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Sample records for affects inhibitory control

  1. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior

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    Ning eMa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1 the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2 an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination results in a longer go reaction time (RT, a lower stop error rate, as well as a faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  2. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

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    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749

  3. Early non-parental care and toddler behaviour problems: Links with temperamental negative affectivity and inhibitory control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Putnam, S.; Jong, M. de; Weerth, C. de

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the link between multiple aspects of early non-parental care and internalizing and externalizing behaviour at 30 months of age. We also examined whether this link was mediated by children's inhibitory control and moderated by early temperamental negative affectivity.

  4. Inhibitory control of hippocampal inhibitory neurons

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    Lisa Topolnik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Information processing within neuronal networks is determined by a dynamic partnership between principal neurons and local circuit inhibitory interneurons. The population of GABAergic interneurons is extremely heterogeneous and comprises, in many brain regions, cells with divergent morphological and physiological properties, distinct molecular expression profiles, and highly specialized functions. GABAergic interneurons have been studied extensively during the past two decades, especially in the hippocampus, which is a relatively simple cortical structure. Different types of hippocampal inhibitory interneurons control spike initiation (e.g., axo-axonic and basket cells and synaptic integration (e.g., bistratified and oriens–lacunosum moleculare interneurons within pyramidal neurons and synchronize local network activity, providing a means for functional segregation of neuronal ensembles and proper routing of hippocampal information. Thus, it is thought that, at least in the hippocampus, GABAergic inhibitory interneurons represent critical regulating elements at all stages of information processing, from synaptic integration and spike generation to large-scale network activity. However, this raises an important question: if inhibitory interneurons are fundamental for network computations, what are the mechanisms that control the activity of the interneurons themselves? Given the essential role of synaptic inhibition in the regulation of neuronal activity, it would be logical to expect that specific inhibitory mechanisms have evolved to control the operation of interneurons. Here, we review the mechanisms of synaptic inhibition of interneurons and discuss their role in the operation of hippocampal inhibitory circuits.

  5. Inhibitory Control in Anxious and Healthy Adolescents Is Modulated by Incentive and Incidental Affective Stimuli

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    Hardin, Michael G.; Mandell, Darcy; Mueller, Sven C.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are characterized by elevated, sustained responses to threat, that manifest as threat attention biases. Recent evidence also suggests exaggerated responses to incentives. How these characteristics influence cognitive control is under debate and is the focus of the present study. Methods: Twenty-five healthy…

  6. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs.

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    Corsin A Müller

    Full Text Available Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.

  7. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance. PMID:26863141

  8. Brain stimulation and inhibitory control.

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    Juan, Chi-Hung; Muggleton, Neil G

    2012-04-01

    Inhibitory control mechanisms are important in a range of behaviours to prevent execution of motor acts which, having been planned, are no longer necessary or appropriate. Examples of this can be seen in a range of sports, such as cricket and baseball, where the choice between execution and inhibition of a bat swing must be made in a very brief time window. Deficits in inhibitory control have been associated with problems in behavioural regulation in impulsive violence as well as a range of clinical disorders. The roles of various areas, including the frontal eye fields (FEF), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the inferior frontal gyrus, in inhibitory control have been investigated using an inhibitory control task and both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Typically effects on response inhibition but no effects on response generation have been seen. The contributions of these areas to performance seem to differ with, for example, pre-SMA being involved when the task is relatively novel whereas this is not the case for FEF. The findings from brain stimulation studies offer both insight into which areas are necessary for effective inhibitory control and recent extension of findings for the role of the inferior frontal gyrus illustrate how the specific functions by which these areas contribute may be further clarified. Future work, including making use of the temporal specificity of TMS and combination of TMS/tDCS with other neuroimaging techniques, may further clarify the nature and functions played by the network of areas involved in inhibitory control. PMID:22494830

  9. Affective attention under cognitive load: reduced emotional biases but emergent anxiety-related costs to inhibitory control

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    Berggren, Nick; Richards, Anne; Taylor, Joseph; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2013-01-01

    Trait anxiety is associated with deficits in attentional control, particularly in the ability to inhibit prepotent responses. Here, we investigated this effect while varying the level of cognitive load in a modified antisaccade task that employed emotional facial expressions (neutral, happy, and angry) as targets. Load was manipulated using a secondary auditory task requiring recognition of tones (low load), or recognition of specific tone pitch (high load). Results showed that load increased...

  10. Synapse-specific inhibitory control of hippocampal feedback inhibitory circuit

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    Simon eChamberland

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Local circuit and long-range GABAergic projections provide powerful inhibitory control over the operation of hippocampal inhibitory circuits, yet little is known about the input- and target-specific organization of interacting inhibitory networks in relation to their specific functions. Using a combination of two-photon laser scanning photostimulation and whole-cell patch clamp recordings in mice hippocampal slices, we examined the properties of transmission at GABAergic synapses formed onto hippocampal CA1 stratum oriens – lacunosum moleculare (O–LM interneurons by two major inhibitory inputs: local projection originating from stratum radiatum interneurons and septohippocampal GABAergic terminals. Optical mapping of local inhibitory inputs to O–LM interneurons revealed that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide- and calretinine-positive neurons, with anatomical properties typical of type III interneuron-specific interneurons, provided the major local source of inhibition to O–LM cells. Inhibitory postsynaptic currents evoked by minimal stimulation of this input exhibited small amplitude and significant paired-pulse and multiple-pulse depression during repetitive activity. Moreover, these synapses failed to show any form of long-term synaptic plasticity. In contrast, synapses formed by septohippocampal projection produced higher amplitude and persistent inhibition and exhibited long-term potentiation induced by theta-like activity. These results indicate the input and target-specific segregation in inhibitory control, exerted by two types of GABAergic projections and responsible for distinct dynamics of inhibition in O–LM interneurons. The two inputs are therefore likely to support the differential activity- and brain state-dependent recruitment of hippocampal feedback inhibitory circuits in vivo, crucial for dendritic disinhibition and computations in CA1 pyramidal cells.

  11. The Size of Activating and Inhibitory Killer Ig-like Receptor Nanoclusters Is Controlled by the Transmembrane Sequence and Affects Signaling

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    Anna Oszmiana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution microscopy has revealed that immune cell receptors are organized in nanoscale clusters at cell surfaces and immune synapses. However, mechanisms and functions for this nanoscale organization remain unclear. Here, we used super-resolution microscopy to compare the surface organization of paired killer Ig-like receptors (KIR, KIR2DL1 and KIR2DS1, on human primary natural killer cells and cell lines. Activating KIR2DS1 assembled in clusters two-fold larger than its inhibitory counterpart KIR2DL1. Site-directed mutagenesis established that the size of nanoclusters is controlled by transmembrane amino acid 233, a lysine in KIR2DS1. Super-resolution microscopy also revealed two ways in which the nanoscale clustering of KIR affects signaling. First, KIR2DS1 and DAP12 nanoclusters are juxtaposed in the resting cell state but coalesce upon receptor ligation. Second, quantitative super-resolution microscopy revealed that phosphorylation of the kinase ZAP-70 or phosphatase SHP-1 is favored in larger KIR nanoclusters. Thus, the size of KIR nanoclusters depends on the transmembrane sequence and affects downstream signaling.

  12. Proactive and reactive inhibitory control in rats

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    Mayse, Jeffrey D.; Nelson, Geoffrey M.; Pul ePark; Michela eGallagher; Shih-Chieh eLin

    2014-01-01

    Inhibiting actions inappropriate for the behavioral context, or inhibitory control, is essential for survival and involves both reactively stopping the current prepared action and proactively adjusting behavioral tendencies to increase future performance. A powerful paradigm widely used in basic and clinical research to study inhibitory control is the stop signal task (SST). Recent years have seen a surging interest in translating the SST to rodents to study the neural mechanisms underlying i...

  13. Proactive and reactive inhibitory control in rats

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    Jeffrey D Mayse

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inhibiting actions inappropriate for the behavioral context, or inhibitory control, is essential for survival and involves both reactively stopping the current prepared action and proactively adjusting behavioral tendencies to increase future performance. A powerful paradigm widely used in basic and clinical research to study inhibitory control is the stop signal task (SST. Recent years have seen a surging interest in translating the SST to rodents to study the neural mechanisms underlying inhibitory control. However, significant differences in task designs and behavioral strategies between rodent and primate studies have made it difficult to directly compare the two literatures. In this study, we developed a rodent-appropriate SST and characterized both reactive and proactive control in rats. For reactive inhibitory control, we found that, unlike in primates, incorrect stop trials in rodents result from two independent types of errors: an initial failure-to-stop error or, after successful stopping, a subsequent failure-to-wait error. Conflating failure-to-stop and failure-to-wait errors systematically overestimates the covert latency of reactive inhibition, the stop signal reaction time (SSRT. To correctly estimate SSRT, we developed and validated a new method that provides an unbiased SSRT estimate independent of the ability to wait. For proactive inhibitory control, we found that rodents adjust both their reaction time and the ability to stop following failure-to-wait errors and successful stop trials, but not after failure-to-stop errors. Together, these results establish a valid rodent model that utilizes proactive and reactive inhibitory control strategies similar to primates, and highlight the importance of dissociating initial stopping from subsequent waiting in studying mechanisms of inhibitory control using rodents.

  14. Flexible brain network reconfiguration supporting inhibitory control.

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    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy; Banich, Marie T

    2015-08-11

    The ability to inhibit distracting stimuli from interfering with goal-directed behavior is crucial for success in most spheres of life. Despite an abundance of studies examining regional brain activation, knowledge of the brain networks involved in inhibitory control remains quite limited. To address this critical gap, we applied graph theory tools to functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected while a large sample of adults (n = 101) performed a color-word Stroop task. Higher demand for inhibitory control was associated with restructuring of the global network into a configuration that was more optimized for specialized processing (functional segregation), more efficient at communicating the output of such processing across the network (functional integration), and more resilient to potential interruption (resilience). In addition, there were regional changes with right inferior frontal sulcus and right anterior insula occupying more central positions as network hubs, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex becoming more tightly coupled with its regional subnetwork. Given the crucial role of inhibitory control in goal-directed behavior, present findings identifying functional network organization supporting inhibitory control have the potential to provide additional insights into how inhibitory control may break down in a wide variety of individuals with neurological or psychiatric difficulties. PMID:26216985

  15. Inhibitory Control and Emotion Regulation in Preschool Children

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    Carlson, Stephanie M.; Wang, Tiffany S.

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the relation between individual differences in inhibitory control and emotion regulation. Preschool children (N=53) ages 4-6 (M=5; 0) were assessed on brief batteries of inhibitory control of prepotent responses and emotion regulation. Individual differences in inhibitory control were significantly correlated with…

  16. Reliability of temporal summation and diffuse noxious inhibitory control

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    Cathcart, Stuart; Winefield, Anthony H; Rolan, Paul; Lushington, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The test-retest reliability of temporal summation (TS) and diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) has not been reported to date. Establishing such reliability would support the possibility of future experimental studies examining factors affecting TS and DNIC. Similarly, the use of manual algometry to induce TS, or an occlusion cuff to induce DNIC of TS to mechanical stimuli, has not been reported to date. Such devices may offer a simpler method than current techniques for indu...

  17. Timing control by redundant inhibitory neuronal circuits

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    Tristan, I., E-mail: itristan@ucsd.edu; Rulkov, N. F.; Huerta, R.; Rabinovich, M. [BioCircuits Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Rhythms and timing control of sequential activity in the brain is fundamental to cognition and behavior. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the understanding that neuronal circuits are intrinsically capable of generating different time intervals, the dynamical origin of the phenomenon of functionally dependent timing control is still unclear. Here, we consider a new mechanism that is related to the multi-neuronal cooperative dynamics in inhibitory brain motifs consisting of a few clusters. It is shown that redundancy and diversity of neurons within each cluster enhances the sensitivity of the timing control with the level of neuronal excitation of the whole network. The generality of the mechanism is shown to work on two different neuronal models: a conductance-based model and a map-based model.

  18. Impaired inhibitory control in recreational cocaine users.

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    Lorenza S Colzato

    Full Text Available Chronic use of cocaine is associated with impairment in response inhibition but it is an open question whether and to which degree findings from chronic users generalize to the upcoming type of recreational users. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult recreational users and in a cocaine-free-matched sample controlled for age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop-signals than non users. Interestingly, the magnitude of the inhibitory deficit was positively correlated with the individuals lifetime cocaine exposure suggesting that the magnitude of the impairment is proportional to the degree of cocaine consumed.

  19. Training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas eSpierer; Camille eChavan; Aurelie Lynn Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in inhibitory control, the ability to suppress ongoing or planned motor or cognitive processes, contribute to many psychiatric and neurological disorders. The rehabilitation of inhibition-related disorders may therefore benefit from neuroplasticity-based training protocols aiming at normalizing inhibitory control proficiency and the underlying brain networks. Current literature on training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control suggests that improvements may fo...

  20. Inhibitory Control after Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sinopoli, Katia J.; Dennis, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitory control describes a number of distinct processes. Effortless inhibition refers to acts of control that are automatic and reflexive. Effortful inhibition refers to voluntary, goal-directed acts of control such as response flexibility, interference control, cancellation inhibition, and restraint inhibition. Disruptions to a number of inhibitory control processes occur as a consequence of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This paper reviews the current knowledge of inhibition de...

  1. The role of inhibitory control in task switching

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    Yang, Violet Hye-Won

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on task switching has been confounded by inhibitory control mechanism and there has been debate on the source of switch costs and how and when the inhibitory control occurs during task switching. In order to circumvent this problem, the thesis aimed to investigate the role of inhibition in task switching by examining switch costs, alternating switch costs and congruency effect in three tasks when two preparation intervals (short and long) are given. Task switching experiment...

  2. Adaptive Proactive Inhibitory Control for Embedded Real-Time Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shufan; McGinnity, T. Martin; Wong-Lin, KongFatt

    2012-01-01

    Psychologists have studied the inhibitory control of voluntary movement for many years. In particular, the countermanding of an impending action has been extensively studied. In this work, we propose a neural mechanism for adaptive inhibitory control in a firing-rate type model based on current findings in animal electrophysiological and human psychophysical experiments. We then implement this model on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) prototyping system, using dedicated real-time hardwa...

  3. Adaptive Proactive Inhibitory Control for Embedded Real-time Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shufan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Psychologists have studied the inhibitory control of voluntary movement for many years. In particular, the countermanding of an impending action has been extensively studied. In this work, we propose a neural mechanism for adaptive inhibitory control in a firing-rate type model based on current findings in animal electrophysiological and human psychophysical experiments. We then implement this model on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) prototyping system, using dedicated real-time hardwa...

  4. Adaptive Proactive Inhibitory Control for Embedded Real-time Applications

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    Shufan Yang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychologists have studied the inhibitory control of voluntary movement for many years. In particular, the countermanding of an impending action has been extensively studied. In this work, we propose a neural mechanism for adaptive inhibitory control in a firing-rate type model based on current findings in animal electrophysiological and human psychophysical experiments. We then implement this model on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA prototyping system, using dedicated real-time hardware circuitry. Our results show that the FPGA-based implementation can run in real time while achieving behavioural performance qualitatively suggestive of the animal experiments. Implementing such biological inhibitory control in an embedded device can lead to the development of control systems that may be used in more realistic cognitive robotics or in neural prosthetic systems aiding human movement control.

  5. Training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control

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    Lucas eSpierer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in inhibitory control, the ability to suppress ongoing or planned motor or cognitive processes, contribute to many psychiatric and neurological disorders. The rehabilitation of inhibition-related disorders may therefore benefit from neuroplasticity-based training protocols aiming at normalizing inhibitory control proficiency and the underlying brain networks. Current literature on training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control suggests that improvements may follow either from the development of automatic forms of inhibition or from the strengthening of top-down, controlled inhibition. Automatic inhibition develops in conditions of consistent and repeated associations between inhibition-triggering stimuli and stopping goals. Once established, the stop signals directly elicit inhibition, thereby bypassing slow, top-down executive control and accelerating stopping processes. In contrast, training regimens involving varying stimulus-response associations or frequent inhibition failures prevent the development of automatic inhibition and thus strengthen top-down inhibitory processes rather than bottom-up ones. We discuss these findings in terms of developing optimal inhibitory control training regimens for rehabilitation purposes.

  6. Inhibitory control gains from higher-order cognitive strategy training.

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    Motes, Michael A; Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Chapman, Sandra B; Rao, Neena K; Maguire, Mandy J; Brier, Matthew R; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control. Middle school students enrolled in a comprehension- and reasoning-focused cognitive strategy training program and passive controls participated. The training program taught students a set of steps for inferring essential gist or themes from materials. Both before and after training or a comparable duration in the case of the passive controls, participants completed a semantically cued Go/No-Go task that was designed to assess the effects of depth of semantic processing on response inhibition and components of event-related potentials (ERP) related to response inhibition. Depth of semantic processing was manipulated by varying the level of semantic categorization required for response selection and inhibition. The SMART-trained group showed inhibitory control gains and changes in fronto-central P3 ERP amplitudes on inhibition trials; whereas, the control group did not. The results provide evidence of the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control and modulation of ERPs associated with semantically cued inhibitory control. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for cognitive strategy training, models of cognitive abilities, and education. PMID:24286804

  7. Caffeine Does Not Modulate Inhibitory Control

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    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a 3 mg/kg body weight (BW) dose of caffeine were assessed on behavioral indices of response inhibition. To meet these aims, we selected a modified AX version of the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), the stop task, and the flanker task. In three double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects experiments, these tasks were…

  8. Inhibitory Control during Emotional Distraction across Adolescence and Early Adulthood

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    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the changing relation between emotion and inhibitory control during adolescence. One hundred participants between 11 and 25 years of age performed a go-nogo task in which task-relevant stimuli (letters) were presented at the center of large task-irrelevant images depicting negative, positive, or neutral scenes selected from…

  9. Neural signature of reward-modulated unconscious inhibitory control.

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    Diao, Liuting; Qi, Senqing; Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Ding, Cody; Chen, Antao; Zheng, Yan; Yang, Dong

    2016-09-01

    Consciously initiated cognitive control is generally determined by motivational incentives (e.g., monetary reward). Recent studies have revealed that human cognitive control processes can nevertheless operate without awareness. However, whether monetary reward can impinge on unconscious cognitive control remains unclear. To clarify this issue, a task consisting of several runs was designed to combine a modified version of the reward-priming paradigm with an unconscious version of the Go/No-Go task. At the beginning of each run, participants were exposed to a high- or low-value coin, followed by the modified Go/No-Go task. Participants could earn the coin only if they responded correctly to each trial of the run. Event-related potential (ERP) results indicated that high-value rewards (vs. low-value rewards) induced a greater centro-parietal P3 component associated with conscious and unconscious inhibitory control. Moreover, the P3 amplitude correlated positively with the magnitude of reaction time slowing reflecting the intensity of activation of unconscious inhibitory control in the brain. These findings suggest that high-value reward may facilitate human higher-order inhibitory processes that are independent of conscious awareness, which provides insights into the brain processes that underpin motivational modulation of cognitive control. PMID:27346057

  10. Solution of Written Arithmetic Problems and Inhibitory Cognitive Control

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    Sigem Sabagh Sabbagh

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The solution of word or verbal problems has become a subject of preoccupation for teachers and investigators, since in them it is the essence of education and learning of the mathematics. It has been discovered that one of the reasons for the failure in the solution of this kind of problems, is the incapacity to suppress the irrelevant information of them, this is, by the deficiency of cognitive inhibitory control.

  11. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: controller of systemic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Douglas F.; Horak, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that is secreted by the anterior pituitary and immune cells in response to surgical stress, injury, and sepsis. This cytokine appears to be a critical regulator of the inflammatory pathways, leading to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. This report provides an integrated scheme describing the manner by which MIF controls the neurohormonal response and the adaptive immune system,...

  12. Attention in patients with chronic schizophrenia: Deficit in inhibitory control and positive symptoms

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    Flavia S. Galaverna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Attention is a central mechanism controlling information processing, activating and inhibiting processes, and forming a complex system including diferent networks in specific areas of the brain¹. To correctly assess the role of attention in schizophrenia it is necessary to discriminate its different attentional components, which may by selectively altered. Attention span, focused attention, selective attention, sustained attention and inhibitory response, were assessed in patients with chronic schizophrenia and healthy matched controls. Methods: The study included 32 patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and 32 healthy subjects. The groups were matched in age, sex, and level of education. Symptom severity (positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and general psychopathology was assessed with the Scale for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS and SANS. Attentional components were measured by Forward Digit Span, Symbol Search, Digit Symbol Coding, Stroop Test and Picture Completion. Results: Schizophrenic patients exhibited lower attentional scores in all tests compared to the control group. Inhibitory control and sustained attention were the most affected traits in schizophrenic patients. An inverse correlation was observed between inhibitory control and delusions and disorganized thinking. No significant correlations were observed between negative symptoms and attentional performance. Conclusions: The pattern of results obtained in this paper evidences the role of an inhibitory control deficit in patients with chronic schizophrenia that could also be involved in other attentional and cognitive failures, and also be connected to positive symptoms.

  13. Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control during wakefulness in adult sleepwalkers.

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    Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Petit, Dominique; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Sleepwalkers often complain of excessive daytime somnolence. Although excessive daytime somnolence has been associated with cognitive impairment in several sleep disorders, very few data exist concerning sleepwalking. This study aimed to investigate daytime cognitive functioning in adults diagnosed with idiopathic sleepwalking. Fifteen sleepwalkers and 15 matched controls were administered the Continuous Performance Test and Stroop Colour-Word Test in the morning after an overnight polysomnographic assessment. Participants were tested a week later on the same neuropsychological battery, but after 25 h of sleep deprivation, a procedure known to precipitate sleepwalking episodes during subsequent recovery sleep. There were no significant differences between sleepwalkers and controls on any of the cognitive tests administered under normal waking conditions. Testing following sleep deprivation revealed significant impairment in sleepwalkers' executive functions related to inhibitory control, as they made more errors than controls on the Stroop Colour-Word Test and more commission errors on the Continuous Performance Test. Sleepwalkers' scores on measures of executive functions were not associated with self-reported sleepiness or indices of sleep fragmentation from baseline polysomnographic recordings. The results support the idea that sleepwalking involves daytime consequences and suggest that these may also include cognitive impairments in the form of disrupted inhibitory control following sleep deprivation. These disruptions may represent a daytime expression of sleepwalking's pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:26087833

  14. Impaired inhibitory control in anorexia nervosa elicited by physical activity stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Giel, Katrin E.; Hu, Xiaochen; Stephan C Bischoff; Teufel, Martin; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan; Preissl, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Besides food restriction, hyperactivity is considered a key behavioral trait of anorexia nervosa (AN), playing a major role in the pathogenesis and progression of the disorder. However, the underlying neurophysiology remains poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging during two affective go/no-go tasks to probe inhibitory control in response to stimuli depicting physical activity vs inactivity and food vs non-food in AN patients compared with 26 healthy athlete and non-a...

  15. State dependency of inhibitory control performance: an electrical neuroimaging study.

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    De Pretto, Michael; Sallard, Etienne; Spierer, Lucas

    2016-07-01

    Behavioral and brain responses to stimuli not only depend on their physical features but also on the individuals' neurocognitive states before stimuli onsets. While the influence of pre-stimulus fluctuations in brain activity on low-level perceptive processes is well established, the state dependency of high-order executive processes remains unclear. Using a classical inhibitory control Go/NoGo task, we examined whether and how fluctuations in the brain activity during the period preceding the stimuli triggering inhibition influenced inhibitory control performance. Seventeen participants completed the Go/NoGo task while 64-channel electroencephalogram was recorded. We compared the event-related potentials preceding the onset of the NoGo stimuli associated with inhibition failures false alarms (FA) vs. successful inhibition correct rejections (CR) with data-driven statistical analyses of global measures of the topography and strength of the scalp electric field. Distributed electrical source estimations were used to localize the origin of the event-related potentials modulations. We observed differences in the global field power of the event-related potentials (FA > CR) without concomitant topographic modulations over the 40 ms period immediately preceding NoGo stimuli. This result indicates that the same brain networks were engaged in the two conditions, but more strongly before FA than CR. Source estimations revealed that this effect followed from a higher activity before FA than CR within bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the right inferior parietal lobule. These findings suggest that uncontrolled quantitative variations in pre-stimulus activity within attentional and control brain networks influence inhibition performance. The present data thereby demonstrate the state dependency of cognitive processes of up to high-order executive levels. PMID:27116703

  16. Bilingualism and inhibitory control influence statistical learning of novel word forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eBartolotti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of bilingual experience and inhibitory control on the ability to learn a novel language. Using a statistical learning paradigm, participants learned words in two novel languages that were based on the International Morse Code. First, participants listened to a continuous stream of words in a Morse code language to test their ability to segment words from continuous speech. Since Morse code does not overlap in form with natural languages, interference from known languages was low. Next, participants listened to another Morse code language composed of new words that conflicted with the first Morse code language. Interference in this second language was high due to conflict between languages and due to the presence of two colliding cues (compressed pauses between words and statistical regularities that competed to define word boundaries. Results suggest that bilingual experience can improve word learning when interference from other languages is low, while inhibitory control ability can improve word learning when interference from other languages is high. We conclude that the ability to extract novel words from continuous speech is a skill that is affected both by linguistic factors, such as bilingual experience, and by cognitive abilities, such as inhibitory control.

  17. Linking Impulsivity and Inhibitory Control Using Manual and Oculomotor Response Inhibition Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T.; Milich, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Separate cognitive processes govern the inhibitory control of manual and oculomotor movements. Despite this fundamental distinction, little is known about how these inhibitory control processes relate to more complex domains of behavioral functioning. This study sought to determine how these inhibitory control mechanisms relate to broadly defined domains of impulsive behavior. Thirty adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 28 comparison adults performed behavioral meas...

  18. Dysfunctional inhibitory control and impulsivity in Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Park, Su Mi; Roh, Myoung-Sun; Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Chan-Bin; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Gwak, Ah Reum; Jung, Hee Yeon

    2014-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to explore a psychological profile of Internet addiction (IA) considering impulsivity as a key personality trait and as a key component of neuropsychological functioning. Twenty three subjects with IA (Young's Internet Addiction Test scores=70 or more) and 24 sex-, age-, and intelligence-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Participants filled out a questionnaire about trait impulsivity, the Trait Characteristic Inventory, depression, and anxiety. Next, we administered traditional neuropsychological tests including the Stroop et al. and computerized neuropsychological tests using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. The IA group exhibited more trait impulsivity than the healthy control group. They also scored higher for novelty seeking and harm avoidance. The IA group performed more poorly than the healthy control group in a computerized stop signal test, a test for inhibitory function and impulsivity; no group differences appeared for other neuropsychological tests. The IA group also scored higher for depression and anxiety, and lower for self-directedness and cooperativeness. In conclusion, individuals with IA exhibited impulsivity as a core personality trait and in their neuropsychological functioning. PMID:24370334

  19. Inhibitory Control and Empathy-Related Personality Traits: Sex-Linked Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    We here report two studies exploring associations between inhibitory control (measured with the Sustained Attention to Response Task, SART) on the one hand, and self-reports of trait cooperativeness and empathy on the other. A coherent picture was obtained in women whose inhibitory control proficiency predicted higher scores on the Temperament and…

  20. The Role of Inhibitory Control in the Development of Human Figure Drawing in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Kevin J.; Jolley, Richard P.; Simpson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of inhibitory control in young children's human figure drawing. We used the Bear-Dragon task as a measure of inhibitory control and used the classification system devised by Cox and Parkin to measure the development of human figure drawing. We tested 50 children aged between 40 and 64 months. Regression analysis showed…

  1. Sex Differences in How Erotic and Painful Stimuli Impair Inhibitory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaxin; Hung, Daisy L.; Tseng, Philip; Tzeng, Ovid J. L.; Muggleton, Neil G.; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Witnessing emotional events such as arousal or pain may impair ongoing cognitive processes such as inhibitory control. We found that this may be true only half of the time. Erotic images and painful video clips were shown to men and women shortly before a stop signal task, which measures cognitive inhibitory control. These stimuli impaired…

  2. Multilingual Stroop Performance: Effects of Trilingualism and Proficiency on Inhibitory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Viorica; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Mizrahi, Elena; Kania, Ursula; Cordes, Anne-Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that multilinguals' languages are constantly co-activated and that experience managing this co-activation changes inhibitory control function. The present study examined language interaction and inhibitory control using a colour-word Stroop task. Multilingual participants were tested in their three most proficient…

  3. Genetic controls balancing excitatory and inhibitory synaptogenesis in neurodevelopmental disorder models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Gatto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper brain function requires stringent balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation during neural circuit assembly. Mutation of genes that normally sculpt and maintain this balance results in severe dysfunction, causing neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, epilepsy and Rett syndrome. Such mutations may result in defective architectural structuring of synaptic connections, molecular assembly of synapses and/or functional synaptogenesis. The affected genes often encode synaptic components directly, but also include regulators that secondarily mediate the synthesis or assembly of synaptic proteins. The prime example is Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the leading heritable cause of both intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. FXS results from loss of mRNA-binding FMRP, which regulates synaptic transcript trafficking, stability and translation in activity-dependent synaptogenesis and plasticity mechanisms. Genetic models of FXS exhibit striking excitatory and inhibitory synapse imbalance, associated with impaired cognitive and social interaction behaviors. Downstream of translation control, a number of specific synaptic proteins regulate excitatory versus inhibitory synaptogenesis, independently or combinatorially, and loss of these proteins is also linked to disrupted neurodevelopment. The current effort is to define the cascade of events linking transcription, translation and the role of specific synaptic proteins in the maintenance of excitatory versus inhibitory synapses during neural circuit formation. This focus includes mechanisms that fine-tune excitation and inhibition during the refinement of functional synaptic circuits, and later modulate this balance throughout life. The use of powerful new genetic models has begun to shed light on the mechanistic bases of excitation/inhibition imbalance for a range of neurodevelopmental disease states.

  4. Reward, Interrupted: Inhibitory Control and Its Relevance to Addictions

    OpenAIRE

    Jentsch, James David; Pennington, Zachary T.

    2013-01-01

    There are broad individual differences in the ability to voluntarily and effortfully suppress motivated, reward-seeking behaviors, and this review presents the hypothesis that these individual differences are relevant to addictive disorders. On one hand, cumulative experience with drug abuse appears to alter the molecular, cellular and circuit mechanisms that mediate inhibitory abilities, leading to increasingly uncontrolled patterns of drug-seeking and –taking. On the other, native inter-ind...

  5. Inhibitory Control in Bulimic-Type Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Mudan; Hartmann, Mechthild; Skunde, Mandy; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarise data from neuropsychological studies on inhibitory control to general and disease-salient (i.e., food/eating, body/shape) stimuli in bulimic-type eating disorders (EDs). A systematic literature search was conducted to identify eligible experimental studies. The outcome measures studied included the performance on established inhibitory control tasks in bulimic-type EDs. Effect sizes (Hedges' g) were pooled using random-effects models. For inhibit...

  6. Inhibitory control in bulimic-type eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudan Wu

    Full Text Available The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarise data from neuropsychological studies on inhibitory control to general and disease-salient (i.e., food/eating, body/shape stimuli in bulimic-type eating disorders (EDs. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify eligible experimental studies. The outcome measures studied included the performance on established inhibitory control tasks in bulimic-type EDs. Effect sizes (Hedges' g were pooled using random-effects models. For inhibitory control to general stimuli, 24 studies were included with a total of 563 bulimic-type ED patients: 439 had bulimia nervosa (BN, 42 had anorexia nervosa of the binge/purge subtype (AN-b, and 82 had binge eating disorder (BED. With respect to inhibitory control to disease-salient stimuli, 12 studies were included, representing a total of 218 BN patients. A meta-analysis of these studies showed decreased inhibitory control to general stimuli in bulimic-type EDs (g = -0.32. Subgroup analysis revealed impairments with a large effect in the AN-b group (g = -0.91, impairments with a small effect in the BN group (g = -0.26, and a non-significant effect in the BED group (g = -0.16. Greater impairments in inhibitory control were observed in BN patients when confronted with disease-salient stimuli (food/eating: g = -0.67; body/shape: g = -0.61. In conclusion, bulimic-type EDs showed impairments in inhibitory control to general stimuli with a small effect size. There was a significantly larger impairment in inhibitory control to disease salient stimuli observed in BN patients, constituting a medium effect size.

  7. Executive functions, impulsivity, and inhibitory control in adolescents: A structural equation model

    OpenAIRE

    Fino, Emanuele; Melogno, Sergio; Iliceto, Paolo; D’Aliesio, Sara; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Candilera, Gabriella; Sabatello, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Adolescence represents a critical period for brain development, addressed by neurodevelopmental models to frontal, subcortical-limbic, and striatal activation, a pattern associated with rise of impulsivity and deficits in inhibitory control. The present study aimed at studying the association between self-report measures of impulsivity and inhibitory control with executive function in adolescents, employing structural equation modeling. Method. Tests were administered to 434 high ...

  8. Aerobic fitness is associated with inhibitory control in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Hillman, Charles H; Motl, Robert W

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Aerobic fitness might be a target of exercise training interventions for improving cognition in this population. It is unknown if the well-established pattern of associations between higher aerobic fitness and better inhibitory control in the general population exists among persons with MS. The current cross-sectional study examined the effects of aerobic fitness (VO2peak) on inhibitory control, using a modified flanker task, in 28 persons with MS and 28 healthy controls matched by age, sex, and body mass index. This involved performing bivariate correlations and hierarchical linear regression analyses on measures of aerobic fitness and inhibitory control. Persons with MS demonstrated lower VO2peak (d = -0.45), slower (d = 0.62-0.84), and less accurate (d = -0.60 to 0.71) performance on the flanker task than controls. VO2peak was similarly associated with reaction time measures of inhibitory control in the MS and control samples (ρ = -0.40 to 0.54). VO2peak (p < .01), but not group (p ≥ .08) (MS vs. control), predicted reaction time on the flanker task, irrespective of age, sex, and education. This supports the development of aerobic exercise interventions for improving reaction time on tasks of inhibitory control in persons with MS, much like what has been successfully undertaken in the general population. PMID:25910783

  9. An Affect Control Theory of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…

  10. Early Adversity, RSA, and Inhibitory Control: Evidence of Children’s Neurobiological Sensitivity to Social Context

    OpenAIRE

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Teti, Douglas M.; Ammerman, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children’s inhibitory control. Children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent–child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children’s independently-assessed inhibitory con...

  11. False belief understanding and "cool" inhibitory control in 3-and 4-years-old Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellagamba, Francesca; Addessi, Elsa; Focaroli, Valentina; Pecora, Giulia; Maggiorelli, Valentina; Pace, Beatrice; Paglieri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    During preschool years, major developments occur in both executive function and theory of mind (ToM), and several studies have demonstrated a correlation between these processes. Research on the development of inhibitory control (IC) has distinguished between more cognitive, "cool" aspects of self-control, measured by conflict tasks, that require inhibiting an habitual response to generate an arbitrary one, and "hot," affective aspects, such as affective decision making, measured by delay tasks, that require inhibition of a prepotent response. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between 3- and 4-year-olds' performance on a task measuring false belief understanding, the most widely used index of ToM in preschoolers, and three tasks measuring cognitive versus affective aspects of IC. To this end, we tested 101 Italian preschool children in four tasks: (a) the Unexpected Content False Belief task, (b) the Conflict task (a simplified version of the Day-Night Stroop task), (c) the Delay task, and (d) the Delay Choice task. Children's receptive vocabulary was assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test. Children's performance in the False Belief task was significantly related only to performance in the Conflict task, controlling for vocabulary and age. Importantly, children's performance in the Conflict task did not significantly correlate with their performance in the Delay task or in the Delay Choice task, suggesting that these tasks measure different components of IC. The dissociation between the Conflict and the Delay tasks may indicate that monitoring and regulating a cool process (as flexible categorization) may involve different abilities than monitoring and regulating a hot process (not touching an available and highly attractive stimulus or choosing between a smaller immediate option and a larger delayed one). Moreover, our findings support the view that "cool" aspects of IC and ToM are interrelated, extending to an Italian sample of

  12. Folding of the anterior cingulate cortex partially explains inhibitory control during childhood: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Borst

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in cognitive control including inhibitory control (IC are related to the pathophysiology of several psychiatric conditions. In healthy subjects, IC efficiency in childhood is a strong predictor of academic and professional successes later in life. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is one of the core structures responsible for IC. Although quantitative structural characteristics of the ACC contribute to IC efficiency, the qualitative structural brain characteristics contributing to IC development are less-understood. Using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated whether the ACC sulcal pattern at age 5, a stable qualitative characteristic of the brain determined in utero, explains IC at age 9. 18 children performed Stroop tasks at age 5 and age 9. Children with asymmetrical ACC sulcal patterns (n = 7 had better IC efficiency at age 5 and age 9 than children with symmetrical ACC sulcal patterns (n = 11. The ACC sulcal patterns appear to affect specifically IC efficiency given that the ACC sulcal patterns had no effect on verbal working memory. Our study provides the first evidence that the ACC sulcal pattern – a qualitative structural characteristic of the brain not affected by maturation and learning after birth – partially explains IC efficiency during childhood.

  13. Executive functions, impulsivity, and inhibitory control in adolescents: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, Emanuele; Melogno, Sergio; Iliceto, Paolo; D'Aliesio, Sara; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Candilera, Gabriella; Sabatello, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Adolescence represents a critical period for brain development, addressed by neurodevelopmental models to frontal, subcortical-limbic, and striatal activation, a pattern associated with rise of impulsivity and deficits in inhibitory control. The present study aimed at studying the association between self-report measures of impulsivity and inhibitory control with executive function in adolescents, employing structural equation modeling. Method. Tests were administered to 434 high school students. Acting without thinking was measured through the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the Dickman Impulsivity Inventory, reward sensitivity through the Behavioral Activation System, and sensation seeking through the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personali- ty Questionnaire. Inhibitory control was assessed through the Behavioral Inhibition System. The performance at the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task indicated executive function. Three models were specified using Sample Covariance Matrix, and the estimated parameters using Maximum Likelihood. Results. In the final model, impulsivity and inhibitory control predicted executive function, but sensation seeking did not. The fit of the model to data was excellent. Conclusions. The hypothesis that inhibitory control and impulsivity are predictors of executive function was supported. Our results appear informative of the validity of self-report measures to examine the relation between impulsivity traits rather than others to regulatory function of cognition and behavior. PMID:25157298

  14. Altruistic sharing behavior in children: Role of theory of mind and inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Buyun; Huang, Zhelan; Xu, Guifeng; Jin, Yu; Chen, Yajun; Li, Xiuhong; Wang, Qingxiong; Song, Shanshan; Jing, Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess altruistic sharing behavior in children aged 3 to 5, 6 to 8, and 9 to 11 years and to explore the involvement of potential cognitive mechanisms, namely theory of mind (ToM) and inhibitory control. A total of 158 children completed a dictator game with stickers as incentives. ToM was evaluated using a false belief task in preschoolers and the Strange Story Test in school-age children. Inhibitory control was assessed in preschoolers with the Day-Night task and in older children with the Stroop Color-Word Test. The result was that 48.10% of children aged 3 to 5 years decided to share, and the percentage rose significantly with increasing age. The difference in altruism level in children who decided to share among the three age groups was nonsignificant. These results suggest that mechanisms underlying the decision to share or not and altruistic behavior may be different. No significant linear relations were found between cognitive processes (i.e., ToM and inhibitory control) and sharing behavior. Surprisingly, 9- to 11-year-olds who shared 3 of 10 stickers performed worse in inhibitory control than did those who shared any other number of stickers. In conclusion, the proportion of children who decided to share, but not the level of altruism, increased with age. ToM was not involved in altruistic sharing, whereas inhibitory control may play a role when deciding how much to share. PMID:26452508

  15. The Development of Automatic and Controlled Inhibitory Retrieval Processes in True and False Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Lauren M.; Howe, Mark L.; Wimmer, Marina C.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the role of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false memory development in children and adults. Experiment 1 incorporated a directed forgetting task to examine controlled retrieval inhibition. Experiments 2 and 3 used a part-set cue and retrieval practice task to examine…

  16. Imagined Positive Emotions and Inhibitory Control: The Differentiated Effect of Pride versus Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Maayan; Eyal, Tal; Meiran, Nachshon; Kessler, Yoav

    2010-01-01

    "Inhibitory control" is a cognitive mechanism that contributes to successful self-control (i.e., adherence to a long-term goal in the face of an interfering short-term goal). This research explored the effect of imagined positive emotional events on inhibition. The authors proposed that the influence of imagined emotions on inhibition depends on…

  17. Acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alberto Vieira Browne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods: Controlled, randomized study with crossover design. Twenty pubertal individuals underwent two 30-minute sessions: (1 aerobic exercise session performed between 65% and 75% of heart rate reserve, divided into 5 min of warm-up, 20 min at the target intensity and 5 min of cool down; and (2 control session watching a cartoon. Before and after the sessions, the computerized Stroop test-Testinpacs™ was applied to evaluate the inhibitory control. Reaction time (ms and errors (n were recorded. Results: The control session reaction time showed no significant difference. On the other hand, the reaction time of the exercise session decreased after the intervention (p<0.001. The number of errors made at the exercise session were lower than in the control session (p=0.011. Additionally, there was a positive association between reaction time (Δ of the exercise session and age (r2=0.404, p=0.003. Conclusions: Vigorous aerobic exercise seems to promote acute improvement in the inhibitory control in adolescents. The effect of exercise on the inhibitory control performance was associated with age, showing that it was reduced at older age ranges.

  18. Acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Fonteles, André Igor; de Moraes, José Fernando Vila Nova; Barros, Jônatas de França

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods: Controlled, randomized study with crossover design. Twenty pubertal individuals underwent two 30-minute sessions: (1) aerobic exercise session performed between 65% and 75% of heart rate reserve, divided into 5 min of warm-up, 20 min at the target intensity and 5 min of cool down; and (2) control session watching a cartoon. Before and after the sessions, the computerized Stroop test-Testinpacs™ was applied to evaluate the inhibitory control. Reaction time (ms) and errors (n) were recorded. Results: The control session reaction time showed no significant difference. On the other hand, the reaction time of the exercise session decreased after the intervention (pexercise session were lower than in the control session (p=0.011). Additionally, there was a positive association between reaction time (Δ) of the exercise session and age (r 2=0.404, p=0.003). Conclusions: Vigorous aerobic exercise seems to promote acute improvement in the inhibitory control in adolescents. The effect of exercise on the inhibitory control performance was associated with age, showing that it was reduced at older age ranges. PMID:26564328

  19. A systematic review of the relationship between eating, weight and inhibitory control using the stop signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Dalton, Bethan; O'Daly, Owen G; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Altered inhibitory control (response inhibition, reward-based inhibition, cognitive inhibition, reversal learning) has been implicated in eating disorders (EDs) and obesity. It is unclear, however, how different types of inhibitory control contribute to eating and weight-control behaviours. This review evaluates the relationship between one aspect of inhibitory control (a reactive component of motor response inhibition measured by the stop signal task) and eating/weight in clinical and non-clinical populations. Sixty-two studies from 58 journal articles were included. Restrained eaters had diminished reactive inhibitory control compared to unrestrained eaters, and showed greatest benefit to their eating behaviour from manipulations of inhibitory control. Obese individuals may show less reactive inhibitory control but only in the context of food-specific inhibition or after executive resources are depleted. Of the limited studies in EDs, the majority found no impairment in reactive inhibitory control, although findings are inconsistent. Thus, altered reactive inhibitory control is related to some maladaptive eating behaviours, and hence may provide a therapeutic target for behavioural manipulations and/or neuromodulation. However, other types of inhibitory control may also contribute. Methodological and theoretical considerations are discussed. PMID:26900651

  20. Effects of aversive odour presentation on inhibitory control in the Stroop colour-word interference task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nießen Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the unique neural projections of the olfactory system, odours have the ability to directly influence affective processes. Furthermore, it has been shown that emotional states can influence various non-emotional cognitive tasks, such as memory and planning. However, the link between emotional and cognitive processes is still not fully understood. The present study used the olfactory pathway to induce a negative emotional state in humans to investigate its effect on inhibitory control performance in a standard, single-trial manual Stroop colour-word interference task. An unpleasant (H2S and an emotionally neutral (Eugenol odorant were presented in two separate experimental runs, both in blocks alternating with ambient air, to 25 healthy volunteers, while they performed the cognitive task. Results Presentation of the unpleasant odorant reduced Stroop interference by reducing the reaction times for incongruent stimuli, while the presentation of the neutral odorant had no effect on task performance. Conclusions The odour-induced negative emotional state appears to facilitate cognitive processing in the task used in the present study, possibly by increasing the amount of cognitive control that is being exerted. This stands in contrast to other findings that showed impaired cognitive performance under odour-induced negative emotional states, but is consistent with models of mood-congruent processing.

  1. Acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Fonteles, André Igor; Moraes, José Fernando Vila Nova de; Barros, Jônatas de França

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods: Controlled, randomized study with crossover design. Twenty pubertal individuals underwent two 30-minute sessions: (1) aerobic exercise session performed between 65% and 75% of heart rate reserve, divided into 5 min of warm-up, 20 min at the target intensity and 5 min of cool down; and (2) control session watching a cartoon. Before and after the sessions, the computeri...

  2. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control evoked by tonic craniofacial pain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowman, Paul Fredrick; Wang, Kelun; Svensson, P;

    2011-01-01

    Tonic pain in one body segment can inhibit the perception of pain in another body segment. This phenomenon is mediated by diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), and its efficacy in craniofacial regions is investigated in this study. A compressive device that evoked a tonic, moderate/severe, ...

  3. A Longitudinal Investigation of Conflict and Delay Inhibitory Control in Toddlers and Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Amanda W.; Kraybill, Jessica H.; Chen, Nan; Cuevas, Kimberly; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: A total of 81 children participated in a longitudinal investigation of inhibitory control (IC) from 2 to 4 years of age. Child IC was measured via maternal report and laboratory measures under conditions of conflict and delay. Performance on delay IC tasks at 3 years was related to performance on these same tasks at 2 and…

  4. Inhibitory Control Mediates the Relationship between Depressed Mood and Overgeneral Memory Recall in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Filip; Verstraeten, Katrien; Bijttebier, Patricia; Vasey, Michael W.; Dalgleish, Tim

    2010-01-01

    It has been well established that depressed mood is related to overgeneral memory recall (OGM), which refers to a relative difficulty in retrieving specific information from one's autobiographical memory (AM). The present study examined whether OGM is also related to depressed mood in children and whether lack of inhibitory control mediates this…

  5. The Role of Inhibitory Control in Children's Cooperative Behaviors during a Structured Puzzle Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Burk, William J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of inhibitory control (measured by Stroop interference) in children's cooperative behaviors during a structured puzzle task. The sample consisted of 250 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (117 girls and 133 boys) attending classrooms in three primary schools in Northern Italy. Children individually completed an elaborated…

  6. Parental Perceptions of Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers: Inhibitory Control Moderates the Association with Negative Emotionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurland, Jill; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Smaling, Hanneke J. A.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control (IC) and negative emotionality (NE) are both linked to aggressive behavior, but their interplay has not yet been clarified. This study examines different NE × IC interaction models in relation to aggressive behavior in 855 preschoolers (aged 2-5 years) using parental questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that…

  7. Inhibitory Control in Mathematical Thinking, Learning and Problem Solving: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dooren, Wim; Inglis, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory control--the ability to ignore salient but unhelpful stimuli and responses--seems to be important for learning mathematics. For instance there is now robust evidence that performance on classic measures of inhibition, such as the Stroop Task, correlate with school-level mathematics achievement. At the same time, a great deal of…

  8. The Development of Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood: A Twin Study from 2-3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    Parent- and lab-based observer ratings were employed to examine genetic and environmental influences on continuity and change in inhibitory control (IC) in over 300 twin-pairs assessed longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age. Genetic influences accounted for approximately 60% of the variance in parent-rated IC at both ages. Although many of the…

  9. The Influence of Emotional Stimuli on Attention Orienting and Inhibitory Control in Pediatric Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C.; Hardin, Michael G.; Mogg, Karin; Benson, Valerie; Bradley, Brendan P.; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise; Liversedge, Simon P.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and are associated with aberrant emotion-related attention orienting and inhibitory control. While recent studies conducted with high-trait anxious adults have employed novel emotion-modified antisaccade tasks to examine the influence of emotional information on…

  10. The Contribution of Inhibitory Control to Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Brittany L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Domitrovich, Celene E.

    2009-01-01

    Social-emotional competence is a key developmental task during early childhood. This study examined concurrent relationships between maternal education and employment status, children's sex, ethnicity, age, receptive vocabulary, emotional knowledge, attention skills, inhibitory control and social-emotional competence in a sample of 146 preschool,…

  11. Theory of Mind, Inhibitory Control, and Preschool-Age Children's Suggestibility in Different Interviewing Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Matthew H.; Bonner, Karri

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the relations among 3- to 5-year-olds' theory of mind, inhibitory control, and three measures of suggestibility: yielding to suggestive questions (yield), shifting answers in response to negative feedback (shift), and accuracy in response to misleading questions during a pressured interview about a live event. Theory of…

  12. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls and nerve injury: restoring an imbalance between descending monoamine inhibitions and facilitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Kirsty; Patel, Ryan; Goncalves, Leonor; Townson, Louisa; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs) utilize descending inhibitory controls through poorly understood brain stem pathways. The human counterpart, conditioned pain modulation, is reduced in patients with neuropathy aligned with animal data showing a loss of descending inhibitory noradrenaline controls together with a gain of 5-HT3 receptor-mediated facilitations after neuropathy. We investigated the pharmacological basis of DNIC and whether it can be restored after neuropathy. Deep dorsal horn neurons were activated by von Frey filaments applied to the hind paw, and DNIC was induced by a pinch applied to the ear in isoflurane-anaesthetized animals. Spinal nerve ligation was the model of neuropathy. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control was present in control rats but abolished after neuropathy. α2 adrenoceptor mechanisms underlie DNIC because the antagonists, yohimbine and atipamezole, markedly attenuated this descending inhibition. We restored DNIC in spinal nerve ligated animals by blocking 5-HT3 descending facilitations with the antagonist ondansetron or by enhancing norepinephrine modulation through the use of reboxetine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, NRI) or tapentadol (μ-opioid receptor agonist and NRI). Additionally, ondansetron enhanced DNIC in normal animals. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls are reduced after peripheral nerve injury illustrating the central impact of neuropathy, leading to an imbalance in descending excitations and inhibitions. Underlying noradrenergic mechanisms explain the relationship between conditioned pain modulation and the use of tapentadol and duloxetine (a serotonin, NRI) in patients. We suggest that pharmacological strategies through manipulation of the monoamine system could be used to enhance DNIC in patients by blocking descending facilitations with ondansetron or enhancing norepinephrine inhibitions, so possibly reducing chronic pain. PMID:26010460

  13. Threat Interference Biases Predict Socially Anxious Behavior: The Role of Inhibitory Control and Minute of Stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-07-01

    The current study brings together two typically distinct lines of research. First, social anxiety is inconsistently associated with behavioral deficits in social performance, and the factors accounting for these deficits remain poorly understood. Second, research on selective processing of threat cues, termed cognitive biases, suggests these biases typically predict negative outcomes, but may sometimes be adaptive, depending on the context. Integrating these research areas, the current study examined whether conscious and/or unconscious threat interference biases (indexed by the unmasked and masked emotional Stroop) can explain unique variance, beyond self-reported anxiety measures, in behavioral avoidance and observer-rated anxious behavior during a public speaking task. Minute of speech and general inhibitory control (indexed by the color-word Stroop) were examined as within-subject and between-subject moderators, respectively. Highly socially anxious participants (N=135) completed the emotional and color-word Stroop blocks prior to completing a 4-minute videotaped speech task, which was later coded for anxious behaviors (e.g., speech dysfluency). Mixed-effects regression analyses revealed that general inhibitory control moderated the relationship between both conscious and unconscious threat interference bias and anxious behavior (though not avoidance), such that lower threat interference predicted higher levels of anxious behavior, but only among those with relatively weaker (versus stronger) inhibitory control. Minute of speech further moderated this relationship for unconscious (but not conscious) social-threat interference, such that lower social-threat interference predicted a steeper increase in anxious behaviors over the course of the speech (but only among those with weaker inhibitory control). Thus, both trait and state differences in inhibitory control resources may influence the behavioral impact of threat biases in social anxiety. PMID:26163713

  14. Cognitive and Affective Control in Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Erich Schmidt; Harvey, Allison G.; Martial eVan Der Linden

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent disabling chronic disorder. The aim of this paper is fourfold: (a) to review evidence suggesting that dysfunctional forms of cognitive control, such as thought suppression, worry, rumination, and imagery control, are associated with sleep disturbance; (b) to review a new budding field of scientific investigation – the role of dysfunctional affect control in sleep disturbance, such as problems with down-regulating negative and positive affective states; (c) to review ev...

  15. Sex differences in inhibitory control in socially-housed baboons (Papio papio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Gullstrand, Julie; Fagot, Joël

    2016-10-01

    Inhibitory control is an important component of executive function. An emerging literature in humans suggests that inhibitory control is sexually dimorphic and modulated by sex steroids, but evidence for such a link in nonhuman animals is scarce. In this study, we examined the effects of menstrual cycle and biological sex on response inhibition, as measured by a Stop-Signal task, in the baboon (Papio papio). The monkeys (n=13) were socially-housed, with voluntary access to multiple touchscreen computerized stations. The task required monkeys to inhibit prepotent responses (touching a target, "Go" trials) following the appearance of a visual stop signal on 25% of the trials ("Stop" trials). The cognitive data, consisting of computerized records of the monkeys' performance on the Stop-Signal task over a year of testing, were matched to records of female sexual swellings. Same-day menstrual and cognitive data were available for 5 females, aged 5-18 years. These data were compared to those of 8 males (5-14 years old) performing the Stop-Signal task over the same time period. Contrary to our hypothesis, performance on the task was not significantly affected by the phase (ovulatory vs. luteal) of the cycle in females. However, males were slower than females on Go trials and were less efficient in inhibiting responses on Stop trials. Slower responses in males were indicative of a speed-accuracy trade-off, as overall accuracy was also better in males than in females. Analyses of trial history indicated that males did not speed as much as females following a successful Go trial, but did not differ from females in post-error slowing or post-inhibiting responses. Overall, the data show that biological sex modulates Stop-Signal performance in the baboon, with males exhibiting slower response execution overall, less efficient inhibition, but greater accuracy than females. This pattern of sex differences may reflect motivational sex differences in which males emphasize accuracy

  16. Genetic Controls Balancing Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptogenesis in Neurodevelopmental Disorder Models

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Cheryl L.; Broadie, Kendal

    2010-01-01

    Proper brain function requires stringent balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation during neural circuit assembly. Mutation of genes that normally sculpt and maintain this balance results in severe dysfunction, causing neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, epilepsy and Rett syndrome. Such mutations may result in defective architectural structuring of synaptic connections, molecular assembly of synapses and/or functional synaptogenesis. The affected genes often encode syn...

  17. Genetic controls balancing excitatory and inhibitory synaptogenesis in neurodevelopmental disorder models

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Proper brain function requires stringent balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation during neural circuit assembly. Mutation of genes that normally sculpt and maintain this balance results in severe dysfunction, causing neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, epilepsy and Rett syndrome. Such mutations may result in defective architectural structuring of synaptic connections, molecular assembly of synapses and/or functional synaptogenesis. The affected genes often encode syn...

  18. Control of the reproductive axis: Balancing act between stimulatory and inhibitory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédécarrats, Grégoy Y

    2015-04-01

    As for most vertebrates, reproduction in poultry is controlled by an integrated axis [the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis]. External and internal cues are integrated at the level of the hypothalamus to initiate gonadal recruitment and control the subsequent reproductive cycle. Until recently, it was believed that the HPG was exclusively under stimulatory control from hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). However in 2000, the discovery of gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), an inhibitory peptide, changed this dogma. Since then, evidence accumulated to confirm that in fact the HPG is under a dual control system with a stimulatory and an inhibitory branch. In this paper, we review the organization of this dual control system, the mechanisms controlling the synthesis and release of GnRH and GnIH, and the possible integration and interactions between the two branches to regulate pituitary gonadotropes' function. Furthermore, as light perception and photoperiod are the primary cues utilized by the poultry industry in controlled environments, special consideration was given to potential practical applications. PMID:25638470

  19. Superior Inhibitory Control and Resistance to Mental Fatigue in Professional Road Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaspà, Paolo; Hennessey, Tom; Marcora, Samuele; Keegan, Richard; Thompson, Kevin G.; Martin, David; Halson, Shona; Rattray, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Given the important role of the brain in regulating endurance performance, this comparative study sought to determine whether professional road cyclists have superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue compared to recreational road cyclists. Methods After preliminary testing and familiarization, eleven professional and nine recreational road cyclists visited the lab on two occasions to complete a modified incongruent colour-word Stroop task (a cognitive task requiring inhibitory control) for 30 min (mental exertion condition), or an easy cognitive task for 10 min (control condition) in a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over order. After each cognitive task, participants completed a 20-min time trial on a cycle ergometer. During the time trial, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Results The professional cyclists completed more correct responses during the Stroop task than the recreational cyclists (705±68 vs 576±74, p = 0.001). During the time trial, the recreational cyclists produced a lower mean power output in the mental exertion condition compared to the control condition (216±33 vs 226±25 W, p = 0.014). There was no difference between conditions for the professional cyclists (323±42 vs 326±35 W, p = 0.502). Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and RPE were not significantly different between the mental exertion and control conditions in both groups. Conclusion The professional cyclists exhibited superior performance during the Stroop task which is indicative of stronger inhibitory control than the recreational cyclists. The professional cyclists also displayed a greater resistance to the negative effects of mental fatigue as demonstrated by no significant differences in perception of effort and time trial performance between the mental exertion and control conditions. These findings suggest that inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue may contribute to

  20. The development of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false recall

    OpenAIRE

    Knott, L.; Howe, M. L.; Wimmer, M. C.; Dewhurst, S

    2011-01-01

    In three experiments we investigated the role of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false memory development in children and adults. Experiment 1 incorporated a directed forgetting task to examine controlled retrieval inhibition. Experiments 2 and 3 utilized a part-set cue and retrieval practice task to examine automatic retrieval inhibition. In the first experiment, the forget cue had no effect on false recall for adults but reduced false recall for children....

  1. Inhibitory Control in Preschool Predicts Early Math Skills in First Grade: Evidence from an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Sze, Irene Nga-Lam

    2015-01-01

    Preschoolers' inhibitory control and early math skills were concurrently and longitudinally examined in 255 Chinese, African American, Dominican, and Mexican 4-year-olds in the United States. Inhibitory control at age 4, assessed with a peg-tapping task, was associated with early math skills at age 4 and predicted growth in such skills from…

  2. Activity Dependent Regulation of Inhibitory Circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition controls information flow through a neural circuit by modulating synaptic integration, restricting action potentials, and coordinating the activity of ensembles of neurons. These functions are mediated by a diverse array of inhibitory neuron subtypes that synapse on defined domains of a postsynaptic neuron. Activity-dependent transcription controls inhibitory synapse number and function, but how this transcription program affects the inhibitory inputs that form on di...

  3. Cognitive and affective control in insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Erich Schmidt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia is a prevalent disabling chronic disorder. The aim of this paper is fourfold: (a to review evidence suggesting that dysfunctional forms of cognitive control, such as thought suppression, worry, rumination, and imagery control, are associated with sleep disturbance; (b to review a new budding field of scientific investigation―the role of dysfunctional affect control in sleep disturbance, such as problems with down-regulating negative and positive affective states; (c to review evidence that sleep disturbance can impair next-day affect control; and (d to outline, on the basis of the reviewed evidence, how the repetitive-thought literature and the affective science literature can be combined to further understanding of, and intervention for, insomnia.

  4. P300 amplitude alterations during inhibitory control in persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío A; Knoefel, Frank; Lord, Courtney; Breau, Michael; Sweet, Lisa; Goubran, Rafik; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Deficits in executive function are highly noticeable in Alzheimer's disease, and recent behavioral studies have shown that such deficits - particularly during inhibitory control - can also be found in persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control in persons with MCI. A group of persons with MCI and a group healthy older adults performed a Go/NoGo task while electroencephalogram was recorded. Our results revealed that persons with MCI performed less accurately than healthy controls during the Go and NoGo conditions. In addition, we found reduced P300 amplitudes during Go and NoGo conditions relative to healthy older adults. Our results suggest that neurocognitive mechanisms associated with target detection and evaluation (Go P300) and response inhibition (NoGo P300) are compromised in persons with MCI. PMID:27270233

  5. Failing to forget: inhibitory-control deficits compromise memory suppression in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarino, Ana; Küpper, Charlotte S; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Dalgleish, Tim; Anderson, Michael C

    2015-05-01

    Most people have experienced distressing events that they would rather forget. Although memories of such events become less intrusive with time for the majority of people, those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are afflicted by vivid, recurrent memories of their trauma. Often triggered by reminders in the daily environment, these memories can cause severe distress and impairment. We propose that difficulties with intrusive memories in PTSD arise in part from a deficit in engaging inhibitory control to suppress episodic retrieval. We tested this hypothesis by adapting the think/no-think paradigm to investigate voluntary memory suppression of aversive scenes cued by naturalistic reminders. Retrieval suppression was compromised significantly in PTSD patients, compared with trauma-exposed control participants. Furthermore, patients with the largest deficits in suppression-induced forgetting were also those with the most severe PTSD symptoms. These results raise the possibility that prefrontal mechanisms supporting inhibitory control over memory are impaired in PTSD. PMID:25847536

  6. COCAINE SELF-ADMINISTRATION BEHAVIOR IN INBRED MOUSE LINES SEGREGATING DIFFERENT CAPACITIES FOR INHIBITORY CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, M. Catalina; Laughlin, Rick E.; Jentsch, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Various dimensions of impulsivity have been linked to substance abuse and dependence, both as consequences of, and as predisposing factors to addiction. With respect to the latter, they may be quantitative indicators of liability for substance use disorders (SUD) and aid in determining underlying genetic influences. We have previously determined that inhibitory control over impulsive responding, as measured by a reversal learning task, is heritable and under substantial genetic control, however their role as explaining variables for aspects of SUD have not been well explored. Objective The aim of this study was to test for an association between genetically-determined differences in inhibitory control and addiction-related phenotypes, such that phenotypes of poor inhibitory control would predict propensity for elevated operant drug-seeking and –taking behaviors. Methods Mice from BxD strains with either good reversal learning (GRL) or poor reversal learning (PRL) ability were tested for intravenous cocaine self-administration under FR1, FR2, and FR5 reinforcement schedules. Additionally, locomotor responses to experimenter-delivered cocaine were assessed. Results Compared to GRL strains, PRL strains acquired self-administration behavior more rapidly and administered cocaine at greater rates under all schedules of reinforcement, without any differences in discrimination index. In addition, PRL mice also exhibited increased responding during time-out periods. PRL strains also showed larger locomotor responses to 10 or 20 mg/kg injections of cocaine. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that heritable strain differences in inhibitory control do influence drug self-administration, thus suggest that genetically-driven impulsivity of this type may predispose susceptibility to drug abuse and addiction. PMID:23681162

  7. Inhibitory mechanisms of two Uncaria tomentosa extracts affecting the Wnt-signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrola-Díaz, Carmen Magdalena; García-López, Pedro Macedonio; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Pilarski, Radoslaw; Dihlmann, Susanne

    2011-06-15

    Uncaria tomentosa ("uña de gato"; "cat's claw"), a woody vine native to the Amazon rainforest, is commonly used in South American traditional medicine to treat a broad spectrum of diseases. Although recent studies have reported anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties of different alkaloids extracted from this plant, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects have not been elucidated yet. Our study investigates the inhibitory mechanisms of Uncaria tomentosa extracts on the Wnt-signaling pathway, a central regulator of development and tissue homoeostasis. A modified cell-based luciferase assay for screening inhibitors of the Wnt-pathway was used for analysis. Three cancer cell lines displaying different levels of aberrant Wnt-signaling activity were transfected with Wnt-signaling responsive Tcf-reporter plasmids and treated with increasing concentrations of two Uncaria tomentosa bark extracts. Wnt-signaling activity was assessed by luciferase activity and by expression of Wnt-responsive target genes. We show that both, an aqueous and an alkaloid-enriched extract specifically inhibit Wnt-signaling activity in HeLa, HCT116 and SW480 cancer cells resulting in reduced expression of the Wnt-target gene: c-Myc. The alkaloid-enriched extract (B/S(rt)) was found to be more effective than the aqueous extract (B/W(37)). The strongest effect was observed in SW480 cells, displaying the highest endogenous Wnt-signaling activity. Downregulation of Wnt-signaling by a dominant negative-TCF-4 variant in non-cancer cells rendered the cells insensitive towards treatment with B/S(rt). B/Srt was less toxic in non-cancer cells than in cancer cells. Our data suggest that the broad spectrum of pharmacological action of Uncaria tomentosa involves inhibition of the Wnt-signaling pathway, downstream of beta-Catenin activity. PMID:21156346

  8. Evidence for an inhibitory-control theory of the reasoning brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we first describe our general inhibitory-control theory and, then, we describe how we have tested its specific hypotheses on reasoning with brain imaging techniques in adults and children. The innovative part of this perspective lies in its attempt to come up with a brain-based synthesis of Jean Piaget's theory on logical algorithms and Daniel Kahneman's theory on intuitive heuristics. PMID:25852528

  9. Evidence for an inhibitory-control theory of the reasoning brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eHoudé

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we first describe our general inhibitory-control theory and, then, we describe how we have tested its specific hypotheses on reasoning with brain imaging techniques in adults and children. The innovative part of this perspective lies in its attempt to come up with a brain-based synthesis of Jean Piaget’s theory on logical algorithms and Daniel Kahneman’s theory on intuitive heuristics.

  10. Slitrks control excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation with LAR receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Yeong Shin; Kwon, Younghee; Nam, Jungyong; Yoon, Hong In; Lee, Kangduk; Kim, Dong Goo; Kim, Eunjoon; Kim, Chul Hoon; Ko, Jaewon

    2013-01-01

    The balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, which is governed by multiple synapse organizers, controls neural circuit functions and behaviors. Slit- and Trk-like proteins (Slitrks) are a family of synapse organizers, whose emerging synaptic roles are incompletely understood. Here, we report that Slitrks are enriched in postsynaptic densities in rat brains. Overexpression of Slitrks promoted synapse formation, whereas RNAi-mediated knockdown of Slitrks decreased synapse dens...

  11. Kindergarten children's attachment security, inhibitory control, and the internalization of rules of conduct

    OpenAIRE

    Heikamp, Tobias; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Druey, Michel D.; Hübner, Ronald; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Starting from research on relations between attachment and the development of self-regulation, the present study aimed to investigate research questions on relations among inhibitory control, internalization of rules of conduct (i.e., behavior regulation, concern occasioned by others transgressions, confession, reparation after wrongdoing), and attachment security. Attachment security and internalization of rules of conduct of German kindergarten children (N = 82) were assessed by maternal re...

  12. Kindergarten children’s attachment security, inhibitory control, and the internalization of rules of conduct

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias eHeikamp; Gisela eTrommsdorff; Michel Daniel Druey; Ronald eHübner; Antje evon Suchodoletz

    2013-01-01

    Starting from research on relations between attachment and the development of self-regulation, the present study aimed to investigate research questions on relations among inhibitory control, internalization of rules of conduct (i.e., behavior regulation, concern occasioned by others transgressions, confession, reparation after wrongdoing), and attachment security. Attachment security and internalization of rules of conduct of German kindergarten children (N = 82) were assessed by maternal re...

  13. Attention in patients with chronic schizophrenia: Deficit in inhibitory control and positive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia S. Galaverna; Carlos A. Morra; Adrián M. Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Attention is a central mechanism controlling information processing, activating and inhibiting processes, and forming a complex system including diferent networks in specific areas of the brain¹. To correctly assess the role of attention in schizophrenia it is necessary to discriminate its different attentional components, which may by selectively altered. Attention span, focused attention, selective attention, sustained attention and inhibitory response, were asses...

  14. Evidence for an inhibitory-control theory of the reasoning brain

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Houdé; Gregoire Borst

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we first describe our general inhibitory-control theory and, then, we describe how we have tested its specific hypotheses on reasoning with brain imaging techniques in adults and children. The innovative part of this perspective lies in its attempt to come up with a brain-based synthesis of Jean Piaget’s theory on logical algorithms and Daniel Kahneman’s theory on intuitive heuristics.

  15. Addiction, compulsive drug seeking, and the role of frontostriatal mechanisms in regulating inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Jodie; Sheppard, Dianne; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Yücel, Murat; Lubman, Dan I; Bradshaw, John L

    2010-11-01

    A principal feature of drug addiction is a reduced ability to regulate control over the desire to procure drugs regardless of the risks involved. Traditional models implicated the neural 'reward' system in providing a neurobiological model of addiction. Newer models however, have expanded on this circuitry to include two separate, but interconnecting systems, the limbic system in the incentive sensitization of drugs, and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in regulating inhibitory control over drug use. Until the recent developments in neuroimaging and brain stimulation techniques, it has been extremely difficult to assess the involvement of the PFC in addiction. In the current review, we explore the involvement of the frontostriatal circuitry in regulating inhibitory control, and suggest how dysregulation of these circuits could be involved in an increased difficulty in ceasing drug use. Following this, we investigate the recent neuropsychological, neuroimaging and brain stimulation studies that explore the presence of these inhibitory deficits, and frontostriatal dysfunctions, across various different substance groups. Further insight into these deficits could contribute to the development of treatment strategies which target these cognitive impairments, and frontostriatal dysfunction, in reducing drug-seeking behaviors. PMID:20223263

  16. Young children’s yes bias: How does it relate to verbal ability, inhibitory control, and theory of mind?

    OpenAIRE

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how young children reduce a yes bias, the tendency to answer ‘yes’ to yes-no questions. Specifically, we examined three possible factors: verbal ability, inhibitory control and theory of mind. Results revealed that verbal ability and inhibitory control were strongly associated with a yes bias even after controlling for age. Regression analyses revealed that these two factors significantly predicted a yes bias. Theory of mind was not significantl...

  17. Deficits in inhibitory control in smokers during a Go/Nogo task: An investigation using event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Luijten, Maartje; Littel, Marianne; Franken, Ingmar

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The role of inhibitory control in addictive behaviors is highlighted in several models of addictive behaviors. Although reduced inhibitory control has been observed in addictive behaviors, it is inconclusive whether this is evident in smokers. Furthermore, it has been proposed that drug abuse individuals with poor response inhibition may experience greater difficulties not consuming substances in the presence of drug cues. The major aim of the current study was to pr...

  18. The effects of inhibitory control training for preschoolers on reasoning ability and neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Zhu, Xinyi; Ziegler, Albert; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory control (including response inhibition and interference control) develops rapidly during the preschool period and is important for early cognitive development. This study aimed to determine the training and transfer effects on response inhibition in young children. Children in the training group (N = 20; 12 boys, mean age 4.87 ± 0.26 years) played "Fruit Ninja" on a tablet computer for 15 min/day, 4 days/week, for 3 weeks. Children in the active control group (N = 20; 10 boys, mean age 4.88 ± 0.20 years) played a coloring game on a tablet computer for 10 min/day, 1-2 days/week, for 3 weeks. Several cognitive tasks (involving inhibitory control, working memory, and fluid intelligence) were used to evaluate the transfer effects, and electroencephalography (EEG) was performed during a go/no-go task. Progress on the trained game was significant, while performance on a reasoning task (Raven's Progressive Matrices) revealed a trend-level improvement from pre- to post-test. EEG indicated that the N2 effect of the go/no-go task was enhanced after training for girls. This study is the first to show that pure response inhibition training can potentially improve reasoning ability. Furthermore, gender differences in the training-induced changes in neural activity were found in preschoolers. PMID:26395158

  19. Impaired diffuse noxious inhibitory controls in specific alternation of rhythm in temperature-stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itomi, Yasuo; Tsukimi, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Toru

    2016-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. A hypofunction in descending pain inhibitory systems is considered to be involved in the chronic pain of fibromyalgia. We examined functional changes in descending pain inhibitory systems in rats with specific alternation of rhythm in temperature (SART) stress, by measuring the strength of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC). Hindpaw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical von Frey filament or fiber-specific electrical stimuli by the Neurometer system were used to measure the pain response. To induce DNIC, capsaicin was injected into the intraplantar of the forepaw. SART-stressed rats were established by exposure to repeated cold stress for 4 days. In the control rats, heterotopic intraplantar capsaicin injection increased withdrawal threshold, indicative of analgesia by DNIC. The strength of DNIC was reduced by naloxone (μ-opioid receptor antagonist, intraperitoneally and intracerebroventricularly), yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, intrathecally), and WAY-100635 (5-HT1A receptor antagonist, intrathecally) in the von Frey test. In SART-stressed rats, capsaicin injection did not increase withdrawal threshold in the von Frey test, indicating deficits in DNIC. In the Neurometer test, deficient DNIC in SART-stressed rats were observed only for Aδ- and C-fibers, but not Aβ-fibers stimulation. Analgesic effect of intracerebroventricular morphine was markedly reduced in SART-stressed rats compared with the control rats. Taken together, in SART-stressed rats, capsaicin-induced DNIC were deficient, and a hypofunction of opioid-mediated central pain modulation system may cause the DNIC deficit. PMID:27178898

  20. Visuomotor integration and inhibitory control compensate for each other in school readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E; Brock, Laura L; Hatfield, Bridget E; Cottone, Elizabeth A; Rubinstein, Elise; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Grissmer, David W

    2015-11-01

    Visuomotor integration (VMI), or the ability to copy designs, and 2 measures of executive function were examined in a predominantly low-income, typically developing sample of children (n = 467, mean age 4.2 years) from 5 U.S. states. In regression models controlling for age and demographic variables, we tested the interaction between visuomotor integration (design copying) and inhibitory control (pencil-tap) or verbal working memory (digit span) on 4 directly assessed academic skills and teacher-reported approaches to learning. Compared with children with both poor visuomotor integration and low inhibitory control, those on the higher end of the continuum in at least 1 of these 2 skills performed better across several dependent variables. This compensatory pattern was evident for longitudinal improvement in print knowledge on the Test of Preschool Early Literacy (TOPEL), with similar though marginally significant findings for improvement in phonological awareness (TOPEL) and teacher-rated approaches to learning on the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS). Of note, the same compensatory pattern emerged for concurrently measured receptive vocabulary on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), expressive vocabulary on the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ), TOPEL phonological awareness, and teacher-rated approaches to learning. The consistent pattern of results suggests that strong visuomotor integration skills are an important part of school readiness, and merit further study. PMID:26436872

  1. Inhibitory Control in Pediatric Trichotillomania (Hair Pulling Disorder): The Importance of Controlling for Age and Symptoms of Inattention and Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Elle; Francazio, Sarah; Gunstad, John; Flessner, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder, HPD) is characterized by significant psychological distress, childhood-onset, and, in adults, certain cognitive deficits such as inhibitory control. A total absence of such literature exists within pediatric HPD samples, including research investigating neurocognitive aspects of disparate pulling-styles. The present study aims to address these gaps in the literature. Youth with HPD and healthy controls (N = 45) were compared on an automated neurocognitive task-stop-signal task (SST)-assessing inhibitory control. Youth with HPD (n = 17), controlling for age and attention issues, were found to perform better on the stop-signal reaction time compared to controls (n = 28). No significant relationships between performance on the SST and HPD severity, distress/impairment, or pulling-styles were noted. Findings from the current study suggest that children with HPD may not exhibit deficits in motor inhibition as compared to controls when the effects of age and attentional problems are controlled. PMID:26001984

  2. The effects of inhibitory control training for preschoolers on reasoning ability and neural activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qian; Zhu, Xinyi; Ziegler, Albert;

    2015-01-01

    in the training group (N = 20; 12 boys, mean age 4.87 ± 0.26 years) played “Fruit Ninja” on a tablet computer for 15 min/day, 4 days/week, for 3 weeks. Children in the active control group (N = 20; 10 boys, mean age 4.88 ± 0.20 years) played a coloring game on a tablet computer for 10 min/day, 1–2 days....../week, for 3 weeks. Several cognitive tasks (involving inhibitory control, working memory, and fluid intelligence) were used to evaluate the transfer effects, and electroencephalography (EEG) was performed during a go/no-go task. Progress on the trained game was significant, while performance on a reasoning...

  3. Assessment of attention and inhibitory control in rodent developmental neurotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Lori L; Strupp, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    In designing screens to assess potential neurotoxicants, the paramount goal is that the selected assessment tools detect dysfunction if it exists. This goal is particularly challenging in the case of cognitive assessments. Cognition is not a unitary phenomenon, and indeed there is growing evidence that different aspects of cognitive functioning are subserved by distinct neural systems. As a result, if a particular neurotoxicant selectively damages certain neural systems but not others, it can impair some cognitive, sensory, or affective functions, but leave many others intact. Accordingly, studies with human subjects use batteries of cognitive tests, cognizant of the fact that no one test is capable of detecting all forms of cognitive dysfunction. In contrast, assessment of cognitive functioning in non-human animal developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies typically consists of a single, presumably representative, "learning and memory" task that is expected to detect all potential effects on cognitive functioning. Streamlining the cognitive assessment in these studies saves time and money, but these shortcuts can have serious consequences if the aspect of cognitive functioning that is impaired is not tapped by the single selected task. In particular, executive functioning - a constellation of cognitive functions which enables the organism to focus on multiple streams of information simultaneously, and revise plans as necessary - is poorly assessed in most animal DNT studies. The failure to adequately assess these functions - which include attention, working memory, inhibitory control, and planning - is particularly worrisome in light of evidence that the neural systems that subserve these functions may be uniquely vulnerable to early developmental insults. We illustrate the importance of tapping these areas of functioning in DNT studies by describing the pattern of effects produced by early developmental Pb exposure. Rats exposed to lead (Pb) early in development

  4. The Current Status of Somatostatin-Interneurons in Inhibitory Control of Brain Function and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyltjens, Isabelle; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian neocortex contains many distinct inhibitory neuronal populations to balance excitatory neurotransmission. A correct excitation/inhibition equilibrium is crucial for normal brain development, functioning, and controlling lifelong cortical plasticity. Knowledge about how the inhibitory network contributes to brain plasticity however remains incomplete. Somatostatin- (SST-) interneurons constitute a large neocortical subpopulation of interneurons, next to parvalbumin- (PV-) and vasoactive intestinal peptide- (VIP-) interneurons. Unlike the extensively studied PV-interneurons, acknowledged as key components in guiding ocular dominance plasticity, the contribution of SST-interneurons is less understood. Nevertheless, SST-interneurons are ideally situated within cortical networks to integrate unimodal or cross-modal sensory information processing and therefore likely to be important mediators of experience-dependent plasticity. The lack of knowledge on SST-interneurons partially relates to the wide variety of distinct subpopulations present in the sensory neocortex. This review informs on those SST-subpopulations hitherto described based on anatomical, molecular, or electrophysiological characteristics and whose functional roles can be attributed based on specific cortical wiring patterns. A possible role for these subpopulations in experience-dependent plasticity will be discussed, emphasizing on learning-induced plasticity and on unimodal and cross-modal plasticity upon sensory loss. This knowledge will ultimately contribute to guide brain plasticity into well-defined directions to restore sensory function and promote lifelong learning. PMID:27403348

  5. Inhibitory Control and L2 Proficiency Modulate Bilingual Language Production: Evidence from Spontaneous Monologue and Dialogue Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IrinaPivneva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual language production requires that speakers recruit inhibitory control to optimally balance the activation of more than one linguistic system when they produce speech. Moreover, the amount of inhibitory control necessary to maintain an optimal balance is likely to vary across individuals as a function of second language (L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity, as well as the demands of a particular communicative situation. Here, we investigate how these factors relate to bilingual language production across monologue and dialogue spontaneous speech. In these tasks, forty-two English-French and French-English bilinguals produced spontaneous speech in their first language (L1 and their L2, with and without a conversational partner. Participants also completed a separate battery that assessed L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. The results showed that L2 vs. L1 production was generally more effortful, as was dialogue vs. monologue speech production although the clarity of what was produced was higher for dialogues vs. monologues. As well, language production effort significantly varied as a function of individual differences in L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. Taken together, the overall pattern of findings suggests that both increased L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity relate to efficient language production during spontaneous monologue and dialogue speech.

  6. Prefrontal cortical neuregulin-ErbB modulation of inhibitory control in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Maarten; Schetters, Dustin; Hoogeland, Myrthe; Spijker, Sabine; de Vries, Taco J; Pattij, Tommy

    2016-06-15

    Impulse control disturbances are key features of various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction, Parkinson disease and schizophrenia. Whereas over the last years accumulating evidence has highlighted monoaminergic modulation of the processes underlying impulse control, investigating novel mechanisms beyond monoamines may provide new intervention strategies to ameliorate impulse control disturbances. Recent work has associated the neuregulin (Nrg)-ErbB pathway with several neuropsychiatric diseases, as well as indicated its involvement in murine measures of impulse control. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this Nrg-ErbB signaling pathway also modulates impulsive action in rats. To this end, a group of rats was trained in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), an operant paradigm that provides measures of visuospatial attention and inhibitory control processes. Upon stable baseline performance, the ErbB tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor JNJ-28871063 (JNJ) was intracranially infused into the medioprefrontal cortex prior to test sessions. Results showed that JNJ dose-dependently improved measures of impulsive action. Importantly, other measures in the 5-CSRTT reflecting visuospatial attention or aspects of motivational behavior were not altered by JNJ. In conclusion, the present data strengthen a role for the Nrg-ErbB4 pathway in the prefrontal cortex in cognitive functioning, and in particular point towards involvement in the processes underlying impulse control. PMID:27079641

  7. Design of a cyclic inhibitory CPG controller for the locomotion of a snakelike robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhen-li; MA Shu-gen; LI Bin; WANG Yue-chao

    2006-01-01

    The rhythmic locomotion of a creature is a serf-excitation behavior of the CPG (central pattern generator),which makes it supremely adapted for environment.Based on this fact,firstly,a snake-like robot controller with cyclic inhibitory CPG model was designed,and then the stability of a single neuron,CPG model and the NON(neuron oscillator network) was analyzed.By implementing this control architecture to a simulator based on the mechanical dynamics of a real snake-like robot named Perambulator-I,we presented preliminary rules for parameter setting of the CPG controller to modulate the number of S shapes,the curve of the body shape,locomotion velocity,and the curve of the locomotion trajectory for serpentine locomotion.Moreover,we demonstrated that Perambulator-I can successfully exhibit serpentine locomotion by using the output of the proposed CPG controller.The results of this paper provide a realistic approach for designing an artificial CPG controller.

  8. Plasticity of Hippocampal Excitatory-Inhibitory Balance: Missing the Synaptic Control in the Epileptic Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonansco, Christian; Fuenzalida, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is the capacity generated by experience to modify the neural function and, thereby, adapt our behaviour. Long-term plasticity of glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission occurs in a concerted manner, finely adjusting the excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance. Imbalances of E/I function are related to several neurological diseases including epilepsy. Several evidences have demonstrated that astrocytes are able to control the synaptic plasticity, with astrocytes being active partners in synaptic physiology and E/I balance. Here, we revise molecular evidences showing the epileptic stage as an abnormal form of long-term brain plasticity and propose the possible participation of astrocytes to the abnormal increase of glutamatergic and decrease of GABAergic neurotransmission in epileptic networks. PMID:27006834

  9. Plasticity of Hippocampal Excitatory-Inhibitory Balance: Missing the Synaptic Control in the Epileptic Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bonansco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity is the capacity generated by experience to modify the neural function and, thereby, adapt our behaviour. Long-term plasticity of glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission occurs in a concerted manner, finely adjusting the excitatory-inhibitory (E/I balance. Imbalances of E/I function are related to several neurological diseases including epilepsy. Several evidences have demonstrated that astrocytes are able to control the synaptic plasticity, with astrocytes being active partners in synaptic physiology and E/I balance. Here, we revise molecular evidences showing the epileptic stage as an abnormal form of long-term brain plasticity and propose the possible participation of astrocytes to the abnormal increase of glutamatergic and decrease of GABAergic neurotransmission in epileptic networks.

  10. Not doing bad things is not equivalent to doing the right thing: distinguishing between inhibitory and initiatory self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ridder, D.T.D.; de Boer, Benjamin; Lugtig, P.J.; Bakker, A.B.; van Hooft, E.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a conceptual distinction between two components of self-control (inhibitory and initiatory self-control) is empirically valid. To that purpose, a series of confirmative factor analyses were employed in two samples (total N = 577), providing support for a distin

  11. Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Means of Inhibitory Control and "Theory of Mind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Eva; Bachmann, Christian; Goyert, Hannah; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are both associated with deficits in executive control and with problems in social contexts. This study analyses the variables inhibitory control and theory of mind (ToM), including a developmental aspect in the case of the latter, to differentiate between the…

  12. Inhibitory control of ascending glutamatergic projections to the lamprey respiratory rhythm generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Elenia; Mutolo, Donatella; Contini, Massimo; Pantaleo, Tito; Bongianni, Fulvia

    2016-06-21

    Neurons within the vagal motoneuron region of the lamprey have been shown to modulate respiratory activity via ascending excitatory projections to the paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG), the proposed respiratory rhythm generator. The present study was performed on in vitro brainstem preparations of the lamprey to provide a characterization of ascending projections within the whole respiratory motoneuron column with regard to the distribution of neurons projecting to the pTRG and related neurochemical markers. Injections of Neurobiotin were performed into the pTRG and the presence of glutamate, GABA and glycine immunoreactivity was investigated by double-labeling experiments. Interestingly, retrogradely labeled neurons were found not only in the vagal region, but also in the facial and glossopharyngeal motoneuron regions. They were also present within the sensory octavolateral area (OLA). The results show for the first time that neurons projecting to the pTRG are immunoreactive for glutamate, surrounded by GABA-immunoreactive structures and associated with the presence of glycinergic cells. Consistently, GABAA or glycine receptor blockade within the investigated regions increased the respiratory frequency. Furthermore, microinjections of agonists and antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors and of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol showed that OLA neurons do not contribute to respiratory rhythm generation. The results provide evidence that glutamatergic ascending pathways to the pTRG are subject to a potent inhibitory control and suggest that disinhibition is one important mechanism subserving their function. The general characteristics of inhibitory control involved in rhythmic activities, such as respiration, appear to be highly conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. PMID:27058146

  13. Sequential inhibitory control processes assessed through simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Sarah; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Plichta, Michael M; Rechtsteiner, Stefanie; Zangl, Maria; Ruf, Matthias; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker, Regina; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Holtmann, Martin; Laucht, Manfred; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Inhibitory response control has been extensively investigated in both electrophysiological (ERP) and hemodynamic (fMRI) studies. However, very few multimodal results address the coupling of these inhibition markers. In fMRI, response inhibition has been most consistently linked to activation of the anterior insula and inferior frontal cortex (IFC), often also the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). ERP work has established increased N2 and P3 amplitudes during NoGo compared to Go conditions in most studies. Previous simultaneous EEG-fMRI imaging reported association of the N2/P3 complex with activation of areas like the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) and anterior insula. In this study we investigated inhibitory control in 23 healthy young adults (mean age=24.7, n=17 for EEG during fMRI) using a combined Flanker/NoGo task during simultaneous EEG and fMRI recording. Separate fMRI and ERP analysis yielded higher activation in the anterior insula, IFG and ACC as well as increased N2 and P3 amplitudes during NoGo trials in accordance with the literature. Combined analysis modelling sequential N2 and P3 effects through joint parametric modulation revealed correlation of higher N2 amplitude with deactivation in parts of the default mode network (DMN) and the cingulate motor area (CMA) as well as correlation of higher central P3 amplitude with activation of the left anterior insula, IFG and posterior cingulate. The EEG-fMRI results resolve the localizations of these sequential activations. They suggest a general role for allocation of attentional resources and motor inhibition for N2 and link memory recollection and internal reflection to P3 amplitude, in addition to previously described response inhibition as reflected by the anterior insula. PMID:24473101

  14. Inhibitory control in bilinguals and musicians: event related potential (ERP evidence for experience-specific effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Moreno

    Full Text Available Bilinguals and musicians exhibit behavioral advantages on tasks with high demands on executive functioning, particularly inhibitory control, but the brain mechanisms supporting these differences are unclear. Of key interest is whether these forms of experience influence cognition through similar or distinct information processing mechanisms. Here, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs in three groups - bilinguals, musicians, and controls - who completed a visual go-nogo task that involved the withholding of key presses to rare targets. Participants in each group achieved similar accuracy rates and responses times but the analysis of cortical responses revealed significant differences in ERP waveforms. Success in withholding a prepotent response was associated with enhanced stimulus-locked N2 and P3 wave amplitude relative to go trials. For nogo trials, there were altered timing-specific ERP differences and graded amplitude differences observed in the neural responses across groups. Specifically, musicians showed an enhanced early P2 response accompanied by reduced N2 amplitude whereas bilinguals showed increased N2 amplitude coupled with an increased late positivity wave relative to controls. These findings demonstrate that bilingualism and music training have differential effects on the brain networks supporting executive control over behavior.

  15. Inhibitory control and the onset of combustible cigarette, e-cigarette, and hookah use in early adolescence: The moderating role of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the associations between inhibitory control and the onset of combustible cigarette, electronic (e-) cigarette, and hookah use in early adolescence. A total of 407 adolescents self-reported nicotine use, inhibitory control, and SES. The hypothesis that inhibitory control would be significantly associated with nicotine use onset (i.e., combustible cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and hookah) only under the condition of low SES was tested. Direct associations were found for inhibitory control on "ever use" of all three nicotine use variables. A moderating effect was also found whereby low inhibitory control was significantly associated with nicotine use onset when participants were from low, but not high, SES families. Findings illustrate one contextual condition under which inhibitory control is associated with early onset of nicotine use. PMID:26095200

  16. Resting state functional connectivity correlates of inhibitory control in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Mennes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor inhibition is among the most commonly studied executive functions in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Imaging studies using probes of motor inhibition such as the Stop Signal Task (SST consistently demonstrate ADHD-related dysfunction within a right-hemisphere fronto-striatal network that includes inferior frontal gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA. Beyond findings of focal hypo- or hyper-function, emerging models of ADHD psychopathology highlight disease-related changes in functional interactions between network components. Resting state fMRI (R-fMRI approaches have emerged as powerful tools for mapping such interactions (i.e., resting state functional connectivity, RSFC, and for relating behavioral and diagnostic variables to network properties. We used R-fMRI data collected from 17 typically developing controls (TDC and 17 age-matched children with ADHD (aged 8-13 years to identify neural correlates of SST performance measured outside the scanner. We examined two related inhibition indices: stop signal reaction time (SSRT, indexing inhibitory speed, and stop signal delay (SSD, indexing inhibitory success. Using 11 fronto-striatal seed regions-of-interest, we queried the brain for relationships between RSFC and each performance index, as well as for interactions with diagnostic status. Both SSRT and SSD exhibited connectivity-behavior relationships independent of diagnosis. At the same time, we found differential connectivity-behavior relationships in children with ADHD relative to TDC. Our results demonstrate the utility of RSFC approaches for assessing brain/behavior relationships, and for identifying pathology-related differences in the contributions of neural circuits to cognition and behavior.

  17. Hyaluronan Does Not Affect Bupivacaine’s Inhibitory Action on Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Activities in Bovine Articular Chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    William Hester; Jinnan Yang; Guo-Yong Wang; Sen Liu; Michael J O'Brien; Savoie, Felix H.; Zongbing You

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this paper is to determine if hyaluronan affects bupivacaine's anesthetic function. Methods. Whole cell patch clamp recordings were performed on bovine articular chondrocytes cultured in 60 mm dishes. The chondrocytes were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (control group), 7.5 mg/mL hyaluronan (Orthovisc), 0.25% bupivacaine, or a mixture of 7.5 mg/mL hyaluronan and 0.25% bupivacaine. Outward currents were elicited by step depolarization from −90 mV to 150 mV ...

  18. Brief Report: The Go/No-Go Task Online: Inhibitory Control Deficits in Autism in a Large Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzefovsky, F.; Allison, C.; Smith, P.; Baron-Cohen, S.

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC, also referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders) entail difficulties with inhibition: inhibiting action, inhibiting one's own point of view, and inhibiting distractions that may interfere with a response set. However, the association between inhibitory control (IC) and ASC, especially in adulthood, is unclear. The…

  19. Inhibitory Control as a Core Process of Creative Problem Solving and Idea Generation from Childhood to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassotti, Mathieu; Agogué, Marine; Camarda, Anaëlle; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience studies tend to show that the prefrontal brain regions (known to be involved in inhibitory control) are activated during the generation of creative ideas. In the present article, we discuss how a dual-process model of creativity--much like the ones proposed to account for decision making and reasoning--could…

  20. Task-Related Default Mode Network Modulation and Inhibitory Control in ADHD: Effects of Motivation and Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Hollis, Chris; Batty, Martin J.; Groom, Madeleine J.; Totman, John J.; Liotti, Mario; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including poor attention and inhibitory control, are at least partially alleviated by factors that increase engagement of attention, suggesting a hypodopaminergic reward deficit. Lapses of attention are associated with attenuated deactivation of the default…

  1. Executive Functions and Inhibitory Control in Multilingual Children: Evidence from Second-Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German…

  2. Controlled versus Automatic Processes: Which Is Dominant to Safety? The Moderating Effect of Inhibitory Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yaoshan Xu; Yongjuan Li; Weidong Ding; Fan Lu

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study...

  3. An inhibitory pathway controlling the gating mechanism of the mouse lateral amygdala revealed by voltage-sensitive dye imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Tomomi; Koganezawa, Noriko; Ide, Yoshinori; Shirao, Tomoaki; Sekino, Yuko

    2015-03-17

    The lateral amygdala nucleus (La) is known as a gateway for emotional learning that interfaces sensory inputs from the cortex and the thalamus. In the La, inhibitory GABAergic inputs control the strength of sensory inputs and interfere with the initial step of the acquisition of fear memory. In the present study, we investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of the inhibitory responses in mouse La using voltage-sensitive dye imaging. Stimulating the external capsule (EC) induced large and long-lasting hyperpolarizing signals in the La. We focused on these hyperpolarizing signals, revealing the origins of the inhibitory inputs by means of surgical cuts on the possible afferent pathways with four patterns. Isolating the medial branch of EC (ECmed), but not the lateral branch of EC (EClat), from the La strongly suppressed the induction of the hyperpolarization. Interestingly, isolating the ECmed from the caudate putamen did not suppress the hyperpolarization, while the surgical cut of the ECmed fiber tract moderately suppressed it. Glutamatergic antagonists completely suppressed the hyperpolarizing signals induced by the stimulation of EC. When directly stimulating the dorsal, middle or ventral part of the ECmed fiber tract in the presence of glutamatergic antagonists, only the stimulation in the middle part of the ECmed caused hyperpolarization. These data indicate that the GABAergic neurons in the medial intercalated cluster (m-ITC), which receive glutamatergic excitatory input from the ECmed fiber tract, send inhibitory afferents to the La. This pathway might have inhibitory effects on the acquisition of fear memory. PMID:25646995

  4. How positive affect modulates cognitive control: New insights into the specificity of positive affect effects

    OpenAIRE

    Fröber, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that positive affect modulates cognitive control by increasing cognitive flexibility. The present thesis is aimed to shed further light on this relationship between positive affect and cognitive control by investigating possible influences of arousal (Part I), dissociating between proactive and reactive control (Part II), and testing an increased novelty bias under positive affect (Part III). Arousal differences between positive affective states were manipulate...

  5. Inhibitory control as a moderator of threat-related interference biases in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-01-01

    Prior findings are mixed regarding the presence and direction of threat-related interference biases in social anxiety. The current study examined general inhibitory control (IC), measured by the classic colour-word Stroop, as a moderator of the relationship between both threat interference biases [indexed by the emotional Stroop (e-Stroop)] and several social anxiety indicators. High socially anxious undergraduate students (N = 159) completed the emotional and colour-word Stroop tasks, followed by an anxiety-inducing speech task. Participants completed measures of trait social anxiety, state anxiety before and during the speech, negative task-interfering cognitions during the speech and overall self-evaluation of speech performance. Speech duration was used to measure behavioural avoidance. In line with hypotheses, IC moderated the relationship between e-Stroop bias and every anxiety indicator (with the exception of behavioural avoidance), such that greater social-threat interference was associated with higher anxiety among those with weak IC, whereas lesser social-threat interference was associated with higher anxiety among those with strong IC. Implications for the theory and treatment of threat interference biases in socially anxious individuals are discussed. PMID:24967719

  6. Measuring inhibitory control in children and adults: brain imaging and mental chronometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Jean Piaget underestimated the cognitive capabilities of infants, preschoolers, and elementary schoolchildren, and overestimated the capabilities of adolescents and even adults which are often biased by illogical intuitions and overlearned strategies (i.e., "fast thinking" in Daniel Kahneman's words). The crucial question is now to understand why, despite rich precocious knowledge about physical and mathematical principles observed over the last three decades in infants and young children, older children, adolescents and even adults are nevertheless so often bad reasoners. We propose that inhibition of less sophisticated solutions (or heuristics) by the prefrontal cortex is a domain-general executive ability that supports children's conceptual insights associated with more advanced Piagetian stages, such as number-conservation and class inclusion. Moreover, this executive ability remains critical throughout the whole life and even adults may sometimes need "prefrontal pedagogy" in order to learn inhibiting intuitive heuristics (or biases) in deductive reasoning tasks. Here we highlight some of the discoveries from our lab in the field of cognitive development relying on two methodologies used for measuring inhibitory control: brain imaging and mental chronometry (i.e., the negative priming paradigm). We also show that this new approach opens an avenue for re-examining persistent errors in standard classroom-learning tasks. PMID:24994993

  7. Measuring inhibitory control in children and adults: brain imaging and mental chronometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eHoudé

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jean Piaget underestimated the cognitive capabilities of infants, preschoolers, and elementary schoolchildren, and overestimated the capabilities of adolescents and even adults which are often biased by illogical intuitions and overlearned strategies (i.e., fast thinking in Daniel Kahneman’s words. The crucial question is now to understand why, despite rich precocious knowledge about physical and mathematical principles observed over the last three decades in infants and young children, older children, adolescents and even adults are nevertheless so often bad reasoners. We propose that inhibition of less sophisticated solutions (or heuristics by the prefrontal cortex is a domain-general executive ability that supports children’s conceptual insights associated with more advanced Piagetian stages, such as number conservation and class inclusion. Moreover, this executive ability remains critical throughout the whole life and even adults may sometimes need prefrontal pedagogy in order to learn inhibiting intuitive heuristics (or biases in deductive reasoning tasks. Here we highlight some of the discoveries from our lab in the field of cognitive development relying on two methodologies used for measuring inhibitory control: brain imaging and mental chronometry (i.e., the negative-priming paradigm. We also show that this new approach opens an avenue for re-examining persistent errors in standard classroom-learning tasks.

  8. Gender-related Differences in Inhibitory Control and Sustained Attention among Adolescents with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banz, Barbara C; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence and prenatal cocaine exposure can impact risk-taking. In this study, we evaluated risk-taking and gender-related differences in adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure in terms of electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control and sustained attention. No differences related to gender were found within measures of risk-taking, or electrophysiological response relating to risk-taking. Greater responses during inhibition versus attention trials support previous studies, with boys showing the largest responses. Gender-related differences were found when comparing the trials before and after frustration was induced, with greater initial attention indices for girls in both trial types and greater sustained attention for both genders during inhibition trials and for boys during attention trials. These data suggest neural correlates of response inhibition show important gender-related differences in this population. Considering these relationships allows us to further understand underlying processes among adolescents who, as a group, tend to be more inclined toward greater risk behaviors. PMID:27354841

  9. Inhibitory Control and Harsh Discipline as Predictors of Externalizing Problems in Young Children: A Comparative Study of U.S., Chinese, and Japanese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sheryl L.; Tardif, Twila Z.; Miller, Alison; Felt, Barbara; Grabell, Adam S.; Kessler, Daniel; Wang, Li; Karasawa, Mayumi; Hirabayashi, Hidemi

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations between child inhibitory control, harsh parental discipline and externalizing problems in 120 4 year-old boys and girls in the US, China, and Japan. Individual differences in children's inhibitory control abilities, assessed using behavioral tasks and maternal ratings, were related to child externalizing problems reported…

  10. Inhibitory behavioral control: A stochastic dynamic causal modeling study comparing cocaine dependent subjects and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangsuo Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine dependence is associated with increased impulsivity in humans. Both cocaine dependence and impulsive behavior are under the regulatory control of cortico-striatal networks. One behavioral laboratory measure of impulsivity is response inhibition (ability to withhold a prepotent response in which altered patterns of regional brain activation during executive tasks in service of normal performance are frequently found in cocaine dependent (CD subjects studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, little is known about aberrations in specific directional neuronal connectivity in CD subjects. The present study employed fMRI-based dynamic causal modeling (DCM to study the effective (directional neuronal connectivity associated with response inhibition in CD subjects, elicited under performance of a Go/NoGo task with two levels of NoGo difficulty (Easy and Hard. The performance on the Go/NoGo task was not significantly different between CD subjects and controls. The DCM analysis revealed that prefrontal–striatal connectivity was modulated (influenced during the NoGo conditions for both groups. The effective connectivity from left (L anterior cingulate cortex (ACC to L caudate was similarly modulated during the Easy NoGo condition for both groups. During the Hard NoGo condition in controls, the effective connectivity from right (R dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to L caudate became more positive, and the effective connectivity from R ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC to L caudate became more negative. In CD subjects, the effective connectivity from L ACC to L caudate became more negative during the Hard NoGo conditions. These results indicate that during Hard NoGo trials in CD subjects, the ACC rather than DLPFC or VLPFC influenced caudate during response inhibition.

  11. The Role of Inhibitory G Proteins and Regulators of G Protein Signaling in the in vivo Control of Heart Rate and Predisposition to Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Richard; Opel, Aaisha; Tinker, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory heterotrimeric G proteins and the control of heart rate. The activation of cell signaling pathways involving inhibitory heterotrimeric G proteins acts to slow the heart rate via modulation of ion channels. A large number of Regulators of G protein signalings (RGSs) can act as GTPase accelerating proteins to inhibitory G proteins and thus it is important to understand the network of RGS\\G-protein interaction. We will review our recent findings on in vivo heart rate control in mice with global genetic deletion of various inhibitory G protein alpha subunits. We will discuss potential central and peripheral contributions to the phenotype and the controversies in the literature. PMID:22783193

  12. The effect of aging on fronto-striatal reactive and proactive inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleerekooper, Iris; van Rooij, Sanne J H; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; de Leeuw, Max; Kahn, Rene S; Vink, Matthijs

    2016-05-15

    Inhibitory control, like most cognitive processes, is subject to an age-related decline. The effect of age on neurofunctional inhibition processing remains uncertain, with age-related increases as well as decreases in activation being reported. This is possibly because reactive (i.e., outright stopping) and proactive inhibition (i.e., anticipation of stopping) have not been evaluated separately. Here, we investigate the effects of aging on reactive as well as proactive inhibition, using functional MRI in 73 healthy subjects aged 30-70years. We found reactive inhibition to slow down with advancing age, which was paralleled by increased activation in the motor cortex. Behaviorally, older adults did not exercise increased proactive inhibition strategies compared to younger adults. However, the pattern of activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) showed a clear age-effect on proactive inhibition: rather than flexibly engaging the rIFG in response to varying stop-signal probabilities, older subjects showed an overall hyperactivation. Whole-brain analyses revealed similar hyperactivations in various other frontal and parietal brain regions. These results are in line with the neural compensation hypothesis of aging: processing becomes less flexible and efficient with advancing age, which is compensated for by overall enhanced activation. Moreover, by disentangling reactive and proactive inhibition, we can show for the first time that the age-related increase in activation during inhibition that is reported generally by prior studies may be the result of compensation for reduced neural flexibility related to proactive control strategies. PMID:26899783

  13. Reciprocal inhibitory coupling: Measure and control of chaos on a biophysically motivated model of bursting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno

    2009-06-01

    Bursting activity is an interesting feature of the temporal organization in many cell firing patterns. This complex behavior is characterized by clusters of spikes (action potentials) interspersed with phases of quiescence. As shown in experimental recordings, concerning the electrical activity of real neurons, the analysis of bursting models reveals not only patterned periodic activity but also irregular behavior 1,2]. The interpretation of experimental results, particularly the study of the influence of coupling on chaotic bursting oscillations, is of great interest from physiological and physical perspectives. The inability to predict the behavior of dynamical systems in presence of chaos suggests the application of chaos control methods, when we are more interested in obtaining regular behavior. In the present article, we focus our attention on a specific class of biophysically motivated maps, proposed in the literature to describe the chaotic activity of spiking-bursting cells [Cazelles B, Courbage M, Rabinovich M. Anti-phase regularization of coupled chaotic maps modelling bursting neurons. Europhys Lett 2001;56:504-9]. More precisely, we study a map that reproduces the behavior of a single cell and a map used to examine the role of reciprocal inhibitory coupling, specially on two symmetrically coupled bursting neurons. Firstly, using results of symbolic dynamics, we characterize the topological entropy associated to the maps, which allows us to quantify and to distinguish different chaotic regimes. In particular, we exhibit numerical results about the effect of the coupling strength on the variation of the topological entropy. Finally, we show that complicated behavior arising from the chaotic coupled maps can be controlled, without changing of its original properties, and turned into a desired attracting time periodic motion (a regular cycle). The control is illustrated by an application of a feedback control technique developed by Romeiras et al. [Romeiras

  14. How Does Control Timing Affect Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Cervin, Anton; Henriksson, Dan; Lincoln, Bo; Eker, Johan; Årzén, Karl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    The article presents two Matlab-based tools for analysis andsimulation of real-time control systems: Jitterbug andTrueTime.Jitterbug allows the user to compute aquadratic performance criterion for a linear control system undervarious timing conditions. The control system is described using anumber of continuous- and discrete-time linear systems. Astochastic timing model with random delays is used to describe theexecution of the system. The tool can also be used to investigateaperiodic control...

  15. Cognitive Inhibitory Control and Arithmetic Word Problem Solving in Children with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigem Sabagh-Sabbagh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 30 subjects, 10 with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD and 20 non-ADHD children, statistically controlled byage, gender, academic grades and normal full scale intelligence quotient,was selected. To measure cognitive inhibitory control, a math problem solving ability test containing four problems for each level with verbal and numerical irrelevant content was administered. ADHD children exhibited significantly inferior performance in choosing correct answers (p = 0.011 with a large effect size (d = 1.00 and a significantly superior number of irrelevant answers (p = 0.004 with a very large effect size. In conclusion ADHD children showed a cognitive inhibitory control disorder, measured by math problem solving ability.

  16. Being watched by others eliminates the effect of emotional arousal on inhibitory control

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jiaxin; Tseng, Philip; Muggleton, Neil G.; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2015-01-01

    The psychological effect of being watched by others has been proven a powerful tool in modulating social behaviors (e.g., charitable giving) and altering cognitive performance (e.g., visual search). Here we tested whether such awareness would affect one of the core elements of human cognition: emotional processing and impulse control. Using an emotion stop-signal paradigm, we found that viewing emotionally-arousing erotic images before attempting to inhibit a motor response impaired participa...

  17. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domazet, Sidsel L; Tarp, Jakob; Huang, Tao;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. METHODS: The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade...... students (12-14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical...... level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. RESULTS: Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative...

  18. General Deficit in Inhibitory Control of Excessive Smartphone Users: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwei; Liang, Yunsi; Mai, Chunmiao; Zhong, Xiyun; Qu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral, and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology [event-related potentials (ERPs)] to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use. PMID:27148120

  19. General deficit in inhibitory control of excessive smartphone users: Evidence from an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei eChen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral and smartphone-related, the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology (event-related potentials, ERPs to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use.

  20. General Deficit in Inhibitory Control of Excessive Smartphone Users: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwei; Liang, Yunsi; Mai, Chunmiao; Zhong, Xiyun; Qu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral, and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology [event-related potentials (ERPs)] to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use. PMID:27148120

  1. Inhibitory control, word retrieval and bilingual aphasia: is there a relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah

    2014-04-01

    Responses to incongruent trials were slower than congruent for linguistic (F(1,126.3=44.9, p.05. While confrontation naming and category fluency were highly correlated (r=.77, p<.001, correlations between linguistic and non-linguistic inhibition and between word retrieval and linguistic/non-linguistic inhibition were non-significant. This large group study poses challenges to theories of bilingual advantage and the role of non-lexical inhibitory measures in word retrieval in PWA.

  2. Serotoninergic Control of Glycinergic Inhibitory Postsynaptic Currents in Rat Hypoglossal Motoneurons

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt, John K.; Silveira, Valentina; Morales, Francisco R.; Pose, Ines; Chase, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the frequency potentiation of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in hypoglossal motoneurons and its modulation by serotonin. A release-site model of synaptic plasticity was used to characterize the frequency-related potentiation of evoked IPSCs. Data were obtained to determine if the frequency of potentiation of IPSCs occurs as a consequence of a low baseline quantal content of evoked IPSCs using whole cell patch-clamp recordings from hypog...

  3. The brain under self-control: modulation of inhibitory and monitoring cortical networks during hypnotic paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cojan, Yann; Waber, Lakshmi; Schwartz, Sophie; Rossier, Laurent; Forster, Alain; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Brain mechanisms of hypnosis are poorly known. Cognitive accounts proposed that executive attentional systems may cause selective inhibition or disconnection of some mental operations. To assess motor and inhibitory brain circuits during hypnotic paralysis, we designed a go-nogo task while volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in three conditions: normal state, hypnotic left-hand paralysis, and feigned paralysis. Preparatory activation arose in right motor cortex d...

  4. TNF-α affects human cortical neural progenitor cell differentiation through the autocrine secretion of leukemia inhibitory factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqian Lan

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α is a crucial effector of immune responses in the brain that participates in the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that TNF-α negatively regulates embryonic and adult neurogenesis. However, the effect of TNF-α on cell fate decision in human neural progenitor cells (NPCs has rarely been studied. Our previous studies have shown that recombinant TNF-α enhances astrogliogenesis and inhibits neurogenesis of human NPCs through the STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway. In the current study, we further elucidated the specific mechanism involved in TNF-α-induced astrogliogenesis. We found that TNF-α activated STAT3 at delayed time points (6 h and 24 h, whereas conditioned medium collected from TNF-α-treated NPCs induced an immediate STAT3 activation. These data suggest TNF-α plays an indirect role on STAT3 activation and the subsequent NPC differentiation. Further, we showed that TNF-α induced abundant amounts of the IL-6 family cytokines, including Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF and Interleukin 6 (IL-6, in human NPCs. TNF-α-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and astrogliogenesis were abrogated by the addition of neutralizing antibody for LIF, but not for IL-6, revealing a critical role of autocrine secretion of LIF in TNF-α-induced STAT3 activation and astrogliogenesis. This study generates important data elucidating the role of TNF-α in neurogenesis and may provide insight into new therapeutic strategies for brain inflammation.

  5. Alcohol use disorder with and without stimulant use: brain morphometry and its associations with cigarette smoking, cognition, and inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Pennington

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC as well as light drinking controls (CON, the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU, and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control.All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control.PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON.Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further elucidation of these distinctive

  6. Deficits in Inhibitory Control in Smokers During a Go/NoGo Task: An Investigation Using Event-Related Brain Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The role of inhibitory control in addictive behaviors is highlighted in several models of addictive behaviors. Although reduced inhibitory control has been observed in addictive behaviors, it is inconclusive whether this is evident in smokers. Furthermore, it has been proposed that drug abuse individuals with poor response inhibition may experience greater difficulties not consuming substances in the presence of drug cues. The major aim of the current study was to provide electro...

  7. Deficits in Inhibitory Control in Smokers During a Go/NoGo Task: An Investigation Using Event-Related Brain Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Luijten, M.; Littel, M.; Franken, I.H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The role of inhibitory control in addictive behaviors is highlighted in several models of addictive behaviors. Although reduced inhibitory control has been observed in addictive behaviors, it is inconclusive whether this is evident in smokers. Furthermore, it has been proposed that drug abuse individuals with poor response inhibition may experience greater difficulties not consuming substances in the presence of drug cues. The major aim of the current study was to provide electr...

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury and Secondary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents: The Effect of Reward on Inhibitory Control

    OpenAIRE

    Sinopoli, Katia J.; Schachar, Russell; Dennis, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Poor inhibitory control and abnormalities in responding to rewards are characteristic of the developmental or primary form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (P-ADHD). A secondary form of ADHD (S-ADHD) may occur as a consequence of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the similarities and differences between these two forms of ADHD have not been well characterized. To address these issues, we studied two inhibitory control tasks under different reward conditions in four groups...

  9. Being watched by others eliminates the effect of emotional arousal on inhibitory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin eYu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychological effect of being watched by others has been proven a powerful tool in modulating social behaviors (e.g., charitable giving and altering cognitive performance (e.g., visual search. Here we tested whether such awareness would affect one of the core elements of human cognition: emotional processing and impulse control. Using an emotion stop-signal paradigm, we found that viewing emotionally-arousing erotic images before attempting to inhibit a motor response impaired participants’ inhibition ability, but such an impairing effect was completely eliminated when participants were led to believe that their facial expressions were monitored by a webcam. Furthermore, there was no post-error slowing in any of the conditions, thus these results cannot be explained by a deliberate speed-accuracy tradeoff or other types of conscious shift in strategy. Together, these findings demonstrate that the interaction between emotional arousal and impulse control can be dependent on one’s state of self-consciousness. Furthermore, this study also highlights the effect that the mere presence of the experimenter may have on participants’ cognitive performance, even if it’s via a webcam.

  10. Being watched by others eliminates the effect of emotional arousal on inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaxin; Tseng, Philip; Muggleton, Neil G; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2015-01-01

    The psychological effect of being watched by others has been proven a powerful tool in modulating social behaviors (e.g., charitable giving) and altering cognitive performance (e.g., visual search). Here we tested whether such awareness would affect one of the core elements of human cognition: emotional processing and impulse control. Using an emotion stop-signal paradigm, we found that viewing emotionally-arousing erotic images before attempting to inhibit a motor response impaired participants' inhibition ability, but such an impairing effect was completely eliminated when participants were led to believe that their facial expressions were monitored by a webcam. Furthermore, there was no post-error slowing in any of the conditions, thus these results cannot be explained by a deliberate speed-accuracy tradeoff or other types of conscious shift in strategy. Together, these findings demonstrate that the interaction between emotional arousal and impulse control can be dependent on one's state of self-consciousness. Furthermore, this study also highlights the effect that the mere presence of the experimenter may have on participants' cognitive performance, even if it's only a webcam. PMID:25653635

  11. Continuous-release beads of natural allelochemicals for the long-term control of cyanobacterial growth: Preparation, release dynamics and inhibitory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haomin; Xiao, Xi; Lin, Fang; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Nie, Zeyu; Sun, Lijuan; Xu, Chen; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-05-15

    The effects of allelochemicals on cyanobacterial blooms have been observed for more than 20 years; however, the use of these compounds, usually involving a "direct-added" mode, has clear disadvantages, such as a short activity period or temporarily excessive localized concentration. Here, a simulated-allelopathy mode to facilitate the application of allelochemicals was proposed and tested on Microcystis aeruginosa. The continuous-release beads of 5,4'-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) were constitutive of a polymer matrix and showed a high drug-loading rate (47.18%) and encapsulation efficiency (67.65%) with a theoretical release time of approximately 120 d. Cyanobacterial growth tests showed that the DHF beads had long-term inhibition effects (>30 d), whereas those of "direct-added" DHF to cells lasted a maximum of 10 d. The beads also continuously affected the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation of M. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effects of DHF beads on cyanobacterial growth increased as initial cell densities of M. aeruginosa decreased, suggesting that the beads inhibit cyanobacterial activity more effectively in the early bloom phase. Consequently, the anti-cyanobacterial beads represent a novel application mode of allelochemicals with long-term inhibitory effects on cyanobacterial growth. Our study demonstrates that the successful application of allelochemicals offers great potential to control harmful cyanobacterial blooms, especially at the initial stage of development. PMID:26986500

  12. Revealing the brain's adaptability and the transcranial direct current stimulation facilitating effect in inhibitory control by multiscale entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-Kuang; Lo, Men-Tzung; Yang, Albert C; Peng, Chung-Kang; Cheng, Shih-Kuen; Tseng, Philip; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2014-04-15

    The abilities to inhibit impulses and withdraw certain responses are critical for human's survival in a fast-changing environment. These processes happen fast, in a complex manner, and sometimes are difficult to capture with fMRI or mean electrophysiological brain signal alone. Therefore, an alternative measure that can reveal the efficiency of the neural mechanism across multiple timescales is needed for the investigation of these brain functions. The present study employs a new approach to analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) signal: the multiscale entropy (MSE), which groups data points with different timescales to reveal any occurrence of repeated patterns, in order to theoretically quantify the complexity (indicating adaptability and efficiency) of neural systems during the process of inhibitory control. From this MSE perspective, EEG signals of successful stop trials are more complex and information rich than that of unsuccessful stop trials. We further applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), with anodal electrode over presupplementary motor area (preSMA), to test the relationship between behavioral modification with the complexity of EEG signals. We found that tDCS can further increase the EEG complexity of the frontal lobe. Furthermore, the MSE pattern was found to be different between high and low performers (divided by their stop-signal reaction time), where the high-performing group had higher complexity in smaller scales and less complexity in larger scales in comparison to the low-performing group. In addition, this between-group MSE difference was found to interact with the anodal tDCS, where the increase of MSE in low performers benefitted more from the anodal tDCS. Together, the current study demonstrates that participants who suffer from poor inhibitory control can efficiently improve their performance with 10min of electrical stimulation, and such cognitive improvement can be effectively traced back to the complexity within the

  13. Acute effects of alcohol on inhibitory control and information processing in high and low sensation-seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Fillmore, Mark T.; Ostling, Erik W.; Martin, Catherine A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Sensation-seeking is a personality characteristic that has been associated with drug abuse. Some evidence suggests that sensation-seekers might experience increased rewarding effects from drugs of abuse, possibly contributing to the association between sensation-seeking and risk for drug abuse. The present study examined the effects of three doses of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.65 g/kg) on inhibitory control, information processing, and subjective ratings in a group of high sensation-...

  14. Effects of nicotine on attention and inhibitory control in healthy nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, Nicholas D; de Wit, Harriet

    2011-06-01

    Nicotine improves cognitive functioning in smokers and psychiatric populations, but its cognitive-enhancing effects in healthy nonsmokers are less well understood. Nicotine appears to enhance certain forms of cognition in nonsmokers, but its specificity to subtypes of cognition is not known. This study sought to replicate and extend previous findings on the effects of nicotine on cognitive performance in healthy nonsmokers. Healthy young adults (N = 40, 50% women) participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, repeated measures experiment examining the effects of 7 mg transdermal nicotine or placebo. Participants completed tests of attention (Attention Network Test), behavioral inhibition (stop signal task, Stroop test), reward responsiveness (signal detection task), and risk-taking behavior (Balloon Analogue Risk Task). Physiological (heart rate, blood pressure) and subjective (Profile of Mood States, Drug Effects Questionnaire) measures were also obtained. Nicotine significantly improved performance only on the Stroop test, but it impaired performance on one aspect of the Attention Network Test, the orienting effect. Nicotine produced its expected effects on physiologic and subjective measures within the intended time course. The findings of this study contribute to a growing literature indicating that nicotine differentially affects specific subtypes of cognitive performance in healthy nonsmokers. PMID:21480731

  15. Affective Dynamics of Leadership: An Experimental Test of Affect Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Tobias; Scholl, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Affect Control Theory (ACT; Heise 1979, 2007) states that people control social interactions by striving to maintain culturally shared feelings about the situation. The theory is based on mathematical models of language-based impression formation. In a laboratory experiment, we tested the predictive power of a new German-language ACT model with…

  16. Reduced Amygdala Volume Is Associated with Deficits in Inhibitory Control: A Voxel- and Surface-Based Morphometric Analysis of Comorbid PTSD/Mild TBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Depue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of previously deployed combat Veterans from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND are affected by comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. Despite this fact, neuroimaging studies investigating the neural correlates of cognitive dysfunction within this population are almost nonexistent, with the exception of research examining the neural correlates of diagnostic PTSD or TBI. The current study used both voxel-based and surface-based morphometry to determine whether comorbid PTSD/mTBI is characterized by altered brain structure in the same regions as observed in singular diagnostic PTSD or TBI. Furthermore, we assessed whether alterations in brain structures in these regions were associated with behavioral measures related to inhibitory control, as assessed by the Go/No-go task, self-reports of impulsivity, and/or PTSD or mTBI symptoms. Results indicate volumetric reductions in the bilateral anterior amygdala in our comorbid PTSD/mTBI sample as compared to a control sample of OEF/OIF Veterans with no history of mTBI and/or PTSD. Moreover, increased volume reduction in the amygdala predicted poorer inhibitory control as measured by performance on the Go/No-go task, increased self-reported impulsivity, and greater symptoms associated with PTSD. These findings suggest that alterations in brain anatomy in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with comorbid PTSD/mTBI are associated with both cognitive deficits and trauma symptoms related to PTSD.

  17. Number conservation is related to children's prefrontal inhibitory control: an fMRI study of a piagetian task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Poirel

    Full Text Available Although young children can accurately determine that two rows contain the same number of coins when they are placed in a one-to-one correspondence, children younger than 7 years of age erroneously think that the longer row contains more coins when the coins in one of the rows are spread apart. To demonstrate that prefrontal inhibitory control is necessary to succeed at this task (Piaget's conservation-of-number task, we studied the relationship between the percentage of BOLD signal changes in the brain areas activated in this developmental task and behavioral performance on a Stroop task and a Backward Digit Span task. The level of activation in the right insula/inferior frontal gyrus was selectively related to inhibitory control efficiency (i.e., the Stroop task, whereas the activation in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS was selectively related to the ability to manipulate numerical information in working memory (i.e., the Backward Digit Span task. Taken together, the results indicate that to acquire number conservation, children's brains must not only activate the reversibility of cognitive operations (supported by the IPS but also inhibit a misleading length-equal-number strategy (supported by the right insula/inferior frontal gyrus.

  18. When Affect Supports Cognitive Control – A Working Memory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolańczyk Alina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper delineates a study of executive functions (EFs, construed as procedural working memory (WM, from a motivational perspective. Since WM theories and motivation theories are both concerned with purposive activity, the role of implicit evaluations (affects observed in goal pursuit can be anticipated to arise also in the context of cognitive control, e.g., during the performance of the Stroop task. The role of positive and negative affect in goal pursuit consists in controlling attention resources according to the goal and situational requirements. Positive affect serves to maintain goals and means in the scope of attention (EF1, whereas negative affect activates the inhibition of non-functional contents, e.g., distractors and irrelevant objects (resulting in attention disengagement; EF2. Adaptation to conflict proceeds via sequential triggering of negative and positive affect (EF3. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the focus on action or reflection changes the scope of contents subjected to implicit (affective control. Therefore, I suggest that the motivational system, to a large extent, plays the role of the Central Executive. The paper opens a discussion and proposes studies on affective mechanisms of cognitive control.

  19. ALTERACIONES DEL CONTROL INHIBITORIO CONDUCTUAL EN NIÑOS DE 6 A 11 AÑOS CON TDAH FAMILIAR DE BARRANQUILLA - BEHAVIORAL CHANGES OF INHIBITORY CONTROL IN CHILDREN FROM 6 TO 11 YEARS OLD WITH FAMILY ADHD FROM BARRANQUILLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID PINEDA SALAZAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control is the cognitive process responsible for the intentional and voluntary control, it means, the suppression of immediate responses requiring motor interference or behavioral inhibition. In this research, the multidimensional scale of behavior BASC-Teachers was used as a tool, for the description of executive behavior in the dimensions of behavioral control, emotional control, attention control and problem solving skills. We selected 52 children from 6 to 11 years old with family Attention Deficit Disorder Hyperactivity-ADHD and a control group. The main finding indicates that the dimension of executive behavior “problem solving” statistically and clinically differentiated children affected and not affected by ADHD, yielding in particular a lower score on the affected children. These results from the BASC-Executive validate the hypothesis regarding the presence of an alteration in the inhibitory behavioral control underlying the symptoms of ADHD.ResumenEl control inhibitorio es el proceso encargado del control intencional-voluntario, es decir, de la supresión de respuestas inmediatas que requieran interferencia motora o inhibición conductual.En la presente investigación, se utilizó como instrumento la escala multidimensional de la conducta BASC-Maestros para la descripción de las conductas ejecutivas en las dimensiones: control de la conducta, control emocional, control de la atención y capacidad de resolución de problemas. Se seleccionaron 52 niños de 6 a 11 años con Trastorno por Déficit de Atención Hiperactividad-TDAH familiar y un grupo control. Como principal hallazgo, se indica que la dimensión de conducta ejecutiva “solución de problemas” diferenció estadísticay clínicamente a los niños afectados y no afectados de TDAH, arrojando en particular una puntuación más pobre en los niños afectados. Estos resultados del BASC- Ejecutivo validan la hipótesis relativa a la presencia de una alteración en

  20. Genetic deletion of Rab27B in pancreatic acinar cells affects granules size and has inhibitory effects on amylase secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A; Lentz, Stephen I; Williams, John A

    2016-03-18

    Small G protein Rab27B is expressed in various secretory cell types and plays a role in mediating secretion. In pancreatic acinar cells, Rab27B was found to be expressed on the zymogen granule membrane and by overexpression to regulate the secretion of zymogen granules. However, the effect of Rab27B deletion on the physiology of pancreatic acinar cells is unknown. In the current study, we utilized the Rab27B KO mouse model to better understand the role of Rab27B in the secretion of pancreatic acinar cells. Our data show that Rab27B deficiency had no obvious effects on the expression of major digestive enzymes and other closely related proteins, e.g. similar small G proteins, such as Rab3D and Rab27A, and putative downstream effectors. The overall morphology of acinar cells was not changed in the knockout pancreas. However, the size of zymogen granules was decreased in KO acinar cells, suggesting a role of Rab27B in regulating the maturation of secretory granules. The secretion of digestive enzymes was moderately decreased in KO acini, compared with the WT control. These data indicate that Rab27B is involved at a different steps of zymogen granule maturation and secretion, which is distinct from that of Rab3D. PMID:26845357

  1. Brief Report: The Go/No-Go Task Online: Inhibitory Control Deficits in Autism in a Large Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzefovsky, F; Allison, C; Smith, P; Baron-Cohen, S

    2016-08-01

    Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC, also referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders) entail difficulties with inhibition: inhibiting action, inhibiting one's own point of view, and inhibiting distractions that may interfere with a response set. However, the association between inhibitory control (IC) and ASC, especially in adulthood, is unclear. The current study measured IC, using the Go/No-Go task online, in a large adult sample of 201 people with ASC and 240 controls. Number of both False Alarm and False Positive responses were significantly associated with autistic traits and diagnostic status, separately, but not jointly. These findings suggest that deficits in inhibition are associated with ASC. Future studies need to investigate the role of inhibition in ASC in everyday difficulties. PMID:27103120

  2. ERAP1 regulates natural killer cell function by controlling the engagement of inhibitory receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifaldi, Loredana; Romania, Paolo; Falco, Michela; Lorenzi, Silvia; Meazza, Raffaella; Petrini, Stefania; Andreani, Marco; Pende, Daniela; Locatelli, Franco; Fruci, Doriana

    2015-03-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase ERAP1 regulates innate and adaptive immune responses by trimming peptides for presentation by MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules. Herein, we demonstrate that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of ERAP1 on human tumor cell lines perturbs their ability to engage several classes of inhibitory receptors by their specific ligands, including killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR) by classical MHC-I-peptide (pMHC-I) complexes and the lectin-like receptor CD94-NKG2A by nonclassical pMHC-I complexes, in each case leading to natural killer (NK) cell killing. The protective effect of pMHC-I complexes could be restored in ERAP1-deficient settings by the addition of known high-affinity peptides, suggesting that ERAP1 was needed to positively modify the affinity of natural ligands. Notably, ERAP1 inhibition enhanced the ability of NK cells to kill freshly established human lymphoblastoid cell lines from autologous or allogeneic sources, thereby promoting NK cytotoxic activity against target cells that would not be expected because of KIR-KIR ligand matching. Overall, our results identify ERAP1 as a modifier to leverage immune functions that may improve the efficacy of NK cell-based approaches for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25592150

  3. Fission-fusion dynamics, behavioral flexibility, and inhibitory control in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Federica; Aureli, Filippo; Call, Josep

    2008-09-23

    The Machiavellian Intelligence or Social Brain Hypothesis explains the evolution of increased brain size as mainly driven by living in complex organized social systems in which individuals represent "moving targets" who can adopt multiple strategies to respond to one another. Frequently splitting and merging in subgroups of variable composition (fission-fusion or FF dynamics) has been proposed as one aspect of social complexity ( compare with) that may be associated with an enhancement of cognitive skills like inhibition, which allows the suppression of prepotent but ineffective responses in a changing social environment. We compared the performance of primates experiencing high levels of FF dynamics (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and spider monkeys) to that of species living in more cohesive groups (gorillas, capuchin monkeys, and long-tailed macaques) on five inhibition tasks. Testing species differing in diet, phylogenetic relatedness, and levels of FF dynamics allowed us to contrast ecological, phylogenetic, and socioecological explanations for interspecific differences. Spider monkeys performed at levels comparable to chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans, and better than gorillas. A two-cluster analysis grouped all species with higher levels of FF dynamics together. These findings confirmed that enhanced inhibitory skills are positively associated with FF dynamics, more than to phylogenetic relations or feeding ecology. PMID:18804375

  4. Intact inhibitory control processes in abstinent drug abusers (II): a high-density electrical mapping study in former cocaine and heroin addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morie, Kristen P; Garavan, Hugh; Bell, Ryan P; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Krakowski, Menachem I; Foxe, John J

    2014-07-01

    Response inhibition deficits are well-documented in drug users, and are related to the impulsive tendencies characteristic of the addictive phenotype. Addicts also show significant motivational issues that may accentuate these inhibitory deficits. We investigated the extent to which these inhibitory deficits are present in abstinence. Salience of the task stimuli was also manipulated on the premise that emotionally-valenced inputs might impact inhibitory efficacy by overcoming the blunted responses to everyday environmental inputs characteristic of this population. Participants performed response inhibition tasks consisting of both neutral and emotionally valenced stimuli while high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Electrophysiological responses (N2/P3 components) to successful inhibitions in abstinent abusers (N = 20) and non-using participants (N = 21) were compared. In contrast to previous work in current users, our abstinent cohort showed no detectable behavioral or electrophysiological differences in their inhibitory responses, and no differences on self-reports of impulsivity, despite their long histories of chronic use (mean = 10.3 years). The current findings are consistent with a recovery of inhibitory control processes as a function of abstinence. Abstinent former users, however, did show a reduced modulation, relative to controls, of their ERPs to valenced input while performing successful inhibitions, although contrary to our hypothesis, the use of valenced inputs had no impact on inhibitory performance. Reduced ERP modulation to emotionally valenced inputs may have implications for relapse in emotional contexts outside the treatment center. PMID:23507565

  5. Modulation of brain activity during a Stroop inhibitory task by the kind of cognitive control required

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Grandjean; Kevin D'Ostilio; Christophe Phillips; Evelyne Balteau; Christian Degueldre; André Luxen; Pierre Maquet; Eric Salmon; Fabienne Collette

    2012-01-01

    This study used a proportion congruency manipulation in the Stroop task in order to investigate, at the behavioral and brain substrate levels, the predictions derived from the Dual Mechanisms of Control (DMC) account of two distinct modes of cognitive control depending on the task context. Three experimental conditions were created that varied the proportion congruency: mostly incongruent (MI), mostly congruent (MC), and mostly neutral (MN) contexts. A reactive control strategy, which corresp...

  6. Inhibitory noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Destexhe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vivo may operate in high-conductance states, in which the major part of the neuron's input conductance is due to synaptic activity, sometimes several-fold larger than the resting conductance. We examine here the contribution of inhibition in such high-conductance states. At the level of the absolute conductance values, several studies have shown that cortical neurons in vivo are characterized by strong inhibitory conductances. However, conductances are balanced and spiking activity is mostly determined by fluctuations, but not much is known about excitatory and inhibitory contributions to these fluctuations. Models and dynamic-clamp experiments show that, during high-conductance states, spikes are mainly determined by fluctuations of inhibition, or by inhibitory noise. This stands in contrast to low-conductance states, in which excitatory conductances determine spiking activity. To determine these contributions from experimental data, maximum likelihood methods can be designed and applied to intracellular recordings in vivo. Such methods indicate that action potentials are indeed mostly correlated with inhibitory fluctuations in awake animals. These results argue for a determinant role for inhibitory fluctuations in evoking spikes, and do not support feed-forward modes of processing, for which opposite patterns are predicted.

  7. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel L Domazet

    Full Text Available To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents.The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12-14 years was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer.Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance.Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the scholastic or cognitive

  8. Neuronal codes for the inhibitory control of impulsive actions in the rat infralimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Ohmura, Yu; Izumi, Takeshi; Matsushima, Toshiya; Amita, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Taku; Yoshida, Takayuki; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Poor impulse control is a debilitating condition observed in various psychiatric disorders and could be a risk factor for drug addiction, criminal involvement, and suicide. The rat infralimbic cortex (IL), located in the ventral portion of the medial prefrontal cortex, has been implicated in impulse control. To elucidate the neurophysiological basis of impulse control, we recorded single unit activity in the IL of a rat performing a 3-choiceserial reaction time task (3-CSRTT) and 2-choice task (2-CT), which are animal models for impulsivity. The inactivation of IL neuronal activity with an injection of muscimol (0.1 μg /side) disrupted impulse control in the 3-CSRTT. More than 60% (38/56) of isolated IL units were linked to impulse control, while approximately 30% of all units were linked to attentional function in the 3-CSRTT. To avoid confounding motor-related units with the impulse control-related units, we further conducted the 2-CT in which the animals' motor activities were restricted during recording window. More than 30% (14/44) of recorded IL units were linked to impulse control in the 2-CT. Several types of impulse control-related units were identified. Only 16% of all units were compatible with the results of the muscimol experiment, which showed a transient decline in the firing rate immediately before the release of behavioral inhibition. This is the first study to elucidate the neurophysiological basis of impulse control in the IL and to propose that IL neurons control impulsive actions in a more complex manner than previously considered. PMID:26341319

  9. Neural mechanisms of proactive and reactive inhibitory control : Studies in healthy volunteers and schizophrenia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zandbelt, B.B.

    2011-01-01

    The neural underpinnings of our ability to restrain actions in advance (i.e. proactive inhibition) and stop actions in reaction to some event (i.e. reactive inhibition) remain largely unknown. In this thesis we used neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) and brain stimulation (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) to explore the mechanisms underlying proactive and reactive inhibition in the healthy brain and the brain affected by schizophrenia. In particular, we focused ...

  10. Effects of aversive odour presentation on inhibitory control in the Stroop colour-word interference task

    OpenAIRE

    Nießen Thomas; Bude Daniela; Kellermann Thilo; Finkelmeyer Andreas; Schwenzer Michael; Mathiak Klaus; Reske Martina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to the unique neural projections of the olfactory system, odours have the ability to directly influence affective processes. Furthermore, it has been shown that emotional states can influence various non-emotional cognitive tasks, such as memory and planning. However, the link between emotional and cognitive processes is still not fully understood. The present study used the olfactory pathway to induce a negative emotional state in humans to investigate its effect on i...

  11. Triple-controlled oncolytic adenovirus expressing melittin to exert inhibitory efficacy on hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Chun-Yu; Wang, Kai-Li; Fang, Fan-Fu; Gu, Wei; Huang, Feng; Wang, Fu-Zhe; Li, Bai; Wang, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant disease, and its outcome of routine therapies is poor. Comprehensive treatment including gene therapy is an important way to improve patients’ prognosis and survival. In this study, we successfully constructed a triple-controlled cancer-selective oncolytic adenovirus, QG511-HA-Melittin, carrying melittin gene, in which the hybrid promoter, hypoxia-response element (HRE)-AFP promoter, was used to control viral E1a expression targeting AFP-po...

  12. Modulation of brain activity during a Stroop inhibitory task by the kind of cognitive control required.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Grandjean

    Full Text Available This study used a proportion congruency manipulation in the Stroop task in order to investigate, at the behavioral and brain substrate levels, the predictions derived from the Dual Mechanisms of Control (DMC account of two distinct modes of cognitive control depending on the task context. Three experimental conditions were created that varied the proportion congruency: mostly incongruent (MI, mostly congruent (MC, and mostly neutral (MN contexts. A reactive control strategy, which corresponds to transient interference resolution processes after conflict detection, was expected for the rare conflicting stimuli in the MC context, and a proactive strategy, characterized by a sustained task-relevant focus prior to the occurrence of conflict, was expected in the MI context. Results at the behavioral level supported the proactive/reactive distinction, with the replication of the classic proportion congruent effect (i.e., less interference and facilitation effects in the MI context. fMRI data only partially supported our predictions. Whereas reactive control for incongruent trials in the MC context engaged the expected fronto-parietal network including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex, proactive control in the MI context was not associated with any sustained lateral prefrontal cortex activations, contrary to our hypothesis. Surprisingly, incongruent trials in the MI context elicited transient activation in common with incongruent trials in the MC context, especially in DLPFC, superior parietal lobe, and insula. This lack of sustained activity in MI is discussed in reference to the possible involvement of item-specific rather than list-wide mechanisms of control in the implementation of a high task-relevant focus.

  13. Modulation of brain activity during a Stroop inhibitory task by the kind of cognitive control required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Julien; D'Ostilio, Kevin; Phillips, Christophe; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    This study used a proportion congruency manipulation in the Stroop task in order to investigate, at the behavioral and brain substrate levels, the predictions derived from the Dual Mechanisms of Control (DMC) account of two distinct modes of cognitive control depending on the task context. Three experimental conditions were created that varied the proportion congruency: mostly incongruent (MI), mostly congruent (MC), and mostly neutral (MN) contexts. A reactive control strategy, which corresponds to transient interference resolution processes after conflict detection, was expected for the rare conflicting stimuli in the MC context, and a proactive strategy, characterized by a sustained task-relevant focus prior to the occurrence of conflict, was expected in the MI context. Results at the behavioral level supported the proactive/reactive distinction, with the replication of the classic proportion congruent effect (i.e., less interference and facilitation effects in the MI context). fMRI data only partially supported our predictions. Whereas reactive control for incongruent trials in the MC context engaged the expected fronto-parietal network including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex, proactive control in the MI context was not associated with any sustained lateral prefrontal cortex activations, contrary to our hypothesis. Surprisingly, incongruent trials in the MI context elicited transient activation in common with incongruent trials in the MC context, especially in DLPFC, superior parietal lobe, and insula. This lack of sustained activity in MI is discussed in reference to the possible involvement of item-specific rather than list-wide mechanisms of control in the implementation of a high task-relevant focus. PMID:22911806

  14. The long non-coding RNA HOTAIR affects the radiosensitivity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by regulating the expression of Wnt inhibitory factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanhui; Li, Zhihua; Zheng, Shangyou; Chen, Huimou; Zhao, Xiaohui; Gao, Wenchao; Bi, Zhuofei; You, Kaiyun; Wang, Yingxue; Li, Wenzhu; Li, Liting; Liu, Yimin; Chen, Rufu

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is seriously resistant to radiotherapy and the mechanism is largely unknown. HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is overexpressed in PDAC. However, the function of HOTAIR has never been related to the radiosensitivity of PDAC. In this present study, the expression of HOTAIR in the PDAC cell lines and tissues was measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and the association between HOTAIR expression levels and X-ray treatment in PDAC cell lines was investigated. Additionally, the influence of HOTAIR knockdown on radiosensitivity, proliferation, and apoptosis of PDAC cells after radiation was evaluated by colony formation assays, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, and flow cytometry, respectively. Furthermore, the correlation between HOTAIR and Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF-1) expression in PDAC cell lines and tissues was studied to assess the role of HOTAIR and WIF-1 in the radiosensitivity of PDAC. The results confirmed that HOTAIR expression was significantly increased in the PDAC cell lines and tissues (n = 90) compared with human normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line (HPDE) and matched adjacent normal tissues (n = 90). Functionally, HOTAIR knockdown enhanced the radiosensitivity of PDAC cells, reduced the proliferation, and increased the apoptosis of cells after radiation. And HOTAIR silencing increased the expression of WIF-1. Furthermore, the overexpression of WIF-1 revealed that HOTAIR modulated the radiosensitivity of PDAC cells by regulating the expression of WIF-1. These data reveals that HOTAIR can affect the radiosensitivity of PDAC cells partly via regulating the expression of WIF-1, and HOTAIR-WIF-1 axis is a potential target for PDAC radiotherapy. PMID:26482614

  15. The effect of social observation on children’s inhibitory control

    OpenAIRE

    Moriguchi, Yusuke

    2012-01-01

    This is the author's version of a work that was accepted for publication in . Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms, may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, VOLUME 113, ISSUE 2, October 2012,DOI http://dx.doi.org/...

  16. Inhibitory control training for appetitive behaviour change: A meta-analytic investigation of mechanisms of action and moderators of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Di Lemma, Lisa C G; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Nolan, Sarah; Tudur-Smith, Catrin; Field, Matt

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitory control training (ICT) is a novel intervention in which participants learn to associate appetitive cues with inhibition of behaviour. We present a meta-analytic investigation of laboratory studies of ICT for appetitive behaviour change in which we investigate candidate mechanisms of action, individual differences that may moderate its effectiveness, and compare it to other psychological interventions. We conducted random-effects generic inverse variance meta-analysis on data from 14 articles (18 effect sizes in total). Participants who received ICT chose or consumed significantly less food or alcohol compared to control groups (SMD = 0.36, 95% CIs [0.24, 0.47]; Z = 6.18, p contingency between appetitive cues and the requirement to inhibit. The effect of ICT on cue devaluation (primarily assessed with implicit association tests) was not statistically significant. Our analysis confirms the efficacy of ICT for short-term behaviour change in the laboratory, and we have demonstrated that its effectiveness may depend on pairings between appetitive cues and successful inhibition. We highlight the need for further research to translate these findings outside of the laboratory. PMID:26592707

  17. Lack of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in mice does not affect hallmarks of the inflammatory/immune response during the first week after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deierborg Tomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF has been proposed to play a detrimental role in stroke. We recently showed that MIF promotes neuronal death and aggravates neurological deficits during the first week after experimental stroke, in mice. Since MIF regulates tissue inflammation, we studied the putative role of MIF in post-stroke inflammation. Methods We subjected C57BL/6 mice, Mif-/- (MIF-KO or Mif+/+ (WT, to a transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (tMCAo or sham-surgery. We studied MIF expression, GFAP expression and the number of CD74-positive cells in the ischemic brain hemisphere 7 days after tMCAo using primarily immunohistochemistry. We determined IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, KC/CXCL-1 and TNF-α protein levels in the brain (48 h after surgery and serum (48 h and 7 days after surgery by a multiplex immunoassay. Results We observed that MIF accumulates in neurons and astrocytes of the peri-infarct region, as well as in microglia/macrophages of the infarct core up to 7 days after stroke. Among the inflammatory mediators analyzed, we found a significant increase in cerebral IL-12 and KC levels after tMCAo, in comparison to sham-surgery. Importantly, the deletion of Mif did not significantly affect the levels of the cytokines evaluated, in the brain or serum. Moreover, the spleen weight 48 h and 7 days subsequent to tMCAo was similar in WT and MIF-KO mice. Finally, the extent of GFAP immunoreactivity and the number of MIF receptor (CD74-positive cells within the ischemic brain hemisphere did not differ significantly between WT and MIF-KO mice subjected to tMCAo. Conclusions We conclude that MIF does not affect major components of the inflammatory/immune response during the first week after experimental stroke. Based on present and previous evidence, we propose that the deleterious MIF-mediated effects in stroke depend primarily on an intraneuronal and/or interneuronal action.

  18. Abnormalities in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Associated with Attentional and Inhibitory Control Deficits: A Neurophysiological Study on Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S.; Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Leung, Connie; Wong, Virginia C. N.; Cheung, Mei-chun

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is activated when individuals engage in attention and inhibitory control tasks. The present study examined whether ACC activity is associated with behavioral performance of the two tasks. Twenty normal and 20 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were subjected to…

  19. The origins of repetitive thought in rumination: Separating cognitive style from deficits in inhibitory control over memory

    OpenAIRE

    Fawcett, Jonathan M.; Benoit, Roland G.; Gagnepain, Pierre; Salman, Amna; Bartholdy, Savani; Bradley, Caroline; Chan, Daniel K.-Y.; Roche, Ayesha; Brewin, Chris R; Anderson, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Rumination is a major contributor to the maintenance of affective disorders and has been linked to memory control deficits. However, ruminators often report intentionally engaging in repetitive thought due to its perceived benefits. Deliberate re-processing may lead to the appearance of a memory control deficit that is better explained as a difference in cognitive style. Methods Ninety-six undergraduate students volunteered to take part in a direct-suppression varian...

  20. Inhibitory activity of 1-farnesylpyridinium on the spatial control over the assembly of cell wall polysaccharides in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Masahiro; Ohata, Ikumi; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Usuki, Yoshinosuke; Ogita, Akira; Ishiguro, Junpei; Tanaka, Toshio

    2006-12-01

    The modes of actions of 1-farnesylpyridinium (FPy) on yeast cell growth were investigated on the basis of its effects on cell cycle progression, morphogenesis and the related events for construction of cell wall architecture in Schizosacchromyces pombe. FPy predominantly inhibited the growth of the yeast cells after various cycles of cell division so that cells were arrested at the phase of separation into daughter cells accompanying morphological changes to swollen spherical cells at 24 h of incubation. FPy-treated cells were osmotically stable but were susceptible to the lytic action of (1, 3) beta-D-glucanases, and characterized by serious damages to the cell wall architecture as represented by a rough and irregular surface outlook. The isolated cell wall fraction gave a similar hexose composition with or without FPy treatment, suggesting that FPy did not inhibit the synthesis of each cell wall polysaccharide. FPy was permissive for the extracellular accumulation of amorphous cell wall materials and septum development in protoplasts, but absolutely interfered with the following morphogenetic process for construction of the rod-shaped cell wall architecture. Our results suggest the inhibitory activity of FPy on the spatial control over the assembly of cell wall polysaccharides. PMID:17092950

  1. Rejection Positivity Predicts Trial-to-Trial Reaction Times in an Auditory Selective Attention Task: A Computational Analysis of Inhibitory Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufen eChen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of computer simulations using variants of a formal model of attention (Melara & Algom, 2003 probed the role of rejection positivity (RP, a slow-wave electroencephalographic (EEG component, in the inhibitory control of distraction. Behavioral and EEG data were recorded as participants performed auditory selective attention tasks. Simulations that modulated processes of distractor inhibition accounted well for reaction-time (RT performance, whereas those that modulated target excitation did not. A model that incorporated RP from actual EEG recordings in estimating distractor inhibition was superior in predicting changes in RT as a function of distractor salience across conditions. A model that additionally incorporated momentary fluctuations in EEG as the source of trial-to-trial variation in performance precisely predicted individual RTs within each condition. The results lend support to the linking proposition that RP controls the speed of responding to targets through the inhibitory control of distractors.

  2. Myoelectric Control System and Task-Specific Characteristics Affect Voluntary Use of Simultaneous Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-01-01

    Clinically available myoelectric control does not enable simultaneous proportional control of prosthetic degrees of freedom. Multiple studies have proposed systems that provide simultaneous control, though few have investigated whether subjects voluntarily use simultaneous control or how they implement it. Additionally, few studies have explicitly evaluated the effect of providing proportional velocity control. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors influencing when and how subjects use simultaneous myoelectric control, including the ability to proportionally control the velocity and the required task precision. Five able-bodied subjects used simultaneous myoelectric control systems with and without proportional velocity control in a virtual Fitts' Law task. Though subjects used simultaneous control to a substantial degree when proportional velocity control was present, they used very little simultaneous control when using constant-velocity control. Furthermore, use of simultaneous control varied significantly with target distance and width, reflecting a strategy of using simultaneous control for gross cursor positioning and sequential control for fine corrective movements. These results provide insight into how users take advantage of simultaneous control and highlight the need for real-time evaluation of simultaneous control algorithms, as the potential benefit of providing simultaneous control may be affected by other characteristics of the myoelectric control system. PMID:25769167

  3. Successive bilingualism and executive functions: The effect of second language use on inhibitory control in a behavioural Stroop Colour Word task

    OpenAIRE

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Moutier, Sylvain; Hemforth, Barbara; Courtin, Cyril; Tanzmeister, Robert; Isel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    International audience Here we examined the role of bilingualism on cognitive inhibition using the Stroop Colour Word task. Our hypothesis wasthat the frequency of use of a second language (L2) in the daily life of successive bilingual individuals impacts the efficiencyof their inhibitory control mechanism. Thirty-three highly proficient successive French–German bilinguals, living either in aFrench or in a German linguistic environment, performed a Stroop task on both French and German wor...

  4. Proteolytic and ACE-inhibitory activities of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria as affected by different levels of fat, inulin and starter culture

    OpenAIRE

    Shakerian, Mansour; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid; Moayedi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of fat (0.5 %, 3.2 % and 5.0 %), inulin (0.0 and 1.0 %) and starter culture (0.0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria were assessed. Proteolytic activities of bacteria were also investigated. Yogurts were prepared either using a sole yogurt commercial culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus or bifidobacterium ani...

  5. Flexible control in processing affective and non-affective material predicts individual differences in trait resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Jessica J; Siemer, Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Trait resilience is a stable personality characteristic that involves the self-reported ability to flexibly adapt to emotional events and situations. The present study examined cognitive processes that may explain individual differences in trait resilience. Participants completed self-report measures of trait resilience, cognitive flexibility and working memory capacity tasks, and a novel affective task-switching paradigm that assesses the ability to flexibly switch between processing the affective versus non-affective qualities of affective stimuli (i.e., flexible affective processing). As hypothesised, cognitive flexibility and flexible affective processing were unique predictors of trait resilience. Working memory capacity was not predictive of trait resilience, indicating that trait resilience is tied to specific cognitive processes rather than overall better cognitive functioning. Cognitive flexibility and flexible affective processing were not associated with other trait measures, suggesting that these flexibility processes are unique to trait resilience. This study was among the first to investigate the cognitive abilities underlying trait resilience. PMID:21432680

  6. Affect Control Processes: Intelligent Affective Interaction using a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hoey, Jesse; Schroeder, Tobias; Alhothali, Areej

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for building affectively intelligent human-interactive agents. The method is based on a key sociological insight that has been developed and extensively verified over the last twenty years, but has yet to make an impact in artificial intelligence. The insight is that resource bounded humans will, by default, act to maintain affective consistency. Humans have culturally shared fundamental affective sentiments about identities, behaviours, and objects, and th...

  7. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L; Palmer, Janet E

    2009-03-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive affect as a positive attitude toward a person or object. But when an agent focuses on a cognitive task, positive affect may act like performance feedback, with positive affect giving a green light to cognitive, relational processes. By contrast, negative affect tends to inhibit relational processing, resulting in a more perceptual, stimulus-specific processing. One result is that many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology occur readily in happy moods, but are inhibited in sad moods. PMID:19255620

  8. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition1

    OpenAIRE

    Clore, Gerald L.; Palmer, Janet E.

    2009-01-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive aff...

  9. Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppée Jean-Yves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III to As(V as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III. To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (σ54 of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE and a putative -12/-24 σ54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III in this microorganism.

  10. Control of regulatory T cell and Th17 cell differentiation by inhibitory helix-loop-helix protein Id3

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Takashi; Li, Jun; Vaque, Jose P.; Konkel, Joanne E.; Wang, Weifeng; Zhang, Baojun; Zhang, Pin; Zamarron, Brian; Yu, Dongyang; Wu, Yuntao; Zhuang, Yuan; Gutkind, J Silvio; Chen, Wanjun

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms directing Foxp3 gene transcription in CD4+ T cells remain ill defined. We show that deletion of the inhibitory helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein Id3 results in defective Foxp3+ Treg cell generation. We identified two transforming grothw factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-dependent mechanisms that are vital for activation of Foxp3 gene transcription, and are defective in Id3−/− CD4+ T cells. Enhanced binding of the HLH protein E2A to the Foxp3 promoter promoted Foxp3 gene transcription. ...

  11. Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merel Keijzer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall language proficiency. Participants were 63 L1 Dutch speakers of L2 English, who had been immersed in an L2 environment for a considerable amount of time. Their data were set off against those of 54 monolingual Dutch speakers and 56 monolingual English speakers. At the time of testing, all the bilingual participants had a near-native command of English and their L1 and L2 WM scores were not found to be significantly different. However, discrepancies did occur in Stroop test scores of inhibition, where the bilinguals performed better in their L2 English than L1 Dutch. These main effects often contradicted the results found in Gass & Lee’s study, who examined less proficient L2 learners. An aging effect was furthermore found: older subjects consistently performed more poorly on WM and inhibition tasks than their younger peers. These results can shed light on how individual factors like WM capacity and inhibitory control interact in successful late bilinguals and how these dynamics shift with advanced age.

  12. Acute exercise facilitates brain function and cognition in children who need it most: an ERP study of individual differences in inhibitory control capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Raine, Lauren B; Moore, R Davis; Saliba, Brian J; Pontifex, Matthew B; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on aspects of cognitive control in two groups of children categorized by higher- and lower-task performance. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were collected in 40 preadolescent children during a modified flanker task following 20 min of treadmill walking and seated rest on separate occasions. Participants were bifurcated into two groups based on task performance following the resting session. Findings revealed that following exercise, higher-performers maintained accuracy and exhibited no change in P3 amplitude compared to seated rest. Lower-performers demonstrated a differential effect, such that accuracy measures improved, and P3 amplitude increased following exercise. Lastly, both groups displayed smaller N2 amplitude and shorter P3 latency following exercise, suggesting an overall facilitation in response conflict and the speed of stimulus classification. The current findings replicate prior research reporting the beneficial influence of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in children. However, children with lower inhibitory control capacity may benefit the most from single bouts of exercise. These data are among the first to demonstrate the differential effect of physical activity on individuals who vary in inhibitory control, and further support the role of aerobic exercise for brain health during development. PMID:24309300

  13. Acute exercise facilitates brain function and cognition in children who need it most: An ERP study of individual differences in inhibitory control capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Drollette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on aspects of cognitive control in two groups of children categorized by higher- and lower-task performance. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs were collected in 40 preadolescent children during a modified flanker task following 20 min of treadmill walking and seated rest on separate occasions. Participants were bifurcated into two groups based on task performance following the resting session. Findings revealed that following exercise, higher-performers maintained accuracy and exhibited no change in P3 amplitude compared to seated rest. Lower-performers demonstrated a differential effect, such that accuracy measures improved, and P3 amplitude increased following exercise. Lastly, both groups displayed smaller N2 amplitude and shorter P3 latency following exercise, suggesting an overall facilitation in response conflict and the speed of stimulus classification. The current findings replicate prior research reporting the beneficial influence of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in children. However, children with lower inhibitory control capacity may benefit the most from single bouts of exercise. These data are among the first to demonstrate the differential effect of physical activity on individuals who vary in inhibitory control, and further support the role of aerobic exercise for brain health during development.

  14. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are now taking any kind of birth control pill or are considering using one, keep these guidelines in mind: Don't mix smoking and "the pill." If you smoke cigarettes, make a serious effort to quit. If you cannot quit, choose ... of birth control. Cigarette smoking boosts the risk of serious health ...

  15. Negative Emotions and Alcohol Use Initiation in High-Risk Boys: The Moderating Effect of Good Inhibitory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin; Lochman, John; Wells, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the relation between negative affect and later alcohol use have provided mixed results. Because definitions of negative affect often include diverse emotions, researchers have begun to dismantle this higher-order construct in an attempt to explain these inconsistent findings. More recent evidence also indicates that good inhibitory…

  16. Inhibitory effects of α-Na8SiW11CoO40 on tyrosinase and its application in controlling browning of fresh-cut apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Nian; Xing, Rui; Wang, Fang; Zheng, A-Ping; Wang, Li

    2015-12-01

    α-Na8SiW11CoO40 was synthesized and characterized. The inhibitory effects of α-Na8SiW11CoO40 on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase and the effects of α-Na8SiW11CoO40 on the browning of fresh-cut apples were studied. The Native-PAGE result showed that α-Na8SiW11CoO40 had a significant inhibitory effect on tyrosinase. Kinetic analyses showed that α-Na8SiW11CoO40 was an irreversible and competitive inhibitor. The inhibitor concentration leading to a 50% reduction in activity (IC50) was estimated to be 0.239 mM. Additionally, the results also showed that α-Na8SiW11CoO40 treatment could significantly decrease the browning process of apple slices and inhibit the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Moreover, application of α-Na8SiW11CoO40 resulted in higher peroxidase activity and promoted high amounts of phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid. This study may provide a promising method for the use of polyoxometalates to inhibit tyrosinase activity and control the browning of fresh-cut apples. PMID:26041180

  17. Age affects the adjustment of cognitive control after a conflict: evidence from the bivalency effect

    OpenAIRE

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Age affects cognitive control. When facing a conflict, older adults are less able to activate goal-relevant information and inhibit irrelevant information. However, cognitive control also affects the events after a conflict. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age affects the adjustment of cognitive control following a conflict. To this end, we investigated the bivalency effect, that is, the performance slowing occurring after the conflict induced by bivalent stimuli (i.e., sti...

  18. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of different pharmaceutical products affect the meta-transcriptome of river biofilm communities cultivated in rotating annular reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Waiser, Marley J; Lawrence, John R; Greer, Charles W

    2012-06-01

    Surface waters worldwide are contaminated by pharmaceutical products that are released into the environment from wastewater treatment plants. Here, we hypothesize that pharmaceutical products have effects on organisms as well as genes related to nutrient cycling in complex microbial communities. To test this hypothesis, biofilms were grown in reactors and subjected low concentrations of three antibiotics [erythromycin, ER, sulfamethoxazole, SL and sulfamethazine, SN) and a lipid regulator (gemfibrozil, GM). Total community RNA was extracted and sequenced together with PCR amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Exposure to pharmaceutical products resulted in very little change in bacterial community composition at the phylum level based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons, even though some genera were significantly affected. In contrast, large shifts were observed in the active community composition based on taxonomic affiliations of mRNA sequences. Consequently, expression of gene categories related to N, P and C cycling were strongly affected by the presence of pharmaceutical products, with each treatment having specific effects. These results indicate that low pharmaceutical product concentrations rapidly provoke a variety of functional shifts in river bacterial communities. In the longer term these shifts in gene expression and microbial activity could lead to a disruption of important ecosystem processes like nutrient cycling. PMID:23760799

  19. Prefrontal activation during inhibitory control measured by near-infrared spectroscopy for differentiating between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD based solely on symptomatic and behavioral assessments can be difficult, even for experts. Thus, the development of a neuroimaging marker that differentiates ASDs from ADHD would be an important contribution to this field. We assessed the differences in prefrontal activation between adults with ASDs and ADHD using an entirely non-invasive and portable neuroimaging tool, near-infrared spectroscopy. This study included 21 drug-naïve adults with ASDs, 19 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and IQ. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were assessed during a stop signal task and a verbal fluency task. During the stop signal task, compared to the control group, the ASDs group exhibited lower activation in a broad prefrontal area, whereas the ADHD group showed underactivation of the right premotor area, right presupplementary motor area, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Significant differences were observed in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex between the ASDs and ADHD groups during the stop signal task. The leave-one-out cross-validation method using mean oxygenated hemoglobin changes yielded a classification accuracy of 81.4% during inhibitory control. These results were task specific, as the brain activation pattern observed during the verbal fluency task did not differentiate the ASDs and ADHD groups significantly. This study therefore provides evidence of a difference in left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during inhibitory control between adults with ASDs and ADHD. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful as an auxiliary tool for the differential diagnosis of such developmental disorders.

  20. Prefrontal activation during inhibitory control measured by near-infrared spectroscopy for differentiating between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Takizawa, Ryu; Nishimura, Yukika; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Matsubayashi, Junko; Hamada, Kasumi; Okuhata, Shiho; Yahata, Noriaki; Igarashi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Shingo; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kato, Nobumasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kano, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based solely on symptomatic and behavioral assessments can be difficult, even for experts. Thus, the development of a neuroimaging marker that differentiates ASDs from ADHD would be an important contribution to this field. We assessed the differences in prefrontal activation between adults with ASDs and ADHD using an entirely non-invasive and portable neuroimaging tool, near-infrared spectroscopy. This study included 21 drug-naïve adults with ASDs, 19 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and IQ. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were assessed during a stop signal task and a verbal fluency task. During the stop signal task, compared to the control group, the ASDs group exhibited lower activation in a broad prefrontal area, whereas the ADHD group showed underactivation of the right premotor area, right presupplementary motor area, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Significant differences were observed in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex between the ASDs and ADHD groups during the stop signal task. The leave-one-out cross-validation method using mean oxygenated hemoglobin changes yielded a classification accuracy of 81.4% during inhibitory control. These results were task specific, as the brain activation pattern observed during the verbal fluency task did not differentiate the ASDs and ADHD groups significantly. This study therefore provides evidence of a difference in left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during inhibitory control between adults with ASDs and ADHD. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful as an auxiliary tool for the differential diagnosis of such developmental disorders. PMID:24298446

  1. Automatic Control of Contextual Interaction Integrated with Affection and Architectural Attentional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Jiang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is still a challenge for robots to interact with complex environments in a smooth and natural manner. The robot should be aware of its surroundings and inner status to make decisions accordingly and appropriately. Contexts benefit the interaction a lot, such as avoiding frequent interruptions (e.g., the explicit inputting requests and thus are essential for interaction. Other challenges, such as shifting attentional focus to a more important stimulus, etc., are also crucial in interaction control. This paper presents a hybrid automatic control approach for interaction, as well as its integration, with these multiple important factors, aiming at performing natural, human‐like interactions in robots. In particular, a novel approach of architectural attentional control, based on affection is presented, which attempts to shift the attentional focus in a natural manner. Context‐aware computing is combined with interaction to endow the robot with proactive abilities. The long‐term interaction control approaches are described. Emotion and personality are introduced into the interaction and their influence mechanism on interaction is explored. We implemented the proposal in an interactive head robot (IHR and the experimental results indicate the effectiveness.

  2. Beneficial Microbes Affect Endogenous Mechanisms Controlling Root Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbon, Eline H; Liberman, Louisa M

    2016-03-01

    Plants have incredible developmental plasticity, enabling them to respond to a wide range of environmental conditions. Among these conditions is the presence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the soil. Recent studies show that PGPR affect Arabidopsis thaliana root growth and development by modulating cell division and differentiation in the primary root and influencing lateral root development. These effects lead to dramatic changes in root system architecture that significantly impact aboveground plant growth. Thus, PGPR may promote shoot growth via their effect on root developmental programs. This review focuses on contextualizing root developmental changes elicited by PGPR in light of our understanding of plant-microbe interactions and root developmental biology. PMID:26875056

  3. Leaf microbiota of strawberries as affected by biological control agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, Justine; Alsanius, Beatrix W; Krüger, Erika; Reineke, Annette; Strohmeier, Stephan; Wohanka, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of biological control agents (BCAs) against Botrytis cinerea in strawberry raises the question of whether there are any undesirable impacts of foliar applications of BCAs on nontarget microorganisms in the phyllosphere. Therefore, our objective was to investigate this issue within a field study. Strawberry plants were repeatedly sprayed with three BCAs—namely, RhizoVital 42 fl. (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42), Trianum-P (Trichoderma harzianum T22), and Naturalis (Beauver...

  4. Does the Environment Responsibility Affect the Management Control System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem DKHILI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature suggests a problem emerging between management controls systems with the new responsibilities that companies must take into consideration. This study examines a system design management control tool orientation as behaviors that can overcome the uncertainties related to the environment and register the company in a voluntary approach which takes into account the environmental dimensions. A questionnaire survey sent to 306 Tunisian industrial companies was conducted. The results of the exploratory and confirmatory analysis are required. The results of the principal component factor analysis evidenced by Cronbach's alpha and KMO test, helped to cleanse the items selected from the literature. Similarly, the results of structural equations with indices of structural adjustment and parcimonies have devoted a good quality adjustment. Overall, findings suggest that most of the firm’s environment is uncertain, more tools to include in its environmental dimensions. On the other hand, the voluntary integration of an environmental approach is part of a strategy of cost leadership in the Tunisian industrial companies.

  5. The differential influences of positive affect, random reward, and performance-contingent reward on cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröber, Kerstin; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that positive affect and reward have differential effects on cognitive control. So far, however, these effects have never been studied together. Here, the authors present one behavioral study investigating the influences of positive affect and reward (contingent and noncontingent) on proactive control. A modified version of the AX-continuous performance task, which has repeatedly been shown to be sensitive to reward and affect manipulations, was used. In a first phase, two experimental groups received either neutral or positive affective pictures before every trial. In a second phase, the two halves of a given affect group additionally received, respectively, performance-contingent or random rewards. The results replicated the typical affect effect, in terms of reduced proactive control under positive as compared to neutral affect. Also, the typical reward effects associated with increased proactive control were replicated. Most interestingly, performance-contingent reward counteracted the positive affect effect, whereas random reward mirrored that effect. In sum, this study provides first evidence that performance-contingent reward, on the one hand, and positive affect and performance-noncontingent reward, on the other hand, have oppositional effects on cognitive control: Only performance-contingent reward showed a motivational effect in terms of a strategy shift toward increased proactive control, whereas positive affect alone and performance-noncontingent reward reduced proactive control. Moreover, the integrative design of this study revealed the vulnerability of positive affect effects to motivational manipulations. The results are discussed with respect to current neuroscientific theories of the effects of dopamine on affect, reward, and cognitive control. PMID:24659000

  6. Factors affecting the quality control of 99Tcm-tetrofosmin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The objective of this study was to investigate the quality control (QC) procedure of 99Tcm-tetrofosmin utilizing the following parameters: type of ITLC-SC media used in the chromatography system; effect of sample size; effect of altering solvent ratios; and comparison with Amprep) column (Amersham). Previously, Geyer et al. (J Nucl Med Technol 1995; 23: 186-189) validated the use of a miniaturized chromatography system utilizing 10 cm x 1 cm ITLC-SG strips instead of the manufacturer's recommended 20 cm x 2 cm, resulting in a more rapid QC procedure. They also investigated the effects of sample size and varying solvent ratios. We decided to utilize the same miniaturized system, since this was a system we used daily. Our method involved running the miniaturized chromatography systems and then analysing the strips on a radiochromatogram scanner. The different media used were ITLC-SG paper with no support (a), with plastic support (b) (c), and with aluminium foil support (d). The effect of various sample sizes (1, 3 and 6 μl) was also investigated. In addition, we wanted to validate the importance of the manufacturer's recommended ratio of the chromatography solvent system (35:65 acetone:dichloromethane) (Myoview, Amersham International, 1996). Furthermore, we assessed the efficacy of the chromatography system against the Amprep column (e). The initial results indicate that there is a difference when different ITLC-SG media and sample sizes are used, so that care must be taken when analysing the results. It must also be noted that the solvent ratio can also have an effect on the result. The Amprep column proves to be a very quick and reliable method for QC of 99Tcm-tetrofosmin

  7. Reversible inactivation of rat premotor cortex impairs temporal preparation, but not inhibitory control, during simple reaction-time performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel J. Smith

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies by our lab and others have established a role for medial areas of the prefrontal cortex (mPFC in the top-down control of action during simple reaction-time (RT tasks. However, the neural circuits that allow mPFC to influence activity in the motor system have remained unclear. In the present study, we used a combination of tract-tracing and reversible inactivation methods to examine the role of a motor-related area in the rat frontal cortex, called the rostral forelimb area (RFA, in the top-down control of action. Neural tracing studies involved used electrical microstimulation to identify RFA and injections of biotinylated dextran amines to map out connections of RFA with other parts of the frontal cortex. Connections were found between RFA and mPFC, the agranular insular cortex, and the primary motor cortex. Reversible inactivations using muscimol infusions into RFA increased response times and eliminated delay-dependent speeding, but did not increase premature responding. These results are markedly different from what is obtained when muscimol is infused into mPFC, which leads to excessive premature responding and a reduction of RTs to stimuli at short delays (Narayanan et al., 2006. We also tested animals during the RT task after inactivating the agranular insular cortex, which contains neurons that projects to and receives from RFA and mPFC, and found no effects on RT performance. Together, these studies suggest that RFA is a premotor region in the rat frontal cortex that competes with mPFC to control action selection. We suggest that RFA controls the threshold that is used to initiate responding and generates prepotent excitation over responding that is crucial for temporal preparation.

  8. Application of an alcohol clamp paradigm to examine inhibitory control, subjective responses, and acute tolerance in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Christian S; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Strang, Nicole M; Markovich, Mike S D; Claus, Eric D; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2015-06-01

    Individual differences in acute alcohol effects on cognitive control and subjective responses--and acute tolerance to these effects--are implicated in the risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related harms. Few studies have examined these effects in drinkers under age 21. Additionally, studies of acute tolerance typically involve bolus oral alcohol administration, such that estimates of tolerance are confounded with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limb. The current study examined cognitive control and subjective responses in young heavy drinkers (n = 88; M = 19.8 years old, SD = 0.8) during a single-session alcohol clamp protocol. Participants completed an intravenous alcohol session comprising an ascending limb (0 to 80 mg% in 20 min) and a BAC plateau (80 mg% for 80 min). Serial assessments included a cued go/no-go task and measures of stimulation, sedation, and craving. Relevant individual difference factors (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] symptoms and sensation seeking) were examined as moderators. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that response inhibition worsened following initial rise in BAC and showed increasing impairment during the BAC plateau. ADHD symptoms and sensation seeking moderated this effect. Significant within-person associations between stimulation and craving were evident on the ascending limb only. Participants with higher ADHD symptoms reported steeper increases in stimulation during the ascending limb. These findings provide initial information about subjective and behavioral responses during pseudoconstant BAC, and potential moderators of these outcomes, in late adolescence. Additional studies with placebo-controlled designs are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:26053322

  9. Interactive effects of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Juyoen; Miller, Gregory A; McDavitt, Jenika R B; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Crocker, Laura D; Infantolino, Zachary P; Towers, David N; Warren, Stacie L; Heller, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have investigated how attentional control is affected by transient affective states while taking individual differences in affective traits into consideration. In this study, participants completed a color-word Stroop task immediately after undergoing a positive, neutral or negative affective context manipulation (ACM). Behavioral performance was unaffected by any ACM considered in isolation. For individuals high in trait negative affect (NA), performance was impaired by the negative but not the positive or neutral ACM. Neuroimaging results indicate that activity in primarily top-down control regions of the brain (inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) was suppressed in the presence of emotional arousal (both negative and positive ACMs). This effect appears to have been exacerbated or offset by co-occurring activity in other top-down control regions (parietal) and emotion processing regions (orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and nucleus accumbens) as a function of the valence of state affect (positive or negative) and trait affect (trait NA or trait PA). Neuroimaging results are consistent with behavioral findings. In combination, they indicate both additive and interactive influences of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention. PMID:25556211

  10. Parental Control and Affect as Predictors of Children's Display Rule Use and Social Competence with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, David J.; Parke, Ross D.

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-six fourth-grade children and their parents participated in a study of the linkages among parental control and positive affect, children's display rule use, and children's social competence with peers. Using observational measures of parental behavior and children's display rule use, it was found that parental positive affect and control…

  11. Role of killer factors in the inhibitory activity of bio-control yeasts against Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus ochraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro da Silva Portes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the antagonism of killer positive yeast strains (isolated from 11 samples of different frozen fruit pulps against the strains of Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus ochraceus. Of the total 41 killer yeasts tested in YM agar, 19 showed antibiosis against P. expansum and A. ochraceus, with inhibition zone ranging from 10 to 18 mm and 10 to 19 mm, respectively. In the following step, the extracellular activity of Kluyveromyces sp. FP4(13 was tested performing the assay in YM broth. The antifungal activity of Kluyveromyces sp. FP4(13 cell-free culture supernatant (25ºC/96 h was more effective against the conidia germination, showing inhibition rates of 93.33 and 86.44% for P. expansum and A. ochraceus, respectively. The micelial growth inhibition was 28.45 and 21.0%, respectively. The antagonism showed by the selected yeasts could be used as a promising alternative tool to reduce and control the postharvest fungal spoilage of the fruits. However, further studies should be carried out in order to better elucidate the role of innocuous characters in antagonistic microorganisms, as well as the purification and characterization of new killer toxins.

  12. Inhibitory effect of gamma irradiation and its application for control of postharvest green mold decay of Satsuma mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Rae-Dong; Chu, Eun-Hee; Lee, Gun Woong; Cho, Chuloh; Park, Hae-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Gamma irradiation has been shown to be effective for the control of postharvest fungi in vitro, but little is known regarding antifungal action, responses to gamma irradiation, and its application to fresh produce. Gamma irradiation was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum on Satsuma mandarin fruits. Green mold was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Gamma irradiation showed a complete inhibition of spore germination, germ tube elongation, and mycelial growth of P. digitatum, particularly at 1.0kGy. To further investigate the mechanisms by which gamma irradiation inhibits fungal growth, the membrane integrity and cellular leakage of conidia were tested, indicating that gamma irradiation results in the loss of plasma membrane integrity, causing the release of intracellular contents such as soluble proteins. In vivo assays demonstrated that established doses can completely inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens, but such high doses cause severe fruit damage. Thus, to eliminate the negative impact on fruit quality, gamma irradiation at lower doses was evaluated for inhibition of P. digitatum, in combination with a chlorine donor, sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione (NaDCC). Interestingly, only a combined treatment with 0.4kGy of gamma irradiation and 10ppm of NaDCC exhibited significant synergistic antifungal activity against green mold decay. The mechanisms by which the combined treatment decreased the green mold decay of mandarin fruits can be directly associated with the disruption of cell membrane of the fungal pathogen, which resulted in a loss of cytoplasmic material from the hyphae. These findings suggest that a synergistic effect of combining treatment with gamma irradiation with NaDCC has potential as an antifungal approach to reduce the severity of green mold in mandarin fruits. PMID:27356109

  13. Nootropic dipeptide noopept enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povarov, I S; Kondratenko, R V; Derevyagin, V I; Ostrovskaya, R U; Skrebitskii, V G

    2015-01-01

    Application of nootropic agent Noopept on hippocampal slices from Wistar rats enhanced the inhibitory component of total current induced by stimulation of Shaffer collaterals in CA1 pyramidal neurons, but did not affect the excitatory component. A direct correlation between the increase in the amplitude of inhibitory current and agent concentration was found. The substance did not affect the release of inhibitory transmitters from terminals in the pyramidal neurons, which indicated changes in GABAergic interneurons. PMID:25573367

  14. Developmental regulation with progressive vision loss: Use of control strategies and affective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver K; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P; Cimarolli, Verena R; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-04-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being, in a sample of 364 older adults diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration. Using longitudinal data from 5 occasions at 6-month intervals, we examined intraindividual change in control strategies, and how it was related to change in affective well-being, in terms of self-rated happiness and depressive symptoms. Mixed model analyses confirmed our hypotheses that (a) intraindividual change, particularly in selective primary control and in compensatory secondary control (CSC), predict change toward higher happiness ratings and lower depression; and (b) as functional abilities (instrumental activities of daily living) declined, CSC became increasingly predictive of better affective well-being. Overall, the findings suggest that CSC strategies are essential for maintaining affective well-being when physical functioning declines. Intensified selective primary control striving may be effective to achieve goals that have become difficult to reach but are not associated with affective well-being, possibly because struggling with difficulties undermines the experience of enjoyable mastery. In contrast, goal adjustments and self-protective thinking may help to find pleasure even from restricted daily activities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845507

  15. Influence of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juris J Meier; Michael A Nauck; Bartholomaeus Kask; Jens J Holst; Carolyn F Deacon; Wolfgang E Schmidt; Baptist Gallwitz

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide is secreted from intestinal K-cells in response to nutrient ingestion and acts as an incretin hormone in human physiology. While animal experiments suggested a role for GIP as an inhibitor of gastric secretion, the GIP effects on gastric acid output in humans are still controversial.METHODS: Pentagastrin was administered at an infusion type 2 diabetes (2 female, 6 male, 54± 10 years, BMI 30.5 ± 2.2 kg/m2; no history of autonomic neuropathy)and 8 healthy subjects (2/6, 46 ± 6 years., 28.9 ± 5.3 kg/ m2). A hyperglycaemic clamp (140 mg/dl) was performed over 240 min. Placebo, GIP at a physiological dose (1 each. Boluses of placebo, 20 pmol GIP/kg, and 80 pmol GIP/kg were injected intravenously at the beginning of each infusion period, respectively. Gastric volume, acid and chloride output were analysed in 15-min intervals.Capillary and venous blood samples were drawn for the determination of glucose and total GIP. Statistics were carried out by repeated-measures ANOVA and one-way ANOVA.RESULTS: Plasma glucose concentrations during the hyperglycaemic clamp experiments were not different between patients with type 2 diabetes and controls.Steady-state GIP plasma levels were 61 ± 8 and 79 ± 12 pmol/l during the low-dose and 327±35 and 327± 17 pmol/l during the high-dose infusion of GIP, in healthy control subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes,respectively (P= 0.23 and p 0.99). Pentagastrin markedly increased gastric acid and chloride secretion (P< 0.001).There were no significant differences in the rates of gastric acid or chloride output between the experimental periods with placebo or any dose of GIP. The temporal patterns of gastric acid and chloride secretion were similar in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls (P= 0.86 and P= 0.61, respectively).CONCLUSION: Pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion is similar in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. GIP administration does not

  16. Early Life Cognitive Abilities and Body Weight: Cross-Sectional Study of the Association of Inhibitory Control, Cognitive Flexibility, and Sustained Attention with BMI Percentiles in Primary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Wirt; Anja Schreiber; Dorothea Kesztyüs; Jürgen M. Steinacker

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitiv...

  17. Prehension Kinematics, Grasping Forces, and Independent Finger Control in Mildly Affected Patients with Essential Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbach, Kasja; Mumm, Mareike; Brandauer, Barbara; Kronenbürger, Martin; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Timmann, Dagmar

    2016-08-01

    Although the pathophysiology of essential tremor (ET), one of the most common movement disorders, is not fully understood, evidence increasingly points to cerebellar involvement. To confirm this connection, we assessed the everyday hand and finger movements of patients with ET, as these movements are known to be affected in cerebellar diseases. In 26 mildly affected patients with ET (compared to age- and gender-matched controls), kinematic and finger force parameters were assessed in a precision grip. In a second task, independent finger movements were recorded. The active finger had to press and release against a force-sensitive keypad while the other fingers stayed inactive. Finally, control of grip force to movement-induced, self-generated load changes was studied. Transport and shaping components during prehension were significantly impaired in patients with ET compared to controls. No significant group differences were observed in independent finger movements and grip force adjustments to self-generated load force changes. However, in the latter two tasks, more severely affected ET patients performed worse than less affected. Although observed deficits in hand and finger movement tasks were small, they are consistent with cerebellar dysfunction in ET. Findings need to be confirmed in future studies examining more severely affected ET patients. PMID:26310449

  18. Early life cognitive abilities and body weight: cross-sectional study of the association of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and sustained attention with BMI percentiles in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494. PMID:25874122

  19. Early Life Cognitive Abilities and Body Weight: Cross-Sectional Study of the Association of Inhibitory Control, Cognitive Flexibility, and Sustained Attention with BMI Percentiles in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Wirt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children’s body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm, a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education, family characteristics (parental body weight, and children’s lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children’s body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility are associated with children’s body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494.

  20. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wyatt I.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Gaskin, John F.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others.

  1. Further Analysis of Variables That Affect Self-Control with Aversive Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Christopher J.; Neef, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine variables that affect self-control in the context of academic task completion by elementary school children with autism. In the baseline assessment of Study 1, mathematics problem completion was shown to be an aversive event, and sensitivity to task magnitude, task difficulty, and delay to task completion…

  2. Alcohol affects the emotional mod ulation of cognitive control: An event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Euser (Anja); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective The present study aimed to determine whether alcohol affects the emotional modulation of cognitive control and its underlying neural mechanisms, which is pivotal to an understanding of the socially maladaptive behaviors frequently seen in alcohol-intoxicated individuals. Method

  3. Factors Affecting Parental Control over Children's Television Viewing: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Lynne Schafer; Walsh, R. Patricia

    1980-01-01

    Presents 10 questions pertaining to the amount of control over television viewing in the home to 100 families. Preliminary evidence included indications that (1) viewing habits are affected by the number of sets in the house and (2) parents who frequently watch television exert greater influence over their children's use. (MER)

  4. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  5. Redefining a Bizarre Situation: Relative Concept Stability in Affect Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    I analyze the process by which we react cognitively to information that contradicts our culturally held sentiments in the context of affect control theory. When bizarre, unanticipated events come to our attention and we have no opportunity to act so as to alter them, we must reidentify at least one event component: the actor, the behavior, or the…

  6. How does a change in the control room design affect diagnostic strategies in nuclear power plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, main control rooms have been considerably changed by modern computer techniques. Some of the features that distinguish digital control rooms from conventional, analog rooms in nuclear power plants include advanced alarm systems, graphic information display systems, computerized procedure systems, and soft control. These features can bring changes in operator tasks, changing the characteristics of tasks or creating new tasks for operators. It is especially expected that these features may bring out changes in the operator's diagnostic tasks and strategies in a digital control room as compared with an analog control room. This study investigates the differences in the operator's diagnostic tasks and strategies in analog and digital control rooms. This study also attempts to evaluate how new systems in a digital control room affect diagnostic strategies. Three different approaches, which are complementary, are used to identify diagnostic strategies in the digital control room and in the analog control room: (1) observation in the simulator, (2) interview with operators, and (3) a literature review. The results show that the digital control room introduces new diagnosis strategies compared with the analog control room while also changing the characteristics of the strategies, mostly by gaining more support from the computerized system. (author)

  7. Effects of l-Tyrosine on working memory and inhibitory control are determined by DRD2 genotypes: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Arning, Larissa; Beste, Christian

    2016-09-01

    l-Tyrosine (TYR), the precursor of dopamine (DA), has been shown to enhance facets of cognitive control in situations with high cognitive demands. However some previous outcomes were mixed: some studies reported significant improvements, while other did not. Given that TYR increases DA level in the brain, we investigated, in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design, whether the C957T genotypes of a functional synonymous polymorphism in the human dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene (rs6277) contribute to individual differences in the reactivity to TYR administration and whether this factor predicts the magnitude of TYR-induced performance differences on inhibiting behavioral responses in a stop-signal task and working memory (WM) updating in a N-back task. Our findings show that T/T homozygotes (i.e., individuals potentially associated with lower striatal DA level) showed larger beneficial effects of TYR supplementation than C/C homozygotes (i.e., individuals potentially associated with higher striatal DA level), suggesting that genetically determined differences in DA function may explain inter-individual differences in response to TYR supplementation. These findings reinforce the idea that genetic predisposition modulates the effect of TYR in its role as cognitive enhancer. PMID:27403851

  8. Approaches to Affective Computing and Learning towards Interactive Decision Making in Process Control Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Chong; LI Hong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Numerous multi-objective decision-making problems related to industrial process control engineering such as control and operation performance evaluation are being resolved through human-computer interactions.With regard to the problems that traditional interactive evolutionary computing approaches suffer i.e.,limited searching ability and human's strong subjectivity in multi-objective-attribute decision-making,a novel affective computing and learning solution adapted to human-computer interaction mechanism is explicitly proposed.Therein,a kind of stimulating response based affective computing model (STAM) is constructed,along with quantitative relations between affective space and human's subjective preferences.Thereafter,affective learning strategies based on genetic algorithms are introduced which are responsible for gradually grasping essentials in human's subjective judgments in decision-making,reducing human's subjective fatigue as well as making the decisions more objective and scientific.Affective learning algorithm's complexity and convergence analysis are shown in Appendices A and B.To exemplify applications of the proposed methods,ad-hoc test functions and PID parameter tuning are suggested as case studies,giving rise to satisfying results and showing validity of the contributions.

  9. Early life trauma is associated with altered white matter integrity and affective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, Vincent; Amick, Melissa A; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2016-08-01

    Early life trauma (ELT) has been shown to impair affective control and attention well into adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have further shown that ELT was associated with decreased white matter integrity in the prefrontal areas in children and adults. However, no study to date has looked at the relationship between white matter integrity and affective control in individuals with and without a history of ELT. To examine this, we tested 240 Veterans with (ELT N = 80) and without (NoELT N = 160) a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse or family violence. Affective control was measured with the Affective Go/No-Go (AGN) and attention was indexed with the Test of Variable Attention (TOVA). White matter integrity was measured using fractional anisotropy (FA). Results showed greater number of errors on the AGN in ELT compared to NoELT. There was no difference on the TOVA. While there were no mean differences in FA, there was an interaction between FA and reaction time to positive stimuli on the AGN where the ELT group showed a positive relationship between FA and reaction time in right frontal and prefrontal areas, whereas the NoELT group showed a negative or no association between FA and reaction time. This suggests that ELT may be associated with a distinct brain-behavior relationship that could be related to other determinants of FA than those present in healthy adults. PMID:27214523

  10. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is...

  11. Psychological mindsets affect consumption: How different mindsets help (hurt) portion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Derek D; He, Sharlene

    2016-08-01

    The present work discusses how psychological mindsets-orientations that affect how consumers encode, interpret, and respond to information- can help, as well as hurt, portion control. To this end, the current article first provides an overview of the general idea of psychological mindsets. Subsequently, evidence from three distinct areas of mindset research is reviewed: power and powerlessness; fixed and growth; promotion and prevention. For each literature, the relevant mindsets are discussed, and their implications for consumer behavior generally and portion control specifically are illuminated. The paper also provides a discussion of gaps in mindset research with consideration given to how to bridge the theoretical development on mindsets to practical applications. PMID:26767613

  12. Deafferentation affects short-term but not long-term control of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    van de Wall, EHEM; Pomp, ER; Strubbe, JH; Scheurink, AJW; Koolhaas, JM; Pomp, Elisabeth R.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2005-01-01

    Deafferentation affects short-term but not long-term control of food intake (PHYSIOL BEHAV XX(X) 000-000, 2005). Rats were treated neonatally with capsaicin (CAP) to investigate the involvement of vagal afferents in food intake control and body weight regulation. In the first set of experiments, rats were offered increasing concentrations of sucrose (10-15-20-40%) in short-term feeding tests of 1 h. At the end, 10% was offered again to see whether CAP rats modified their intake after repeated...

  13. The Role of Self-regulation and Affective Control in Predicting Interpersonal Reactivity of Drug Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Abolghasemi, Abbas; Rajabi, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to its progressive nature in all aspects of life, addiction endangers the health of individuals, families and the society. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the role of self-regulation and affective control in predicting interpersonal reactivity of drug addicts. Materials and Methods This research is a correlation study. The statistical population of this study includes all drug addicts who were referred to addiction treatment centers of Ardabil in 2011 of w...

  14. Factors affecting splanchnic haemodynamics in Crohn's disease: a prospective controlled study using Doppler ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Maconi, G; Parente, F.; Bollani, S; Imbesi, V.; Ardizzone, S; Russo, A.; G. Porro

    1998-01-01

    Background—Current knowledge on splanchnic haemodynamics in Crohn's disease is limited. 
Aims—To investigate which features of Crohn's disease affect splanchnic haemodynamics, and to establish whether portal vein (PV) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood supply reflects clinical or biochemical activity of Crohn's disease. 
Methods—Seventy nine patients with Crohn's disease and 40 controls were evaluated by Doppler ultrasound (US). The mean velocity of PV and SMA flow, ...

  15. Pre-Meal Affective State and Laboratory Test Meal Intake in Adolescent Girls with Loss of Control Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girl...

  16. Components of self-esteem in affective patients and non-psychiatric controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serretti, Alessandro; Olgiati, Paolo; Colombo, Cristina

    2005-09-01

    Decrease in self-esteem (SE) is found in all mood disorders during inter-episode phases. This trait was associated with relapse and suicidality but its genetic basis is still undefined, probably because SE has multiple components. The aim of the current study was to ascertain which of those components were altered in a sample of affective patients. Three hundred and thirty-one outpatients with bipolar (N=199) and major depressive MD (N=132) disorders in remission for at least three months and one hundred controls completed the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; [Rosenberg, M., 1965. The measurement of self-esteem, Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton University Press, pp.16-36]). Principal component analysis was performed to identify RSE factor structure. Extracted factors were compared across case and control groups in the whole sample (N=431) and in a sub-sample (N=301) with low self-esteem (RSE factor solution with self-confidence (SC) and self-deprecation (SD) that was largely consistent with the existing literature. Such factors were both associated with lower scores in affective patients than controls (SC: F=52, pself-confidence was found to be decreased in subjects with mood disorders (SC: F=13.8, pself-esteem deficit in affective disorders might involve specific components. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:16040127

  17. Inhibitory “Noise”

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Destexhe

    2010-01-01

    Cortical neurons in vivo may operate in high-conductance states, in which the major part of the neuron's input conductance is due to synaptic activity, sometimes several-fold larger than the resting conductance. We examine here the contribution of inhibition in such high-conductance states. At the level of the absolute conductance values, several studies have shown that cortical neurons in vivo are characterized by strong inhibitory conductances. However, conductances are balanced and spi...

  18. Intensive blood pressure control affects cerebral blood flow in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Davis, Shyrin C A T; Truijen, Jasper;

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with microvascular complications, hypertension, and impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Intensive blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients reduces their risk of stroke but may affect cerebral perfusion. Systemic hemodynamic...... variables and transcranial Doppler-determined cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), cerebral CO2 responsiveness, and cognitive function were determined after 3 and 6 months of intensive BP control in 17 type 2 diabetic patients with microvascular complications (T2DM+), in 18 diabetic patients without (T2DM...... groups. However, in contrast to nondiabetic hypertensive patients, intensive BP control reduced CBFV in T2DM- (58±9 to 54±12 cm · s-1) and T2DM+ (57±13 to 52±11 cm · s-1) at 3 months, but CBFV returned to baseline at 6 months only in T2DM-, whereas the reduction in CBFV progressed in T2DM+ (to 48±8 cm...

  19. On the (un)controllability of affective priming: strategic manipulation is feasible but can possibly be prevented

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Degner

    2009-01-01

    Three studies are presented that explored if and to what extent affective priming effects in a standard affective priming paradigm are susceptible to voluntary control. Specifically, it was tested was whether participants were able to eliminate or amplify affective priming effects when instructed to

  20. A Behavioral Intervention for War-Affected Youth in Sierra Leone: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.; Brennan, Robert T.; Weisz, John R.; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Youth in war-affected regions are at risk for poor psychological, social, and educational outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to improve mental health, social behavior, and school functioning. This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)–based group mental health intervention for multisymptomatic war-affected youth (aged 15–24 years) in Sierra Leone. Method War-affected youth identified by elevated distress and impairment via community screening were randomized (stratified by sex and age) to the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) (n = 222) or to a control condition (n = 214). After treatment, youth were again randomized and offered an education subsidy immediately (n = 220) or waitlisted (n = 216). Emotion regulation, psychological distress, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, functional impairment, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed at pre- and postintervention and at 6-month follow-up. For youth in school, enrollment, attendance, and classroom performance were assessed after 8 months. Linear mixed-effects regressions evaluated outcomes. Results The YRI showed significant postintervention effects on emotion regulation, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, and reduced functional impairment, and significant follow-up effects on school enrollment, school attendance, and classroom behavior. In contrast, education subsidy was associated with better attendance but had no effect on mental health or functioning, school retention, or classroom behavior. Interactions between education subsidy and YRI were not significant. Conclusion YRI produced acute improvements in mental health and functioning as well as longer-term effects on school engagement and behavior, suggesting potential to prepare war-affected youth for educational and other opportunities. Clinical trial registration information-Trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI

  1. CNVs conferring risk of autism or schizophrenia affect cognition in controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Steinberg, Stacy; Magnusdottir, Brynja; Morgen, Katrin; Arnarsdottir, Sunna; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Walters, G Bragi; Jonsdottir, Gudrun A; Doyle, Orla M; Tost, Heike; Grimm, Oliver; Kristjansdottir, Solveig; Snorrason, Heimir; Davidsdottir, Solveig R; Gudmundsson, Larus J; Jonsson, Gudbjorn F; Stefansdottir, Berglind; Helgadottir, Isafold; Haraldsson, Magnus; Jonsdottir, Birna; Thygesen, Johan H; Schwarz, Adam J; Didriksen, Michael; Stensbøl, Tine B; Brammer, Michael; Kapur, Shitij; Halldorsson, Jonas G; Hreidarsson, Stefan; Saemundsen, Evald; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-16

    In a small fraction of patients with schizophrenia or autism, alleles of copy-number variants (CNVs) in their genomes are probably the strongest factors contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. These CNVs may provide an entry point for investigations into the mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction alike. They are not fully penetrant and offer an opportunity to study their effects separate from that of manifest disease. Here we show in an Icelandic sample that a few of the CNVs clearly alter fecundity (measured as the number of children by age 45). Furthermore, we use various tests of cognitive function to demonstrate that control subjects carrying the CNVs perform at a level that is between that of schizophrenia patients and population controls. The CNVs do not all affect the same cognitive domains, hence the cognitive deficits that drive or accompany the pathogenesis vary from one CNV to another. Controls carrying the chromosome 15q11.2 deletion between breakpoints 1 and 2 (15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion) have a history of dyslexia and dyscalculia, even after adjusting for IQ in the analysis, and the CNV only confers modest effects on other cognitive traits. The 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion affects brain structure in a pattern consistent with both that observed during first-episode psychosis in schizophrenia and that of structural correlates in dyslexia. PMID:24352232

  2. Hypersomnia in children affected by migraine without aura: a questionnaire-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Michele Roccella,2 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical, and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: The relationship between sleep and headache is meaningful and complex. Children affected by migraines tend to show many sleep disorders, such as insufficient sleep duration and excessive daytime somnolence. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the rate of reported sleep habits and self-reported sleepiness in a large pediatric sample of individuals affected by migraine without aura (MoA.Methods: The study population consisted of 271 children aged between 6 and 13 years affected by MoA. The control group was composed of 305 typically developing children. To assess the sleep habits of all individuals (MoA and control, parents filled out the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, and to check the degree of subjective perceived daytime sleepiness, all subjects were administered the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale.Results: The two study groups were matched for age (P = 0.124, sex distribution (P = 0.775, and body mass index z-score (P = 0.107. Parents of children affected by MoA reported a higher total score of sleep disorder symptoms (P < 0.001, disorders of initiating and maintaining (P < 0.001, and disorders of arousal (P < 0.001 than did parents of controls. No significant differences were found in disorders of excessive somnolence. Conversely, in the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale, migraine children had higher scores (24.67 ± 3.19 vs 11.94 ± 4.81; P < 0.001 and a reduction in referred total sleep time mean duration (469.83 ± 98.112 vs 527.94 ± 83.02; P < 0.001 than typically

  3. COMT genetic variation confers risk for psychotic and affective disorders: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencz Todd

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in the COMT gene has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including psychotic, affective and anxiety disorders. The majority of these studies have focused on the functional Val108/158Met polymorphism and yielded conflicting results, with limited studies examining the relationship between other polymorphisms, or haplotypes, and psychiatric illness. We hypothesized that COMT variation may confer a general risk for psychiatric disorders and have genotyped four COMT variants (Val158Met, rs737865, rs165599, and a SNP in the P2 promoter [-278A/G; rs2097603] in 394 Caucasian cases and 467 controls. Cases included patients with schizophrenia (n = 196, schizoaffective disorder (n = 62, bipolar disorder (n = 82, major depression (n = 30, and patients diagnosed with either psychotic disorder NOS or depressive disorder NOS (n = 24. Results SNP rs2097603, the Val/Met variant and SNP rs165599 were significantly associated (p = 0.004; p = 0.05; p = 0.035 with a broad "all affected" diagnosis. Haplotype analysis revealed a potentially protective G-A-A-A haplotype haplotype (-278A/G; rs737865; Val108/158Met; rs165599, which was significantly underrepresented in this group (p = 0.0033 and contained the opposite alleles of the risk haplotype previously described by Shifman et al. Analysis of diagnostic subgroups within the "all affecteds group" showed an association of COMT in patients with psychotic disorders as well as in cases with affective illness although the associated variants differed. The protective haplotype remained significantly underrepresented in most of these subgroups. Conclusion Our results support the view that COMT variation provides a weak general predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease including psychotic and affective disorders.

  4. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Protozoan Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bozza, Marcelo T.; Martins, Yuri C.; Carneiro, Letícia A. M.; Claudia N. Paiva

    2012-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that plays a central role in immune and inflammatory responses. In the present paper, we discussed the participation of MIF in the immune response to protozoan parasite infections. As a general trend, MIF participates in the control of parasite burden at the expense of promoting tissue damage due to increased inflammation.

  5. Sex hormones affect language lateralisation but not cognitive control in normally cycling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Weis, Susanne; Hausmann, Markus

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". Natural fluctuations of sex hormones during the menstrual cycle have been shown to modulate language lateralisation. Using the dichotic listening (DL) paradigm, a well-established measurement of language lateralisation, several studies revealed that the left hemispheric language dominance was stronger when levels of estradiol were high. A recent study (Hjelmervik et al., 2012) showed, however, that high levels of follicular estradiol increased lateralisation only in a condition that required participants to cognitively control (top-down) the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) response. This finding suggested that sex hormones modulate lateralisation only if cognitive control demands are high. The present study investigated language lateralisation in 73 normally cycling women under three attention conditions that differed in cognitive control demands. Saliva estradiol and progesterone levels were determined by luminescence immunoassays. Women were allocated to a high or low estradiol group. The results showed a reduced language lateralisation when estradiol and progesterone levels were high. The effect was independent of the attention condition indicating that estradiol marginally affected cognitive control. The findings might suggest that high levels of estradiol especially reduce the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) aspect of lateralisation rather than top-down cognitive control. PMID:26145565

  6. Affective-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Woolfolk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of an individually administered form of cognitive behavioral treatment for fibromyalgia. In an additive design, 76 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to either the experimental treatment (affective-cognitive behavioral therapy, 10 individual sessions, one per week administered concurrently with treatment-as-usual or to an unaugmented treatment-as-usual condition. Statistical analysis conducted at the end of treatment (3 months after the baseline assessment and at a followup (9 months after the baseline assessment indicated that the patients receiving the experimental treatment reported less pain and overall better functioning than control patients, both at posttreatment and at followup. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  7. How Work Organization Affects the Prevalence of WMSDs:A Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lu; CHEN Song Gen; TANG Shi Chuan; WANG Sheng; HE Li Hua; GUO Ze Hua; LI Jing Yun; YU Shan Fa; WANG Zhong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed at exploring the association between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and work organization based on a case-control study. Methods A total of 1938 workers who claimed to suffer from WMSDs were selected from Beijing, Henan, Hubei, and the Guangdong province. The control group consisted of 2009 workers employed in similar industries without severe disease or musculoskeletal discomforts. We used a modified version of the questionnaire developed by the NMQ and the DMQ to investigate individual and work-related factors. Results A total of 13 variables (P Conclusion Work organization may have comprehensive effects on the occurrence of WMSDs. This pattern of associations suggests that further investigation into the mechanism of how work organization affects the prevalence of WMSDs is required.

  8. Extending Brain-Training to the Affective Domain: Increasing Cognitive and Affective Executive Control through Emotional Working Memory Training

    OpenAIRE

    Schweizer, Susanne; Hampshire, Adam; Dalgleish, Tim

    2011-01-01

    So-called ‘brain-training’ programs are a huge commercial success. However, empirical evidence regarding their effectiveness and generalizability remains equivocal. This study investigated whether brain-training (working memory [WM] training) improves cognitive functions beyond the training task (transfer effects), especially regarding the control of emotional material since it constitutes much of the information we process daily. Forty-five participants received WM training using either emot...

  9. Controlled Cu nanoparticle growth on wrinkle affecting deposition of large scale graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohsin; Uddin, Md Jasim; Rahman, Muhammad Anisur; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2016-09-01

    For Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) grown graphene on Cu substrate, deviation from atomic orientation in crystals may be resulted from diffusion of abnormalities in the form of Cu nanoparticle (NP) formation or defects and affects graphene quality and properties drastically. However, for the uniform graphene deposition, mechanism of nanoparticle formation and its suppression procedure need to be better understood. We report growth of graphene, affected by Cu nanoparticles (NPs) emergence on Cu substrates. In the current study, growth of these nanoparticles has been suppressed by fine tuning of carrier gas by two-fold gas insertion mechanism and hence, quality and uniformity of graphene is significantly improved. It has been also observed that during the deposition by CVD, Cu nanoparticles cluster preferentially on wrinkles or terrace of the Cu surface. Composition of NP is extensively studied and found to be the oxide nanoparticle of Cu. Our result, controlled NP growth affecting deposition of graphene layer would provide useful insight on the growth of uniform and high quality Single layer or bilayer graphene for numerous electronics applications.

  10. Secretion, degradation, and elimination of glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with chronic renal insufficiency and healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A; Kranz, Daniel; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Gaeckler, Dirk; Schmidt, Wolfgang E; Gallwitz, Baptist

    2004-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) are important factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and have a promising therapeutic potential. Alterations of their secretion, in vivo degradation, and elimination in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI......, C-peptide, GLP-1 (total and intact), and GIP (total and intact; specific immunoassays). Plasma levels of GIP (3-42) and GLP-1 (9-36 amide) were calculated. Statistics were performed using repeated-measures and one-way ANOVA. After the oral glucose load, plasma concentrations of intact GLP-1 and...... elimination of GIP and GLP-1. The initial dipeptidyl peptidase IV-mediated degradation of both hormones is almost unaffected by impairments in renal function. Delayed elimination of GLP-1 and GIP in renal insufficiency may influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dipeptidyl peptidase IV...

  11. Affect-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression and anxiety through the Internet: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Johansson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a psychological treatment approach that has a growing empirical base. Research has indicated an association between therapist-facilitated affective experience and outcome in psychodynamic therapy. Affect-phobia therapy (APT, as outlined by McCullough et al., is a psychodynamic treatment that emphasizes a strong focus on expression and experience of affect. This model has neither been evaluated for depression nor anxiety disorders in a randomized controlled trial. While Internet-delivered psychodynamic treatments for depression and generalized anxiety disorder exist, they have not been based on APT. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-based, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT for depression and anxiety disorders. Methods. One hundred participants with diagnoses of mood and anxiety disorders participated in a randomized (1:1 ratio controlled trial of an active group versus a control condition. The treatment group received a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT that was delivered through the Internet. The treatment consisted of eight text-based treatment modules and included therapist contact (9.5 min per client and week, on average in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group also received online therapist support and clinical monitoring of symptoms, but received no treatment modules. Outcome measures were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9 and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7. Process measures were also included. All measures were administered weekly during the treatment period and at a 7-month follow-up. Results. Mixed models analyses using the full intention-to-treat sample revealed significant interaction effects of group and time on all outcome measures, when comparing treatment to the control group. A large between-group effect

  12. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Pesce, Caterina; Chiang, Yi-Te; Kuo, Cheng-Yuh; Fong, Dong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity. PMID:25914634

  13. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai eChang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT, with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate-intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.

  14. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients With Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghaei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases. PMID:26234976

  15. Pre-meal affective state and laboratory test meal intake in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-09-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girls with reported loss of control eating whose body mass index fell between the 75th and 97th percentile for age and sex completed state mood ratings prior to a test-meal. Results indicated that pre-meal state negative affect was associated with greater carbohydrate and less protein consumption, as well as greater snack and dessert and less fruit and dairy intake. All girls experienced significant decreases in negative affect from pre- to post-meal, but intake during the meal was unassociated with post-meal affect. In support of affect theory, negative affective states reported among girls with loss of control may be a driving factor for increased energy-dense food intake, which may play a role in excess weight gain. PMID:23603224

  16. Therapeutic control of plasma concentrations and long-term effect of nortriptyline in recurrent affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh-Sørensen; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-07-01

    Based on the evidence that therapeutic plasma concentration range in fact exists for the tricyclic antidepressant drug, Nortriptyline (range 50-150 ng/ml), three different investigations were under taken in order to clarify some clinical pharmacological problems during long-term treatment with this drug. The possible prophlactic effect of the drug in recurrent affective disorders was specially examined in a group of patients with a high risk of episodes in their unipolar manic-depressive disease. The results highly demonstrate the value of monitoring plasma levels in achieving therapeutic control. Depressive relapses during treatment, for months and years, were only related to therapeutic insufficient plasma levels of the drug. PMID:981330

  17. Important factors affecting fault detection coverage in probabilistic safety assessment of digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems are gradually introduced into nuclear power plants (NPPs), concerns about the I and C systems’ reliability and safety are growing. Fault detection coverage is one of the most critical factors in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of digital I and C systems. To correctly estimate the fault detection coverage, it is first necessary to identify important factors affecting it. From experimental results found in the literature and the authors’ experience in fault injection experiments on digital systems, four system-related factors and four fault-related factors are identified as important factors affecting the fault detection coverage. A fault injection experiment is performed to demonstrate the dependency of fault detection coverage on some of the identified important factors. The implications of the experimental results on the estimation of fault detection coverage for the PSA of digital I and C systems are also explained. The set of four system-related factors and four fault-related factors is expected to provide a framework for systematically comparing and analyzing various fault injection experiments and the resultant estimations on fault detection coverage of digital I and C systems in NPPs. (author)

  18. Pregnant women affected by thalassemia major: A controlled study of traits and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Messina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods: This is a preliminary cross-sectional study involving 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. The personality structure was evaluated by Rorschach′s test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results: Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group (45% vs. 3%, p < 0.001, mean and SD values are 1.65 ΁ 0.15 vs. 0.43 ± 0.18 for anxiety; 55% vs. 12%, p < 0.001, mean and SD values are 1.76 ± 0.18 vs. 0.85 ± 0.25 for depression. The score observed with the STAI shows that the trait of anxiety differed between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the score values aren′t pathologic in neither group (87% vs. 42%, p < 0.05, mean and SD values are 33 ± 0.8 vs. 22 ± 0.2. Conclusions: This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated.

  19. Emotional modulation of control dilemmas: the role of positive affect, reward, and dopamine in cognitive stability and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschke, Thomas; Bolte, Annette

    2014-09-01

    Goal-directed action in changing environments requires a dynamic balance between complementary control modes, which serve antagonistic adaptive functions (e.g., to shield goals from competing responses and distracting information vs. to flexibly switch between goals and behavioral dispositions in response to significant changes). Too rigid goal shielding promotes stability but incurs a cost in terms of perseveration and reduced flexibility, whereas too weak goal shielding promotes flexibility but incurs a cost in terms of increased distractibility. While research on cognitive control has long been conducted relatively independently from the study of emotion and motivation, it is becoming increasingly clear that positive affect and reward play a central role in modulating cognitive control. In particular, evidence from the past decade suggests that positive affect not only influences the contents of cognitive processes, but also modulates the balance between complementary modes of cognitive control. In this article we review studies from the past decade that examined effects of induced positive affect on the balance between cognitive stability and flexibility with a focus on set switching and working memory maintenance and updating. Moreover, we review recent evidence indicating that task-irrelevant positive affect and performance-contingent rewards exert different and sometimes opposite effects on cognitive control modes, suggesting dissociations between emotional and motivational effects of positive affect. Finally, we critically review evidence for the popular hypothesis that effects of positive affect may be mediated by dopaminergic modulations of neural processing in prefrontal and striatal brain circuits, and we refine this "dopamine hypothesis of positive affect" by specifying distinct mechanisms by which dopamine may mediate effects of positive affect and reward on cognitive control. We conclude with a discussion of limitations of current research, point to

  20. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: An experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eMartínez-Iñigo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation –the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others– occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behaviour that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agents´ resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on targets´ feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers’ resource depletion, measured as self-reported actual and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78 were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving x 2(patients’ feedback: positive vs. negative factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent´s strategy and the target´s response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as

  1. Current Limitations in the Control and Spread of Ticks that Affect Livestock: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Estrada-Peña

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are well-known parasites that affect livestock productivity. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding the spread of ticks with their impact in animal health and the limitations to achieve effective control measures. The forecasted trends in climate play an obvious role in promoting the spread of ticks in several regions. It appears that climate warming is pivotal in the spread and colonization of new territories by Rhipicephalus microplus in several regions of Africa. The reported increase in altitude of this tick species in the mountainous regions of Central and South America appears to be driven by such general trends in climate change. This factor, however, is not the only single contributor to the spread of ticks. The poor management of farms, uncontrolled movements of domestic animals, abundance of wild animals, and absence of an adequate framework to capture the ecological plasticity of certain ticks may explain the complexity of the control measures. In this paper, we review several details regarding the relationships of ticks with the environment, wild fauna and competition with other species of ticks. Our intention is to highlight these relationships with the aim to produce a coherent framework to explore tick ecology and its relationship with animal production systems.

  2. Factors affecting Diatomaceous Earth effectiveness in the control of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a potential alternative to control the lesser mealworm of poultry farms Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer). Our study aimed to understand the role of some of the environmental and insect behavioral factors play on DE effectiveness, such as the substrate (chicken food and poultry house litter), temperature and DE repellent activity on lesser mealworm adults. Mortality was higher at the highest temperature (32 deg C), and it increased with DE concentration (53 and 84% respectively, for concentrations of 86 and 172 g/m2) (P < 0.05). The substrate also influenced DE effectiveness: 95% mortality was observed in the feed, against 4% in the poultry litter. Part of these results can be attributed to the removal of DE particles by the poultry bedding, as supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and rhodamine concentration on the surface of the insects. As to insect behavior, DE had a repellent effect, since trap capture decreased nearly 50% in traps containing DE as opposed to those containing only food. Therefore, environmental factors do affect the DE effectiveness, and they must be taken into consideration when looking into developing control strategies in the field. (author)

  3. [Factors affecting Diatomaceous earth effectiveness in the control of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luis F A; Oliveira, Daian G P; Neves, Pedro M O J

    2008-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a potential alternative to control the lesser mealworm of poultry farms Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer). Our study aimed to understand the role of some of the environmental and insect behavioral factors play on DE effectiveness, such as the substrate (chicken food and poultry house litter), temperature and DE repellent activity on lesser mealworm adults. Mortality was higher at the highest temperature (32 masculineC), and it increased with DE concentration (53 and 84% respectively, for concentrations of 86 and 172 g/m(2)) (P litter. Part of these results can be attributed to the removal of DE particles by the poultry bedding, as supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and rhodamine concentration on the surface of the insects. As to insect behavior, DE had a repellent effect, since trap capture decreased nearly 50% in traps containing DE as opposed to those containing only food. Therefore, environmental factors do affect the DE effectiveness, and they must be taken into consideration when looking into developing control strategies in the field. PMID:19169561

  4. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cettour-Rose Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  5. Chronic Treatment with Ivabradine Does Not Affect Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda C; Paiva, Franciny A; Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia C; Caldeira, Henrique M A; Fontes, Marco A P; de Menezes, Rodrigo C A; Casali, Karina R; Fortes, Gláucia H; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Solbiati, Monica; Montano, Nicola; Dias Da Silva, Valdo J; Chianca, Deoclécio A

    2016-01-01

    A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine-a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days. Rats were submitted to vessels cannulation to perform arterial blood pressure (AP) and HR recordings in freely moving rats. Time series of resting pulse interval and systolic AP were used to measure cardiovascular variability parameters. We also assessed the baroreflex, chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarish reflex sensitivities. To better evaluate the effects of ivabradine on the autonomic control of the heart, we performed sympathetic and vagal autonomic blockade. As expected, ivabradine-treated rats showed a lower resting (VEH: 362 ± 16 bpm vs. IVA: 260 ± 14 bpm, p = 0.0005) and intrinsic HR (VEH: 369 ± 9 bpm vs. IVA: 326 ± 11 bpm, p = 0.0146). However, the chronic treatment with ivabradine did not change normalized HR spectral parameters LF (nu) (VEH: 24.2 ± 4.6 vs. IVA: 29.8 ± 6.4; p > 0.05); HF (nu) (VEH: 75.1 ± 3.7 vs. IVA: 69.2 ± 5.8; p > 0.05), any cardiovascular reflexes, neither the tonic autonomic control of the HR (tonic sympathovagal index; VEH: 0.91± 0.02 vs. IVA: 0.88 ± 0.03, p = 0.3494). We performed the AP, HR and RSNA recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats. The chronic treatment with ivabradine reduced the resting HR (VEH: 364 ± 12 bpm vs. IVA: 207 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.0001), without affecting RSNA (VEH: 117 ± 16 vs. IVA: 120 ± 9 spikes/s, p = 0.9100) and mean arterial pressure (VEH: 70 ± 4 vs. IVA: 77 ± 6 mmHg, p

  6. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Nicos A; Babon, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is the most pleiotropic member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines. It utilises a receptor that consists of the LIF receptor β and gp130 and this receptor complex is also used by ciliary neurotrophic growth factor (CNTF), oncostatin M, cardiotrophin1 (CT1) and cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC). Despite common signal transduction mechanisms (JAK/STAT, MAPK and PI3K) LIF can have paradoxically opposite effects in different cell types including stimulating or inhibiting each of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. While LIF can act on a wide range of cell types, LIF knockout mice have revealed that many of these actions are not apparent during ordinary development and that they may be the result of induced LIF expression during tissue damage or injury. Nevertheless LIF does appear to have non-redundant actions in maternal receptivity to blastocyst implantation, placental formation and in the development of the nervous system. LIF has also found practical use in the maintenance of self-renewal and totipotency of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:26187859

  7. Antibacterial and biofilm inhibitory activities of bacteria associated with polychaetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellamnadar Vaikundavasagom Sunjaiy Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities expressed by epibiotic bacteria associated with the polychaetes Platynereis dumerilii and Syllis sp. Methods: A total of 32 cultivable bacterial strains were isolated from the two polychaete species. The crude extracts were tested for antibacterial activity and biofilm inhibitory activity against pathogenic and biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Extracts of the strains which showed strong activity were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC and the bacterial strains were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Extracts of 13 bacterial strains showed inhibitory activity against pathogenic and biofilm-forming bacteria. The crude extracts also affected the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances and cell surface hydrophobicity of the Alteromonas sp. isolated from marine biofilm. The adhesion of Alteromonas sp. on glass surface showed significant variation between surface-associated bacterial crude extract treatment and control groups. Among the 13 bacteria, two strains PA8 and PA19 were further analyzed for bioactive fractions. Thinlayer chromatography indicated the presence of a single active fraction in the crude extract of both the bacterial strains. The epibiotic bacterial strains P8 and P19 were identified as Exiguobacterium sp. and Actinobacterium sp. respectively based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Conclusions: The present study indicates that bacteria associated with marine invertebrates inhabiting the coastal waters could be used as a potential source for the isolation of bioactive metabolites.

  8. Marital Estrangement, Positive Affect, and Locus of Control among Spouses of Workaholics and Spouses of Nonworkaholics: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bryan E.; Carroll, Jane E.; Flowers, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    Compared a sample of spouses of workaholics and spouses of nonworkaholics on ratings of marital estrangement, positive feelings toward husband, and locus of control. Spouses of workaholics reported greater marital estrangement and less positive affect towards husbands and higher external locus of control than did spouses of nonworkaholics. (BF)

  9. The Biochemical Anatomy of Cortical Inhibitory Synapses

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, E.A.; Zhang, W.; Selimi, F.; Earnheart, J.C.; Slimak, M.A.; Santos-Torres, J.; Ibanez-Tallon, I.; Aoki, C; Chait, B. T.; Heintz, N

    2012-01-01

    Classical electron microscopic studies of the mammalian brain revealed two major classes of synapses, distinguished by the presence of a large postsynaptic density (PSD) exclusively at type 1, excitatory synapses. Biochemical studies of the PSD have established the paradigm of the synapse as a complex signal-processing machine that controls synaptic plasticity. We report here the results of a proteomic analysis of type 2, inhibitory synaptic complexes isolated by affinity purification from th...

  10. Muscular Contraction Mode Differently Affects Autonomic Control During Heart Rate Matched Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eWeippert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. Aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN and isometric contractions (ISO at a similar, low heart rate (HR level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively, rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a nonlinear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated.

  11. Function approximation in inhibitory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Bryan; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-05-01

    In performance-optimized artificial neural networks, such as convolutional networks, each neuron makes excitatory connections with some of its targets and inhibitory connections with others. In contrast, physiological neurons are typically either excitatory or inhibitory, not both. This is a puzzle, because it seems to constrain computation, and because there are several counter-examples that suggest that it may not be a physiological necessity. Parisien et al. (2008) showed that any mixture of excitatory and inhibitory functional connections could be realized by a purely excitatory projection in parallel with a two-synapse projection through an inhibitory population. They showed that this works well with ratios of excitatory and inhibitory neurons that are realistic for the neocortex, suggesting that perhaps the cortex efficiently works around this apparent computational constraint. Extending this work, we show here that mixed excitatory and inhibitory functional connections can also be realized in networks that are dominated by inhibition, such as those of the basal ganglia. Further, we show that the function-approximation capacity of such connections is comparable to that of idealized mixed-weight connections. We also study whether such connections are viable in recurrent networks, and find that such recurrent networks can flexibly exhibit a wide range of dynamics. These results offer a new perspective on computation in the basal ganglia, and also perhaps on inhibitory networks within the cortex. PMID:26963256

  12. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed. PMID:26194850

  13. Controlled cortical impact before or after fear conditioning does not affect fear extinction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Mercado, Demetrio; McAllister, Lauren M; Lee, Christopher C H; Milad, Mohammed R; Eskandar, Emad N; Whalen, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized in part by impaired extinction of conditioned fear. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to be a risk factor for development of PTSD. We tested the hypothesis that controlled cortical impact (CCI) would impair extinction of fear learned by Pavlovian conditioning, in mice. To mimic the scenarios in which TBI occurs prior to or after exposure to an aversive event, severe CCI was delivered to the left parietal cortex at one of two time points: (1) Prior to fear conditioning, or (2) after conditioning. Delay auditory conditioning was achieved by pairing a tone with a foot shock in "context A". Extinction training involved the presentation of tones in a different context (context B) in the absence of foot shock. Test for extinction memory was achieved by presentation of additional tones alone in context B over the following two days. In pre- or post-injury paradigms, CCI did not influence fear learning and extinction. Furthermore, CCI did not affect locomotor activity or elevated plus maze testing. Our results demonstrate that, within the time frame studied, CCI does not impair the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear or extinction memory. PMID:25721797

  14. Austenite grain growth and microstructure control in simulated heat affected zones of microalloyed HSLA steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The roles of microalloying niobium, titanium and vanadium for controlling austenite grain growth, microstructure evolution and hardness were investigated at different simulated heat affected zones (HAZ) for high strength low alloy (HSLA) S690QL steel. High resolution FEG-SEM has been used to characterize fine bainitic ferrite, martensite and nanosized second phases at simulated coarse and fine grain HAZs. It was found that for Ti bearing steel (Ti/N ratio is 2) austenite grain had the slowest growth rate due to the presence of most stable TiN. The fine cuboidal particles promoted intragranular acicular ferrite (IGF) formation. Nb bearing steel exhibited relatively weaker grain growth retardation compared with titanium bearing steels and a mixed microstructure of bainite and martensite was present for all simulated HAZs. IGF existed at coarse grain HAZ of Ti+V bearing steel but it was totally replaced by bainite at fine grain HAZs. Hardness result was closely related to the morphology of bainitic ferrite, intragranular ferrite and second phases within ferrite. The microstructure and hardness results of different simulated HAZs were in good agreement with welded experimental results

  15. Austenite grain growth and microstructure control in simulated heat affected zones of microalloyed HSLA steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei [Department of Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University of Berlin, Pascalstraße 8 – 9, 10587, Berlin (Germany); Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin (Germany); Kannengiesser, Thomas [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin (Germany); Institute of Materials and Joining Technology, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Universitetsplatz 2, 39106, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2014-09-08

    The roles of microalloying niobium, titanium and vanadium for controlling austenite grain growth, microstructure evolution and hardness were investigated at different simulated heat affected zones (HAZ) for high strength low alloy (HSLA) S690QL steel. High resolution FEG-SEM has been used to characterize fine bainitic ferrite, martensite and nanosized second phases at simulated coarse and fine grain HAZs. It was found that for Ti bearing steel (Ti/N ratio is 2) austenite grain had the slowest growth rate due to the presence of most stable TiN. The fine cuboidal particles promoted intragranular acicular ferrite (IGF) formation. Nb bearing steel exhibited relatively weaker grain growth retardation compared with titanium bearing steels and a mixed microstructure of bainite and martensite was present for all simulated HAZs. IGF existed at coarse grain HAZ of Ti+V bearing steel but it was totally replaced by bainite at fine grain HAZs. Hardness result was closely related to the morphology of bainitic ferrite, intragranular ferrite and second phases within ferrite. The microstructure and hardness results of different simulated HAZs were in good agreement with welded experimental results.

  16. An analysis of factors affecting local control and survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to find out the prognostic factors affecting local control, survival and disease free survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinomas treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We analysed 47 patients of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, histologically confirmed and treated at Chonnam University Hospital between July 1986 and June 1996, retrospectively. Range of patients' age were from 16 to 80 years (median; 52 years). Thirty three (70%) patients was male. Histological types were composed of 3 (6%) keratinizing, 30 (64%) nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and 13 (28%) undifferentiated carcinoma. Histological type was not known in 1 patient (2%). We restaged according to the staging system of 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer. Forty seven patients were recorded as follows:T1; 11 (23%), T2a; 6 (13%), T2b; 9 (19%), T3; 7 (15%), T4; 14 (30%), and NO; 7 (15%), N1; 14 (30%), N2; 21 (45%), N3; 5 (10%). Clinical staging was grouped as follows: Stage 1; 2 (4%), IIA; 2 (4%), IIB; 10 (21%), III; 14 (30%), IVA; 14 (30%) and IVB; 5 (11%). Radiation therapy was done using 6 MV and 10 MV X-ray of linear accelerator. Electron beam was used for the lymph nodes of posterior neck after 4500 cGy. The range of total radiation dose delivered to the primary tumor was from 6120 to 7920 cGy (median; 7020 cGy). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed with cisplatin+5-fluorouracil (25 patients) or cisplatin+pepleomycin (17 patients) with one to three cycles. Five patients did not received chemotherapy. Local control rate, survival and disease free survival rate were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Generalized Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the difference of survival rates between groups. Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard model was done for finding prognostic factors. Local control rate was 81% in 5 year. Five year survival rate was 60% (median survival; 106 months). We included age, sex, cranial nerve deficit, histologic type, stage

  17. Age-related decreased inhibitory versus excitatory gene expression in the adult autistic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Nathan van de Lagemaat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by impaired social interaction and communication, and restricted behaviour and interests. A disruption in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission has been hypothesised to underlie these disorders. Here we demonstrate that genes of both pathways are affected by ASD, and that gene expression of inhibitory and excitatory genes is altered in the cerebral cortex of adult but not younger autistic individuals. We have developed a measure for the difference in the level of excitation and inhibition based on gene expression and observe that in this measure inhibition is decreased relative to excitation in adult ASD compared to control. This difference was undetectable in young autistic brains. Given that many psychiatric features of autism are already present at an early age, this suggests that the observed imbalance in gene expression is an ageing phenomenon in ASD rather than its underlying cause.

  18. Acaricide Treatment Affects Viral Dynamics in Varroa destructor-Infested Honey Bee Colonies via both Host Physiology and Mite Control

    OpenAIRE

    Locke, B.; Forsgren, E.; Fries, I; Miranda, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate)...

  19. Improving outcomes for caregivers through treatment of young people affected by war: a randomized controlled trial in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    McBain, Ryan K.; Carmel Salhi; Katrina Hann; Jim Kellie; Alimamy Kamara; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kim, Jane J.; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To measure the benefits to household caregivers of a psychotherapeutic intervention for adolescents and young adults living in a war-affected area. Methods Between July 2012 and July 2013, we carried out a randomized controlled trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention - a cognitive-behavioural intervention for war-affected young people who exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms and conduct problems - in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Overall, 436 participants aged 15-24 years ...

  20. Improving outcomes for caregivers through treatment of young people affected by war: a randomized controlled trial in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    McBain, Ryan K.; Salhi, Carmel; Hann, Katrina; Kellie, Jim; Kamara, Alimamy; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kim, Jane J.; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To measure the benefits to household caregivers of a psychotherapeutic intervention for adolescents and young adults living in a war-affected area. Methods: Between July 2012 and July 2013, we carried out a randomized controlled trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention – a cognitive–behavioural intervention for war-affected young people who exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms and conduct problems – in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Overall, 436 participants aged 15–24 years ...

  1. A pharmacodynamic analysis of factors affecting recovery from anesthesia with propofol-remifentanil target controlled infusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bon-nyeo KOO; Jeong-rim LEE; Gyu-jeong NOH; Jae-hoon LEE; Young-ran KANG; Dong-woo HAN

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To examine individual patient's demographic parameters and clinical variables related to return of consciousness (ROC) and the pharmacodynamic relationship between propofol effect-site concentration (Ce) and ROC from propofol-remifentanil anesthesia.Methods:Ninety-four patients received propofol-remifentanil anesthesia using the effect-site target-controlled infusion (TCI) system.All clinical events were noted,and variables possibly related to propofol Ce at ROC were examined using linear correlation analyses.Pharmacodynamic modeling incorporating covariates was performed using NONMEM (Nonlinear Mixed Effects Modeling) Ⅶ software.Results:The Ce values of propofol at loss of consciousness (LOC) and ROC were 4.4±1.1 μg/mL and 1.1±0.3 μg/mL respectively.Age was negatively correlated with propofol Ce at ROC (r=-0.48,P<0.01).Including age as a covariate in Ce50 (the effect-site concentration associated with 50% probability of return of consciousness) and λ (the steepness of the concentration-versus-response relationship) significantly improved the performance of the basic model based on the likelihood ratio test,with a significant decrease in the minimum value of the objective function.The Ce50 in 25-,50-,and 75-year-old patients was predicted to be 1.38,1.06,and 0.74 Iμg/mL,respectively.The λ,in 25-,50-,and 75-year-old patients was predicted to be 12.23,8.70,and 5.18,respectively.Conclusion:Age significantly affects the relationship between propofol Ce and ROC,and pharmacodynamic modeling including age could lead to better predictions of ROC during emergence from propofol-remifentanil anesthesia.

  2. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor methylation in newly diagnosed, drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Canivell

    Full Text Available GIP action in type 2 diabetic (T2D patients is altered. We hypothesized that methylation changes could be present in GIP receptor of T2D patients. This study aimed to assess the differences in DNA methylation profile of GIPR promoter between T2D patients and age- and Body Mass Index (BMI-matched controls. We included 93 T2D patients (cases that were uniquely on diet (without any anti-diabetic pharmacological treatment. We matched one control (with oral glucose tolerance test negative, non diabetic, by age and BMI, for every case. Cytokines and hormones were determined by ELISA. DNA was extracted from whole blood and DNA methylation was assessed using the Sequenom EpiTYPER system. Our results showed that T2D patients were more insulin resistant and had a poorer β cell function than their controls. Fasting adiponectin was lower in T2D patients as compared to controls (7.0±3.8 µgr/mL vs. 10.0±4.2 µgr/mL. Levels of IL 12 in serum were almost double in T2D patients (52.8±58.3 pg/mL vs. 29.7±37.4 pg/mL. We found that GIPR promoter was hypomethylated in T2D patients as compared to controls. In addition, HOMA-IR and fasting glucose correlated negatively with mean methylation of GIPR promoter, especially in T2D patients. This case-control study confirms that newly diagnosed, drug-naïve T2D patients are more insulin resistant and have worse β cell function than age- and BMI-matched controls, which is partly related to changes in the insulin-sensitizing metabolites (adiponectin, in the proinflammatory profile (IL12 and we suggest in the methylation pattern of GIPR. Our study provides novel findings on GIPR promoter methylation profile which may improve our ability to understand type 2 diabetes pathogenesis.

  3. Excitement about inhibitory presynaptic terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandael, David H F; Espinoza, Claudia; Jonas, Peter

    2015-03-18

    Based on extrapolation from excitatory synapses, it is often assumed that depletion of the releasable pool of synaptic vesicles is the main factor underlying depression at inhibitory synapses. In this issue of Neuron, using subcellular patch-clamp recording from inhibitory presynaptic terminals, Kawaguchi and Sakaba (2015) show that at Purkinje cell-deep cerebellar nuclei neuron synapses, changes in presynaptic action potential waveform substantially contribute to synaptic depression. PMID:25789750

  4. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  5. 抑制控制对老年人心理理论能力使用的影响%The role of inhibitory control in the use of theory of mind among elders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志稳; 苏彦捷

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ability of theory of mind use in elders,and determine the role of inhibitory control in the use of theory of mind. Methods The participants included 30 young-old people ,30 oldold people and 30 young people. Their ability of theory of mind use and inhibitory control were examined with The Referential Communication Task and Hayling Sentence Completion Test,respectively. Results The correct rate of referential communication task was significantly lower in old-old people (0.43 ± 0.32) than those of young-old people (0.69 ±0.24, P=0. 001 ) and young people (0. 77 ±0. 25, P<0. 001 ). Partial correlation analysis showed that the total errors in Hayling Test-B was negatively correlated with the correct rate of Referential Communication Task ( r= -0.442, P<0.001 ). Hiberarchy regression analysis showed that the total errors in Hayling Test-B entered the equation ( β = -0.451, P<0. 001 ) and could independently explained 16.8% of the variance (△R2 = 0. 168, △F = 19.359, P < 0.001 ) after controlling for age. Conclusion Old-old people show worse performance in the use of theory of mind. The impairment of inhibitory control can partly explain the decline of theory of mind use in old-old people.%目的 考察老年人使用心理理论的能力,并探讨抑制控制对老年人心理理论使用的影响.方法 选择30名65~74岁老人、30名75岁及以上老人、30名青年人为被试,分别采用指示性交流任务和Hayling Test测评被试使用心理理论的能力和抑制控制能力,并采用相关分析和回归分析,探讨二者的关系.结果 75岁及以上老人在指示性交流任务中的正确率(0.43±0.32)显著低于青年人(0.77±0.25,P<0.01)及65~74岁老人(0.69±0.24,P<0.01).偏相关分析显示,Hayling Test-B错误数与指示性交流任务的正确率呈负相关(r=-0.442,P<0.01);分层回归显示,在控制年龄变量后,Hayling Test-B错误数能独立解

  6. Inhibitory effect of Salicornia europaea on the marine alga Skeletonema costatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dan; Huang, Lingfeng; Lin, Yongqing; Nie, Lingling; Lv, Sulian; Kuang, Tingyun; Li, Yinxin

    2012-06-01

    Exploiting the negative biochemical interference between plants and algal species has been suggested as a method to control harmful algal blooms. In this work, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the salt marsh halophyte Salicornia europaea against the marine alga Skeletonema costatum. S. europaea suppressed the growth of S. costatum in a nutrient-sufficient co-culture system, indicating that the inhibition of algal growth was because of the phytotoxic effect of S. europaea, rather than nutrient competition. We tested aqueous and organic extracts from S. europaea roots against S. costatum. The organic extracts inhibited growth and affected the cell size and chlorophyll a content of S. costatum in a dose-dependent manner. Among the three tested organic extracts, the methanol extract had the greatest effects on S. costatum, followed by butanol extract, and then the chloroform extract. Two flavonoids, rutin and quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, were identified in the methanol extract by high performance liquid chromatography. The concentration of rutin was much higher than that of quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside. In an algal bioassay, rutin inhibited the growth of S. costatum and the inhibitory effect increased with increasing rutin concentration and with decreasing initial algal density. Therefore, we concluded that S. europaea negatively affects the growth of S. costatum, and that rutin, a metabolite of S. europaea, may play a role in this inhibitory effect. PMID:22744186

  7. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 1. The pioneer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    composition (Pereira and Úbeda, 2010) and Pereira et al., 2012). Some of the new research challenges related to ash impact in the fire affected soils are related to the ash redistribution after the fire, the impact of ash in soil and water chemistry, the temporal changes of soil erosion, the control ash exert on vegetation recovery and the role to be played by ash in the best management of fire affected land. Those topics needs new ideas and new scientists such as Paulo Pereira show in the Part II of this abstract. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S. H.2010. The effect of ant mounds on overland flow and soil erodibility following a wildfire in eastern Spain. Ecohydrology, 3, 392-401. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Pereira, P., and Úbeda, X. 2010. Spatial distribution of heavy metals released from ashes after a wildfire, Journal of Environment Engineering and Landscape Management, 18, 13-22. Pereira, P., Ubeda, X., Martin, D.A. 2012. Fire severity effects on ash chemical composition and extractable elements. Geoderma, 191, 105 - 114. Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio

  8. Acute exercise facilitates brain function and cognition in children who need it most: An ERP study of individual differences in inhibitory control capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Raine, Lauren B.; R. Davis Moore; Brian J. Saliba; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on aspects of cognitive control in two groups of children categorized by higher- and lower-task performance. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were collected in 40 preadolescent children during a modified flanker task following 20 min of treadmill walking and seated rest on separate occasions. Participants were bifurcated into two groups based on task performance following the resting session. Findings revealed ...

  9. Inhibitory Effects of 658 nm Laser Irradiation on Skin Temperature in Anesthetized Rats: Preliminary Results from a Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Litscher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red laser light stimulation can have many physiological effects. The goal of this animal experimental study was to investigate how red laser stimulation influences the temperature of anesthetized rats at different acupuncture points and nonacupoints. For that reason 12 adult male Wistar Han rats (300–380 g were investigated. Six anesthetized rats underwent red laser stimulation (wavelength 658 nm, output power 40 mW, diameter 500 µm, and duration 10 min at the Baihui (GV20 acupoint, the Zusanli acupoint (ST36, bilateral, and a control point on the forelimb. The other six rats underwent the same procedure; however, the laser remained switched off. Significant decreases in temperature were found at the acupoints Baihui, Zusanli left, and Zusanli right. In addition there was no significant temperature effect at a control point. During placebo laser irradiation (deactivated laser there were also significant temperature changes. The mechanism underlying the results is currently unknown, but brain stimulation (via laser or mechanical pressure and mainly direct central mechanisms may be responsible for the local and peripheral temperature decrease.

  10. Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

  11. Inhibitory mechanisms of glabridin on tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianmin; Yu, Xiaojing; Huang, Yufeng

    2016-11-01

    Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin in the human body. Overproduction of melanin could lead to a variety of skin disorders. Glabridin, an isoflavan, isolated from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, has exhibited several pharmacological activities, including excellent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase. In this paper, the inhibitory kinetics of glabridin on tyrosinase and their binding mechanisms were determined using spectroscopic, zebrafish model and molecular docking techniques. The results indicate that glabridin reversibly inhibits tyrosinase in a noncompetitive manner through a multiphase kinetic process with the IC50 of 0.43μmol/L. It has been shown that glabridin had a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of tyrosinase mainly through a static quenching procedure, suggesting a stable glabridin-tyrosinase complex may be generated. The results of molecular docking suggest that glabridin did not directly bind to the active site of tyrosinase. Moreover, according to the results of zebrafish model system, glabridin shows no effects on melanin synthesis in zebrafish but presents toxicity to zebrafish embryo. The possible inhibitory mechanisms, which will help to design and search for tyrosinase inhibitors especially for glabridin analogues, were proposed. PMID:27288962

  12. Preconditions that Affect in Increasing Control Effect and Increased Chance for Tax Fraud Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Mentor Gashi; Nexhit Shala

    2016-01-01

    Abstract:In this research we have submitted seven elements in order to identify the most powerful elements that increases the chances of detecting fraud or tax evasion, from retroactive control. Elements that have submitted in the research are:Professionalism of the officer who realizes control or tax audit; Integrity of  Officer  that realizes control or audit; Information from their competitor, with the aim of informing about tax evasion; Information from a dissatisfied employee or former e...

  13. Mood regulation in seasonal affective disorder patients and healthy controls studied in forced desynchrony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorengevel, Kathelijne M.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; den Boer, Johan; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    2003-01-01

    In healthy subjects, both the duration of wakefulness and the circadian pacemaker have been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of mood. Some features of affective disorders suggest that these two factors also play a role in the dysregulation of mood. In particular, disturbances of the cir

  14. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  15. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  16. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Mazzetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  17. Information-Processing and Perceptions of Control: How Attribution Style Affects Task-Relevant Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeigh, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…

  18. Does tumor type affect local control by radiofrequency ablation in the lungs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the effect of tumor type on local control by radiofrequency ablation in the lungs. Materials and methods: : This study included 252 lung tumors (mean size, 13.5 mm) in 105 patients (73 men and 32 women; mean age, 66.6 years) who underwent radiofrequency ablation with a multitined expandable electrode. Those tumors comprised five tumor types: primary lung cancer (n = 35) and pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (n = 117), lung cancer (n = 23), renal cell carcinoma (n = 49), and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 28). Local control was evaluated with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The overall local control rates were estimated as well as those for each tumor type using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Local control rates for a given tumor type were compared with those for the four other types. Then, multivariate multilevel analysis was performed using the variables of tumor type, tumor size, contact with a vessel or bronchus, and procedure period. Results: The overall local control rates were 97%, 86%, 81%, and 76% at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively. Local control rates varied among the tumor types, and metastatic colorectal cancer showed significantly (P = .023) higher local control rates than those of the four other types. However, multivariate analysis indicated that the relative risk of local progression for a given tumor type was comparable to the risks for the four other types. Conclusion: Tumor type per se did not significantly influence local control.

  19. Preconditions that Affect in Increasing Control Effect and Increased Chance for Tax Fraud Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentor Gashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:In this research we have submitted seven elements in order to identify the most powerful elements that increases the chances of detecting fraud or tax evasion, from retroactive control. Elements that have submitted in the research are:Professionalism of the officer who realizes control or tax audit; Integrity of  Officer  that realizes control or audit; Information from their competitor, with the aim of informing about tax evasion; Information from a dissatisfied employee or former employee; Information from freight forwarding; Informatat from accountant; Information from the data exchange with the export country. Elements that we presented, are the most powerful elements that increases the chances of detection of tax evasion, such as: professionalism of the officer who implements control or audit, which follows two other elements, which are: Integrity of official that realizes control or audit and the information are data exchange with the export country, these are the three most powerful elements until four other elements outlined in the survey have less impact compared with the three elements mentioned. The purpose of the paper is to Find the most powerful elements that increase the probability of detecting of tax evasion or tax fraud from retroactive controls. Methodology: Survey was realize through questionnaires, which were distributed 232 questionnaires. Questionnaires were distributed mainly to the importing companies, officers that realize controls to businesses, customs agents, accountants and international transport companie. Key words: probability of detecting, tax evasion, control or audit

  20. Does tumor type affect local control by radiofrequency ablation in the lungs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Takao [Department of Radiology, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)], E-mail: takaoh@tc4.so-net.ne.jp; Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi [Department of Radiology, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Sano, Yoshifumi [Department of Cancer and Thoracic Surgery, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama (Japan); Tsuda, Toshihide [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University Graduate School, Okayama (Japan); Iguchi, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Kishi, Ryotaro; Matsui, Yusuke; Kanazawa, Susumu [Department of Radiology, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the effect of tumor type on local control by radiofrequency ablation in the lungs. Materials and methods: : This study included 252 lung tumors (mean size, 13.5 mm) in 105 patients (73 men and 32 women; mean age, 66.6 years) who underwent radiofrequency ablation with a multitined expandable electrode. Those tumors comprised five tumor types: primary lung cancer (n = 35) and pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (n = 117), lung cancer (n = 23), renal cell carcinoma (n = 49), and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 28). Local control was evaluated with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The overall local control rates were estimated as well as those for each tumor type using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Local control rates for a given tumor type were compared with those for the four other types. Then, multivariate multilevel analysis was performed using the variables of tumor type, tumor size, contact with a vessel or bronchus, and procedure period. Results: The overall local control rates were 97%, 86%, 81%, and 76% at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively. Local control rates varied among the tumor types, and metastatic colorectal cancer showed significantly (P = .023) higher local control rates than those of the four other types. However, multivariate analysis indicated that the relative risk of local progression for a given tumor type was comparable to the risks for the four other types. Conclusion: Tumor type per se did not significantly influence local control.

  1. Collagen-derived matricryptins promote inhibitory nerve terminal formation in the developing neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jianmin; Chen, Jiang; Lippold, Kumiko; Monavarfeshani, Aboozar; Carrillo, Gabriela Lizana; Jenkins, Rachel; Fox, Michael A

    2016-03-14

    Inhibitory synapses comprise only ∼20% of the total synapses in the mammalian brain but play essential roles in controlling neuronal activity. In fact, perturbing inhibitory synapses is associated with complex brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and epilepsy. Although many types of inhibitory synapses exist, these disorders have been strongly linked to defects in inhibitory synapses formed by Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Here, we discovered a novel role for an unconventional collagen-collagen XIX-in the formation of Parvalbumin(+) inhibitory synapses. Loss of this collagen results not only in decreased inhibitory synapse number, but also in the acquisition of schizophrenia-related behaviors. Mechanistically, these studies reveal that a proteolytically released fragment of this collagen, termed a matricryptin, promotes the assembly of inhibitory nerve terminals through integrin receptors. Collectively, these studies not only identify roles for collagen-derived matricryptins in cortical circuit formation, but they also reveal a novel paracrine mechanism that regulates the assembly of these synapses. PMID:26975851

  2. tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex enhances cognitive control for positive affective stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulation technique with promising results for enhancing cognitive information processes. So far, however, research has mainly focused on the effects of tDCS on cognitive control operations for non-emotional material. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects on cognitive control considering negative versus positive material. For this sham-controlled, within-subjects study, we selected a homogeneous sample of twenty-five healthy participants. By using behavioral measures and event related potentials (ERP as indexes, we aimed to investigate whether a single session of anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC would have specific effects in enhancing cognitive control for positive and negative valenced stimuli. After tDCS over the left DLPFC (and not sham control stimulation, we observed more negative N450 amplitudes along with faster reaction times when inhibiting a habitual response to happy compared to sad facial expressions. Gender did not influence the effects of tDCS on cognitive control for emotional information. In line with the Valence Theory of side-lateralized activity, this stimulation protocol might have led to a left dominant (relative to right prefrontal cortical activity, resulting in augmented cognitive control specifically for positive relative to negative stimuli. To verify that tDCS induces effects that are in line with all aspects of the well known Valence Theory, future research should investigate the effects of tDCS over the left vs. right DLPFC on cognitive control for emotional information.

  3. Adolescent and Parent Motivation for Change Affects Psychotherapy Outcomes Among Youth With Poorly Controlled Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Deborah A; Berio, Heidi; Carcone, April Idalski; Naar-King, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Investigate effect of baseline motivation for change on treatment fidelity, therapeutic alliance, treatment dose, and treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of family therapy for youth with poorly controlled diabetes. Methods Seventy-four adolescents and caregivers completed measures of motivation for change. Measures of fidelity, alliance, dose, and youth health status were collected. Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect effects of moti...

  4. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator. PMID:23505967

  5. Overnight fasting regulates inhibitory tone to cholinergic neurons of the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Groessl

    Full Text Available The dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH contributes to the regulation of overall energy homeostasis by modulating energy intake as well as energy expenditure. Despite the importance of the DMH in the control of energy balance, DMH-specific genetic markers or neuronal subtypes are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate the presence of cholinergic neurons in the DMH using genetically modified mice that express enhanced green florescent protein (eGFP selectively in choline acetyltransferase (Chat-neurons. Overnight food deprivation increases the activity of DMH cholinergic neurons, as shown by induction of fos protein and a significant shift in the baseline resting membrane potential. DMH cholinergic neurons receive both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic input, but the activation of these neurons by an overnight fast is due entirely to decreased inhibitory tone. The decreased inhibition is associated with decreased frequency and amplitude of GABAergic synaptic currents in the cholinergic DMH neurons, while glutamatergic synaptic transmission is not altered. As neither the frequency nor amplitude of miniature GABAergic or glutamatergic postsynaptic currents is affected by overnight food deprivation, the fasting-induced decrease in inhibitory tone to cholinergic neurons is dependent on superthreshold activity of GABAergic inputs. This study reveals that cholinergic neurons in the DMH readily sense the availability of nutrients and respond to overnight fasting via decreased GABAergic inhibitory tone. As such, altered synaptic as well as neuronal activity of DMH cholinergic neurons may play a critical role in the regulation of overall energy homeostasis.

  6. The Specificity of Inhibitory Impairments in Autism and Their Relation to ADHD-Type Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Charlotte; Allen, Melissa L.

    2013-01-01

    Findings on inhibitory control in autism have been inconsistent. This is perhaps a reflection of the different tasks that have been used. Children with autism (CWA) and typically developing controls, matched for verbal and non-verbal mental age, completed three tasks of inhibition, each representing different inhibitory subcomponents: Go/No-Go…

  7. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    OpenAIRE

    Greta Mazzetti; Roberta Biolcati; Dina Guglielmi; Caryn Vallesi; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physic...

  8. Combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid in metabolic syndrome-affected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Capasso, Immacolata; Esposito, Emanuela; Maurea, Nicola; Montella, Maurizio; Crispo, Anna; De Laurentiis, Michelino; D’Aiuto, Massimiliano; Frasci, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Grimaldi, Maria; Cavalcanti, Ernesta; Esposito, Giuseppe; Fucito, Alfredo; Brillante, Giuseppe; D’Aiuto, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Background Inositol has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity since it works as a second messenger achieving insulin-like effects on metabolic enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inositol and alpha lipoic acid combination effectiveness on metabolic syndrome features in postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer. Methods A six-month prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on a total of 155 postmenopausal women affected by metabolic syndrome at ...

  9. Long-Term Exposure to High Altitude Affects Conflict Control in the Conflict-Resolving Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Hailin; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jianhui; Wang, Baoxi; Guo, Shichun; Luo, Ping; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive basis of the effect of long-term high altitude exposure on conflict control is unclear. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a flanker task to investigate the influence of high altitude on conflict control in the high-altitude group (who had lived at high altitude for three years but were born at low altitude) and the low-altitude group (living in low altitude only). Although altitude effect was not significant at the behavioral level, ERPs showed cognitive conf...

  10. Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Micah Galen

    Mindfulness meditation is a set of attention-based, regulatory and self-inquiry training regimes. Although the impact of mindfulness meditation training (MT) on self-regulation is well established, the neural mechanisms supporting such plasticity are poorly understood. MT is thought to act through...... interoceptive salience and attentional control mechanisms, but until now conflicting evidence from behavioral and neural measures renders difficult distinguishing their respective roles. To resolve this question we conducted a fully randomized 6-week longitudinal trial of MT, explicitly controlling...

  11. Effects of Heat, pH, and Gamma Irradiation Treatments on Lipase Inhibitory Activity of Sargassum thunbergii Ethanol Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhibitory activity of Sagassum thunbergii (ST) against porcine pancreatic lipase was assessed after heat treatment, pH changes, and gamma irradiation. This analysis revealed that the ST ethanol extract exhibited high lipase inhibitory activity (37.37%) at 5 mg/mL. The ST ethanol extract was treated with heat at 60°C for 10, 30, and 60 min; 80 and 100°C for 10 and 20 min; and 121°C for 15 min, pH (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) and γ -irradiation (3, 7 and 20 kGy). The lipase inhibitory activity of the ST ethanol extract increased in all heat treatments, especially at 121°C for 15 min (51.55%) compared with the control. With regard to pH stability, the ST ethanol extract showed no significant changes at pH 4 ~ 8, but somewhat decreased inhibitory activity was revealed at pH 2 (26.25%) and 10 (29.93%). On the other hand, the ST ethanol extract was not affected by γ -irradiation treatment conditions used in this study. These results suggest that ST has a potential role as a functional food agent. (author)

  12. Motivating Operations Affect Stimulus Control: A Largely Overlooked Phenomenon in Discrimination Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfizadeh, Amin D.; Edwards, Timothy L.; Redner, Ryan; Poling, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored what Michael (e.g., 1982) termed the "value-altering" effect and the "behavior-altering" effect of motivating operations. One aspect of the behavior-altering effect that has garnered no recent attention involves changes in stimulus control produced by motivating operations. To call attention to this aspect of…

  13. Soil and Sediment Properties Affecting the Transport and Accumulations of Mercury in a Flood Control Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury accumulations in some fish species from Grenada Lake in north Mississippi exceed the Food and Drug Administration standards for human consumption. This large flood control reservoir serves as a sink for the Skuna and Yalobusha River watersheds whose highly erodible soils contribute to exces...

  14. Affective SSVEP BCI to effectively control 3D objects by using a prism array-based display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-06-01

    3D objects with depth information can provide many benefits to users in education, surgery, and interactions. In particular, many studies have been done to enhance sense of reality in 3D interaction. Viewing and controlling stereoscopic 3D objects with crossed or uncrossed disparities, however, can cause visual fatigue due to the vergenceaccommodation conflict generally accepted in 3D research fields. In order to avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we apply a prism array-based display to presenting 3D objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli in control panels to increase information transfer rate and reduce false positives in controlling 3D objects. Involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanism can enhance steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and lead to increased interaction efficiency. More attentional resources are allocated to affective pictures with high valence and arousal levels than to normal visual stimuli such as white-and-black oscillating squares and checkerboards. Among representative BCI control components (i.e., eventrelated potentials (ERP), event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS), and SSVEP), SSVEP-based BCI was chosen in the following reasons. It shows high information transfer rates and takes a few minutes for users to control BCI system while few electrodes are required for obtaining reliable brainwave signals enough to capture users' intention. The proposed BCI methods are expected to enhance sense of reality in 3D space without causing critical visual fatigue to occur. In addition, people who are very susceptible to (auto) stereoscopic 3D may be able to use the affective BCI.

  15. On the gastrocecal inhibitory reflex in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee,Zai-Liu

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available In rats anesthetized with urethane, the effects of distention of the stomach upon cecal motility and neural mechanisms which generate this effect were studied. Cecal motility was inhibited which generate this effect were studied. Cecal motility was inhibited when the pars glandularis of the stomach was distended by pressure ranging from 25 to 30 cm H2O. This inhibitory reflex was not affected by bilateral cervical vagotomy, but completely abolished following bilateral severance of the greater splanchnic nerves or after intravenous administration of guanethidine. After transection of the spinal cord at the level of the 5th thoracic segment the inhibitory reflex remained intact, but was abolished following pithing of the 6th thoracic segment and below. It may be concluded that the afferent and efferent path of the gastrocecal inhibitory reflex mainly pass through the greater splanchnic nerves and the reflex center is located in thoracic segments caudal to the 6th thoracic segment.

  16. Control and manipulation of factors affecting small ruminant reproductive performance in tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tropical areas, reproductive efficiency in small ruminants is affected by various factors, including season, rainfall, male effect, nutritional state or corporal condition (CC) and physiological factors such as post-partum interval, milk production, lactational stages and suckling. Animals with good CC show early puberty, shorter anoestrous periods and better response to male effect and synchronized treatment than animals with low CC; reproductive efficiency is increased by 33% in sheep with CC over 2 (on a scale of 0 to 5) and lambing is 20% lower in the dry than in the rainy season. These data suggest that seasonal sexual inhibition is not too deep in a tropical environment. The response to male effect is good in the different seasons but in animals with low CC this effect is not enough to compensate for the negative influence of undernutrition. Hormonal treatments are effective if animals have adequate CC but the cost is too high. In animals with low CC these treatments must be combined with nutritional flushing. Male introduction at the beginning or 48 h before the end of treatment improves efficiency. Oestrus-ovulation dissociation is observed in tropical sheep after hormonal synchronization and male introduction (9.3%); this is higher in animals with low CC (11.9 vs. 6.8%). Embryo mortality in synchronized goats was affected by nutritional state, being twice as frequent in goats with low CC (26.3 vs. 11.5%). In tropical conditions, appropriate use of male effect and CC can improve reproductive performance by strategic programming of breeding and parturition during the season with better conditions and pasture availability. (author). 35 refs, 8 tabs

  17. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Kai eChang; Caterina ePesce; Yi-Te eChiang; Cheng-Yuh eKuo; Dong-Yang eFong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate inte...

  18. Prognostic factors affecting local control of hepatic tumors treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robotic Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy with real-time tumor tracking has shown encouraging results for hepatic tumors with good efficacy and low toxicity. We studied the factors associated with local control of primary or secondary hepatic lesions post-SBRT. Since 2007, 153 stereotactic liver treatments were administered to 120 patients using the CyberKnife® System. Ninety-nine liver metastases (72 patients), 48 hepatocellular carcinomas (42 patients), and six cholangiocarcinomas were treated. On average, three to four sessions were delivered over 12 days. Twenty-seven to 45 Gy was prescribed to the 80% isodose line. Margins consisted of 5 to 10 mm for clinical target volume (CTV) and 3 mm for planning target volume (PTV). Median size was 33 mm (range, 5–112 mm). Median gross tumor volume (GTV) was 32.38 cm3 (range, 0.2–499.5 cm3). Median total dose was 45 Gy in three fractions. Median minimum dose was 27 Gy in three fractions. With a median follow-up of 15.0 months, local control rates at one and two years were 84% and 74.6%, respectively. The factors associated with better local control were lesion size < 50 mm (p = 0.019), GTV volume (p < 0.05), PTV volume (p < 0.01) and two treatment factors: a total dose of 45 Gy and a dose–per-fraction of 15 Gy (p = 0.019). Dose, tumor diameter and volume are prognostic factors for local control when a stereotactic radiation therapy for hepatic lesions is considered. These results should be considered in order to obtain a maximum therapeutic efficacy

  19. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Myung-Haeng Hur; Yun Seok Yang; Myeong Soo Lee

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight...

  20. Miro GTPase controls mitochondrial behavior affecting stress tolerance and virulence of a fungal insect pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yi; Wang, Ding-Yi; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-08-01

    Miro homologues are small mitochondrial Rho GTPases belonging to the Ras superfamily across organisms and are generally unexplored in filamentous fungi. Here we identified a Miro orthologue (bMiro) in Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen as a classic biological control agent of insect pests. This orthologue was proven to anchor on mitochondrial outer membrane in a manner depending completely upon a short C-terminal transmembrane domain. As a result of bmiro deletion, mitochondria in hyphal cells were largely aggregated, and their mass and mobility were reduced, accompanied with a remarkable decrease in ATP content but little change in mitochondrial morphology. The deletion mutant became 42%, 37%, 19% and 10% more tolerant to Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) than wild-type, respectively, during cultivation in a minimal medium under normal conditions. The deletion mutant also showed mild defects in conidial germination, vegetative growth, thermotolerance, UV-B resistance and virulence despite null response to oxidative and osmotic stresses. All these phenotypic changes were restored by targeted gene complementation. Our results indicate that bMiro can control mitochondrial distribution and movement required for the transport of ATP-form energy and metal ions and contributes significantly to the fungal potential against insect pests through the control. PMID:27241960

  1. Stereotactic radiation therapy for liver metastases: factors affecting local control and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To report on outcome and toxicity of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for liver metastases in patients not eligible for surgery. From 2000 to 2009, 74 patients with 91 liver metastases from different primaries have been treated with SBRT at our institution. Median planning target volume was 123 ccm (range: 10.6-1074 ccm). Treatment consisted of 3–5 fractions with 5–12.5 Gy/ fraction prescribed to the surrounding 60-95% isodose with daily image guidance. Regular follow-up included CT or MRI imaging until tumor progression. Median local recurrence-free interval was 23 months with a local control rate of 74.7%, 48.3% and 48.3% after 1, 2 and 3 years. Only minimum biologically effective dose (BED) to gross tumor volume (GTV) remained as independent significant factor for local control in multivariate analysis. No local recurrences were observed in lesions (n = 12) which received a minimal BED to the GTV of 120 Gy. Including 26 local recurrences, 67 patients (91%) showed disease progression after SBRT with a median time of 5 months. Median overall survival was 27 months with survival rates of 77%, 30% and 27% at 1, 3 and 5 years. On multivariate analysis only GTV volume remained as independent significant prognostic factor for overall survival (p = 0.002). No grade 3 to 5 acute toxicity and no grade 4 or 5 late toxicity occurred. SBRT for liver metastases was well tolerated in this non-selected patient cohort and yielded good local control despite the considerable size of most lesions treated. Long-term survival is possible after SBRT. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0369-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  2. Kiwifruit consumption favourably affects plasma lipids in a randomised controlled trial in hypercholesterolaemic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Cheryl S; Kruger, Rozanne; Minihane, Anne M; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R; Stonehouse, Welma

    2013-06-28

    The unique composition of green kiwifruit has the potential to benefit CVD risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of consuming two green kiwifruits daily in conjunction with a healthy diet on plasma lipids and other metabolic markers and to examine response according to APOE genotype in hypercholesterolaemic men. After undergoing a 4-week healthy diet, eighty-five hypercholesterolaemic men (LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) > 3.0 mmol/l and TAG < 3 mmol/l) completed an 8-week randomised controlled cross-over study of two 4-week intervention sequences of two green kiwifruits per d plus healthy diet (intervention) or healthy diet alone (control). Anthropometric measures, blood pressure (BP) and fasting blood samples (plasma lipids, serum apoA1 and apoB, insulin, glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)) were taken at baseline, and at 4 and 8 weeks. After the kiwifruit intervention, plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were significantly higher (mean difference 0.04; 95% CI 0.01, 0.07 mmol/l; P = 0.004) and the total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C ratio was significantly lower (mean difference 20.5; 95% CI 20.24, 20.05 mmol/l; P = 0.002) compared with the control. In carriers of the APOE4 allele, TAG decreased significantly (mean difference -0.18; 95% CI -0.34, -0.02 mol/l; P = 0.03) with kiwifruit compared with control. There were no significant differences between the two interventions for plasma TC, LDL-C, insulin, glucose, hs-CRP and BP. The small but significant increase in HDL-C and decrease in TC:HDL-C ratio and TAG (in APOE4 carriers) suggest that the regular inclusion of green kiwifruit as part of a healthy diet may be beneficial in improving the lipid profiles of men with high cholesterol. PMID:23151354

  3. Carbon availability affects diurnally controlled processes and cell morphology of Cyanothece 51142.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stöckel

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photoautotrophs notable for their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as the major source of carbon. The prospect of using cyanobacteria to convert solar energy and high concentrations of CO2 efficiently into biomass and renewable energy sources has sparked substantial interest in using flue gas from coal-burning power plants as a source of inorganic carbon. However, in order to guide further advances in this area, a better understanding of the metabolic changes that occur under conditions of high CO2 is needed. To determine the effect of high CO2 on cell physiology and growth, we analyzed the global transcriptional changes in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142 grown in 8% CO2-enriched air. We found a concerted response of genes related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, respiration, nitrogen fixation, ribosome biosynthesis, and the synthesis of nucleotides and structural cell wall polysaccharides. The overall response to 8% CO2 in Cyanothece 51142 involves different strategies, to compensate for the high C/N ratio during both phases of the diurnal cycle. Our analyses show that high CO2 conditions trigger the production of carbon-rich compounds and stimulate processes such as respiration and nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observed that high levels of CO2 affect fundamental cellular processes such as cell growth and dramatically alter the intracellular morphology. This study provides novel insights on how diurnal and developmental rhythms are integrated to facilitate adaptation to high CO2 in Cyanothece 51142.

  4. Social Priming Improves Cognitive Control in Elderly Adults—Evidence from the Simon Task

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Aisenberg; Noga Cohen; Hadas Pick; Iris Tressman; Michal Rappaport; Tal Shenberg; Avishai Henik

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social priming of cognitive states affects the inhibitory process in elderly adults, as aging is related to deficits in inhibitory control. Forty-eight elderly adults and 45 young adults were assigned to three groups and performed a cognitive control task (Simon task), which was followed by 3 different manipulations of social priming (i.e., thinking about an 82 year-old person): 1) negative--characterized by poor cognitive abilities, 2) neutral--characterized by acts irrel...

  5. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Haeng Hur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total. The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05. There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05. These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures.

  6. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. PMID:25376504

  7. Foliar Potassium Fertilizer Additives Affect Soybean Response and Weed Control with Glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in 2004 and 2005 determined the effects of foliar-applied K-fertilizer sources (0-0-62-0 (%N-%P2O5-%K2O-%S, 0-0-25-17, 3-18-18-0, and 5-0-20-13 and additive rates (2.2, 8.8, and 17.6 kg K ha−1 on glyphosate-resistant soybean response and weed control. Field experiments were conducted at Novelty and Portageville with high soil test K and weed populations and at Malden with low soil test K and weed populations. At Novelty, grain yield increased with fertilizer additives at 8.8 kg K ha−1 in a high-yield, weed-free environment in 2004, but fertilizer additives reduced yield up to 470 kg ha−1 in a low-yield year (2005 depending on the K source and rate. At Portageville, K-fertilizer additives increased grain yield from 700 to 1160 kg ha−1 compared to diammonium sulfate, depending on the K source and rate. At Malden, there was no yield response to K sources. Differences in leaf tissue K (P=0.03, S (P=0.03, B (P=0.0001, and Cu (P=0.008 concentrations among treatments were detected 14 d after treatment at Novelty and Malden. Tank mixtures of K-fertilizer additives with glyphosate may provide an option for foliar K applications.

  8. Investigation of clinical conditions affecting quality control in a dental X-ray unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, to clarify quality control issues in a dental X-ray unit, we surveyed the uniformity and safety of absorbed doses and exposure time from dental X-ray units, and evaluated image quality of intraoral radiography at Osaka Dental University Hospital. Measurements of dose and exposure time were carried out five times and the mean was calculated at twenty-two dental X-ray units in our university hospital using the standard parameters for the mandibular molar region in adults. Intraoral radiography for evaluation of image quality was taken using D-speed films under the standard parameters for the mandibular molar region in adults and E-speed films for pediatric patients. Evaluation of image quality was performed by three oral radiologists. Dose and exposure time differed significantly among units. Image quality of intraoral radiography using D-speed films was not significantly better than that of E-speed films. This study demonstrated that it is necessary to establish a uniform dose and exposure time and to change D-speed films to E-speed films when obtaining intraoral radiography in our hospital. (author)

  9. Controls on methane released through ebullition in peatlands affected by permafrost degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapstein, Sara J.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; McGuire, Anthony; Harden, Jennifer W.; Czimczik, C.I.; Xu, Xiaomei; Chanton, J.P.; Waddington, James Michael

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost thaw in peat plateaus leads to the flooding of surface soils and the formation of collapse scar bogs, which have the potential to be large emitters of methane (CH4) from surface peat as well as deeper, previously frozen, permafrost carbon (C). We used a network of bubble traps, permanently installed 20 cm and 60 cm beneath the moss surface, to examine controls on ebullition from three collapse bogs in interior Alaska. Overall, ebullition was dominated by episodic events that were associated with changes in atmospheric pressure, and ebullition was mainly a surface process regulated by both seasonal ice dynamics and plant phenology. The majority (>90%) of ebullition occurred in surface peat layers, with little bubble production in deeper peat. During periods of peak plant biomass, bubbles contained acetate-derived CH4 dominated (>90%) by modern C fixed from the atmosphere following permafrost thaw. Post-senescence, the contribution of CH4 derived from thawing permafrost C was more variable and accounted for up to 22% (on average 7%), in the most recently thawed site. Thus, the formation of thermokarst features resulting from permafrost thaw in peatlands stimulates ebullition and CH4 release both by creating flooded surface conditions conducive to CH4 production and bubbling as well as by exposing thawing permafrost C to mineralization.

  10. Communal farmers' perceptions of tick-borne diseases affecting cattle and investigation of tick control methods practiced in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime

    2016-02-01

    Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the

  11. The Diversity of Cortical Inhibitory Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKubota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most typical and well known inhibitory action in the cortical microcircuit is a strong inhibition on the target neuron by axo-somatic synapses. However, it has become clear that synaptic inhibition in the cortex is much more diverse and complicated. Firstly, at least ten or more inhibitory non-pyramidal cell subtypes engage in diverse inhibitory functions to produce the elaborate activity characteristic of the different cortical states. Each distinct non-pyramidal cell subtype has its own independent inhibitory function. Secondly, the inhibitory synapses innervate different neuronal domains, such as axons, spines, dendrites and soma, and their IPSP size is not uniform. Thus cortical inhibition is highly complex, with a wide variety of anatomical and physiological modes. Moreover, the functional significance of the various inhibitory synapse innervation styles and their unique structural dynamic behaviors differ from those of excitatory synapses. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the inhibitory mechanisms of the cortical microcircuit.

  12. Estimating latency from inhibitory input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levakova, Marie; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Stimulus response latency is the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the occurrence of a change in the neural firing evoked by the stimulation. The response latency has been explored and estimation methods proposed mostly for excitatory stimuli, which means that the neuron reacts...... to the stimulus by an increase in the firing rate. We focus on the estimation of the response latency in the case of inhibitory stimuli. Models used in this paper represent two different descriptions of response latency. We consider either the latency to be constant across trials or to be a random variable...

  13. Spatial Cognition, Body Representation and Affective Processes: The Role of Vestibular Information beyond Ocular Reflexes and Control of Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred W Mast

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies in humans demonstrate the involvement of vestibular information in tasks that are seemingly remote from well-known functions such as space constancy or postural control. In this review article we point out three emerging streams of research highlighting the importance of vestibular input: 1 Spatial Cognition: Modulation of vestibular signals can induce specific changes in spatial cognitive tasks like mental imagery and the processing of numbers. This has been shown in studies manipulating body orientation (changing the input from the otoliths, body rotation (changing the input from the semicircular canals, in clinical findings with vestibular patients, and in studies carried out in microgravity. There is also an effect in the reverse direction; top-down processes can affect perception of vestibular stimuli. 2 Body Representation: Numerous studies demonstrate that vestibular stimulation changes the representation of body parts, and sensitivity to tactile input or pain. Thus, the vestibular system plays an integral role in multisensory coordination of body representation. 3 Affective Processes and Disorders: Studies in psychiatric patients and patients with a vestibular disorder report a high comorbidity of vestibular dysfunctions and psychiatric symptoms. Recent studies investigated the beneficial effect of vestibular stimulation on psychiatric disorders, and how vestibular input can change mood and affect. These three emerging streams of research in vestibular science are – at least in part – associated with different neuronal core mechanisms. Spatial transformations draw on parietal areas, body representation is associated with somatosensory areas, and affective processes involve insular and cingulate cortices, all of which receive vestibular input. Even though a wide range of different vestibular cortical projection areas has been ascertained, their functionality still is scarcely understood.

  14. On the gastrocecal inhibitory reflex in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee,Zai-Liu; Nakayama,Sosogu

    1981-01-01

    In rats anesthetized with urethane, the effects of distention of the stomach upon cecal motility and neural mechanisms which generate this effect were studied. Cecal motility was inhibited which generate this effect were studied. Cecal motility was inhibited when the pars glandularis of the stomach was distended by pressure ranging from 25 to 30 cm H2O. This inhibitory reflex was not affected by bilateral cervical vagotomy, but completely abolished following bilateral severance of the greater...

  15. Effect of pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine collagen and formation of ACE-inhibitory peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuhao; Olsen, Karsten; Grossi, Alberto Blak;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine collagen was pre-treated (boiled or high pressure (HP)-treated) and then hydrolysed by 6 proteases. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of hydrolysates were measured. All enzymes used were able to partly degrade collagen and release...... ACEinhibitory peptides. The highest ACE-inhibitory activity was obtained with Alcalase. Pretreatment significantly influenced the DH and ACE-inhibition. For most enzymes, boiling for 5 min resulted in a significantly higher DH and ACE-inhibitory activity. With Alcalase and collagenase, hydrolysis and release of...... ACE-inhibitory peptides occurred without any pretreatment, but HP-treatment significantly improved the DH and ACE-inhibitory activity. HP did not markedly affect the hydrolysis with the other enzymes. The major peptides obtained with Alcalase were identified; all were released from the triple helix...

  16. Factors affecting the local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors. Between June 2006 and June 2009, 159 lung tumors in 144 patients (primary lung cancer, 128; metastatic lung tumor, 31) were treated with SBRT with 48-60 Gy (mean 50.1 Gy) in 4-5 fractions. Higher doses were given to larger tumors and metastatic tumors in principle. Assessed factors were age, gender, tumor origin (primary vs. metastatic), histological subtype, tumor size, tumor appearance (solid vs. ground glass opacity), maximum standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and SBRT doses. Follow-up time was 1-60 months (median 18 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year local failure-free rates of all lesions were 90, 80, and 77%, respectively. On univariate analysis, metastatic tumors (p<0.0001), solid tumors (p=0.0246), and higher SBRT doses (p=0.0334) were the statistically significant unfavorable factors for local control. On multivariate analysis, only tumor origin was statistically significant (p=0.0027). The 2-year local failure-free rates of primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors were 87 and 50%, respectively. A metastatic tumor was the only independently significant unfavorable factor for local control after SBRT. (author)

  17. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Cortical Plasticity Induced by Inhibitory Neuron Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Southwell, Derek G.; Froemke, Robert C.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Stryker, Michael P.; Gandhi, Sunil P.

    2010-01-01

    Critical periods are times of pronounced brain plasticity. During a critical period in the postnatal development of the visual cortex, the occlusion of one eye triggers a rapid reorganization of neuronal responses, a process known as ocular dominance plasticity. We have shown that the transplantation of inhibitory neurons induces ocular dominance plasticity after the critical period. Transplanted inhibitory neurons receive excitatory synapses, make inhibitory synapses onto host cortical neuro...

  19. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period. PMID:26520216

  20. Breathing-controlled electrical stimulation could modify the affective component of neuropathic pain after amputation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melton DH

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheng Li1,2, Danielle H Melton1, Jeffrey C Berliner11Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Medical School – Houston, Houston, TX; 2UTHealth Motor Recovery Laboratory, Institute for Rehabilitation and Research, Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: In this case, a 31-year-old male suffered phantom neuropathic pain for more than 3 years after an above-the-knee amputation. His shooting phantom pain disappeared after the first session of breathing-controlled electrical stimulation, and reappeared or was triggered 28 days after an experimental error during which he received sustained electrical stimulation. In other words, painful shooting stimuli may not have been “cured” but forgotten and retriggered by a fearful event due to the experimental error. Therefore, this accidental finding provides a unique opportunity to understand sensory and affective components of neuropathic pain, and a novel intervention could modify the affective component of it.Keywords: neuropathic pain, amputation, electrical stimulation, voluntary breathing

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1) 3 Table 3 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants from Off-Site Waste and Recovery Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. DD, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR...

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(2) 4 Table 4 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants from Off-Site Waste and Recovery Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. DD, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at New Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR...

  3. Spinal Inhibitory Interneuron Diversity Delineates Variant Motor Microcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikoff, Jay B; Gabitto, Mariano I; Rivard, Andre F; Drobac, Estelle; Machado, Timothy A; Miri, Andrew; Brenner-Morton, Susan; Famojure, Erica; Diaz, Carolyn; Alvarez, Francisco J; Mentis, George Z; Jessell, Thomas M

    2016-03-24

    Animals generate movement by engaging spinal circuits that direct precise sequences of muscle contraction, but the identity and organizational logic of local interneurons that lie at the core of these circuits remain unresolved. Here, we show that V1 interneurons, a major inhibitory population that controls motor output, fractionate into highly diverse subsets on the basis of the expression of 19 transcription factors. Transcriptionally defined V1 subsets exhibit distinct physiological signatures and highly structured spatial distributions with mediolateral and dorsoventral positional biases. These positional distinctions constrain patterns of input from sensory and motor neurons and, as such, suggest that interneuron position is a determinant of microcircuit organization. Moreover, V1 diversity indicates that different inhibitory microcircuits exist for motor pools controlling hip, ankle, and foot muscles, revealing a variable circuit architecture for interneurons that control limb movement. PMID:26949184

  4. Early depolarizing GABA controls critical period plasticity in the rat visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Deidda, Gabriele; Allegra, Manuela; Cerri, Chiara; Naskar, Shovan; Bony, Guillaume; Zunino, Giulia; Bozzi, Yuri; Caleo, Matteo; Cancedda, Laura

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hyperpolarizing and inhibitory GABA regulates “critical periods” for plasticity in sensory cortices. Here, we examine the role of early, depolarizing GABA in controlling plasticity mechanisms. We report that brief interference with depolarizing GABA during early development prolonged critical period plasticity in visual cortical circuits, without affecting overall development of the visual system. The effects on plasticity were accompanied by dampened inhibitory neurotransmission, dow...

  5. Do Sustained Lung Inflations during Neonatal Resuscitation Affect Cerebral Blood Volume in Preterm Infants? A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schwaberger

    Full Text Available Sustained lung inflations (SLI during neonatal resuscitation may promote alveolar recruitment in preterm infants. While most of the studies focus on respiratory outcome, the impact of SLI on the brain hasn't been investigated yet.Do SLI affect cerebral blood volume (CBV in preterm infants?Preterm infants of gestation 28 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days with requirement for respiratory support (RS were included in this randomized controlled pilot trial. Within the first 15 minutes after birth near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measurements using 'NIRO-200-NX' (Hamamatsu, Japan were performed to evaluate changes in CBV and cerebral tissue oxygenation. Two groups were compared based on RS: In SLI group RS was given by applying 1-3 SLI (30 cmH2O for 15 s continued by respiratory standard care. Control group received respiratory standard care only.40 infants (20 in each group with mean gestational age of 32 weeks one day (±2 days and birth weight of 1707 (±470 g were included. In the control group ΔCBV was significantly decreasing, whereas in SLI group ΔCBV showed similar values during the whole period of 15 minutes. Comparing both groups within the first 15 minutes ΔCBV showed a tendency toward different overall courses (p = 0.051.This is the first study demonstrating an impact of SLI on CBV. Further studies are warranted including reconfirmation of the present findings in infants with lower gestational age. Future investigations on SLI should not only focus on respiratory outcome but also on the consequences on the developing brain.German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005161 https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/setLocale_EN.do.

  6. Altered functional interaction hub between affective network and cognitive control network in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-li; Yang, Shu-zhen; Sun, Wei-li; Shi, Yu-zhong; Duan, Hui-feng

    2016-02-01

    Emotional and cognitive dysregulation in major depressive disorder (MDD) have been consistently considered to be attributed to structural and functional abnormalities in affective network (AN) and cognitive control network (CCN). This study was to investigate the functional connectivity (FC) patterns and altered functional interactions between both networks in MDD. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging in the AN and the CCN in 25 MDD and 35 healthy controls (HC). The seeds were from voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis results. Then FC within the AN was assessed from a seed placed in the left amygdala (AMG) and FC within CCN was determined by placing seeds in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Compared with HC, MDD showed reduced FC between left AMG and bilateral precuneus and right anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) within AN and reduced FC between right DLPFC and left cuneus, left lingual gyrus, and right ACC within CCN. An interaction hub of altered FC in MDD between AN and CCN located in the right ACC. Interestingly, the altered FC between right ACC and left AMG was negatively correlated with depressive symptom score while the altered FC between right ACC and DLPFC was positively correlated the executive function in MDD. The right ACC not only supports the cognitive and emotional processes, but also is an altered functional interaction hub between AN and CCN in MDD. It further suggest multiple sources of dysregulation in AN and CCN implicate both top-down cognitive control and bottom-up emotional expression dysfunction in MDD. PMID:26519557

  7. The inhibitory effect of a chewing task on a human jaw reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Maillou; S.W. Cadden; F. Lobbezoo

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether an inhibitory jaw reflex could be modulated by experimentally controlled conditions that mimicked symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. Reflecting on previous work, we anticipated that these conditions might suppress the reflex. Electromyographic r

  8. Engineering yeast tolerance to inhibitory lignocellulosic biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Joana Filipa Torres Pinheiro; Aguiar, Tatiana Quinta; D. Mendes; Pereira, Francisco B.; Domingues, Lucília

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the necessity for biotechnological manufacturing based on lignocellulosic feedstocks has become evident. However, the pre-treatment step in the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol leads to the accumulation of inhibitory byproducts. Robust second generation bioethanol processes require microorganisms able to ferment these inhibitory lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of the determinants of yeast tolerance to lignocellulose...

  9. How do negative emotions impair self-control? A neural model of negative urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; Powell, David K; Andersen, Anders H; DeWall, C Nathan

    2016-05-15

    Self-control often fails when people experience negative emotions. Negative urgency represents the dispositional tendency to experience such self-control failure in response to negative affect. Neither the neural underpinnings of negative urgency nor the more general phenomenon of self-control failure in response to negative emotions are fully understood. Previous theorizing suggests that an insufficient, inhibitory response from the prefrontal cortex may be the culprit behind such self-control failure. However, we entertained an alternative hypothesis: negative emotions lead to self-control failure because they excessively tax inhibitory regions of the prefrontal cortex. Using fMRI, we compared the neural activity of people high in negative urgency with controls on an emotional, inhibitory Go/No-Go task. While experiencing negative (but not positive or neutral) emotions, participants high in negative urgency showed greater recruitment of inhibitory brain regions than controls. Suggesting a compensatory function, inhibitory accuracy among participants high in negative urgency was associated with greater prefrontal recruitment. Greater activity in the anterior insula on negatively-valenced, inhibitory trials predicted greater substance abuse one month and one year after the MRI scan among individuals high in negative urgency. These results suggest that, among people whose negative emotions often lead to self-control failure, excessive reactivity of the brain's regulatory resources may be the culprit. PMID:26892861

  10. Of huge mice and tiny elephants: Exploring the relationship between inhibitory processes and preschool math skills

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca eMerkley; Jodie eThompson; Gaia eScerif

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive mechanisms underpinning the well-established relationship between inhibitory control and early maths skills remain unclear. We hypothesised that a specific aspect of inhibitory control drives its association with distinct math skills in very young children: the ability to ignore stimulus dimensions that are in conflict with task-relevant representations. We used an Animal Size Stroop task in which three- to six-year-olds were required to ignore the physical size of animal pictur...

  11. Of Huge Mice and Tiny Elephants: Exploring the Relationship Between Inhibitory Processes and Preschool Math Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Merkley, Rebecca; Thompson, Jodie; Scerif, Gaia

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive mechanisms underpinning the well-established relationship between inhibitory control and early maths skills remain unclear. We hypothesized that a specific aspect of inhibitory control drives its association with distinct math skills in very young children: the ability to ignore stimulus dimensions that are in conflict with task-relevant representations. We used an Animal Size Stroop task in which 3- to 6-year-olds were required to ignore the physical size of animal pictures to ...

  12. What Do We Really Know about Cognitive Inhibition? Task Demands and Inhibitory Effects across a Rang

    OpenAIRE

    Noreen, Saima; Macleod, Malcolm D.

    2015-01-01

    Our study explores inhibitory control across a range of widely recognised memory and behavioural tasks. Eighty-seven never-depressed participants completed a series of tasks designed to measure inhibitory control in memory and behaviour. Specifically, a variant of the selective retrieval-practice and the Think/No-Think tasks were employed as measures of memory inhibition. The Stroop-Colour Naming and the Go/No-Go tasks were used as measures of behavioural inhibition. Participants completed al...

  13. The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    Presently, chemical seed treatments are in discussion due to their directly or indirectly impacts on human health or other living organisms. They may also negatively affect the ecosystem and the food chain. In rice seeds, chemicals may cause phytotoxic effects including seed degradation. Eugenol is the main component of clove (Eugenia caryophillis) oil, which was proved to act simultaneously as bactericide, virocide and especially fungicide. The in vitro study was aimed to compare the inhibitory effect of the following seed treatment substances against seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during 12 months of storage; conventional captan (CA), chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL), eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL) and control (CO). The obtained results of fungi inhibition were classified in three groups, which showed at first that CA treatment led to a better, i.e., longer, inhibitory effect on Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger than E+CL. Secondly, E+CL coating polymer showed the longest inhibitory effect against Bipolaris oryzae and Nigrospora oryzae compared to CA and CL coating polymer. Finally, both CA and E+CL coating polymer had non-significant difference inhibitory effect on Fusarium moniliforme. The variant of CL coating polymer for seed coating was only during the first 6 months of storage able to inhibit all species of the observed seed borne fungi, whereas CA and E+CL coating polymer were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of storage. PMID:19899320

  14. Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Phycobiliproteins of Dulse Palmaria palmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoe Furuta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the inhibitory activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE in protein hydrolysates from dulse, Palmaria palmata. The proteins extracted from dulse were mainly composed of phycoerythrin (PE followed by phycocyanin (PC and allophycocyanin (APC. The dulse proteins showed slight ACE inhibitory activity, whereas the inhibitory activity was extremely enhanced by thermolysin hydrolysis. The ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysates was hardly affected by additional pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin treatments. Nine ACE inhibitory peptides (YRD, AGGEY, VYRT, VDHY, IKGHY, LKNPG, LDY, LRY, FEQDWAS were isolated from the hydrolysates by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and it was demonstrated that the synthetic peptide LRY (IC50: 0.044 μmol has remarkably high ACE inhibitory activity. Then, we investigated the structural properties of dulse phycobiliproteins to discuss the origin of dulse ACE inhibitory peptides. Each dulse phycobiliprotein possesses α-subunit (Mw: 17,477–17,638 and β-subunit (Mw: 17,455–18,407. The sequences of YRD, AGGEY, VYRT, VDHY, LKNPG and LDY were detected in the primary structure of PE α-subunit, and the LDY also exists in the APC α- and β-subunits. In addition, the LRY sequence was found in the β-subunits of PE, PC and APC. From these results, it was suggested that the dulse ACE inhibitory peptides were derived from phycobiliproteins, especially PE. To make sure the deduction, we carried out additional experiment by using recombinant PE. We expressed the recombinant α- and β-subunits of PE (rPEα and rPEβ, respectively, and then prepared their peptides by thermolysin hydrolysis. As a result, these peptides showed high ACE inhibitory activities (rPEα: 94.4%; rPEβ: 87.0%. Therefore, we concluded that the original proteins of dulse ACE inhibitory peptides were phycobiliproteins.

  15. Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Phycobiliproteins of Dulse Palmaria palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Tomoe; Miyabe, Yoshikatsu; Yasui, Hajime; Kinoshita, Yasunori; Kishimura, Hideki

    2016-02-01

    We examined the inhibitory activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) in protein hydrolysates from dulse, Palmaria palmata. The proteins extracted from dulse were mainly composed of phycoerythrin (PE) followed by phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC). The dulse proteins showed slight ACE inhibitory activity, whereas the inhibitory activity was extremely enhanced by thermolysin hydrolysis. The ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysates was hardly affected by additional pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin treatments. Nine ACE inhibitory peptides (YRD, AGGEY, VYRT, VDHY, IKGHY, LKNPG, LDY, LRY, FEQDWAS) were isolated from the hydrolysates by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and it was demonstrated that the synthetic peptide LRY (IC50: 0.044 μmol) has remarkably high ACE inhibitory activity. Then, we investigated the structural properties of dulse phycobiliproteins to discuss the origin of dulse ACE inhibitory peptides. Each dulse phycobiliprotein possesses α-subunit (Mw: 17,477-17,638) and β-subunit (Mw: 17,455-18,407). The sequences of YRD, AGGEY, VYRT, VDHY, LKNPG and LDY were detected in the primary structure of PE α-subunit, and the LDY also exists in the APC α- and β-subunits. In addition, the LRY sequence was found in the β-subunits of PE, PC and APC. From these results, it was suggested that the dulse ACE inhibitory peptides were derived from phycobiliproteins, especially PE. To make sure the deduction, we carried out additional experiment by using recombinant PE. We expressed the recombinant α- and β-subunits of PE (rPEα and rPEβ, respectively), and then prepared their peptides by thermolysin hydrolysis. As a result, these peptides showed high ACE inhibitory activities (rPEα: 94.4%; rPEβ: 87.0%). Therefore, we concluded that the original proteins of dulse ACE inhibitory peptides were phycobiliproteins. PMID:26861357

  16. A Mixed Methods Study Exploring the Factors and Behaviors That Affect Glycemic Control Following a Structured Education Program: The Irish DAFNE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Dympna; O'Hara, Mary Clare; Meehan, Ben; Byrne, Molly; Dinneen, Sean F.; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To explain the factors affecting glycemic control (measured by HbA1c) following the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) program. Background: DAFNE is a structured education program designed to assist persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus achieve optimal glycemic control. However, not all participants reach this goal. Few studies…

  17. An NMDA Receptor-Dependent Mechanism Underlies Inhibitory Synapse Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinglong Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian brain, GABAergic synaptic transmission provides inhibitory balance to glutamatergic excitatory drive and controls neuronal output. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of GABAergic synapses remain largely unclear. Here, we report that NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDARs in individual immature neurons are the upstream signaling molecules essential for GABAergic synapse development, which requires signaling via Calmodulin binding motif in the C0 domain of the NMDAR GluN1 subunit. Interestingly, in neurons lacking NMDARs, whereas GABAergic synaptic transmission is strongly reduced, the tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors is increased, suggesting a compensatory mechanism for the lack of synaptic inhibition. These results demonstrate a crucial role for NMDARs in specifying the development of inhibitory synapses, and suggest an important mechanism for controlling the establishment of the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition in the developing brain.

  18. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice. PMID:27472315

  19. Effects of multiple inhibitory components on anaerobic treatment processes in municipal solid waste incineration leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yuqing; Dang, Yan; Lan, Zhangheng; Sun, Dezhi

    2016-06-01

    This study served to investigate the comparative and combined effects of calcium, ammonia nitrogen, and aquatic humic substances (AHS) on specific methanogenic activity (SMA) in municipal solid waste leachate at mesophilic conditions. Using orthogonal experiments, anaerobic granular sludge was cultured with different concentrations combinations of the three added components for 13 days. The combination of 6000 mg/L calcium, 400 mg/L ammonia nitrogen, and 4000 mg/L AHS was the most inhibitory combination on the SMA of granular sludge, with a calculated 4.49 mL (standard temperature and atmospheric pressure) (STP) CH4/(gVSS·d) of SMA. The SMA with the addition of the inhibitory components was much lower than the control group's (1000 mg/L calcium, 200 mg/L ammonia nitrogen and 2000 mg/L AHS) with a calculated 12.97 mL (STP) CH4/(gVSS·d) of SMA. Calcium was the major inhibitor among the three components followed by AHS. High concentrations of calcium significantly inhibited the utilization of propionate and butyrate in the substrate and further affected the methanogenic process. PMID:26830102

  20. Factors affecting post-control reinvasion by seed of an invasive species, Phragmites australis, in the central Platte River, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatowitsch, Susan M.; Larson, Diane L.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants, such as Phragmites australis, can profoundly affect channel environments of large rivers by stabilizing sediments and altering water flows. Invasive plant removal is considered necessary where restoration of dynamic channels is needed to provide critical habitat for species of conservation concern. However, these programs are widely reported to be inefficient. Post-control reinvasion is frequent, suggesting increased attention is needed to prevent seed regeneration. To develop more effective responses to this invader in the Central Platte River (Nebraska, USA), we investigated several aspects of Phragmites seed ecology potentially linked to post-control reinvasion, in comparison to other common species: extent of viable seed production, importance of water transport, and regeneration responses to hydrology. We observed that although Phragmites seed does not mature until very late in the ice-free season, populations produce significant amounts of viable seed (>50 % of filled seed). Most seed transported via water in the Platte River are invasive perennial species, although Phragmites abundances are much lower than species such as Lythrum salicaria, Cyperus esculentus and Phalaris arundinacea. Seed regeneration of Phragmites varies greatly depending on hydrology, especially timing of water level changes. Flood events coinciding with the beginning of seedling emergence reduced establishment by as much as 59 % compared to flood events that occurred a few weeks later. Results of these investigations suggest that prevention of seed set (i.e., by removal of flowering culms) should be a priority in vegetation stands not being treated annually. After seeds are in the seedbank, preventing reinvasion using prescribed flooding has a low chance of success given that Phragmites can regenerate in a wide variety of hydrologic microsites.

  1. Factors affecting fuel break effectiveness in the control of large fires on the Los Padres National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Brennan, Teresa J.

    2011-01-01

    As wildfires have increased in frequency and extent, so have the number of homes developed in the wildland-urban interface. In California, the predominant approach to mitigating fire risk is construction of fuel breaks, but there has been little empirical study of their role in controlling large fires.We constructed a spatial database of fuel breaks on the Los Padres National Forest in southern California to better understand characteristics of fuel breaks that affect the behaviour of large fires and to map where fires and fuel breaks most commonly intersect. We evaluated whether fires stopped or crossed over fuel breaks over a 28-year period and compared the outcomes with physical characteristics of the sites, weather and firefighting activities during the fire event. Many fuel breaks never intersected fires, but others intersected several, primarily in historically fire-prone areas. Fires stopped at fuel breaks 46% of the time, almost invariably owing to fire suppression activities. Firefighter access to treatments, smaller fires and longer fuel breaks were significant direct influences, and younger vegetation and fuel break maintenance indirectly improved the outcome by facilitating firefighter access. This study illustrates the importance of strategic location of fuel breaks because they have been most effective where they provided access for firefighting activities.

  2. Reducing resin content and board density without adversely affecting the mechanical properties of particleboard through controlling particle size

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Arabi; Mehdi Faezipour; Heydar Gholizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Density and resin content are two factors that have a significant effect on the production cost of wood composite.However,particle size affects resin content and density,which suggests that the interaction of these three factors can be manipulated to reduce the board density and resin content of particleboard without adversely influencing its mechai cal properties.Some mathematical functional forms based on resin content,board density and slenderness ratio were regressed and an appropriate form was chosen.According to analysis of the results using SHAZAM 9 software,the exponential function best fit the experimental data.Finally,"indifference curves" of mechanical properties were illustrated and analyzed.The results indicated that negative effects of density or resin content reduction on mechanical properties could be compensated for by controlling particles' slenderness ratio.Interestingly,increases in slenderness ratio compensated for the negative effects of decreases in resin content or board density on module of rupture (MOR) and module of elasticity (MOE).Moreover,this "compensation ratio" intensified as resin content or density decreased and/or as the MOR or MOE increased.On the other hand,reduction in slenderness ratio indicated a complementary effect on reducing internal bond (IB) strength,a result of decresses in resin content or density.Moreover,this "complementary ratio" was intensified as resin content or density decreased and/or as IB strength increased.

  3. Factors affecting geographic market definition and merger control for the Dutch electricity sector. Final report. Non-confidential version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NMA (Netherlands Competition Authority NMa) asked The Brattle Group to analyse: (1) Factors that would affect geographic market definition for the purpose of merger control in the Dutch electric power industry; and (2) The competitive effects of some specific (hypothetical) mergers in that industry. This study does not refer to any actual merger proceedings, and the NMa have not asked to analyse any mergers of which they have been notified. All mergers analysed are hypothetical. This study is performed using both statistical analysis of historical data, and results from a comprehensive model of the European power market, the Brattle Annual Model (BAM). Standard tools of competitive analysis are used, including the so-called SSNIP test (Small but Significant and Non-transitory Increase in Price) for geographic market definition, and measures of concentration (market shares, Hirschmann-Herfindahl Indices (HHIs), which are used to examine horizontal issues in competitive analysis, and Pivotal Supply Index) for merger analysis, as well as more sophisticated economic modelling (e.g., Cournot model)

  4. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    control are "emotional eating" and "externality", which represent an individual's vulnerability to eat in response to emotional states or external cues, respectively. These questionnaires have been translated into French and validated for the French population. Average data are available for normal weight and obese French men and women. A gender difference is often reported: women, and even young girls, tend to have higher scores than males for most dimensions. These questionnaires have been extensively used in populations without psychiatric disorders, with the only exception of diagnosed eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa. The questionnaires have not been used until now in populations with other types of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disease. Their relevance for such populations is now an important question, since last generation pharmaceutical treatments of such psychiatric disorders seem to adversely affect body weight control. It then becomes critical to know whether the psychological dimensions assessed by such questionnaires reflect the action of pharmacological agents that induce weight gain. A research project is now in progress at Sainte-Anne Hospital to investigate many dimensions of the motivation to eat, as assessed by the questionnaires, in psychiatric patients receiving various types of antipsychotic agents. The results of this original study might provide hints about the mechanisms that lead to body weight gain in patients receiving certain types of antipsychotic pharmacological agents and potentially help in preventing or reversing the weight gain associated with such treatments. PMID:19393389

  5. Differential effects of excitatory and inhibitory heterogeneity on the gain and asynchronous state of sparse cortical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F Mejias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and theoretical studies have highlighted the importance of cell-to-cell differences in the dynamics and functions of neural networks, such as in different types of neural coding or synchronization. It is still not known, however, how neural heterogeneity can affect cortical computations, or impact the dynamics of typical cortical circuits constituted of sparse excitatory and inhibitory networks. In this work, we analytically and numerically study the dynamics of a typical cortical circuit with a certain level of neural heterogeneity. Our circuit includes realistic features found in real cortical populations, such as network sparseness, excitatory and inhibitory subpopulations of neurons, and different cell-to-cell heterogeneities for each type of population in the system. We find highly differentiated roles for heterogeneity, depending on the subpopulation in which it is found. In particular, while heterogeneity among excitatory neurons nonlinearly increases the mean firing rate and linearizes the f-I curves, heterogeneity among inhibitory neurons may decrease the network activity level and induces divisive gain effects in the f-I curves of the excitatory cells, providing an effective gain control mechanism to influence information flow. In addition, we compute the conditions for stability of the network activity, finding that the synchronization onset is robust to inhibitory heterogeneity, but it shifts to lower input levels for higher excitatory heterogeneity. Finally, we provide an extension of recently reported heterogeneity-induced mechanisms for signal detection under rate coding, and we explore the validity of our findings when multiple sources of heterogeneity are present. These results allow for a detailed characterization of the role of neural heterogeneity in asynchronous cortical networks.

  6. Randomised controlled trial of a 12 week yoga intervention on negative affective states, cardiovascular and cognitive function in post-cardiac rehabilitation patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, Alan; Kiat, Hosen; Denniss, A Robert; Cheema, Birinder S.; Bensoussan, Alan; Machliss, Bianca; Colagiuri, Ben; Chang, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Background Negative affective states such as anxiety, depression and stress are significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease, particularly in cardiac and post-cardiac rehabilitation populations. Yoga is a balanced practice of physical exercise, breathing control and meditation that can reduce psychosocial symptoms as well as improve cardiovascular and cognitive function. It has the potential to positively affect multiple disease pathways and may prove to be a practical adjunct to cardi...

  7. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibe Doosje

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection.Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understanding of the role of traditional variables like job demands and job control with humorous coping styles and affective variables with regard to the explanation of the frequency of URTI.Research design, approach and method: A sample of 2094 employees filled out questionnaires assessing job demands, job control, generic (MSHS-C, antecedent-focused and responsefocused humorous coping (QOHC and job-related affect (JAWS.Main findings: Job demands were indirectly related to the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections, mediated by their relationships with job control and negative job-related affect. Generic and response-focused humorous coping were less relevant for the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections than the presumably ‘healthy’ antecedentfocused humorous coping style. The latter showed a negative association with negative jobrelated affect. The frequency of upper respiratory tract infections was better predicted by job control and negative job-related affect than by humorous coping, in the expected directions.Practical/managerial implication: These findings may have practical relevance for the improvement of stress management interventions in organisations.Contribution/value-add: Although it was shown that healthy humorous coping does contribute to decreases in upper respiratory tract infection, job demands, job resources and negative affective state seem the most important predictors.

  8. Generation of Immune Inhibitory Dendritic Cells and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abediankenari Saeid

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Variety of positive as well as negative regulatory signals are provided by antigen presenting cell in particular by dendritic cells. In this research, we studied the capacity of dendritic cells to expand antigen-specific T regulatory cells.We also investigated the role of TGF-beta in induction inhibitory functions of dendritic cells in mixed leukocyte reactions.Dendritic cells were generated from blood CD14+ monocytes with granulocyte-Monocyte colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4 with or without TGF-beta (TGF-β-GM-DC or GM-DC. CD4+ T cell were isolated to assess lymphocyte proliferation by lymphocyte transformation test assay and the ratio of CD4+FOXp3+ CD25+ T cells were determined by fluorescene-activated cell sorter. T cell proliferation responses in GM-DC showed a significance antigen-specific proliferative response comparing with TGFβ-GM -DC. T Cell proliferation was inhibited in co-culture system containing DC-treated TGF-β. It can be suggested that the expsansion of T regulatory by TGF-β-GM-DC provides a means for antigen specific control of unwanted immune reactions.

  9. Inhibitory role for GABA in autoimmune inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Roopa; Axtell, Robert; Mitra, Ananya; Miranda, Melissa; Lock, Christopher; Tsien, Richard W.; Steinman, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, has a parallel inhibitory role in the immune system. We demonstrate that immune cells synthesize GABA and have the machinery for GABA catabolism. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) express functional GABA receptors and respond electrophysiologically to GABA. Thus, the immune system harbors all of the necessary constituents for GABA signaling, and GABA itself may function as a paracrine or autocrine factor. These observations led...

  10. Excitatory and inhibitory learning with absent stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Daniel S.; Sherwood, Andrew; Holland, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments show that two associatively-activated stimulus representations may engage in excitatory or inhibitory learning, depending on their temporal relationship. Experiment 1a suggested that simultaneously-activated stimulus representations show evidence of inhibitory learning in an acquisition test. Experiment 1b showed similar evidence of inhibition in a summation test. Experiment 2 found that activation of two stimulus representations in a serial compound resulted in excitatory l...

  11. A Cyclic Inhibitory Central Pattern Generator Control Method Integrated with Mechanical Oscillators for Snake Robots%融合机械元的蛇形机器人循环抑制中枢模式发生器控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐超权; 王明辉; 李斌; 马书根

    2013-01-01

    To solve the problem that there is no basis for choosing control signals and sensor information for central pattern generator (CPG) control of snake robots, a cyclic inhibitory CPG control method with mechanical oscillators is proposed. Firstly, the mechanical oscillators reformed from snake robot dynamical equations are introduced into the cyclic inhibitory CPG model. Secondly, an improved Matsuoka neuron is proposed so that the neuron and mechanical oscillator can be expressed in a uniform way. Thirdly, the relationship of parameters in the cyclic inhibitory CPG model with mechanical oscillators is illustrated, and the relationship expression of the control signal and sensor information for snake robots and the CPG states is given. Finally, the proposed method is verified with simulation, and the simulation results are analyzed. In this method, there are clear definitions for the control signals and sensor information of snake robots, and the computation complexity of CPG is decreased because neuron computation in CPG is replaced with physical structure of mechanical oscillators.%针对蛇形机器人中枢模式发生器(CPG)控制中控制信号以及传感信息缺少选择依据的问题,提出了一种融合了机械元的循环抑制CPG控制方法.首先,将蛇形机器人本体动力学方程改造为机械元引入循环抑制CPG模型.其次,提出了改进的Matsuoka神经元,从而使得神经元与机械元具有一致的表达形式.再次,分析了融入机械元的循环抑制CPG模型中的参数关系,并给出了控制信号和传感信息与CPG状态量关系的表达式.最后,利用仿真对所提出的方法进行了验证,并对产生结果进行了分析.该方法中蛇形机器人的控制信号与传感信息都具有明确的定义,且由于用机械元的物理结构代替了神经元的计算,降低了CPG的计算量.

  12. Inhibitory Deficits, Delay Aversion and Preschool AD/HD: Implications for the Dual Pathway Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lindy Dalen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Martin Hall; Bob Remington

    2004-01-01

    The dual pathway model proposes the existence of separate and neurobiologically distinct cognitive (inhibitory and more general executive dysfunction) and motivational (delay aversion) developmental routes to AD/HD. The study reported in this paper explores the relation between inhibitory deficits and delay aversion and their association with AD/HD in a group of three-year-old children. Children identified as having a pre-school equivalent of AD/HD (N=19) and controls (N=19), matched for gend...

  13. Evaluation of Traditional Indian Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants for Human Pancreatic Amylase Inhibitory Effect In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Ameeta Ravi Kumar; Shobha Bhargava; Smita Zinjarde; Remya Ravindran; Sudha Ponnusamy

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic α-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA) inhibitory potential...

  14. Evidence that the type of person affects the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Trafimow, David; Finlay, Krystina A; Norman, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This study examined the role of person type in explaining the relationship between perceived behavioural control and behavioural intentions. Participants (N = 187) completed measures of the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) variables regarding 30 behaviours. Within-participants analyses demonstrated that intentions were more strongly predicted by perceived behavioural control (PBC) than a combination of attitudes and subjective norms among a minority of the sample. When these 'PBC controlled' participants were considered separately, the effects for perceived behavioural control obtained in previous between-participants analyses were augmented. Conversely, when these participants were excluded from the sample, the effects of perceived behavioural control were reduced. PBC control was also modestly associated with dispositional measures of perceived controllability. Overall, the findings indicate that the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship depends not only on the type of behaviour but also on the type of person. PMID:12133227

  15. Evaluation of the Relationship between Critical Thinking Skills and Affective Control in Child Training Students of the Female Technical and Vocational College in the City of Broujerd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Zohreh; Bagheri, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    This study is a descriptive-correlational study with the purpose of evaluating the relationship between critical thinking skills and affective control in child training students of the female technical and Vocational College in the city of Broujerd. Statistical population of this study consisted of all students in the field of child training of…

  16. Plants from Brazilian Cerrado with potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro Souza

    Full Text Available The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05 tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC₅₀ value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC₅₀ value of 13.14 µg/mL. Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations.

  17. Defining inhibitory neurone function in respiratory circuits: opportunities with optogenetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Ana Paula; Paton, Julian F R; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2015-07-15

    Pharmacological and mathematical modelling studies support the view that synaptic inhibition in mammalian brainstem respiratory circuits is essential for generating normal and stable breathing movements. GABAergic and glycinergic neurones are known components of these circuits but their precise functional roles have not been established, especially within key microcircuits of the respiratory pre-Bötzinger (pre-BötC) and Bötzinger (BötC) complexes involved in phasic control of respiratory pump and airway muscles. Here, we review briefly current concepts of relevant complexities of inhibitory synapses and the importance of synaptic inhibition in the operation of these microcircuits. We highlight results and limitations of classical pharmacological studies that have suggested critical functions of synaptic inhibition. We then explore the potential opportunities for optogenetic strategies that represent a promising new approach for interrogating function of inhibitory circuits, including a hypothetical wish list for optogenetic approaches to allow expedient application of this technology. We conclude that recent technical advances in optogenetics should provide a means to understand the role of functionally select and regionally confined subsets of inhibitory neurones in key respiratory circuits such as those in the pre-BötC and BötC. PMID:25384785

  18. Inhibitory effects of fruit juices on CYP3A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunmi; Yoon, Yune-Jung; Shon, Ji-Hong; Cha, In-June; Shin, Jae-Gook; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2006-04-01

    There have been very limited reports on the effects of commercial fruit juices on human CYP3A activity. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of readily available commercial fruit juices on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity, a marker of CYP3A, were evaluated in pooled human liver microsomes. The fruit juices investigated were black raspberry, black mulberry, plum, and wild grape. White grapefruit, pomegranate, and orange juice were used as positive and negative controls. The black mulberry juice showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A except for grapefruit juice. The inhibition depended on the amount of a fruit juice added to the incubation mixture. The inhibitory potential of human CYP3A was in the order: grapefruit > black mulberry > wild grape > pomegranate > black raspberry. The IC(50) values of all fruit juices tested were reduced after preincubation with microsomes in the presence of the NADPH-generating system, suggesting that a mechanism-based inhibitory component was present in these fruit juices, as in the case of grapefruit. The results suggest that, like grapefruit juice, commercial fruit juices also have the potential to inhibit CYP3A-catalzyed midazolam 1'-hydroxylation. Therefore, in vivo studies investigating the interactions between fruit juices such as black mulberry and wild grape and CYP3A substrates are necessary to determine whether inhibition of CYP3A activity by fruit juices is clinically relevant. PMID:16415112

  19. The frontal lobes and inhibitory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuropsychological studies using traditional tasks of inhibitory functions, such as the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and the Go/No-Go Task have revealed that the frontal lobe is responsible for several types of inhibitory functions. However, the detailed psychological nature of the inhibitory functions and the precise location of their critical foci within the frontal lobe remain to be investigated. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides spatial and temporal resolution that allowed us to illuminate at least 4 frontal regions involved in inhibitory functions: the dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and rostral parts of the frontal lobe and the presupplementary motor area (preSMA). The ventrolateral part of the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere was activated during response inhibition. The preSMA in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition of proactive interference immediately after the dimension changes of the WCST. The rostral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition long after the dimension changes. The dorsolateral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated at the dimension changes in the first time, but not in the second time. These findings provide clues to our understanding of functional differentiation of inhibitory functions and their localization in the frontal lobe. (author)

  20. Impaired Inhibitory Force Feedback in Fixed Dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugge, Winfred; Schouten, Alfred C; van Hilten, Jacobus J; van der Helm, Frans C T

    2016-04-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a multifactorial disorder associated with an aberrant host response to tissue injury. About 25% of CRPS patients suffer poorly understood involuntary sustained muscle contractions associated with dysfunctional reflexes that result in abnormal postures (fixed dystonia). A recent modeling study simulated fixed dystonia (FD) caused by aberrant force feedback. The current study aims to validate this hypothesis by experimentally recording the modulation of reflexive force feedback in patients with FD. CRPS patients with and without FD, patients with FD but without CRPS, as well as healthy controls participated in the experiment. Three task instructions and three perturbation characteristics were used to evoke a wide range of responses to force perturbations. During position tasks ("maintain posture"), healthy subjects as well as patients resisted the perturbations, becoming more stiff than when being relaxed (i.e., the relax task). Healthy subjects and CRPS patients without FD were both more compliant during force tasks ("maintain force") than during relax tasks, meaning they actively gave way to the imposed forces. Remarkably, the patients with FD failed to do so. A neuromuscular model was fitted to the experimental data to separate the distinct contributions of position, velocity and force feedback, as well as co-contraction to the motor behavior. The neuromuscular modeling indicated that inhibitory force feedback is deregulated in patients with FD, for both CRPS and non-CRPS patients. From previously published simulation results and the present experimental study, it is concluded that aberrant force feedback plays a role in fixed dystonia. PMID:25955788

  1. The effects of Nintendo Wii on the postural control of patients affected by acquiered brain injury: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Vicario Méndez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Scientific literature demonstrates that postural control after suffering a brain injury can actually relate to its functional prognosis. Postural control is a result of complex interactions of different body systems that co-operate in order to control the position of the body in the space and is determined by the functional task as well as by the environment in which it is developed. The use in rehabilitation of Nintendo's Wii® gives some results on motor functions. Objective:...

  2. Evaluation of a Classroom-Based Psychosocial Intervention in Conflict-Affected Nepal: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordans, Mark J. D.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Tol, Wietse A.; Kohrt, Brandon A.; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Macy, Robert D.; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In situations of ongoing violence, childhood psychosocial and mental health problems require care. However, resources and evidence for adequate interventions are scarce for children in low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluated a school-based psychosocial intervention in conflict-affected, rural Nepal. Methods: A cluster…

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Sexually Exploited, War-Affected Congolese Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; McMullen, John; Shannon, Ciaran; Rafferty, Harry; Black, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) delivered by nonclinical facilitators in reducing posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety and conduct problems and increasing prosocial behavior in a group of war-affected, sexually exploited girls in a single-blind, parallel-design, randomized,…

  4. Predicting automaticity in exercise behaviour: the role of perceived behavioural control, affect, intention, action planning, and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Bruijn; B. Gardner; L. van Osch; F.F. Sniehotta

    2014-01-01

    Background Habit formation has been proposed as a way to maintain behaviour over time. Purpose Recent evidence suggests that constructs additional to repeated performance may predict physical automaticity, but no research has yet explored possible direct impacts of intention, planning, affect, and p

  5. Association analysis of the monoamine oxidase A gene in bipolar affective disorder by using family-based internal controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noethen, M.M.; Eggermann, K.; Propping, P. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    It is well accepted that association studies are a major tool in investigating the contribution of single genes to the development of diseases that do not follow simple Mendelian inheritance pattern (so-called complex traits). Such major psychiatric diseases as bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia clearly fall into this category of diseases. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  6. [Research progress of rectoanal inhibitory reflex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuhui; Zhao, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is progressing for the latest 100 years. From the discovery of its important role in diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease to all aspects of its development, reflex pathways, neural regulation and physiological functions, there have been more in-depth explorations. It is now recognized that a number of other diseases also have a more specific performance of RAIR. It has become an important and indispensable part to anorectal manometry. Research progress of rectoanal inhibitory reflex is reviewed in this article. PMID:26704013

  7. The influence of controlled floods on fine sediment storage in debris fan-affected canyons of the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Alexander, Jason S.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the construction of large dams on the Green and Colorado Rivers, annual floods aggraded sandbars in lateral flow-recirculation eddies with fine sediment scoured from the bed and delivered from upstream. Flows greater than normal dam operations may be used to mimic this process in an attempt to increase time-averaged sandbar size. These controlled floods may rebuild sandbars, but sediment deficit conditions downstream from the dams restrict the frequency that controlled floods produce beneficial results. Here, we integrate complimentary, long-term monitoring data sets from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons downstream from Glen Canyon dam and the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore downstream from Flaming Gorge dam. Since the mid-1990s, several controlled floods have occurred in these canyon rivers. These controlled floods scour fine sediment from the bed and build sandbars in eddies, thus increasing channel relief. These changes are short-lived, however, as interflood dam operations erode sandbars within several months to years. Controlled flood response and interflood changes in bed elevation are more variable in Marble Canyon and Grand Canyon, likely reflecting more variable fine sediment supply and stronger transience in channel bed sediment storage. Despite these differences, neither system shows a trend in fine-sediment storage during the period in which controlled floods were monitored. These results demonstrate that controlled floods build eddy sandbars and increase channel relief for short interflood periods, and this response may be typical in other dam-influenced canyon rivers. The degree to which these features persist depends on the frequency of controlled floods, but careful consideration of sediment supply is necessary to avoid increasing the long-term sediment deficit.

  8. Language control in bilingual language comprehension: evidence from the maze task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIN eWANG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most empirical evidence on switch costs is based on bilingual production and interpreted as a result of inhibitory control. It is unclear whether such a top-down control process exists in language switching during comprehension. This study investigates whether a non-lexical switch cost is involved in reading code-switched sentences and its relation to language dominance with cross-script bilingual readers. A maze task is adopted in order to separate top-down inhibitory effects, from lexical effects driven by input. The key findings are: 1 switch costs were observed in both L1-L2 and L2-L1 directions; 2 these effects were driven by two mechanisms: lexical activation and inhibitory control; 3 language dominance modulated the lexical effects, but did not affect the inhibitory effects. These results suggest that a language control mechanism is involved in bilingual reading, even though the control process is not driven by selection as in production. At the theoretical level, these results lend support for the Inhibitory Control model during language switching in comprehension; while the BIA/BIA+ model needs to incorporate a top-down control mechanism to be able to explain the current findings.

  9. Using A Semiotic Metatheory for Theory Understanding, Appraisal, and Use: An Illustrative Social Work Translation of the Affect Control Theory of Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Forte

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Charles Sanders Peirce’s creed, “Do Not Block Inquiry,” and his triadic model of the signs serve as the base for a semiotic metatheory of science and scientific theory. Semioticians characterize science as a universe of diverse sign systems, and scientists as members of different language communities.This paper introduces this approach. Affect control theorists ponder and investigate how actors, identities, actions, objects, emotions, and social settings are interrelated during interaction. Semiotic tools and principles guide the translation of the Affect Control Theory(ACT of emotion. ACT is summarized and appraised for its value in increasing our understanding of human behavior in the social environment, its suitability to social work, and its applicability. ACT technical words are translated into simpler language, ACT displays into words, and ACT’s interactionist language is translated into the language of ecosystems theory. Suggestions for strengthening ACT and for promoting semiotic translation are included.

  10. Design, Synthesis and Inhibitory Activity of Photoswitchable RET Kinase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rubén; Nilsson, Jesper R.; Solano, Carlos; Andréasson, Joakim; Grøtli, Morten

    2015-05-01

    REarranged during Transfection (RET) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase required for normal development and maintenance of neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Deregulation of RET and hyperactivity of the RET kinase is intimately connected to several types of human cancers, most notably thyroid cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target for small-molecule kinase inhibitors. Novel approaches, allowing external control of the activity of RET, would be key additions to the signal transduction toolbox. In this work, photoswitchable RET kinase inhibitors based on azo-functionalized pyrazolopyrimidines were developed, enabling photonic control of RET activity. The most promising compound displays excellent switching properties and stability with good inhibitory effect towards RET in cell-free as well as live-cell assays and a significant difference in inhibitory activity between its two photoisomeric forms. As the first reported photoswitchable small-molecule kinase inhibitor, we consider the herein presented effector to be a significant step forward in the development of tools for kinase signal transduction studies with spatiotemporal control over inhibitor concentration in situ.

  11. Hot foam for weed control-Do alkyl polyglucoside surfactants used as foaming agents affect the mobility of organic contaminants in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, H; Börjesson, E

    2016-08-15

    Use of alkyl polyglucosides (APGs) as a foaming agent during hot water weed control may influence the environmental fate of organic contaminants in soil. We studied the effects of the APG-based foaming agent NCC Spuma (C8-C10) on leaching of diuron, glyphosate, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sand columns. We also examined how APG concentration affected the apparent water solubility and adsorption of the herbicides and of the PAHs acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and fluorene. Application of APGs at the recommended concentration of 0.3% did not significantly affect leaching of any of the compounds studied. However, at a concentration of 1.5%, leaching of both diuron and glyphosate was significantly increased. The increased leaching corresponded to an increase in apparent water solubility of diuron and a decrease in glyphosate adsorption to the sand. However, APG addition did not significantly affect the mobility of PAHs even though their apparent water solubility was increased. These results suggest that application of APG-based foam during hot water weed control does not significantly affect the mobility of organic contaminants in soil if used according to recommendations. Moreover, they suggest that APGs could be useful for soil bioremediation purposes if higher concentrations are used. PMID:27149400

  12. Using A Semiotic Metatheory for Theory Understanding, Appraisal, and Use: An Illustrative Social Work Translation of the Affect Control Theory of Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    James A Forte

    2007-01-01

    Charles Sanders Peirce’s creed, “Do Not Block Inquiry,” and his triadic model of the signs serve as the base for a semiotic metatheory of science and scientific theory. Semioticians characterize science as a universe of diverse sign systems, and scientists as members of different language communities.This paper introduces this approach. Affect control theorists ponder and investigate how actors, identities, actions, objects, emotions, and social settings are interrelated during interaction...

  13. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Richard A; EKASAWIN, SUPARAT; CHAKRABHAND, SOMCHAI; SUWANMITRI, SOAWALUK; DUANGCHUN, ORAWAN; CHANTALUCKWONG, THANANET

    2011-01-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accom...

  14. Applying Health Locus of Control and Latent Class Modelling to food and physical activity choices affecting CVD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisolía, José M; Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Health Locus of Control (HLC) classifies our beliefs about the connection between our actions and health outcomes (Skinner, 1996) into three categories: "internal control", corresponding to health being the result of an individual's effort and habits; "control by powerful others", whereby health depends on others, such as doctors; and "chance control", according to which health depends on fate and chance. Using Choice Experiments we investigate the relationship between HLC and willingness to change lifestyle, in terms of eating habits, physical activity and associated cardiovascular disease risk, in a 384 person sample representative of the 40-65 aged population of Northern Ireland administered between February and July 2011. Using latent class analysis we identify three discrete classes of people based on their HLC: the first class is sceptical about their capacity to control their health and certain unhealthy habits. Despite being unsatisfied with their situation, they are reluctant to accept behaviour changes. The second is a group of individuals unhappy with their current situation but willing to change through exercise and diet. Finally, a group of healthy optimists is identified, who are satisfied with their current situation but happy to take more physical activity and improve their diet. Our findings show that any policy designed to modify people's health related behaviour should consider the needs of this sceptical class which represents a considerable proportion of the population in the region. PMID:25779694

  15. Neuronal mechanisms of voice control are affected by implicit expectancy of externally triggered perturbations in auditory feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Korzyukov

    Full Text Available Accurate vocal production relies on several factors including sensory feedback and the ability to predict future challenges to the control processes. Repetitive patterns of perturbations in sensory feedback by themselves elicit implicit expectations in the vocal control system regarding the timing, quality and direction of perturbations. In the present study, the predictability of voice pitch-shifted auditory feedback was experimentally manipulated. A block of trials where all pitch-shift stimuli were upward, and therefore predictable was contrasted against an unpredictable block of trials in which the stimulus direction was randomized between upward and downward pitch-shifts. It was found that predictable perturbations in voice auditory feedback led to a reduction in the proportion of compensatory vocal responses, which might be indicative of a reduction in vocal control. The predictable perturbations also led to a reduction in the magnitude of the N1 component of cortical Event Related Potentials (ERP that was associated with the reflexive compensations to the perturbations. We hypothesize that formation of expectancy in our study is accompanied by involuntary allocation of attentional resources occurring as a result of habituation or learning, that in turn trigger limited and controlled exploration-related motor variability in the vocal control system.

  16. The social biofeedback theory of parental affect-mirroring: the development of emotional self-awareness and self-control in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, G; Watson, J S

    1996-12-01

    The authors present a new theory of parental affect-mirroring and its role in the development of emotional self-awareness and control in infancy. It is proposed that infants first become sensitised to their categorical emotion-states through a natural social biofeedback process provided by the parent's 'marked' reflections of the baby's emotion displays during affect-regulative interactions. They argue that this sensitisation process is mediated (similarly to that of adult biofeedback training) by the mechanism of contingency-detection and maximising. Apart from sensitisation, affect-mirroring serves three further developmental functions: (1) it contributes to the infant's state-regulation; (2) it leads to the establishment of secondary representations that become associated with the infant's primary procedural affect-states providing the cognitive means for accessing and attributing emotions to the self; (3) it results in the development of a generalised communicative code of "marked' expressions characterised by the representational functions of referential decoupling, anchoring and suspension of realistic consequences. They consider the clinical implications of our theory, relating it to current psychodynamic approaches to the functions of parental affect-mirroring. Using their model they identify various types of deviant mirroring styles and speculate about their developmental consequences. Finally, they discuss what role their social biofeedback model may play as a mediating mechanism in the therapeutic process. PMID:9119582

  17. IT Control Deficiencies That Affect the Financial Reporting of Companies since the Enactment of the Sarbanes Oxley Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Roosevelt

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined the specific categories of IT control deficiencies and their related effects on financial reporting. The approach to this study was considered non-experimental, an approach sometimes called descriptive. Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study, providing simple summaries…

  18. Action Control, Motivated Strategies, and Integrative Motivation as Predictors of Language Learning Affect and the Intention to Continue Learning French

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Blackie, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the relative ability of variables from three motivational frameworks to predict four non-linguistic outcomes of language learning. The study examines Action Control Theory with its measures of (1) hesitation, (2) volatility and (3) rumination. The study also examined Pintrich's expectancy-value model that uses measures…

  19. Religion priming and an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism interact to affect self-control in a social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Joni Y; Mojaverian, Taraneh; Kim, Heejung S

    2015-02-01

    Using a genetic moderation approach, this study examines how an experimental prime of religion impacts self-control in a social context, and whether this effect differs depending on the genotype of an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism (rs53576). People with different genotypes of OXTR seem to have different genetic orientations toward sociality, which may have consequences for the way they respond to religious cues in the environment. In order to determine whether the influence of religion priming on self-control is socially motivated, we examine whether this effect is stronger for people who have OXTR genotypes that should be linked to greater rather than less social sensitivity (i.e., GG vs. AA/AG genotypes). The results showed that experimentally priming religion increased self-control behaviors for people with GG genotypes more so than people with AA/AG genotypes. Furthermore, this Gene × Religion interaction emerged in a social context, when people were interacting face to face with another person. This research integrates genetic moderation and social psychological approaches to address a novel question about religion's influence on self-control behavior, which has implications for coping with distress and psychopathology. These findings also highlight the importance of the social context for understanding genetic moderation of psychological effects. PMID:25640833

  20. Immunochemical characterization of inhibitory mouse cortical neurons: Three chemically distinct classes of inhibitory cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiangmin; Roby, Keith D.; Edward M Callaway

    2010-01-01

    The cerebral cortex has diverse types of inhibitory neurons. In rat cortex, past research has shown that parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), calretinin (CR), and cholecystokinin (CCK) label four distinct chemical classes of GABAergic interneurons. However, in contrast to rat cortex, previous studies indicate that there is significant co-localization of SOM and CR in mouse cortical inhibitory neurons. In the present study, we further characterized immunochemical distinctions among mouse inhi...

  1. Short communication: Milk meal pattern of dairy calves is affected by computer-controlled milk feeder set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-six calves housed in groups of 8 were fed either a high milk allowance (heavy breeds 9.6 L/d; Jerseys 7.2 L/d) or a low milk allowance (heavy breeds 4.8 L/d; Jerseys 3.6 L/d) via a computer-controlled milk feeder. Half of the calves on each allowance could ingest the milk in 2 or more daily...... to the computer-controlled milk feeder, indicating that they were attempting to get more milk. The results of the present study suggest that offering a high milk allowance and avoiding restriction on meal pattern may result in a feeder use that more closely resembles natural suckling....

  2. Isolation and radioprotective assays of tissue inhibitory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two inhibtory substance were isolated from the calf spleens and the porcine blood, which were respectively designated to as Granulopoiesis Inhibitory Factor (GIF) and Plasma Nonspecific Immunosuppressive Protein (PNIP). The biological activith of GIF and PNIP was examined. GIF could remarkably inhibit GM-CFU of the BaBL/C mouse bone marrow cells but had no effect on the 3H-TdR incorporation into the mouse spleen cells and mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells. PNIP could significantly suppress the proliferation of the lymphocytes from human peripheral blood and C57BL/6J mouse spleen and the malignant lymphoid cells, L5178Y cells and Raji cells, but had no effect on Hela cells and Vero-E6 cells which are nonlymphoid cell. GIF and PNIP could also result in the decline of the radiosensitivity of their responsive target cells to 60Co Gamma rays. When the GIF-treated mouse bone marrow cells were irradiated, the number of their GM-CFU was much more than that of the control. The survival rate and the 3H-TdR incorporational rate of the L5178Y cells which were exposure to PNIP and then were irradiated was higher than that of the control. The radioprotective activity of the tissue inhibitory factors was closely related to the time of acting on the target cells, the concentration of them and the doses of irradiation

  3. Anterograde effects of a single electroconvulsive shock on inhibitory avoidance and on cued fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A single electroconvulsive shock (ECS or a sham ECS was administered to male 3-4-month-old Wistar rats 1, 2, and 4 h before training in an inhibitory avoidance test and in cued classical fear conditioning (measured by means of freezing time in a new environment. ECS impaired inhibitory avoidance at all times and, at 1 or 2 h before training, reduced freezing time before and after re-presentation of the ECS. These results are interpreted as a transient conditioned stimulus (CS-induced anxiolytic or analgesic effect lasting about 2 h after a single treatment, in addition to the known amnesic effect of the stimulus. This suggests that the effect of anterograde learning impairment is demonstrated unequivocally only when the analgesic/anxiolytic effect is over (about 4 h after ECS administration and that this impairment of learning is selective, affecting inhibitory avoidance but not classical fear conditioning to a discrete stimulus.

  4. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the strength of inhibitory GABA-mediated synaptic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardi, Michael V.; Daniels, Bryan A.; Brown, Patricia M. G. E.; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Tyagarajan, Shiva K.; Bowie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal communication imposes a heavy metabolic burden in maintaining ionic gradients essential for action potential firing and synaptic signalling. Although cellular metabolism is known to regulate excitatory neurotransmission, it is still unclear whether the brain’s energy supply affects inhibitory signalling. Here we show that mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) regulate the strength of postsynaptic GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses of cerebellar stellate cells. Inhibition is strengthened through a mechanism that selectively recruits α3-containing GABAA receptors into synapses with no discernible effect on resident α1-containing receptors. Since mROS promotes the emergence of postsynaptic events with unique kinetic properties, we conclude that newly recruited α3-containing GABAA receptors are activated by neurotransmitter released onto discrete postsynaptic sites. Although traditionally associated with oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease, our data identify mROS as a putative homeostatic signalling molecule coupling cellular metabolism to the strength of inhibitory transmission.

  5. Repressors report fewer intrusions following a laboratory stressor: the role of reduced stressor-relevant concept activation and inhibitory functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overwijk, Sippie; Wessel, Ineke; de Jong, Peter J

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated whether a repressive coping style is associated with fewer intrusions following an experimentally controlled stressor. Furthermore, we examined whether lower activation of stressor-relevant concepts in long-term memory and better inhibitory functioning may contribute to this association. Extreme-scoring participants on a trait anxiety and a social desirability scale were selected to form repressor (n=35), low anxious (n=15), high anxious (n=30), and defensive (n=21) groups. In line with predictions, repressors reported fewer intrusions following a failure manipulation compared to non-repressors. Furthermore, pre-stressor inhibitory functioning was negatively associated with color-naming interference of stressor-related words. This suggests that overall, higher inhibitory control is related to lower activation of failure-related concepts. However, there was no evidence that concept activation and inhibitory control were responsible for repressors' lower number of self-reported intrusions. PMID:18937086

  6. Metacognitive deficits predict future levels of negative symptoms in schizophrenia controlling for neurocognition, affect recognition, and self-expectation of goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Kukla, Marina; Dubreucq, Julien; Gumley, Andrew; McLeod, Hamish; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Minor, Kyle S; Luther, Lauren; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Belanger, Elizabeth A; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2015-10-01

    The recalcitrance of negative symptoms in the face of pharmacologic treatment has spurred interest in understanding the psychological factors that contribute to their formation and persistence. Accordingly, this study investigated whether deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, prospectively predicted levels of negative symptoms independent of deficits in neurocognition, affect recognition and defeatist beliefs. Participants were 53 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Prior to entry into a rehabilitation program, all participants completed concurrent assessments of metacognition with the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, negative symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, neurocognition with the MATRICS battery, affect recognition with the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and one form of defeatist beliefs with the Recovery Assessment Scale. Negative symptoms were then reassessed one week, 9weeks, and 17weeks after entry into the program. A mixed effects regression model revealed that after controlling for baseline negative symptoms, a general index of neurocognition, defeatist beliefs and capacity for affect recognition, lower levels of metacognition predicted higher levels of negative symptoms across all subsequent time points. Poorer metacognition was able to predict later levels of elevated negative symptoms even after controlling for initial levels of negative symptoms. Results may suggest that metacognitive deficits are a risk factor for elevated levels of negative symptoms in the future. Clinical implications are also discussed. PMID:26164820

  7. Proton pump inhibitory therapy: then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepp, W.

    1996-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been established as the new "gold standard" for traditional acid-inhibitory treatment of the so called "peptic" diseases. Due to the high antisecretory and ulcer-healing potency of omeprazole, no major improvements of the efficacy in ulcer healing and pain relief can be expected. Pantoprazole, as a further development in PPIs, is characterized by improved pharmacokinetic behavior as well as by higher tissue selectivity and binding specificity and by a very low potential to interact with the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. These characteristics may provide the basis for a low potential for side effects and for a more favorable interaction profile, although the clinical relevance of these potential advantages remains to be proven. Reflux esophagitis will also remain a domain for the traditional use of PPIs in the future. However, in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers, the acid inhibitory potential of PPIs will be used mainly to facilitate the eradication of H. pylori. PMID:9112749

  8. Melanoma inhibitory activity in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma*

    OpenAIRE

    Odashiro, Macanori; Hans Filho, Gunter; Pereira, Patricia Rusa; Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta; Stief, Alcione Cavalheiro; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a protein secreted by melanoma cells and has been used as a tumor marker. Increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels are related to metastatic disease or tumor recurrence. Currently there are no studies on Melanoma inhibitory activity and cutaneous melanoma involving Brazilian patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance and feasibility of measuring Melanoma inhibitory activity levels in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma. METHO...

  9. Does intraspecific size variation in a predator affect its diet diversity and top-down control of prey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Ingram

    Full Text Available It has long been known that intraspecific variation impacts evolutionary processes, but only recently have its potential ecological effects received much attention. Theoretical models predict that genetic or phenotypic variance within species can alter interspecific interactions, and experiments have shown that genotypic diversity in clonal species can impact a wide range of ecological processes. To extend these studies to quantitative trait variation within populations, we experimentally manipulated the variance in body size of threespine stickleback in enclosures in a natural lake environment. We found that body size of stickleback in the lake is correlated with prey size and (to a lesser extent composition, and that stickleback can exert top-down control on their benthic prey in enclosures. However, a six-fold contrast in body size variance had no effect on the degree of diet variation among individuals, or on the abundance or composition of benthic or pelagic prey. Interestingly, post-hoc analyses revealed suggestive correlations between the degree of diet variation and the strength of top-down control by stickleback. Our negative results indicate that, unless the correlation between morphology and diet is very strong, ecological variation among individuals may be largely decoupled from morphological variance. Consequently we should be cautious in our interpretation both of theoretical models that assume perfect correlations between morphology and diet, and of empirical studies that use morphological variation as a proxy for resource use diversity.

  10. Enzyme inhibitory activity of selected Philippine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Philippines, the number one cause of death are cardiovascular diseases. Diseases linked with inflammation are proliferating. This research aims to identify plant extracts that have potential activity of cholesterol-lowering, anti-hypertension, anti-gout, anti-inflammatory and fat blocker agents. Although there are commercially available drugs to treat the aforementioned illnesses, these medicine have adverse side-effects, aside from the fact that they are expensive. The results of this study will serve as added knowledge to contribute to the development of cheaper, more readily available, and effective alternative medicine. 100 plant extracts from different areas in the Philippines have been tested for potential inhibitory activity against Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA), Lipoxygenase, and Xanthine Oxidase. The plant samples were labeled with codes and distributed to laboratories for blind testing. The effective concentration of the samples tested for Xanthine oxidase is 100 ppm. Samples number 9, 11, 14, 29, 43, 46, and 50 have shown significant inhibitory activity at 78.7%, 78.4%, 70%, 89.2%, 79%, 67.4%, and 67.5% respectively. Samples tested for Lipoxygenase inhibition were set at 33ppm. Samples number 2, 37, 901, 1202, and 1204 have shown significant inhibitory activity at 66, 84.9%, 88.55%, 93.3%, and 84.7% respectively. For HMG-CoA inhibition, the effective concentration of the samples used was 100 ppm. Samples number 1 and 10 showed significant inhibitory activity at 90.1% and 81.8% respectively. (author)

  11. Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Effects of Mangosteen Pericarps

    OpenAIRE

    Xinjie Lin; Baojun Xu; Liu Rui

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of lipids, inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase (PL) is considered as a new approach to obesity treatment. The objective of the present study was to find PL inhibitors from natural food sources. Eighteen natural food products sampled from local supermarkets in Zhuhai were tested for PL inhibitory activity using a copper-soap photometric method. Among the samples tested, the crude extracts from mangosteen pericarp, lemon pulp, celer...

  12. Focal inhibitory seizures: a cause of recurrent transient weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fahmida A; Connor, Steve; Ferner, Rosalie; Leschziner, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Focal seizures are usually manifest with stereotyped positive phenomena. However, seizures may also give negative phenomena, such as paralysis, speech arrest, neglect, atonia and numbness. We report a 39-year-old man with neurofibromatosis 2 who had recurrent stereotyped episodes of weakness affecting his right leg and right arm. His MR scan of brain showed numerous meningiomas, the largest of which was near the vertex, adjacent to the left side of the falx. Interictal electroencephalogram, MR cerebral angiogram and Doppler carotid artery ultrasound scan were normal. He was diagnosed with epilepsy and started on levetiracetam, with no subsequent attacks. We postulate his negative motor seizures related to a meningioma overlying the supplementary negative motor area in the mesial superior frontal gyrus, and discuss diagnostic criteria for inhibitory seizures. PMID:26245512

  13. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Studies of factors that affect and controls the Excavation Damaged/Disturbed Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tunnel was developed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in 2003 purposely for a large in-situ rock mechanics experiment, the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). The tunnel had a large height/width ratio with a circular floor, primarily to control the stress situation around the tunnel and concentrate the stresses under the floor. An extensive set of data for understanding the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) was collected within section 47 of the tunnel. It consist of the blast design, blast sequences, convergence measurements during excavation, geological mapping of tunnel and cores, 3D-laser scanning of the tunnel geometry etc. Furthermore, in 2006, ultrasonic measurements along eight boreholes were carried out in order to estimate the extent of the EDZ in the tunnel. The collection of all these different information provides an opportunity to evaluate the mechanical damages caused by the excavation work. The overall aim with this project is to give feed-back to future planning of tunnelling on issues of importance for requirements with respect to minimising the EDZ in crystalline rock from the drill and blast method. A combination of the mapped geological features (tunnel and cores) and the geometry of the blasted tunnel obtained from the 3D-laser scanning were used to build a 3D model of the geology with emphasis on the geometry of the natural fractures. The rock mechanic response to the tunnelling was evaluated in a numerical model including the as-built geometry in combination with the 3D model of the geology. The modelling of the rock mechanical processes of importance for the EDZ could be calibrated against actual measurements. From observed changes in the ultrasonic wave velocity along the boreholes it was found that the locations of the velocity changes corresponded well with the location of the mapped fractures in the drill cores. This indicates that EDZ can be detected using the ultrasonic method with high accuracy. Furthermore, the

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Studies of factors that affect and controls the Excavation Damaged/Disturbed Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Martin; Baeckstroem, Ann; Quanhong Feng (AaF - Berg och Maetteknik, Stockholm (Sweden)); Berglund, Johan (Vattenfall Power Consultant, Stockholm (Sweden)); Johansson, Malin; Mas Ivars, Diego (Itasca Geomekanik AB, Solna (Sweden)); Olsson, Mats (SweBefo, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-07-15

    A tunnel was developed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in 2003 purposely for a large in-situ rock mechanics experiment, the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). The tunnel had a large height/width ratio with a circular floor, primarily to control the stress situation around the tunnel and concentrate the stresses under the floor. An extensive set of data for understanding the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) was collected within section 47 of the tunnel. It consist of the blast design, blast sequences, convergence measurements during excavation, geological mapping of tunnel and cores, 3D-laser scanning of the tunnel geometry etc. Furthermore, in 2006, ultrasonic measurements along eight boreholes were carried out in order to estimate the extent of the EDZ in the tunnel. The collection of all these different information provides an opportunity to evaluate the mechanical damages caused by the excavation work. The overall aim with this project is to give feed-back to future planning of tunnelling on issues of importance for requirements with respect to minimising the EDZ in crystalline rock from the drill and blast method. A combination of the mapped geological features (tunnel and cores) and the geometry of the blasted tunnel obtained from the 3D-laser scanning were used to build a 3D model of the geology with emphasis on the geometry of the natural fractures. The rock mechanic response to the tunnelling was evaluated in a numerical model including the as-built geometry in combination with the 3D model of the geology. The modelling of the rock mechanical processes of importance for the EDZ could be calibrated against actual measurements. From observed changes in the ultrasonic wave velocity along the boreholes it was found that the locations of the velocity changes corresponded well with the location of the mapped fractures in the drill cores. This indicates that EDZ can be detected using the ultrasonic method with high accuracy. Furthermore, the

  15. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sibe Doosje; Martijn P.M. de Goede; Lorenz J.P. van Doornen; Rens van de Schoot

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI).Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection.Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understandi...

  16. The sigma factor sigma s affects antibiotic production and biological control activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarniguet, A; Kraus, J; Henkels, M D; Muehlchen, A M; Loper, J E

    1995-12-19

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5, a rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium that suppresses several soilborne pathogens of plants, produces the antibiotics pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. A gene necessary for pyrrolnitrin production by Pf-5 was identified as rpoS, which encodes the stationary-phase sigma factor sigma s. Several pleiotropic effects of an rpoS mutation in Escherichia coli also were observed in an RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. These included sensitivities of stationary-phase cells to stresses imposed by hydrogen peroxide or high salt concentration. A plasmid containing the cloned wild-type rpoS gene restored pyrrolnitrin production and stress tolerance to the RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. The RpoS- mutant overproduced pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetyl-phloroglucinol, two antibiotics that inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Pythium ultimum, and was superior to the wild type in suppression of seedling damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. When inoculated onto cucumber seed at high cell densities, the RpoS- mutant did not survive as well as the wild-type strain on surfaces of developing seedlings. Other stationary-phase-specific phenotypes of Pf-5, such as the production of cyanide and extracellular protease(s) were expressed by the RpoS- mutant, suggesting that sigma s is only one of the sigma factors required for the transcription of genes in stationary-phase cells of P. fluorescens. These results indicate that a sigma factor encoded by rpoS influences antibiotic production, biological control activity, and survival of P. fluorescens on plant surfaces. PMID:8618880

  17. Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on ovarian cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tian-min; CUI Man-hua; XIN Ying; GU Li-ping; JIANG Xin; SU Man-man; WANG Ding-ding; WANG Wen-jia

    2008-01-01

    Background Ginsenosides are main components extracted from ginseng, and ginsenoside Rg3 is one of the most important parts. Ginsenoside Rg3 has been found to inhibit several kinds of tumor growth and metastasis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on human ovarian cancer metastasis and the possible mechanism.Methods The experimental lung metastasis models of ovarian cancer SKOV-3 and the assay of tumor-induced angiogenesis were used to observe the inhibitory effects of Rg3 on tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. The effect of Rg3 on invasive ability of SKOV-3 cells in vitro was detected by Boyden chamber, and immunofluorescence staining was used to recognize the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in SKOV-3 cells.Results In the experimental lung metastasis models of ovarian cancer, the number of tumor colonies in the lung and vessels oriented toward the tumor mass in each ginsenoside Rg3 group, was lower than that of control group. The invasive ability and MMP-9 expression of SKOV-3 cells decreased significantly after treatment with ginsenoside Rg3.Conclusions Ginsenoside Rg3 can significantly inhibit the metastasis of ovarian cancer. The inhibitory effect is partially due to inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis and decrease of invasive ability and MMP-9 expression of SKOV-3 cells.

  18. Providing a food reward reduces inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Remy; Zethof, Jan; Flik, Gert; van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-11-01

    As shown in male rats, prior history of subjects changes behavioural and stress-responses to challenges: a two-week history of exposure to rewards at fixed intervals led to slightly, but consistently, lower physiological stress-responses and anxiety-like behaviour. Here, we tested whether similar effects are present in zebrafish (Danio rerio). After two weeks of providing Artemia (brine shrimp; Artemia salina) as food reward or flake food (Tetramin) as control at fixed intervals, zebrafish were exposed to a fear-avoidance learning task using an inhibitory avoidance protocol. Half the number of fish received a 3V shock on day 1 and were tested and sacrificed on day 2; the other half received a second 3V shock on day 2 and were tested and sacrificed on day 3. The latter was done to assess whether effects are robust, as effects in rats have been shown to be modest. Zebrafish that were given Artemia showed less inhibitory avoidance after one shock, but not after two shocks, than zebrafish that were given flake-food. Reduced avoidance behaviour was associated with lower telencepahalic gene expression levels of cannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1) and higher gene expression levels of corticotropin releasing factor (crf). These results suggest that providing rewards at fixed intervals alters fear avoidance behaviour, albeit modestly, in zebrafish. We discuss the data in the context of similar underlying brain structures in mammals and fish. PMID:26342856

  19. Does pathologic node status affect local control in patients with carcinoma of the head and neck treated with radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of pathologic lymph node status and nodal stage on local control at the primary site in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, treated with radical surgery and postoperative irradiation. Methods and Materials: Fifty-seven patients with advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and supraglottic larynx were analyzed. All patients underwent resection of the primary lesion, neck dissection, and postoperative radiotherapy. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. The median dose to the primary tumor bed was 60.4 Gray (range 39.7-72.0). Besides pathologic nodal status (pN0 vs. pN+) and nodal stage, the following factors were analyzed for their impact on local control: age, gender, T stage, tumor grade, resection margins, interval from surgery to irradiation, dose to the primary site, and overall treatment time. Results: The 3-year actuarial local control rate was 78%. When all patients were analyzed, nodal status (pN0 vs. pN+) did not affect control at the primary site (71% vs. 82%, p = 0.42). Nodal stage (pN0-N2a va. pN2b-N2c) was also not a significant factor for local control (74% vs. 82%, p = 0.57). When only patients with negative margins were analyzed, nodal status again did not impact on local control (79% vs. 90% for pN0 vs. pN+, p = 0.39). On univariate analysis, only tumor grade, margin status, and elapsed days were significant factors for local control. Local control was 85% for patients with negative margins vs. 60% for those with positive margins (p = 0.016). For patients with moderately and poorly differentiated tumors, local control was 86% as compared to 50% for patients with well-differentiated tumors (p = 0.007). When radiotherapy was completed within 50 days, local control was 93% as opposed to 63% for >50 days (p 0.016). On multivariate analysis, only margin status (p = 0.002) and tumor grade (p = 0.007) remained significant. Conclusion: We conclude that

  20. Integrating Negative Affect Measures in a Measurement Model: Assessing the Function of Negative Affect as Interference to Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the composition of negative affect and its function as inhibitory to thought processes such as self-regulation. Negative affect in the present study were composed of anxiety, worry, thought suppression, and fear of negative evaluation. These four factors were selected based on the criteria of negative affect by…

  1. The effect of different cardiovascular risk presentation formats on intentions, understanding and emotional affect: a randomised controlled trial using a web-based risk formatter (protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newcombe Robert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The future risk of heart disease can be predicted with increasing precision. However, more research is needed into how this risk is conveyed and presented. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of presenting cardiovascular risk in different formats on individuals' intention to change behaviour to reduce risk, understanding of risk information and emotional affect. Methods/design A randomised controlled trial comprising four arms, with a between subjects design will be performed. There will be two intervention groups and two control groups. The first control comprises a pre-intervention questionnaire and presents risk in a bar graph format. The second control presents risk in a bar graph format without pre-intervention questionnaire. These two control groups are to account for the potential Hawthorne effect of thinking about cardiovascular risk before viewing actual risk. The two intervention groups comprise presenting risk in either a pictogram or metonym format (image depicting seriousness of having a myocardial infarction. 800 individuals' aged between 45 and 64 years, who have not been previously diagnosed with heart disease and have access to a computer with internet, will be given a link to a website comprising a risk calculator and electronic questionnaires. 10-year risk of having a coronary heart disease event will be assessed and presented in one of the three formats. A post-intervention questionnaire will be completed after viewing the risk format. Main outcome measures are (i intention to change behaviour, (ii understanding of risk information, (iii emotional affect and (iv worry about future heart disease. Secondary outcomes are the sub-components of the theory of planned behaviour: attitudes, perceived behavioural control and subjective norms. Discussion Having reviewed the literature, we are not aware of any other studies which have used the assessment of actual risk, in a trial to compare different

  2. Randomized controlled trial of a positive affect intervention to reduce stress in people newly diagnosed with HIV; protocol and design for the IRISS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskowitz JT

    2014-09-01

    currently few established interventions for people who are newly diagnosed with HIV. We present the design and methods for a randomized trial in which we test the efficacy of one such skills-based intervention that targets positive affect as a novel mechanism of change. The proposed research builds on observational findings of the important unique functions of positive affect. We aim to determine whether a five-session theory- and evidence-based intervention designed to teach skills for increasing the frequency and intensity of daily positive affect does so, and whether this intervention has beneficial effects on subsequent psychological well-being, health behaviors, and physical health up to 15 months after diagnosis with HIV. This is a randomized controlled trial in a sample of adults recruited within 12 weeks of testing positive for HIV. The control group is attention-matched, and follow up assessments will be conducted immediately post intervention (approximately 5 months post diagnosis and at 10 and 15 months post diagnosis. This study is an important next step in research concerning the adaptive functions of positive affect for people coping with HIV or other health-related life stress. Keywords: positive affect, HIV diagnosis, stress, coping, RCT, intervention, physical health

  3. Cdc42 and k-Ras Control Endothelial Tubulogenesis through Apical Membrane and Cytoskeletal Polarization: Novel Stimulatory Roles for GTPase Effectors, the Small GTPases, Rac2 and Rap1b, and Inhibitory Influence of Arhgap31 and Rasa1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter R Norden

    Full Text Available A critical and understudied property of endothelial cells is their ability to form lumens and tube networks. Although considerable information has been obtained concerning these issues, including the role of Cdc42 and Rac1 and their effectors such as Pak2, Pak4, Par6b, and co-regulators such as integrins, MT1-MMP and Par3; many key questions remain that are necessary to elucidate molecular and signaling requirements for this fundamental process. In this work, we identify new small GTPase regulators of EC tubulogenesis including k-Ras, Rac2 and Rap1b that act in conjunction with Cdc42 as well as the key downstream effectors, IQGAP1, MRCKβ, beta-Pix, GIT1, and Rasip1 (which can assemble into multiprotein complexes with key regulators including α2β1 integrin and MT1-MMP. In addition, we identify the negative regulators, Arhgap31 (by inactivating Cdc42 and Rac and Rasa1 (by inactivating k-Ras and the positive regulator, Arhgap29 (by inactivating RhoA which play a major functional role during the EC tubulogenic process. Human EC siRNA suppression or mouse knockout of Rasip1 leads to identical phenotypes where ECs form extensive cord networks, but cannot generate lumens or tubes. Essential roles for these molecules during EC tubulogenesis include; i establishment of asymmetric EC cytoskeletal polarization (subapical distribution of acetylated tubulin and basal membrane distribution of F-actin; and ii directed membrane trafficking of pinocytic vacuoles or other intracellular vesicles along acetylated tubulin tracks to the developing apical membrane surface. Cdc42 co-localizes subapically with acetylated tubulin, while Rac1 and k-Ras strongly label vacuole/ vesicle membranes which accumulate and fuse together in a polarized, perinuclear manner. We observe polarized apical membrane and subapical accumulation of key GTPases and effectors regulating EC lumen formation including Cdc42, Rac1, Rac2, k-Ras, Rap1b, activated c-Raf and Rasip1 to control EC

  4. In Vitro Screening of Medicinal Plants Used in Mexico as Antidiabetics with Glucosidase and Lipase Inhibitory Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Ramírez; Miguel Zavala; Julia Pérez; Alejandro Zamilpa

    2012-01-01

    This work shows the inhibitory effect on glucosidase and lipase enzymes of 23 medicinal plants described as traditional treatments for diabetes in several Mexican sources. Hydroalcoholic extracts of selected plants were evaluated at 1 mg/mL for glucosidase and 0.25 mg/mL for lipase inhibitory activities, respectively. Camellia sinensis, acarbose, and orlistat were used as positive controls. Dose-response curves were done with the most active species. Sixty percent of all tested extracts inhib...

  5. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    have implications on ash spatial distribution and if soil micro topography changes with time? What the factors that controls it? What it is the impact of ash in vegetation recuperation and the implications of this recover in ash spatial distribution? We need studies with better spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the immediate period after the fire, when the major spatial and temporal changes on ash distribution and impacts occur. Based on high level research conducted by Artemi Cerdà and others, our future research will be focused in these and other aspects in order to have a better knowledge about the impacts of ash on post-fire spatio-temporal erosion. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland.Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda, Y., Dietrich W. E., and Booker, F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California, Catena, 72, 13-20. Pereira, P. Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. 2013. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In press) Pereira, P., Bodi. M., Úbeda, X., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. 2010. Las

  6. Inhibitory effects of silver zeolite on in vitro growth of fish egg pathogen, Saprolegnia sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Ali Johari; Mohammad Reza Kalbassi; Il Je Yu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of powdered silver zeolite (SZ) on the in vitro growth of the fish pathogen Saprolegnia sp. Methods: The antifungal activity of SZ was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations using two-fold serial dilutions of powdered SZ in a glucose yeast extract agar at 22 °C. The growth of Saprolegnia sp. on the SZ agar treatments was compared to that on SZ-free agar controls. Results:The results showed that SZ had an inhibitory effect on the in vitro growth of the tested fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration of SZ for Saprolegnia sp. was also calculated at 600 mg/L, which is equal to 0.06 percent. Conclusions:SZ is a potential good candidate to replace teratogenic and toxic agents, such as malachite green in aquaculture systems.

  7. Inhibitory effects of silver zeolite on in vitro growth of fish egg pathogen, Saprolegnia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Johari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of powdered silver zeolite (SZ on the in vitro growth of the fish pathogen Saprolegnia sp. Methods: The antifungal activity of SZ was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations using two-fold serial dilutions of powdered SZ in a glucose yeast extract agar at 22 °C. The growth of Saprolegnia sp. on the SZ agar treatments was compared to that on SZ-free agar controls. Results: The results showed that SZ had an inhibitory effect on the in vitro growth of the tested fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration of SZ for Saprolegnia sp. was also calculated at 600 mg/L, which is equal to 0.06 percent. Conclusions: SZ is a potential good candidate to replace teratogenic and toxic agents, such as malachite green in aquaculture systems.

  8. A recombinant wheat serpin with inhibitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren K; Dahl, Søren Weis; Nørgård, Anette;

    1996-01-01

    A full-length clone encoding the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serpin WSZ1 was isolated from a cDNA library based on mRNA from immature grain. The 398 amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA was corroborated by sequencing CNBr peptides of WSZ1 purified from resting grain. WSZ1 belongs to the...... sequencing indicated that only few serpins are encoded by wheat, but at least three distinct genes are expressed in the grain. Cleavage experiments on a chymotrypsin column suggested a Gln-Gln reactive site bond not previously observed in inhibitory serpins....

  9. Intraindividual variability in inhibitory function in adults with ADHD--an ex-Gaussian approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Gmehlin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit disorder (ADHD is commonly associated with inhibitory dysfunction contributing to typical behavioral symptoms like impulsivity or hyperactivity. However, some studies analyzing intraindividual variability (IIV of reaction times in children with ADHD (cADHD question a predominance of inhibitory deficits. IIV is a measure of the stability of information processing and provides evidence that longer reaction times (RT in inhibitory tasks in cADHD are due to only a few prolonged responses which may indicate deficits in sustained attention rather than inhibitory dysfunction. We wanted to find out, whether a slowing in inhibitory functioning in adults with ADHD (aADHD is due to isolated slow responses. METHODS: Computing classical RT measures (mean RT, SD, ex-Gaussian parameters of IIV (which allow a better separation of reaction time (mu, variability (sigma and abnormally slow responses (tau than classical measures as well as errors of omission and commission, we examined response inhibition in a well-established GoNogo task in a sample of aADHD subjects without medication and healthy controls matched for age, gender and education. RESULTS: We did not find higher numbers of commission errors in aADHD, while the number of omissions was significantly increased compared with controls. In contrast to increased mean RT, the distributional parameter mu did not document a significant slowing in aADHD. However, subjects with aADHD were characterized by increased IIV throughout the entire RT distribution as indicated by the parameters sigma and tau as well as the SD of reaction time. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between tau and the number of omission errors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings question a primacy of inhibitory deficits in aADHD and provide evidence for attentional dysfunction. The present findings may have theoretical implications for etiological models of ADHD as well as more practical implications for

  10. Inhibitory and excitatory amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with two types of cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibin Yuan; Li Wang; Fei Yin; Li Li; Jing Peng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Under normal conditions, excitatory amino acids are dynamically balanced with inhibitory amino acids. Excitatory amino acids have been implicated in perinatal brain injury. OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in the levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamic acid and aspartic acid, and the inhibitory amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with spastic cerebral palsy or athetotic cerebral palsy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Case-control exploratory observation of neurotransmitter in patients. The experiment was performed in the Pediatrics Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Changsba Medical College, the Cerebral Palsy Center of Xiangtan Affiliated Hospital of South China University and the Pediatrics Department of Xiangya Hospital, between February 2006 and May 2007. PARTICIPANTS: We selected 27 children with cerebral palsy, including 13 with spastic cerebral palsy and 14 with athetotic cerebral palsy. We selected 10 patients who were not affected by any neurological disease as controls. METHODS: Two mL blood-free CSF was harvested between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae of each patient after anesthesia, and stored at 70℃. One mL CSF was mixed with 10 mg sulfosalicylic acid and placed in ice-bath for 10 minutes, then centrifuged 2 000 g for 10 minutes. The supernatant was collected for amino acid quantitation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The concentrations of glutamic acid, aspartic acid and GABA in the CSF were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorometric method. The correlation of glutamie acid, aspartic acid and GABA levels with muscular tension in children with cerebral palsy was analyzed using linear dependence. RESULTS: The concentration of GABA was significantly lower in both spastic cerebral palsy and athetotic cerebral palsy patients than in the control group (P 0.05). CONCLUSION: Spastic cerebral palsy and athetotic cerebral palsy patients exhibit an

  11. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  12. Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Effects of Mangosteen Pericarps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjie Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic lipase plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of lipids, inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase (PL is considered as a new approach to obesity treatment. The objective of the present study was to find PL inhibitors from natural food sources. Eighteen natural food products sampled from local supermarkets in Zhuhai were tested for PL inhibitory activity using a copper-soap photometric method. Among the samples tested, the crude extracts from mangosteen pericarp, lemon pulp, celery, cucumber and dry longan were found to be able to suppress the PL activity to different extents, while dry red chili, fresh green chili and dry clove exhibited a promotion effect on the PL. Shiitake mushroom, green bell pepper, lemon peel and spices (ginger, oregano leaf, bay leaf, cinnamon and dry tangerine showed no significant influence either on the inhibition or promotion. The crude extract of mangosteen pericarp was further fractioned to trace active fractions. It was found that the n-butanol fraction was the major contributor to the PL-inhibitory effect of mangosteen pericarp and the inhibition rate was 43.9% at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, the IC50 value was 0.918 mg/mL. Mangosteen pericarp is worthy of utilization as functional food constituents for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  13. Aldose reductase inhibitory compounds from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ha Na; Lee, Min Young; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Hong-Won; Lim, Soon Sung

    2013-09-01

    As part of our ongoing search for natural sources of therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of components of the fruit of Xanthium strumarium (X. strumarium) on aldose reductase (AR) and galactitol formation in rat lenses with high levels of glucose. To identify the bioactive components of X. strumarium, 7 caffeoylquinic acids and 3 phenolic compounds were isolated and their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with published data. The abilities of 10 X. strumarium-derived components to counteract diabetic complications were investigated by means of inhibitory assays with rat lens AR (rAR) and recombinant human AR (rhAR). From the 10 isolated compounds, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed the most potent inhibition, with IC₅₀ values of 0.30 and 0.67 μM for rAR and rhAR, respectively. In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed competitive inhibition of rhAR. Furthermore, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate inhibited galactitol formation in the rat lens and in erythrocytes incubated with a high concentration of glucose, indicating that this compound may be effective in preventing diabetic complications. PMID:23604720

  14. Inhibitory actions of loperamide on absorptive processes in rat small intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    HARDCASTLE, J; Hardcastle, P T; COOKSON, J

    1986-01-01

    Mucosal loperamide caused a dose dependent reduction in the absorption of actively transported hexoses and amino acids, together with the associated rise in short circuit current. Na+ and fluid movement were also inhibited. Serosal application of the drug was without effect on these processes. The passive movement of fructose across the gut was not affected by loperamide which is therefore unlikely to act by reducing tissue permeability. In low Na+ conditions the inhibitory actions of loperam...

  15. Frontally mediated inhibitory processing and white matter microstructure: age and alcoholism effects

    OpenAIRE

    Colrain, Ian M.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Judith M Ford; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McPherson, Selwyn-Lloyd; Roach, Brian J.; Crowley, Kate E.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The NOGO P3 event-related potential is a sensitive marker of alcoholism, relates to EEG oscillation in the δ and θ frequency ranges, and reflects activation of an inhibitory processing network. Degradation of white matter tracts related to age or alcoholism should negatively affect the oscillatory activity within the network. Objective This study aims to evaluate the effect of alcoholism and age on δ and θ oscillations and the relationship between these oscillations and measures of ...

  16. Spatiotemporal patterns of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (Mif) expression in the mouse placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Paulesu Luana; Ietta Francesca; Ferro Eloisa AV; Hoshida Mara S; Faria Miriam R; Bevilacqua Estela

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has special pro-inflammatory roles, affecting the functions of macrophages and lymphocytes and counter-regulating the effects of glucocorticoids on the immune response. The conspicuous expression of MIF during human implantation and early embryonic development also suggests this factor acts in reproductive functions. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate Mif expression by trophoblast and embryo placental cells during mo...

  17. Inhibitory Control and Mathematics Learning: Definitional and Operational Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Jon R.; Pollack, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    The topic of inhibition in mathematics education is both well timed and important. In this commentary, we reflect on the role of inhibition in mathematics learning through four themes that relate to how inhibition is defined, measured, developed, and applied. First, we consider different characterizations of inhibition and how they may shape the…

  18. ELEVATED CIRCULATING LEVELS OF MACROPHAGE MIGRATION INHIBITORY FACTOR IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    González, Frank; ROTE, Neal S.; Minium, Judi; Weaver, Amy L.; Kirwan, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low level inflammation which can increase the risk of atherogenesis. We evaluated the status of circulating macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in atherogenesis, in women with PCOS and weight-matched controls. Two-way analysis of variance models adjusted for age were fit to evaluate the effect of PCOS status (PCOS vs. controls) and weight-class (obese vs. lean) on MIF and other parameters. M...

  19. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation are not affected by superoptimal concentration of ammonium in flowing solution culture with pH control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While it is known that superoptimal concentrations of the nitrate (NO3-) ion in solution culture do not increase NO3- uptake or dry matter accumulation, the same is not known for the ammonium (NH4+) ion. An experiment was conducted utilizing flowing solution culture with pH control to investigate the influence of superoptimal NH4+ concentrations on dry matter, nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) accumulation by nonnodulated soybean plants. Increasing the NH4+ concentration in solution from 1 to 10 mM did not affect dry matter or N accumulation. Accumulations of K, Ca, and Mg were slightly decreased with increased NH4+ concentration. The NH4+ uptake system, which is saturated at less than 1mM NH4+, is able to regulate uptake of NH4+ at concentrations as high as 10 mM.

  20. Suitability of the cellular viability technique as a control tool of the chlorine dosage on the activated sludge of a biological process affected by bulking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrates the suitability of the cellular viability technique as a control tool of the chlorine dosage on the activated sludge of a biological process affected by the overabundance of the filamentous bacteria (Thiothrix-021N). This technique was used to establish the chlorine dosage according to the observed damages on cellular membranes of both, floc-forming bacteria as well as filamentous bacteria. To identify the filamentous bacteria responsible for the macro-structural alteration of the flocs, several criteria were, met, including morphologic characteristics as well as conventional microbiological stains: Gram, Neisser and polyhydroxy alkanoates. FISH was used to confirm the obtained results, providing a definitive identification of the filamentous bacteria responsible for the alteration. (Author) 11 refs

  1. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Ekasawin, Suparat; Chakrabhand, Somchai; Suwanmitri, Soawaluk; Duangchun, Orawan; Chantaluckwong, Thananet

    2011-10-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accommodate the realistic threats facing patients. There were independent assessments conducted before, immediately after, and 3 months following treatment. Main outcome measures included symptoms of PTSD (PTSD Symptom Scale Interview), depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and complicated grief (Inventory of Complicated Grief). CBT resulted in significantly greater reduction in symptoms, including PTSD, depression, and complicated grief, at follow-up than TAU. Relative to TAU, CBT had stronger effect sizes at follow-up for PTSD, depression, and complicated grief. More patients in the CBT condition (75%) achieved high end-state functioning than participants in the TAU (33%). This preliminary evidence suggests that PTSD, depression, and complicated grief can be effectively treated despite ongoing threats of terrorism. Further, it demonstrates that non-specialist mental health workers in a non-western setting can be efficiently trained in using CBT, and this training can translate into successful treatment gains in trauma-affected individuals. PMID:21991280

  2. Do postures of distal effectors affect the control of actions of other distal effectors? Evidence for a system of interactions between hand and mouth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Gentilucci

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at determining whether, in healthy humans, postures assumed by distal effectors affect the control of the successive grasp executed with other distal effectors. In experiments 1 and 2, participants reached different objects with their head and grasped them with their mouth, after assuming different hand postures. The postures could be implicitly associated with interactions with large or small objects. The kinematics of lip shaping during grasp varied congruently with the hand posture, i.e. it was larger or smaller when it could be associated with the grasping of large or small objects, respectively. In experiments 3 and 4, participants reached and grasped different objects with their hand, after assuming the postures of mouth aperture or closure (experiment 3 and the postures of toe extension or flexion (experiment 4. The mouth postures affected the kinematics of finger shaping during grasp, that is larger finger shaping corresponded with opened mouth and smaller finger shaping with closed mouth. In contrast, the foot postures did not influence the hand grasp kinematics. Finally, in experiment 5 participants reached-grasped different objects with their hand while pronouncing opened and closed vowels, as verified by the analysis of their vocal spectra. Open and closed vowels induced larger and smaller finger shaping, respectively. In all experiments postures of the distal effectors induced no effect, or only unspecific effects on the kinematics of the reach proximal/axial component. The data from the present study support the hypothesis that there exists a system involved in establishing interactions between movements and postures of hand and mouth. This system might have been used to transfer a repertoire of hand gestures to mouth articulation postures during language evolution and, in modern humans, it may have evolved a system controlling the interactions existing between speech and gestures.

  3. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C; Reichling, J; Schneele, J; Schnitzler, P

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils from anise, hyssop, thyme, ginger, camomile and sandalwood were screened for their inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. Genital herpes is a chronic, persistent infection spreading efficiently and silently as sexually transmitted disease through the population. Antiviral agents currently applied for the treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and its derivatives. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were determined at 0.016%, 0.0075%, 0.007%, 0.004%, 0.003% and 0.0015% for anise oil, hyssop oil, thyme oil, ginger oil, camomile oil and sandalwood oil, respectively. A clearly dose-dependent virucidal activity against HSV-2 could be demonstrated for all essential oils tested. In order to determine the mode of the inhibitory effect, essential oils were added at different stages during the viral infection cycle. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the essential oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 90% when HSV-2 was preincubated with hyssop oil, thyme oil or ginger oil. However, no inhibitory effect could be observed when the essential oils were added to the cells prior to infection with HSV-2 or after the adsorption period. These results indicate that essential oils affected HSV-2 mainly before adsorption probably by interacting with the viral envelope. Camomile oil exhibited a high selectivity index and seems to be a promising candidate for topical therapeutic application as virucidal agents for treatment of herpes genitalis. PMID:17976968

  4. Inhibitory effects of ginseng seed on melanin biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yeonmi Lee; Kyoung-Tack Kim; Sung Soo Kim; Jinyoung Hur; Sang Keun Ha; Chang-Won Cho; Sang Yoon Choi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ginseng root has been traditionally used for the treatment of many diseases in Korea. However, so far ginseng seed has been mostly unused and discarded. As part of our ongoing research on the ginseng seeds, the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production was verified to assess their potential as a skin depigmenting substance. Materials and Methods: The present study measured the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production through the tyrosinase inhibitory...

  5. A simulated mucus layer protects Lactobacillus reuteri from the inhibitory effects of linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weirdt, R; Coenen, E; Vlaeminck, B; Fievez, V; Van den Abbeele, P; Van de Wiele, T

    2013-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a commensal, beneficial gut microbe that colonises the intestinal mucus layer, where it makes close contact with the human host and may significantly affect human health. Here, we investigated the capacity of linoleic acid (LA), the most common polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in a Western-style diet, to affect L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 prevalence and survival in a simulated mucus layer. Short-term (1 h) survival and mucin-agar adhesion assays of a log-phase L. reuteri suspension in intestinal water demonstrated that the simulated mucus layer protected L. reuteri against the inhibitory effects of LA by lowering its contact with the bacterial cell membrane. The protective effect of the simulated mucus layer was further evaluated using a more complex and dynamic model of the colon microbiota (SHIME®), in which L. reuteri survival was monitored during 6 days of daily exposure to LA in the absence (L-SHIME) and presence (M-SHIME) of a simulated mucus layer. After 6 days, luminal L- and M-SHIME L. reuteri plate counts had decreased by 3.1±0.5 and 2.6±0.9 log cfu/ml, respectively. Upon supplementation of 1.0 g/l LA, the decline in the luminal L. reuteri population started earlier than was observed for the control. In contrast, mucin-agar levels of L. reuteri (in the M-SHIME) remained unaffected throughout the experiment even in the presence of high concentrations of LA. Overall, the results of this study indicate the importance of the mucus layer as a protective environment for beneficial gut microbes to escape from stress by high loads of the antimicrobial PUFA LA to the colon, i.e. due to a Western-style diet. PMID:24311313

  6. Can words heal? Using affect labeling to reduce the effects of unpleasant cues on symptom reporting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OmerVan den Bergh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Processing unpleasant affective cues induces elevated momentary symptom reports, especially in persons with high levels of symptom reporting in daily life. The present study aimed to examine whether applying an emotion regulation strategy, i.e. affect labeling, can inhibit these emotion influences on symptom reporting. Student participants (N=61 with varying levels of habitual symptom reporting completed six picture viewing trials of homogeneous valence (3 pleasant, 3 unpleasant under 3 conditions: merely viewing, emotional labeling or content (non-emotional labeling. Affect ratings and symptom reports were collected after each trial. Participants completed a motor inhibition task and self-control questionnaires as indices of their inhibitory capacities. Heart rate variability was also measured. Labeling, either emotional or non-emotional, significantly reduced experienced affect, as well as the elevated symptoms reports observed after unpleasant picture viewing. These labeling effects became more pronounced with increasing levels of habitual symptom reporting, suggesting a moderating role of the latter variable, but did not correlate with any index of general inhibitory capacity. Our findings suggest that using an emotion regulation strategy, such as labeling emotional stimuli, can reverse the effects of unpleasant stimuli on symptom reporting and that such strategies can be especially beneficial for individuals suffering from medically unexplained physical symptoms.

  7. An obesity-associated risk allele within the FTO gene affects human brain activity for areas important for emotion, impulse control and reward in response to food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemerslage, Lyle; Nilsson, Emil K; Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda; Ence-Eriksson, Fia; Castillo, Sandra; Larsen, Anna L; Bylund, Simon B A; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Olivo, Gaia; Bandstein, Marcus; Titova, Olga E; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Benedict, Christian; Brooks, Samantha J; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how genetics influences obesity, brain activity and eating behaviour will add important insight for developing strategies for weight-loss treatment, as obesity may stem from different causes and as individual feeding behaviour may depend on genetic differences. To this end, we examined how an obesity risk allele for the FTO gene affects brain activity in response to food images of different caloric content via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty participants homozygous for the rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism were shown images of low- or high-calorie food while brain activity was measured via fMRI. In a whole-brain analysis, we found that people with the FTO risk allele genotype (AA) had increased activity compared with the non-risk (TT) genotype in the posterior cingulate, cuneus, precuneus and putamen. Moreover, higher body mass index in the AA genotype was associated with reduced activity to food images in areas important for emotion (cingulate cortex), but also in areas important for impulse control (frontal gyri and lentiform nucleus). Lastly, we corroborate our findings with behavioural scales for the behavioural inhibition and activation systems. Our results suggest that the two genotypes are associated with differential neural processing of food images, which may influence weight status through diminished impulse control and reward processing. PMID:26797854

  8. Inhibitory effects of berberine on ion channels of rat hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Wang; Hong-Yi Zhou; Gang Zhao; Li-Ying Fu; Lan Cheng; Jian-Guo Chen; Wei-Xing Yao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effects of berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid with a long history used as a tonic remedy for liver and heart, on ion channels of isolated rat hepatocytes.METHODS: Tight-seal whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were performed to investigate the effects of berberine on the delayed outward potassium currents (IK), inward rectifier potassium currents (IK1) and Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+currents (ICRAC) in enzymatically isolated rat hepatocytes.RESULTS: Berberine 1-300 nmol/L reduced IK in a concentration dependent manner with EC50 of 38.86±5.37 μmol/L and nH of 0.82±0.05 (n = 8). When the bath solution was changed to tetraethylammonium (TEA) 8 mmol/L, IK was inhibited.Berberine 30 μmol/L reduced IK at all examined membrane potentials, especially at potentials positive to +60 mV (n = 8,P<0.05 or P<0.01 vs control). Berberine had mild inhibitory effects on IK1 in rat hepatocytes. Berberine 1-300 μmol/L also inhibited ICRAC in a concentration-dependent fashion.The fitting parameters were EC50 = 47.20±10.86 μmol/L,nH = 0.71±0.09 (n = 8). The peak value of ICRAC in the Ⅰ-Ⅴrelationship was decreased by berberine 30 μmol/L at potential negative to -80 mV (n = 8, P<0.05 vscontrol). But the reverse potential of ICRAC occurred at voltage 0 mV in all cells.CONCLUSION: Berberine has inhibitory effects on potassium and calcium currents in isolated rat hepatocytes, which may be involved in hepatoprotection.

  9. Cognitive control and suppression of memories of an emotional film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Ineke; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Verwoerd, Johan R L

    2010-06-01

    Relatively weak cognitive control existing prior to a stressful event may be associated with intrusive memories of that stressor afterwards. To test this possibility, we tested participants under circumstances that putatively decrease cognitive control and explored how this affected the relation between indices of cognitive control and intrusive memories. Evening type participants (N = 80) were tested at either an optimal or a non-optimal time of day. Tests of working memory capacity and inhibitory control were administered. Subsequently, participants saw an emotional film fragment and engaged in thought suppression afterwards. Results show different correlational patterns in time-of-testing groups. At non-optimal times there were negative, but relatively weak correlations between working memory capacity and intrusions. Better inhibitory control was associated with fewer intrusions during the initial minute of the thought suppression period and with fewer self-reported intrusions. At optimal times however, these correlations were absent. Working memory capacity even showed robust correlations in the opposite direction. These findings cast doubts on the suitability of indices of working memory capacity for testing the idea that relatively weak cognitive control is linked to intrusive memory phenomena. Specific measures of inhibitory control may prove to be more appropriate for testing this idea. PMID:19896117

  10. Inhibitory effect and mechanism of acarbose combined with gymnemic acidon maltose absorption in rat intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Luo; Le Feng Wang; Toshiaki Imoto; Yasutaka Hiji

    2000-01-01

    AIM The control of diet regimen and nutrient intake, aiming to avoid the evaggerated levels of glucose andanabolic hormone is broadly accepted as basic treatment of diabetes mellitus. Maltose is an importanthydrolysate of starch, main source of nutrition. Acarbose is an alpha-D-glucosidase inhibitor but with a shortinhibitory duration. Gymnemic acid (GA), a group of triterpene glucuronides, inhibits glucose absorptionwith a longer effective duration but it needs a longer time to achieve its maximum effect. To determinewhether nutrient control in diabetic care can be improved by combination of them, we compared thecombinative and individual effect of acarbose and GA on maltose absorption and hydrolysis in smallintestine.METHODS The absorption and hydrolysis of maltose were studied by re-cyclic perfusion of intestinal loopsin situ and motility of the intestine was recorded with the intestinal loop in vitro, of Wistar rat.RESULTS The total inhibitory rate of maltose absorption was improved by the combination of GA (0.1 -1.0 mg/mL) and acarbose (0.1- 2.0 mmol/L) throughout their effective duration (P<0.05, U test ofMann-Whitney), although the improvement only could be seen in the low dosages during the first hour. Withthe combination, inhibitory duration of acarbose on maltose absorption was prolonged to 3 hours and theonset of GA inhibitory effect was fastened to 15 minutes. GAsuppressed the intestinal mobility with a goodcorrelation (r = 0.98) to the inhibitory effect of GA on maltose absorption and the inhibitory effect of2 mmol/L (higher dose) acarbose on maltose hydrolysis was dual modulated by 1 mg/mL GA in vivoindicating that the combined effects involved the functional alteration of intestinal barriers.CONCLUSION There are augmented effects of acarbose and GA, which involve pre-cellular andparacellular barriers. Furthermore, diabetic care can be improved by employing this combination.

  11. In vivo hypotensive effect and in vitro inhibitory activity of some Cyperaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Lacerda Lopes Martins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1820, French naturalist August Saint Hillaire, during a visit in Espírito Santo (ES, a state in southeastern Brazil, reported a popular use of Cyperaceae species as antidote to snake bites. The plant may even have a hypotensive effect, though it was never properly researched. The in vitro inhibitory of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE activity of eigth ethanolic extracts of Cyperaceae was evaluated by colorimetric assay. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined using colorimetric assay. The hypotensive effect of the active specie (Rhychonospora exaltata, ERE and the in vivo ACE assay was measured in vivo using male Wistar Kyoto (ERE, 0.01-100mg/kg, with acetylcholine (ACh as positive control (5 µg/kg, i.v.. The evaluation of ACE in vivo inhibitory effect was performed comparing the mean arterial pressure before and after ERE (10 mg/kg in animals which received injection of angiotensin I (ANG I; 0,03, 03 and 300 µg/kg, i.v.. Captopril (30 mg/kg was used as positive control. Bulbostylis capillaris (86.89 ± 15.20% and ERE (74.89 ± 11.95%, ERE were considered active in the in vitro ACE inhibition assay, at 100 µg/mL concentration. ACh lead to a hypotensive effect before and after ERE's curve (-40±5% and -41±3%. ERE showed a dose-dependent hypotensive effect and a in vivo ACE inhibitory effect. Cyperaceae species showed an inhibitory activity of ACE, in vitro, as well as high content of total phenolic and flavonoids. ERE exhibited an inhibitory effect on both in vitro and in vivo ACE. The selection of species used in popular medicine as antidotes, along with the in vitro assay of ACE inhibition, might be a biomonitoring method for the screening of new medicinal plants with hypotensive properties.

  12. The inhibitory avoidance discrimination task to investigate accuracy of memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atucha Trevino, E.; Roozendaal, B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at developing a new inhibitory avoidance task, based on training and/or testing rats in multiple contexts, to investigate accuracy of memory. In the first experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given footshock in an inhibitory avoidance apparatus and, 48 h later, reten

  13. Remodeling of inhibitory synaptic connections in developing ferret visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Matthew B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the visual cortex, as in many other regions of the developing brain, excitatory synaptic connections undergo substantial remodeling during development. While evidence suggests that local inhibitory synapses may behave similarly, the extent and mechanisms that mediate remodeling of inhibitory connections are not well understood. Results Using scanning laser photostimulation in slices of developing ferret visual cortex, we assessed the overall patterns of developing inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections converging onto individual neurons. Inhibitory synaptic inputs onto pyramidal neurons in cortical layers 2 and 3 were already present as early as postnatal day 20, well before eye opening, and originated from regions close to the recorded neurons. During the ensuing 2 weeks, the numbers of synaptic inputs increased, with the numbers of inhibitory (and excitatory synaptic inputs peaking near the time of eye opening. The pattern of inhibitory inputs refined rapidly prior to the refinement of excitatory inputs. By uncaging the neurotransmtter GABA in brain slices from animals of different ages, we find that this rapid refinement correlated with a loss of excitatory activity by GABA. Conclusion Inhibitory synapses, like excitatory synapses, undergo significant postnatal remodeling. The time course of the remodeling of inhibitory connections correlates with the emergence of orientation tuning in the visual cortex, implicating these rearrangements in the genesis of adult cortical response properties.

  14. Determination of Inhibitory Concentration of Oxytetracycline on Methanogenic Bacteria by in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antibiotics have the potential to adversely affect the microbial community. For anaerobic digestion, a sufficient methanogenic population needs to be preserved in the system. The main aim of this study was determination of inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline on methanogenic bacteria.Methods: A 120 mL jacketed bioreactor with a 90 mL working volume was inoculated granular sludge from an anaerobic digester, substrate and different concentration of oxytetracycline with 10 days cycles and intermittent mixing. The reactor was operated at 35 ± 2 ° C. The inhibitory effect of antibiotic was evaluated by monitoring biogas production.Results: Based on the findings from each batch, complete inhibitory concentration of oxy tetracycline  was  in  concentration  of  800  mg  L-1.  Significant  relation  was  seen  between inoculated antibiotic concentrations and methane production (r=-0.86.Conclusion: The addition of antibiotics to the biomass affected the utilization of fatty acids, resulting in unfavorable effects on methanogenesis. Thus, overusing of antibiotics can adverse effects of intestinal flora.

  15. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  16. Synthesis of pyrimidine derivatives possessing an antioxidative property and their inhibitory effects on picryl chloride-induced contact hypersensitivity reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Yoshiaki; Hirota, Kosaku

    2003-12-01

    We conducted a preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of some barbituric acid and uracil derivatives against the picryl chloride-induced contact hypersensitivity reaction. The introduction of an antioxidative moiety to the side chain of the C(6)-position of uracil was effective against this model. The introduction of dimethoxyphenol (8b) or dimethylphenol (8c) instead of di-t-butylphenol (8a) as an antioxidative moiety gave diminished activities, so, the reactive oxygen would contribute to the inflammation of this model, and an antioxidative activity was required for exhibiting the inhibitory activity. The inhibitory activity was significantly affected by the substituent at the N(1)-phenyl moiety. PMID:14646331

  17. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control.

  18. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Iimura, Kurin; Kimura, Taichi; Yamamoto, Toshiyoshi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:27338472

  19. THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF MELATONIN ON THE GROWTH OF HUMAN BLADDER CARCINOMA T24 CELL LINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白艳红; 慕慧; 赵晏; 蔡晓宏; 王中秋; 郭瑗

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the inhibitory effects of melatonin and its inhibitory mechanism on the growth of human bladder carcinoma T24. Methods The inhibitory effects of melatonin with various concentrations on the human bladder carcinoma T24 lines in vitro were determined by MTT assay. The mechanism of the inhibition was observed by flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results The 30% inhibition concentration (IC30) value was 0.71mmol·L-1 and the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) value was 1.20mmol·L-1. The population doubling time of T24 cells treated with melatonin at 0.71mmol·L-1 was 43.2 hours, which was significant different from that of 34.6 hours of the control group. Using FCM, we found that the cell percentage increased during the G1 phase, but decreased during the S stage. The degenerated ultra-structure of the cell treated with melatonin was also observed by TEM. Conclusion The results suggest that melatonin can inhibit the growth of human bladder carcinoma T24. The inhibitory effects of melatonin might be the prolonging of the staging from G1 to S in the cell cycle.

  20. Differential Modulation of GABAA Receptors Underlies Postsynaptic Depolarization- and Purinoceptor-Mediated Enhancement of Cerebellar Inhibitory Transmission: A Non-Stationary Fluctuation Analysis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Ono

    Full Text Available Cerebellar GABAergic inhibitory transmission between interneurons and Purkinje cells (PCs undergoes a long-lasting enhancement following different stimulations, such as brief depolarization or activation of purinergic receptors of postsynaptic PCs. The underlying mechanisms, however, are not completely understood. Using a peak-scaled non-stationary fluctuation analysis, we therefore aimed at characterizing changes in the electrophysiological properties of GABAA receptors in PCs of rat cerebellar cortex during depolarization-induced "rebound potentiation (RP" and purinoceptor-mediated long-term potentiation (PM-LTP, because both RP and PM-LTP likely depend on postsynaptic mechanisms. Stimulation-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs were recorded from PCs in neonatal rat cerebellar slices. Our analysis showed that postsynaptic membrane depolarization induced RP of eIPSCs in association with significant increase in the number of synaptic GABAA receptors without changing the channel conductance. By contrast, bath application of ATP induced PM-LTP of eIPSCs with a significant increase of the channel conductance of GABAA receptors without affecting the receptor number. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA inhibitors, H-89 and cAMPS-Rp, completely abolished the PM-LTP. The CaMKII inhibitor KN-62 reported to abolish RP did not alter PM-LTP. These results suggest that the signaling mechanism underlying PM-LTP could involve ATP-induced phosphorylation of synaptic GABAA receptors, thereby resulting in upregulation of the channel conductance by stimulating adenylyl cyclase-PKA signaling cascade, possibly via activation of P2Y11 purinoceptor. Thus, our findings reveal that postsynaptic GABAA receptors at the interneuron-PC inhibitory synapses are under the control of two distinct forms of long-term potentiation linked with different second messenger cascades.

  1. What Do We Really Know about Cognitive Inhibition? Task Demands and Inhibitory Effects across a Range of Memory and Behavioural Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Noreen, Saima

    2015-01-01

    Our study explores inhibitory control across a range of widely recognised memory and behavioural tasks. Eighty-seven never-depressed participants completed a series of tasks designed to measure inhibitory control in memory and behaviour. Specifically, a variant of the selective retrieval-practice and the Think/No-Think tasks were employed as measures of memory inhibition. The Stroop-Colour Naming and the Go/No-Go tasks were used as measures of behavioural inhibition. Participants completed al...

  2. Recoding method that removes inhibitory sequences and improves HIV gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabadan, Raul; Krasnitz, Michael; Robins, Harlan; Witten, Daniela; Levine, Arnold

    2016-08-23

    The invention relates to inhibitory nucleotide signal sequences or "INS" sequences in the genomes of lentiviruses. In particular the invention relates to the AGG motif present in all viral genomes. The AGG motif may have an inhibitory effect on a virus, for example by reducing the levels of, or maintaining low steady-state levels of, viral RNAs in host cells, and inducing and/or maintaining in viral latency. In one aspect, the invention provides vaccines that contain, or are produced from, viral nucleic acids in which the AGG sequences have been mutated. In another aspect, the invention provides methods and compositions for affecting the function of the AGG motif, and methods for identifying other INS sequences in viral genomes.

  3. Effects of emotional reactivity on inhibitory avoidance in the elevated T-maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Conde

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the presence of inter-individual emotional differences and the memory performance of rats was examined in the elevated T-maze. Two kinds of aversively motivated behaviors, inhibitory avoidance and escape learning, were measured. Based on the number of trials to achieve a learning criterion, rats were divided into two subgroups with either low or high avoidance reactivity (LAR or HAR, respectively. Retention test avoidance latencies showed that HAR animals had better avoidance memory (Mann-Whitney rank sum test, P = 0.0035. No such differences were found for the escape component of this test. These data suggest that individual emotional differences affect inhibitory avoidance performance, which may help to explain the dispersion of the data observed in other studies using this paradigm.

  4. Hippocampal CA1 Ripples as Inhibitory Transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Paola; Krishnan, Giri P; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    Memories are stored and consolidated as a result of a dialogue between the hippocampus and cortex during sleep. Neurons active during behavior reactivate in both structures during sleep, in conjunction with characteristic brain oscillations that may form the neural substrate of memory consolidation. In the hippocampus, replay occurs within sharp wave-ripples: short bouts of high-frequency activity in area CA1 caused by excitatory activation from area CA3. In this work, we develop a computational model of ripple generation, motivated by in vivo rat data showing that ripples have a broad frequency distribution, exponential inter-arrival times and yet highly non-variable durations. Our study predicts that ripples are not persistent oscillations but result from a transient network behavior, induced by input from CA3, in which the high frequency synchronous firing of perisomatic interneurons does not depend on the time scale of synaptic inhibition. We found that noise-induced loss of synchrony among CA1 interneurons dynamically constrains individual ripple duration. Our study proposes a novel mechanism of hippocampal ripple generation consistent with a broad range of experimental data, and highlights the role of noise in regulating the duration of input-driven oscillatory spiking in an inhibitory network. PMID:27093059

  5. Hippocampal CA1 Ripples as Inhibitory Transients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Malerba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Memories are stored and consolidated as a result of a dialogue between the hippocampus and cortex during sleep. Neurons active during behavior reactivate in both structures during sleep, in conjunction with characteristic brain oscillations that may form the neural substrate of memory consolidation. In the hippocampus, replay occurs within sharp wave-ripples: short bouts of high-frequency activity in area CA1 caused by excitatory activation from area CA3. In this work, we develop a computational model of ripple generation, motivated by in vivo rat data showing that ripples have a broad frequency distribution, exponential inter-arrival times and yet highly non-variable durations. Our study predicts that ripples are not persistent oscillations but result from a transient network behavior, induced by input from CA3, in which the high frequency synchronous firing of perisomatic interneurons does not depend on the time scale of synaptic inhibition. We found that noise-induced loss of synchrony among CA1 interneurons dynamically constrains individual ripple duration. Our study proposes a novel mechanism of hippocampal ripple generation consistent with a broad range of experimental data, and highlights the role of noise in regulating the duration of input-driven oscillatory spiking in an inhibitory network.

  6. Monoamine oxidase inhibitory activities of heterocyclic chalcones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minders, Corné; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél; Lourens, Anna C U

    2015-11-15

    Studies have shown that natural and synthetic chalcones (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-ones) possess monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition activities. Of particular importance to the present study is a report that a series of furanochalcones acts as MAO-B selective inhibitors. Since the effect of heterocyclic substitution, other than furan (and more recently thiophene, piperidine and quinoline) on the MAO inhibitory properties of the chalcone scaffold remains unexplored, the aim of this study was to synthesise and evaluate further heterocyclic chalcone analogues as inhibitors of the human MAOs. For this purpose, heterocyclic chalcone analogues that incorporate pyrrole, 5-methylthiophene, 5-chlorothiophene and 6-methoxypyridine substitution were examined. Seven of the nine synthesised compounds exhibited IC50 values heterocyclic chalcones are reversible and competitive MAO inhibitors. 4h, however, may exhibit tight-binding to MAO-B, a property linked to its thiophene moiety. We conclude that high potency chalcones such as 4h represent suitable leads for the development of MAO-B inhibitors for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26432037

  7. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of modern topical antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Vorontsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To measure minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values for modern topical antimicrobials against common ocular pathogens.Methods.Antimicrobials most commonly used in ophthalmology (fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides are dose-dependent drugs, i.e., the rate of microbial death increases in direct proportion to their concentrations. To determine MICs, we applied Hi Comb MIC Test (E-test. 105 patients aged 2 months through 7 years which were diagnosed with various inflammatory disorders of anterior segment were  xamined. MIC values for most commonly used antimicrobials, i.e., ciprofloxacin / Cipromed (Sentiss Pharma, Gurgaon, India, ofloxacin / Floxal (Baush & Lomb, Rochester, New-York, levofloxacin / Signicef (Sentiss Pharma, Gurgaon, India, moxifloxacin / Vigamox (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, gatifloxacin / Zymar (Allergan, Irvine, California, and tobramycin / Tobrex (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, were measured.Results. The analysis revealed that the most effective antibacterial drug against microbial isolates in children (i.e., Staphylococci spp. was levofloxacin. MIC for this agent against Streptococci spp. and Gram-negative microbes was low as well. Moxifloxacin is preferred for the treatment of ocular inflammation provoked by Streptococci spp. as MIC of this antimicrobial against Streptococci spp. was the lowest. MIC of ciprofloxacin against Gram-negative flora was the lowest. These data demonstrate generally recognized high efficacy of this drug. MIC value for tobramycin against all bacterial isolates was the highest.

  8. Structural studies on leukaemia inhibitory factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, R.S.; Maurer, T.; Smith, D.K. [Biomolecular Research Institute, Parville (Australia); Nicola, N.A. [Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne (Australia)

    1994-12-01

    Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that acts on a wide range of target cells, including mega-karyocytes, osteoblasts, hepatocytes, adipocytes, neurons, embryonic stem cells, and primordial germ cells. Many of its activities are shared with other cytokines, particularly interleukin-6, oncostatin-M, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Although secreted in vivo as a glycoprotein, nonglycosylated recombinant protein expressed in E. coli is fully active and has been used in our nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of the three-dimensional structure and structure-function relationships of LIF. With 180 amino acids and a molecular mass of about 20 kDa, OF is too large for direct structure determination by two-dimensional and three-dimensional {sup 1}HNMR. It is necessary to label the protein with the stable isotopes {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C and employ heteronuclear three-dimensional NMR in order to resolve and interpret the spectral information required for three-dimensional structure determination. This work has been undertaken with both human LIF and a mouse-human chimaera that binds to the human LIF receptor with the same affinity as the human protein and yet expresses in E. coli at much higher levels. Sequence-specific resonance assignments and secondary structure elements for these proteins will be presented and progress towards determination of their three-dimensional structures described.

  9. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of anacardic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tae Joung; Kubo, Isao

    2005-06-01

    6[8'(Z)-pentadecenyl]salicylic acid, otherwise known as anacardic acid (C15:1), inhibited the linoleic acid peroxidation catalyzed by soybean lipoxygenase-1 (EC 1.13.11.12, type 1) with an IC50 of 6.8 microM. The inhibition of the enzyme by anacardic acid (C15:1) is a slow and reversible reaction without residual activity. The inhibition kinetics analyzed by Dixon plots indicates that anacardic acid (C15:1) is a competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant, KI, was obtained as 2.8 microM. Although anacardic acid (C15:1) inhibited the linoleic acid peroxidation without being oxidized, 6[8'(Z),11'(Z)-pentadecadienyl]salicylic acid, otherwise known as anacardic acid (C15:2), was dioxygenated at low concentrations as a substrate. In addition, anacardic acid (C15:2) was also found to exhibit time-dependent inhibition of lipoxygenase-1. The alk(en)yl side chain of anacardic acids is essential to elicit the inhibitory activity. However, the hydrophobic interaction alone is not enough because cardanol (C15:1), which possesses the same side chain as anacardic acid (C15:1), acted neither as a substrate nor as an inhibitor. PMID:15913294

  10. Molecular inhibitory mechanism of tricin on tyrosinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yan; Li, Lin; Hu, Song-Qing

    2013-04-01

    Tricin was evaluated as a type of tyrosinase inhibitor with good efficacy compared to arbutin. Tricin functioned as a non-competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase, with an equilibrium constant of 2.30 mmol/L. The molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of tyrosinase by tricin were investigated by means of circular dichroism spectra, fluorescence quenching and molecular docking. These assays demonstrated that the interactions between tricin and tyrosinase did not change the secondary structure. The interaction of tricin with residues in the hydrophobic pocket of tyrosinase was revealed by fluorescence quenching; the complex was stabilized by hydrophobic associations and hydrogen bonding (with residues Asn80 and Arg267). Docking results implied that the possible inhibitory mechanisms may be attributed to the stereospecific blockade effects of tricin on substrates or products and flexible conformation alterations in the tyrosinase active center caused by weak interactions between tyrosinase and tricin. The application of this type of flavonoid as a tyrosinase inhibitor will lead to significant advances in the field of depigmentation.

  11. Presence of inhibitory substances in raw milk in the area of Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Nikolić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dairy Laboratory at Biotechnical Faculty in Podgorica tested using microbiological inhibitor test - Delvotest®Accelerator, presence of inhibitory substances in raw milk produced on dairy farms of individual producers, cooperates of Montenegrian dairies. During period of six months, 6161 samples of raw milk were tested and it was determined that 478 samples or 7.84 % were positive. This is a significantly higher percentage of positive samples in comparison to European Union countries, but it is not surprising, considering that in these countries there is a decades-old regular system for antibiotic residues control in milk, while in Montenegro testing is provided on level of annual monitoring. The results of analysis indicate that in Montenegro, it is necessary to introduce regular systematic control of residues of antibiotics and other inhibitory substances in raw milk.

  12. Differentiation and molecular heterogeneity of inhibitory and excitatory neurons associated with midbrain dopaminergic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Laura; Haugas, Maarja; Tikker, Laura; Airavaara, Mikko; Voutilainen, Merja H; Anttila, Jenni; Kumar, Suman; Inkinen, Caisa; Salminen, Marjo; Partanen, Juha

    2016-02-01

    Local inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic neurons are important for midbrain dopaminergic and hindbrain serotonergic pathways controlling motivation, mood, and voluntary movements. Such neurons reside both within the dopaminergic nuclei, and in adjacent brain structures, including the rostromedial and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei. Compared with the monoaminergic neurons, the development, heterogeneity, and molecular characteristics of these regulatory neurons are poorly understood. We show here that different GABAergic and glutamatergic subgroups associated with the monoaminergic nuclei express specific transcription factors. These neurons share common origins in the ventrolateral rhombomere 1, where the postmitotic selector genes Tal1, Gata2 and Gata3 control the balance between the generation of inhibitory and excitatory neurons. In the absence of Tal1, or both Gata2 and Gata3, the GABAergic precursors adopt glutamatergic fates and populate the glutamatergic nuclei in excessive numbers. Together, our results uncover developmental regulatory mechanisms, molecular characteristics, and heterogeneity of central regulators of monoaminergic circuits. PMID:26718003

  13. Postnatal maturation of somatostatin-expressing inhibitory cells in the somatosensory cortex of GIN mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika E. Fanselow

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal inhibitory neuron development affects mammalian brain function, and failure of this maturation process may underlie pathological conditions such as epilepsy, schizophrenia and depression. Furthermore, understanding how physiological properties of inhibitory neurons change throughout development is critical to understanding the role(s these cells play in cortical processing. One subset of inhibitory neurons that may be affected during postnatal development is somatostatin-expressing cells. A subset of these cells is labeled with green-fluorescent protein (GFP in a line of mice known as the GIN line. Here, we studied how intrinsic electrophysiological properties of these cells changed in the somatosensory cortex of GIN mice between postnatal ages P11 to P32+. GIN cells were targeted for whole-cell current clamp recordings and ranges of positive and negative current steps were presented to each cell. The results showed that as the neocortical circuitry matured during this critical time period, multiple intrinsic and firing properties of GIN inhibitory neurons, as well as those of excitatory (regular-spiking [RS] cells, were altered. Furthermore, these changes were such that the output of GIN cells, but not RS cells, increased over this developmental period. We quantified changes in excitability by examining the input-output relationship of both GIN and RS cells. We found that the firing frequency of GIN cells increased with age, while the rheobase current remained constant across development. This created a multiplicative increase in the input-output relationship in the GIN cells, leading to increases in gain with age. The input-output relationship of the RS cells, on the other hand, showed primarily an additive shift with age, but no substantial change in gain. These results suggest that as the neocortex matures, inhibition coming from GIN cells may become more influential in the circuit and play a greater role in the modulation of

  14. Minocycline enhances inhibitory transmission to substantia gelatinosa neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H-Z; Ma, L-X; Lv, M-H; Hu, T; Liu, T

    2016-04-01

    Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline, is well known for its antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects. Modulation of synaptic transmission is one of the analgesic mechanisms of minocycline. Although it has been reported that minocycline may suppress excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission, it remains unclear whether it could affect inhibitory synaptic transmission, which also plays a key role in modulating pain signaling. To examine the effect of minocycline on synaptic transmission in rat spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons, we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) using whole-cell patch-clamp recording at a holding potential of 0 mV. Bath application of minocycline significantly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of sIPSCs in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 85. The enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission produced by minocycline was not affected by the glutamate receptor antagonists CNQX and D-APV or by the voltage-gated sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). Moreover, the potency of minocycline for facilitating sIPSC frequency was the same in both glycinergic and GABAergic sIPSCs without changing their decay phases. However, the facilitatory effect of minocycline on sIPSCs was eliminated in a Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution or by co-administration with calcium channel blockers. In summary, our data demonstrate that baseline inhibitory synaptic transmission in SG neurons is markedly enhanced by minocycline. This may function to decrease the excitability of SG neurons, thus leading to a modulation of nociceptive transmission. PMID:26826332

  15. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    , experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces...... capitalism not only changes urban life and its means of production, it specifically influences the way the city is designed and how it unfolds as events (Anderson & Harrison 2010) and affective, emotional production (Pile 2009). Through examples of urban design and events in the Carlsberg City in Copenhagen...... and The High Line in Chelsea, New York, the paper sets out to define and question these affective modes of production. Whether these productions are socio-material practices consisting of ludic designs (Stevens 2007), temporary architecture or art installations or evental practices consisting of...

  16. Microbial and xanthine dehydrogenase inhibitory activity of some flavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khobragade, C N; Bodade, Ragini G; Shinde, M S; Jaju, Deepa R; Bhosle, R B; Dawane, B S

    2008-06-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is responsible for the pathological condition called Gout. In the present study different flavones synthesized from chalcone were evaluated in vitro for their inhibitory activity. Inhibitory activity of flavones on XDH was determined in terms of inhibition of uric acid synthesis from Xanthine. The enzymatic activity was found maximum at pH 7.5 and temperature 40 degrees C. The flavones 6-chloro-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(1)) and 6-chloro-7methyl-2-[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one(F(2)),were noncompetitive and competitive inhibitor with Ki values 1.1 and 0.22 respectively. The flavones (F(1)), (F(2)), 6-chloro-2-[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one(F(3)), 8-bromo-6-chloro-2-[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(4)), 2-[3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(5)) and 6-methyl-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(6)) were also screened for their antimicrobial activity, measured in terms of zone of inhibition. A broad spectrum antifungal activity was obtained against Trichoderma viridae, Candida albicans, Microsporum cannis, Penicillium chrysogenum and Fusarium moniliformae. In case of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavous only spore formation was affected, while antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Serratia marsecens only. The flavones were further analyzed for quantitative structural activity relationship study (QSAR) by using PASS, online software to determine their Pa value. Toxicity and drug relevant properties were revealed by PALLAS software in terms of their molecular weight. Log P values were also studied. The result showed both the F(1) and F(2) flavones as antigout and therefore supports the development of novel drugs for the treatment of gout. PMID:18569337

  17. Altered BOLD Response during Inhibitory and Error Processing in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Wierenga; Amanda Bischoff-Grethe; A James Melrose; Emily Grenesko-Stevens; Zoë Irvine; Angela Wagner; Alan Simmons; Scott Matthews; Wai-Ying Wendy Yau; Christine Fennema-Notestine; Kaye, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are often cognitively rigid and behaviorally over-controlled. We previously showed that adult females recovered from AN relative to healthy comparison females had less prefrontal activation during an inhibition task, which suggested a functional brain correlate of altered inhibitory processing in individuals recovered from AN. However, the degree to which these functional brain alterations are related to disease state and whether error proces...

  18. Iatrogenic damage to the mandibular nerves as assessed by the masseter inhibitory reflex

    OpenAIRE

    Biasiotta, A.; Cascone, P.; Cecchi, R; Cruccu, G.; IANNETTI, G.; A. Mariani; Spota, A.; Truini, A.

    2011-01-01

    Iatrogenic injury of the inferior alveolar or lingual nerves frequently leads to legal actions for damage and compensation for personal suffering. The masseter inhibitory reflex (MIR) is the most used neurophysiological tool for the functional assessment of the trigeminal mandibular division. Aiming at measuring the MIR sensitivity and specificity, we recorded this reflex after mental and tongue stimulations in a controlled, blinded study in 160 consecutive patients with sensory disturbances ...

  19. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos; Jose Miguel Flores-Fernandez; Ofelia Fernandez-Flores; Yanet Gutierrez-Mercado; Joel Carmona-de la Luz; Fabiola Sandoval-Salas; Carlos Mendez-Carreto; Kirk Allen

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of ...

  20. Is The CD200/CD200 Receptor Interaction More Than Just a Myeloid Cell Inhibitory Signal?

    OpenAIRE

    Minas, Konstantinos; Liversidge, Janet

    2006-01-01

    The membrane glycoprotein CD200, which has a widespread but defined distribution and a structurally similar receptor (CD200R) that transmits an inhibitory signal to cells of the hematopoetic lineage, especially myeloid cells, has been characterized. CD200R expression is restricted predominantly to cells of the myeloid lineage indicating that this ligand/receptor pair has a specific role in controlling myeloid cell function. In addition to CD200R, several related genes have been identified. Wh...

  1. Inhibitory Response of Raphanus sativus on Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, inhibitory effect of the methanol extract of Raphanus sativus root on lipid peroxidation has been carried out in normal rats. Graded doses of methanol extract of root of the plant (40, 80 and 120 mg kg−1 body weight) were administered orally for 15 days to experimental treated rats. Distilled water was administered to experimental control rats. At the end of experiment, rats were killed by decapitation after ether anesthesia. Blood and liver were collected to measure thi...

  2. IN VITRO SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE ENZYME INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL CHALCONE DERIVATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Kuppusamy Asokkumar; Lokeswari Prathyusha Tangella; Muthusamy Umamaheshwari; Thirumalaisamy Shivashanmugam; Varadharajan Subhadradevi; Puliyath Jagannath; Arumugam Madeswaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) belongs to the α/β -hydrolase superfamily, a subclass of α/β proteins. Chalcones are chemical compounds that show hopeful obliging efficacy in controlling numerous diseases. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the sEH inhibitory activity of some synthesized chalcone derivatives and identification of its mode of inhibition. Methods Four different chalcone derivatives (PC-1 to PC-4) were selected for synthesis by Claisen-Schmidt method. The i...

  3. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Fetoplacental Tissues from Preeclamptic Pregnancies with or without Fetal Growth Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Romagnoli; Tullia Todros; Ettore Piccoli; Alessandro Rolfo; Elena Vasario; Mario Castellucci; Francesca Ietta; Daniela Marzioni; Simona Cardaropoli; Luana Paulesu

    2012-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) is involved in physiological and pathological processes in pregnancy. MIF maternal serum levels are increased in preeclampsia (PE). We hypothesize that pregnancy tissues are the source of MIF overexpression in PE. MIF protein was studied in maternal sera, placental tissues, fetal membranes, and umbilical cord of 8 control and 20 PE pregnancies: 10 with normal fetal growth (PE-AGA) and 10 with fetal growth restriction (P...

  4. Inhibitory effect of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB on plant pathogens Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangling; Zhang, Manrang; Tang, Qian; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. produce secondary metabolites with potential antimicrobial activity for use in agricultural productions. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of X. nematophila TB culture on plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici. The cell-free filtrate of TB culture showed strong inhibitory effects (>90%) on mycelial growth of both pathogens. The methanol-extracted bioactive compounds (methanol extract) of TB culture also had strong inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and spore germinations of both pathogens. The methanol extract (1000 μg/mL) and cell-free filtrate both showed strong therapeutic and protective effects (>70%) on grey mold both in detached tomato fruits and plants, and leaf scorch in pepper plants. This study demonstrates X. nematophila TB produces antimicrobial metabolites of strong activity on plant pathogens, with great potential for controlling tomato grey mold and pepper leaf scorch and being used in integrated disease control to reduce chemical application. PMID:24599183

  5. Angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptide extracted from freshwater zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Kwon; Lee, Min-Su; Park, Heum Gi; Kim, Se-Kwon; Byun, Hee-Guk

    2010-04-01

    In this study, hydrolysates obtained from the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflonus were investigated for angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides. Freshwater rotifer protein was hydrolyzed using six separate enzymes in a batch reactor. The peptic hydrolysate had the highest ACE inhibitory activity compared to the other hydrolysates. The highest ACE inhibitory peptide was separated using Sephadex G-25 column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 column. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of purified ACE inhibitory peptide was 40.01 microg/mL. ACE inhibitory peptide was identified as being seven amino acid residues of Ala-Gln-Gly-Glu-Arg-His-Arg by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The IC(50) value of purified ACE inhibitory peptide was 47.1 microM, and Lineweaver-Burk plots suggested that the peptide purified from rotifer protein acts as a competitive inhibitor against ACE. The results of this study suggest that peptides derived from freshwater rotifers may be beneficial as antihypertension compounds in functional foods or as pharmaceuticals. PMID:20170338

  6. Inducible expression pattern of rice Bowman-Birk inhibitor gene Os WIP1-2 and its protease inhibitory activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun; LIU Jing; GUO Lei; QU Lijia; CHEN Zhangliang; GU Hongya

    2004-01-01

    The WIP1-2 gene was cloned from rice. It belongs to the Bowman-Birk inhibitor gene family. Northern blot showed that expression of this gene was induced by wounding and jasmonic acid (JA). It indicates that the OsWIP1 gene plays an important role in the rice defense system. The OsWIP1-2 was cloned into pET28a and expressed in E. Coli. Its expressed product was purified in the form of fusion protein and tested for the inhibitory activities against trypsin and chymotrypsin. It was found that the fusion protein could inhibit chymotrypsin, but not trypsin. It was also found that the His tag at its C-terminal affected its inhibitory activity significantly. The fusion protein with a natural C-terminal had the inhibitory activity, while no inhibitory activity was detected in the fusion protein with a (His)6-tag at its C-terminal. This implies that extra amino acid residues at the C-terminal of OsWIP1-2 may interfere with its correct folding. The inhibitory assay indicated that the members of rice Bowman-Birk inhibitor gene family probably differentiated both in their structure and function.

  7. Mixed-mode synchronization between two inhibitory neurons with post-inhibitory rebound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Roman; Osipov, Grigory; Komarov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady; Shilnikov, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    We study an array of activity rhythms generated by a half-center oscillator (HCO), represented by a pair of reciprocally coupled neurons with post-inhibitory rebounds (PIR). Such coupling-induced bursting possesses two time scales, one for fast spiking and another for slow quiescent periods, is shown to exhibit an array of synchronization properties. We discuss several HCO configurations constituted by two endogenous bursters, by tonic-spiking and quiescent neurons, as well as mixed-mode configurations composed of neurons of different type. We demonstrate that burst synchronization can be accompanied by complex, often chaotic, interactions of fast spikes within synchronized bursts.

  8. Of huge mice and tiny elephants: Exploring the relationship between inhibitory processes and preschool math skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eMerkley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive mechanisms underpinning the well-established relationship between inhibitory control and early maths skills remain unclear. We hypothesised that a specific aspect of inhibitory control drives its association with distinct math skills in very young children: the ability to ignore stimulus dimensions that are in conflict with task-relevant representations. We used an Animal Size Stroop task in which three- to six-year-olds were required to ignore the physical size of animal pictures to compare their real-life dimensions. In Experiment 1 (N=58, performance on this task correlated with standardised early mathematics achievement. In Experiment 2 (N=48, performance on the Animal Size Stroop task related to the accuracy of magnitude comparison, specifically for trials on which the physical size of dot arrays was incongruent with their numerosity. This highlights a process-oriented relationship between interference control and resolving conflict between discrete and continuous quantity, and in turn calls for further detailed empirical investigations of whether, how and why inhibitory processes matter to emerging numerical cognition.

  9. Altered BOLD response during inhibitory and error processing in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Wierenga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN are often cognitively rigid and behaviorally over-controlled. We previously showed that adult females recovered from AN relative to healthy comparison females had less prefrontal activation during an inhibition task, which suggested a functional brain correlate of altered inhibitory processing in individuals recovered from AN. However, the degree to which these functional brain alterations are related to disease state and whether error processing is altered in AN individuals is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, ill adolescent AN females (n = 11 and matched healthy comparison adolescents (CA with no history of an eating disorder (n = 12 performed a validated stop signal task (SST during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore differences in error and inhibitory processing. The groups did not differ on sociodemographic variables or on SST performance. During inhibitory processing, a significant group x difficulty (hard, easy interaction was detected in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during hard trials. During error processing, a significant group x accuracy (successful inhibit, failed inhibit interaction in bilateral MFG and right PCC was observed, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during error (i.e., failed inhibit trials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Consistent with our prior findings in recovered AN, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, showed less inhibition-related activation within the dorsal ACC, MFG and PCC as inhibitory demand increased. In addition, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, also showed reduced activation to errors in the bilateral MFG and left PCC. These findings suggest that altered prefrontal and cingulate activation during

  10. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Yousr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF. Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y and tryptophan (W, in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23 and KLSDW (EYGF-33, contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56 was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69% and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL. The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL. In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33 (10 mg/mL had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  11. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    Recently, in human geography there has been a considerable attention paid to retheorising maps; less as a product and more as practice. This refers to the notion that rather than reading maps as fixed representations, digital mapping is by nature a dynamic, performative, and participatory practice....... In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology...

  12. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is an endogenous regulator of stress-induced extramedullary erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignjević Petrinović, Sanja; Budeč, Mirela; Marković, Dragana; Gotić, Mirjana; Mitrović Ajtić, Olivera; Mojsilović, Slavko; Stošić-Grujičić, Stanislava; Ivanov, Milan; Jovčić, Gordana; Čokić, Vladan

    2016-09-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a well-known proinflammatory cytokine that is released during systemic stress response. Although MIF can affect erythrocyte production, the role of this cytokine in stress-induced erythropoiesis is completely unknown. To extend our previous findings showing that chronic psychological stress stimulates extramedullary erythropoiesis, here we examined whether MIF is involved in the control of stress-induced erythropoietic response. Adult male C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and MIF-KO (knock-out) mice were subjected to 2-h daily restraint stress for either 7 or 14 consecutive days. The number of erythroid progenitors and CD71/Ter119 profile of erythroid precursors were analyzed in the bone marrow and spleen. Additionally, MIF protein expression was assessed in WT mice. Our results demonstrated that chronic restraint stress enhanced the number of both erythroid progenitors and precursors in the spleen. Stress-induced increase in the number of splenic late erythroid progenitors as well as in the percentage of CD71(+)Ter119(+)-double-positive precursors was significantly more pronounced in MIF-KO mice compared to WT animals. Furthermore, repeatedly stressed WT animals demonstrated an augmented MIF expression in the spleen. Unlike the spleen, the bone marrow of chronically stressed WT mice exhibited less prominent changes in erythropoietic stress response and no significant alteration in MIF expression. In addition, MIF deficiency did not influence the bone marrow erythropoiesis in stressed animals. These findings suggest that MIF regulates extramedullary erythropoiesis by inhibiting an overexpansion of splenic immature erythroid cells during chronic stress and indicate a novel role for this cytokine under chronic stress conditions. PMID:27129368

  13. Evaluation of the inhibitory effect of dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) against wine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A; Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2008-04-01

    Several microbial species associated with wine were challenged against increasing concentrations of dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC). The concentration inducing complete cell death upon addition to red wine was regarded as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In dry red wines with 12% (v/v) ethanol and pH 3.50, the inactivation depended on the initial cell concentration. For an initial inoculum of 500 CFU/ml, the MIC of the yeasts species Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Dekkera bruxellensis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia guilliermondii was 100mg/l. The most sensitive strains belong to Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygoascus hellenicus and Lachancea thermotolerans, with MIC of 25mg/l DMDC. For inoculation rates of about 10(6)CFU/ml, the maximum dose of DMDC legally authorized (200mg/l) was not effective against the most resistant species. The addition of 100mg/l potassium metabisulphite (PMB), equivalent to 1mg/l molecular sulphur dioxide, increased the inactivation effect of 100mg/l DMDC over initial yeast populations of 10(6)CFU/ml but did not fully kill S. pombe and S. cerevisiae. Lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria were not killed by the addition of 300 mg/l of DMDC. Trials performed in wines before bottling showed that in most samples indigenous bacterial populations were not affected by 200mg/l DMDC. Therefore, under winery practice, DMDC at the maximum dose legally permitted may be regarded as an efficient preservative to control low contamination rates of yeasts but ineffective against lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria. PMID:18206786

  14. The effect of recombinant erythropoietin on plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with affective disorders: a randomised controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Vinberg

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effect of repeated infusions of recombinant erythropoietin (EPO on plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in patients with affective disorders. In total, 83 patients were recruited: 40 currently depressed patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HDRS-17 score >17 (study 1 and 43 patients with bipolar disorder (BD in partial remission (HDRS-17 and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS ≤ 14 (study 2. In both studies, patients were randomised to receive eight weekly EPO (Eprex; 40,000 IU or saline (0.9% NaCl infusions in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel--group design. Plasma BDNF levels were measured at baseline and at weeks 5, 9 and at follow up, week 14. In contrast with our hypothesis, EPO down regulated plasma BDNF levels in patients with TRD (mean reduction at week 9 (95% CI: EPO 10.94 ng/l (4.51-21.41 ng/l; mean increase at week 9: Saline 0.52 ng/l, p=0.04 (-5.88-4.48 ng/l p=0.04, partial ŋ2=0.12. No significant effects were found on BDNF levels in partially remitted patients with BD (p=0.35. The present effects of EPO on BDNF levels in patients with TRD point to a role of neurotrophic factors in the potential effects of EPO seen in TRD and BD. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these effects and the interaction between EPO and peripheral levels on BDNF need to be further elucidated in human studies including a broad range of biomarkers.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00916552.

  15. How Affiliation Disclosure and Control Over User-Generated Comments Affects Consumer Health Knowledge and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Experiment of Pharmaceutical Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendemia, Megan Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background More people are seeking health information online than ever before and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly marketing their drugs through social media. Objective The aim was to examine two major concerns related to online direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: (1) how disclosing an affiliation with a pharmaceutical company affects how people respond to drug information produced by both health organizations and online commenters, and (2) how knowledge that health organizations control the display of user-generated comments affects consumer health knowledge and behavior. Methods We conducted a 2×2×2 between-subjects experiment (N=674). All participants viewed an infographic posted to Facebook by a health organization about a prescription allergy drug. Across conditions, the infographic varied in the degree to which the health organization and commenters appeared to be affiliated with a drug manufacturer, and the display of user-generated comments appeared to be controlled. Results Affiliation disclosure statements on a health organization’s Facebook post increased perceptions of an organization-drug manufacturer connection, which reduced trust in the organization (point estimate –0.45, 95% CI –0.69 to –0.24) and other users who posted comments about the drug (point estimate –0.44, 95% CI –0.68 to –0.22). Furthermore, increased perceptions of an organization-manufacturer connection reduced the likelihood that people would recommend the drug to important others (point estimate –0.35, 95% CI –0.59 to –0.15), and share the drug post with others on Facebook (point estimate –0.37, 95% CI –0.64 to –0.16). An affiliation cue next to the commenters' names increased perceptions that the commenters were affiliated with the drug manufacturer, which reduced trust in the comments (point estimate –0.81, 95% CI –1.04 to –0.59), the organization that made the post (point estimate –0.68, 95% CI –0.90 to –0.49), the

  16. Inhibitory effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on proliferation of hepatoma in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Yin Wu; Qin Xu; Ling Chun Shi; Wei Bin Zhang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To reveal the inhibitory effects of Curcuma aromatica oil ( CAO ) on cell proliferation of hepatoma in mice. METHODS Two tumor inhibitory experiments of CAO on hepatoma in mice were conducted.The inhibitory effects of CAO on proliferation of hepatoma in mice were evaluated by DNA image cytometry and immunohistochemical staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).RESULTS The tumor inhibitory rates of CAO were 52% and 51% in two experiments,respectively. Compared with those of the salinetreated control groups, both differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). In the group of mice treated with CAO, the cellular nuclear DNA OD value (249 ± 70), areas (623μnm2 ±228 μm2) and DNA (2.38 ± 0.67) index of hepatic carcinomas were significantly lower than those of the control group (430 ± 160, 1073μm2 ± 101 um2 and 4.48 ± 0.71 ). CAO also could increase diploidy cell rates (29.00% ± 9.34% vs 2.97% ± 5.69%, P<0.01 ) and decrease pentaploidy cell exceeding rate (30.04% ± 15.10% vs 70.89%±14.94%, P<0.01). In the group of mice treated with CAO, the labeling indexes of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA-LI) were 30% ± 4%, which were significantly lower than 40% ± 6% of the control group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION The inhibition of CAO on the growth of hepatoma in mice might be associated with its depression on cellular proliferative activity.

  17. Potentiation of gamma aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAAR by Ethanol: How are inhibitory receptors affected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eFörstera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increase in the understanding of ethanol actions on the type A -aminobutyric acid chloride channel (GABAAR, a member of the pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs. However, the mechanism by which ethanol potentiates the complex is still not fully understood and a number of publications have shown contradictory results. Thus many questions still remain unresolved requiring further studies for a better comprehension of this effect. The present review concentrates on the involvement of GABAAR in the acute actions of ethanol and specifically focuses on the immediate, direct or indirect, synaptic and extra-synaptic modulatory effects. To elaborate on the immediate, direct modulation of GABAAR by acute ethanol exposure, electrophysiological studies investigating the importance of different subunits, and data from receptor mutants will be examined. We will also discuss the nature of the putative binding sites for ethanol based on structural data obtained from other members of the pLGICs family. Finally, we will briefly highlight the glycine gated chloride channel (GlyR, another member of the pLGIC family, as a suitable target for the development of new pharmacological tools.

  18. Factors affecting Diatomaceous Earth effectiveness in the control of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adults; Fatores que afetam a eficiencia da Terra de Diatomacea no controle de adultos de Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Luis F.A.; Oliveira, Daian G.P. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados; Neves, Pedro M.O.J [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia

    2008-11-15

    Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a potential alternative to control the lesser mealworm of poultry farms Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer). Our study aimed to understand the role of some of the environmental and insect behavioral factors play on DE effectiveness, such as the substrate (chicken food and poultry house litter), temperature and DE repellent activity on lesser mealworm adults. Mortality was higher at the highest temperature (32 deg C), and it increased with DE concentration (53 and 84% respectively, for concentrations of 86 and 172 g/m2) (P < 0.05). The substrate also influenced DE effectiveness: 95% mortality was observed in the feed, against 4% in the poultry litter. Part of these results can be attributed to the removal of DE particles by the poultry bedding, as supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and rhodamine concentration on the surface of the insects. As to insect behavior, DE had a repellent effect, since trap capture decreased nearly 50% in traps containing DE as opposed to those containing only food. Therefore, environmental factors do affect the DE effectiveness, and they must be taken into consideration when looking into developing control strategies in the field. (author)

  19. Centers for practical radiological culture - highly functional element of public radiation control structure on the territories affected in the result of the Chernobyl NPP disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article covers the experience related to operation of the Centers for Practical Radiological Culture created on the affected territories to facilitate radioecological information outreach and improve the skills of the affected population in terms of safe residence and nature management. (authors)

  20. Structure and Pharmacologic Modulation of Inhibitory Glycine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Carlos F; Yévenes, Gonzalo E; Aguayo, Luis G

    2016-09-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyR) are inhibitory Cys-loop ion channels that contribute to the control of excitability along the central nervous system (CNS). GlyR are found in the spinal cord and brain stem, and more recently they were reported in higher regions of the CNS such as the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens. GlyR are involved in motor coordination, respiratory rhythms, pain transmission, and sensory processing, and they are targets for relevant physiologic and pharmacologic modulators. Several studies with protein crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy have shed light on the residues and mechanisms associated with the activation, blockade, and regulation of pentameric Cys-loop ion channels at the atomic level. Initial studies conducted on the extracellular domain of acetylcholine receptors, ion channels from prokaryote homologs-Erwinia chrysanthemi ligand-gated ion channel (ELIC), Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC)-and crystallized eukaryotic receptors made it possible to define the overall structure and topology of the Cys-loop receptors. For example, the determination of pentameric GlyR structures bound to glycine and strychnine have contributed to visualizing the structural changes implicated in the transition between the open and closed states of the Cys-loop receptors. In this review, we summarize how the new information obtained in functional, mutagenesis, and structural studies have contributed to a better understanding of the function and regulation of GlyR. PMID:27401877