressed using a heterologous vector integrated into the genome. The results indicate that the codon usage greatly affects the expression of CFTR. While the promoter strength driving expression of the ORFs was largely unchanged and the mRNA half-lives were unchanged, the steady-state levels of the mRNA varied by as much as 30-fold. Experiments support that this apparent inconsistency is attributed to nonsense mediated decay independent of exon junction complex. The ratio of CFTR/mRNA indicates that mRNA containing native codons was more efficient in expressing mature CFTR as compared to mRNA containing synonymous high-expression codons. However, when F508del CFTR was expressed after codon optimization, a greater percentage of the protein escaped endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation resulting in considerable levels of mature F508del CFTR on the plasma membrane, which showed channel activity. These results indicate that codon usage has an effect on mRNA levels and protein expression, for CFTR, and likely on chaperone-assisted folding pathway, for F508del CFTR.

  10. Management type affects composition and facilitative processes in altoandine dry grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catorci, Andrea; Cesaretti, Sabrina; Velasquez, Jose Luis; Burrascano, Sabina; Zeballos, Horacio

    2013-10-01

    We performed our study in the Dry Puna of the southern Peruvian Andes. Through a comparative approach we aimed to assess the effects of the two management systems, low grazing pressure by wild camelids vs. high grazing pressure by domestic livestock and periodic burning. Our general hypothesis was that the traditional high disturbance regime affects the dry Puna species diversity and composition through modifications of the magnitude of plant-plant-interactions and changes of the community structure due to shifts in species dominance. In 40 plots of 10 × 10 m, the cover value of each species was recorded and the species richness, floristic diversity, and community similarity of each treatment were compared. For each disturbance regime, differences of soil features (organic matter, carbon/nitrogen ratio, and potassium content) were tested. To evaluate plant-plant interactions, 4 linear transect divided into 500 plots of 10 × 10 cm were laid out and co-occurrence analysis was performed. We found that different disturbance regimes were associated with differences in the floristic composition, and that the high disturbance condition had lower species diversity and evenness. A decrease of tall species such as Festuca orthophylla and increase of dwarf and spiny Tetraglochin cristatum shrubs was observed as well. In addition, different disturbance intensities caused differences in the functional composition of the plant communities, since species with avoidance strategies are selected by high grazing pressure. High disturbance intensity was also associated to differences of soil features and to different clumped spatial structure of the dry Puna. Our results indicate also that: positive interactions are often species-specific mainly depending on the features of nurse and beneficiary species; the importance of positive interaction is higher at low grazing pressure than at high disturbance intensity; the magnitude and direction of the herbivory-mediated facilitation

  11. Determining The Factors Affecting Fruit Hardness of Different Peach Types with Meta Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Küçükönder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the factor effective in determining the hardness of Caterina, Suidring, Royal Glory and Tirrenia peach types using meta analysis. In the study, the impact force (Fi and the contact time (tc were detected and the impulse values (I that are expressed as independent variable in the area under the curve were calculated in the measurements performed using the technique of a low-mass lateral impactor multiplicated with peach. Using the theory of elasticity, the independent variables were determined as Fmax (maximum impact force, contact time (tmax, Fmax/tmax, 1/tmax, 1/tmax2,5, Fmax/tmax 1.25 and Fmax2.5 parameters. The correlation coefficient values showing the relationship between these parameters and the dependent variable Magness-Taylor force (MT were calculated and were combined with meta-analysis by using the Hunter-Schmid and Fisher’s Z methods. The Cohen’s classification criterion was used in evaluating the resulting mean effect size (combined correlation value and in determining its direction. As a result of the meta-analysis, the mean effect size according to Hunter-Schmid method was found 0.436 (0.371-0.497 positively directed in 95% confidence interval, while it was found 0.468 (0.390-0.545 according to Fisher’s Z method. The effect sizes in both methods were determined “mid-level” according to the Cohen’s classification. When the significance level of the studies was analyzed with the Z test, all of the ones that taken into the meta analysis has been found statistically significant. As a result of the meta analysis in this study evaluating the relationship of peach types with the fruit hardness, the mean effect size has been found to reach “strong level”. Consequently, “maximum shock acceleration” was found to be a more effective factor comparing to the other factors in determining the the fruit hardness according to the results of meta analysis applied in both methods.

  12. Central adiposity is significantly higher in female compared to male in Pakistani type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Akhter; Faraz Fiazuddin; Ayesha Shaheryar; Warda Niaz; Danial Siddiqui; Safia Awan; Nanik Ram; Jaweed Akhter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) rates are increasing rapidly in South Asians. Cardiovascular complications are more frequent and occur earlier in our patients than patients in many other ethnic groups. Reasons for this are not fully understood. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the body total and central fat percentage in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients and to check correlation with BMI, waist circumference and metabolic profile. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional stu...

  13. Quality and efficiency of apple orchard protection affected by sprayer type and application rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Sedlar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate the potential of reduced application rates in apple trees as well as the potential of selective spray applications by using sensor-based tree detection techniques in Serbian fruit production. Their economical and biological effect was evaluated based on the quality and efficiency of the crop protection and techno-economic analysis. Results showed that during suitable weather conditions and with properly adjusted sprayer settings, a reduced application rate of 381 L ha-1 gave same quality of crop protection as a medium application rate of 759 L ha-1. A two-year efficiency trial on Venturia inaequalis and Podosphaera leucitricha infecting apple also showed that there was no significant difference in crop protection results for different types of orchard application techniques and application rates. The techno-economic analysis showed that selective application should be introduced in practice in areas >3-ha given that the cost of their introduction pays off after 2-3 seasons. Every subsequent season would give a clear economic profit. Besides the economic benefits, selective application technique also has a significant positive ecological effect due to reduction of spray losses and the amount of plant protection products used.

  14. Coastal recirculation potential affecting air pollutants in Portugal: The role of circulation weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Levy, Ilan; Dayan, Uri; Jerez, Sonia; Mendes, Manuel; Trigo, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are under increasing development and experience air pollution episodes regularly. These episodes are often related to peaks in local emissions from industry or transportation, but can also be associated with regional transport from neighbour urban areas influenced by land-sea breeze recirculation. This study intends to analyze the relation between circulation weather patterns, air mass recirculation and pollution levels in three coastal airsheds of Portugal (Lisbon, Porto and Sines) based on the application of an objective quantitative measure of potential recirculation. Although ventilation events have a dominant presence throughout the studied 9-yrs period on all the three airsheds, recirculation and stagnation conditions occur frequently. The association between NO2, SO2 and O3 levels and recirculation potential is evident during summer months. Under high average recirculation potential and high variability, NO2 and SO2 levels are higher for the three airsheds, whilst for O3 each airshed responds differently. This indicates a high heterogeneity among the three airsheds in (1) the type of emission - traffic or industry - prevailing for each contaminant, and (2) the response to the various circulation weather patterns and recirculation situations. Irrespectively of that, the proposed methodology, based on iterative K-means clustering, allows to identify which prevailing patterns are associated with high recirculation potential, having the advantage of being applicable to any geographical location.

  15. Added ingredients affect the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat type-I sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effect of additional ingredients (baker's yeast, macerated pears, grape must, honey, or water from macerated pears) on the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat-based sourdough. One dough prepared using only flour was used as the control (control-dough). Compared to the control-dough, doughs containing additional ingredients showed higher (P diversity, after the first fermentation and in mature sourdoughs. Regardless of the type of ingredient used, OTU belonging to the genus Lactobacillus represented more than 95% of the total Firmicutes in mature sourdoughs. Some metabolic capacities of microbial community of the mature sourdoughs were linked to the additional ingredient. Based on culture-dependent method, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated in all the sourdoughs. However, the sourdoughs showed different strains of these two species. Other lactic acid bacterium species were associated to baker's yeast, grape must and macerated pears. The different microbial composition was correlated (r > 0.7, P < 0.05) with several biochemical characteristics of the sourdoughs (e.g., free amino acids and their derivatives). PMID:27554152

  16. Factors Affecting Distribution of Vegetation Types on Abandoned Cropland in the Hilly-Gullied Loess Plateau Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in the forest-steppe region of the Loess Plateau to provide insight into the factors affecting the process of vegetation establishment,and to provide recommendations for the selection of indigenous species in order to speed up the succession process and to allow the establishment of vegetation more resistant to soil erosion.Four distinctive vegetation types were identified,and their distribution was affected not only by the time since abandonment but also by other environmental factors,mainly soil water and total P in the upper soil layers.One of the vegetation types,dominated by Artemisia scoparia,formed the early successional stage after abandonment while the other three types formed later successional stages with their distribution determined by the soil water content and total P.It can be concluded that the selection of appropriate species for introduction to accelerate succession should be determined by the local conditions and especially the total P concentration and soil water content.

  17. Behavioral Traits and Airport Type Affect Mammal Incidents with U.S. Civil Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Kristin B.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Martin, James A.; DeVault, Travis L.; Wang, Guiming

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife incidents with aircraft cost the United States (U.S.) civil aviation industry >US1.4 billion in estimated damages and loss of revenue from 1990 to 2009. Although terrestrial mammals represented only 2.3 % of wildlife incidents, damage to aircraft occurred in 59 % of mammal incidents. We examined mammal incidents (excluding bats) at all airports in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Wildlife Strike Database from 1990 to 2010 to characterize these incidents by airport type: Part-139 certified (certificated) and general aviation (GA). We also calculated relative hazard scores for species most frequently involved in incidents. We found certificated airports had more than twice as many incidents as GA airports. Incidents were most frequent in October ( n = 215 of 1,764 total) at certificated airports and November ( n = 111 of 741 total) at GA airports. Most (63.2 %) incidents at all airports ( n = 1,523) occurred at night but the greatest incident rate occurred at dusk (177.3 incidents/hr). More incidents with damage ( n = 1,594) occurred at GA airports (38.6 %) than certificated airports (19.0 %). Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates) incidents incurred greatest (92.4 %) damage costs ( n = 326; US51.8 million) overall and mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) was the most hazardous species. Overall, relative hazard score increased with increasing log body mass. Frequency of incidents was influenced by species relative seasonal abundance and behavior. We recommend airport wildlife officials evaluate the risks mammal species pose to aircraft based on the hazard information we provide and consider prioritizing management strategies that emphasize reducing their occurrence on airport property.

  18. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis affects myoblast proliferation and skeletal muscle growth in meat-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piestun, Yogev; Yahav, Shlomo; Halevy, Orna

    2015-10-01

    Thermal manipulation (TM) of 39.5°C applied during mid-embryogenesis (embryonic d 7 to 16) has been proven to promote muscle development and enhance muscle growth and meat production in meat-type chickens. This study aimed to elucidate the cellular basis for this effect. Continuous TM or intermittent TM (for 12 h/d) increased myoblast proliferation manifested by higher (25 to 48%) myoblast number in the pectoral muscles during embryonic development but also during the first week posthatch. Proliferation ability of the pectoral-muscle-derived myoblasts in vitro was significantly higher in the TM treatments until embryonic d 15 (intermittent TM) or 13 (continuous TM) compared to that of controls, suggesting increased myogenic progeny reservoir in the muscle. However, the proliferation ability of myoblasts was lower in the TM treatments vs. control during the last days of incubation. This coincided with higher levels of myogenin expression in the muscle, indicating enhanced cell differentiation in the TM muscle. A similar pattern was observed posthatch: Myoblast proliferation was significantly higher in the TM chicks relative to controls during the peak of posthatch cell proliferation until d 6, followed by lower cell number 2 wk posthatch as myoblast number sharply decreases. Higher myogenin expression was observed in the TM chicks on d 6. This resulted in increased muscle growth, manifested by significantly higher relative weight of breast muscle in the embryo and posthatch. It can be concluded that temperature elevation during mid-term embryogenesis promotes myoblast proliferation, thus increasing myogenic progeny reservoir in the muscle, resulting in enhanced muscle growth in the embryo and posthatch.

  19. Continual feeding of two types of microalgal biomass affected protein digestion and metabolism in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmay, R D; Chou, K; Magnuson, A; Lei, X G

    2015-01-01

    A 14-wk study was conducted to determine the nutritional efficacy and ssmetabolic impact of 2 types of microalgal biomass as alternative protein sources in laying hen diets. Shaver hens (total = 150 and 26 wk old) were fed 1 of 5 diets: a control or a defatted green microalgal biomass (DG; Desmodesmus spp.) at 25% and a full-fatted diatom biomass (FD; Staurosira spp.) at 11.7% inclusion with or without protease. This experiment consisted of 5 replicates per treatment and each replicate contained 6 hens individually reared in cages (1 hen for biochemical data/replicate). Despite decreased ADFI (P = 0.03), hens fed DG or FD had final BW, overall hen-day egg production, and egg quality similar to the controls. Feeding DG or FD did not alter plasma concentrations of insulin, glutamine, and uric acid or alkaline phosphatase activity at wk 8 or 14 but decreased plasma 3-methyhistine concentrations (P = 0.03) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities (P hens. However, DG and FD manifested with different impacts on weights of egg and egg albumen, proteolytic activity of jejunal digesta, plasma TRAP activity, ileal total AA digestibility, and several intestinal genes and hepatic proteins. Supplemental protease in the DG and FD diets produced mixed effects on a number of measures. In conclusion, our findings revealed the feasibility of including greater levels of microalgal biomass as a source of feed protein for laying hens and a novel potential of the biomass in improving dietary protein digestion and body protein metabolism than previously perceived.

  20. Type 2 Diabetes Family Histories, Body Composition and Fasting Glucose Levels: A Cross-Section Analysis in Healthy Sedentary Male and Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Bianco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes type 2 is a world wide spread disease with a multifactorial pathogenetic evolution. Various factors like obesity, physical inactivity and poor lifestyle habits contribute to its development. The aim of this study was to verify if in young healthy sedentary male and female there is positive correlation between family history to type 2 diabetes and an increase in body weight and fat mass, or alterations in basal glycemia values.Methods: Totally183 male and 237 female healthy sedentary subjects were analysed in 2012, in Italy. They were divided in three groups: FH+ with first degree family history, FH++with second degree family history and FH- with no family history. Anthropometrics, body composition and blood parameters were assessed.Results: Male had the highest BMI values (P<0.01. FH+ and FH++ had increased waist and hip circumferences and body weight (P<0.005 for men, P<0.0001 for women, body mass index (P< 0.0001 in both sexes, waist-hip ratio (P< 0.05 for men and women and triceps skinfold (P< 0.0005 for both sexes. Obesity incidence was higher in FH+ and FH++ compared to control groups.Conclusions: The study confirms family history to diabetes type 2 as a risk factor for the development of the illness, mainly in a case of first degree of FH. Preventive interventions are necessary to promote significant life-style changes, such as increased physical activity and controlled quantity and quality of food intake.

  1. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. Our objective was to determine the impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality. Cows (n = 53) were derived from Brangus dams and sired by Bonsmara (n = 7), Brangus (n = 13), Charolais (n = 8), Gelbvieh (n = 5), Hereford (n = 12), and Romosinuano (n = 8) bulls. Horn fly counts and estimates of milk yield and quality were recorded monthly from May through October on individual cows. Data for milk yield and quality and horn fly count were analyzed by mixed model least squares using a linear model including sire breed, cow in sire breed, month, and month × sire breed. Effects of horn fly count on milk yield and quality were estimated by analysis of covariance using log horn fly count and log horn fly count × sire breed. Horn fly counts varied by month (P Brangus sired cows was intermediate (7.28, 7.00, and 7.06 kg/d, respectively). Regression of milk yield on fly count differed (P Brangus, Charolais, Hereford, and Romosinuano sired cows, and coefficients for Bonsmara sired cows were reduced (P Brangus sired cows. Increases in log fly count were associated with decreases (P < 0.05) in milk fat, solids-not-fat, and milk urea nitrogen. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by increased fly numbers depending on month of lactation and interaction with log horn fly count. In May, June, and July milk yield was reduced 0.72, 0.68, and 0.71 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count. Our results indicate that horn fly infestations reduce milk yield and quality of spring-calving beef cows depending on sire breed and month of lactation. Development of sustainable beef production systems may include selecting breed types whose milk yield and quality is less influenced by horn flies, allowing for better expression of genetic potential for milk yield in nutritionally challenging environments. PMID:24492544

  2. Development of an ideal plant type and male sterility system in sesame suitable for summer rice fallow in the coastal regions of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Tamil Nadu, sesame growing on available residual soil moisture after the rice harvest is expanding. In order to achieve higher and more reliable yields under these conditions, a more suitable plant type is needed: with shorter stature and growing period, moderate basal branching and higher productivity. Seeds of 6 varieties were treated with gamma rays, diethyl sulphate (DES) and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). The M1-M4 generations were studied and several promising mutants were selected. Among them were also male sterile mutants; it is thought that such mutants will assist in producing hybrid varieties which will give the desired yield breakthrough. (author)

  3. Possibilities оf use of testosterone undecanoate in treatment in stroke male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    L. Yu. Morgunov; I. A. Denisova

    2012-01-01

    We have studied 154 men with the first hemispheric ischemic stroke. Clinical and laboratory studies have revealed the androgen deficiency in 66.3 %, with its frequency higher in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (50 % and 26.3 %, respectively). Forty-two men with diabetes mellitus type 2 and acquired androgenic deficit received replacing treatment with testosterone undecanoate. After 2 years from the beginning of treatment, there were the decrease in clinical severity of androgenic defic...

  4. FETAL TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ARE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTED IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY AND WISTAR RATS AFTER IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE: A DOSE RESPONSE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone resulting in malformations of androgen-dependent tissues. We have found that gubernacular lesions are more prevalent in in utero diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-treated Wistar male than in the SD rat o...

  5. Chronic exposure to low levels of dibromoacetic acid, a water disinfection by-product, adversely affects reproductive function in male rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four groups (minimum of 10/dose group) of male Dutch-Belted rabbits were treated daily to dibromoacetic acid (DBA) via drinking water beginning in utero from gestation day 15 throughout life; target dosages were 1, 5, and 50 mg DBA /kg body weight. Developmental, prepubertal as ...

  6. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; de Groot, Renate H M; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Singh, Amika S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coordination, and strength exercises, respectively. In particular, this study focused on the feasibility and efficiency of introducing short bouts of exercise in the classroom. One hundred and ninety five students (5th and 6th grade; 10-13 years old) participated in a double baseline within-subjects design, with students acting as their own control. Exercise type was randomly assigned to each class and acted as between-subject factor. Before and immediately after both the control and the exercise session, students performed two cognitive tests that measured information processing speed (Letter Digit Substitution Test) and selective attention (d2 Test of Attention). The results revealed that exercising at low to moderate intensity does not have an effect on the cognitive parameters tested in young adolescents. Furthermore, there were no differential effects of exercise type. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the caution which should be taken when conducting exercise sessions in a classroom setting aimed at improving cognitive performance. PMID:27242629

  7. Maternal lipopolysaccharide treatment differentially affects 5-HT(2A) and mGlu2/3 receptor function in the adult male and female rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischhof, Lena; Irrsack, Ellen; Dietz, Frank; Koch, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for the offspring to develop schizophrenia. However, it is still not fully understood which biochemical mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of neuropsychiatric symptoms following prenatal immune activation. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and glutamate system have prominently been associated with the schizophrenia pathophysiology but also with the mechanism of antipsychotic drug actions. Here, we investigated the behavioral and cellular response to 5-HT2A and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)2/3 receptor stimulation in male and female offspring born to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mothers. Additionally, we assessed protein expression levels of prefrontal 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptors. Prenatally LPS-exposed male and female offspring showed locomotor hyperactivity and increased head-twitch behavior in response to the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI. In LPS-exposed male offspring, the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 failed to reduce DOI-induced prepulse inhibition deficits. In LPS-males, the behavioral changes were further accompanied by enhanced DOI-induced c-Fos protein expression and an up-regulation of prefrontal 5-HT2A receptors. No changes in either 5-HT2A or mGlu2 receptor protein levels were found in female offspring. Our data support the hypothesis of an involvement of maternal infection during pregnancy contributing, at least partially, to the pathology of schizophrenia. Identifying biochemical alterations that parallel the behavioral deficits may help to improve therapeutic strategies in the treatment of this mental illness. Since most studies in rodents almost exclusively include male subjects, our data further contribute to elucidating possible gender differences in the effects of prenatal infection on 5-HT2A and mGlu2/3 receptor function. PMID:26051401

  8. Circulating Osteocalcin Level Is Not Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, You-Cheol; Jee, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, In-Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent human studies suggested that serum osteocalcin is associated with the cross-talk between bone and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum osteocalcin level is independently associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A retrospective cohort study was performed of 1,229 nondiabetic men, aged 25–60 years, who were recruited from the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center, between January 1997 and Decemb...

  9. Influence of Genetic Drift of Restoring Gene (Rf) on Seed Purity of Yuetai A, a Honglian-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line in Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The seed samples of Yuetai A,a Honglian (HL) type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line in hybrid rice were investigated to assess the seed purity and to analyze the cause of off-type plants by imitating the biological contaminant to Yuetai A in Nanjing,Jiangsu Province and Lingshui,Hainan Province during 2004-2006.The seed impurity of Yuotai A mainly resulted from the genetic drift of restoring fertility gene (Rt) after biological contamination but not from its sterility unstability.All of the ten maintainer lines,five restorer lines and three thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines used in the study could pollinate Yuetai A and Yuetai B to produce F1 plants,directly or indirectly resulting in Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A and generating 'iso-cytoplasm restoring-generations'.Furthermore,high outcrossing rate and similar heading date of Yuetai A with many varieties used in rice production might easily result in the biological contamination.After removing all plants with Rf-gene mixed in Yuetai A and preventing Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A,the seed purity of Yuetai A and Yuetai B had been raised to 100%.

  10. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  11. Serum soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in male patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Abdullah; Kalelioglu, Tevfik; Karamustafalioglu, Nesrin; Tasdemir, Akif; Genc, Esra Sena; Akkus, Mustafa; Emul, Murat

    2016-02-28

    Inflammatory abnormalities have been shown in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a protein that is measurable in the circulating blood and reflects the inflammation in the body. We aimed to investigate serum suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia who were in acute state and to compare with healthy controls. Forty five patients and 43 healthy controls were included in the study. We found no significant difference in suPAR levels between patients and controls, suggesting that suPAR as an inflammatory marker does not have a role in the inflammatory process of acute schizophrenia.

  12. [Carbon source metabolic diversity of soil microbial community under different climate types in the area affected by Wenchuan earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Shuai; Lin, Yong-Ming; Ma, Rui-Feng; Deng, Hao-Jun; Du, Kun; Wu, Cheng-Zhen; Hong, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The MS8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 led to huge damage to land covers in northwest Sichuan, one of the critical fragile eco-regions in China which can be divided into Semi-arid dry hot climate zone (SDHC) and Subtropical humid monsoon climate zone (SHMC). Using the method of Bilog-ECO-microplate technique, this paper aimed to determine the functional diversity of soil microbial community in the earthquake-affected areas which can be divided into undamaged area (U), recover area (R) and damaged area without recovery (D) under different climate types, in order to provide scientific basis for ecological recovery. The results indicated that the average-well-color-development (AWCD) in undamaged area and recovery area showed SDHC > SHMC, which was contrary to the AWCD in the damaged area without recovery. The AWCD of damaged area without recovery was the lowest in both climate zones. The number of carbon source utilization types of soil microbial in SHMC zone was significantly higher than that in SDHC zone. The carbon source utilization types in both climate zones presented a trend of recover area > undamaged area > damaged area without recovery. The carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community was significantly different in different climate zones. The diversity index and evenness index both showed a ranking of undamaged area > recover area > damaged area without recovery. In addition, the recovery area had the highest richness index. The soil microbial carbon sources metabolism characteristic was affected by soil nutrient, aboveground vegetation biomass and vegetation coverage to some extent. In conclusion, earthquake and its secondary disasters influenced the carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community mainly through the change of aboveground vegetation and soil environmental factors. PMID:26031097

  13. Physical mapping of the herpes simplex virus type 2 nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity by using herpes simplex virus type 1 deletion clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, M W; Hay, J

    1984-07-01

    The nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity in the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) mutant ts1348 had previously been mapped to the EcoRI-D restriction enzyme fragment of HSV-1. Eight clones with deletions representing most of HSV-1 EcoRI fragment D were selected with lambda gtWES hybrids. These clones were tested for their ability to rescue the alkaline exonuclease activity of HSV-2 nuc- ts1348 virus. The sequences colinear with the HSV-2 nuc- lesion were found to map between 0.169 and 0.174 map units on the HSV-1 Patton genome, representing an 0.8-kilobase-pair region that is 12.9 to 13.7 kilobase pairs from the left end of HSV-1 EcoRI fragment D.

  14. Possibilities оf use of testosterone undecanoate in treatment in stroke male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Morgunov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have studied 154 men with the first hemispheric ischemic stroke. Clinical and laboratory studies have revealed the androgen deficiency in 66.3 %, with its frequency higher in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (50 % and 26.3 %, respectively. Forty-two men with diabetes mellitus type 2 and acquired androgenic deficit received replacing treatment with testosterone undecanoate. After 2 years from the beginning of treatment, there were the decrease in clinical severity of androgenic deficit, the increase of total and free testosterone levels, and muscle power in the main group compared to the controls. Body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins have decreased as well. Secondary stroke has developed in 3 (7.1 % patients of the main group and in 5 (16.6 % controls. The treatment with androgens has a positive effect on risk factors of secondary ischemic stroke. It is an effective method for improvement of social adaptation of men survived after the stroke..

  15. Possibilities оf use of testosterone undecanoate in treatment in stroke male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Morgunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied 154 men with the first hemispheric ischemic stroke. Clinical and laboratory studies have revealed the androgen deficiency in 66.3 %, with its frequency higher in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (50 % and 26.3 %, respectively. Forty-two men with diabetes mellitus type 2 and acquired androgenic deficit received replacing treatment with testosterone undecanoate. After 2 years from the beginning of treatment, there were the decrease in clinical severity of androgenic deficit, the increase of total and free testosterone levels, and muscle power in the main group compared to the controls. Body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins have decreased as well. Secondary stroke has developed in 3 (7.1 % patients of the main group and in 5 (16.6 % controls. The treatment with androgens has a positive effect on risk factors of secondary ischemic stroke. It is an effective method for improvement of social adaptation of men survived after the stroke..

  16. Honey reduces blood alcohol concentration but not affects the level of serum MDA and GSH-Px activity in intoxicated male mice models

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Peiying; Chen, Bing; Chen, Conghai; Xu, Jingyang; Shen, Zhenhuang; Miao, Xiaoqing; Yao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background For a long time, honey was purportedly helpful to prevent drunkenness and relieve hangover symptoms. However, few of the assertions have experienced scientific assessment. The present study examined the effects of honey on intoxicated male mice. Methods Low or high doses of lychee flower honey (2.19 or 4.39 g/kg body weight, respectively) were single orally administrated 30 min before the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by recording the locomotor activity by autonomic activi...

  17. Interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affect and externalising behaviour in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance. PMID

  18. Interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affect and externalising behaviour in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne Chisholm

    Full Text Available Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation and dyadic (joint attention and warmth behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical

  19. Interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affect and externalising behaviour in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance.

  20. Factors affecting rate of stroke-related death in elderly male military population A 23-year cohort study of 1 268 cases in Xi'an, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhua Li; Yu Sun; Xiaoyong Sai; Yao He; Qiang Wu; Yongping Yan; Ke Men; Liangshou Li

    2011-01-01

    The study is the first long-term cohort study examining stroke and its subtypes among a population of Chinese elderly male retired military veterans. We reported on a 23-year cohort study examining stroke in 1 268 elderly male patients living in Xi'an, China since 1987. The stroke-related mortality rate in this cohort was 361.50/1 × 106 per year. Cerebral hemorrhage was the dominant cause of death, with 28 cases of fatal cerebral infarction and 49 cases of fatal cerebral hemorrhage among 77 stroke-related deaths. Independent risk factors for stroke mortality included age, blood pressure, smoking, body mass index, family history of hypertension, past medical history of stroke, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Among them, ischemic stroke mortality correlated with age, smoking, family history of hypertension and past medical history of stroke, while hemorrhagic stroke was related to blood pressure, body mass index and past medical history of hypertension. Our results indicated that maintaining appropriate levels of blood pressure and body mass, smoking cessation and prevention of hyperlipidemia can reduce the risk of stroke-related death in elderly males who are retired from military service.

  1. Effect of troxerutin on insulin signaling molecules in the gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Sathish; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2014-10-01

    Troxerutin is a trihydroxyethylated derivative of the flavonoid, rutin. It has been reported to possess the hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic activities. Troxerutin treatment reduced the blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in high-cholesterol-induced insulin-resistant mice and in type-2 diabetic patients. However, the mechanism by which it exhibits antidiabetic property was unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of troxerutin on insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Wistar male albino rats were selected and divided into five groups. Group I: Control. Group II: High fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Group III: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with troxerutin (150 mg/kg body weight/day orally). Group IV: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg body weight/day orally). Group V: Normal rats treated with troxerutin (150 mg/kg body weight/day orally). After 30 days of treatment, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum lipid profile, and the levels of insulin signaling molecules, glycogen, glucose uptake, and oxidation in gastrocnemius muscle were assessed. Diabetic rats showed impairment in insulin signaling molecules (IR, p-IRS-1(Tyr632), p-Akt(Ser473), β-arrestin-2, c-Src, p-AS160(Thr642), and GLUT4 proteins), glycogen concentration, glucose uptake, and oxidation. Oral administration of troxerutin showed near normal levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile, and insulin signaling molecules as well as GLUT4 proteins in type-2 diabetic rats. It is concluded from the present study that troxerutin may play a significant role in the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus, by improving the insulin signaling molecules and glucose utilization in the skeletal muscle.

  2. Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors on Sim1-expressing neurons regulate energy expenditure in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Pierre; Bellocchio, Luigi; Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; André, Caroline; Clark, Samantha; Elie, Melissa; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Gonzales, Delphine; Cannich, Astrid; Marsicano, Giovanni; Cota, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulates energy balance by modulating not only food intake, but also energy expenditure (EE) and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. To test the hypothesis that cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor in PVN neurons might control these processes, we used the Cre/loxP system to delete CB1 from single-minded 1 (Sim1) neurons, which account for the majority of PVN neurons. On standard chow, mice lacking CB1 receptor in Sim1 neurons (Sim1-CB1-knockout [KO]) had food intake, body weight, adiposity, glucose metabolism, and EE comparable with wild-type (WT) (Sim1-CB1-WT) littermates. However, maintenance on a high-fat diet revealed a gene-by-diet interaction whereby Sim1-CB1-KO mice had decreased adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased EE, whereas feeding behavior was similar to Sim1-CB1-WT mice. Additionally, high-fat diet-fed Sim1-CB1-KO mice had increased mRNA expression of the β3-adrenergic receptor, as well as of uncoupling protein-1, cytochrome-c oxidase subunit IV and mitochondrial transcription factor A in the brown adipose tissue, all molecular changes suggestive of increased thermogenesis. Pharmacological studies using β-blockers suggested that modulation of β-adrenergic transmission play an important role in determining EE changes observed in Sim1-CB1-KO. Finally, chemical sympathectomy abolished the obesity-resistant phenotype of Sim1-CB1-KO mice. Altogether, these findings reveal a diet-dependent dissociation in the CB1 receptor control of food intake and EE, likely mediated by the PVN, where CB1 receptors on Sim1-positive neurons do not impact food intake but hinder EE during dietary environmental challenges that promote body weight gain.

  3. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Is Expressed in Neutrophils and Restrains an Inflammatory Response in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Agnes E; Kipari, Tiina M J; Zhang, Zhenguang; Esteves, Cristina L; Lucas, Christopher D; Gilmour, James S; Webster, Scott P; Walker, Brian R; Hughes, Jeremy; Savill, John S; Seckl, Jonathan R; Rossi, Adriano G; Chapman, Karen E

    2016-07-01

    Endogenous glucocorticoid action within cells is enhanced by prereceptor metabolism by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts intrinsically inert cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone into active cortisol and corticosterone, respectively. 11β-HSD1 is highly expressed in immune cells elicited to the mouse peritoneum during thioglycollate-induced peritonitis and is down-regulated as the inflammation resolves. During inflammation, 11β-HSD1-deficient mice show enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells and delayed acquisition of macrophage phagocytic capacity. However, the key cells in which 11β-HSD1 exerts these effects remain unknown. Here we have identified neutrophils (CD11b(+),Ly6G(+),7/4(+) cells) as the thioglycollate-recruited cells that most highly express 11β-HSD1 and show dynamic regulation of 11β-HSD1 in these cells during an inflammatory response. Flow cytometry showed high expression of 11β-HSD1 in peritoneal neutrophils early during inflammation, declining at later states. In contrast, expression in blood neutrophils continued to increase during inflammation. Ablation of monocytes/macrophages by treatment of CD11b-diphtheria-toxin receptor transgenic mice with diphtheria toxin prior to thioglycollate injection had no significant effect on 11β-HSD1 activity in peritoneal cells, consistent with neutrophils being the predominant 11β-HSD1 expressing cell type at this time. Similar to genetic deficiency in 11β-HSD1, acute inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity during thioglycollate-induced peritonitis augmented inflammatory cell recruitment to the peritoneum. These data suggest that neutrophil 11β-HSD1 increases during inflammation to contribute to the restraining effect of glucocorticoids upon neutrophil-mediated inflammation. In human neutrophils, lipopolysaccharide activation increased 11β-HSD1 expression, suggesting the antiinflammatory effects of 11β-HSD1 in neutrophils may be conserved in humans. PMID:27145012

  4. Angiotensin Type-2 Receptors Influence the Activity of Vasopressin Neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Pitra, Soledad; Wang, Lei; Hiller, Helmut; Pioquinto, David J; Smith, Justin A; Sumners, Colin; Stern, Javier E; Krause, Eric G

    2016-08-01

    It is known that angiotensin-II acts at its type-1 receptor to stimulate vasopressin (AVP) secretion, which may contribute to angiotensin-II-induced hypertension. Less well known is the impact of angiotensin type-2 receptor (AT2R) activation on these processes. Studies conducted in a transgenic AT2R enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter mouse revealed that although AT2R are not themselves localized to AVP neurons within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), they are localized to neurons that extend processes into the PVN. In the present set of studies, we set out to characterize the origin, phenotype, and function of nerve terminals within the PVN that arise from AT2R-enhanced green fluorescent protein-positive neurons and synapse onto AVP neurons. Initial experiments combined genetic and neuroanatomical techniques to determine that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons derived from the peri-PVN area containing AT2R make appositions onto AVP neurons within the PVN, thereby positioning AT2R to negatively regulate neuroendocrine secretion. Subsequent patch-clamp electrophysiological experiments revealed that selective activation of AT2R in the peri-PVN area using compound 21 facilitates inhibitory (ie, GABAergic) neurotransmission and leads to reduced activity of AVP neurons within the PVN. Final experiments determined the functional impact of AT2R activation by testing the effects of compound 21 on plasma AVP levels. Collectively, these experiments revealed that AT2R expressing neurons make GABAergic synapses onto AVP neurons that inhibit AVP neuronal activity and suppress baseline systemic AVP levels. These findings have direct implications in the targeting of AT2R for disorders of AVP secretion and also for the alleviation of high blood pressure. PMID:27267713

  5. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water table regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Straková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are carbon (C storage ecosystems sustained by a high water table (WT. High WT creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WT drawdown caused by climate and/or land-use change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WT drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WT drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter at two stages of decomposition (incubated in the field for 1 or 2 years. We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine to short-term (years and long-term (decades WT drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes (bog and fen. The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation: Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees.

    Litter type was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns and explained about 30 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Overall, enzyme activities were higher in vascular plant litters compared to Sphagnum litters, and the allocation of enzyme activities towards C or nutrient acquisition was related to the initial litter quality (chemical composition. Direct effects of WT regime, site nutrient regime and litter decomposition stage (length of incubation period summed to only about 40 % of the litter type effect. WT regime alone explained about 5 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Generally, enzyme activity increased following the long-term WT drawdown and the activity allocation turned from P

  6. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Keong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta ® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions.

  7. Neonatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide differentially affects adult anxiety responses in the light-dark test and taste neophobia test in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult rat, including altering adult anxiety-like behaviour. Research conducted to date, however, has produced conflicting findings with some results demonstrating increases in adult anxiety-like behaviour while others report decreases or no changes in anxiety-like behaviour. Thus, the current study conducted additional evaluation of the effects of neonatal LPS exposure on adult anxiety-like behaviours by comparing the behavioural outcomes in the more traditional light-dark test, together with the less common hyponeophagia to sucrose solution paradigm. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50μg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Animals were then tested in the light-dark apparatus on postnatal day 90 for 30min. Next, following 5 days of habituation to distilled water delivery in Lickometer drinking boxes, animal were tested for neophagia to a 10% sucrose solution (0.3M) for 30min daily on postnatal days 96 and 97. In the light-dark test, neonatal LPS treatment decreased adult anxiety-like behaviour in females, but not males. In contrast, neonatal exposure to LPS did not influence adult anxiety-like behaviour as measured by hyponeophagia, but altered the licking patterns of drinking displayed towards a novel, palatable sucrose solution in adult males and females, in a manner that may reflect a decrease in situational anxiety. The current study supports the idea that neonatal LPS treatment results in highly specific alterations of adult anxiety-like behaviour, the nature of which seems to depend not only on the measure of anxiety behaviour used, but also possibly, on the degree of anxiety experienced during the behavioural test.

  8. The social environment during a post-match video presentation affects the hormonal responses and playing performance in professional male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2014-05-10

    This study examined the social environment effects during a post-match video presentation on the hormonal responses and match performance in professional male rugby union players. The study participants (n=12) watched a 1-hour video of mixed content (player mistakes and successes) from a match played 1 day earlier in the presence of; (1) strangers who were bigger (SB), (2) strangers who were smaller (SS), (3) friends who were bigger (FB) and (4) friends who were smaller (FS). The salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses to a physical stress test were assessed 3 days later, along with pre-match T levels and match-ranked performance 6-7 days later. All treatments were associated with elevated T responses (% change from baseline) to the stress test with SS>SB and FB>FS. The C stress responses after the SS and SB interventions were both greater than FS and FB. On match-day, the FB approach was linked to higher T concentrations than SB and better ranked performance than FS and SS. The subsequent testing of a population sub-group (n=8) across a video (V) and a non-video (NV) presentation in a neutral social environment produced similar stress-test and performance outcomes, but pre-match T concentrations differed (V>NV). In conclusion, the presence of other males during a post-match video assessment had some influence on the hormonal responses of male athletes and match performance in the week that followed. Thus, the social environment during a post-match assessment could moderate performance and recovery in elite sport and, in a broader context, could be a possible modulator of human stress responses.

  9. Risk Factors for Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I among Injecting Drug Users in Northeast Brazil: Possibly Greater Efficiency of Male to Female Transmission

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    Dourado Inês

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, the highest seroprevalence of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I infection in Brazil as demonstrated by national wide blood bank surveys. In this paper, we report results of an investigation of drug use and sexual behavior associated with HTLV-I infection among male and female injecting drug users (IDUs in Salvador. A cross sectional study was conducted in the Historical District of Salvador from 1994-1996 (Projeto Brasil-Salvador and 216 asymptomatic IDUs were selected using the snowball contact technique. Blood samples were collected for serological assays. Sera were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1/2 and HTLV-I/II antibodies by ELISA and confirmed by Western blot. The overall prevalence of HTLV-I/II was 35.2% (76/216. The seroprevalence of HTLV-I, HTLV-II and HIV-1 was for males 22%, 11.3% and 44.1% and for females 46.2%, 10.3% and 74.4% respectively. HTLV-I was identified in 72.4% of HTLV positive IDUs. Variables which were significantly associated with HTLV-I infection among males included needle sharing practices, duration of injecting drug use, HIV-1 seropositivity and syphilis. Among women, duration of injecting drug use and syphilis were strongly associated with HTLV-I infection. Multivariate analysis did not change the direction of these associations. Sexual intercourse might play a more important role in HTLV-I infection among women than in men.

  10. Novel missense mutation in the GALNS gene in an affected patient with severe form of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedhassani, Seyed Mohammad; Hashemi-Gorji, Feyzollah; Yavari, Mahdieh; Mirfakhraie, Reza

    2015-10-23

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA), also known as Morquio A, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), which causes major skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities and affects multiple organ systems. In this study, one MPS IVA patient with a severe form from consanguine large Iranian family has been investigated. To find a mutation, all of the 14 exons and intron-exon junctions of GALNS gene were sequenced. Sequencing results were analyzed using bioinformatic analysis in order to predict probable pathogenic effect of the variant. One novel homozygous missense mutation in exon 5, c.542A>G (p.Y181C), was found in the proband. That was predicted as being probably pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis. Segregation and familial study confirmed this pathogenic mutation. In conclusion, we have identified the novel mutation responsible for MPS IVA in an Iranian patient to assist in the diagnosis, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of the affected families. PMID:26276046

  11. Quality of gingernut type biscuits as affected by varying fat content and partial replacement of honey with molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipčev, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Gingernut type biscuits were prepared with varying fat content (10, 20, and 30 % w/w flour basis) and with sugar beet molasses replacing 0, 25, and 50 % w/w of the honey in the formulation. To evaluate the effects of these modifications, dough properties, and the physical, and sensory properties, and chemical composition of the biscuits were determined. Dough properties were significantly affected by the fat content; higher fat gave softer dough with reduced adhesiveness, cohesiveness and springiness. Biscuit height and diameter were also significantly affected only by the fat content. The tested biscuit variants showed no difference with respect to hardness and fracturability. During storage, hardness, fracturability and brittleness of the biscuits significantly increased but significant differences within the biscuits variants were observed after two months of storage in terms of fracturability which was least impaired in the biscuits with 30 % fat. Higher fat content also contributed to better flavour keeping during storage. Substitution of honey with molasses resulted in products with darker colour, less yellow and more red tone. Molasses also contributed to better nutritive value of biscuits by increasing significantly the content of proteins, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. PMID:26396308

  12. Quality of gingernut type biscuits as affected by varying fat content and partial replacement of honey with molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipčev, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Gingernut type biscuits were prepared with varying fat content (10, 20, and 30 % w/w flour basis) and with sugar beet molasses replacing 0, 25, and 50 % w/w of the honey in the formulation. To evaluate the effects of these modifications, dough properties, and the physical, and sensory properties, and chemical composition of the biscuits were determined. Dough properties were significantly affected by the fat content; higher fat gave softer dough with reduced adhesiveness, cohesiveness and springiness. Biscuit height and diameter were also significantly affected only by the fat content. The tested biscuit variants showed no difference with respect to hardness and fracturability. During storage, hardness, fracturability and brittleness of the biscuits significantly increased but significant differences within the biscuits variants were observed after two months of storage in terms of fracturability which was least impaired in the biscuits with 30 % fat. Higher fat content also contributed to better flavour keeping during storage. Substitution of honey with molasses resulted in products with darker colour, less yellow and more red tone. Molasses also contributed to better nutritive value of biscuits by increasing significantly the content of proteins, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron.

  13. Novel missense mutation in the GALNS gene in an affected patient with severe form of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedhassani, Seyed Mohammad; Hashemi-Gorji, Feyzollah; Yavari, Mahdieh; Mirfakhraie, Reza

    2015-10-23

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA), also known as Morquio A, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), which causes major skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities and affects multiple organ systems. In this study, one MPS IVA patient with a severe form from consanguine large Iranian family has been investigated. To find a mutation, all of the 14 exons and intron-exon junctions of GALNS gene were sequenced. Sequencing results were analyzed using bioinformatic analysis in order to predict probable pathogenic effect of the variant. One novel homozygous missense mutation in exon 5, c.542A>G (p.Y181C), was found in the proband. That was predicted as being probably pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis. Segregation and familial study confirmed this pathogenic mutation. In conclusion, we have identified the novel mutation responsible for MPS IVA in an Iranian patient to assist in the diagnosis, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of the affected families.

  14. GnRH-agonist implantation of prepubertal male cats affects their reproductive performance and testicular LH receptor and FSH receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Khalid, M; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2016-03-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of GnRH-agonist implantation in prepubertal tomcats on sexual behavior, reproductive performance, and expression of testicular LH receptor (LHR) and FSH receptor (FSHR) and also to compare the testicular characteristics, LHR and FSHR expression between prepubertal and adult tomcats. In experiment 1, 3-month-old tomcats (n = 6/group) were either treated with or left without 4.7 mg deslorelin implants. Semen collection and evaluation were performed just before castration at 48 weeks after treatment; removed testes were analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of LHR and FSHR. We were able to collect semen from six non-treated cats, whereas in treated cats, semen was uncollectable. The results revealed that sexual behavior was absent in the implanted cats throughout the study period. Testicular volume was found to decrease from 30 weeks after treatment onward in the implanted cats compared to the controls (P cats. Testicular tissue score, seminiferous tubule diameter, and LHR protein expression were found lower in the implanted cats (P cats. In experiment 2, testes from prepubertal (n = 6) and adult (n = 6) male cats were collected after castration and analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of LHR and FSHR. No differences were observed in the protein expression of LHR and FSHR between the two groups, whereas mRNA expression of FSHR was higher in prepubertal cats (P cats (P reproductive function without any adverse effects for at least 48 weeks in male cats. PMID:26620725

  15. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  16. Effects of Unilateral Nephrectomy on Renal Function in Male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Fatty Rats: A Novel Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Katsuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT fatty rat is a new model for obese type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1/2 nephrectomy (Nx on renal function and morphology and on blood pressure in SDT fatty rats. Male SDT fatty rats underwent 1/2 Nx or a sham operation (Sham. Subsequently, animals were studied with respect to renal function and histological alterations. Induction of 1/2 Nx in SDT fatty rats led to functional and morphological damage to the remnant kidney and to hypertension, which are considered main characteristics of chronic kidney disease, at a younger age compared with the sham group. In conclusion, the SDT fatty rat is useful in investigations to elucidate the pathogenesis of human diabetic nephropathy and in new drug discovery.

  17. The successful treatment of rapidly progressive idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulo-nephritis Type 1 in a 4-year-old male pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaga, S; Ohtomo, Y; Hirano, D; Nishizaki, N; Someya, T; Ohtsuka, Y; Kaneko, K; Shimizu, T

    2010-10-01

    A multivariate analysis [4] revealed that the presence of crescent formation on initial biopsy irrespective of type of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) was independently associated not only with end-stage renal disease but also with post-transplantation recurrence. In this study, we reported on a 4-year-old male pediatric patient requiring hemodialysis due to rapidly progressive idiopathic MPGN Type 1 with severe nephrotic syndrome and extensive cellular crescent formation on initial biopsy. The patient had been treated intravenously (i.v.) with 9 pulses of methylprednisolone, followed by daily prednisolone, resulting in the withdrawal of dialysis within 1 month. However, since active lesions in the second renal biopsy such as cellular crescents still remained and nephrotic range proteinuria had persisted for more than 2 months, the patient received additional 3 i.v. pulses of methylprednisolone, followed by combinations of alternate-day prednisolone, mizoribine, dipyridamole and warfarin, which lead to complete remission in a short-period of time. The patient has been off the combination therapy for 10 months because the third biopsy prior to the termination of this regimen showed decreased inflammatory activity. There is currently no established protocol for children with crescentic MPGN due to a rarity of its clinicopathological presentation. This case report indicates that early treatment with multiple pulses of methylprednisolone followed by the short-term combination therapy may be of benefit for children with rapidly progressive idiopathic MPGN Type 1, even when both diffuse crescentic changes and nephrotic syndrome are present at onset.

  18. Self-Reported Periodontitis and Incident Type 2 Diabetes among Male Workers from a 5-Year Follow-Up to MY Health Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miyawaki

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine whether periodontitis is associated with incident type 2 diabetes in a Japanese male worker cohort.The study participants were Japanese men, aged 36-55 years, without diabetes. Data were extracted from the MY Health Up study, consisting of self-administered questionnaire surveys at baseline and following annual health examinations for an insurance company in Japan. The oral health status of the participants was classified by two self-reported indicators: (1 gingival hemorrhage and (2 tooth loosening. Type 2 diabetes incidence was determined by self-reporting or blood test data. Modified Poisson regression approach was used to estimate the relative risks and the 95% confidence intervals of incident diabetes with periodontitis. Covariates included age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, hypertension, current smoking habits, alcohol use, dyslipidemia, and exercise habits.Of the 2895 candidates identified at baseline in 2004, 2469 men were eligible for follow-up analysis, 133 of whom were diagnosed with diabetes during the 5-year follow-up period. Tooth loosening was associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.14-2.64] after adjusting for other confounding factors. Gingival hemorrhage displayed a similar trend but was not significantly associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.95-1.85].Tooth loosening is an independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes in Japanese men.

  19. Sitagliptin treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes does not affect CD4+ T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Perrin C; Chamberlain-Shea, Heidi; de la Morena, Maria-Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitors have recently become widely used for treating type 2 diabetes, but in meta-analyses are associated with a mildly increased risk of all-cause infections. CD26 is a cell-surface form of DPP4 which can costimulate T-cell proliferation, raising the possibility that DPP4 inhibitors might adversely affect immune function. To address this issue in an observational study, two groups of 20 subjects each were recruited from a private endocrinology practice; one group consisted of type 2 diabetes patients treated for at least 6 months with the DPP4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, whereas patients in the other group had never been treated with this agent. The groups were similar with regard to sex and racial composition, body mass index, hemoglobin A(1c), and use of other medications for diabetes, but the sitagliptin group was slightly older. A blood sample from each patient was analyzed for CD4+ T-cell activation in response to phytohemagglutinin using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stimulated bioluminescence. There was not a significant difference in T-cell activation between the treatment groups (median, 419 and 481 ng/ml ATP in the groups that were and were not treated with sitagliptin, respectively). Thus the observed increased rate of infection in diabetic patients treated with sitagliptin cannot be explained by a major effect on T-cell activation. Randomized studies, preferably using several assays of immune function, should be performed to confirm and extend these findings.

  20. Genetic fitness and selection intensity in a population affected with high-incidence spinocerebellar ataxia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, Fedor A; Tyryshkin, Kathrin; Tikhonov, Dmitriy G; Neustroyeva, Tatyana S; Sivtseva, Tatyana M; Yakovleva, Natalya V; Nikolaev, Valerian P; Sidorova, Oksana G; Kononova, Sardana K; Goldfarb, Lev G; Renwick, Neil M

    2016-07-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is the major and likely the only type of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia in the Sakha (Yakut) people of Eastern Siberia. The prevalence rate of SCA1 has doubled over the past 21 years peaking at 46 cases per 100,000 rural population. The age at death correlates closely with the number of CAG triplet repeats in the mutant ATXN1 gene (r = -0.81); most patients with low-medium (39-55) repeat numbers survived until the end of reproductive age. The number of CAG repeats expands in meiosis, particularly in paternal transmissions; the average total increase in intergenerational transmissions in our cohort was estimated at 1.6 CAG repeats. The fertility rates of heterozygous carriers of 39-55 CAG repeats in women were no different from those of the general Sakha population. Overall, the survival of mutation carriers through reproductive age, unaltered fertility rates, low childhood mortality in SCA1-affected families, and intergenerational transmission of increasing numbers of CAG repeats in the ATXN1 gene indicate that SCA1 in the Sakha population will be maintained at high prevalence levels. The low (0.19) Crow's index of total selection intensity in our SCA1 cohort implies that this mutation is unlikely to be eliminated through natural selection alone. PMID:27106293

  1. Male form of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome type I (hernia uteri inguinalis presenting as an obstructed inguinal hernia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gujar Nishikant N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome is a rare form of male pseudo-hermaphroditism characterized by the presence of Mullerian duct structures in an otherwise phenotypically, as well as genotypically, normal man; only a few cases have been reported in the worldwide literature. We report the case of a 30-year-old man with unilateral cryptorchidism on the right side and a left-sided obstructed inguinal hernia containing a uterus and fallopian tube (that is, hernia uteri inguinalis; type I male form of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome coincidentally detected during an operation for an obstructed left inguinal hernia. Case presentation A 30-year-old South Indian man was admitted to our facility with a left-sided obstructed inguinal hernia of one day's duration. He had a 12-year history of inguinal swelling and an absence of the right testis since birth. Our patient had well developed masculine features. Local physical examination revealed a left-sided obstructed inguinal hernia with an absence of the right testis in the scrotum. Exploration of the inguinal canal revealed an indirect inguinal hernia containing omentum, the left corner of the uterus and a left fallopian tube. Extension of the incision revealed a well formed uterus, cervix and upper part of the vagina attached to the prostate by a thick fibrosed band. Total excision of the uterus, bilateral fallopian tubes and right testis was performed. A biopsy was taken from the left testis. The operation was completed by left inguinal herniorraphy. Histopathological examination of the hernial contents was consistent with that of a uterus and fallopian tubes without ovaries. Both testes were atrophied, with complete arrest of spermatogenesis. Post-operative karyotype analyses were negative for 46,XY and Barr bodies on buccal smear. A semen examination revealed azoospermia with a low serum testosterone level. Conclusions In cases of unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism

  2. Conceptual differences between existing and advanced reactors and criteria affecting the development of new types of nuclear power plants world-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the nuclear safety principles and the design and operating parameters between existing and advanced reactors is presented, and criteria affecting the development of new types of nuclear reactor are outlined

  3. Blockage of the Neonatal Leptin Surge Affects the Gene Expression of Growth Factors, Glial Proteins, and Neuropeptides Involved in the Control of Metabolism and Reproduction in Peripubertal Male and Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mela, Virginia; Díaz, Francisca; Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Vázquez, María Jesús; Gertler, Arieh; Argente, Jesús; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Viveros, María-Paz; Chowen, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Leptin (Lep) is important in the development of neuroendocrine circuits involved in metabolic control. Because both Lep and metabolism influence pubertal development, we hypothesized that early changes in Lep signaling could also modulate hypothalamic (HT) systems involved in reproduction. We previously demonstrated that a single injection of a Lep antagonist (Antag) on postnatal day (PND)9, coincident with the neonatal Lep peak, induced sexually dimorphic modifications in trophic factors and markers of cell turnover and neuronal maturation in the HT on PND13. Here, our aim was to investigate whether the alterations induced by Lep antagonism persist into puberty. Accordingly, male and female rats were treated with a pegylated super Lep Antag from PND5 to PND9 and killed just before the normal appearance of external signs of puberty (PND33 in females and PND43 in males). There was no effect on body weight, but in males food intake increased, subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased and HT neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA levels were reduced, with no effect in females. In both sexes, the Antag increased HT mRNA levels of the kisspeptin receptor, G protein-coupled recepter 54 (Gpr54). Expression of the Lep receptor, trophic factors, and glial markers were differently affected in the HT of peripubertal males and females. Lep production in adipose tissue was decreased in Antag-treated rats of both sexes, with production of other cytokines being differentially regulated between sexes. In conclusion, in addition to the long-term effects on metabolism, changes in neonatal Lep levels modifies factors involved in reproduction that could possibly affect sexual maturation.

  4. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  5. Repeated in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure affects male gonads in offspring, leading to sex ratio changes in F2 progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the reproductive system of male rat offspring (F1) and the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F2) were examined. Female Holtzman rats were gavaged with an initial loading dose of 400 ng/kg TCDD prior to mating, followed by weekly maintenance doses of 80 ng/kg during mating, pregnancy, and the lactation period. Maternal exposure to TCDD had no significant effects on fetus/pup (F1) mortality, litter size, or sex ratio on gestation day (GD) 20 or postnatal day (PND) 2. The TCDD concentration in maternal livers and adipose tissue on GD20 was 1.21 and 1.81 ng/kg, respectively, and decreased at weaning to 0.72 in the liver and 0.84 in the adipose tissue. In contrast, the TCDD concentration in pup livers was 1.32 ng/kg on PND2 and increased to 1.80 ng/kg at weaning. Ventral prostate weight of male offspring was significantly decreased by TCDD exposure on PND28 and 120 compared with that of controls. Weight of the testes, cauda epididymides, and seminal vesicle, and sperm number in the cauda epididymis were not changed by TCDD exposure at PND120. TCDD- or vehicle-exposed male offspring were mated with unexposed females. The sex ratio (percentage of male pups) of F2 offspring was significantly reduced in the TCDD-exposed group compared with controls. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposures affect the development of male gonads in offspring (F1), leading to changes in the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F2)

  6. ABO血型与男性精液参数的关系研究%Study on the relationship between ABO blood types and male semen parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣宗; 吴红军; 姚康寿

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between ABO blood types and male semen parameters.Methods From Sep of 2007 to Nov of 2009, 1793 semen samples collected from 1793 donors of Zhejiang Human Sperm Bank were divided into blood type A group(537), blood type B group(518), blood type O group(586) and blood type AB group(152) based on donors' blood type. Sperm morphology and semen characteristics were assessed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results The total motility of sperm in blood type A group(53.32%±l5.15%)was significantly lower than that in blood type B group and blood type O group(55.17%±15.13%, 55.89%±14.33%)(P <0.05), and slightly lower than that in blood type AB group(54.22%±12.88%)(P>0.05).No significant differences in semen volume(ml), sperm concentration (106 per ml) and sperm morphology (normal forms, %) were found among the four groups (P>0.05). Conclusion There were no differences in semen volume(ml), sperm concentration (106 per ml) and sperm morphology (normal forms, %) among different ABO blood donors. But the total motility of sperm of blood type A donors was lower than that of other blood type donors, which might be related to the characteristics of blood type A donors such as introvert, depression and extreme behavior.%目的 了解ABO血型与男性精液参数的关系.方法 1793例研究对象均来自浙江省人类精子库2007年9月至2009年11月的供精志愿者.根据ABO血型分组,其中A型537例,B型518例,O型586例,AB型152例.所有供精者均留取精液标本进行精液常规分析及精子形态学分析.结果 四组之间精液量、精子浓度、形态正常精子百分率等参数差异均无统计学意义;但A型供精者的精子活动率(53.32±15.15)%明显低于B型的(55.17±15.13)%及0型供精者(55.89±14.33)%,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 不同血型男性的精液量、精子浓度、形态正常精子百分率没有差别,但A型血男性

  7. Lesion type and reader experience affect the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI: A multiple reader ROC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzer, Pascal A.T., E-mail: patbaltzer@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Imge-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kaiser, Werner Alois [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07740 Jena (Germany); Dietzel, Matthias, E-mail: dietzelmatthias2@hotmail.com [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    reader experience (P = 0.005) on diagnostic performance. Conclusions: Non-mass lesion type and low reader experience negatively affect the diagnostic performance of breast MRI in a non-screening setting.

  8. Relationship of family income and house type to body mass index and chronic energy deficiency among urban Bengalee male slum dwellers of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Raja; Bose, Kaushik; Bisai, Samiran

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 469 adult (>18 years) Bengalee male slum dwellers of Dum Dum, Kolkata, India, was undertaken to study the relationships of family income and house type with body mass index (BMI) and chronic energy deficiency. The overall frequency of chronic energy deficiency was 32.0%. Based on the World Health Organization classification, the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency among this population was high and thus the situation is serious. Overall, monthly family income was significantly positively correlated with BMI. Significant differences in mean weight, BMI and monthly family income, were observed between the two house type groups. All values were found to be significantly higher in the brick household group who also earned a comparatively higher income as evident from the mean monthly family income values. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency was also found to be significantly higher in the bamboo-fenced household group. Subjects belonging to the lowest family income group had the lowest mean BMI and the highest rate of chronic energy deficiency while those in the highest family income group had the largest mean BMI and lowest rate of chronic energy deficiency. There was a significant family income group difference in mean BMI. There existed significant differences in chronic energy deficiency rates in family income group categories. Linear regression analyses showed that monthly family income and house type had a significant impact on BMI. Subsequent multiple regression analyses revealed that both monthly family income and house type had a significant impact on BMI, even after controlling for each other. PMID:19019365

  9. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-sectional study of 1380 children classified as either orphaned by AIDS and/or living with an AIDS sick family member. The children were from high-poverty, high HIV-prevalent rural and urban communities in South Africa. Social support was analyzed in depth by examining the source (e.g. caregiver, sibling) and the type (e.g. emotional, instrumental, quality). These variables were entered into multiple regression analyses to estimate the most parsimonious regression models to show the relationships between social support and depression, anxiety, and PTS symptoms among the children. Siblings emerged as the most consistent source of social support on mental health. Overall caregiver and sibling support explained 13% variance in depression, 12% in anxiety, and 11% in PTS. Emotional support was the most frequent type of social support associated with mental health in all regression models, with higher levels of quality and instrumental support having the strongest relation to positive mental health outcomes. Although instrumental and quality support from siblings were related to positive mental health, unexpectedly, the higher the level of emotional support received from a sibling resulted in the child reporting more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTS. The opposite was true for emotional support provided via caregivers, higher levels of this support was related to lower levels of all mental health symptoms. Sex was significant in all regressions, indicating the presence of moderation

  10. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J.; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-sectional study of 1380 children classified as either orphaned by AIDS and/or living with an AIDS sick family member. The children were from high-poverty, high HIV-prevalent rural and urban communities in South Africa. Social support was analyzed in depth by examining the source (e.g. caregiver, sibling) and the type (e.g. emotional, instrumental, quality). These variables were entered into multiple regression analyses to estimate the most parsimonious regression models to show the relationships between social support and depression, anxiety, and PTS symptoms among the children. Siblings emerged as the most consistent source of social support on mental health. Overall caregiver and sibling support explained 13% variance in depression, 12% in anxiety, and 11% in PTS. Emotional support was the most frequent type of social support associated with mental health in all regression models, with higher levels of quality and instrumental support having the strongest relation to positive mental health outcomes. Although instrumental and quality support from siblings were related to positive mental health, unexpectedly, the higher the level of emotional support received from a sibling resulted in the child reporting more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTS. The opposite was true for emotional support provided via caregivers, higher levels of this support was related to lower levels of all mental health symptoms. Sex was significant in all regressions, indicating the presence of

  11. Sunitinib-ibuprofen drug interaction affects the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of sunitinib to brain, liver, and kidney in male and female mice differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Christine Li Ling; Chan, Sook Tyng; Selvaratanam, Manimegahlai; Khoo, Hui Wen; Lim, Adeline Yi Ling; Modamio, Pilar; Mariño, Eduardo L; Segarra, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib (used in GIST, advanced RCC, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors) undergoes CYP3A4 metabolism and is an ABCB1B and ABCG2 efflux transporters substrate. We assessed the pharmacokinetic interaction with ibuprofen (an NSAID used by patients with cancer) in Balb/c male and female mice. Mice (study group) were coadministered (30 min apart) 30 mg/kg of ibuprofen and 60 mg/kg of sunitinib PO and compared with the control groups, which received sunitinib alone (60 mg/kg, PO). Sunitinib concentration in plasma, brain, kidney, and liver was measured by HPLC as scheduled and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. In female control mice, sunitinib AUC0→∞ decreased in plasma (P brain (P brain, liver, and kidney (all P brain (all P brain (P drug tissue targeting index, and the tissue-plasma hysteresis-like plots also showed sex-based ibuprofen-sunitinib drug interaction differences. The results illustrate the relevance of this DDI on sunitinib pharmacokinetics and tissue uptake. These may be due to gender-based P450 and efflux/transporters differences.

  12. Inhalation of diesel engine exhaust affects spermatogenesis in growing male rats; Diesel enigne hai gas bakuro ni yoru seicho yusei rat no seishi keisei eno eiky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, A. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    The paper investigated effects of the exposure of diesel engine exhaust on internal secretion function of genital organs of rats being in growth. Exposure tests were divided into a group of exposing rats to total exhaust gas (TG), a group of exposing rats to particulate-free exhaust gas (PFG), and a group of exposing rats to clean air (comparison group). The tests were carried out for 6 hours/day, for 5 days/week, and for 3 months from the birth. As to the weight at the time of finishing tests, there were no significant differences in weights of testicle and epididymis in each group. About the concentration of male/female sex hormones in serum, the values were significantly higher in TG and PFG groups than the comparison group. The follide stimulating hormone significantly decreased in both exposure groups as compared with the comparison group. The luteinizing hormone significantly decreased in TG group as compared with the comparison group and PFG group. Further, the sperm productivity and testicle hyaluronidase activity significantly decreased in both exhaust exposure groups as compared with the comparison group. It is indicated that the diesel engine exhaust stimulates the secretion of adrenal cortical hormone, reduces emission of gonadotropic hormone, and controls the spermatogenesis of rats. (NEDO)

  13. Temporal changes of flavour and texture in cooked bologna type sausages as affected by fat and salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, Sonia; Puolanne, Eero; Tuorila, Hely

    2010-07-01

    Temporal changes of flavour (mushroom-like and saltiness) and texture (juiciness) in cooked bologna type sausages with different fat and salt content and containing selected volatile compounds (100 mg kg(-1) of 1-octen-3-ol and 200 mg kg(-1) of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine) were evaluated using time-intensity (TI) method. Preceding the TI study, descriptive profiles of sausages were determined. Release of volatiles was analysed by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and an instrumental texture analysis was also performed. Chromatographic results obtained for 1-octen-3-ol were strongly correlated with the intensity perception of the linked odour and flavour (mushroom). Modifications of sausages matrix in terms of fat and salt content differently affected the dynamic perception of mushroom flavour, saltiness and juiciness. NaCl contributed to increasing release of 1-octen-3-ol (salting-out effect) confirmed by SPME analysis as well as the intensity and duration of the related flavour (mushroom) evaluated by TI. Similarly, NaCl increased the temporal perception of both saltines and juiciness of sausages. Increase in fat content led to a higher retention of 1-octen-3-ol (lipophilic compound) and thus to a less intense and shorter duration of mushroom flavour. Moreover, fat contributed to a more intense and a longer juiciness of sausages. These results highlight the feasibility of TI technique to evaluate changes in the temporal flavour and texture perception of sausages caused by modification of matrix composition.

  14. Genome-wide association study and meta-analysis find that over 40 loci affect risk of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrett, Jeffrey C; Clayton, David G; Concannon, Patrick;

    2009-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common autoimmune disorder that arises from the action of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. We report the findings of a genome-wide association study of T1D, combined in a meta-analysis with two previously published studies. The total sample set included 7......,514 cases and 9,045 reference samples. Forty-one distinct genomic locations provided evidence for association with T1D in the meta-analysis (P < 10(-6)). After excluding previously reported associations, we further tested 27 regions in an independent set of 4,267 cases, 4,463 controls and 2,319 affected sib......-pair (ASP) families. Of these, 18 regions were replicated (P < 0.01; overall P < 5 x 10(-8)) and 4 additional regions provided nominal evidence of replication (P < 0.05). The many new candidate genes suggested by these results include IL10, IL19, IL20, GLIS3, CD69 and IL27....

  15. Algal symbiont type affects gene expression in juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis exposed to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Harii, Saki; Hidaka, Michio

    2012-05-01

    Reef-building corals harbor symbiotic dinoflagellates, Symbiodinium spp., which are currently divided into several clades. The responses of corals associated with different Symbiodinium clades to thermal stress are not well understood, especially at a gene expression level. Juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis inoculated with different algal types (clade A or D) were exposed to thermal stress and the expression levels of four putative stress-responsive genes, including genes coding green and red fluorescent proteins, an oxidative stress-responsive protein, and an ascorbic acid transporter, were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression levels of the four genes decreased at high temperatures if juveniles were associated with clade A symbionts but increased if the symbionts were in clade D. The intensity of green fluorescence increased with temperature in clade D symbionts harboring juveniles, but not in juveniles associated with clade A symbionts. The present results suggest that genotypes of endosymbiotic algae affect the thermal stress responses of the coral juveniles.

  16. Analysis on Constitutional Types of Male Infertility Groups in 108 Cases%108例男性不育症人群中医体质类型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林兆丰; 蒙浩; 陈润东; 洪灵

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过108例男性不育症患者问卷调查,对其中医体质类型质进行初步的分析.方法:体质量表调查法对108例男性不育症人群实施中医体质辨识.结果:单一体质类型63例占58.33%,复合体质类型45例占41.67%,总体体质类型前10位依次为和平质31例占28.7%,湿热质15例占13.89%,湿热痰湿质7例占6.48%,气虚湿热质、气虚阳虚质各6例,分别占5.56%,气虚质5例占5%;湿热阳虚质、特禀质、阴虚质各4例,分别占3.7%,湿热血瘀质3例占2.78%.结论:男性不育患者和平质者占相当比例,而体质偏颇者则以湿热体质及湿热复合体质为主,气虚、阳虚、痰湿及其复合体质互见的体质特点.而阴虚、血瘀、特禀质及其复合体质相对较少.%Objective: To analyze the physical compositions on male infertility by Traditional Chinese Medicine constitution questionnaire of 108 cases. Method: By using a physical scale survey, the research analyzed the physical constitution types of the 108 cases of the sample population. Result: The single constitution types had 63 cases ( 58% ), complex types 45 cases ( 41.67% ) .The top 10 of the total types accounted in order, constitution of yin-yang harmony 63 cases ( 28.7% ), damp-heat 15 cases ( 13.89% ), phlegm-dampness with damp-heat 7 cases ( 6.84% ), qi asthenia with damp-heat 6 cases ( 5.56% ), qi-yang asthenia 6 case ( 5.56% ), qi asthenia 5 cases ( 5% ), the yang asthenia with damp-heat, yin asthenia, allergic constitution all had 4 cases ( 3.7% ), constitution of blood stasis with damp-heat 3 cases ( 2.78% ). Conclusion : Constitution of yin-yang harmony is quite a lot in male infertility; meanwhile, constitution of damp-heat and that of complex constitution are the majority in partial constitution. Constitution of qi asthenia, yang asthenia, phlegm-dampness always combined to compound constitution types. On the other hand, type of yin asthenia, blood stasis , qi stagnation

  17. In utero exposure of mice to diesel exhaust particles affects spatial learning and memory with reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the hippocampus of male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Satoshi; Sato, Akira; Umezawa, Masakazu; Oshio, Shigeru; Takeda, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Diesel exhaust consists of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and gaseous compounds. Previous studies reported that in utero exposure to diesel exhaust affects the central nervous system. However, there was no clear evidence that these effects were caused by diesel exhaust particles themselves, gaseous compounds, or both. Here, we explored the effects of in utero exposure to DEPs on learning and memory in male ICR mice. DEP solutions were administered subcutaneously to pregnant ICR mice at a dose of 0 or 200 μg/kg body weight on gestation days 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18. We examined learning and memory in 9-to-10-week-old male offspring using the Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Immediately after the behavioral tests, hippocampi were isolated. Hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NR) expression was also measured by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Mice exposed to DEPs in utero showed deficits in the Morris water maze test, but their performance was not significantly different from that of control mice in the passive avoidance test. In addition, DEP-exposed mice exhibited decreased hippocampal NR2A expression. The present results indicate that maternal DEP exposure disrupts learning and memory in male offspring, which is associated with reduced hippocampal NR2A expression.

  18. Testosterone affects neural gene expression differently in male and female juncos: a role for hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism and conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Peterson

    Full Text Available Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes.

  19. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  20. Learning to obtain reward, but not avoid punishment, is affected by presence of PTSD symptoms in male veterans: empirical data and computational model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Myers

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms include behavioral avoidance which is acquired and tends to increase with time. This avoidance may represent a general learning bias; indeed, individuals with PTSD are often faster than controls on acquiring conditioned responses based on physiologically-aversive feedback. However, it is not clear whether this learning bias extends to cognitive feedback, or to learning from both reward and punishment. Here, male veterans with self-reported current, severe PTSD symptoms (PTSS group or with few or no PTSD symptoms (control group completed a probabilistic classification task that included both reward-based and punishment-based trials, where feedback could take the form of reward, punishment, or an ambiguous "no-feedback" outcome that could signal either successful avoidance of punishment or failure to obtain reward. The PTSS group outperformed the control group in total points obtained; the PTSS group specifically performed better than the control group on reward-based trials, with no difference on punishment-based trials. To better understand possible mechanisms underlying observed performance, we used a reinforcement learning model of the task, and applied maximum likelihood estimation techniques to derive estimated parameters describing individual participants' behavior. Estimations of the reinforcement value of the no-feedback outcome were significantly greater in the control group than the PTSS group, suggesting that the control group was more likely to value this outcome as positively reinforcing (i.e., signaling successful avoidance of punishment. This is consistent with the control group's generally poorer performance on reward trials, where reward feedback was to be obtained in preference to the no-feedback outcome. Differences in the interpretation of ambiguous feedback may contribute to the facilitated reinforcement learning often observed in PTSD patients, and may in turn provide new insight

  1. Learning to obtain reward, but not avoid punishment, is affected by presence of PTSD symptoms in male veterans: empirical data and computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Sheynin, Jony; Vanmeenen, Kirsten M; Gilbertson, Mark W; Orr, Scott P; Beck, Kevin D; Pang, Kevin C H; Servatius, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms include behavioral avoidance which is acquired and tends to increase with time. This avoidance may represent a general learning bias; indeed, individuals with PTSD are often faster than controls on acquiring conditioned responses based on physiologically-aversive feedback. However, it is not clear whether this learning bias extends to cognitive feedback, or to learning from both reward and punishment. Here, male veterans with self-reported current, severe PTSD symptoms (PTSS group) or with few or no PTSD symptoms (control group) completed a probabilistic classification task that included both reward-based and punishment-based trials, where feedback could take the form of reward, punishment, or an ambiguous "no-feedback" outcome that could signal either successful avoidance of punishment or failure to obtain reward. The PTSS group outperformed the control group in total points obtained; the PTSS group specifically performed better than the control group on reward-based trials, with no difference on punishment-based trials. To better understand possible mechanisms underlying observed performance, we used a reinforcement learning model of the task, and applied maximum likelihood estimation techniques to derive estimated parameters describing individual participants' behavior. Estimations of the reinforcement value of the no-feedback outcome were significantly greater in the control group than the PTSS group, suggesting that the control group was more likely to value this outcome as positively reinforcing (i.e., signaling successful avoidance of punishment). This is consistent with the control group's generally poorer performance on reward trials, where reward feedback was to be obtained in preference to the no-feedback outcome. Differences in the interpretation of ambiguous feedback may contribute to the facilitated reinforcement learning often observed in PTSD patients, and may in turn provide new insight into how

  2. Pleiotropic Mutations at the TUP1 Locus That Affect the Expression of Mating-Type-Dependent Functions in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemontt, J F; Fugit, D R; Mackay, V L

    1980-04-01

    The umr7-1 mutation, previously identified in a set of mutants that had been selected for defective UV-induced mutagenesis at CAN1, affects other cellular functions, including many of those regulated by the mating-type locus (MAT) in heterothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recessive umr7-1 allele, mapping approximately 20 cM distal to thr4 on chromosome III, causes clumpy growth in both a and alpha cells and has no apparent effect on a mating functions. However, alpha umr7 meiotic segregants fail to express several alpha-specific functions (e.g., high-frequency conjugation with a strains, secretion of the hormone alpha-factor and response to the hormone a-factor). In addition, alpha umr7 cells exhibit some a-specific characteristics, such as the barrier phenotype (Bar(+)) that prevents diffusion of alpha-factor and an increased mating frequency with alpha strains. The most striking property of alpha umr7 strains is their altered morphology, in which mitotic cells develop an asymmetric pear shape, like that of normal a cells induced to form "shmoos" by interaction with alpha-factor. Some a/alpha-specific diploid functions are also affected by umr7; instead of polar budding patterns, a/alpha umr7/umr7 diploids have medial budding like a/a, alpha/alpha and haploid strains. Moreover, a/alpha umr7/umr7 diploids have lost the ability to sporulate and are Bar(+) like a or a/a strains. Revertant studies indicate that umr7-1 is a single point mutation. The umr7 mutant fails to complement mutants of both tup1 (selected for deoxythymidine monophosphate utilization) and cyc9 (selected for high iso-2-cytochrome c levels), and all three isolates have similar genetic and phenotypic properties. It is suggested that the product of this gene plays some common central role in the complex regulation of the expression of both MAT-dependent and MAT-independent functions.

  3. Genetic risk factors affecting mitochondrial function are associated with kidney disease in people with Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, E J; Salem, R M; Sandholm, N; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P; Lajer, M; Groop, P H; Maxwell, A P; McKnight, A J

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the association with diabetic kidney disease of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods The mitochondrial genome and 1039 nuclear genes that are integral to mitochondrial function were investigated using a case (n = 823 individuals with diabetic kidney disease) vs. control (n = 903 individuals with diabetes and no renal disease) approach. All people included in the analysis were of white European origin and were diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes before the age of 31 years. Replication was conducted in 5093 people with similar phenotypes to those of the discovery collection. Association analyses were performed using the plink genetic analysis toolset, with adjustment for relevant covariates. Results A total of 25 SNPs were evaluated in the mitochondrial genome, but none were significantly associated with diabetic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. A total of 38 SNPs in nuclear genes influencing mitochondrial function were nominally associated with diabetic kidney disease and 16 SNPS were associated with end-stage renal disease, secondary to diabetic kidney disease, with meta-analyses confirming the same direction of effect. Three independent signals (seven SNPs) were common to the replication data for both phenotypes with Type 1 diabetes and persistent proteinuria or end-stage renal disease. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNPs in nuclear genes that influence mitochondrial function are significantly associated with diabetic kidney disease in a white European population. What’s new? Mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified in diabetic kidney disease, but relatively large-scale genetic and epigenetic studies focused on mitochondria have not yet been described. We report a novel case–control analysis, with independent replication, of genetic variation focused on the mitochondrial genome and 1039 nuclear genes that are important for mitochondrial function. Single nucleotide

  4. Prevalence and factors affecting occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi patients with chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singal Ashwani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2 is more common in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD in general and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in particular. We aimed to determine the prevalence and factors affecting the occurrence of DM-2 in Saudi patients with CLD. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study at the King Fahd Central Hospital (KFCH, Gizan, Saudi Arabia. A total of 277 patients with either cirrhosis (CH or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC were analyzed for patient demographics, severity of liver disease, HBsAg, and anti-HCV, associated diseases including DM-2, and presence of HCC. The prevalence of DM-2 was also estimated in 400 age- and sex-matched Saudi patients admitted for various nonliver diseases (control group. Chi-square test, univariate analysis, and multivariate regression. Results: Prevalence of DM-2 in patients with CH was higher than in controls (19.2 vs. 9.2%; P = 0.001. Although those with HCC had a higher prevalence, the difference was not significant (10.9 vs. 9.2%; P = 0.5. Seventy-six percent of patients with HCC had associated CH. On multivariate analysis, age and hypertension were more common in diabetics. Although patients with HCV-related disease had a higher prevalence of DM-2 compared to HBV-related disease, the difference was not significant (26.3 vs. 15.7%; P > 0.05. Conclusions: DM-2 occurred more frequently in CLD patients, particularly in cirrhotics. Age and hypertension predicted the occurrence of DM-2. Small sample size of patients with HCV-related CH probably precluded higher prevalence of DM-2 in them.

  5. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular III, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A. [Lab. de Toxicologia, Universidad de Vigo, Orense (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  6. Fishery induces sperm depletion and reduction in male reproductive potential for crab species under male-biased harvest strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Pardo

    Full Text Available Sperm depletion in males can occur when polygynous species are intensively exploited under a male-biased management strategy. In fisheries involving crabs species, the effects of this type of management on the reproductive potential is far from being understood. This study tests whether male-biased management of the principal Chilean crab fishery is able to affect the potential capacity of Metacarcinus edwardsii males to transfer sperm to females. Five localities in southern Chile, recording contrasting crab fishery landing, were selected to assess the potential of sperm depletion triggered by fishery. Seasonally, male crabs from each locality were obtained. Dry weight and histological condition of vasa deferentia and the Vaso-Somatic Index (VSI were determined in order to use them as proxies for sperm depletion and male reproductive condition. A manipulative experiment was performed in the laboratory to estimate vasa deferentia weight and VSI from just-mated males in order to obtain a reference point for the potential effects of the fishery on sperm reserves. Sperm storage capacity is significantly affected by fisheries; during the mating season vasa deferentia from localities with low fishery intensity were heavier than those from high intensity fisheries, and these differences were even more evident in large males. Histological section showed that this disparity in vasa deferentia weight was explained principally by differences in the quantity of spermatophores rather than other seminal material. VSI was always higher in males from localities with low fishery intensity. Males from localities with high fishery intensity showed little capacity to recover sperm reserves and the VSI of these males remained below the values of the just-mated males. Detriment in the capacity of males to transfer sperm is the first step to sperm limitation in an exploited population, thus detection of sperm depletion can be an alert to introduce changes in the

  7. Influence of negative affect on decision making in women with restrictive and binge-purge type anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Unna N; Sternheim, Lot; Bijsterbosch, Jojanneke M; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Evers, Catharine; van Elburg, Annemarie A

    2016-05-30

    The present study aims to examine the influence of negative affect on decision making in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy control women and, secondly, to assess differences between the restrictive (ANR) and binge-purge (ANBP) subtypes. One hundred four women (32 with ANR, 32 with ANBP, and 40 healthy controls) participated. All women were asked to watch either a negative or a control film fragment, both followed by the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT). Before and after the fragments negative affect was measured. Additionally, relevant characteristics (e.g., overall depressive symptoms) were assessed. Differences in negative affect did not influence decision making performance. Independent of affective state, decision making was found to be impaired in women with ANBP (no learning effect on the BGT), but not in women with ANR. These findings highlight the importance of considering different AN subtypes when examining decision making processes. However, the role of negative affect on decision making remains uncertain. Since other affect related factors such as affect dysregulation may also play a role, future studies on decision making in AN should take the role of affect into account.

  8. Morphological and Cytological Study in a New Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line CMS-GIG2 in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower anthers, termed lemon CMS-GIG2, has been further confirmed by crossing with the maintenance line and restoration line of CMS-PET1, both of which maintain the male sterility of CMS-GIG2. Light microscopy observation of anther sections showed that bo...

  9. Methane emission and community composition patterns of rumen bacteria and methanogens in Holstein dairy cows as affected by silage type and dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria;

    Silage type and dietary fat supplementation can affect enteric methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. However, the impact of dietary interventions on the rumen microbiota is still not fully understood. The present study used six rumen cannulated Holstein cows (6x4 incomplete Latin Square...... rRNA and methyl co-enzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, respectively. Methanogen abundances were evaluated by qPCR using two mcrA-targeting primer sets. Silage type significantly affected CH4 emissions and rumen acetate:propionate ratios, being highest for late grass and lowest for maize. Dietary fat...

  10. Condoms - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contained in a male's semen reach a woman's vagina, pregnancy may occur. Condoms work by preventing sperm ... coming in contact with the inside of the vagina. If condoms are used correctly every time intercourse ...

  11. Soil-extractable phosphorus and phosphorus saturation threshold in beef cattle pastures as affected by grazing management and forage type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Chase, Chad C; Albano, Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Grazing can accelerate and alter the timing of nutrient transfer, and could increase the amount of extractable phosphorus (P) cycle from soils to plants. The effects of grazing management and/or forage type that control P cycling and distribution in pasture's resources have not been sufficiently evaluated. Our ability to estimate the levels and changes of soil-extractable P and other crop nutrients in subtropical beef cattle pastures has the potential to improve our understanding of P dynamics and nutrient cycling at the landscape level. To date, very little attention has been paid to evaluating transfers of extractable P in pasture with varying grazing management and different forage type. Whether or not P losses from grazed pastures are significantly greater than background losses and how these losses are affected by soil, forage management, or stocking density are not well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grazing management (rotational versus "zero" grazing) and forage types (FT; bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum, Flugge versus rhizoma peanuts, Arachis glabrata, Benth) on the levels of extractable soil P and degree of P saturation in beef cattle pastures. This study (2004-2007) was conducted at the Subtropical Agricultural Research Station, US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service located 7 miles north of Brooksville, FL. Soil (Candler fine sand) at this location was described as well-drained hyperthermic uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments. A split plot arrangement in a completely randomized block design was used and each treatment was replicated four times. The main plot was represented by grazing management (grazing vs. no grazing) while forage types (bahiagrass vs. perennial peanut) as the sub-plot treatment. Eight steel exclosures (10 × 10 m) were used in the study. Four exclosures were placed and established in four pastures with bahiagrass and four exclosures were established in four pastures with rhizoma

  12. [Male contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  13. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linea...

  14. An Exploratory Study on Initial STEM Classes and African American Freshman Males Who Are STEM Majors at a Large Mid-Atlantic State University: Factors Affecting Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Persistence in the STEM Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William Jason

    The purpose of this study was to test how well social cognitive career theory (SCCT) explains the effects of an introductory freshman year science course on the career perspectives of African American males at a large, public mid-Atlantic state university. Embracing SCCT as the foundation of this project, the dissertation intended to gather data from these young men to develop insight into how and in what ways their self-efficacy throughout the semester was influenced by their first science course, and changing their outlook on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers while in school and after graduation. To a small number of freshman African American male students who have declared themselves STEM majors, I utilized a qualitative study investigating this phenomenon. The major findings detailed themes that affected these young men including concerns about mathmatics preparation, isolation, balance, microagression, and help-seeking. Results indicate that there was an impact on the confidence, achievement, and goal setting for these young men due to these factors and that social cognitive career theory was an appropriate framework from which to test these questions.

  15. Development of molecular markers specific to petaloid-type cytoplasmic male sterility in tuber mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen et Lee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolin; Liu, Yapei; Lv, Yanxia; Liu, Zhenning; Chen, Zhujun; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-02-01

    To establish a simple and rapid method for isolating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Brassica vegetables, the effects of different factors on mtDNA extraction were investigated firstly. A new protocol includes five steps: organelle isolation, deoxyribonuclease treatment, lysis, RNase treatment, and deproteinization. Results indicate that a 15 min-lysis time can achieve higher mtDNA yields from etiolated seedlings. Moreover, it is found that the inflorescence of the cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line is unfit for the isolation of mtDNA. The mtDNA isolated using this method is intact and pure, and can be used for further molecular analysis. Subsequently, the genomic and transcriptional differences of atps and coxs genes on the mitochondria between the petaloid-type CMS line and its maintainer line have been identified. RFLP analysis revealed that out of the five atps and three coxs genes, except of atp4 and cox3, the others mtDNA protein coding genes exhibited polymorphisms, respectively. This results suggest that atps and coxs genes are located in a long mtDNA fragment, and the mtDNA evolves rapidly in structure between the CMS line and its maintainer line in tuber muster. Northern blot analysis showed that the expression level of these genes in flower bud is higher than that of leaf and flower, and that, alternative splicing have been found among the atp6, atp8 and cox3 genes, respectively. Our results modified a efficient protocol for isolating the mtDNA, and provided some novel molecular markers indicating the CMS trait in tuber mustard. The comparative analysis presented in this study allows a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism on CMS in Brassica crops. PMID:24385295

  16. How Effective Are Affective Activities? Relative Benefits of Two Types of Structured Input Activities as Part of a Computer-Delivered Lesson on the Spanish Subjunctive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Processing Instruction (VanPatten, 2005) claim that learners benefit most when presented with both referential and affective structured input activities. Following a classic pretest-posttest design, the present study investigates the role of these two types of activities on the learning of the Spanish subjunctive. Groups differed…

  17. Decisions to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM by male cancer patients: information-seeking roles and types of evidence used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Trevor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM is increasingly popular with cancer patients and yet information provision or discussion about CAM by health professionals remains low. Previous research suggests that patients may fear clinicians' 'disapproval' if they raise the subject of CAM, and turn to other sources to acquire information about CAM. However, little empirical research has been conducted into how cancer patients acquire, and, more importantly evaluate CAM information before deciding which CAM therapies to try. Methods Qualitative study, comprising semi-structured interviews with 43 male cancer patients of varying ages, cancer type and stage of illness, 34 of whom had used CAM. They were recruited from a range of NHS and non-NHS settings in Bristol, England. Results As a result of the lack of CAM information from health professionals, men in this study became either 'pro-active seekers' or 'passive recipients' of such information. Their main information resource was the 'lay referral' network of family, friends and acquaintances, especially females. 'Traditional' information sources, including books, magazines, leaflets and the media were popular, more so in fact than the internet. Views on the internet ranged from enthusiasm or healthy scepticism through to caution or disinterest. CAM information was generally regarded as 'empowering' as it broadened treatment and self-care options. A minority of participants were information averse fearing additional choices that might disrupt their fragile ability to cope. There was general consensus that CAM information should be available via the NHS, to give it a 'stamp of approval', which combined with guidance from informed health professionals, could help patients to make 'guided' choices. However, a small minority of these men valued the independence of CAM from the NHS and deliberately sought 'alternative' information sources and treatment options. Men were selective in

  18. How Attributes of the Feedback Message affect Subsequent Feedback Seeking: The interactive effects of feedback sign and type

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Medvedeff; Jane Brodie Gregory; Paul E Levy

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the interactive effects of feedback type and sign on feedback-seeking behaviour, as well as the moderating role of regulatory focus. Using a behavioural measure of feedback seeking, we demonstrated a strong interaction between feedback type and sign, such that individuals subsequently sought the most feedback after they were provided with negative process feedback. Additionally, results suggested that an individual's chronic regulatory focus has implications ...

  19. Forest type affects the coupled relationships of soil C and N mineralization in the temperate forests of northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Quan Quan; Changhui Wang; Nianpeng He; Zhen Zhang; Xuefa Wen; Hongxin Su; Qing Wang; Jingyue Xue

    2014-01-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) is sensitive to vegetation and climate change. Here, we investigated the influence of changes in forest types on the mineralization of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), and their temperature sensitivity (Q 10) and coupling relationships by using a laboratory soil incubation experiments. We sampled soils from four forest types, namely, a primary Quercus liaotungensis forest (QL), Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation (LP), Pinus tabulaeformis plantat...

  20. Factors that affect the problem solving skills of preschool teacher candidates: academic achievement and types of anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Dereli; Esra Angın; Özlem Karakuş

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of academic achievement and types of anxiety of the preschool teacher candidates on their problem solving skills. In this research academic achievements and anxiety types (trait and state anxiety) were taken as independent variables. The universe of the study is composed of the students attending Pre-school Education Department at Faculty of Vocational Education, Selcuk University. The sample was determined with random classification sampling method...

  1. Physical activity in the school setting: cognitive performance is not affected by three different types of acute exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediatepositive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, thetype of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents isnot fully understood. Therefore, this controlled st

  2. Biological control of mealybugs with lacewing larvae is affected by the presence and type of supplemental prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, Gerben J.; Vijverberg, Roland; Leman, Ada; Janssen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of prey and food sources in crops has a major effect on biological pest control by generalist predators. In this study, we tested if and how supplemental prey or food affects the control of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) by larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla luc

  3. Male Responses to Conspecific Advertisement Signals in the Field Cricket Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yikweon

    2011-01-01

    In many species males aggregate and produce long-range advertisement signals to attract conspecific females. The majority of the receivers of these signals are probably other males most of the time, and male responses to competitors' signals can structure the spatial and temporal organization of the breeding aggregation and affect male mating tactics. I quantified male responses to a conspecific advertisement stimulus repeatedly over three age classes in Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) in order to estimate the type and frequency of male responses to the broadcast stimulus and to determine the factors affecting them. Factors tested included body size, wing dimorphism, age, and intensity of the broadcast stimulus. Overall, males employed acoustic response more often than positive phonotactic response. As males aged, the frequency of positive phonotactic response decreased but that of the acoustic response increased. That is, males may use positive phonotaxis in the early stages of their adult lives, possibly to find suitable calling sites or parasitize calling males, and then later in life switch to acoustic responses in response to conspecific advertisement signals. Males with smaller body size more frequently exhibited acoustic responses. This study suggests that individual variation, more than any factors measured, is critical for age-dependent male responses to conspecific advertisement signals. PMID:21283758

  4. Male responses to conspecific advertisement signals in the field cricket Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikweon Jang

    Full Text Available In many species males aggregate and produce long-range advertisement signals to attract conspecific females. The majority of the receivers of these signals are probably other males most of the time, and male responses to competitors' signals can structure the spatial and temporal organization of the breeding aggregation and affect male mating tactics. I quantified male responses to a conspecific advertisement stimulus repeatedly over three age classes in Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae in order to estimate the type and frequency of male responses to the broadcast stimulus and to determine the factors affecting them. Factors tested included body size, wing dimorphism, age, and intensity of the broadcast stimulus. Overall, males employed acoustic response more often than positive phonotactic response. As males aged, the frequency of positive phonotactic response decreased but that of the acoustic response increased. That is, males may use positive phonotaxis in the early stages of their adult lives, possibly to find suitable calling sites or parasitize calling males, and then later in life switch to acoustic responses in response to conspecific advertisement signals. Males with smaller body size more frequently exhibited acoustic responses. This study suggests that individual variation, more than any factors measured, is critical for age-dependent male responses to conspecific advertisement signals.

  5. Glucocorticoids specifically enhance L-type calcium current amplitude and affect calcium channel subunit expression in the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chameau, Pascal; Qin, Yongjun; Spijker, Sabine; Smit, August Benjamin; Smit, Guus; Joëls, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that corticosterone enhances whole cell calcium currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, through a pathway involving binding of glucocorticoid receptor homodimers to the DNA. We examined whether glucocorticoids show selectivity for L- over N-type of calcium currents. Moreover, we addressed the putative gene targets that eventually lead to the enhanced calcium currents. Electrophysiological recordings were performed in nucleated patches that allow excellent voltage control. Calcium currents in these patches almost exclusively involve N- and L-type channels. We found that L- but not N-type calcium currents were largely enhanced after treatment with a high dose of corticosterone sufficient to activate glucocorticoid receptors. Voltage dependency and kinetic properties of the currents were unaffected by the hormone. Nonstationary noise analysis suggests that the increased current is not caused by a larger unitary conductance, but rather to a doubling of the number of functional channels. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that transcripts of the Ca(v)1 subunits encoding for the N- or L-type calcium channels are not upregulated in the mouse CA1 area; instead, a strong, direct, and consistent upregulation of the beta4 subunit was observed. This indicates that the corticosteroid-induced increase in number of L-type calcium channels is not caused by a simple transcriptional regulation of the pore-forming subunit of the channels.

  6. Evidence that the type of person affects the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Trafimow, David; Finlay, Krystina A; Norman, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This study examined the role of person type in explaining the relationship between perceived behavioural control and behavioural intentions. Participants (N = 187) completed measures of the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) variables regarding 30 behaviours. Within-participants analyses demonstrated that intentions were more strongly predicted by perceived behavioural control (PBC) than a combination of attitudes and subjective norms among a minority of the sample. When these 'PBC controlled' participants were considered separately, the effects for perceived behavioural control obtained in previous between-participants analyses were augmented. Conversely, when these participants were excluded from the sample, the effects of perceived behavioural control were reduced. PBC control was also modestly associated with dispositional measures of perceived controllability. Overall, the findings indicate that the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship depends not only on the type of behaviour but also on the type of person. PMID:12133227

  7. Protein Turnover and Cellular Stress in Mildly and Severely Affected Muscles from Patients with Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerslev, Simon; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Vissing, John;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I) are characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting primarily in the proximal muscles, while distal muscles often are spared. Our aim was to investigate if wasting could be caused by impaired regeneration in the proximal...... stress were highly increased in severely affected muscles compared to mildly affected muscles. Our results indicate that alterations in the protein turnover and myostatin levels could progressively impair the muscle mass maintenance and/or regeneration resulting in gradual muscular atrophy....

  8. THE ROLE OF TRUST IN ONLINE SHOPPING MALLS: DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRUST AND HOW THEY AFFECT CONSUMER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Joon Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the mediating role of trust-to-mall and trust-to-transaction as these concepts pertain to consumers’ usage intentions of an online shopping mall. In addition, the theory of reasoned action (TRA and technology acceptance model (TAM is utilized to explain why perceived usefulness, enjoyment, perceived risk and subjective norm affect consumers’ intention to use using structural equation modelling (SEM.

  9. THE ROLE OF TRUST IN ONLINE SHOPPING MALLS: DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRUST AND HOW THEY AFFECT CONSUMER INTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Joon Kim; Se Mi Han; Euehun Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the mediating role of trust-to-mall and trust-to-transaction as these concepts pertain to consumers’ usage intentions of an online shopping mall. In addition, the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and technology acceptance model (TAM) is utilized to explain why perceived usefulness, enjoyment, perceived risk and subjective norm affect consumers’ intention to use using structural equation modelling (SEM).

  10. MedlinePlus: Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish What Treatment Options Are Available for Male Infertility? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Living With How a Man's Diet Affects Fertility Too (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) Related Issues Finasteride (Propecia/Proscar) and ...

  11. Creative Thinking of University Teachers in the Age of Intellectual Capital: Is It Affected by Personality Types and Traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFuqaha, Isam Najib; Tobasi, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to probe the level of creative thinking of teachers at Philadelphia University in Jordan, and to define its relation with several independent demographic variables, namely age, gender, duration of experience, specialization, and personality types and traits. To accomplish this purpose, three questionnaires are administered on…

  12. Neonatal infection with neurotropic influenza A virus affects working memory and expression of type III Nrg1 in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Linnéa; Beraki, Simret; Kristensson, Krister; Ogren, Sven Ove; Karlsson, Håkan

    2009-08-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that early life infections may contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders characterized by cognitive deficits. Here, we studied the effects of a neonatal influenza A/WSN/33 virus infection on locomotor activity, working memory and emotional behavior in adult mice. In addition to wild type mice, immunodeficient (Tap1(-/-)) mice lacking functional CD8(+) T cells, were included in the study to model the potential influence of a genetic deficit relating to virus clearance. Three to four months after the infection, infected Tap1(-/-) mice, but not wild type mice, exhibited deficits in working memory as well as increased rearing activity and anxiety. In the medial prefrontal cortices of these infected Tap1(-/-) mice reduced levels of type III Nrg1 transcripts were observed supporting a role for neuregulin 1 signaling in neuronal circuits involved in working memory. Virus replication, distribution or clearance did not differ between the two genotypes. The lack of CD8(+) T cells, however, appeared to contribute to a more pronounced glia response in Tap1(-/-) than in wild type mice. Thus, the present study suggest that the risk of developing deficits in cognitive and emotional behavior following a CNS infection during brain development is influenced by genetic variation in genes involved in the immune response.

  13. Glucocorticoids specifically enhance L-type calcium current amplitude and affect calcium channel subunit expression in the mouse hippocampus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.P. Chameau; Y.J. Qin; G. Smit; M. Joëls

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that corticosterone enhances whole cell calcium currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, through a pathway involving binding of glucocorticoid receptor homodimers to the DNA. We examined whether glucocorticoids show selectivity for L- over N-type of calcium currents. Moreover,

  14. Associations between Vitamin D Status and Type 2 Diabetes Measures among Inuit in Greenland May Be Affected by Other Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nina O.; Bjerregaard, Peter; Rønn, Pernille F.; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, Stig; Melbye, Mads; Lundqvist, Marika; Cohen, Arieh S.; Hougaard, David M.; Jørgensen, Marit E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an association between vitamin D insufficiency and type 2 diabetes. Vitamin D levels have decreased among Inuit in Greenland, and type 2 diabetes is increasing. We hypothesized that the decline in vitamin D could have contributed to the increase in type 2 diabetes, and therefore investigated associations between serum 25(OH)D3 as a measure of vitamin D status and glucose homeostasis and glucose intolerance in an adult Inuit population. Methods 2877 Inuit (≥18 years) randomly selected for participation in the Inuit Health in Transition study were included. Fasting- and 2hour plasma glucose and insulin, C-peptide and HbA1c were measured, and associations with serum 25(OH)D3 were analysed using linear and logistic regression. A subsample of 330 individuals who also donated a blood sample in 1987, were furthermore included. Results After adjustment, increasing serum 25(OH)D3 (per 10 nmol/L) was associated with higher fasting plasma glucose (0.02 mmol/L, p = 0.004), 2hour plasma glucose (0.05 nmol/L, p = 0.002) and HbA1c (0.39%, p<0.001), and with lower beta-cell function (-1.00 mmol/L, p<0.001). Serum 25(OH)D3 was positively associated with impaired fasting glycaemia (OR: 1.08, p = 0.001), but not with IGT or type 2 diabetes. Conclusions Our results did not support an association between low vitamin D levels and risk of type 2 diabetes. Instead, we found weak positive associations between vitamin D levels and fasting- and 2hour plasma glucose levels, HbA1c and impaired fasting glycaemia, and a negative association with beta-cell function, underlining the need for determination of the causal relationship. PMID:27073876

  15. Sialidases affect the host cell adherence and epsilon toxin-induced cytotoxicity of Clostridium perfringens type D strain CN3718.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens type B or D isolates, which cause enterotoxemias or enteritis in livestock, produce epsilon toxin (ETX. ETX is exceptionally potent, earning it a listing as a CDC class B select toxin. Most C. perfringens strains also express up to three different sialidases, although the possible contributions of those enzymes to type B or D pathogenesis remain unclear. Type D isolate CN3718 was found to carry two genes (nanI and nanJ encoding secreted sialidases and one gene (nanH encoding a cytoplasmic sialidase. Construction in CN3718 of single nanI, nanJ and nanH null mutants, as well as a nanI/nanJ double null mutant and a triple sialidase null mutant, identified NanI as the major secreted sialidase of this strain. Pretreating MDCK cells with NanI sialidase, or with culture supernatants of BMC206 (an isogenic CN3718 etx null mutant that still produces sialidases enhanced the subsequent binding and cytotoxic effects of purified ETX. Complementation of BMC207 (an etx/nanH/nanI/nanJ null mutant showed this effect is mainly attributable to NanI production. Contact between BMC206 and certain mammalian cells (e.g., enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells resulted in more rapid sialidase production and this effect involved increased transcription of BMC206 nanI gene. BMC206 was shown to adhere to some (e.g. Caco-2 cells, but not all mammalian cells, and this effect was dependent upon sialidase, particularly NanI, expression. Finally, the sialidase activity of NanI (but not NanJ or NanH could be enhanced by trypsin. Collectively these in vitro findings suggest that, during type D disease originating in the intestines, trypsin may activate NanI, which (in turn could contribute to intestinal colonization by C. perfringens type D isolates and also increase ETX action.

  16. Housing conditions affect rat responses to two types of ambiguity in a reward–reward discrimination cognitive bias task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard M.A.; Paul, Elizabeth S.; Burman, Oliver H.P.; Browne, William J.; Mendl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making under ambiguity in cognitive bias tasks is a promising new indicator of affective valence in animals. Rat studies support the hypothesis that animals in a negative affective state evaluate ambiguous cues negatively. Prior automated operant go/go judgement bias tasks have involved training rats that an auditory cue of one frequency predicts a Reward and a cue of a different frequency predicts a Punisher (RP task), and then measuring whether ambiguous cues of intermediate frequency are judged as predicting reward (‘optimism’) or punishment (‘pessimism’). We investigated whether an automated Reward–Reward (RR) task yielded similar results to, and was faster to train than, RP tasks. We also introduced a new ambiguity test (simultaneous presentation of the two training cues) alongside the standard single ambiguous cue test. Half of the rats experienced an unpredictable housing treatment (UHT) designed to induce a negative state. Control rats were relatively ‘pessimistic’, whilst UHT rats were quicker, but no less accurate, in their responses in the RR test, and showed less anxiety-like behaviour in independent tests. A possible reason for these findings is that rats adapted to and were stimulated by UHT, whilst control rats in a predictable environment were more sensitive to novelty and change. Responses in the new ambiguity test correlated positively with those in single ambiguous cue tests, and may provide a measure of attention bias. The RR task was quicker to train than previous automated RP tasks. Together, they could be used to disentangle how reward and punishment processes underpin affect-induced cognitive biases. PMID:25106739

  17. Housing conditions affect rat responses to two types of ambiguity in a reward-reward discrimination cognitive bias task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard M A; Paul, Elizabeth S; Burman, Oliver H P; Browne, William J; Mendl, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Decision-making under ambiguity in cognitive bias tasks is a promising new indicator of affective valence in animals. Rat studies support the hypothesis that animals in a negative affective state evaluate ambiguous cues negatively. Prior automated operant go/go judgement bias tasks have involved training rats that an auditory cue of one frequency predicts a Reward and a cue of a different frequency predicts a Punisher (RP task), and then measuring whether ambiguous cues of intermediate frequency are judged as predicting reward ('optimism') or punishment ('pessimism'). We investigated whether an automated Reward-Reward (RR) task yielded similar results to, and was faster to train than, RP tasks. We also introduced a new ambiguity test (simultaneous presentation of the two training cues) alongside the standard single ambiguous cue test. Half of the rats experienced an unpredictable housing treatment (UHT) designed to induce a negative state. Control rats were relatively 'pessimistic', whilst UHT rats were quicker, but no less accurate, in their responses in the RR test, and showed less anxiety-like behaviour in independent tests. A possible reason for these findings is that rats adapted to and were stimulated by UHT, whilst control rats in a predictable environment were more sensitive to novelty and change. Responses in the new ambiguity test correlated positively with those in single ambiguous cue tests, and may provide a measure of attention bias. The RR task was quicker to train than previous automated RP tasks. Together, they could be used to disentangle how reward and punishment processes underpin affect-induced cognitive biases. PMID:25106739

  18. On the type species of the genus Aetius O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896: The first description of male with notes on cymbial notch and mating plug (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhin, Puthoor Pattammal; Nafin, Karunnappilli Shamsudheen; Simmons, Zoë; Sudhikumar, Ambalaparambil Vasu

    2016-08-23

    The rare ant mimicking sac spider genus Aetius was erected by O. Pickard-Cambridge in 1896 based on an unspecified number of female specimen(s) collected from Sri Lanka. The type species of the genus, A. decollatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896, has been redescribed twice based on the holotype (Majumder & Tikader 1991; Deeleman-Reinhold 2001). Reimoser (1934) recorded the genus for the first time from India, who collected a male specimen from Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu State of southern India. This specimen was identified as A. decollatus, but it was never formally described and was later recognised to be a penultimate male (Dankittipakul & Singtripop 2013). Deeleman-Reinhold (2001) described the second representative of the genus, A. nocturnus, based on a single female specimen from Borneo, 105 years after the establishment of the genus. Dankittipakul & Singtripop (2013) described the male of A. nocturnus, thereby revealing the male genitalia of the genus, but the type species was still known only from the female sex.

  19. A Low Ethanol Dose Affects all Types of Cells in Mixed Long-Term Embryonic Cultures of the Cerebellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickering, Chris; Wicher, Grzegorz; Rosendahl, Sofi;

    2010-01-01

    . We exposed a primary culture of rat cerebellum from embryonic day 17 (corresponding to second trimester in humans) to ethanol at a concentration of 17.6 mM which is roughly equivalent to one glass of wine. Acutely, there was no change in cell viability after 5 or 8 days of exposure relative to...... of this ethanol dose, cultures were exposed for 30 days. After this period, virtually no neurons or myelinating oligodendrocytes were present in the ethanol-treated cultures. In conclusion, chronic exposure to ethanol, even at small doses, dramatically and persistently affects normal development....

  20. Tablet Keyboard Configuration Affects Performance, Discomfort and Task Difficulty for Thumb Typing in a Two-Handed Grip

    OpenAIRE

    Trudeau, Matthieu B.; Catalano, Paul J.; Jindrich, Devin L.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2013-01-01

    When holding a tablet computer with two hands, the touch keyboard configuration imposes postural constraints on the user because of the need to simultaneously hold the device and type with the thumbs. Designers have provided users with several possible keyboard configurations (device orientation, keyboard layout and location). However, potential differences in performance, usability and postures among these configurations have not been explored. We hypothesize that (1) the narrower standard k...

  1. Tablet Keyboard Configuration Affects Performance, Discomfort and Task Difficulty for Thumb Typing in a Two-Handed Grip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Matthieu B; Catalano, Paul J; Jindrich, Devin L; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2013-01-01

    When holding a tablet computer with two hands, the touch keyboard configuration imposes postural constraints on the user because of the need to simultaneously hold the device and type with the thumbs. Designers have provided users with several possible keyboard configurations (device orientation, keyboard layout and location). However, potential differences in performance, usability and postures among these configurations have not been explored. We hypothesize that (1) the narrower standard keyboard layout in the portrait orientation leads to lower self-reported discomfort and less reach than the landscape orientation; (2) a split keyboard layout results in better overall outcomes compared to the standard layout; and (3) the conventional bottom keyboard location leads to the best outcomes overall compared to other locations. A repeated measures laboratory experiment of 12 tablet owners measured typing speed, discomfort, task difficulty, and thumb/wrist joint postures using an active marker system during typing tasks for different combinations of device orientation (portrait and landscape), keyboard layout (standard and split), and keyboard location (bottom, middle, top). The narrower standard keyboard with the device in the portrait orientation was associated with less discomfort (least squares mean (and S.E.) 2.9±0.6) than the landscape orientation (4.5±0.7). Additionally, the split keyboard decreased the amount of reaching required by the thumb in the landscape orientation as defined by a reduced range of motion and less MCP extension, which may have led to reduced discomfort (2.7±0.6) compared to the standard layout (4.5±0.7). However, typing speed was greater for the standard layout (127±5 char./min.) compared to the split layout (113±4 char./min.) regardless of device orientation and keyboard location. Usage guidelines and designers can incorporate these findings to optimize keyboard design parameters and form factors that promote user performance and

  2. Tablet Keyboard Configuration Affects Performance, Discomfort and Task Difficulty for Thumb Typing in a Two-Handed Grip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu B Trudeau

    Full Text Available When holding a tablet computer with two hands, the touch keyboard configuration imposes postural constraints on the user because of the need to simultaneously hold the device and type with the thumbs. Designers have provided users with several possible keyboard configurations (device orientation, keyboard layout and location. However, potential differences in performance, usability and postures among these configurations have not been explored. We hypothesize that (1 the narrower standard keyboard layout in the portrait orientation leads to lower self-reported discomfort and less reach than the landscape orientation; (2 a split keyboard layout results in better overall outcomes compared to the standard layout; and (3 the conventional bottom keyboard location leads to the best outcomes overall compared to other locations. A repeated measures laboratory experiment of 12 tablet owners measured typing speed, discomfort, task difficulty, and thumb/wrist joint postures using an active marker system during typing tasks for different combinations of device orientation (portrait and landscape, keyboard layout (standard and split, and keyboard location (bottom, middle, top. The narrower standard keyboard with the device in the portrait orientation was associated with less discomfort (least squares mean (and S.E. 2.9±0.6 than the landscape orientation (4.5±0.7. Additionally, the split keyboard decreased the amount of reaching required by the thumb in the landscape orientation as defined by a reduced range of motion and less MCP extension, which may have led to reduced discomfort (2.7±0.6 compared to the standard layout (4.5±0.7. However, typing speed was greater for the standard layout (127±5 char./min. compared to the split layout (113±4 char./min. regardless of device orientation and keyboard location. Usage guidelines and designers can incorporate these findings to optimize keyboard design parameters and form factors that promote user performance

  3. Motor physical therapy affects muscle collagen type I and decreases gait speed in dystrophin-deficient dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís P Gaiad

    Full Text Available Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD is a dystrophin-deficient canine model genetically homologous to Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD in humans. Muscular fibrosis secondary to cycles of degeneration/regeneration of dystrophic muscle tissue and muscular weakness leads to biomechanical adaptation that impairs the quality of gait. Physical therapy (PT is one of the supportive therapies available for DMD, however, motor PT approaches have controversial recommendations and there is no consensus regarding the type and intensity of physical therapy. In this study we investigated the effect of physical therapy on gait biomechanics and muscular collagen deposition types I and III in dystrophin-deficient dogs. Two dystrophic dogs (treated dogs-TD underwent a PT protocol of active walking exercise, 3×/week, 40 minutes/day, 12 weeks. Two dystrophic control dogs (CD maintained their routine of activities of daily living. At t0 (pre and t1 (post-physical therapy, collagen type I and III were assessed by immunohistochemistry and gait biomechanics were analyzed. Angular displacement of shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle and tarsal joint and vertical (Fy, mediolateral (Fz and craniocaudal (Fx ground reaction forces (GRF were assessed. Wilcoxon test was used to verify the difference of biomechanical variables between t0 and t1, considering p<.05. Type I collagen of endomysium suffered the influence of PT, as well as gait speed that had decreased from t0 to t1 (p<.000. The PT protocol employed accelerates morphological alterations on dystrophic muscle and promotes a slower velocity of gait. Control dogs which maintained their routine of activities of daily living seem to have found a better balance between movement and preservation of motor function.

  4. How do you manage the pressure? : How time, type, complexity and cultural diversity affects the relationship between leadership styles and project success

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Per; Cherro, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between project leadership styles and success when affected by pressures such as time, project type, complexity and cultural diversity. The research examines the two well-known leadership approaches of transformational- and transactional leadership, and argues that transactional leadership, which has less focus on the leader-follower relationship, is more suitable and successful in projects with limited time. The transformational leadership style, which has...

  5. Comparative transcript profiling of a male sterile cybrid pummelo and its fertile type revealed altered gene expression related to flower development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-Bei Zheng

    Full Text Available Male sterile and seedless characters are highly desired for citrus cultivar improvement. In our breeding program, a male sterile cybrid pummelo, which could be considered as a variant of male fertile pummelo, was produced by protoplast fusion. Herein, ecotopic stamen primordia initiation and development were detected in this male sterile cybrid pummelo. Histological studies revealed that the cybrid showed reduced petal development in size and width, and retarded stamen primordia development. Additionally, disorganized cell proliferation was also detected in stamen-like structures (fused to petals and/or carpel. To gain new insight into the underlying mechanism, we compared, by RNA-Seq analysis, the nuclear gene expression profiles of floral buds of the cybrid with that of fertile pummelo. Gene expression profiles which identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the two lines were captured at both petal primordia and stamen primordia distinguishable stages. For example, nuclear genes involved in nucleic acid binding and response to hormone synthesis and metabolism, genes required for floral bud identification and expressed in particular floral whorls. Furthermore, in accordance with flower morphology of the cybrid, expression of PISTILLATA (PI was reduced in stamen-like structures, even though it was restricted to correct floral whorls. Down-regulated expression of APETALA3 (AP3 coincided with that of PI. These finding indicated that, due to their whorl specific effects in flower development, citrus class-B MADS-box genes likely constituted 'perfect targets' for CMS retrograde signaling, and that dysfunctional mitochondria seemed to cause male sterile phenotype in the cybrid pummelo.

  6. Amino acid changes within the E protein hinge region that affect dengue virus type 2 infectivity and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen mutant dengue viruses were engineered and used to identify AAs in the molecular hinge of the envelope protein that are critical to viral infection. Substitutions at Q52, A54, or E133 reduced infectivity in mammalian cells and altered the pH threshold of fusion. Mutations at F193, G266, I270, or G281 affected viral replication in mammalian and mosquito cells, but only I270W had reduced fusion activity. T280Y affected the pH threshold for fusion and reduced replication in C6/36 cells. Three different mutations at L135 were lethal in mammalian cells. Among them, L135G abrogated fusion and reduced replication in C6/36 cells, but only slightly reduced the mosquito infection rate. Conversely, L135W replicated well in C6/36 cells, but had the lowest mosquito infection rate. Possible interactions between hinge residues 52 and 277, or among 53, 135, 170, 186, 265, and 276 required for hinge function were discovered by sequence analysis to identify compensatory mutations.

  7. Metagenomic Analysis of Upwelling-Affected Brazilian Coastal Seawater Reveals Sequence Domains of Type I PKS and Modular NRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrat, Rafael R C; Cury, Juliano C; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2015-01-01

    Marine environments harbor a wide range of microorganisms from the three domains of life. These microorganisms have great potential to enable discovery of new enzymes and bioactive compounds for industrial use. However, only ~1% of microorganisms from the environment can currently be identified through cultured isolates, limiting the discovery of new compounds. To overcome this limitation, a metagenomics approach has been widely adopted for biodiversity studies on samples from marine environments. In this study, we screened metagenomes in order to estimate the potential for new natural compound synthesis mediated by diversity in the Polyketide Synthase (PKS) and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) genes. The samples were collected from the Praia dos Anjos (Angel's Beach) surface water-Arraial do Cabo (Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil), an environment affected by upwelling. In order to evaluate the potential for screening natural products in Arraial do Cabo samples, we used KS (keto-synthase) and C (condensation) domains (from PKS and NRPS, respectively) to build Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models. From both samples, a total of 84 KS and 46 C novel domain sequences were obtained, showing the potential of this environment for the discovery of new genes of biotechnological interest. These domains were classified by phylogenetic analysis and this was the first study conducted to screen PKS and NRPS genes in an upwelling affected sample. PMID:26633360

  8. Season and tissue type affect fungal endophyte communities of the Indian medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia more strongly than geographic location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashish; Gond, Surendra K; Kumar, Anuj; Sharma, Vijay K; Verma, Satish K; Kharwar, Ravindra N; Sieber, Thomas N

    2012-08-01

    A total of 1,151 endophytic fungal isolates representing 29 taxa were isolated from symptom-less, surface-sterilized segments of stem, leaf, petiole, and root of Tinospora cordifolia which had been collected at three locations differing in air pollution in India (Ramnagar, Banaras Hindu University, Maruadih) during three seasons (summer, monsoon, winter). Endophytes were most abundant in leaf tissues (29.38% of all isolates), followed by stem (18.16%), petiole (10.11%), and root segments (6.27%). The frequency of colonization (CF) varied more strongly among tissue type and season than location. CF was maximal during monsoon followed by winter and minimal during summer. A species each of Guignardia and Acremonium could only be isolated from leaves, whereas all other species occurred in at least two tissue types. Penicillium spp. were dominant (12.62% of all isolates), followed by Colletotrichum spp. (11.8%), Cladosporium spp. (8.9%), Chaetomium globosum (8.1%), Curvularia spp. (7.6%), and Alternaria alternata (6.8%). Species richness, evenness, and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index followed the same pattern as the CF with the tissue type and the season having the greatest effect on these indices, suggesting that tissue type and season are more influential than geography. Dissimilarity of endophyte communities in regards to species composition was highest among seasons. Colletotrichum linicola occurred almost exclusively in winter, Fusarium oxysporum only in winter and summer but never during monsoon and Curvularia lunata only in winter and during monsoon but never in summer. Emissions of NO(2), SO(2), and suspended particulate matter were negatively correlated with the CF. Ozone did not have any effect. The frequency of most species declined with increasing pollution, but some showed an opposite trend (e.g., Aspergillus flavus). Five unnamed taxa (sterile mycelia) were identified as Aspergillus tubingensis, Colletotrichum crassipes, Botryosphaeria rhodina

  9. Shadows of our Former Companions: How the Single-Degenerate Binary Type Ia Supernova Scenario Affects Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, William J; Owen, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    Here we present three-dimensional high resolution simulations of Type Ia supernova in the presence of a non-degenerate companion. We find that the presence of a nearby companion leaves a long-lived hole in the supernova ejecta. In particular, we aim to study the long term evolution of this hole as the supernova ejecta interacts with the surrounding interstellar medium. Using estimates for the x-ray emission, we find that the hole generated by the companion remains for many centuries after the interaction between the ejecta and the interstellar medium. We also show that the hole is discernible over a wide range of viewing angles and companion masses.

  10. Invariant Natural Killer T cells are not affected by lysosomal storage in patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C

    OpenAIRE

    Speak, Anneliese O; Platt, Nicholas; Salio, Mariolina; te Vruchte, Danielle Taylor; Smith, David A.; Shepherd, Dawn; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Simmons, Louise; Imrie, Jackie; Wraith, James E.; Lachmann, Robin; Hartung, Ralf; Runz, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells are a specialised subset of T cells that are restricted to the MHC class I like molecule, CD1d. The ligands for iNKT cells are lipids, with the canonical superagonist being α-galactosylceramide, a non-mammalian glycosphingolipid. Trafficking of CD1d through the lysosome is required for the development of murine iNKT cells. Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by dysfunction in either of two lysosomal proteins, NPC1 or...

  11. Does academic assessment system type affect levels of academic stress in medical students? A cross-sectional study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress among medical students induced by academic pressures is on the rise among the student population in Pakistan and other parts of the world. Our study examined the relationship between two different systems employed to assess academic performance and the levels of stress among students at two different medical schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A sample consisting of 387 medical students enrolled in pre-clinical years was taken from two universities, one employing the semester examination system with grade point average (GPA scores (a tiered system and the other employing an annual examination system with only pass/fail grading. A pre-designed, self-administered questionnaire was distributed. Test anxiety levels were assessed by The Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS. Overall stress was evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS. Results: There were 82 males and 301 females while four did not respond to the gender question. The mean age of the entire cohort was 19.7±1.0 years. A total of 98 participants were from the pass/fail assessment system while 289 were from the GPA system. There was a higher proportion of females in the GPA system (85% vs. 59%; p<0.01. Students in the pass/fail assessment system had a lower score on the WTAS (2.4±0.8 vs. 2.8±0.7; p=0.01 and the PSS (17.0±6.7 vs. 20.3±6.8; p<0.01, indicating lower levels of test anxiety and overall stress than in students enrolled in the GPA assessment system. More students in the pass/fail system were satisfied with their performance than those in the GPA system. Conclusion: Based on the present study, we suggest governing bodies to revise and employ a uniform assessment system for all the medical colleges to improve student academic performance and at the same time reduce stress levels. Our results indicate that the pass/fail assessment system accomplishes these objectives.

  12. Factors that affect the problem solving skills of preschool teacher candidates: academic achievement and types of anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Dereli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of academic achievement and types of anxiety of the preschool teacher candidates on their problem solving skills. In this research academic achievements and anxiety types (trait and state anxiety were taken as independent variables. The universe of the study is composed of the students attending Pre-school Education Department at Faculty of Vocational Education, Selcuk University. The sample was determined with random classification sampling method and is composed of 300 students. The research was carried out with survey model. The data of the research was collected by using personal information sheet, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, The Problem Solving Inventory. As a criterion of academic success, students GPAs were used. The analysis of the data was done with Pearson Moments Multiplication Correlation Coefficient, t test, one-way anova, LSD test and Reggression Analyze. As the result of the research, it was found that there is significant difference between academic achievement and problem solving skills average points and class level and state anxiety average points It was determined that academic achievement and trait anxiety points predicted problem solving ability points. When t-test results about significance level of regression coefficient are examined, it is seen that the most important explanatory for problem solving skills is trait anxiety, then academic success.

  13. Do sediment type and test durations affect results of laboratory-based, accelerated testing studies of permeable pavement clogging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Peter W B; White, Richard; Lucke, Terry

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have attempted to quantify the clogging processes of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICPs) using accelerated testing methods. However, the results have been variable. This study investigated the effects that three different sediment types (natural and silica), and different simulated rainfall intensities, and testing durations had on the observed clogging processes (and measured surface infiltration rates) of laboratory-based, accelerated PICP testing studies. Results showed that accelerated simulated laboratory testing results are highly dependent on the type, and size of sediment used in the experiments. For example, when using real stormwater sediment up to 1.18 mm in size, the results showed that neither testing duration, nor stormwater application rate had any significant effect on PICP clogging. However, the study clearly showed that shorter testing durations generally increased clogging and reduced the surface infiltration rates of the models when artificial silica sediment was used. Longer testing durations also generally increased clogging of the models when using fine sediment (<300 μm). Results from this study will help researchers and designers better anticipate when and why PICPs are susceptible to clogging, reduce maintenance and extend the useful life of these increasingly common stormwater best management practices.

  14. Low-dose irradiation effects on creep properties of type 304 stainless steel weld metal, heat-affected zones, and welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrity of large non-replaceable primary reactor components of liquid metal fast breeders largely depends on the properties of weld metal and heataffected zones. Safety authorities, involved in the licensing of the SNR-300, have required the measurement and interpretation of post-irradiation creep and creep rupture properties of DIN 1.4948 (Type 304) stainless steel weld metal and heat-affected zones. For the present investigation, weld metal in as-deposited and stress-relieved condition has been subjected to tension and creep tests. The heat-affected zone structure was studied with specimens subjected to temperature cycles representative for different locations in the parent metal near the fusion zone. The specimens were irradiated in the HFR Petten at 823 K submerged in sodium to a total neutron fluence of 5 X 103 n/m2. Irradiation has no significant effect on creep and tensile properties of weld metal. The heat-affected zone is strongly affected by low-dose neutron irradiation: its 10000-h creep strength is about 25 MPa lower than that of parent metal under similar conditions. The creep strength of welded joints is controlled by a strain limit criterion. In unirradiated condition, the weld metal has the lowest ductility and rupture occurs in the weld metal. In irradiated condition the heat-affected zone has the lowest ductility for the higher creep stresses (>175 MPa) and lower rupture times (<3000 h). For lower creep stresses, the weld metal, though not affected by irradiation, determines the creep strength. Application of a stress relief treatment reduces the dislocation density and changes the carbide population in weld metal to such a degree that the ductility increases considerably with little loss of strength. The grain coarsening in the heat-affected zones, amplifying the irradiation embrittlement, can be suppressed by using low heat input welding techniques

  15. The plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels are low in males with stable ischemic heart disease (IHD compared to those observed in patients with non-IHD: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Minai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although the plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP level is a marker of heart failure, it is unclear whether BNP per se plays a pivotal role for pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD. In this study, we retrospectively examined the plasma BNP levels in stable patients with IHD and compared to stable patients with cardiovascular diseases other than IHD. METHODS: The study population was 2088 patients (1698 males and 390 females who were admitted to our hospital due to IHD (n = 1,661 and non-IHD (n = 427 and underwent cardiac catheterization. Measurements of the hemodynamic parameters and blood sampling were performed. RESULTS: The plasma BNP levels were significantly lower in the IHD group than in the non-IHD group (p<0.001. The multiple regression analysis examining the logBNP values showed that age, a male gender, low left ventricular ejection fraction, low body mass index, serum creatinine, atrial fibrillation and IHD per se were significant explanatory variables. When the total study population was divided according to gender, the plasma BNP levels were found to be significantly lower in the IHD group than in the non-IHD group among males (p<0.001, but not females (p = NS. Furthermore, a multiple logistic regression analysis of IHD showed the logBNP value to be a significant explanatory variable in males (regression coefficient: -0.669, p<0.001, but not females (p = NS. CONCLUSIONS: The plasma BNP levels were relatively low in stable patients with IHD compared with those observed in stable patients with non-IHD; this tendency was evident in males. Perhaps, the low reactivity of BNP is causally associated with IHD in males. We hope that this study will serve as a test of future prospective studies.

  16. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 (11β-HSD1) Inhibitors Still Improve Metabolic Phenotype in Male 11β-HSD1 Knockout Mice Suggesting Off-Target Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Harno, Erika; Cottrell, Elizabeth C.; Yu, Alice; DeSchoolmeester, Joanne; Gutierrez, Pablo Morentin; Denn, Mark; Swales, John G.; Goldberg, Fred W.; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Andersén, Harriet; Wild, Martin J.; Turnbull, Andrew V.; Leighton, Brendan; White, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is a target for novel type 2 diabetes and obesity therapies based on the premise that lowering of tissue glucocorticoids will have positive effects on body weight, glycemic control, and insulin sensitivity. An 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (compound C) inhibited liver 11β-HSD1 by >90% but led to only small improvements in metabolic parameters in high-fat diet (HFD)–fed male C57BL/6J mice. A 4-fold higher concentration produced similar enzyme ...

  17. Oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: is it affected by a single bout of prolonged exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Francescato

    Full Text Available Presently, no clear-cut guidelines are available to suggest the more appropriate physical activity for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus due to paucity of experimental data obtained under patients' usual life conditions. Accordingly, we explored the oxidative stress levels associated with a prolonged moderate intensity, but fatiguing, exercise performed under usual therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and matched healthy controls. Eight patients (4 men, 4 women; 49±11 years; Body Mass Index 25.0±3.2 kg·m(-2; HbA1c 57±10 mmol·mol(-1 and 14 controls (8 men, 6 women; 47±11 years; Body Mass Index 24.3±3.3 kg·m(-2 performed a 3-h walk at 30% of their heart rate reserve. Venous blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the exercise for clinical chemistry analysis and antioxidant capacity. Capillary blood samples were taken at the start and thereafter every 30 min to determine lipid peroxidation. Patients showed higher oxidative stress values as compared to controls (95.9±9.7 vs. 74.1±12.2 mg·L(-1 H2O2; p<0.001. In both groups, oxidative stress remained constant throughout the exercise (p = NS, while oxidative defence increased significantly at the end of exercise (p<0.02 from 1.16±0.13 to 1.19±0.10 mmol·L(-1 Trolox in patients and from 1.09±0.21 to 1.22±0.14 mmol·L(-1 Trolox in controls, without any significant difference between the two groups. Oxidative stress was positively correlated to HbA1c (p<0.005 and negatively related with uric acid (p<0.005. In conclusion, we were the first to evaluate the oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes exercising under their usual life conditions (i.e. usual therapy and diet. Specifically, we found that the oxidative stress was not exacerbated due to a single bout of prolonged moderate intensity aerobic exercise, a condition simulating several outdoor leisure time physical activities. Oxidative defence increased in both patients and controls, suggesting

  18. Does overnight normalization of plasma glucose by insulin infusion affect assessment of glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, P; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, O;

    2003-01-01

    turnover rates were quantified by adjusted primed-constant 3-3H-glucose infusions, and insulin action was assessed in 4-h euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic (40 mU m-2 min-1) clamp studies using labelled glucose infusates (Hot-GINF). RESULTS: Basal plasma glucose levels (mean +/- sd) were 5.5 +/- 0.5 and 10...... from basal rates of Rd, assessment of glucose turnover rates in euglycaemic clamp studies of Type 2 diabetic patients is not dependent on the method by which plasma glucose levels are lowered........7 +/- 2.9 mmol/l in the + ON and - ON studies, respectively, and were clamped at -5.5 mmol/l. Basal rates of glucose production (GP) were similar in the + ON and - ON studies, 83 +/- 13 vs. 85 +/- 14 mg m-2 min-1 (NS), whereas basal rates of glucose disappearance (Rd) were lower in the + ON than in the...

  19. Mastectomy or breast conserving surgery? Factors affecting type of surgical treatment for breast cancer – a classification tree approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical choice facing breast cancer patients is which surgical treatment – mastectomy or breast conserving surgery (BCS) – is most appropriate. Several studies have investigated factors that impact the type of surgery chosen, identifying features such as place of residence, age at diagnosis, tumor size, socio-economic and racial/ethnic elements as relevant. Such assessment of 'propensity' is important in understanding issues such as a reported under-utilisation of BCS among women for whom such treatment was not contraindicated. Using Western Australian (WA) data, we further examine the factors associated with the type of surgical treatment for breast cancer using a classification tree approach. This approach deals naturally with complicated interactions between factors, and so allows flexible and interpretable models for treatment choice to be built that add to the current understanding of this complex decision process. Data was extracted from the WA Cancer Registry on women diagnosed with breast cancer in WA from 1990 to 2000. Subjects' treatment preferences were predicted from covariates using both classification trees and logistic regression. Tumor size was the primary determinant of patient choice, subjects with tumors smaller than 20 mm in diameter preferring BCS. For subjects with tumors greater than 20 mm in diameter factors such as patient age, nodal status, and tumor histology become relevant as predictors of patient choice. Classification trees perform as well as logistic regression for predicting patient choice, but are much easier to interpret for clinical use. The selected tree can inform clinicians' advice to patients

  20. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  1. [Affective perception of the body in neurotics. Its relation to anxiety, depression, and various types of defense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxant, P

    1976-05-01

    This study compares and relates affective bodily perception (ABP), anxiety, depression, and the utilisation of some defense mechanisms in 25 neurotic women (16 depressives, 9 hysterical) and 25 normal women. ABP is evaluated according to satisfaction and anxiety (Body cathexis scale), distorsions (Body distortion questionnaire) and body conscience (Body prominence). Anxiety is measured with Cattell questionnaire, depression through Zung and Hamilton scales, and defense mechanisms by the Firo Form Cope of Schutz. Neurotics have a ABP more negative and are more depressed and anxious than normals; they use more regression while controls tend to use introjection. In comparison with depressives, hysterical women have higher scores in body distortion, mostly in the feeling of boundary loss; they express more masked anxiety and react more often through projection. Among neurotics, those who have a very disturbed ABP are more anxious, more depressed, and more prone to denial, projection, and regression in comparison with the others. In both samples, anxiety and depression have a negative correlation with body satisfaction and a positive one with body distortions and somatic anxiety. In the control group, body satisfaction is inversely related with feeling of dirt. Somatic anxiety is also inversely related to unusual feelings of body and skin obstruction. The intensity of body consciousness is related to using isolation and distortions are negatively related to using denial. In neurotics, denial is in opposition with the intensity of body awareness and is linked to somatic anxiety. The intensity of body awareness is also correlated to various forms of anxiety. Distortions are positively related to regression. The comparison of both samples shows a degradation of ABP in neurotics. The study of correlations clarifies several relations between deficient ABP anxiety, depression and the use of some defense mechanisms.

  2. Does milk matter: Is children's intake affected by the type or amount of milk served at a meal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Samantha M R; Roe, Liane S; Sanchez, Christine E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2016-10-01

    Increasing the energy density (ED) and portion size of foods promotes additional energy intake, but the effect of similar changes in milk is unknown. Using a crossover design, we tested the effect of varying the ED and portion size of milk served with lunch on preschool children's intake. Lunch was served in childcare classrooms on 4 days to 125 children aged 3-5 y (67 boys; 58 girls). Across the meals, milk was varied in ED (lower-ED [1% fat]; higher-ED [3.25% fat]) and portion size (100% [183 g]; 150% [275 g]). Foods in the meal were not varied; children ate as much of the meal as they wanted. Serving higher-ED milk did not affect milk intake by weight, but increased energy intake from milk by 31 ± 2 kcal compared to serving lower-ED milk (P food intake decreased when higher-ED rather than lower-ED milk was served, but meal energy intake (food + milk) did not change significantly. This response varied by sex: for boys, serving higher-ED milk decreased food intake by 43 ± 8 kcal (P food intake so that meal energy intake increased by 24 ± 10 kcal (P = 0.03). Thus, boys adjusted food intake in response to changes in ED of milk consumed with lunch, but girls did not. Serving milk in larger portions promotes intake of this nutrient-dense beverage, but the effects of milk ED on meal intake vary between children. PMID:27338218

  3. Evaluation of glutathione S-transferase genetic variants affecting type 2 diabetes susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Song-Tao; Wang, Chang-Jiang; Tang, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Qiu; Wang, Yuan

    2013-11-10

    Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk have been widely studied, however, the results were somewhat conflicting. To evaluate the association of GSTs (GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1) gene polymorphisms with T2DM, a meta-analysis was performed before October, 2012. ORs were pooled according to random-effects model. There were a total of 1354/1666 (n=9) cases/controls (studies) for GSTM1, 1271/1470 (n=8) for GSTT1, and 1205/1250 (n=7) for GSTM1. There were significant associations between GSTM1 polymorphism, GSTT1 polymorphism and T2DM in the contrast of present genotype vs. null genotype, with pooled OR=1.99 (95%CI=1.46-2.71) and OR=1.61 (95%CI=1.19-2.17), respectively. Yet no significant association of GSTP1 polymorphism and T2DM was showed. When stratified by ethnicity, the significant associations were also existed in Asians for GSTM1 and GSTT1, but not GSTP1. No publication bias but some extent of heterogeneity was observed. Finally, the accumulated evidence proved the obvious associations of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms with an increased risk of T2DM.

  4. Cholesterol pathways affected by small molecules that decrease sterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C mutant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Rujoi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a genetically inherited multi-lipid storage disorder with impaired efflux of cholesterol from lysosomal storage organelles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of screen-selected cholesterol lowering compounds on the major sterol pathways was studied in CT60 mutant CHO cells lacking NPC1 protein. Each of the selected chemicals decreases cholesterol in the lysosomal storage organelles of NPC1 mutant cells through one or more of the following mechanisms: increased cholesterol efflux from the cell, decreased uptake of low-density lipoproteins, and/or increased levels of cholesteryl esters. Several chemicals promote efflux of cholesterol to extracellular acceptors in both non-NPC and NPC1 mutant cells. The uptake of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol is inhibited by some of the studied compounds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results herein provide the information for prioritized further studies in identifying molecular targets of the chemicals. This approach proved successful in the identification of seven chemicals as novel inhibitors of lysosomal acid lipase (Rosenbaum et al, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2009, 1791:1155-1165.

  5. Factors affecting growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum type E on irradiated (0.3 Mrad) chicken skins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model system (chicken skins with chicken exudate) was used to determine if Clostridium botulinum type E (Beluga) spores, stressed by low dose irradiation, would develop and produce toxin at abuse temperatures of 10 and 300C in the absence of characteristic spoilage. Unstressed spores germinated, multiplied, and produced toxin on vacuum-packed chicken skins, stored at either 30 or 100C. Cell numbers increased faster and toxin was evident sooner at 300C than at 100C. At 300C, growth occurred and toxin was produced more slowly when samples were incubated aerobically than anaerobically. When samples were incubated aerobically at 100C, no toxin was detected within a test period of 14 days. An irradiation dose of 0.3 Mrad at 50C reduced a spore population on vacuum-sealed chicken skins by about 90%. The surviving population produced toxin at 300C under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, at 100C no toxin was detected even on skins incubated anaerobically. Under the worst conditions (300C, vacuum packed) toxin was not detected prior to characteristic spoilage caused by the natural flora surviving 0.3 Mrad

  6. Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Linda S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the recent international vigilance regarding disease assessment, accurate measurement of body temperature has become increasingly important. Yet, trusted low-tech, portable mercury glass thermometers are no longer available. Thus, comparing accuracy of mercury-free thermometers with mercury devices is essential. Study purposes were 1 to examine age, race, site as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults, and 2 to compare clinical accuracy of low-tech Galinstan-in-glass device to mercury-in-glass at oral, axillary, groin, and rectal sites in adults. Methods Setting 176 bed accredited healthcare facility, rural northwest US Participants Convenience sample (N = 120 of hospitalized persons ≥ 18 years old. Instruments Temperatures (°F measured at oral, skin (simultaneous, immediately followed by rectal sites with four each mercury-glass (BD and Galinstan-glass (Geratherm thermometers; 10 minute dwell times. Results Participants averaged 61.6 years (SD 17.9, 188 pounds (SD 55.3; 61% female; race: 85% White, 8.3% Native Am., 4.2% Hispanic, 1.7 % Asian, 0.8% Black. For both mercury and Galinstan-glass thermometers, within-subject temperature readings were highest rectally; followed by oral, then skin sites. Galinstan assessments demonstrated rectal sites 0.91°F > oral and ≅ 1.3°F > skin sites. Devices strongly correlated between and across sites. Site difference scores between devices showed greatest variability at skin sites; least at rectal site. 95% confidence intervals of difference scores by site (°F: oral (0.142 – 0.265, axilla (0.167 – 0.339, groin (0.037 – 0.321, and rectal (-0.111 – 0.111. Race correlated with age, temperature readings each site and device. Conclusion Temperature readings varied by age, race. Mercury readings correlated with Galinstan thermometer readings at all sites. Site mean differences between devices were considered clinically insignificant. Still considered

  7. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Imroze; N. G. Prasad

    2011-12-01

    Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune defence is affected by their mates. We assess the effect of different sized males on antibacterial immune defence and reproductive fitness of their mates. We used a large outbred population of Drososphila melanogaster as the host and Serratia marcescens as the pathogen. We generated three different male phenotypes: small, medium and large, by manipulating larval densities. Compared to females mating with small males, those mating with large males had higher bacterial loads and lower fecundity. There was no significant effect of male phenotype on the fraction of females mated or copulation duration (an indicator of ejaculate investment). Thus, our study is the first clear demonstration that male phenotype can affect the cost of mating to females in terms of their antibacterial immune defence. Mating with large males imposes an additional cost of mating to females in terms of reduced immune defence. The observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the ejaculates of the three different types of males. If the phenotypic variation that we observed in males in our study is mirrored by genetic variation, then, it can potentially lead to antagonistic coevolution of the sexes over immune defence.

  8. RNA/MBNL1-containing foci in myoblast nuclei from patients affected by myotonic dystrophy type 2: an immunocytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pellicciari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2 is a dominantly inherited autosomal disease with multi-systemic clinical features and it is caused by expansion of a CCTG tetranucleotide repeat in the first intron of the zinc finger protein 9 (ZNF9 gene in 3q21.The expanded-CCUG-containing transcripts are retained in the cell nucleus and accumulate in the form of focal aggregates which specifically sequester the muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1 protein, a RNA binding factor involved in the regulation of alternative splicing. The structural organization and composition of the foci are still incompletely known. In this study, the nuclear foci occurring in cultured myoblasts from DM2 patients were characterised at fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy by using a panel of antibodies recognizing transcription and processing factors of pre-mRNAs. MBNL1 proved to co-locate in the nuclear foci with snRNPs and hnRNPs, whereas no co-location was observed with RNA polymerase II, the non-RNP splicing factor SC35, the cleavage factor CStF and the PML protein. At electron microscopy the MBNL1-containing nuclear foci appeared as roundish domains showing a rather homogeneous structure and proved to contain snRNPs and hnRNPs. The sequestration of splicing factors involved in early phases of pre-mRNA processing supports the hypothesis of a general alteration in the maturation of several mRNAs, which could lead to the multiple pathological dysfunctions observed in dystrophic patients.

  9. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and tetracycline differently affect ataxin-3 fibrillogenesis and reduce toxicity in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, Marcella; Natalello, Antonino; Visentin, Cristina; Pastori, Valentina; Penco, Amanda; Cornelli, Giuseppina; Colombo, Giorgio; Malabarba, Maria G; Doglia, Silvia M; Relini, Annalisa; Regonesi, Maria E; Tortora, Paolo

    2014-12-15

    The polyglutamine (polyQ)-containing protein ataxin-3 (AT3) triggers the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) when its polyQ tract is expanded beyond a critical length. This results in protein aggregation and generation of toxic oligomers and fibrils. Currently, no effective treatment is available for such and other polyQ diseases. Therefore, plenty of investigations are being carried on to assess the mechanism of action and the therapeutic potential of anti-amyloid agents. The polyphenol compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and tetracycline have been shown to exert some effect in preventing fibrillogenesis of amyloidogenic proteins. Here, we have incubated an expanded AT3 variant with either compound to assess their effects on the aggregation pattern. The process was monitored by atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Whereas in the absence of any treatment, AT3 gives rise to amyloid β-rich fibrils, whose hallmark is the typical glutamine side-chain hydrogen bonding, when incubated in the presence of EGCG it generated soluble, SDS-resistant aggregates, much poorer in β-sheets and devoid of any ordered side-chain hydrogen bonding. These are off-pathway species that persist until the latest incubation time and are virtually absent in the control sample. In contrast, tetracycline did not produce major alterations in the structural features of the aggregated species compared with the control, but substantially increased their solubility. Both compounds significantly reduced toxicity, as shown by the MTT assay in COS-7 cell line and in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain expressing in the nervous system an AT3 expanded variant in fusion with GFP.

  10. Productive infection of bovine papillomavirus type 2 in the placenta of pregnant cows affected with urinary bladder tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses (PVs are believed to be highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within stratified epithelia. In vitro, various PVs appear to complete their entire life-cycle in different trophoblastic cell lines. In this study, infection by and protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 in the uterine and chorionic epithelium of the placenta has been described in four cows suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. E5 oncoprotein was detected both by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemically. It appears to be complexed and perfectly co-localized with the activated platelet-derived growth factor ß receptor (PDGFßR by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The activated PDGFßR might be involved in organogenesis and neo-angiogenesis rather than in cell transformation during pregnancy. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection has been detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the uterine and chorionic epithelium. Trophoblastic cells appear to be the major target for L1 protein expression. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be expressed during a productive infection, has been detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected viral particles in nuclei of uterine and chorionic epithelium. This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the placenta of pregnant cows can occur in vivo.

  11. Shelf life of fresh-cut spinach as affected by chemical treatment and type of packaging film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Piagentini

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut vegetables are an important and rapidly developing class of convenience foods. Their storage life may be greatly reduced due to their high rates of respiration and transpiration and the possibility of enzymatic and microbiological deterioration. Consequently, the objective of this work was to determine the shelf life and the failure attribute that conditioned the shelf life of fresh-cut spinach treated with chemical solutions and packaged in bags with different permeabilities. The shelf life of fresh-cut vegetables was defined as the time of refrigerated storage at which any one of the sensory attributes scored below 7 or when the microbiological counts exceeded 5.10(7 CFU/g. Fresh-cut spinach was treated with citric acid and ascorbic acid solutions and packaged in mono-oriented polypropylene (OPP bags or low-density polyethylene (LDPE bags. Sensory attributes and total microbial counts were evaluated throughout refrigerated storage. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to study the simultaneous effect of chemical treatment and refrigerated storage time on sensory and microbiological quality of fresh-cut spinach. A quadratic polynomial regression model was assumed for predicting off-odor, general appearance, wilting, browning, color, and mesophilic aerobic population. Type of packaging film only influenced development of off-odor (p£0.001 and had no effect on visual sensory attributes or microbiological counts (p>0.05. Development of off-odor was the attribute that limited shelf life of fresh-cut spinach packaged in OPP bags. On the other hand, shelf life of samples packaged in LDPE bags was dependent on a decrease in general appearance or an increase in microbiological counts, depending on the chemical treatment used.

  12. The Difference of Personality Types Between Male and Female Psychological Tutors%男女心理委员人格类型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳

    2012-01-01

    We used the Cattell- 16PF Questionnaire to better understand the personality traits of male and female psychological tutors. All the 519 subjects are qualified psychological tutors from different departments at Huanghuai University. The results show that there is significant difference between male and female psychological tutors in some of the personality factors. Female tutors got higher scores in factors smart ( A), sensitivity (I) and fantasy (M), while male tutors got higher scores in selfreliance(Q2) and vigilance(L). Moreover, compared to the norm of 1996, there is significant difference in other factors except smart(B).%目的对心理委员进行调查与研究,了解心理委员的人格特质。工具运用卡特尔16PF人格量表对黄淮学院理工科、文科合格心理委员共519名进行测试。结果男女心理委员在人格结构上存在差异。其中,女心理委员在乐群性(A)、敏感性(1)、幻想性(M)三个因素上的得分高于男心理委员,而男心理委员在独立性(Q2)以及怀疑性(L)两个因子上的得分高于女心理委员。另外,与1996年的常模相比,男女心理委员都在聪慧性(B)上没有差异,其他各个因子与常模存在显著差异。

  13. Post-harvest N2O emissions were not affected by various types of oilseed straw incorporated into soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbke, Sarah; Senbayram, Mehmet; Hegewald, Hannes; Christen, Olaf; Dittert, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Oilseed rape post-harvest N2O emissions are seen highly critical as so far they are considered as one of the most crucial drawbacks in climate-saving bioenergy production systems. N2O emissions may substantially counterbalance the intended savings in CO2 emissions. Carbon-rich crop residues in conjunction with residual soil nitrate are seen as a key driver since they may serve as energy source for denitrification and, they may alter soil-borne N2O emissions. As oilseed rape straw is known to have high N/C ratio compared to other crop residues, its soil incorporation may specifically trigger post-harvest N2O emissions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine post-harvest N2O emissions in soils amended with various types of oilseed rape straw (with different N/C ratio) and barley straw in field and incubation experiments. In the incubation experiment, oilseed rape or 15N labelled barley straw were mixed with soil at a rate of 1.3 t DM ha-1 and studied for 43 days. Treatments consisted of non-treated control soil (CK), 15N labelled barley straw (BST), oilseed rape straw (RST), 15N labelled barley straw + N (BST+N), or oilseed rape straw + N (RST+N). N fertilizer was applied to the soil surface as ammonium-nitrate at a rate of 100 kg N ha-1 and soil moisture was adjusted to 80% water-holding capacity. In the field experiment, during the vegetation period 15N labelled fertilizer (15NH415NO3) was used to generate 15N labelled oilseed rape straw (up to 5 at%). Here, the three fertilizer treatments consisted of 5 kg N ha-1 (RST-5), 150 kg N ha-1 (RST-150) and 180 kg N ha-1 (RST-180). Post-harvest N2O emissions were determined during the period of August 2013 to February 2014 by using static flux chambers. In the incubation trial, cumulative N2O emissions were 5, 29, 40 g N2O-N ha-1 148 days-1 in non-fertilized control, BST and RST treatments, respectively. Here, emissions were slightly higher in RST than BST (p

  14. Effect of fish oil and coconut fat supplementation on depressive-type behavior and corticosterone levels of prenatally stressed male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe Cristina; Suchecki, Deborah; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2011-04-18

    Prenatal stress (PNS) during critical periods of brain development has been associated with numerous behavioral and/or mood disorders in later life. These outcomes may result from changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which, in turn, can be modulated by environmental factors, such as nutritional status. In this study, the adult male offspring of dams exposed to restraint stress during the last semester of pregnancy and fed different diets were evaluated for depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and for the corticosterone response to the test. Female Wistar rats were allocated to one of three groups: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or with fish oil, offered during pregnancy and lactation. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control or stress groups. Stress consisted of restraint and bright light for 45 min, three times per day, in the last week of pregnancy. The body weight of the adult offspring submitted to PNS was lower than that of controls. In the forced swimming test, time of immobility was reduced and swimming was increased in PNS rats fed fish oil and plasma corticosterone levels immediately after the forced swimming test were lower in PNS rats fed regular diet than their control counterparts; this response was reduced in control rats whose mothers were fed fish oil and coconut fat. The present results indicate that coconut fat and fish oil influenced behavioral and hormonal responses to the forced swimming test in both control and PNS adult male rats.

  15. Polymorphic variant at the IL2 region is associated with type 1 diabetes and may affect serum levels of interleukin-2

    OpenAIRE

    Fichna, Marta; Żurawek, Magdalena; Fichna, Piotr; Ziółkowska-Suchanek, Iwona; Januszkiewicz, Danuta; Nowak, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphic variants at the interleukin-2 (IL2) locus affect the risk of several autoimmune disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the association of the four IL2 polymorphisms (rs6822844, rs6534349, rs2069762 and rs3136534) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the Polish population, and to correlate them with the serum interleukin-2 levels. 543 unrelated T1D patients and 706 healthy control subjects were enrolled. The minor T allele at rs6822844 was significantly less frequent in T1D compared to contro...

  16. Evaluation of four novel genetic variants affecting hemoglobin A1c levels in a population-based type 2 diabetes cohort (the HUNT2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platou Carl GP

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hyperglycemia confers increased risk for long-term diabetes-associated complications and repeated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c measures are a widely used marker for glycemic control in diabetes treatment and follow-up. A recent genome-wide association study revealed four genetic loci, which were associated with HbA1c levels in adults with type 1 diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the effect of these loci on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Methods We genotyped 1,486 subjects with type 2 diabetes from a Norwegian population-based cohort (HUNT2 for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located near the BNC2, SORCS1, GSC and WDR72 loci. Through regression models, we examined their effects on HbA1c and non-fasting glucose levels individually and in a combined genetic score model. Results No significant associations with HbA1c or glucose levels were found for the SORCS1, BNC2, GSC or WDR72 variants (all P-values > 0.05. Although the observed effects were non-significant and of much smaller magnitude than previously reported in type 1 diabetes, the SORCS1 risk variant showed a direction consistent with increased HbA1c and glucose levels, with an observed effect of 0.11% (P = 0.13 and 0.13 mmol/l (P = 0.43 increase per risk allele for HbA1c and glucose, respectively. In contrast, the WDR72 risk variant showed a borderline association with reduced HbA1c levels (β = -0.21, P = 0.06, and direction consistent with decreased glucose levels (β = -0.29, P = 0.29. The allele count model gave no evidence for a relationship between increasing number of risk alleles and increasing HbA1c levels (β = 0.04, P = 0.38. Conclusions The four recently reported SNPs affecting glycemic control in type 1 diabetes had no apparent effect on HbA1c in type 2 diabetes individually or by using a combined genetic score model. However, for the SORCS1 SNP, our findings do not rule out a possible relationship with HbA1c levels. Hence, further studies in other

  17. Mineral Type and Solution Chemistry Affect the Structure and Composition of Actively Growing Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture and 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L C; Colin, Y; Turpault, M-P; Uroz, S

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how minerals affect bacterial communities and their in situ activities in relation to environmental conditions are central issues in soil microbial ecology, as minerals represent essential reservoirs of inorganic nutrients for the biosphere. To determine the impact of mineral type and solution chemistry on soil bacterial communities, we compared the diversity, composition, and functional abilities of a soil bacterial community incubated in presence/absence of different mineral types (apatite, biotite, obsidian). Microcosms were prepared containing different liquid culture media devoid of particular essential nutrients, the nutrients provided only in the introduced minerals and therefore only available to the microbial community through mineral dissolution by biotic and/or abiotic processes. By combining functional screening of bacterial isolates and community analysis by bromodeoxyuridine DNA immunocapture and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we demonstrated that bacterial communities were mainly impacted by the solution chemistry at the taxonomic level and by the mineral type at the functional level. Metabolically active bacterial communities varied with solution chemistry and mineral type. Burkholderia were significantly enriched in the obsidian treatment compared to the biotite treatment and were the most effective isolates at solubilizing phosphorous or mobilizing iron, in all the treatments. A detailed analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the OTUs or isolated strains assigned as Burkholderia in our study showed high homology with effective mineral-weathering bacteria previously recovered from the same experimental site. PMID:27138048

  18. The Effect of Different Intensities of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Resistin Concentration and Insulin Resistance Index in Type 2 Diabetic Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Davoudi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: It can be stated that acute exercise with different intensities does not affect resistin action in individuals with diabetes. These results may be due to the constant energy cost which is equivalent to 300 kcal per session, having no influence on the study variables.

  19. Both male and female identity influence variation in male signalling effort

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson P Andreas; Lehtonen Topi K; Wong Bob BM

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (C...

  20. Comparison of the tyrosine aminotransferase cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of normal mink and mink affected with tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, S R; McGuire, T C; Prieur, D J

    2005-01-01

    Type II tyrosinemia, designated Richner-Hanhart syndrome in humans, is a hereditary metabolic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by a deficiency of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Mutations occur in the human tyrosine aminotransferase gene, resulting in high levels of tyrosine and disease. Type II tyrosinemia occurs in mink, and our hypothesis was that it would also be associated with mutation(s) in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene. Therefore, the transcribed cDNA and the genomic tyrosine aminotransferase gene were sequenced from normal and affected mink. The gene extended over 11.9 kb and had 12 exons coding for a predicted 454-amino-acid protein with 93% homology with human tyrosine aminotransferase. FISH analysis mapped the gene to chromosome 8 using the Mandahl and Fredga (1975) nomenclature and chromosome 5 using the Christensen et al. (1996) nomenclature. The hypothesis was rejected because sequence analysis disclosed no mutations in either cDNA or introns that were associated with affected mink. This suggests that an unlinked gene regulatory mutation may be the cause of tyrosinemia in mink.

  1. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna QVARNSTR(O)M; Niclas VALLIN; Andreas RUDH

    2012-01-01

    Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice.In particular,much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating.However,male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection.We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice.For example,biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources.Moreover,male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance,protection against predators and general stress tolerance.Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities.In resource based breeding systems,a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence.We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways.Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored.

  2. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

  3. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Male Reproductive System Print A ... reproductive systems. continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  4. Vocal communication between male Xenopus laevis

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Martha L.; Barnard, Candace; O’Hagan, Robert; Horng, Sam H.; Rand, Masha; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of male–male vocal communication in the reproductive repertoire of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Six male and two female call types were recorded from native ponds in the environs of Cape Town, South Africa. These include all call types previously recorded in the laboratory as well as one previously unidentified male call: chirping. The amount of calling and the number of call types increased as the breeding season progressed. Laboratory recordi...

  5. Thyroid, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajender, Singh; Monica, Marie Gray; Walter, Lee; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of thyroid hormone receptors on the testes, thyroid has been suggested to have a significant impact on the male reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. Several research articles on the role of thyroid in spermatogenesis or male infertility have been published in the last three decades. We conducted an exhaustive literature search was conducted in order to create an up-to-date review of literature. This review aims to discuss the impact of thyroid on testicular development, spermatogenesis, hypo- or hyper- thyroidism and male infertility, and the management of thyroid related abnormal semen profile. The literature revealed that thyroid significantly impacts testicular development and that abnormal thyroid profile affects semen quality and male fertility by compromising testicular size, sperm motility and ejaculate volume. A clear link exists between thyroid hormones, testicular development and spermatogenesis. Thyroid disease negatively affects spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. In such cases, infertility is reversible, but more studies need to be conducted, especially in post-pubertal males to cement the current findings. PMID:21622096

  6. Introduction of an single nucleodite polymorphism-based "Major Y-chromosome haplogroup typing kit" suitable for predicting the geographical origin of male lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brión, María; Sanchez, Juan J; Balogh, Kinga;

    2005-01-01

    . From more than 200 SNPs compiled in the phylogenetic tree published by the Y-Chromosome Consortium, and looking at the population studies previously published, a package of 29 SNPs has been selected for the identification of major population haplogroups. A "Major Y-chromosome haplogroup typing kit" has...

  7. COL1A2 gene analysis in a Czech osteogenesis imperfecta patient: a candidate novel mutation in a patient affected by osteogenesis imperfecta type 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrušková L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lucie Hrušková,1 Ivo Mařík,2,3 Stella Mazurová,1 Pavel Martásek,1 Ivan Mazura1 1Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Ambulant Centre for Defects of Locomotor Apparatus 1.1.c., Prague, Czech Republic; 3Faculty of Medical Studies, West Bohemia University, Pilsen, Czech RepublicAbstract: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable bone fragility disease with a heterogenic genetic origin. Most cases result from mutations of either the COL1A1 gene or the COL1A2 gene. We identified a novel COL1A2 gene mutation in a Czech patient, born to unaffected parents, who was diagnosed according to clinical and anthropometric findings and radiographic features as having type 3 osteogenesis imperfecta, which is a severe form of this disease. The identified Gly814Trp mutation was predicted by a number of complementary bioinformatic programs to result in functional alteration of the protein. This case report provides both evidence of a novel COL1A2 mutation resulting in type 3 osteogenesis imperfecta and a genotype:phenotype correlation in this affected individual. Keywords: osteogenesis imperfecta type 3, collagen, alpha-2 (I chain, substitution, sequencing 

  8. Alterations of RNA Editing for the Mitochondrial ATP9 Gene in a New orf220-type Cytoplasmic Male-sterile Line of Stem Mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Hua Yang; Ming-Fang Zhang; Jing-Quan Yu

    2007-01-01

    RNA editing for the mitochondrial ATP9 gene of encoding regions has been observed in both cytoplasmic malesterile and maintainer lines of stem mustard, where its editing capacity varied spatially and temporally in the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line. There were four RNA editing sites for the mitochondrial ATP9 gene according to its normal editing sites in mustard, of which three sites occurred as C-to-U changes and one as a U-to-C change.As a result, the hydrophobicity of deduced ATP9 protein was reduced due to the conversions at its 17th, 45th and 64th positions. Meanwhile, the conservation of deduced ATP9 protein was enhanced by changes at the 56th position.Loss of a specific editing site for ATP9 was observed in juvenile roots, senile roots, senile leaves and floret buds of the CMS line. Comparatively, complete RNA editing for ATP9 gene was retained in juvenile roots, juvenile leaves and floret buds of its maintainer line; however, the loss of a specific editing site for ATP9 gene occurred at senile roots and senile leaves in its maintainer line. These observations allow us to produce a hypothesis that the dysfunction of a specific mitochondrisl gene arising from RNA editing could probably be a factor triggering CMS and organ senescence through unknown cross-talk pathways during development.

  9. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting fatness and breast muscle weight in meat-type chicken lines divergently selected on abdominal fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neau André

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL for abdominal fatness and breast muscle weight were investigated in a three-generation design performed by inter-crossing two experimental meat-type chicken lines that were divergently selected on abdominal fatness. A total of 585 F2 male offspring from 5 F1 sires and 38 F1 dams were recorded at 8 weeks of age for live body, abdominal fat and breast muscle weights. One hundred-twenty nine microsatellite markers, evenly located throughout the genome and heterozygous for most of the F1 sires, were used for genotyping the F2 birds. In each sire family, those offspring exhibiting the most extreme values for each trait were genotyped. Multipoint QTL analyses using maximum likelihood methods were performed for abdominal fat and breast muscle weights, which were corrected for the effects of 8-week body weight, dam and hatching group. Isolated markers were assessed by analyses of variance. Two significant QTL were identified on chromosomes 1 and 5 with effects of about one within-family residual standard deviation. One breast muscle QTL was identified on GGA1 with an effect of 2.0 within-family residual standard deviation.

  10. Male-male homosexology: seven short discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, John

    2004-09-01

    Homosexology is that branch of the science of sexology that deals with same sex relationships. It is subdivided into ideation, imagery, and praxis. Praxeology is the science of praxis. There are two doctrines by which homosexuality is defined: elective and developmental. Elective is like joining a political party and is more likely bisexual than exclusively homosexual. Complete developmental homosexuality is a state of being and is characteristically immutable. Both types of homosexuality are determined multivariately and sequentially, not univariately. Male and female mammals are phylogenically programmed to be reciprocal, not identical, in the praxeology of their courtship and mating. In primate, notably human, evolution, the eyes have taken over from the nose as organs of erotic arousal, but the molecular biology of how this happens in individual development, gay, straight or ambivalent, remains to be ascertained. The different personal histories of homosexual development also remain to be ascertained and cataloged. PMID:15506674

  11. Searching for a major locus for male pattern baldness (MPB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anker, R.; Eisen, A.Z.; Donis-Keller, H. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Male pattern baldness (MPB) is a common trait in post-pubertal males. Approximately 50% of adult males present some degree of MPB by age 50. According to the classification provided by Hamilton in 1951 and modified by Norwood in 1975, the trait itself is a continuum that ranges from mild (Type I) to severe (Type VII) cases. In addition, there is extensive variability for the age of onset. The role of androgens in allowing the expression of this trait in males has been well established. This phenotype is uncommonly expressed in females. The high prevalence of the trait, the distribution of MPB as a continuous trait, and several non-allelic mutations identified in the mouse capable of affecting hair pattern, suggest that MPB is genetically heterogeneous. In order to reduce the probability of multiple non-allelic MPB genes within a pedigree, we selected 9 families in which MPB appears to segregate exclusively through the paternal lineage as compared to bilineal pedigrees. There are 32 males expressing this phenotype and females are treated as phenotype unknown. In general, affected individuals expressed the trait before 30 years of age with a severity of at least Type III or IV. We assumed an autosomal dominant model, with a gene frequency of 1/20 for the affected allele, and 90% penetrance. Simulation studies using the SLINK program with these pedigrees showed that these families would be sufficient to detect linkage under the assumption of a single major locus. If heterogeneity is present, the current resource does not have sufficient power to detect linkage at a statistically significant level, although candidate regions of the genome could be identified for further studies with additional pedigrees. Using 53 highly informative microsatellite markers, and a subset of 7 families, we have screened 30% of the genome. This search included several regions where candidate genes for MPB are located.

  12. Climate, soil texture, and soil types affect the contributions of fine-fraction-stabilized carbon to total soil organic carbon in different land uses across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Andong; Feng, Wenting; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang

    2016-05-01

    Mineral-associated organic carbon (MOC), that is stabilized by fine soil particles (i.e., silt plus clay, organic carbon (SOC) persistence and sequestration, due to its large contribution to total SOC (TSOC) and long turnover time. Our objectives were to investigate how climate, soil type, soil texture, and agricultural managements affect MOC contributions to TSOC in China. We created a dataset from 103 published papers, including 1106 data points pairing MOC and TSOC across three major land use types: cropland, grassland, and forest. Overall, the MOC/TSOC ratio ranged from 0.27 to 0.80 and varied significantly among soil groups in cropland, grassland, and forest. Croplands and forest exhibited significantly higher median MOC/TSOC ratios than in grassland. Moreover, forest and grassland soils in temperate regions had higher MOC/TSOC ratios than in subtropical regions. Furthermore, the MOC/TSOC ratio was much higher in ultisol, compared with the other soil types. Both the MOC content and MOC/TSOC ratio were positively correlated with the amount of fine fraction (silt plus clay) in soil, highlighting the importance of soil texture in stabilizing organic carbon across various climate zones. In cropland, different fertilization practices and land uses (e.g., upland, paddy, and upland-paddy rotation) significantly altered MOC/TSOC ratios, but not in cropping systems (e.g., mono- and double-cropping) characterized by climatic differences. This study demonstrates that the MOC/TSOC ratio is mainly driven by soil texture, soil types, and related climate and land uses, and thus the variations in MOC/TSOC ratios should be taken into account when quantitatively estimating soil C sequestration potential of silt plus clay particles on a large scale. PMID:26905446

  13. Climate, soil texture, and soil types affect the contributions of fine-fraction-stabilized carbon to total soil organic carbon in different land uses across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Andong; Feng, Wenting; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang

    2016-05-01

    Mineral-associated organic carbon (MOC), that is stabilized by fine soil particles (i.e., silt plus clay, organic carbon (SOC) persistence and sequestration, due to its large contribution to total SOC (TSOC) and long turnover time. Our objectives were to investigate how climate, soil type, soil texture, and agricultural managements affect MOC contributions to TSOC in China. We created a dataset from 103 published papers, including 1106 data points pairing MOC and TSOC across three major land use types: cropland, grassland, and forest. Overall, the MOC/TSOC ratio ranged from 0.27 to 0.80 and varied significantly among soil groups in cropland, grassland, and forest. Croplands and forest exhibited significantly higher median MOC/TSOC ratios than in grassland. Moreover, forest and grassland soils in temperate regions had higher MOC/TSOC ratios than in subtropical regions. Furthermore, the MOC/TSOC ratio was much higher in ultisol, compared with the other soil types. Both the MOC content and MOC/TSOC ratio were positively correlated with the amount of fine fraction (silt plus clay) in soil, highlighting the importance of soil texture in stabilizing organic carbon across various climate zones. In cropland, different fertilization practices and land uses (e.g., upland, paddy, and upland-paddy rotation) significantly altered MOC/TSOC ratios, but not in cropping systems (e.g., mono- and double-cropping) characterized by climatic differences. This study demonstrates that the MOC/TSOC ratio is mainly driven by soil texture, soil types, and related climate and land uses, and thus the variations in MOC/TSOC ratios should be taken into account when quantitatively estimating soil C sequestration potential of silt plus clay particles on a large scale.

  14. Applying the pre-intentional phase of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model to investigate factors associated with intention on consistent condom use with various types of female sex partners among males who inject drugs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Hi Yi; Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Gross, Danielle L; Wu, Anise M S; Cao, Wangnan; Gu, Jing; Li, Suning

    2016-09-01

    Both drug injection and sexual transmission are the primary drivers of the HIV epidemic in China. This study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of intention of consistent condom use during sexual intercourse with female regular partners (RP), non-regular partners (NRP) and sex workers (FSW) among male people who inject drugs (PWID)in China. A total of 529 male non-institutionalized PWID aged 18-45 years with negative/unknown HIV status were recruited by multiple methods in Dazhou and Hengyang, China. The constructs of the pre-intention phase of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model, including partner-specific HIV risk perception, condom use positive outcome expectancies, condom use negative outcome expectancies, and self-efficacy of condom use, were assessed. The prevalence of behavioral intention of consistent condom use with RP, NRP, and FSW was 32.1%, 49.1%, and 63.6%, respectively. In multivariate stepwise analysis, conditional risk perception of HIV transmission via unprotected sex with RP/NRP/FSW was associated with intention of consistent condom use with these types of female sex partners (multivariate odds ratio (ORm) = 3.25-7.06). Condom use negative outcome expectancies were associated with intention of consistent condom use with RP and NRP (ORm = 0.30-0.46), while condom use self-efficacy was associated with intention of consistent condom use with RP and FSW in the next six months (ORm = 2.24-3.81). Male PWID are at high risk of HIV transmission through sexual behaviors. The pre-intention phase of the HAPA model may be applied to plan interventions to increase behavioral intention of consistent condom use with various types of female partners. Such interventions are warranted. PMID:26882352

  15. TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASE 1, MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 9, ALPHA-1 ANTITRYPSIN, METALLOTHIONEIN AND UROKINASE TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR RECEPTOR IN SKIN BIOPSIES FROM PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors have been described to play a role in autoimmune skin blistering diseases. We studied skin lesional biopsies from patients affected by several autoimmune skin blistering diseases for proteinases and proteinase inhibitors. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate biopsies for alpha-1-antitrypsin, human matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, metallothionein and urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. We tested 30 patients affected by endemic pemphigus, 30 controls from the endemic area, and 15 normal controls. We also tested 30 biopsies from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus, and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH. Results: Contrary to findings in the current literature, most autoimmune skin blistering disease biopsies were negative for uPAR and MMP9. Only some chronic patients with El Bagre-EPF were positive to MMP9 in the dermis, in proximity to telocytes. TIMP-1 and metallothionein were positive in half of the biopsies from BP patients at the basement membrane of the skin, within several skin appendices, in areas of dermal blood vessel inflammation and within dermal mesenchymal-epithelial cell junctions.

  16. Ripened dairy products differentially affect hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue oxidative stress markers in obese and type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Lucie; Everard, Amandine; le Ruyet, Pascale; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D

    2012-02-29

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of dairy products may contribute to a reduced incidence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. The fatty acid composition in milk fat, the duration of ripening, and the complexity of the food matrices are important factors that may interfere with the physiological impact. In this study, we treated genetic obese and type 2 diabetic mice (db/db) for 4 weeks with different dairy (cheese-based) products, differing by the duration of ripening (0, 15, or 35 days). We found that 35 days ripened product significantly improved glucose tolerance, an effect associated with a decreased adipose tissue lipid peroxide markers (TBARS and NAPDH-oxidase mRNA expression), without affecting body weight, food intake, and fat mass. Both fermented matrices significantly decreased the hepatic lipid content, without modifying plasma triglycerides or plasma total cholesterol. These data suggest that dairy products issued from longer ripening positively impact glucose tolerance, hepatic steatosis, and adipose tissue oxidative stress. Further investigations are warranted to decipher the interactions between milk products fermentation, lipids, and host metabolism. PMID:22300436

  17. Characterization of Microstructures across the Heat-Affected Zone of the Modified 9Cr-1Mo Weld Joint to Understand Its Role in Promoting Type IV Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laha, K.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Parameswaran, P.; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Mannan, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    In the postweld heat-treated (PWHT) fusion welded modified 9Cr-1Mo steel joint, a soft zone was identified at the outer edge of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the base metal adjacent to the deposited weld metal. Hardness and tensile tests were performed on the base metal subjected to soaking for 5 minutes at temperatures below Ac1 to above Ac3 and tempering at the PWHT condition. These tests indicated that the soft zone in the weld joint corresponds to the intercritical region of HAZ. Creep tests were conducted on the base metal and cross weld joint. At relatively lower stresses and higher test temperatures, the weld joint possessed lower creep rupture life than the base metal, and the difference in creep rupture life increased with the decrease in stress and increase in temperature. Preferential accumulation of creep deformation coupled with extensive creep cavitation in the intercritical region of HAZ led to the premature failure of the weld joint in the intercritical region of the HAZ, commonly known as type IV cracking. The microstructures across the HAZ of the weld joint have been characterized to understand the role of microstructure in promoting type IV cracking. Strength reduction in the intercritical HAZ of the joint resulted from the combined effects of coarsening of dislocation substructures and precipitates. Constrained deformation of the soft intercritical HAZ sandwich between relatively stronger constitutes of the joint induced creep cavitation in the soft zone resulting in premature failure.

  18. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae: Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Beatty

    Full Text Available In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a "scramble". An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i similar to an unaltered male (blue, (ii different from a male (orange and (iii more similar to a female (black. When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal.

  19. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Christopher D; Andrés, José A; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a "scramble". An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  20. Repeatability of decision-making behaviour in male threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus: Effects of dummy vs.Live stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teresa L. DZIEWECZYNSKI; Lindsay M. FORRETTE

    2011-01-01

    Individuals select from a number of behaviours when responding to various situations and the decisions they make may affect their fitness. The costs and benefits of these responses vary among individuals causing them to differ even in identical situations. One example of this type of situation is when territorial males encounter both a male and female simultaneously, generating a trade-off that likely leads to individual differences due to differing costs of various actions among males. This situation commonly occurs in threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. However, for selection to act effectively, individuals must behave in a consistent manner and measuring repeatability can aid in understanding how selection may shape such trade-offs.Males of this species exhibit consistent individual differences in their response to dummy males and females but it is unknown if patterns are similar when feedback from the stimuli is present. To assess this, male threespine stickleback were tested with dummy and live male and female conspecifics, presented separately and simultaneously. While the same trends were found regardless of stimulus type, males were more aggressive towards the live conspecifics than to the dummies. Repeatability values were similar within a treatment regardless of whether live or dummy conspecifics were used, suggesting that individuals show the same level of consistency. This study adds to our understanding of consistent individual differences by demonstrating that feedback may not affect responses to conflicting stimuli and that male threespine stickleback respond in a consistent manner to both dummy and live stimuli.

  1. Beneficial Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on Osteopenia Associated with Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether fraction of Cissus quadrangularis (PECQ impact on the development of osteopenia in type 1 diabetic rat model has been evaluated. Diabetic rats were treated orally with two doses of PECQ. Another group of diabetic rats were treated with subcutaneous injection of synthetic human insulin. The cortical and trabecular bone thickness and bone strength were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Treatment with two doses of PECQ significantly prevented these changes in diabetic rats. However, PECQ treatment (two doses did not alter the glycemic levels in these diabetic rats. Increased levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, and hydroxyproline were noted in diabetic rats when compared to normal control rats. The two doses of PECQ treatment further improved the serum ALP levels and significantly decreased the serum levels of TRAP and hydroxyproline. The effects of PECQ treatment on histological, biomechanical, and biochemical parameters are comparable to those of insulin. Since PECQ improves the bone health in hyperglycemic conditions by enhancing the cortical and trabecular bone growth and altering the circulating bone markers, it could be used as an effective therapy against diabetes-associated bone disorders.

  2. A tripeptide Diapin effectively lowers blood glucose levels in male type 2 diabetes mice by increasing blood levels of insulin and GLP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Zhang

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D is rapidly increasing worldwide. Effective therapies, such as insulin and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, require injections, which are costly and result in less patient compliance. Here, we report the identification of a tripeptide with significant potential to treat T2D. The peptide, referred to as Diapin, is comprised of three natural L-amino acids, GlyGlyLeu. Glucose tolerance tests showed that oral administration of Diapin effectively lowered blood glucose after oral glucose loading in both normal C57BL/6J mice and T2D mouse models, including KKay, db/db, ob/ob mice, and high fat diet-induced obesity/T2D mice. In addition, Diapin treatment significantly reduced casual blood glucose in KKay diabetic mice in a time-dependent manner without causing hypoglycemia. Furthermore, we found that plasma GLP-1 and insulin levels in diabetic models were significantly increased with Diapin treatment compared to that in the controls. In summary, our findings establish that a peptide with minimum of three amino acids can improve glucose homeostasis and Diapin shows promise as a novel pharmaceutical agent to treat patients with T2D through its dual effects on GLP-1 and insulin secretion.

  3. Association of polymorphism in adiponectin (+45 T/G) and leptin (–2548 G/A) genes with type 2 diabetes mellitus in male Egyptians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawi, Tarek; Salman, Tarek; Shaker, Olfat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-specific protein with insulin-sensitizing properties. Many investigators have explored the association between adiponectin single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in different ethnic populations from different regions. Leptin is a protein hormone constituting an important signal in the regulation of adipose tissue mass and body weight. The aim of this study was to explore potential associations between SNP +45 T>G of the adiponectin gene and SNP 2548G/A of leptin with T2DM and the effect of SNPs on serum adiponectin and leptin levels. Material and methods From the Egyptian population, we enrolled 110 T2DM patients and 90 non-diabetic controls. Serum lipid profile, blood glucose, serum adiponectin, and leptin were measured. Genotyping for two common SNPs of the adiponectin and leptin genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results The G allele and TG/GG genotype of SNP 45 occurred more frequently than the T allele and TT genotype in T2DM patients compares to the controls. Subjects with the GG + TG genotype of SNP 45 were at increased risk for T2DM (OR = 6.476; 95% CI: 3.401–12.33) and associated with a low serum adiponectin level compared with the TT genotype. The serum leptin concentration of GA + AA genotype carriers was not significantly different from that of the GG genotype in the diabetic group. Conclusions The G allele carriers who have reduced plasma concentrations of adiponectin may have an association with T2DM, while leptin SNP 2548 G/A is not associated with the risk of development of T2DM in the Egyptian population. PMID:26528333

  4. Factors affecting the introduction of new vaccines to poor nations: a comparative study of the Haemophilus influenzae type B and hepatitis B vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharona Glatman-Freedman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A major effort to introduce new vaccines into poor nations of the world was initiated in recent years with the help of the GAVI alliance. The first vaccines introduced have been the Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib and the hepatitis B (Hep B vaccines. The introduction of these vaccines during the first phase of GAVI's operations demonstrated considerable variability. We set out to study the factors affecting the introduction of these vaccines. The African Region (AFRO, where new vaccines were introduced to a substantial number of countries during the first phase of GAVI's funding, was selected for this study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: GAVI-eligible AFRO countries with a population of 0.5 million or more were included in the study. Countries were analyzed and compared for new vaccine introduction, healthcare indicators, financial indicators related to healthcare and country-level Governance Indicators, using One Way ANOVA, correlation analysis and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA. Introduction of new vaccines into AFRO nations was associated primarily with high country-level Governance Indicator scores. The use of individual Governance Indicator scores, as well as a combined Governance Indicator score we developed, demonstrated similar results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study results indicate that good country-level governance is an imperative pre-requisite for the successful early introduction of new vaccines into poor African nations. Enhanced support measures may be required to effectively introduce new vaccines to countries with low governance scores. The combined governance score we developed may thus constitute a useful tool for helping philanthropic organizations make decisions regarding the type of support needed by different countries to achieve success.

  5. How does aging affect the types of error made in a visual short-term memory ‘object-recall’ task?

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    Raju P Sapkota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how normal aging affects the occurrence of different types of incorrect responses in a visual short-term memory object-recall task. Seventeen young (Mean = 23.3 years, SD = 3.76, and 17 normally aging older (Mean = 66.5 years, SD = 6.30 adults participated. Memory stimuli comprised 2 or 4 real world objects (the memory load presented sequentially, each for 650ms, at random locations on a computer screen. After a 1000ms retention interval, a test display was presented, comprising an empty box at one of the previously presented 2 or 4 memory stimulus locations. Participants were asked to report the name of the object presented at the cued location. Errors rates wherein participants reported the names of objects that had been presented in the memory display but not at the cued location (non-target errors vs. objects that had not been presented at all in the memory display (non-memory errors were compared. Significant effects of aging, memory load and target recency on error type and absolute error rates were found. Non-target error rate was higher than non-memory error rate in both age groups, indicating that VSTM may have been more often than not populated with partial traces of previously presented items. At high memory load, non-memory error rate was higher in young participants (compared to older participants when the memory target had been presented at the earliest temporal position. However, non-target error rates exhibited a reversed trend, i.e., greater error rates were found in older participants when the memory target had been presented at the two most recent temporal positions. Data are interpreted in terms of proactive interference (earlier examined non-target items interfering with more recent items, false memories (non-memory items which have a categorical relationship to presented items, interfering with memory targets, slot and flexible resource models, and spatial coding deficits.

  6. Identifying sexual differentiation genes that affect Drosophila life span

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    Tower John

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual differentiation often has significant effects on life span and aging phenotypes. For example, males and females of several species have different life spans, and genetic and environmental manipulations that affect life span often have different magnitude of effect in males versus females. Moreover, the presence of a differentiated germ-line has been shown to affect life span in several species, including Drosophila and C. elegans. Methods Experiments were conducted to determine how alterations in sexual differentiation gene activity might affect the life span of Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila females heterozygous for the tudor[1] mutation produce normal offspring, while their homozygous sisters produce offspring that lack a germ line. To identify additional sexual differentiation genes that might affect life span, the conditional transgenic system Geneswitch was employed, whereby feeding adult flies or developing larvae the drug RU486 causes the over-expression of selected UAS-transgenes. Results In this study germ-line ablation caused by the maternal tudor[1] mutation was examined in a long-lived genetic background, and was found to increase life span in males but not in females, consistent with previous reports. Fitting the data to a Gompertz-Makeham model indicated that the maternal tudor[1] mutation increases the life span of male progeny by decreasing age-independent mortality. The Geneswitch system was used to screen through several UAS-type and EP-type P element mutations in genes that regulate sexual differentiation, to determine if additional sex-specific effects on life span would be obtained. Conditional over-expression of transformer female isoform (traF during development produced male adults with inhibited sexual differentiation, however this caused no significant change in life span. Over-expression of doublesex female isoform (dsxF during development was lethal to males, and produced a limited

  7. Atorvastatin affects low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol relations with apolipoprotein B in type 2 diabetes mellitus: modification by triglycerides and cholesteryl ester transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.W.H. Kappelle; L. Zwang; M.V. Huisman; J.D. Banga; W.J. Sluiter; G.M. Dallinga-Thie; R.P.F. Dullaart

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B are proposed as treatment targets. The extent to which statin therapy affects relationships of LDL-C and non-HDL-C with apoB was examined in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Analyses were performed in 217 hypertriglyceridaemic type 2 di

  8. Atorvastatin affects low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol relations with apolipoprotein B in type 2 diabetes mellitus : modification by triglycerides and cholesteryl ester transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Zwang, Louwerens; Huisman, Menno V.; Banga, Jan Dirk; Sluiter, Wim. J.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B are proposed as treatment targets. The extent to which statin therapy affects relationships of LDL-C and non-HDL-C with apoB was examined in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Analyses were performed in 217 hypertriglyceridaemic type 2 di

  9. The influence of somatosensory and muscular deficits on postural stabilization: Insights from an instrumented analysis of subjects affected by different types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencioni, Tiziana; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Rabuffetti, Marco; Bovi, Gabriele; Calabrese, Daniela; Aiello, Alessia; Di Sipio, Enrica; Padua, Luca; Diverio, Manuela; Pareyson, Davide; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common hereditary neuromuscular disorder. CMT1 is primarily demyelinating, CMT2 is primarily axonal, and CMTX1 is characterized by both axonal and demyelinating abnormalities. We investigated the role of somatosensory and muscular deficits on quiet standing and postural stabilization in patients affected by different forms of CMT, comparing their performances with those of healthy subjects. Seventy-six CMT subjects (CMT1A, CMT2 and CMTX1) and 41 healthy controls were evaluated during a sit-to-stand transition and the subsequent quiet upright posture by means of a dynamometric platform. All CMT patients showed altered balance and postural stabilization compared to controls. Multivariate analysis showed that in CMT patients worsening of postural stabilization was related to vibration sense deficit and to dorsi-flexor's weakness, while quiet standing instability was related to the reduction of pinprick sensibility and to plantar-flexor's weakness. Our results show that specific sensory and muscular deficits play different roles in balance impairment of CMT patients, both during postural stabilization and in static posture. An accurate evaluation of residual sensory and muscular functions is therefore necessary to plan for the appropriate balance rehabilitation treatment for each patient, besides the CMT type.

  10. Factors affecting costs and utilization of type 2 diabetes healthcare: a cross-sectional survey among 15 hospitals in urban China

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    Wang Weibing

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM affects persons of all ages, while also placing heavy economic burdens on national economies and healthcare systems. The study aims to investigate the determinants of direct medical cost (DMC, out-of-pocket (OOP proportion of the cost, and healthcare utilization associated with T2DM. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four major cities in China. Eligible subjects were adult outpatients who received treatment at one of 15 sampled secondary or tertiary hospitals and consecutively enrolled between March 2007 and May 2007. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine impact factors associated with DMC and healthcare utilization. Results Insurance schemes and receiving insulin therapy were significantly associated with a higher annual DMC of T2DM. For each increase in number of complications, there was about 33% increase in annual DMC. Insurance schemes were significantly associated with the proportions of DMC from pocket. A 7% significantly lower proportion of DMC was paid and 23% more clinic visits (AOR = 1.232, P 2000 CNY/month paid 23% less from their pocket, compared with the lower income group. The number of complications also significantly increased the outpatient visits (AOR = 1.064, P Conclusions It implies that preventing complications through the use of more effective treatment regimens is important in order to control the healthcare expenditures of the diseases. Healthcare reform needs to be focused on the medical insurance system and redistribution of patients in hospitals of different levels.

  11. Two HAP2-GCS1 homologs responsible for gamete interactions in the cellular slime mold with multiple mating types: Implication for common mechanisms of sexual reproduction shared by plants and protozoa and for male-female differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Fujisaki, Yukie; Bloomfield, Gareth; Yoshida, Kentaro; Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Sawada, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Urushihara, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    Fertilization is a central event in sexual reproduction, and understanding its molecular mechanisms has both basic and applicative biological importance. Recent studies have uncovered the molecules that mediate this process in a variety of organisms, making it intriguing to consider conservation and evolution of the mechanisms of sexual reproduction across phyla. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum undergoes sexual maturation and forms gametes under dark and humid conditions. It exhibits three mating types, type-I, -II, and -III, for the heterothallic mating system. Based on proteome analyses of the gamete membranes, we detected expression of two homologs of the plant fertilization protein HAP2-GCS1. When their coding genes were disrupted in type-I and type-II strains, sexual potency was completely lost, whereas disruption in the type-III strain did not affect mating behavior, suggesting that the latter acts as female in complex organisms. Our results demonstrate the highly conserved function of HAP2-GCS1 in gamete interactions and suggest the presence of additional allo-recognition mechanisms in D. discoideum gametes.

  12. Two HAP2-GCS1 homologs responsible for gamete interactions in the cellular slime mold with multiple mating types: Implication for common mechanisms of sexual reproduction shared by plants and protozoa and for male-female differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Fujisaki, Yukie; Bloomfield, Gareth; Yoshida, Kentaro; Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Sawada, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Urushihara, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    Fertilization is a central event in sexual reproduction, and understanding its molecular mechanisms has both basic and applicative biological importance. Recent studies have uncovered the molecules that mediate this process in a variety of organisms, making it intriguing to consider conservation and evolution of the mechanisms of sexual reproduction across phyla. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum undergoes sexual maturation and forms gametes under dark and humid conditions. It exhibits three mating types, type-I, -II, and -III, for the heterothallic mating system. Based on proteome analyses of the gamete membranes, we detected expression of two homologs of the plant fertilization protein HAP2-GCS1. When their coding genes were disrupted in type-I and type-II strains, sexual potency was completely lost, whereas disruption in the type-III strain did not affect mating behavior, suggesting that the latter acts as female in complex organisms. Our results demonstrate the highly conserved function of HAP2-GCS1 in gamete interactions and suggest the presence of additional allo-recognition mechanisms in D. discoideum gametes. PMID:27189178

  13. 小麦K、V型细胞质雄性不育系线粒体基因的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genes from Wheat K-and V-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小庆; 阳文龙; 普明宇; 刘冬成; 孙家柱; 张卫东; 张爱民; 高庆荣

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), a maternally inherited phenotype of pollen sterility in higher plants, is associated with special mitochondrial genes. Wheat K- and V- type CMS, respectively produced by the introduction of Aegilops kotschyi and Ae. ventricosa or Ae. variabilis cytoplasts into common wheat, are believed to be the most useful CMS resources of wheat, but their mechanism of male sterility is still unknown. Based on the mitochondrial genome sequences of a wheat K-type CMS line and its maintainer line, 33 mitochondrial genes and 22 open reading frames (orfs , unique genes in wheat K-type CMS line and believed to be candidate CMS genes) between wheat K-, V-type CMS lines and their maintainer line were compared. The results showed that except for atp6, nad6 and rps3 which had obvious differences between the CMS lines and their maintainer line, the rest 30 mitochondrial genes had over 98%identity between K-, V-type CMS lines and their maintainer line, atp6 and nad6 were also highly conserved between K-and V-type CMS lines. While among the 22 orfs, only orf249 showed 91% identity between K- and V- type CMS lines, other orfs had over 98% identity. These results suggest that mitochondrial genes are highly conserved in wheat K-and V-type CMS lines, and they may have similar CMS gene or mechanism of male sterility. These results lay a foundation for the utility of wheat K-and V-type CMS lines in wheat hybrid production.%细胞质雄性不育(cytoplasmic male sterility, MS)是高等植物中普遍存在的一种母性遗传现象,跟线粒体基因密切相关。小麦K型和V型细胞质雄性不育性是由于粘果山羊草和偏凸山羊草或易变山羊草的细胞质导入普通小麦中产生的,被认为是最有利用潜力的小麦不育种质,但是其不育性产生的机理还不清楚。本研究在已知小麦K型细胞质雄性不育系和保持系线粒体基因组序列的基础上,比较分析了K型,V型不育系和保持系中33

  14. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Martha L; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B

    2010-11-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male-male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linearity. Linear dominance across the group is stable for about 2 weeks; rank is dynamic. Males engage in physical interactions (clasping) while paired but clasping and vocal rank are not correlated. Playbacks of advertisement calls suppress calling and calls from high- and low-ranking males are equally effective. Thus, auditory cues alone suffice to suppress vocal behavior. Playback intensities equivalent to a nearby male advertising effectively suppress calling while low-intensity playbacks are either ineffective or stimulate vocal behavior. X. laevis advertisement calls are biphasic, composed of alternating fast and slow click trills. Approximately half the males tested are more vocally suppressed by all slow than by all fast trills; thus, these males can distinguish between the two phases. The fully aquatic family Pipidae diverged from terrestrial ancestors approximately 170 mya. Vocal suppression in the X. laevis mating system may represent the translation of an ancient anuran social strategy to underwater life. PMID:21442049

  15. Male Anorexia Nervosa: A New Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosscope-Happel, Cindy; Hutchins, David E.; Getz, Hildy G.; Hayes, Gerald L.

    2000-01-01

    Although anorexia nervosa affects over one million males yearly, it is often misdiagnosed or overlooked by mental health and medical practitioners. This article brings the problem to the forefront and outlines features that are unique to these males. Greater recognition of the disorder can lead to more accurate diagnoses and, subsequently, better…

  16. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation – Description of a novel in vitro model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts' maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients' sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients' serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients' blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β. - Highlights: • We present here a physiologically relevant in vitro model for diabetic osteopathy. • Blood of T2DM patients contains factors that affect osteoblasts' function. • The model developed here can be used to identify these factors, e.g. TGF-β. • Blocking TGF-β signaling partly rescues the osteoblasts' function in the T2DM group. • The model is useful to demonstrate the role of single factors in diabetic osteopathy

  17. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation – Description of a novel in vitro model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehnert, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.ehnert@gmail.com [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Freude, Thomas, E-mail: tfreude@bgu-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Ihle, Christoph, E-mail: cihle@bgu-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Mayer, Larissa, E-mail: lara.nk@gmail.com [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Braun, Bianca, E-mail: bianca.braun@med.uni-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Graeser, Jessica, E-mail: jessica.graeser@student.reutlingen-university.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Flesch, Ingo, E-mail: iflesch@bgu-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); and others

    2015-03-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts' maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients' sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients' serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients' blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β. - Highlights: • We present here a physiologically relevant in vitro model for diabetic osteopathy. • Blood of T2DM patients contains factors that affect osteoblasts' function. • The model developed here can be used to identify these factors, e.g. TGF-β. • Blocking TGF-β signaling partly rescues the osteoblasts' function in the T2DM group. • The model is useful to demonstrate the role of single factors in diabetic osteopathy.

  18. Avaliação dos Tipos 1 e 2 de alcoolismo de Cloninger em homens participantes de um programa de tratamento ambulatorial Evaluation of Cloninger's Type I and Type II alcoholism in male alcoholics in an outpatient treatment program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A classificação Tipo 1/Tipo 2 de Cloninger é uma das mais estudadas tipologias de alcoolismo. OBJETIVOS: Testar a aplicabilidade dessa tipologia, caracterizar os subtipos identificados e avaliar seu comportamento ante um programa terapêutico. MÉTODOS: Partindo das variáveis descritas por Cloninger et al., 16 características de 308 homens alcoolistas tratados ambulatorialmente foram submetidas à análise de cluster para identificação de dois subgrupos (clusters. Posteriormente, efetivaram-se cruzamentos de dados para testar possível associação dos clusters identificados com variáveis demográficas e clínicas. RESULTADOS: Pacientes do cluster 1 foram caracterizados por início mais tardio dos problemas relacionados ao álcool, menos problemas sociais e maior sentimento de culpa em relação a seu consumo. O cluster 2 incluiu pacientes com história familiar de alcoolismo mais evidente, características anti-sociais mais presentes, mais uso disfuncional de outras substâncias psicoativas e piores níveis de adesão ao tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados evidenciaram a diferenciada associação dos clusters a variáveis de tratamento e prognóstico; em sua maior parte foram coerentes com a classificação Tipo 1/Tipo 2 e reforçam a tese de que o simples diagnóstico de dependência ao álcool não é suficiente para atender às necessidades terapêuticas de subgrupos específicos de pacientes.BACKGROUND: Cloninger's Type 1/Type 2 classification is one of the most frequently studied alcoholism typologies. OBJECTIVES: To test the applicability of this typology, to characterize the identified subtypes and to evaluate their behavior in a therapeutic program. METHODS: Starting from variables described by Cloninger et al., 16 characteristics of 308 alcoholic men attending an outpatient treatment program were submitted to Cluster analysis for identification of two subgroups (clusters. Cross-tabulations were then performed to

  19. G-231A and G+70C polymorphisms of endothelin receptor type-A gene could affect the psoriasis area and severity index score and endothelin 1 levels

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    Gökhan Okan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiopathogenesis of psoriasis has not been clearly elucidated although the role of chronic inflammation, imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and many immunological events have been established. Endothelin 1 (EDN1 and endothelin receptor type-A (EDNRA are implicated in the inflammatory process. The relationships between EDN1 and EDNRA polymorphisms with several diseases have been found. Aims and Objectives: This study examined the possible association of EDN1 (G5665T and T-1370G and EDNRA (G-231A and G + 70C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with the occurence of psoriasis, and evaluated the relationship between genotypes and clinical/laboratory manifestation of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed genotype and allele distributions of the above-mentioned polymorphisms in 151 patients with psoriasis and 152 healthy controls by real-time PCR combined with melting curve analysis. Results: We did not find significant differences in the genotype and allele distributions of EDN1 T-1370G, EDNRA G-231A, and EDNRA G+70C polymorphisms between patients with psoriasis and healthy controls. Psoriasis area and severity index (PASI score of EDNRA -231 polymorphic A allele carrying subjects (AA and AA + AG was higher than that of wild homozygotes (P = 0.044 and P = 0.027, respectively. In addition, EDN1 levels in EDNRA+70 polymorphic C allele carriers (CC + CG were elevated when compared with GG genotype; however, the difference was at borderline significance (P = 0.05. Conclusion: Although there were no associations between studied polymorphisms and psoriasis susceptibility, the PASI score and EDN1 levels seem to be affected by EDNRA G-231A and G + 70C polymorphisms.

  20. 体成分对男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度的影响%Effect of body composition on bone mineral density in male patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淑玉; 重远; 管晓峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:应用双能X线骨密度仪( DXA)探讨体成分对男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度的影响。方法选择年龄50~60岁在我科住院的男性2型糖尿病患者107例,分为正常体重组、超重组和肥胖组,分别测定其身高、体重,计算体重指数( BMI ),利用全自动生化分析仪测定血糖、血脂,高压液相色谱法测定糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c),采用双能X线骨密度仪测定腰椎、左股骨大转子骨密度( BMD)及体成分,并进行统计学分析。结果3组男性2型糖尿病患者腰椎BMD分别为1.12±0.05,1.21±0.07,1.36±0.09,左股骨大转子BMD分别1.12±0.06,1.22±0.08,1.41±0.08,与骨密度呈正相关;全身各部位肌肉含量与骨密度成正相关,且大腿>上肢>躯干;不同部位脂肪含量对骨密度的影响是不同的,其中上肢脂肪和大腿脂肪与骨密度成正相关,而躯干脂肪与骨密度成负相关;年龄、糖化血红蛋白、血脂对男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度无明显影响,而体重指数、肌肉含量及脂肪含量影响明显。结论体重指数、肌肉含量和脂肪含量对男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度有直接影响。男性2型糖尿病患者加强锻炼,减少腹部脂肪含量,增加四肢肌肉含量,可以预防骨质疏松症的发生。%Objective To investigate the influence of body composition on bone mineral density of male patients with type 2 diabetes using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry ( DXA) .Methods One hundred and seven 50-60-year-old male patients with type 2 diabetes in our hospital were selected and divided to normal weight group, overweight group, and obese group.Height and body weight were measured and body mass index ( BMI) was calculated.Blood glucose and lipid were determined using a automatic biochemical analyzer.Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured using a high pressure liquid chromatography.Bone mineral density

  1. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian C. Nanagas MD, MSc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4 before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1 uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice.

  2. Dose- and time-dependent association of smoking and its cessation with glycemic control and insulin resistance in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Ohkuma

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of smoking and its cessation on glycemic control in diabetic patients has not been fully examined yet. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of smoking status with glycemic level and markers of insulin resistance and secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 2,490 Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged ≥20 years were divided according to smoking status, amount of cigarettes smoked and years since quitting. The associations with glycemic level and markers of insulin resistance and secretion were examined cross-sectionally.HbA1c levels increased progressively with increases in both number of cigarettes per day and pack-years of cigarette smoking compared with never smokers (P for trend = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively, whereas fasting plasma glucose did not. On the other hand, HbA1c, but not fasting plasma glucose, decreased linearly with increase in years after smoking cessation (P for trend <0.001. These graded relationships persisted significantly after controlling for the confounders, including total energy intake, current drinking, regular exercise, depressive symptoms, and BMI. In addition, a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein also showed similar trends.Smoking and its cessation showed dose- and time-dependent relationship with glycemic control and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These findings may highlight the importance of smoking cessation in the clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  3. Type 3 fimbriae encoded on plasmids are expressed from a unique promoter without affecting host motility, facilitating an exceptional phenotype that enhances conjugal plasmid transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Riber, Leise; Kot, Witold Piotr;

    2016-01-01

    of the genome because they are independent replicons that may petition their own evolutionary strategy. Here we study differences between type 3 fimbriae encoded on wild type plasmids and in chromosomes. Using known and newly characterized plasmids we show that the expression of type 3 fimbriae encoded...

  4. A single amino acid of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 capsid protein affects conformation of two external loops and viral sensitivity to TRIM5α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Miyamoto

    Full Text Available We previously reported that human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 carrying alanine or glutamine but not proline at position 120 of the capsid protein (CA could grow in the presence of anti-viral factor TRIM5α of cynomolgus monkey (CM. To elucidate details of the interaction between the CA and TRIM5α, we generated mutant HIV-2 viruses, each carrying one of the remaining 17 possible amino acid residues, and examined their sensitivity to CM TRIM5α-mediated restriction. Results showed that hydrophobic residues or those with ring structures were associated with sensitivity, while those with small side chains or amide groups conferred resistance. Molecular dynamics simulation study revealed a structural basis for the differential TRIM5α sensitivities. The mutations at position 120 in the loop between helices 6 and 7 (L6/7 affected conformation of the neighboring loop between helices 4 and 5 (L4/5, and sensitive viruses had a common L4/5 conformation. In addition, the common L4/5 structures of the sensitive viruses were associated with a decreased probability of hydrogen bond formation between the 97th aspartic acid in L4/5 and the 119th arginine in L6/7. When we introduced aspartic acid-to-alanine substitution at position 97 (D97A of the resistant virus carrying glutamine at position 120 to disrupt hydrogen bond formation, the resultant virus became moderately sensitive. Interestingly, the virus carrying glutamic acid at position 120 showed resistance, while its predicted L4/5 conformation was similar to those of sensitive viruses. The D97A substitution failed to alter the resistance of this particular virus, indicating that the 120th amino acid residue itself is also involved in sensitivity regardless of the L4/5 conformation. These results suggested that a hydrogen bond between the L4/5 and L6/7 modulates the overall structure of the exposed surface of the CA, but the amino acid residue at position 120 is also directly involved in CM TRIM5

  5. Both male and female identity influence variation in male signalling effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson P Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius. We did so by designing an experiment that allowed simultaneous estimation of within and between male variation in courtship, while also assessing the importance of the males and females as sources of courtship variation. Results Although males adjusted their courtship depending on the identity of the female (a potentially important source of within-male variation, among-male differences were considerably greater. In addition, male courtship effort towards a pair of females was highly repeatable over a short time frame. Conclusion Despite the plasticity in male courtship effort, courtship displays had the potential to reliably convey information about the male to mate-searching females. Our experiment therefore underscores the importance of addressing the different sources contributing to variation in the expression of sexually-selected traits.

  6. Diploid male production in a leaf-cutting ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, S.; Boomsma, J.; Baer, Boris

    2010-01-01

    1. In haplodiploid social insects where males are haploid and females are diploid, inbreeding depression is expressed as the production of diploid males when homozygosity at the sex-determining locus results in the production of diploid individuals with a male phenotype. Diploid males are often...... success would be reduced compared with haploid males if they were able to copulate. 5. We conclude that diploid male production is likely to affect the fitness of A. sexdens queens with a matched mating, as these males are produced at the cost of workers and, if the colony survives to reach mature size...

  7. Male courtship behavior in Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) that have received Aromatherapy with ginger root oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of previous studies that showed that exposing mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to ginger root oil ('aromatherapy') increases the likelihood of mating with wild females were confirmed. The increased male success could be due to female responses to changes in male behavior or male pheromones. There were no significant differences in the types of courtship movements executed by males with and without aromatherapy. The durations of movements also did not differ when mass-reared males were paired with mass-reared females; however, when they were paired with wild females, there were a few, small differences. Previous studies indicated that the effectiveness of the male long-distance attractant pheromone is not affected by aromatherapy, but these studies did not consider pheromones released at close range during courtship, which behavioral analyses suggest may be different. We propose the following possible explanation for the different effects of aromatherapy with different females. Selection on males under mass rearing may have altered their close-range pheromones in ways that can be remedied by aromatherapy; and only wild females respond because the pheromonal responsiveness of mass-reared females has also changed. We propose observations that could test these ideas. (author)

  8. Insulin signalling mediates the response to male-induced harm in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepil, Irem; Carazo, Pau; Perry, Jennifer C; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Genetic manipulations in nutrient-sensing pathways are known to both extend lifespan and modify responses to environmental stressors (e.g., starvation, oxidative and thermal stresses), suggesting that similar mechanisms regulate lifespan and stress resistance. However, despite being a key factor reducing female lifespan and affecting female fitness, male-induced harm has rarely been considered as a stressor mediated by nutrient sensing pathways. We explored whether a lifespan-extending manipulation also modifies female resistance to male-induced harm. To do so, we used long-lived female Drosophila melanogaster that had their insulin signalling pathway downregulated by genetically ablating the median neurosecretory cells (mNSC). We varied the level of exposure to males for control and ablated females and tested for interacting effects on female lifespan and fitness. As expected, we found that lifespan significantly declined with exposure to males. However, mNSC-ablated females maintained significantly increased lifespan across all male exposure treatments. Furthermore, lifespan extension and relative fitness of mNSC-ablated females were maximized under intermediate exposure to males, and minimized under low and high exposure to males. Overall, our results suggest that wild-type levels of insulin signalling reduce female susceptibility to male-induced harm under intense sexual conflict, and may also protect females when mating opportunities are sub-optimally low. PMID:27457757

  9. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  10. The Sexual Stereotype of the Black Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gary L.; Cross, Herbert J.

    This paper presents the results of a study to examine the existence of sexual stereotyping of black males by white college students. Subjects were 180 male and 180 female white undergraduates; they were tested in sexually segregated groups. Each read one of three types of pornographic stories (hard-core, erotic realism, or sexual fantasy). The…

  11. The Int7G24A variant of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I is a risk factor for colorectal cancer in the male Spanish population: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Int7G24A variant of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I (TGFBR1) has been shown to increase the risk for kidney, ovarian, bladder, lung and breast cancers. Its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been established. The aims of this study were to assess the association of TGFBR1*Int7G24A variant with CRC occurrence, patient age, gender, tumour location and stage. We performed a case-control study with 504 cases of sporadic CRC; and 504 non-cancerous age, gender and ethnically matched controls. Genotyping analysis was performed using allelic discrimination assay by real time PCR. The Int7G24A variant was associated with increased CRC incidence in an additive model of inheritance (P for trend = 0.005). No significant differences were found between Int7G24A genotypes and tumour location or stage. Interestingly, the association of the Int7G24A variant with CRC risk was significant in men (odds ratio 4.10 with 95% confidence intervals 1.41-11.85 for homozygous individuals; P for trend = 0.00023), but not in women. We also observed an increase in susceptibility to CRC for individuals aged less than 70 years. Our data suggest that the Int7G24A variant represents a risk factor for CRC in the male Spanish population

  12. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context. PMID:12348800

  13. The Fertility Restoration Performance,Heterosis and Cytoplasm Effect of Nian-type Male Sterile Wheat Lines%粘类小麦细胞质雄性不育系恢复性能及其杂种优势和细胞质效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建超; 张改生; 孙瑞; 牛娜; 马守才; 李红霞

    2012-01-01

    In orde to reveal the fertility restoration performance,heterosis and cytoplasm effect of Nian-type male sterile wheat lines,and to promote the application of three-line hybrid wheat in production,nineteen male sterile wheat lines of four kinds of Nian-type alloplasms were used as female parents,248 hybrid F1 were obtained through crossing with series of restorer lines(r-line),which were either isonuclear-alloplasmic or isocytoplasmic-heteronuclear.The restoration,heterosis performance,as well as the cytoplasm effect of Nian-type wheat male sterile lines were investigated.The result indicated that,(1) the primary factors influencing the restoring degree of Nian-type male sterile wheat line were restorer line,karyotype of male-sterile line and the cytoplasm type of male-sterile line,in order.Among the restorer lines used,Abo,5166,xiaoyan22,xiaoyan6 and 518,the qinlong126 were the good r-lines for Nian-type male-sterile wheat lines.The karyotype of 90-110 had a higher restoring degree than the others.(2)Nian-type male-sterile wheat line was good breeding material with widespread and obvious heterosis in F1 with series r-line.Strong heterosis were observed in ear length,average tillering number of F1,which were 1.129 times and 1.273 times higher than the restorer line,respectively.(3) The haploid of Nian-type sterile wheat line by cytoplasm effect was the result of comprehensive interactions among the karyotype of male-sterile line,the cytoplasm types of male-sterile line and the r-line.Among which,the effect in order was karyotype of male-sterile line cytoplasm types of male-sterile line r-line.The degree of haploid were related with the karyotype of male-sterile line and the cytoplasm types of male-sterile line,but the frequency of haploid only directly related with the karyotype of male-sterile line.There was no correlation between the serious degree of haploid and the the frequency of haploid.The Ven cytoplasm type of male-sterile line had the

  14. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus : Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  15. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.W.H. Kappelle; G.M. Dallinga-Thie; R.P.F. Dullaart

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  16. Androgen insensitive male rats display increased anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamson, Dwayne K; Jones, Bryan A; Csupity, Attila S; Ali, Faezah M; Watson, Neil V

    2014-02-01

    Male rats carrying the testicular feminization mutation (Tfm-affected males) are insensitive to androgens, resulting in a female-typical peripheral phenotype despite possession of inguinal testes that are androgen secretory. Androgen-dependent neural and behavioral processes may likewise show atypical sexual differentiation. Interestingly, these mutant rats display elevated serum corticosterone, suggesting a chronic anxiety phenotype and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In order to understand if elevated anxiety-like behavior is a possible mediating variable affecting the display of certain androgen-dependent behaviors, we compared the performance of Tfm-affected males to wild type males and females in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Two well-established indicators of anxiety-like behavior in the EPM were analyzed: total percentage of time spent on the open arms, and the percentage of open arm entries. We also analyzed the total number of open arm entries. Interestingly, Tfm-affected males spent less percentage of time on the open arms than both males and females, suggesting increased anxiety-like behavior. Percentage of open arm entries and the total number of arm entries was comparable between the groups, indicating that the observed decrease in the percentage of time spent on the open arms was not due to a global reduction in exploratory behavior. These data, in contrast to earlier reports, thus implicate androgen receptor-mediated functions in the expression of anxiety behaviors in male rats. Given that anxiety is widely reported as a precipitating factor in depression, studying the role of the androgen receptor in anxiety may give insights into the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder.

  17. Do pheromones reveal male immunocompetence?

    OpenAIRE

    Rantala, Markus J.; Jokinen, Ilmari; KORTET, Raine; Vainikka, Anssi; Suhonen, Jukka

    2002-01-01

    Pheromones function not only as mate attractors, but they may also relay important information to prospective mates. It has been shown that vertebrates can distinguish, via olfactory mechanisms, major histocompatibility complex types in their prospective mates. However, whether pheromones can transmit information about immunocompetence is unknown. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) prefer pheromones from males with better immunocompetence, indicated by a faster enca...

  18. Male cleaner wrasses adjust punishment of female partners according to the stakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; Pinto, Ana I; Grutter, Alexandra S; Wismer, Sharon; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-22

    Punishment is an important deterrent against cheating in cooperative interactions. In humans, the severity of cheating affects the strength of punishment which, in turn, affects the punished individual's future behaviour. Here, we show such flexible adjustments for the first time in a non-human species, the cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus), where males are known to punish female partners. We exposed pairs of cleaners to a model client offering two types of food, preferred 'prawn' items and less-preferred 'flake' items. Analogous to interactions with real clients, eating a preferred prawn item ('cheating') led to model client removal. We varied the extent to which female cheating caused pay-off reduction to the male and measured the corresponding severity of male punishment. Males punished females more severely when females cheated during interactions with high value, rather than low value, model clients; and when females were similar in size to the male. This pattern may arise because, in this protogynous hermaphrodite, cheating by similar-sized females may reduce size differences to the extent that females change sex and become reproductive competitors. In response to more severe punishment from males, females behaved more cooperatively. Our results show that punishment can be adjusted to circumstances and that such subtleties can have an important bearing on the outcome of cooperative interactions.

  19. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2011-04-05

    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  20. Cigarette smoking and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymour Mostafa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified specific body systems affected by the hazardous effects of the cigarette smoking particularly the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The effect of smoking on male reproduction has also been studied where semen quality was investigated in different cross-sectional studies including infertile patients with conflicting results. This article aimed to assess the relationship between smoking and male infertility. A review of published articles was carried out, using PubMed, medical subject heading (MSH databases and Scopus engine excluding the effects of smoking outside male infertility. Key words used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates for the concerned associations were: smoking, semen, male infertility, sperm, humans, and fertility. Most of the reports showed that smoking reduces sperm production, sperm motility, sperm normal forms and sperm fertilising capacity through increased seminal oxidative stress and DNA damage. Few papers reported nonsignificant differences in semen parameters between smokers or non-smokers. It is concluded that although some smokers may not experience reduced fertility, men with marginal semen quality can benefit from quitting smoking.

  1. Impact of cancer and cancer treatment on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalopoulos, Ioannis; Dimou, Petros; Anagnostou, Ioannis; Zeginiadou, Theodosia

    2015-01-01

    While cancer, and especially testicular cancer and Hodgkin's disease, affects male fertility in many ways, the current increase of survival of male cancer patients of reproductive age or earlier has emerged as a new challenge to their subsequent ability to father children. Cancer treatments, including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, can have a transitory as well as a permanent detrimental impact on male fertility. Gonadotoxic effects and the length of time for sperm recovery after radiotherapy depends not only on initial semen quality, but also on gonadal dosage and the delivery method after chemotherapy, on the type of regimens and dosages and on the spermatogenesis phase that each drug impacts. Combination treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy will induce more gonadotoxicity than either modality alone. Although efforts to prevent gonadal toxicity in cancer treatment are routinely applied, sperm cryopreservation remains the gold standard to maintain male fertility after cancer survival. Fertility preservation for prepubertal boys presents the greatest problem due to the absence of mature sperm in their gonads. In this area, research efforts are concentrated on cryopreservation of immature gametes and, in particular, techniques for their maturation and proliferation after thawing. PMID:26732148

  2. Genetic and molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvez A. Sofi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility is a maternally inherited trait that suppresses pollen production due to the interaction of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. In maize three types of CMS systems, namely CMS-T, CMS-S and CMS-C, have been documented and are differentiated by the reaction to restorers, mitochondrial DNA restriction digest patterns, and complements of low molecular weight plasmids. CMS-T is restored fully by Rf-1 and Rf-2, CMS-S by Rf-3, and CMS-C by Rf-4. All restorer genes except Rf-2 restore fertility by affecting the transcript profile of CMS-associated locus. The sterility is caused by the disorganization of the tapetum and surrounding cell layers as a result of the expression of pollen specific genes. Even though such phenotypes are associated with gene dysfunction in mitochondria, the chloroplasts have emerged as ideal organs for engineering male sterility in crop plants. A number of systems such as barnase-barstar have been standardized in Brassica. Recently, polyhydroxy butyrate was identified as a potential candidate gene for engineering male sterility. Moreover, a broad group of proteins called PPR (pentatricopeptide repeat proteins has also shown to hold great promise for engineering male sterility in crop plants as most of the restorers belong to this category. In maize one such protein, CRP-1, has been identified

  3. [Effect of immunomodulators on resistance to gas gangrene. The enhanced resistance of white mice to perfringens toxin type A as affected by prodigiozan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikova, R E; Stepanov, A V; Sviridov, L P

    1986-02-01

    Experiments on 575 noninbred white mice have revealed that the nonspecific resistance of the animals to type A C. perfringens toxin can be enhanced by the administration of Prodigiosan, a commercial immunostimulating agent. Prodigiosan, introduced in 3-4 injections (the last one made 24 hours before intoxication) has been found to enhance the resistance of the animals to the subcutaneous injection of type A C. perfringens toxin by 40-60% and to its intraperitoneal injection by 60-97%. PMID:2870596

  4. Ripened dairy products differentially affect hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue oxidative stress markers in obese and type 2 diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Geurts, Lucie; Everard, Amandine; LE RUYET, Pascale; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Patrice D Cani

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of dairy products may contribute to a reduced incidence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. The fatty acid composition in milk fat, the duration of ripening, and the complexity of the food matrices are important factors that may interfere with the physiological impact. In this study, we treated genetic obese and type 2 diabetic mice (db/db) for 4 weeks with different dairy (cheese-based) products, d...

  5. Dessert Formulation Using Sucralose and Dextrin Affects Favorably Postprandial Response to Glucose, Insulin, and C-Peptide in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Argyri, Konstantina; Sotiropoulos, Alexios; Psarou, Eirini; Papazafiropoulou, Athanasia; Zampelas, Antonios; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dessert compositions may conform to diabetic diet when it contains low sugar or artificial sweetener to replace sugar. However, it is still questionable whether glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients is improved by the use of diet-conforming dessert compositions. OBJECTIVE: To compare, in type 2 diabetes patients, the glycemic, insulin, and C-peptide responses to seven modified dessert compositions for diabetics (D-dessert) with the response to seven similar desserts of non-...

  6. Attitudes Toward Diabetes Affect Maintenance of Drug-Free Remission in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes After Short-Term Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Ailing; Huang, Zhimin; Wan, Xuesi; Deng, Wanping; Wu, Jiyan; Li, Licheng; Cai, Qiuling; Xiao, Haipeng; Li, Yanbing

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Short-term intensive insulin treatment in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes can improve β-cell function and insulin sensitivity, which results in long-term remission without need for further antidiabetes medication. Patient attitudes toward their disease were assessed using the Diabetes Care Profile (DCP) tool to evaluate the potential impact on maintaining long-term remission. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and t...

  7. A candidate type 2 diabetes polymorphism near the HHEX locus affects acute glucose-stimulated insulin release in European populations: results from the EUGENE2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staiger, Harald; Stancáková, Alena; Zilinskaite, Jone;

    2008-01-01

    investigated whether these SNPs affect beta-cell function in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 854 nondiabetic subjects, collected from five European clinical centers, were genotyped for the HHEX SNPs rs1111875 and rs7923837 and thoroughly characterized by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT...

  8. Black Male Youth: Their Employment Problems and Training Programs. Background Paper No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Robinson G.

    Employment problems of black males remain substantial. The unemployment rate for black males is 2.3 times that of white males. Less than one-third of 16- 19-year-old black males were employed in 1988. The most important policies affecting the employment of black males are monetary and fiscal policies. No employment and training policies can come…

  9. Aging male syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valer Donca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging Male Syndrome is a medical condition through which men could pass between the ages of 35 and 65, when testosterone levelsin their body decline considerably. Androgen deficiency in the aging male has become a topic of increasing interest and debate throughout theworld. In contrast to female menopause, the process of aging in the male genital system is slow and highly variable between individuals. Thecharacteristic symptoms of Aging Male Syndrome include weakness, depression, fatigue and changes in body hair and skin, decreased sexualdesire, decreased lean body mass accompanied by increased visceral fat, decreased bone mineral density. Aging Male Syndrome is usually diagnosedby testing the blood for testosterone levels. The usual treatment method for Aging Male Syndrome includes testosterone injections,testosterone patches, testosterone gels and oral preparations.

  10. Predictors of male microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2012-01-01

    logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills...... confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used...... and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily...

  11. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  12. Male mate choice in hermit crabs: prudence by inferior males and simple preference by superior males

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Satoshi; Arashiro, Yuusei; Takeshita, Fumio; Shibata, Yasutoki

    2011-01-01

    In species with both male-male competition and male mate choice, inferior males may make different mate choice decisions from superior males. Males of the intertidal hermit crab, Pagurus middendorffii, are known to conduct precopulatory guarding and to adjust the threshold for guarding according to social parameters, such as encounter rate with females, competitor size, and sex ratio. Larger males are stronger in male--male competition during guarding in this species. We here tested whether m...

  13. 46,XX Male Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Uçan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 46, XX male syndrome – testicular disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD is a rare condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from ambiguous to normal male genitalia. These cases are diagnosed more easily in childhood. In adults, the diagnosis can be difficult due to the current normal gender development. Here, we report hormonal, molecular and cytogenetic results in an adult male patient with primary hypogonadism who was diagnosed with 46, XX male syndrome in our clinic. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 46-8

  14. Female sexual polymorphism and fecundity consequences of male mating harassment in the wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Gosden

    Full Text Available Genetic and phenotypic variation in female response towards male mating attempts has been found in several laboratory studies, demonstrating sexually antagonistic co-evolution driven by mating costs on female fitness. Theoretical models suggest that the type and degree of genetic variation in female resistance could affect the evolutionary outcome of sexually antagonistic mating interactions, resulting in either rapid development of reproductive isolation and speciation or genetic clustering and female sexual polymorphisms. However, evidence for genetic variation of this kind in natural populations of non-model organisms is very limited. Likewise, we lack knowledge on female fecundity-consequences of matings and the degree of male mating harassment in natural settings. Here we present such data from natural populations of a colour polymorphic damselfly. Using a novel experimental technique of colour dusting males in the field, we show that heritable female colour morphs differ in their propensity to accept male mating attempts. These morphs also differ in their degree of resistance towards male mating attempts, the number of realized matings and in their fecundity-tolerance to matings and mating attempts. These results show that there may be genetic variation in both resistance and tolerance to male mating attempts (fitness consequences of matings in natural populations, similar to the situation in plant-pathogen resistance systems. Male mating harassment could promote the maintenance of a sexual mating polymorphism in females, one of few empirical examples of sympatric genetic clusters maintained by sexual conflict.

  15. Unique Footprint in the scl1.3 Locus Affects Adhesion and Biofilm Formation of the Invasive M3-Type Group A Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachert, Beth A; Choi, Soo J; LaSala, Paul R; Harper, Tiffany I; McNitt, Dudley H; Boehm, Dylan T; Caswell, Clayton C; Ciborowski, Pawel; Keene, Douglas R; Flores, Anthony R; Musser, James M; Squeglia, Flavia; Marasco, Daniela; Berisio, Rita; Lukomski, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    The streptococcal collagen-like proteins 1 and 2 (Scl1 and Scl2) are major surface adhesins that are ubiquitous among group A Streptococcus (GAS). Invasive M3-type strains, however, have evolved two unique conserved features in the scl1 locus: (i) an IS1548 element insertion in the scl1 promoter region and (ii) a nonsense mutation within the scl1 coding sequence. The scl1 transcript is drastically reduced in M3-type GAS, contrasting with a high transcription level of scl1 allele in invasive M1-type GAS. This leads to a lack of Scl1 expression in M3 strains. In contrast, while scl2 transcription and Scl2 production are elevated in M3 strains, M1 GAS lack Scl2 surface expression. M3-type strains were shown to have reduced biofilm formation on inanimate surfaces coated with cellular fibronectin and laminin, and in human skin equivalents. Repair of the nonsense mutation and restoration of Scl1 expression on M3-GAS cells, restores biofilm formation on cellular fibronectin and laminin coatings. Inactivation of scl1 in biofilm-capable M28 and M41 strains results in larger skin lesions in a mouse model, indicating that lack of Scl1 adhesin promotes bacterial spread over localized infection. These studies suggest the uniquely evolved scl1 locus in the M3-type strains, which prevents surface expression of the major Scl1 adhesin, contributed to the emergence of the invasive M3-type strains. Furthermore these studies provide insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating colonization, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis of group A streptococci. PMID:27630827

  16. A consumer study of entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig;

    1996-01-01

    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study...

  17. Plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-IV activity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus correlates positively with HbAlc levels, but is not acutely affected by food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryskjaer, Jakob; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Carr, Richard D;

    2006-01-01

    hormones are metabolized quickly by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). It is well known that type-2 diabetic patients have an impaired incretin effect. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate plasma DPP-IV activity in the fasting and the postprandial state in type-2 diabetic...... patients, DPP-IV activity was positively correlated to FPG and HbAlc and negatively to the duration of diabetes and age of the patients. No postprandial changes were seen in plasma DPP-IV activity in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma DPP-IVactivity increases in the fasting state and is positively...

  18. Development of Japonica Male Sterile Lines Integrating Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Photosensitive Genic Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shou-hai; DU Shi-yun; WANG De-zheng; LI Cheng-quan

    2005-01-01

    It has been previously established that the BT type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is induced by high temperatures,while photosensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) seed sets by low temperatures induce. In the current study, we have bred photosensitive cytoplasmic male sterility (PCMS) lines (2308SA and 2310SA) by crossing the CMS line with the PGMS japonica line with maintainer genes. The sterility of PCMS japonica was consequently controlled by two groups of male sterile genes resulting from the integration of PGMS and CMS genes. The results on plant fertility, at different sowing times, were as follows: (a) Under conditions of natural long-day photoperiod and at temperatures above 35℃, the PGMS gene regulated PCMS japonica sterility - the higher the temperature, the lower the pollen fertility. However, bagged seed sets of PCMS japonica, not exposed to high temperatures, induced the CMS seed set. (b) Exposure to long-day photoperiod and temperature conditions between 35℃ and the critical sterility inducing temperature of PGMS resulted in both PGMS and CMS gene controlled sterility of PCMS japonica, which exhibited stable characteristics. (c) When exposed to critical sterility inducing temperatures or short-day photoperiod and daily high temperatures below 32℃, the BT type of the CMS gene regulated PCMS sterility. Under these conditions, the PGMS gene rendered male sterility insusceptible to occasional cool summer days when this PCMS line, adopted for hybrid seed production, develops into panicle differentiation stage.The present study also investigated the fertility restoration, seed production and combining ability of PCMS japonica so as to optimize its use.

  19. Mating-induced changes in olfactory-mediated behavior of laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) mated to conspecific males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were mated with laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild male flies to assess the ability of males to alter olfactory-mediated behavioral responses of females to male-produced pheromone or host fruit odor. Virgin females of all 3 types showed a preferential attraction and arrestment on yellow spheres emitting male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. Laboratory-reared normal and wild females mated to laboratory reared normal, sterile, or wild males switched their behavior showing strong preferential attraction to, arrestment on, and egg-laying in (for laboratory-reared females) yellow spheres emitting host fruit odor (guava) over male-produced pheromone. Sterile females did not show a significant switch in behavior except when mated to sterile males. The olfactory-mediated behavioral switch was most evident in the laboratory-reared normal female × laboratory-reared normal male mating. These findings suggest that irradiation of males inducing gamete sterility does not affect the factor(s) from the male accessory gland associated with altering female olfactory behavior. The ability of sterile males to alter adequately olfactory-mediated behavior of wild females is discussed in the context of the sterile insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in the field

  20. Type 3 Fimbriae Encoded on Plasmids Are Expressed from a Unique Promoter without Affecting Host Motility, Facilitating an Exceptional Phenotype That Enhances Conjugal Plasmid Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Riber, Leise; Kot, Witold; Basfeld, Alrun; Burmølle, Mette; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transmission of genetic material to a recipient that is not the progeny of the donor, is fundamental in bacterial evolution. HGT is often mediated by mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which may be in conflict with the chromosomal elements of the genome because they are independent replicons that may petition their own evolutionary strategy. Here we study differences between type 3 fimbriae encoded on wild type plasmids and in chromosomes. Using known and newly characterized plasmids we show that the expression of type 3 fimbriae encoded on plasmids is systematically different, as MrkH, a c-di-GMP dependent transcriptional activator is not needed for strong expression of the fimbriae. MrkH is required for expression of type 3 fimbriae of the Klebsiella pneumoniae chromosome, wherefrom the fimbriae operon (mrkABCDF) of plasmids is believed to have originated. We find that mrkABCDFs of plasmids are highly expressed via a unique promoter that differs from the original Klebsiella promoter resulting in fundamental behavioral consequences. Plasmid associated mrkABCDFs did not influence the swimming behavior of the host, that hereby acquired an exceptional phenotype being able to both actively swim (planktonic behavior) and express biofilm associated fimbriae (sessile behavior). We show that this exceptional phenotype enhances the conjugal transfer of the plasmid. PMID:27627107

  1. Leachate Concentrations of Ammonium, Nitrate, and Phosphorus as Affected by Nutrient Release From Four Different Types of Controlled-Release Fertilizers and Crop Development of Containerized Azaleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphorus in irrigation leachate were measured weekly over a 47-week period from a low-fertility, acid-based substrate into which four types of 12-month controlled-release fertilizers (Osmocote, Nutricote, Polyon, or Multicote) were incorporated. Containers ...

  2. Type 3 Fimbriae Encoded on Plasmids Are Expressed from a Unique Promoter without Affecting Host Motility, Facilitating an Exceptional Phenotype That Enhances Conjugal Plasmid Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Riber, Leise; Kot, Witold; Basfeld, Alrun; Burmølle, Mette; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transmission of genetic material to a recipient that is not the progeny of the donor, is fundamental in bacterial evolution. HGT is often mediated by mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which may be in conflict with the chromosomal elements of the genome because they are independent replicons that may petition their own evolutionary strategy. Here we study differences between type 3 fimbriae encoded on wild type plasmids and in chromosomes. Using known and newly characterized plasmids we show that the expression of type 3 fimbriae encoded on plasmids is systematically different, as MrkH, a c-di-GMP dependent transcriptional activator is not needed for strong expression of the fimbriae. MrkH is required for expression of type 3 fimbriae of the Klebsiella pneumoniae chromosome, wherefrom the fimbriae operon (mrkABCDF) of plasmids is believed to have originated. We find that mrkABCDFs of plasmids are highly expressed via a unique promoter that differs from the original Klebsiella promoter resulting in fundamental behavioral consequences. Plasmid associated mrkABCDFs did not influence the swimming behavior of the host, that hereby acquired an exceptional phenotype being able to both actively swim (planktonic behavior) and express biofilm associated fimbriae (sessile behavior). We show that this exceptional phenotype enhances the conjugal transfer of the plasmid. PMID:27627107

  3. Dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 infection and excretion in pigs from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome affected farms from Spain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Sibila, M.;

    Serological and non-quantitative DNA detection techniques (PCR) have been widely used to monitor porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection dynamics (1,2). In spite of available epidemiological information, very few data on PCV2 load dynamics of Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) a...

  4. Association between New-onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Sleep Behaviors in Male Patients%新发男性2型糖尿病与睡眠行为的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东妮; 李志强; 孙晓晶; 卢智泉

    2012-01-01

    目的 采用国际匹兹堡睡眠质量量表(PSQI)和自行设计的一般状况调查表对首次确诊的男性2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者进行调查,探讨男性T2DM与睡眠相关行为的关系.方法 采用1:1匹配的病例对照研究,病例组为>40岁的男性T2DM患者,对照组为>40岁非T2DM的男性患者,共156对.采用t检验及多元条件Logistic回归模型对睡眠质量及相关睡眠行为(午睡情况、晚睡情况、打鼾情况、入睡困难情况、夜间睡眠充足与否及睡眠质量)与男性T2DM间关系进行分析.结果 病例组与对照组主观睡眠质量、睡眠潜伏期、睡眠持续时间、习惯性睡眠效率、睡眠紊乱、白天功能紊乱6个因子分值及PSQI总分与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).最终进入多元条件Logistic回归模型的睡眠相关行为因子为午睡情况、晚睡情况、打鼾情况、入睡困难情况、夜间睡眠充足与否及总体睡眠质量(PSQI测评总分)等,与男性T2DM发病存在关联.结论 晚睡、打鼾、入睡困难、夜间睡眠不足、睡眠质量差等因素可能为男性T2DM发病的危险因素,适当午睡可能是男性T2DM发病的保护性因素.%Objective To explore the association between sleep behaviors and new - onset type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM ) in male patients. Methods In this case - control study, 156 pairs of T2DM patients and controls ( without T2DM ) aged > 40 years were enrolled. The sleep quality was assessed using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ( PSQI ) and self - designed general condition questionnaire. Correlations of sleep quality and relevant sleep behaviors ( nap, late bedtime, snoring, sleeping difficulty, lack of sleep at night, and poor sleep quality ) with T2DM were analyzed by t test and multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis. Results The subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disorder, 6 items concerning daytime

  5. Female Sexual Polymorphism and Fecundity Consequences of Male Mating Harassment in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Gosden, Thomas P.; Svensson, Erik I.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and phenotypic variation in female response towards male mating attempts has been found in several laboratory studies, demonstrating sexually antagonistic co-evolution driven by mating costs on female fitness. Theoretical models suggest that the type and degree of genetic variation in female resistance could affect the evolutionary outcome of sexually antagonistic mating interactions, resulting in either rapid development of reproductive isolation and speciation or genetic clustering ...

  6. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Natasha B.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2009-01-01

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness. PMID:19520802

  7. Differential Correlates of Multi-Type Maltreatment among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Catalina M.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Bowers, David; O'Brien, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the differential effects of multi-types of maltreatment in an adolescent sample. Different combinations of maltreatment (emotional, sexual, physical, neglect) were examined in relation to both negative affect and externalizing symptoms in male and female youth. Method: One thousand four hundred…

  8. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  9. The EcoKI Type I Restriction-Modification System in Escherichia coli Affects but Is Not an Absolute Barrier for Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roer, Louise; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    results about restriction-modification systems based on phenotypic studies have been presented as reasons for a barrier to conjugation with and other means of uptake of exogenous DNA. In this study, we show that inactivation of the R.EcoKI restriction enzyme in strain Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655...... of the mutant recipient with a disrupted hsdR gene. This leads to the conclusion that EcoKI restriction-modification affects the uptake of DNA by conjugation but is not a major barrier to plasmid transfer....

  10. Male bumblebees, Bombus terrestris, perform equally well as workers in a serial colour-learning task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephan; Chittka, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The learning capacities of males and females may differ with sex-specific behavioural requirements. Bumblebees provide a useful model system to explore how different lifestyles are reflected in learning abilities, because their (female but sterile) workers and males engage in fundamentally different behaviour routines. Bumblebee males, like workers, embark on active flower foraging but in contrast to workers they have to trade off their feeding with mate search, potentially affecting their abilities to learn and utilize floral cues efficiently during foraging. We used a serial colour-learning task with freely flying males and workers to compare their ability to flexibly learn visual floral cues with reward in a foraging scenario that changed over time. Male bumblebees did not differ from workers in both their learning speed and their ability to overcome previously acquired associations, when these ceased to predict reward. In all foraging tasks we found a significant improvement in choice accuracy in both sexes over the course of the training. In both sexes, the characteristics of the foraging performance depended largely on the colour difference of the two presented feeder types. Large colour distances entailed fast and reliable learning of the rewarding feeders whereas choice accuracy on highly similar colours improved significantly more slowly. Conversely, switching from a learned feeder type to a novel one was fastest for similar feeder colours and slow for highly different ones. Overall, we show that behavioural sex dimorphism in bumblebees did not affect their learning abilities beyond the mating context. We discuss the possible drivers and limitations shaping the foraging abilities of males and workers and implications for pollination ecology. We also suggest stingless male bumblebees as an advantageous alternative model system for the study of pollinator cognition. PMID:26877542

  11. Stereoselective property of 20(S-protopanaxadiol ocotillol type epimers affects its absorption and also the inhibition of P-glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Wang

    Full Text Available Stereoselectivity has been proved to be tightly related to drug action including pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. (20S,24R-epoxy-dammarane-3,12,25-triol (24R-epimer and (20S,24S-epoxy-dammarane-3,12,25-triol (24S-epimer, a pair of 20(S-protopanaxadiol (PPD ocotillol type epimers, were the main metabolites of PPD. Previous studies have shown that 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer had stereoselectivity in pharmacological action and pharmacokinetics. In the present study, the aim was to further study the pharmacokinetic characteristics of both epimers, investigate their absorption mechanism and analyze the selectivity effects of ocotillol type side chain and C24 stereo-configuration on P-glycoprotein (P-gp in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that the absolute bioavailability of 24R-epimer was about 14-fold higher than that of 24S-epimer, and a linear kinetic characteristic was acquired in doses of 5-20 mg/kg for both epimers after oral administration. Furthermore, the apparent permeability coefficients of 24R-epimer were 5-7 folds higher than that of 24S-epimer having lower efflux ratios in Caco-2 cell models. Moreover, both 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer had similar inhibitory effects on P-gp by increasing cellular retention of rhodamine 123 in Caco-2 cells and decreasing efflux of digoxin across Caco-2 cell monolayers. In situ in vivo experiments showed that the inhibition of 24R-epimer on P-gp was stronger than that of 24S-epimer by single-pass intestinal perfusion of rhodamine 123 in rats. Western blot analyses demonstrated that both epimers had no action on P-gp expression in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, with respect to the stereoselectivity, C24 S-configuration of the ocotillol type epimers processed a poor transmembrane permeability and could be distinguished by P-gp. Sharing a dammarane skeleton, both 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer were potent inhibitors of P-gp. This study provides a new case of stereoselective pharmacokinetics of chiral compounds

  12. A high aggression strategy for smaller males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Andreas Svensson

    Full Text Available Male-male conflict is common among animals, but questions remain as to when, how and by whom aggression should be initiated. Factors that affect agonistic strategies include residency, the value of the contested resource and the fighting ability of the two contestants. We quantified initiation of aggression in a fish, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius, by exposing nest-holding males to a male intruder. The perceived value of the resource (the nest was manipulated by exposing half of the residents to sexually receptive females for two days before the trial. Resident male aggression, however, was unaffected by perceived mating opportunities. It was also unaffected by the absolute and relative size of the intruder. Instead resident aggression was negatively related to resident male size. In particular, smaller residents attacked sooner and with greater intensity compared to larger residents. These results suggest that resident desert goby males used set, rather than conditional, strategies for initiating aggression. If intruders are more likely to flee than retaliate, small males may benefit from attacking intruders before these have had an opportunity to assess the resident and/or the resource.

  13. Repeatability of decision-making behaviour in male threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus: Effects of dummy vs. live stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L. DZIEWECZYNSKI, Lindsay M. FORRETTE

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals select from a number of behaviours when responding to various situations and the decisions they make may affect their fitness. The costs and benefits of these responses vary among individuals causing them to differ even in identical situations. One example of this type of situation is when territorial males encounter both a male and female simultaneously, gene- rating a trade-off that likely leads to individual differences due to differing costs of various actions among males. This situation commonly occurs in threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. However, for selection to act effectively, individuals must behave in a consistent manner and measuring repeatability can aid in understanding how selection may shape such trade-offs. Males of this species exhibit consistent individual differences in their response to dummy males and females but it is unknown if patterns are similar when feedback from the stimuli is present. To assess this, male threespine stickleback were tested with dummy and live male and female conspecifics, presented separately and simultaneously. While the same trends were found regardless of stimulus type, males were more aggressive towards the live conspecifics than to the dummies. Repeatability values were similar within a treatment regardless of whether live or dummy conspecifics were used, suggesting that individuals show the same level of consistency. This study adds to our understanding of consistent individual differences by demonstrating that feedback may not affect responses to conflicting stimuli and that male threespine stickleback respond in a consistent manner to both dummy and live stimuli [Current Zoology 57 (1: 101–108, 2011].

  14. Spine morphology of neurons in the Avian forebrain is affected by rearing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rollenhagen, Astrid; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    1994-01-01

    An area of the caudal forebrain of male zebra finches, the Archi-Neostriatum caudale (ANC), which is active during arousal (Bischof and Herrmann, 1986, 1988), shows rearing-dependent changes in neuron morphology (Rollenhagen and Bischof, 1991). We demonstrate here that rearing conditions also affect the shape of spines of one of the four ANC neuron types. This neuron type was examined in birds reared under five different conditions - in isolation (1), caged (2), in the aviary (3), and with so...

  15. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    . Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...... and cultural festivals, both practices indicate that design is implemented as means of creating affective spaces in the city. Both cases show how immaterial production of affects and emotions in the city can be seen in relation to economic potential and urban development. Finally, I will discuss whether urban......Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play...

  16. The fission yeast ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes UbcP3, Ubc15, and Rhp6 affect transcriptional silencing of the mating-type region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Inga Sig; Nielsen, Olaf; Murray, Johanne M;

    2002-01-01

    inserted nearby. Deletion of rhp6 slightly derepressed an ade6 reporter gene placed in the mating-type region, whereas disruption of ubcP3 or ubc15 had no obvious effect on silencing. Rhp18 is the S. pombe homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad18p, a DNA-binding protein that physically interacts with Rad6......p. Rhp18 was not required for the derepression observed when UbcP3, Ubc15, or Rhp6 was overproduced. Overexpressing Rhp6 active-site mutants showed that the ubiquitin-conjugating activity of Rhp6 is essential for disruption of silencing. However, high dosage of UbcP3, Ubc15, or Rhp6...

  17. The Coronary Artery Disease-associated Coding Variant in Zinc Finger C3HC-type Containing 1 (ZC3HC1) Affects Cell Cycle Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter D; Kaiser, Michael A; Ghaderi Najafabadi, Maryam; McVey, David G; Beveridge, Allan J; Schofield, Christine L; Samani, Nilesh J; Webb, Tom R

    2016-07-29

    Genome-wide association studies have to date identified multiple coronary artery disease (CAD)-associated loci; however, for most of these loci the mechanism by which they affect CAD risk is unclear. The CAD-associated locus 7q32.2 is unusual in that the lead variant, rs11556924, is not in strong linkage disequilibrium with any other variant and introduces a coding change in ZC3HC1, which encodes NIPA. In this study, we show that rs11556924 polymorphism is associated with lower regulatory phosphorylation of NIPA in the risk variant, resulting in NIPA with higher activity. Using a genome-editing approach we show that this causes an effective decrease in cyclin-B1 stability in the nucleus, thereby slowing its nuclear accumulation. By perturbing the rate of nuclear cyclin-B1 accumulation, rs11556924 alters the regulation of mitotic progression resulting in an extended mitosis. This study shows that the CAD-associated coding polymorphism in ZC3HC1 alters the dynamics of cell-cycle regulation by NIPA. PMID:27226629

  18. Impact of Male Partner Antenatal Accompaniment on Perinatal Health Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Carolina; Jennings, Larissa

    2015-09-01

    Encouraging male partners to accompany women to antenatal care (ANC) is an important first step in engaging men on maternal and newborn health. However, little is known regarding the impact of male partner antenatal accompaniment beyond HIV-related perinatal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence on the influence of male accompaniment on non-HIV outcomes during pregnancy and into the postpartum period. Eligible studies were published in English from 2003 to 2013 and evaluated the effect of male antenatal accompaniment on perinatal health in a developing country. Four electronic databases and selected reference lists were searched. Out of 84 potential citations retrieved, seven publications were retained for the assessment of male antenatal accompaniment's influence using iterative thematic analysis. During pregnancy, male antenatal accompaniment positively impacted women's knowledge of danger signs, but did not affect birth preparedness, ANC utilization, or miscarriages. During labor and delivery, men's ANC presence was associated with increases in institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance, but with no effect for birth-related outcomes. During the early postnatal period, male antenatal accompaniment was associated with higher uptake of postnatal services, but with mixed effects on breastfeeding and newborn survival. Couples' increased communication on pregnancy care and men's subsequent motivation to ensure safe delivery may explain these observed benefits. Inadequate communication, late accompaniment, or partner type may explain the lack of influence on some outcomes. More efforts are needed to expand the implementation and evaluation of male involvement strategies to improve perinatal health. PMID:25656727

  19. Breast enlargement in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... The condition may occur in one or both breasts. It begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. One breast may be larger than the other. Enlarged breasts ...

  20. Causes of Male Infertility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Cessation Links to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo of ... Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive Health Topics | News & Publications | Resources ...