Sample records for affects cultural learning

  1. Does Combining the Embodiment and Personalization Principles of Multimedia Learning Affect Learning the Culture of a Foreign Language? (United States)

    Wang, Yanlin; Crooks, Steven M.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how social cues associated with the personalization and embodiment principles in multimedia learning affect the learning and attitude of students studying the culture of a foreign language. University students were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions that consisted of an…

  2. The social impact and cultural issues affecting the e-learning performance in Libyan\\ud Higher Education institutes


    Kenan, Thuraya; Pislaru, Crinela; Othman, Aisha; Elzawi, A.


    This paper analyses the social impact and cultural issues which affect the e-learning performance in Libyan\\ud Higher Education institutes (HEIs). It is described the development and implementation of e-learning systems in\\ud various HEIs with the emphasis on the digital gap in Libya and barriers to successful e-learning implementation in\\ud these institutions. Also the social impact of using e-learning packages and Internet by young people in Libya is\\ud studied and a SWOT analysis of ICT an...

  3. Cultural dimensions of learning (United States)

    Eyford, Glen A.


    How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.

  4. How copying affects the amount, evenness and persistence of cultural knowledge: insights from the social learning strategies tournament. (United States)

    Rendell, L; Boyd, R; Enquist, M; Feldman, M W; Fogarty, L; Laland, K N


    Darwinian processes should favour those individuals that deploy the most effective strategies for acquiring information about their environment. We organized a computer-based tournament to investigate which learning strategies would perform well in a changing environment. The most successful strategies relied almost exclusively on social learning (here, learning a behaviour performed by another individual) rather than asocial learning, even when environments were changing rapidly; moreover, successful strategies focused learning effort on periods of environmental change. Here, we use data from tournament simulations to examine how these strategies might affect cultural evolution, as reflected in the amount of culture (i.e. number of cultural traits) in the population, the distribution of cultural traits across individuals, and their persistence through time. We found that high levels of social learning are associated with a larger amount of more persistent knowledge, but a smaller amount of less persistent expressed behaviour, as well as more uneven distributions of behaviour, as individuals concentrated on exploiting a smaller subset of behaviour patterns. Increased rates of environmental change generated increases in the amount and evenness of behaviour. These observations suggest that copying confers on cultural populations an adaptive plasticity, allowing them to respond to changing environments rapidly by drawing on a wider knowledge base.

  5. Individual Learner Differences In Web-based Learning Environments: From Cognitive, Affective and Social-cultural Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KOC


    Full Text Available Individual Learner DifferencesIn Web-based Learning Environments:From Cognitive, Affective and Social-cultural Perspectives Mustafa KOCPh.D Candidate Instructional TechnologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbana, IL - USA ABSTRACT Throughout the paper, the issues of individual differences in web-based learning, also known as online instruction, online training or distance education were examined and implications for designing distance education were discussed. Although the main purpose was to identify differences in learners’ characteristics such as cognitive, affective, physiological and social factors that affect learning in a web-enhanced environment, the questions of how the web could be used to reinforce learning, what kinds of development ideas, theories and models are currently being used to design and deliver online instruction, and finally what evidence for the effectiveness of using World Wide Web (WWW for learning and instruction has been reported, were also analyzed to extend theoretical and epistemogical understanding of web-based learning.

  6. Learning Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard


    the article present different concepts and modelsof learning. It discuss some strutural tendenciesof developing environmental management systemsand point out alternatives to increasing formalization of rules.......the article present different concepts and modelsof learning. It discuss some strutural tendenciesof developing environmental management systemsand point out alternatives to increasing formalization of rules....

  7. Cultural Learning Redux (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael


    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and…

  8. FORUM: Affective Learning. Reclaiming Affective Learning (United States)

    Housley Gaffney, Amy L.; Dannels, Deanna P.


    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  9. The employee satisfaction in metalworking manufacturing: How do organizational culture and organizational learning capacity jointly affect it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Aydin


    Full Text Available It is a known fact that the organizations, which give more attention to the satisfaction of their employees, produce more successful outcomes than others do. In this sense, we have constructed an original model and carried out a research analysis in metalworking manufacturing, which the main subject is about to investigate the employee satisfaction depending on the factors of organizational culture and organizational learning capacity. The aim of the research is to contribute to academic researchers as well as managerial level and human resource department employees of metalworking organizations, in maximizing the employee satisfaction. The research was applied on 578 employees of the related industry. By the results, we have determined that the constructed model is significant and there is positive significant correlation both between -organizational culture and employee satisfaction- and -organizational learning capacity and employee satisfaction. Additionally, the total explained variance of employee satisfaction depending on these two variables has come out as the value of 0.56.

  10. Teaching and Learning Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    inside and outside the classroom; at the same time, culture also influences the context of the learning. The context may be “invisible” and hide itself as tacit knowledge or embedded values, or it may be very visible and present itself as a fixed curriculum or an established tradition. No matter what......, including a student-centered task-based problem-based learning (PBL) approach, a digital technology-supported approach and more. It also reports on how, when teaching and learning culture, teachers’ professional identity and the informal teaching and learning environment impact the teaching and learning......, but instead, should explore how the context may be integrated into and used constructively in the teaching and learning of culture. This allowance of context in the classroom will allow for teachers, students, subjects and contexts to enter into a dialogue and negotiation of meaning that will enrich each...

  11. Material culture of multilingualism and affectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Aronin


    Full Text Available Affectivity is an important dimension in humans’ social and individual lives. It is either a stimulating or hindering aspect of language learning. This article aims to draw attention to material culture as a powerful, but mostly neglected source of data on the use and acquisition of languages, and demonstrates the close and intricate links between affectivity and material culture. It is hoped that revealing these interrelationships will assist in understanding and managing language diversity. It will allow practitioners and teachers to carry out social and private encounters, events and language teaching with more care, understanding and expertise. Researchers will be encouraged to join the investigation of yet one more important facet of multilingualism – material culture.

  12. Culturally-Sensitive Learning Practices (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.


    In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…

  13. Cultural Variations in Learning and Learning Styles (United States)

    Omidvar, Pegah; Tan, Bee Hoon


    The need for cross-cultural understanding of the relationship between culture and learning style is becoming increasingly important because of the changing cultural mix of classrooms and society at large. The research done regarding the two variables is mostly quantitative. This review summarizes results of the existing research on cultural…

  14. Leadership for Learning: Tasks of Learning Culture (United States)

    Corrigan, Joe


    This is a comparative analysis of leadership related to organizational culture and change that occurred at a large Canadian university during a twenty year period 1983-2003. From an institutional development perspective, leadership is characterized as a culture creation and development responsibility. By centering on the tasks of learning culture,…

  15. A Cultural Approach to Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard


    The this article learning is discussed in relation to different understanding of culture. In particular the dialectics of 'Enlightenment' inthe Western culture are reflected , as well aslow- and high-context communication and learningin different types of culture. Finaaly the Weberian methodology...

  16. Do learning style and learning environment affect learning outcome? (United States)

    DiBartola, L M; Miller, M K; Turley, C L


    This study compared learning outcomes of students with different learning styles, as identified by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory indicators, in a traditional in-class environment with those taking the same course via distance education. The above-average scores were evenly distributed, 47% of the in-class group and 43% of the distance group. For three of the four learning styles, there was no relationship to learning outcome or environment. The Diverger group did show a relationship with above-average scores in the distance group (83%). The findings support that the classroom or distance environment did not influence learning outcome. Learning style did not appear to affect learning outcome in either group, except that the Diverger learning style may have a positive relationship to learning in the distance environment.

  17. affective variables of language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    why people enjoy different degrees of success in second language learning,given similar the presence of overly negative emotions such as anxiety,fear,stress,anger or depression,our optimal learning potential maybe compromised.the affective domain refers to the emotional domain that has to do with the emotional behavior of human includes such factors as self-confidence,extroversion,anxiety,attitudes and motivation.three major factors are introduced here:self-confidence,anxiety and motivation.

  18. Culture and Organizational Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, N.; Yanow, D.


    Traditionally, theories of organizational learning have taken one of two approaches that share a common characterization of learning but differ in focus. One approach focuses on learning by individuals in organizational contexts; the other, on individual learning as a model for organizational action

  19. Exploring Culture-Specific Learning Styles in Accounting Education (United States)

    Sikkema, Seth E.; Sauerwein, Joshua A.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review whether culture affects accounting students' learning processes to identify practical guidance for accounting educators facing a culturally diverse classroom. In spite of a significant literature thread in accounting education on student learning, relatively, little emphasis has been placed on…



    Mike Levy


    This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership; culture as contested; and culture as individual (variable and multiple). Each perspective aims to provide a focus for thinking about culture, and th...

  1. Culture in Language Learning: Background, Issues and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Pourkalhor


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at presenting the historical background of the emergence of culture in language learning and how it can be correlated with the language learners. In fact, by providing various definitions of culture and the role it might play in the process of language learning, whether directly or indirectly, this research provides a clear-cut overview of culture and its application among the people as well as their communication in the society. Moreover, the relationship between culture and language learning is also taken into account. To this end, basic definitions of culture in different research studies are investigated moving toward finding a path to make a connection between language and culture. Therefore, a review of studies on the relationship between language learning and culture is provided to account for the possible effectiveness of benefiting from culture in the language learning process in that the learning context (i.e. foreign or second language can be affected by the culture of the teachers as well as the learners. This demands that both teachers and learners should be aware of cultural issues surrounding the language and the fact that it can be beneficial for the process of language learning. If learner are consciously involved in the culture of the language they are learning, they certainly can have better performance and understand the language more tangibly.

  2. Conserving and managing animals that learn socially and share cultures. (United States)

    Whitehead, Hal


    Socially learned behavior can be a crucial factor in how animals interact with their environment and, thus, in conservation and management. For species in which social learning and culture are important determinants of behavior, several factors complicate conservation and management. These include the rapid spread of novel behavior through social learning, the inhibition of adaptive behavior because of cultural conformism, the evolution of maladaptive behavior, and the development of culturally isolated but sometimes sympatric groups. These factors can affect habitat suitability, movements, how animals react to anthropogenic effects, and genetic structures. Social learning and culture may be important factors in translocation success, and should sometimes be considered when delineating population units for conservation and management. We should aim to protect cultural as well as genetic diversity. Unfortunately, clear data on social learning and culture in the wild are scarce. Hence, the ideas and methods outlined in this special issue have great potential.

  3. Learning in Cultural Context: Developing Destinies (United States)

    Rogoff, Barbara


    Over more than three decades spent researching cultural aspects of how children learn, the author has had the opportunity to learn about how individuals and cultural communities change and continue. During her research on children's learning by observing and "pitching in" in a Mayan community in Guatemala, the author learned a great deal…

  4. Affective Variables of Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>There are various factors influencing second language learning(L2 learning). Among then,affective variables directly or indirectly have an effect on the success of L2 learning. Based on the applied linguistics theories,the paper mainly discusses three major groups of affective variables—attitude,motivation,personality and how they influence L2 learning.It aims to make both language teachers and learners understand the importance of these variables so as to improve the efficiency of L2 learning and teaching.

  5. Embedding Affective Learning Outcomes in Library Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellysa Stern Cahoy


    Full Text Available While information literacy in higher education has long been focused on cognitive learning outcomes, attention must be paid to students’ affective, emotional needs throughout the research process. This article identifies models for embedding affective learning outcomes within information literacy instruction, and provides strategies to help librarians discover, articulate, and address students’ self-efficacy, motivation, emotions and attitudes. Worksheets to assist in creating affective learning outcomes are included to bring structure to an area of learning that is often challenging to articulate and measure. Also included in the article are the results of a recent survey of instruction librarians’ familiarity and inclusion of affective learning outcomes within teaching and learning initiatives.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Affective factors play a significant role in languagelearning. This paper argues that positive emotions can facilitatethe language learning process and improve learners' languageperformance, while negative emotions will bring barriers tolanguage learning and reduce learners learning capacity. Withtwo true stories as an introduction and some relevant answersobtained from my questionnaire, this paper mainly discusses theinfluences of negative emotional factors on language learning.such as anxiety, low self-esteem, insecure classroomatmosphere, lack of rapport between teachers and students, etc.Some suggestions about how to overcome affective barriers areput forward.

  7. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak;


    challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare....... on learning variables, and these were proposed to reflect feed motivation and working speed. A single correlation was found between temperament and learning PC scores: high activity was associated with low feed motivation. This preliminary exploratory study suggests that temperament, as assessed during...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Most of the culture-related discussions about foreign language teaching and learning are about "why and how culture should be incorporated into foreign language teaching and learning because it is believed that lack of awareness of cultural differences interferes with the real understanding and appropriate use of the target language. This article looks at culture from another point of view: the influences of home culture on how a foreign language is learned and taught. These influences, termed "culture of learning", navigate teachers and learners about the purpose, process and product of learning. The Chinese culture of learning has many admirable traits, but it also has strong and persistent negative in influences on ELT in China.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Levy


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership; culture as contested; and culture as individual (variable and multiple. Each perspective aims to provide a focus for thinking about culture, and thereby to provide a valid and useful point of departure for thinking about the practice of culture learning and teaching with new technologies. The referenced literature draws from a broad range of disciplines and definitions of culture. In Part Two, five projects are chosen to represent relevant technologies currently in use for culture learning: e-mail, chat, a discussion forum and a Web-based project. Each project is used to illustrate facets of the culture concept discussed in Part One with a view to identifying key elements within a pedagogical framework that can help us respond effectively to the challenge of culture learning and teaching utilising new technologies. Thus the goal is to align fundamental qualities of the culture concept with specific pedagogical designs, tasks and technologies.

  10. The Academic Library and the Culture for Learning (United States)

    Hufford, Jon R.


    Several components of a campus culture affect learning, yet assessments regularly neglect some of them. Academic librarians should evaluate how they impact courses and student learning through their support of these neglected components. Assessment goals to address some of the components include measuring the level of support for courses with…

  11. Active Affective Learning for Accelerated Schools. (United States)

    Richardson, Robert B.

    This paper provides the groundwork for Active Affective Learning and teaching adapted to the needs of the disadvantaged, at-risk students served by the Accelerated Schools Movement. One of the "golden rules" for the practice of Accelerated Learning, according to psychiatrist Georgi Lozanov, has been to maintain an "up-beat" classroom presentation…

  12. Affect and Learning : a computational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekens, Douwe Joost


    In this thesis we have studied the influence of emotion on learning. We have used computational modelling techniques to do so, more specifically, the reinforcement learning paradigm. Emotion is modelled as artificial affect, a measure that denotes the positiveness versus negativeness of a situation

  13. Overcoming Affective Barriers in College English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nowadays, the development of economy as well as the progress of society requires better English competence of col-lege students. As a result, a large number of college students are obsessedby affective barriers in their English learning, especially when they have to cope with CET 4 or CET 6, which is more and more difficult. This paper focuses on how to help college stu-dents overcome their affective barriers more effectively to improve their English learning.

  14. Strangers in Stranger Lands: Language, Learning, Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li


    Full Text Available This study investigates international students’ perceptions of the issues they face using English as a second language while attending American higher education institutions. In order to fully understand those challenges involved in learning English as a Second Language, it is necessary to know the extent to which international students have mastered the English language before they start their study in America. Most international students experience an overload of English language input upon arrival in the United States. Cultural differences influence international students’ learning of English in other ways, including international students’ isolation within their communities and America’s lack of teaching listening skills to its own students. Other factors also affect international students’ learning of English, such as the many forms of informal English spoken in the USA, as well as a variety of dialects. Moreover, since most international students have learned English in an environment that precluded much contact with spoken English, they often speak English with an accent that reveals their own language. This study offers informed insight into the complicated process of simultaneously learning the language and culture of another country. Readers will find three main voices in addition to the international students who “speak” (in quotation marks throughout this article. Hong Li, a Chinese doctoral student in English Education at the University of Missouri-Columbia, authored the “regular” text. Second, Roy F. Fox’s voice appears in italics. Fox is Professor of English Education and Chair of the Department of Learning, Teaching, and Curriculum at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Third, Dario J. Almarza’s voice appears in boldface. Almarza, a native of Venezuela, is an Assistant Professor of Social Studies Education at the same institution.

  15. Learning Organizations. Developing Cultures for Tomorrow's Workplace. (United States)

    Chawla, Sarita, Ed.; Renesch, John, Ed.

    This anthology contains 32 essays: "Beginner's Mind" (Sarita Chawla);"Communities of Commitment: The Heart of Learning Organizations" (Fred Kofman, Peter Senge); "Managing the Dream" (Charles Handy); "Ahead of the Wave: Valuing Gender Perspective in Learning Cultures" (Marilynne Anderson); "Mastering…

  16. Gender, identity and culture in learning physics (United States)

    Corbett, Katelin


    Student engagement in science, as defined by Iva Gurgel, Mauricio Pietrocola, and Graciella Watanabe, is of great importance because a student's perceived compatibility with science learning is highly influenced by personal identities, or how students see themselves in relations to the world. This can greatly impact their learning experiences. In this forum, I build on the work of Gurgel, Pietrocola, and Watanabe by exploring the relationships between engagement in physics and gender, and by looking at the expansive nature of the concept of culture. I expand the conversation by investigating ways in which learning science has impacted my own identity/worldview, particularly how it affects my personal teaching and learning experiences. I focus the conversation around the relationship between gender and the experience of learning science to further the dialogue concerning identity and how it impacts engagement in science. I also look at the role of didactic transposition in the perceived disconnect with science. I reveal my experiences and analysis through a personal narrative.

  17. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning. (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin


    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ⅰ. Introduction Foreign language teachers in China nowadays are well aware that language learning cannot be separated from cultural learning. They start to deal with intercultural communication in the classroom and have undergone significant progress in the past two decades. A lot of excellent work has been done (see Hu Wenzhong 1990, 1997) on raising cultural awareness and pragmatic insights.

  19. Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning. (United States)

    Brown, John Seely; And Others


    Conventional schooling too often ignores the influence of school culture on what is learned in school. Knowledge is situated, being in part a product of the activity, context, and culture in which it is developed and used; this is known as cognitive apprenticeship. Implications for understanding learning and teaching are discussed. (Author/BJV)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It is one thing that currently in China English learning persists through a student's whole study life, but it is another how long his persistence, an important factor in any language learning, can last. The factors affecting a student's persistence in this regard practically merits our attention. This paper traces and observes twenty students chosen by random. The research conducted here included their study motivation, academic excellence, psychological aspects relating to language learning and established corresponding models showing how these factors affect a student's persistence in his English learning. Although a small sample number was taken,of different students in China.the twenty students were typical of different students in China. The students' backgrounds were varied including both educational and environmental. Some suggestions are given indicating three separate but inter-related ways in how to further develop a student's persistence.

  1. Teaching and Learning Language as Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It's important to master a foreign language, English in particular.But the problem is how students should learn in order to communicate well with the native speakers and even become members of the target language community.The author narrates two incidents related to the Chinese study and English study experiences, pointing out that language study can't be separated from culture study.In line with the research results by some language experts about culture, language is the carrier of culture as literature is accomplished through languages,therefore language learning and teaching in isolation from culture is impossible.The author argues that language should be taught and learnt in a cultural approach.But as a sword with double blades, cultural approach may lead to culture invasion, culture inequality and the loss of culture diversity.

  2. Cultural Communication Learning Environment in Science Classes (United States)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Abdul-Latif, Salwana


    Classroom communication often involves interactions between students and teachers from dissimilar cultures, which influence classroom learning because of their dissimilar communication styles influenced by their cultures. It is therefore important to study the influence of culture on classroom communication that influences the classroom verbal and…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper presents a study of the effect of cultur-al background on TOEFL scores.It proceeds from therelation between culture and language,then illus-trates with actual questions from various sections ofTOEFL tests how American cultural background exertsa remarkable influence on TOEFL scores,and con-cludes with revelations with regard to English teachingin this country.

  4. How Cultural Elements Affect Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Transnational,cross -racial,cross -cultural exchanges are becoming increasingly extensive and frequent,and mutual contacts and commercial intercourse of different peoples show that cultural interchange and cultural integration,accompanied by economic integration,to some extent, have come to every aspect of life and to every participant. This article concentrates on the impact of cultural elements in business English translation while analyzing the relationship between cultural elements and translation in the Chinese perspective.

  5. Surfing USA: How Internet Use Prior to and during Study Abroad Affects Chinese Students' Stress, Integration, and Cultural Learning While in the United States (United States)

    Mikal, Jude P.; Yang, Junhong; Lewis, Amy


    Campuses across the United States continue to welcome a record number of Chinese students coming in pursuit of both academic and cultural goals. Yet, high levels of acculturative stress coupled with difficulties integrating into life abroad jeopardize accomplishing these goals. In this study, we examine Chinese students' Internet use both prior to…

  6. The Impact of National Culture on Informal Learning in the Workplace (United States)

    Kim, Sehoon; McLean, Gary N.


    The purpose of this article was to identify how differing cultural factors affect informal learning in the workplace. We have introduced concepts and reviewed studies on informal learning and national culture based on an extensive literature review on the factors influencing informal learning, particularly based on five Hofstede's dimensions…

  7. The Impact of National Culture on Informal Learning in the Workplace (United States)

    Kim, Sehoon; McLean, Gary N.


    The purpose of this article was to identify how differing cultural factors affect informal learning in the workplace. We have introduced concepts and reviewed studies on informal learning and national culture based on an extensive literature review on the factors influencing informal learning, particularly based on five Hofstede's dimensions of…

  8. Innovation and Quality for New Learning Cultures (United States)

    Ehlers, Ulf-Daniel

    This chapter explores the potential of Web 2.0 technologies to leverage e-Learning to a new generation and assesses the consequences for quality assurance, management, and development in higher education. The chapter describes key characteristics of the e-Learning 2.0 phenomenon and how the related emerging learning scenarios can be used for the principles of quality development in learning communities. It explores a range of methods that can be deployed for quality development in community-oriented learning. Finally, it discusses if a new learning culture, which is based on the philosophy of Web 2.0 and exploits the potentials of social software for learning, automatically leads to a new quality culture.

  9. An Anthropology of Learning in Epistemic Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine


    I connect Karin Knorr-Cetina's concept of ‘epistemic cultures’ with an anthropological conceptualization of practice-based learning. The theory of practice-based learning I explore departs from the cultural psychologist Lev Vygotsky’s notion of word-meaning which can be seen as a basic unit...... of analysis in cultural historical activity theory. However in relation to practice-based learning it is necessary further to explore how newcomers learn to perceive ‘epistemic objects’ in a complex process where learning concerns how material artefacts and meaning are connected in actual doing as well...... as learning what not to do. If ‘epistemic cultures’ in science create and warrant knowledge we may follow in closer detail how newcomers as physics students learn to create and warrant knowledge through everyday practices, which over time teach them new words and new meanings tied to words and bodily (re...

  10. Does cultural capital really affect academic achievement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier


    This paper provides new estimates of the causal effect of cultural capital on academic achievement. The author analyzes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – Children and Young Adults and uses a fixed effect design to address the problem of omitted variable bias which has resulted...... cultural mobility theory (cultural capital more important in low-SES environments) for indicators capturing “concerted cultivation.”...

  11. Playful Learning Culture in the Museum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela


    not undergone much investigation. This study was conducted in cooperation with two historical museums, these being the Transport Museum in Coventry, England and The Viking Museum in Ribe, Denmark. A new learning platform called MicroCulture has been created, aimed at eliciting a sociocultural understanding...... of history in young visitors. This study indicates that museum learning culture could be enriched by the introduction of mediated play as a resource for conceptual thinking and social interaction....

  12. Issues of Cultural Differences in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It is argued in this paper that it is difficult for a learner to have a good command of English in the context in China where learners are not iramersed in the Engush language because of cultural differences which are explored under four categories.The four issues of cultural differences in language learning discussed are essential in the formation of schemata which are very important in communication and language learning.

  13. Issues of Cultural Differences in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It is argued in this paper that it is difficult for a learner to have a good command of English m the contextin China where learners are not immersed m the English language because of cultural differences which are explored under four categories. The four issues of cultural differences in language learning discussed are essential in the formation of schemata which are very important in communication and language learning.

  14. An Anthropology of Learning in Epistemic Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine


    of analysis in cultural historical activity theory. However in relation to practice-based learning it is necessary further to explore how newcomers learn to perceive ‘epistemic objects’ in a complex process where learning concerns how material artefacts and meaning are connected in actual doing as well...... as learning what not to do. If ‘epistemic cultures’ in science create and warrant knowledge we may follow in closer detail how newcomers as physics students learn to create and warrant knowledge through everyday practices, which over time teach them new words and new meanings tied to words and bodily (re...

  15. Affective Body Movements (for Robots) Across Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias


    interpretation in different cultures. To cope with these multiple viewpoints in generating and interpreting body movements in robots, we suggest a methodological approach that takes the cultural background of the developer and the user into account during the development process. We exemplify this approach...

  16. Conditioning Factors of an Organizational Learning Culture (United States)

    Rebelo, Teresa Manuela; Gomes, Adelino Duarte


    Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between some variables (organizational structure, organizational dimension and age, human resource characteristics, the external environment, strategy and quality) and organizational learning culture and evaluate the way they interact with this kind of culture.…

  17. The Effect of Culture on Online Learning (United States)

    Kinasevych, Orest


    The author is conducting survey research to identify possible effects of culture on online learning success. The research will consider the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance identified by Hofstede (2001). The research participants will be students at Canadian post-secondary institutions. The survey will ask learners about their…

  18. Culture in Transition: A learning model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baca, Susan


    This paper addresses the problem of resistance to attempted changes in organizational culture, particularly those involving diversity, by 1) identifying precisely what is meant by organizational as opposed to societal culture, 2) developing a theoretical model of learning useful in contexts of or...

  19. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning. (United States)

    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C


    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations.

  20. Learning Analytics to Understand Cultural Impacts on Technology Enhanced Learning (United States)

    Mittelmeier, Jenna; Tempelaar, Dirk; Rienties, Bart; Nguyen, Quan


    In this empirical study, we investigate the role of national cultural dimensions as distal antecedents of the use intensity of e-tutorials, which constitute the digital component within a blended learning course. Profiting from the context of a dispositional learning analytics application, we investigate cognitive processing strategies and…

  1. Culture Influence on English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It is universally acknowledged that English has gained popularity among Chinese learners since the adoption of policy of reform and opening-up. Also, Chinese government has given English priority as it is a required subject in compulsory education. Cultural conflicts may be arisen according to discrepancies in scientific outlook, education. Thereby, this essay will attach importance to analyzing cultural differences and impacts.

  2. The Importance of Culture Teaching and Learning in TCFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As the learning and teaching Chinese become more and more popular, there are more people from different parts of the world coming to China to learn Chinese.Since culture and language are interconnected, language learning should combine with culture study during the whole process of Chinese learning and teaching.This paper disscusses the relationships between language learning and culture and then points out the importance of culture learning and teaching in TCFL(Teach Chinese as Foreign Language).

  3. Culturally responsive instruction for english language learners with learning disabilities. (United States)

    Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda


    This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused on how one teacher's knowledge of culturally responsive pedagogy affected her special education instruction. Findings resulted in three major themes that were aligned with the current literature in this area: Cultural Aspects of Teaching Reading, Culturally Relevant Skills-Based Instruction, and Collaborative Agency Time. The results indicated that the success of special education with ELLs at the elementary education level might be dependent on how well the special education teacher integrates culturally responsive instruction with ELLs' cultural and linguistic needs.

  4. Learning Han Cultures on Horseback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The "Think Tank in the Plain of Golden Lotuses" played important roles in the founding of the Yuan Dynasty.It came into being because of the enthusiasm of Kublai towards Han cultures and his political ambitions.

  5. Learner Cultures and Corporate Cultural Differences in E-Learning Behaviors in the IT Business (United States)

    Swierczek, Fredric William; Bechter, Clemens; Chankiew, Jeerawan


    Corporate cultural values have a major influence on learning. For learning to be effective it must be adapted to the cultural context in which it takes place. E-learning neither eliminates cultural differences nor is it culture free. This study focuses on two major Indian IT companies with different Corporate Cultures sharing the same expected…

  6. Ammonia Affects Astroglial Proliferation in Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Bodega

    Full Text Available Primary cultures of rat astroglial cells were exposed to 1, 3 and 5 mM NH4Cl for up to 10 days. Dose- and time-dependent reductions in cell numbers were seen, plus an increase in the proportion of cells in the S phase. The DNA content was reduced in the treated cells, and BrdU incorporation diminished. However, neither ammonia nor ammonia plus glutamine had any effect on DNA polymerase activity. iTRAQ analysis showed that exposure to ammonia induced a significant reduction in histone and heterochromatin protein 1 expression. A reduction in cell viability was also noted. The ammonia-induced reduction of proliferative activity in these cultured astroglial cells seems to be due to a delay in the completion of the S phase provoked by the inhibition of chromatin protein synthesis.

  7. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain (United States)

    Savickiene, Izabela


    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane Orton


    This paper presents the essential role of culture in the creation of meaning of language-inuse, showing it to be the source of both the contextual shaping of a particular text and the fundamental core of beliefs and values from which contemporary contextual features derive. As a result of this essential relationship, it is argued, modern language learners need to master the cultural system as well as the linguistic system of their new language if they are to be able to use it competently in real life, as mo st intend today. Samples of texts are examined to show how the meanings of both context and core culture are naturally embedded in ordinary language and suggestions are provided for how these might be successfully brought to students' attention and mastery in a classroom.

  9. How Do Learning Communities Affect First-Year Latino Students? (United States)

    Huerta, Juan Carlos; Bray, Jennifer J.


    Do learning communities with pedagogies of active learning, collaborative learning, and integration of course material affect the learning, achievement, and persistence of first-year Latino university students? The data for this project was obtained from a survey of 1,330 first-year students in the First-Year Learning Community Program at Texas…

  10. Function if Cooperative Learning in Developing Positive Affect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper focus on the function of cooperative learning in developing positive affect, Including reducing anxiety, increasing motivation, facilitating the development of positive attitudes toward learning and language learning, promoting serf- esteem, as well as supporting different learning styles and encouraging perseverance in the difficult and confusing process of learning a foreign language.

  11. Linking culture, organizational, learning orientation and product innovation performance: the case of Ethiopian manufacturing firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyene, K. T.


    Full Text Available Using formal survey data from textile and leather product manufacturing firms in Ethiopia, we investigate how the current national cultural setup (power distance, collectivism, masculinity and uncertainty avoidance is affecting organizational learning, orientation and product innovation performance. Further, we assess the moderating role of sector and ownership structure on the interrelationship. The result demonstrates that the current national culture setup is negatively affecting the learning and innovation activities of the firms in the country. It also shows that while sector type is neutral, ownership type significantly affects the interrelationship among culture, learning orientation and product innovation performance.

  12. Organizational Learning Culture, Transfer Climate and Perceived Innovation in Jordan (United States)

    Bates, Reid; Khasawneh, Samer


    This paper examined the relationship between organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate, and organizational innovation. The objective was to test the ability of learning organization culture to account for variance in learning transfer climate and subsequent organizational innovation, and to examine the role of learning transfer…

  13. Examining Culture's Impact on the Learning Behaviors of International Students from Confucius Culture Studying in Western Online Learning Context (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Chang, Bo


    There is a lack of shared understanding of how culture impacts learning in online environment. Utilizing document analysis, the authors in this research study culture's impact on the learning behaviors of student sojourners from Confucius culture studying in Western online learning context. The shared understandings of Confucius culture and…

  14. On Affective Communication-From Perspective of Cultural Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nowadays, cross-cultural study is turning to pragmatic fields concerning communication, such as business negotiation, overseas life and language teaching, etc. This paper reviews previous studies of culture and communication, attempting to reveal how to have affective communication from perspective of cultural context by case studies. As a result, theoretical foundation and case studies prove that although we have cooperative principles as general guidelines for communication, cultural awareness, espe⁃cially awareness of High Context (HC) and Low Context (LC), still plays a key role in cross-cultural communication by making up for the lost of meaning while transmission.

  15. Forum: A New Culture of Learning (United States)

    Hess, Mary E.; Gallagher, Eugene V.; Turpin, Katherine


    These brief essays by Mary Hess, Eugene Gallagher, and Katherine Turpin are solicited responses from three different contexts to the provocative book by Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown, "The New Culture of Learning" (2011). Mary Hess writes from a seminary context, providing a critical summary of the authors' major concepts and…

  16. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie


    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  17. On the affective ambivalence of living with cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Leeuwen


    Living with cultural diversity is characterized by a fundamental affective ambivalence. On the one hand, there is existential unease in the face of cultural strangeness, which is linked to our human dependence on `common sense' — the shared background of understanding from which we derive ontologica

  18. Reaching across Cultures: Learning about Ourselves and Learning about Literacy. (United States)

    Beach, Sara Ann; Ward, Angela; Mirseitova, Sapargul


    Details the stories of three women from different backgrounds who met as part of the Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking project, an education reform initiative based in Central and Eastern Europe. Describes each author's story of cross-cultural education and muses on her learning as part of an international community. Discusses themes of…

  19. Leveraging Affective Learning for Developing Future Airmen (United States)


    social networks need to be part of the learning process. According to social - learning theory , human behavior is based on continuous reciprocal...Bandura, A. (97). Social learning theory . New York, NY: Gen- eral Learning Press. Bandura, A. (986). Social foundations of thought and action

  20. Affective Dimensions of Participatory Design Research in Informal Learning Environments: Placemaking, Belonging, and Correspondence (United States)

    Ehret, Christian; Hollett, Ty


    This article argues that current approaches to participatory design research (PDR) risk eliding the affective life of making educational change by locating change in cultural mediation alone. Locating change only in mediation subordinates affect, potentially overlooking lived dimensions of learning and being essential to lasting, transformative…

  1. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture. (United States)

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo


    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  2. The Importance of Culture Learning for Language Learners%The Importance of Culture Learning for Language Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language is affected by culture. When one is learning a new language, the learner should pay special attention to the differences and similarities between native language and foreign language.%语言是受到文化影响的。当我们学习一种新的语言时,学习者要特别注意母语和外语的区别和联系。

  3. Learning by Knowledge Networking across Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Stærdahl, Jens; Bransholm Pedersen, Kirsten


    Engineers and planners working in trans-national production and aid project interventions in Third World countries must be able to 're-invent' technological systems across cultures and plan and build the capacities of their counterparts. A series of joint courses on cleaner production (CP......) and environmental impact assessment (EIA) in Malaysia 1998-2003 has sought to address these needs for new competences. Differences in educational background and the work culture of the participants have presented difficulties during these courses, in particular in terms of achieving a mixed team building to turn......-term field study, the course efficiently initiates the involvement of the students into, and their interaction with, the socio-political and cultural context of the host country. Thus, learning across cultures requires a longer term process whereby mixed teams leave the classroom, collect data together...

  4. The Impact of Induced Positive Affect on Incarcerated Males' Learning. (United States)

    Bryan, Tanis; And Others


    Incarcerated adolescent males (n=62) with high and low depression scores were assigned to a positive or neutral affect induction condition. Following affect induction, subjects participated in tasks involving learning to read Hindi words. Results showed a main effect for self-induced positive affect on learning but no main effect for depression…

  5. The Impact of Positive Affect on Language Learning Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Pan


    To generate a further understanding of the impact of positive affective variables on foreign language learning efficiency, a theoretical analysis was conducted, from second language acquisition and cognitive psychology perspectives. Second language ac⁃quisition process is inevitably influenced by individual affective variables residing within the learner. To improve language learn⁃ing efficiency, positive and facilitative affect should be enhanced in language learning.

  6. Blackboxing: social learning strategies and cultural evolution. (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia


    Social learning strategies (SLSs) enable humans, non-human animals, and artificial agents to make adaptive decisions aboutwhenthey should copy other agents, andwhothey should copy. Behavioural ecologists and economists have discovered an impressive range of SLSs, and explored their likely impact on behavioural efficiency and reproductive fitness while using the 'phenotypic gambit'; ignoring, or remaining deliberately agnostic about, the nature and origins of the cognitive processes that implement SLSs. Here I argue that this 'blackboxing' of SLSs is no longer a viable scientific strategy. It has contributed, through the 'social learning strategies tournament', to the premature conclusion that social learning is generally better than asocial learning, and to a deep puzzle about the relationship between SLSs and cultural evolution. The puzzle can be solved by recognizing that whereas most SLSs are 'planetary'--they depend on domain-general cognitive processes--some SLSs, found only in humans, are 'cook-like'--they depend on explicit, metacognitive rules, such ascopy digital natives. These metacognitive SLSs contribute to cultural evolution by fostering the development of processes that enhance the exclusivity, specificity, and accuracy of social learning.

  7. [Anaesthetists learn--do institutions also learn? Importance of institutional learning and corporate culture in clinics]. (United States)

    Schüpfer, G; Gfrörer, R; Schleppers, A


    In only a few contexts is the need for substantial learning more pronounced than in health care. For a health care provider, the ability to learn is essential in a changing environment. Although individual humans are programmed to learn naturally, organisations are not. Learning that is limited to individual professions and traditional approaches to continuing medical education is not sufficient to bring about substantial changes in the learning capacity of an institution. Also, organisational learning is an important issue for anaesthesia departments. Future success of an organisation often depends on new capabilities and competencies. Organisational learning is the capacity or processes within an organisation to maintain or improve performance based on experience. Learning is seen as a system-level phenomenon as it stays in the organisation regardless of the players involved. Experience from other industries shows that learning strategies tend to focus on single loop learning, with relatively little double loop learning and virtually no meta-learning or non-learning. The emphasis on team delivery of health care reinforces the need for team learning. Learning organisations make learning an intrinsic part of their organisations and are a place where people continually learn how to learn together. Organisational learning practice can help to improve existing skills and competencies and to change outdated assumptions, procedures and structures. So far, learning theory has been ignored in medicine, due to a wide variety of complex political, economic, social, organisational culture and medical factors that prevent innovation and resist change. The organisational culture is central to every stage of the learning process. Learning organisations move beyond simple employee training into organisational problem solving, innovation and learning. Therefore, teamwork and leadership are necessary. Successful organisations change the competencies of individuals, the systems

  8. Effects of a Peer Competition-based Mobile Learning Approach on Students' Affective Domain Exhibition in Social Studies Courses (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Shao-Chen


    One of the important and challenging objectives of social studies courses is to promote students' affective domain exhibition, including learning interest, positive attitudes and local culture identity. In this paper, a location-aware mobile learning approach was proposed based on a competition strategy for conducting local cultural activities in…

  9. Comment: Affect Control Theory and Cultural Priming: A Perspective from Cultural Neuroscience. (United States)

    Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Chiao, Joan Y


    Affect control theory posits that emotions are constructed by social and cultural forces. Rogers, Schröder, and von Scheve (2014) introduce affect control theory as a conceptual and methodological "hub," linking theories from different disciplines across levels of analysis. To illustrate this further, we apply their framework to cultural priming, an experimental technique in cultural psychology and neuroscience for testing how exposure to cultural symbols (e.g., words and pictures) changes people's behavior, cognition, and emotion. Our analysis supports the use of affect control theory in linking different levels of analysis while leaving some opening questions for improving such a framework in future research.

  10. Chinese Culture of Learning from Western Teachers’Viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    While more and more teachers from Western culture teach in China, research on the different cultures of learning in China's teaching context and Western teachers’views on the Chinese culture of learning and teaching have been rarely conduct-ed. This essay discusses the implications of cultural differences of learning between China and the West, particularly Western teachers’viewpoint on Chinese culture of learning. The conclusion suggests that it is of great importance to be aware that culture is just one of many factors that determine individual learning, and teachers are supposed to avoid stereotyping and simplistic views with regard to culture of learning, though general trends and patterns may exist among a certain type of culture.

  11. Organizational Learning Culture, Learning Transfer Climate and Perceived Innovation in Jordanian Organizations (United States)

    Bates, Reid; Khasawneh, Samer


    This paper examines the relationship between organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate, and organizational innovation. The objective was to test the ability of learning organization culture to account for variance in learning transfer climate and subsequent organizational innovation, and to examine the role of learning transfer…

  12. Using Instructional Pervasive Game for School Children's Cultural Learning (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Ping; Shih, Ju-Ling; Ma, Yi-Chun


    In the past ten years, mobile learning (m-learning) has created a new learning environment that enables learners, through active learning aids. Instructional pervasive gaming (IPG) seems to be an innovative way introduced to enhance m-learning. This study employed a theoretical IPG model to construct a cultural-based pervasive game. Individual and…

  13. Knowledge discovery based on experiential learning corporate culture management (United States)

    Tu, Kai-Jan


    A good corporate culture based on humanistic theory can make the enterprise's management very effective, all enterprise's members have strong cohesion and centripetal force. With experiential learning model, the enterprise can establish an enthusiastic learning spirit corporate culture, have innovation ability to gain the positive knowledge growth effect, and to meet the fierce global marketing competition. A case study on Trend's corporate culture can offer the proof of industry knowledge growth rate equation as the contribution to experiential learning corporate culture management.

  14. Critical Review on Affect of Personality on Learning Styles (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani


    This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…

  15. Demotivation: Affective States and Learning Outcomes (United States)

    Falout, Joseph; Elwood, James; Hood, Michael


    Demotivation can negatively influence the learner's attitudes and behaviors, degrade classroom group dynamics and teacher's motivation, and result in long-term and widespread negative learning outcomes. 900 university EFL learners were surveyed to investigate the demotivating factors in learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in Japan, and…

  16. Cultural Norms Affect Oral Communication in the Classroom. (United States)

    Johnson, Ellen


    Students from different cultures follow differing norms for communication, affecting the classroom and students' grades. Such patterns are found in class discussions, question-and-answer sessions, small-group interactions (issues include cooperation, structure, competition, and gender), and formal class presentations. While no single teaching…

  17. On English learning Disability and Affect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fang


    This paper introduces the definitions and causes of LD,pointing out that English LD is definitely concerned with the factor of affect by exploring the three theories like Affective Filter Hypothesis,Humanistic Approach to Education and Attribution Theory.

  18. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture (United States)

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie


    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  19. Tandem Language Learning through a Cross-Cultural Keypal Project (United States)

    Kabata, Kaori; Edasawa, Yasuyo


    Patterns of students' language learning were examined through an asynchronous cross-cultural bilingual communication project conducted between Japanese university students learning English and Canadian university students learning Japanese. Previous studies on cross-cultural communication projects have reported positive outcomes in providing…

  20. Culture and Tourism in the Learning Age: A Discussion Paper. (United States)


    Cultural services and tourism are among the United Kingdom's fastest growing sectors in terms of employment and consumer demand. Cultural services and tourism bring the following elements to lifelong learning: active rather than passive learning; a means of interpreting the world around us; exposure to cultures other than one's own; confidence and…

  1. Are We Ready for a Psychology of Learning and Culture? (United States)

    Vosniadou, Stella


    It is argued that recent findings in the study of learning and cognitive science have established a basis for a psychology of learning taking culture into account. Two aspects beyond those discussed are the construction of culture itself and how conceptual models influence the physical reality of culture. (SLD)

  2. Affective Variables and Learning Experience in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Lin


    The study aims at finding out the factors that have impact on a second language learner improving his language profi⁃ciency. To achieve this purpose, a research was conducted at an American University. A male subject was chosen from the ESL center in the English department of the University. The author followed up his life and study during the whole semester and as⁃sessed his improvement in English learning. The results showed that motivation and prior learning experience played vital roles in the subject’s improvement of English proficiency.

  3. Culture materials affect ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells. (United States)

    LaIuppa, J A; McAdams, T A; Papoutsakis, E T; Miller, W M


    Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic cells is important for applications such as cancer treatment, gene therapy, and transfusion medicine. While cell culture systems are widely used to evaluate the biocompatibility of materials for implantation, the ability of materials to support proliferation of primary human cells in cultures for reinfusion into patients has not been addressed. We screened a variety of commercially available polymer (15 types), metal (four types), and glass substrates for their ability to support expansion of hematopoietic cells when cultured under conditions that would be encountered in a clinical setting. Cultures of peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cells and mononuclear cells (MNC) were evaluated for expansion of total cells and colony-forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM; progenitors committed to the granulocyte and/or monocyte lineage). Human hematopoietic cultures in serum-free medium were found to be extremely sensitive to the substrate material. The only materials tested that supported expansion at or near the levels of polystyrene were tissue culture polystyrene, Teflon perfluoroalkoxy, Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene, cellulose acetate, titanium, new polycarbonate, and new polymethylpentene. MNC were less sensitive to the substrate materials than the primitive CD34+ progenitors, although similar trends were seen for expansion of the two cell populations on the substrates tested. CFU-GM expansion was more sensitive to substrate materials than was total cell expansion. The detrimental effects of a number of the materials on hematopoietic cultures appear to be caused by protein adsorption and/or leaching of toxins. Factors such as cleaning, sterilization, and reuse significantly affected the performance of some materials as culture substrates. We also used PB CD34+ cell cultures to examine the biocompatibility of gas-permeable cell culture and blood storage bags and several types of tubing commonly used with biomedical equipment

  4. The Culture Acquisition in the Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the second language learning,some people only put their focus on grammar,words,sentence etc. The paper aims to tell the people not forget the culture acquisition plays a very important role in the second language learning.

  5. Visits to Cultural Learning Places in the Early Childhood (United States)

    Mudiappa, Michael; Kluczniok, Katharina


    Studies show the important role of the home learning environment in early childhood for later school success. This article focuses on a particular aspect of the home learning environment: visits to cultural learning places (e.g. museums) as a component of the quality of the home learning environment. Therefore the educational concept of…

  6. A Situated Cultural Festival Learning System Based on Motion Sensing (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Hsing; Lin, Yu-Kai; Fang, Rong-Jyue; Lu, You-Te


    A situated Chinese cultural festival learning system based on motion sensing is developed in this study. The primary design principle is to create a highly interactive learning environment, allowing learners to interact with Kinect through natural gestures in the designed learning situation to achieve efficient learning. The system has the…

  7. Does Group Composition Affect Learning by Invention? (United States)

    Wiedmann, Michael; Leach, Ryan C.; Rummel, Nikol; Wiley, Jennifer


    Schwartz and Martin ("Cogn Instr" 22:129-184, 2004) as well as Kapur ("Instr Sci", this issue, 2012) have found that students can be better prepared to learn about mathematical formulas when they try to invent them in small groups before receiving the canonical formula from a lesson. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how the…

  8. An anthropology of learning on nested frictions in cultural ecologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hasse, Cathrine


    This book has one explicit purpose: to present a new theory of cultural learning in organisations which combines practice-based learning with cultural models - a cognitive anthropological schema theory of taken-for-granted connections - tied to the everyday meaningful use of artefacts. The understanding of culture as emerging in a process of learning open up for new understandings, which is useful for researchers, practitioners and students interested in dynamic studies of culture and cultural studies of organisations. The new approach goes beyond culture as a static, essentialist entity and open for our possibility to learn in organisations across national cultures, across ethnicity and across the apparently insurmountable local educational differences which makes it difficult for people to communicate working together in an increasingly globalized world. The empirical examples are mainly drawn from organisations of education and science which are melting-pots of cultural encounters.

  9. Mobile Learning in the Institution of Higher Learning for Malaysia students : Culture Perspectives


    Shamsul Arrieya Ariffin


    Mobile learning usage in a developing country like Malaysia can be considered new. This literature research  is a state of art overview to discuss current issues. The emerging issues come from: types of mobile learning and learning styles; implementation issues of mobile learning; culture dimensions; and user readiness to accept the mobile learning technology. Currently, there is a lack of research about culture aspects to improve mobile learning and university students’ engagement in Malaysi...

  10. An E-learning System based on Affective Computing (United States)

    Duo, Sun; Song, Lu Xue

    In recent years, e-learning as a learning system is very popular. But the current e-learning systems cannot instruct students effectively since they do not consider the emotional state in the context of instruction. The emergence of the theory about "Affective computing" can solve this question. It can make the computer's intelligence no longer be a pure cognitive one. In this paper, we construct an emotional intelligent e-learning system based on "Affective computing". A dimensional model is put forward to recognize and analyze the student's emotion state and a virtual teacher's avatar is offered to regulate student's learning psychology with consideration of teaching style based on his personality trait. A "man-to-man" learning environment is built to simulate the traditional classroom's pedagogy in the system.

  11. Identifying and Incorporating Affective States and Learning Styles in Web-based Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Khan


    Full Text Available Learning styles and affective states influence students’ learning. The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework for identifying and integrating learning styles and affective states of a learner into web-based learning management systems and therefore provide learners with adaptive courses and additional individualized pedagogical guidance that is tailored to their learning styles and affective states. The study was carried out in three phases, the first of which was the investigation and determination of learning styles and affective states which are important for learning. Phase two consisted of the development of an approach for the identification of learning styles and affective states as well as the development of a mechanism to calculate them from the students’ learning interactions within web-based learning management systems. The third phase was to develop a learning strategy that is more personalized and adaptive in nature and tailored to learners’ needs and current situation through considering learners’ learning styles and affective states, aiming to lead to better learning outcomes and progress.

  12. How Polarization and Political Instability affect Learning through Experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.V. Ossokina (Ioulia); O.H. Swank (Otto)


    textabstractIn a multiperiod setting, decision-makers can learn about the consequences of their decisions through experimentation. In this paper we examine how in a two-party system polarization and political instability affect learning through experimentation. We distinguish two cases: the decisi

  13. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David


    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  14. An Analysis of Cultural Obstacles on English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language and culture can not be separated. It is impossible to learn language well if people do not master cultural back-ground. With the frequent communication between China and other nations throughout the world, cross-cultural communica-tive competence is put forward to be the ultimate goal of foreign language learning in China. However, in present situation, cul-tural factor has not gained its due place in students’English learning. Based on this circumstance, this paper analyzes the cultural obstacles on English learning from the aspects of listening, reading and communicating, and puts forward that while instructing English language, teachers of English should pay attention to and spread cultural background knowledge of English speaking na-tions to improve students’language comprehension ability and cross-cultural communicative competence.

  15. Attention to Affect in Language Learning (United States)

    Arnold, Jane


    As language teachers, we have to pay attention to many things in our work so why add "attention to affect"? Perhaps the simplest, most direct answer is that whatever we focus most on in our particular context, be it general English, morphosyntax, phonetics, literature, English for academic writing or any other special area, attention to…

  16. Affective Learning and the Classroom Debate (United States)

    Jagger, Suzy


    A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group discussions…

  17. Advancing Affect Modeling via Preference Learning and Unsupervised Feature Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, Héctor Pérez

    over the other examined methods. The second challenge addressed in this thesis refers to the extraction of relevant information from physiological modalities. Deep learning is proposed as an automatic approach to extract input features for models of affect from physiological signals. Experiments...... a complete methodology for building models of affect from ordinal annotations with minimal expertknowledge, advancing affect modeling towards an automated data-driven process. The generality of the thesis’ key findings presented along with the limitations and the extensibility of the proposed components...... difficulties, ordinal reports such as rankings and ratings can yield more reliable affect annotations than alternative tools. This thesis explores preference learning methods to automatically learn computational models from ordinal annotations of affect. In particular, an extensive collection of training...

  18. Cultural Differences in E-Learning: Exploring New Dimensions


    Hameed, Nazia; Shaikh, Maqbool Uddin; Hameed, Fozia; Shamim, Azra


    Rapid development of Internet and information technologies has gifted us with a new and diverse mode of learning known as e-learning. In the current era, e-learning has made rapid, influential, universal, interactive, vibrant, and economic development. Now e-learning has become a global mode of education. E-learning means the use of internet, computer and communications technologies to acquire education. Learners with diverse social, cultural, economic, linguistic, and religious backgrounds f...

  19. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect. (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise


    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures.

  20. Early Learning and Development: Cultural-Historical Concepts in Play (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn


    "Early Learning and Development" provides a unique synthesis of cultural-historical theory from Vygotsky, Elkonin and Leontiev in the 20th century to the ground-breaking research of scholars such as Siraj-Blatchford, Kratsova and Hedegaard today. It demonstrates how development and learning are culturally embedded and institutionally defined, and…

  1. Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P; Burkart, Judith M


    If social learning is more efficient than independent individual exploration, animals should learn vital cultural skills exclusively, and routine skills faster, through social learning, provided they actually use social learning preferentially. Animals with opportunities for social learning indeed do so. Moreover, more frequent opportunities for social learning should boost an individual's repertoire of learned skills. This prediction is confirmed by comparisons among wild great ape populations and by social deprivation and enculturation experiments. These findings shaped the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which complements the traditional benefit hypotheses for the evolution of intelligence by specifying the conditions in which these benefits can be reaped. The evolutionary version of the hypothesis argues that species with frequent opportunities for social learning should more readily respond to selection for a greater number of learned skills. Because improved social learning also improves asocial learning, the hypothesis predicts a positive interspecific correlation between social-learning performance and individual learning ability. Variation among primates supports this prediction. The hypothesis also predicts that more heavily cultural species should be more intelligent. Preliminary tests involving birds and mammals support this prediction too. The cultural intelligence hypothesis can also account for the unusual cognitive abilities of humans, as well as our unique mechanisms of skill transfer.

  2. Generating a Spanish Affective Dictionary with Supervised Learning Techniques (United States)

    Bermudez-Gonzalez, Daniel; Miranda-Jiménez, Sabino; García-Moreno, Raúl-Ulises; Calderón-Nepamuceno, Dora


    Nowadays, machine learning techniques are being used in several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as Opinion Mining (OM). OM is used to analyse and determine the affective orientation of texts. Usually, OM approaches use affective dictionaries in order to conduct sentiment analysis. These lexicons are labeled manually with affective…

  3. Imitation and Innovation: The Dual Engines of Cultural Learning. (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H; Nielsen, Mark


    Imitation and innovation work in tandem to support cultural learning in children and facilitate our capacity for cumulative culture. Here we propose an integrated theoretical account of how the unique demands of acquiring instrumental skills and cultural conventions provide insight into when children imitate, when they innovate, and to what degree. For instrumental learning, with an increase in experience, high fidelity imitation decreases and innovation increases. By contrast, for conventional learning, imitative fidelity stays high, regardless of experience, and innovation stays low. We synthesize cutting edge research on the development of imitative flexibility and innovation to provide insight into the social learning mechanisms underpinning the uniquely human mind.

  4. How adoption speed affects the abandonment of cultural tastes. (United States)

    Berger, Jonah; Le Mens, Gaël


    Products, styles, and social movements often catch on and become popular, but little is known about why such identity-relevant cultural tastes and practices die out. We demonstrate that the velocity of adoption may affect abandonment: Analysis of over 100 years of data on first-name adoption in both France and the United States illustrates that cultural tastes that have been adopted quickly die faster (i.e., are less likely to persist). Mirroring this aggregate pattern, at the individual level, expecting parents are more hesitant to adopt names that recently experienced sharper increases in adoption. Further analysis indicate that these effects are driven by concerns about symbolic value: Fads are perceived negatively, so people avoid identity-relevant items with sharply increasing popularity because they believe that they will be short lived. Ancillary analyses also indicate that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, identity-relevant cultural products that are adopted quickly tend to be less successful overall (i.e., reduced cumulative adoption). These results suggest a potential alternate way to explain diffusion patterns that are traditionally seen as driven by saturation of a pool of potential adopters. They also shed light on one factor that may lead cultural tastes to die out.

  5. Job Satisfaction Affecting Cross-Cultural Adjustment in Taiwanese Expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen (Chiu-Yi/Joy Lee


    Full Text Available By means of the increasing global competition and internationalization of world markets, international expatriates assignments are more and more essential to successful worldwide development for many multinational corporations. Therefore, international expatriates are imperative to the survival of globe enterprises in the twenty-first century. Expatriates can become an important human resource to international enterprises or multinational operations. Also, for the past two decades, research has examined a variety of correlates for the performance problems and dissatisfaction associated with global assignment. To facilitate business expatriates adjust to an overseas environment and work effectively, Multinational Corporations (MNCs need to recognise the expatriates’ job satisfaction factor to affect cross-cultural adjustment. The main purpose of this study is utilising previous researcher Lee’s (2002 questionnaire to investigate the relationship between the job satisfaction and cross-cultural adjustment of Taiwanese Banks’ expatriates assigned to America, and this study employed same questionnaire to examine the relationship between the job satisfaction and cross-cultural adjustment of Taiwanese expatriates in several different industries assigned to Mainland China. Also, the empirical outcomes were compared between Taiwanese expatriates located in Mainland China and United States.In examining the significant degree of Taiwanese expatriates assigned to Mainland China, the instrument was a questionnaire survey conducted to this study. The variables of interest were measured using items Likert-type questions, and those items are divided into seven categories. Data collected from 353 participants who have experience of a posting to Mainland China for international assignments. Multiple regression and correlation were employed to analyse data.The statistical results of this study were compared Lee’s (2002 research that associated with

  6. How does a Culture of Learning Impact on Student Behaviour?


    Fransa Weeks


    Problem statement: Despite the need for a culture of learning in South African schools, research reveal that it is not generally encountered. Research also indicates the manifestation of student behavior problems constraining effective learning. Approach: This research study was directed at determining if a link existed between behavior problems and a lack of a culture of learning. The research approach adopted constituted a literature study and a qualitative based, narrative inquiry at a sch...

  7. Culture, Learning Styles, and Web 2.0 (United States)

    Olaniran, Bolanle A.


    This article explores Web 2.0 in interactive learning environments. Specifically, the article examines Web 2.0 as an interactive learning platform that holds potential, but is also limited by learning styles and cultural value preferences. The article explores the issue of control from both teacher and learner perspectives, and in particular the…

  8. Designing Learning Environments for Cultural Inclusivity: A Case Study of Indigenous Online Learning at Tertiary Level. (United States)

    McLoughlin, Catherine; Oliver, Ron


    Considers cultural diversity in Web design and traces the design processes involved in the development of an online learning environment for indigenous Australian learners entering university. Highlights include culture, constructivist learning and situated cognition; cultural pluralism in instructional design; and ten design principles for…

  9. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuremoto


    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  10. How Vietnamese Culture Influence on Learning and Teaching English (United States)

    Huong, Phan Thi Thu


    Vietnamese has to face a cross-culture issue with the teaching and learning of English as Vietnamese culture is "villagers' culture" which considers relationships in village as family relations and an emphasis "on hierarchical, social order in their dealings with one another" (Ellis, 1995: 9) with a traditional teaching method…

  11. Cross-Cultural Language Learning and Web Design Complexity (United States)

    Park, Ji Yong


    Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…

  12. Artificial grammar learning of melody is constrained by melodic inconsistency: Narmour's principles affect melodic learning. (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Cross, Ian


    Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring constraints affecting incidental learning. Within the domain of music, the extent to which Narmour's (1990) melodic principles affect implicit learning of melodic structure was experimentally explored. Extending previous research (Rohrmeier, Rebuschat & Cross, 2011), the identical finite-state grammar is employed having terminals (the alphabet) manipulated so that melodies generated systematically violated Narmour's principles. Results indicate that Narmour-inconsistent melodic materials impede implicit learning. This further constitutes a case in which artificial grammar learning is affected by prior knowledge or processing constraints.

  13. Has solar variability caused climate change that affected human culture? (United States)

    Feynman, Joan

    If solar variability affects human culture it most likely does so by changing the climate in which the culture operates. Variations in the solar radiative input to the Earth's atmosphere have often been suggested as a cause of such climate change on time scales from decades to tens of millennia. In the last 20 years there has been enormous progress in our knowledge of the many fields of research that impinge on this problem; the history of the solar output, the effect of solar variability on the Earth's mean climate and its regional patterns, the history of the Earth's climate and the history of mankind and human culture. This new knowledge encourages revisiting the question asked in the title of this talk. Several important historical events have been reliably related to climate change including the Little Ice Age in northern Europe and the collapse of the Classical Mayan civilization in the 9th century AD. In the first section of this paper we discus these historical events and review the evidence that they were caused by changes in the solar output. Perhaps the most important event in the history of mankind was the development of agricultural societies. This began to occur almost 12,000 years ago when the climate changed from the Pleistocene to the modern climate of the Holocene. In the second section of the paper we will discuss the suggestion ( Feynman and Ruzmaikin, 2007) that climate variability was the reason agriculture developed when it did and not before.

  14. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems (United States)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon


    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  15. Work related learning, Identities, and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling


    The basic societal transformation to a “learning society” presupposes learning and identity processes. In order to understand the conditions and dynamics of work related learning we need to theorize the subjective significance of work and we need to study work related learning processes in a way...

  16. The concept of learning in cultural-historical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth


    A cultural-historical perspective on learning is presented. The key idea is to conceptualise learning as self-mastery of action, using existing psychological functions. The main part of the chapter provides an overview of Vygotsky’s theory of higher psychological functions, and discusses their im......A cultural-historical perspective on learning is presented. The key idea is to conceptualise learning as self-mastery of action, using existing psychological functions. The main part of the chapter provides an overview of Vygotsky’s theory of higher psychological functions, and discusses...

  17. The Evolution of Individual and Cultural Variation in Social Learning. (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Chang, Lei; Dall, Sasha R X; Thornton, Alex


    It is often assumed in experiments and models that social learning abilities - how often individuals copy others, plus who and how they copy - are species-typical. Yet there is accruing evidence for systematic individual variation in social learning within species. Here we review evidence for this individual variation, placing it within a continuum of increasing phenotypic plasticity, from genetically polymorphic personality traits, to developmental plasticity via cues such as maternal stress, to the individual learning of social learning, and finally the social learning of social learning. The latter, possibly restricted to humans, can generate stable between-group cultural variation in social learning. More research is needed to understand the extent, causes, and consequences of this individual and cultural variation.

  18. On techniques to integrate cultural learning within English language teaching classrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Culture is inseparable from language teaching and learning. Learning the target culture may arouse students’cultural awareness and avoid cultural misunderstanding in cross-cultural communications. It is important to integrate cultural learning within English language classrooms. This essay discusses the techniques of achieving this integration.

  19. Exogenous gangliosides may affect methylation mechanisms in neuronal cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferret, B.; Hubsch, A.; Dreyfus, H.; Massarelli, R. (Centre de Neurochimie du CNRS, Strasbourg (France))


    Primary neurons in culture from chick embryo cerebral hemispheres were treated with a mixture of gangliosides added to the growth medium (final concentration: 10(-5)M and 10(-8)M) from the 3rd to the 6th day in vitro. Under these conditions methylation processes measured with (3H) and (35S) methionine and (3H)ethanolamine as precursors showed an increased methylation of (3H)ethanolamine containing phospholipids, a correspondent increased conversion of these compounds to (3H)choline containing phospholipids, and a general increased methylation of trichloroacetic acid precipitable macromolecules containing labeled methionine. A small increase in protein synthesis was observed after incubation of neurons with (3H)- and (35S)methionine. This was confirmed after electrophoretic separation of a protein extract with increased 3H- and 35S-labeling in protein bands with moecular weights between 50 and 60 KDaltons. A protein band of about 55 KDaltons appeared to be preferentially labelled when (3H) methionine was the precursor. The treatment with gangliosides increased the incorporation of (methyl-3H) label after incubation of neurons with (3H) methionine, into total DNA and decreased that of total RNA. The treatment of neurons in culture with exogenous gangliosides hence affects differently methylation processes, a finding which may confirm the involvement of gangliosides on the intracellular mediation of neuronal information mechanisms.

  20. Investigating Your School's Science Teaching and Learning Culture (United States)

    Sato, Mistilina; Bartiromo, Margo; Elko, Susan


    The authors report on their work with the Academy for Leadership in Science Instruction, a program targeted to help science teachers promote a science teaching and learning culture in their own schools.

  1. The Cultural Context of Learning in International Joint Ventures. (United States)

    Liu, Shimin; Vince, Russ


    A study of Chinese-Western joint business ventures showed that cultural context and different modes of managing and organizing must be considered. Successful joint ventures involve a process of collective, two-way learning. (SK)

  2. Quality of Affectional Bonding, Learned Helplessness, and Clinical Depression. (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald P.

    John Bowlby's theory of affectional bonding and the reformulated learned helplessness theory of depression were integrated into a multivariate model in order to expand the breadth of current attributional theories of depression. This retrospective study focused upon the quality of parent-child relations, the types of discipline parents employed,…

  3. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather


    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  4. Motivational Factors Affecting Advanced Literacy Learning of Community College Students (United States)

    Dean, Rebecca J.; Dagostino, Lorraine


    This article explores the possible intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors that community college students may bring with them into the classroom. It examines how these motivational factors affect students' learning inside and outside the community college classroom walls. The motivational factors such as mastery, self-determination,…

  5. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener. (United States)

    Gold, Benjamin P; Frank, Michael J; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira


    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy.

  6. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Gold


    Full Text Available Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB, and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy.



    Onur TOPALOĞLU; Takkaç, Mehmet


    The purpose of this study is to investigate how literature courses, involved in the curriculum of the department of English Language Teaching from the second year to the fourth year, help students to acquire the target culture in EFL classes. Since learning a language does not mean only learning the lexical structures of any language, culture holds an important place in internalizing the way of thinking and appropriate use of target language. This study has been designed in a naturalistic env...

  8. How social learning adds up to a culture: from birdsong to human public opinion. (United States)

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Feher, Olga; Fimiarz, Daniel; Conley, Dalton


    Distributed social learning may occur at many temporal and spatial scales, but it rarely adds up to a stable culture. Cultures vary in stability and diversity (polymorphism), ranging from chaotic or drifting cultures, through cumulative polymorphic cultures, to stable monolithic cultures with high conformity levels. What features can sustain polymorphism, preventing cultures from collapsing into either chaotic or highly conforming states? We investigate this question by integrating studies across two quite separate disciplines: the emergence of song cultures in birds, and the spread of public opinion and social conventions in humans. In songbirds, the learning process has been studied in great detail, while in human studies the structure of social networks has been experimentally manipulated on large scales. In both cases, the manner in which communication signals are compressed and filtered - either during learning or while traveling through the social network - can affect culture polymorphism and stability. We suggest a simple mechanism of a shifting balance between converging and diverging social forces to explain these effects. Understanding social forces that shape cultural evolution might be useful for designing agile communication systems, which are stable and polymorphic enough to promote gradual changes in institutional behavior.

  9. Learning a Foreign Language Is Learning Another Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Language and culture envolved together and have been mutually dependent through their history.Much of recent work has shown that language is related to the cultural setting.Then what is culture?To put it simple, culture means the total way of life of a people.This simply definition implies that culture refers to the patterns of customs, tradition,social habit, values beliefs and language of a society.A culture is so inclusive that it permeates virtually every aspect of human life, and it conditions and determines all man's behaviour, including linguistic behaviour.

  10. E-Learning Course Design from a Cross Cultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahmy, Sandra Safwat Youssef

    national, cultural and linguistic borders. The study attempts to shed a light on the differences in the learning practices of students in different countries, by using a mix between ethnography and grounded theory methodologies, to explore the different educational systems and learning practices...

  11. Community Service-Learning and Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (United States)

    Taylor, Alison


    This paper explores the potential of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), to provide new insights into community service-learning (CSL) in higher education. While CSL literature acknowledges the influences of John Dewey and Paolo Freire, discussion of the potential contribution of cultural-historical activity theory, rooted in the work of…

  12. Learning across Cultures: From New York City to Rotorua. (United States)

    Schnell, Claire; Schur, Joan Brodsky


    Describes a project in which one school in New York and another in New Zealand corresponded through video, fax, and e-mail. Explains that the project's focus was on the students learning about the Maori culture in New Zealand and the subcultures of New York and promoting cultural pride in all of the students. (CMK)

  13. Culture temperature affects human chondrocyte messenger RNA expression in monolayer and pellet culture systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ito

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy has been explored for articular cartilage regeneration. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising cell-based technique for repairing articular cartilage defects. However, there are several issues such as chondrocyte de-differentiation. While numerous studies have been designed to overcome some of these issues, only a few have focused on the thermal environment that can affect chondrocyte metabolism and phenotype. In this study, the effects of different culture temperatures on human chondrocyte metabolism- and phenotype-related gene expression were investigated in 2D and 3D environments. Human chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer or in a pellet culture system at three different culture temperatures (32°C, 37°C, and 41°C for 3 days. The results showed that the total RNA level, normalized to the threshold cycle value of internal reference genes, was higher at lower temperatures in both culture systems. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and citrate synthase (CS, which are involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, respectively, were expressed at similar levels at 32°C and 37°C in pellet cultures, but the levels were significantly lower at 41°C. Expression of the chondrogenic markers, collagen type IIA1 (COL2A1 and aggrecan (ACAN, was higher at 37°C than at 32°C and 41°C in both culture systems. However, this phenomenon did not coincide with SRY (sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9, which is a fundamental transcription factor for chondrogenesis, indicating that a SOX9-independent pathway might be involved in this phenomenon. In conclusion, the expression of chondrocyte metabolism-related genes at 32°C was maintained or enhanced compared to that at 37°C. However, chondrogenesis-related genes were further induced at 37°C in both culture systems. Therefore, manipulating the culture temperature may be an advantageous approach for regulating human chondrocyte metabolic activity and

  14. The Cultural Dimensions of Language Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Karen


    Language teaching and learning has many different cultural dimensions, and over the years more and more of these have been the subject of research. The first dimension to be explored was that of content: the images of target language countries and the world that were offered in textbooks...... and presented in class. The next dimension was that of the learner: the (inter)cultural learning, competence and identity of the learner or subject. The next dimension was context: the situation and role of language teaching and learning in society and in the world....

  15. Group affective learning in training for psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. (United States)

    Scharff, Jill Savege; Scharff, David E


    This paper describes The Group Affective Model, a method for teaching psychoanalytic concepts and their clinical application, using multi-channel teaching, process and review in group settings, and learning from experience in an open systems learning community for psychoanalysts and psychotherapists. This innovation arose in response to criticism of existing methods in psychoanalytic education that have subordinated the primary educational task to that of the training analysis. Noticing this split between education and training analysis, between cognition and affect, and between concepts of individual and group unconscious processes, we developed the Group Affective Model for teaching and learning psychoanalysis and psychotherapy in an open psychological space in which students and faculty experience individual and group processes of digestion, assimilation, and review, which demonstrate the concepts in action and make them available for internalization selectively. We discuss our philosophy and our educational stance. We describe our institution and our participants. We give examples of teaching situations that we have studied to provide some insight about assimilation and internalization of the concepts and clinical approaches being taught. We discuss the transferability of the Group Affective Model to other teaching settings and psychoanalytic training institutions and propose it as the fourth pillar of psychoanalytic training, next to analytic treatment, clinical supervision, and didactic seminars.

  16. Infant Contingency Learning in Different Cultural Contexts (United States)

    Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Goertz, Claudia; Kolling, Thorsten; Freitag, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Vierhaus, Marc; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika


    Three-month-old Cameroonian Nso farmer and German middle-class infants were compared regarding learning and retention in a computerized mobile task. Infants achieving a preset learning criterion during reinforcement were tested for immediate and long-term retention measured in terms of an increased response rate after reinforcement and after a…

  17. eLearning for Pluralism: The Culture of eLearning in Building a Knowledge Society (United States)

    Kurubacak, Gulsun


    This paper discusses culture, as a source of conflict than of synergy, how affects the use of elearning for pluralism to build a knowledge society. It also argues that the cultural dimensions of Geert Hofstede, who demonstrates that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior of organizations, are very persistent…

  18. Translating theory into practice: integrating the affective and cognitive learning dimensions for effective instruction in engineering education (United States)

    Alias, Maizam; Lashari, Tahira Anwar; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd.


    Learning in the cognitive domain is highly emphasised and has been widely investigated in engineering education. Lesser emphasis is placed on the affective dimension although the role of affects has been supported by research. The lack of understanding on learning theories and how they may be translated into classroom application of teaching and learning is one factor that contributes to this situation. This paper proposes a working framework for integrating the affective dimension of learning into engineering education that is expected to promote better learning within the cognitive domain. Four major learning theories namely behaviourism, cognitivism, socio-culturalism, and constructivism were analysed and how affects are postulated to influence cognition are identified. The affective domain constructs identified to be important are self-efficacy, attitude and locus of control. Based on the results of the analysis, a framework that integrates methodologies for achieving learning in the cognitive domain with the support of the affective dimension of learning is proposed. It is expected that integrated approach can be used as a guideline to engineering educators in designing effective and sustainable instructional material that would result in the effective engineers for future development.

  19. Study identifies socio-cultural factors affecting demographic behaviour. (United States)


    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is undertaking a project that will produce a state-of-the-art paper on sociocultural factors affecting demographic behavior. Particular emphasis will be placed on reproductive behavior in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Arab states region. The extent to which this information is incorporated in current population policies and programs will also be examined, and recommendations will be made. The factors to be studied include family and kinship structure; gender status and role; patterns of sexual relations and procreation in general and adolescent sexual behavior and fertility; religion, beliefs, customs, and traditions concerned with sexual relations and procreation; child rearing, socialization, and education; status and role of women; and sociocultural change, change agents, and influentials. The literature search will provide an inventory of methodologies. Guidelines on the use of the methodologies will be drafted for use by project personnel. These will later be tested in pilot studies in rural and urban communities in selected developing countries. The goal is to design programs that will accelerate contraceptive acceptance and sustain contraceptive practice by being sensitive to the sociocultural influences on the reproductive behavior of different subpopulations.

  20. How Are Project Governance Principles Affected by Different National Cultures?


    Tarragüel Pueyo, Luis Felipe; Wu, WanChun


    The relation between Culture and Business has caught researchers’ attention long ago; itis not hard to find studies relating to these topics. According to Hofstede et al. (2010, p.18), Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars (2012, p. 8), and Erez and Gati (2004, p. 5),culture can be defined in many levels, for example, organizational culture, and national culture. The field of Business also contains several disciplines, for example, International Business Management, Project Management, and Project G...

  1. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.


    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  2. The Writing Consultant and the Corporate/Industry Culture: How to Learn the Lingo, Mind-Set, and Issues. (United States)

    Ornatowski, Cezar M.


    Discusses ways to make the professional consulting experience successful and to understand an organization's communication problems. States that consultants should be aware of how the organization's culture may affect its members' communication practices, and should learn to read various signs of organizational culture. Emphasizes that effective…

  3. Artificial grammar learning of melody is constrained by melodic inconsistency: Narmour's principles affect melodic learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rohrmeier

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring constraints affecting incidental learning. Within the domain of music, the extent to which Narmour's (1990 melodic principles affect implicit learning of melodic structure was experimentally explored. Extending previous research (Rohrmeier, Rebuschat & Cross, 2011, the identical finite-state grammar is employed having terminals (the alphabet manipulated so that melodies generated systematically violated Narmour's principles. Results indicate that Narmour-inconsistent melodic materials impede implicit learning. This further constitutes a case in which artificial grammar learning is affected by prior knowledge or processing constraints.

  4. Educational innovation, learning technologies and Virtual culture potential'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Riley


    Full Text Available Learning technologies are regularly associated with innovative teaching but will they contribute to profound innovations in education itself? This paper addresses the question by building upon Merlin.Donald's co-evolutionary theory of mind, cognition and culture. He claimed that the invention of technologies for storing and sharing external symbol systems, such as writing, gave rise to a 'theoretic culture' with rich symbolic representations and a resultant need for formal education. More recently, Shaffer and Kaput have claimed that the development of external and shared symbol-processing technologies is giving rise to an emerging 'virtual culture'. They argue that mathematics curricula are grounded in theoretic culture and should change to meet the novel demands of 'virtual culture' for symbol-processing and representational fluency. The generic character of their cultural claim is noted in this paper and it is suggested that equivalent pedagogic arguments are applicable across the educational spectrum. Hence, four general characteristics of virtual culture are proposed, against which applications of learning technologies can be evaluated for their innovative potential. Two illustrative uses of learning technologies are evaluated in terms of their 'virtual culture potential' and some anticipated questions about this approach are discussed towards the end of the paper.

  5. The Culture of Experiential Community Based Learning: Developing Cultural Awareness in Pre-Service Teachers (United States)

    Droppert, Alida J.


    This paper describes the culture of experiential community based learning at Central College, a rural liberal arts college in Midwestern, USA. Pre-service teachers use experiential community based learning to reflect on their personal growth in understanding the needs of diverse learners. Reflections demonstrate how the program contributes to the…

  6. Learning, climate and the evolution of cultural capacity. (United States)

    Whitehead, Hal


    Patterns of environmental variation influence the utility, and thus evolution, of different learning strategies. I use stochastic, individual-based evolutionary models to assess the relative advantages of 15 different learning strategies (genetic determination, individual learning, vertical social learning, horizontal/oblique social learning, and contingent combinations of these) when competing in variable environments described by 1/f noise. When environmental variation has little effect on fitness, then genetic determinism persists. When environmental variation is large and equal over all time-scales ("white noise") then individual learning is adaptive. Social learning is advantageous in "red noise" environments when variation over long time-scales is large. Climatic variability increases with time-scale, so that short-lived organisms should be able to rely largely on genetic determination. Thermal climates usually are insufficiently red for social learning to be advantageous for species whose fitness is very determined by temperature. In contrast, population trajectories of many species, especially large mammals and aquatic carnivores, are sufficiently red to promote social learning in their predators. The ocean environment is generally redder than that on land. Thus, while individual learning should be adaptive for many longer-lived organisms, social learning will often be found in those dependent on the populations of other species, especially if they are marine. This provides a potential explanation for the evolution of a prevalence of social learning, and culture, in humans and cetaceans.

  7. An Efficacious Measurement of Learning Initiatives: E-Learning Systems, Learning-Organization Culture, Knowledge Creation, and Innovativeness (United States)

    Grundhoefer, Raymie


    The purpose of this research is twofold: (a) develop a validated measure for learning initiatives based on knowledge-creation theory and (b) conduct a quantitative study to investigate the relationships between electronic learning systems, learning-organization culture, efficacious knowledge creation (EKC), and innovativeness. Although Cheng-Chang…

  8. A comparative study about learning styles preferences of two cultures (United States)

    Kutay, Huban

    From an anthropologist's (Maddock, 1981) point of view, "science and science education are cultural enterprises which form a part of the wider cultural matrix of society and educational considerations concerning science must be made in the light of this wider perspective" (p.10). In addition, Spindler (1987) states that teaching science is considered cultural transmission while, Wolcott (1991) focuses on learning science as culture acquisition. In these statements, culture is defined as "an ordered system of meaning and symbols, in terms of which social interaction takes place" (Geertz, 1973). Thus, learning and culture are a partnership. Jones and Fennimore (1990) state: "Every culture brings habits of thought, resources, and context, which have built into them vehicles that promote learning and inquiry. Accordingly, children of any culture can and should have curriculum and instructional practices that draw from that culture." (p.16). Unfortunately, even though this statement is probably accurate, most schools still use the same curriculum, instructional methods, and assessment strategies for all students regardless of their differences in learning styles. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between students' learning styles and their culture. This is a correlational study. Does culture limit or expand the learning of individuals? For this study Turkish students who graduated from a Turkish high school and undertook undergraduate education in the United States or finished their undergraduate education in Turkey and pursued graduate education in the United States were identified. These Turkish subjects were compared to American college students through learning styles data and anxiety levels as cultural markers. To identify individuals' learning styles we used the Building Excellence (BE) instrument, which is an adult version of The Learning Style Inventory by Dunn, and Rundle (1996.1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000). BE assesses twenty four

  9. Communicating Investment: Cultural Studies, Affect and the Academy (United States)

    Gregg, Melissa


    Over the past decade, publishers' catalogues have showcased a continuing supply of introductory readers, taxonomies and evaluations of cultural studies, largely for teaching purposes. In this article, the author suggests that the current climate of academic publishing has allowed cultural studies' particular investment and commitment to scholarly…




  11. An Important Role Culture Plays in Communicative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper presents a study of the effects of cultural background on the communicative approach exemplified by the teaching of Integrated Skills of English (ISE).It proceeds from the interpretation of culture in light of linguis tic and pedagogic perspectives,then target on how cultural knowledge affects the communicative approach with the actual examples from ISE,and concludes that greater importance should be attached to EFL teaching





    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana de SÃO PEDRO


    Full Text Available The present work looks into the area of English teaching nowadays, considering the post-modern globalization scenario (STIGLITZ, 2004 and the demand to speak such a language, especially for adults. We start by approaching historical and methodological issues, including the post-method (KUMARAVADIVELU, 2003, 2008; LEFFA, 2003, 2008 and the current translingual approach (CANAGARAJAH, 2013, and we also touch on the high rate of failure when one tries to learn English in Brazil, particularly oral production, according to certain research, such as the one periodically conducted by EF (Education First. Then, we hypothesize that a possible cause for a negative result might be related to affective factors (REVUZ, 1998, reflecting upon the possibility of creating affective bonds and relating to the target language in a scenario of encounter and conflict of differences (ROCHA, 2012. Finally, we propose a reflection to the classroom, from a point of view in which language is discourse, (JORDÃO, 2006, 2007, 2013; KRAMSCH, 1998, 2008a, 2008b, 2012, 2013 in order to make students aware of their own and other people’s cultural issues and have a ressignified perspective. As a result, they should feel more comfortable when studying and speaking English towards a better understanding of other cultures.

  14. American Holidays: Culture and Language Learning Combined. (United States)

    Wylie, Grace Scott

    Suggestions for combining cultural exposure and language instruction through class activities geared to American holidays are outlined. General information about gathering holiday-related realia and instructional materials from local newspapers and magazines is provided, and four specific holidays are highlighted. For each holiday, sources of…

  15. Intercultural Competence and Cultural Learning through Telecollaboration (United States)

    Schenker, Theresa


    This paper presents the findings of a six-week telecollaborative project between sixteen American students enrolled in a second-semester German class at an American university and sixteen German students enrolled in an advanced English course at a high school in Germany. Students discussed various cultural topics with their partner in two e-mails…

  16. Socio-Cultural Transformation and the Promotion of Learning


    García, Rocío; Mircea, Teodor; Duque Sánchez, Elena


    The main premise of Vygotsky’s cultural-historical theory is that to promote learning, and thus development, educators must intervene in, and change, the students’ socio-cultural context. Vygotsky’s theory, however, has been misinterpreted and the opposite approach has been accepted: the teaching is adapted, according to the context. The result is widespread failure in schools. This article reclaims the true transformative meaning of Vygotskian theory and shows how successful schools in se...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how literature courses, involved in the curriculum of the department of English Language Teaching from the second year to the fourth year, help students to acquire the target culture in EFL classes. Since learning a language does not mean only learning the lexical structures of any language, culture holds an important place in internalizing the way of thinking and appropriate use of target language. This study has been designed in a naturalistic environment, thus interview and observation were used as the main data collection techniques. The study was designed as a descriptive qualitative research. Participants were chosen by the help of an experienced colleague working in the above mentioned department for three years, and most of the participants were under her supervision, thus this case facilitated the process of interviewing participants. The findings showed that the literature courses contribute much to gain the target culture due the very nature of literature reflecting the society and traditions of society in which it was written. In addition, leaarners may have the chance of comparing thier own culture with target culture and this facilitates their learning. However, some missing points and misapplications were reported by students in providing a more appropriate environment for reflecting the target culture.

  18. The Effects of Organizational Learning Culture and Job Satisfaction on Motivation to Transfer Learning and Turnover Intention (United States)

    Egan, Toby Marshall; Yang, Baiyin; Bartlett, Kenneth R.


    Although organizational learning theory and practice have been clarified by practitioners and scholars over the past several years, there is much to be explored regarding interactions between organizational learning culture and employee learning and performance outcomes. This study examined the relationship of organizational learning culture, job…

  19. Worrying affects associative fear learning: a startle fear conditioning study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke J Gazendam

    Full Text Available A valuable experimental model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is that they originate from a learned association between an intrinsically non-aversive event (Conditioned Stimulus, CS and an anticipated disaster (Unconditioned Stimulus, UCS. Most anxiety disorders, however, do not evolve from a traumatic experience. Insights from neuroscience show that memory can be modified post-learning, which may elucidate how pathological fear can develop after relatively mild aversive events. Worrying--a process frequently observed in anxiety disorders--is a potential candidate to strengthen the formation of fear memory after learning. Here we tested in a discriminative fear conditioning procedure whether worry strengthens associative fear memory. Participants were randomly assigned to either a Worry (n = 23 or Control condition (n = 25. After fear acquisition, the participants in the Worry condition processed six worrisome questions regarding the personal aversive consequences of an electric stimulus (UCS, whereas the Control condition received difficult but neutral questions. Subsequently, extinction, reinstatement and re-extinction of fear were tested. Conditioned responding was measured by fear-potentiated startle (FPS, skin conductance (SCR and UCS expectancy ratings. Our main results demonstrate that worrying resulted in increased fear responses (FPS to both the feared stimulus (CS(+ and the originally safe stimulus (CS(-, whereas FPS remained unchanged in the Control condition. In addition, worrying impaired both extinction and re-extinction learning of UCS expectancy. The implication of our findings is that they show how worry may contribute to the development of anxiety disorders by affecting associative fear learning.

  20. Languages in a global world learning for better cultural understanding

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    Scott, Jessica; Hinton, Christina


    The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or countries, are more successful than others at teaching languages. The book comprises chapters by different authors on the subject of language learning. There are chapters on the role of motivation; the way that languages, cultures and identities are interc

  1. The Influence of Music Learning Cultures on the Construction of Teaching-Learning Conceptions (United States)

    Casas-Mas, Amalia; Pozo, Juan Ignacio; Montero, Ignacio


    Current research in music education tends to put the emphasis on learning processes outside formal academic contexts, both to rethink and to renew academic educational formats. Our aim is to observe and describe three music learning cultures simultaneously, including formal, non-formal and informal settings: Classical, Jazz and Flamenco,…

  2. Meaningful Learning in the Teaching of Culture: The Project Based Learning Approach (United States)

    Kean, Ang Chooi; Kwe, Ngu Moi


    This paper reports on a collaborative effort taken by a team of three teacher educators in using the Project Based Learning (PBL) approach in the teaching of Japanese culture with the aim to investigate the presence of actual "meaningful learning" among 15 students of a 12-Week Preparatory Japanese Language course under a teacher…

  3. Integrating Learning Styles and Personality Traits into an Affective Model to Support Learner's Learning (United States)

    Leontidis, Makis; Halatsis, Constantin

    The aim of this paper is to present a model in order to integrate the learning style and the personality traits of a learner into an enhanced Affective Style which is stored in the learner’s model. This model which can deal with the cognitive abilities as well as the affective preferences of the learner is called Learner Affective Model (LAM). The LAM is used to retain learner’s knowledge and activities during his interaction with a Web-based learning environment and also to provide him with the appropriate pedagogical guidance. The proposed model makes use of an ontological approach in combination with the Bayesian Network model and contributes to the efficient management of the LAM in an Affective Module.

  4. Learning Culture, Line Manager and HR Professional Practice (United States)

    Harrison, Patricia


    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the role of line management and learning culture in the development of professional practice for the human resource (HR) practitioner. Design/methodology/approach: Three-year longitudinal, matched-pair study involving five participants and their line managers. Findings: Two of the five participants experienced…

  5. The Teaching Artist as Cultural Learning Entrepreneur: An Introductory Conceptualization (United States)

    Chemi, Tatiana


    In the field of teaching artists a new professional profile might be arising: the cultural learning entrepreneur. Compelled by European standards for business and social innovation, the new role is in search of identity and shared understanding. In the present article, the author presents a network project, funded by the European Community, which…

  6. Multiculturalism within a Culture: Learning a Lenguage through its History



    In this Master’s Dissertation, different activities related to the history of the British culture are going to be elaborated, in order to try to achieve motivation both in students and teachers when learning and teaching English. Nevertheless, before getting into the essay straight ahead, I would like to explain the reasons why I have decided to choose this topic.

  7. Gaining Cultural Intelligence through Second Life Learning Interventions

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    Sarah Ellin Siegel


    Full Text Available Companies’ investment in international assignments remains essential, but is affordable for only relatively few employees. In today’s global economy, many employees must gain cultural intelligence. Encyclopedic web sites and smart game simulations are ill-equipped to offer the live, authentic immersive experience of Virtual World environments; learning from colleagues who are country-natives through interacting with them in a Virtual World like Second Life is the next best thing to being there, and it requires no travel. Virtual world learning sessions with local ambassadors are affordable on a massive scale compared with international assignments. In addition, through Virtual World experiences, international assignees can be more effective with colleagues from their assigned countries prior to boarding planes, even prior to Day 1 of the assignment. This research proposal, including a literature review and a research design, asks, and begins to answer: What can cultural intelligence learning in Second Life achieve or advance that cultural intelligence learning in real-life within the cultures, smart game simulations and encyclopedic, self-service web sites cannot as readily?

  8. Cultural and learning differences in the Judd illusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kamp, John; Withagen, Rob; de Wit, Matthieu M.


    In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in the perception of illusory Judd drawings point to variability in the pickup of informational variables. Two sources for these individual differences were addressed: culture and learning. East Asian (n = 24) and Western (n = 24) part

  9. Transferring Knowledge across Cultures: A Learning Competencies Approach (United States)

    Kayes, Anna B.; Kayes, D. Christopher; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka


    At the heart of any successful cross-cultural knowledge transfer effort lies an individual or group of individuals with the skills to manage a complex, ambiguous and often stressful process. The ability to manage the knowledge transfer process depends as much on learning in real time as it does on rational planning. Yet, few approaches to…

  10. Physical Education Cultures in Sweden: Fitness, Sports, Dancing … Learning? (United States)

    Larsson, Håkan; Karlefors, Inger


    In a significant article from 1993, Crum describes the purpose of physical education (PE) as a "planned introduction into movement culture". In broad terms, this purpose is tantamount to the stated purpose of Swedish PE in national steering documents. Crum contends, however, that physical educators do not prioritise learning, which is…

  11. Children's Play and Culture Learning in an Egalitarian Foraging Society (United States)

    Boyette, Adam H.


    Few systematic studies of play in foragers exist despite their significance for understanding the breadth of contexts for human development and the ontogeny of cultural learning. Forager societies lack complex social hierarchies, avenues for prestige or wealth accumulation, and formal educational institutions, and thereby represent a contrast to…

  12. Study Abroad: Enhanced Learning Experience in Cultural Diversity (United States)

    Jaoko, Japheth


    This paper examines how a study abroad experiential learning course in diversity provided a cultural immersion experience for a group of social work students from a small private university in central Kentucky. The students participated in a three-week international education experience in Kenya and reported this experience helped them become more…

  13. Reflections on Service-Learning, Critical Thinking, and Cultural Competence (United States)

    Goldberg, Lynette R.; Coufal, Kathy L.


    In today's increasingly multicultural society, students need to be prepared for the work world they will encounter. Well-developed critical thinking skills appear essential to needed cultural competence. With its focus on community involvement, deep reflection and civic engagement, the possibility that Service-Learning (SL) could improve students'…

  14. Learning in a new culture and a multicultural environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun


    This presentation will discuss the issues of learning in a new culture, in a multicultural context, and especially in a problem based and project organized study environment. It will be based on the presenter's study experiences as a foreign student, teaching experiences in different international...

  15. Culture Conditions Affect Expression of DUX4 in FSHD Myoblasts

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    Sachchida Nand Pandey


    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is believed to be caused by aberrant expression of double homeobox 4 (DUX4 due to epigenetic changes of the D4Z4 region at chromosome 4q35. Detecting DUX4 is challenging due to its stochastic expression pattern and low transcription level. In this study, we examined different cDNA synthesis strategies and the sensitivity for DUX4 detection. In addition, we investigated the effects of dexamethasone and knockout serum replacement (KOSR on DUX4 expression in culture. Our data showed that DUX4 was consistently detected in cDNA samples synthesized using Superscript III. The sensitivity of DUX4 detection was higher in the samples synthesized using oligo(dT primers compared to random hexamers. Adding dexamethasone to the culture media significantly suppressed DUX4 expression in immortalized (1.3 fold, p < 0.01 and primary (4.7 fold, p < 0.01 FSHD myoblasts, respectively. Culture medium with KOSR increased DUX4 expression and the response is concentration dependent. The findings suggest that detection strategies and culture conditions should be carefully considered when studying DUX4 in cultured cells.

  16. Diverse decisions. How culture affects ethical decision making. (United States)

    Wright, F; Cohen, S; Caroselli, C


    Even under optimal conditions, assisting patients and families in making ethical decisions is difficult at best. Often these decisions revolve around the end-of-life issues that require acknowledgement that the patient is unlikely to survive, which may be perceived as a failure to both the family and the staff. At the very least, it can be a sad time, fraught with uncertainty and indecision. When these difficulties are coupled with ineffective communication related to cultural insensitivity or unawareness, the effects can be devastating to the decision-making process. All CCNs are expected to master the skills necessary for assisting patients and families through the harrowing experience of life-threatening illness. Whereas much of critical care focuses on managing pathophysiologic disturbances, emotional needs are equally important. It follows then that the CCN must assume responsibility for assisting patients and families in coping with the crisis of critical illness and working through ethical issues, which often include end-of-life decisions and organ donation. Culturally competent care is required when addressing patient needs holistically, but it is so much more. It is an opportunity to enrich and deepen the CCN/patient/family relationship, advocate for the patient, and broaden the opportunities for communication among staff. This article has provided some beginning steps for increasing nursing cultural awareness and has offered some initial strategies to consider when designing a plan of care. Through continuing efforts, CCNs and organizations can do much to decrease the alienation that many patients and families have traditionally encountered in the CCU, an estrangement that is exacerbated when their culture is different from the predominant culture of the unit. The effort to become more culturally aware may appear to require extraordinary effort; however, the rewards of optimizing patient care are unsurpassed.

  17. Culture, Communication, and Competence: A Commentary on Variables Affecting Social and Academic Behavior (United States)

    Horner, Rob


    The editors of this special issue have recruited six papers focused on the ways that language and communication interact with culture to influence student behavior. Two themes that emerge from these papers are the fundamental role of communication in learning and living, and the impact of culture on the functions of communication. The present…

  18. Analysis of Tsunami Culture in Countries Affected by Recent Tsunamis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban, M.; Tsimopoulou, V.; Shibayama, T.; Mikami, T.; Ohira, K.


    Since 2004 there is a growing global awareness of the risks that tsunamis pose to coastal communities. Despite the fact that these events were already an intrinsic part of the culture of some countries (such as Chile and Japan), in many other places they had been virtually unheard of before 2004. Ne

  19. Design Factors Affect User Experience for Different Cultural Populations (United States)

    Chu, Sauman


    With increasing changes in our demographic populations and new immigrants settling in the US, there is an increasing need for visual communications that address the diversity of our populations. This paper draws from the results of the researcher's several past research and teaching projects that worked with different cultural populations. These…

  20. Reassessing culture media and critical metabolites that affect adenovirus production. (United States)

    Shen, Chun Fang; Voyer, Robert; Tom, Roseanne; Kamen, Amine


    Adenovirus production is currently operated at low cell density because infection at high cell densities still results in reduced cell-specific productivity. To better understand nutrient limitation and inhibitory metabolites causing the reduction of specific yields at high cell densities, adenovirus production in HEK 293 cultures using NSFM 13 and CD 293 media were evaluated. For cultures using NSFM 13 medium, the cell-specific productivity decreased from 3,400 to 150 vp/cell (or 96% reduction) when the cell density at infection was increased from 1 to 3 x 10(6) cells/mL. In comparison, only 50% of reduction in the cell-specific productivity was observed under the same conditions for cultures using CD 293 medium. The effect of medium osmolality was found critical on viral production. Media were adjusted to an optimal osmolality of 290 mOsm/kg to facilitate comparison. Amino acids were not critical limiting factors. Potential limiting nutrients including vitamins, energy metabolites, bases and nucleotides, or inhibitory metabolites (lactate and ammonia) were supplemented to infected cultures to further investigate their effect on the adenovirus production. Accumulation of lactate and ammonia in a culture infected at 3 x 10(6) cells/mL contributed to about 20% reduction of the adenovirus production yield, whereas nutrient limitation appeared primarily responsible for the decline in the viral production when NSFM 13 medium was used. Overall, the results indicate that multiple factors contribute to limiting the specific production yield at cell densities beyond 1 x 10(6) cells/mL and underline the need to further investigate and develop media for better adenoviral vector productions.

  1. The Influences of Affective Variables on and Implications for English Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Admittedly cognitive variables such as intelligence and aptitude exert great impact on English learning. Affective vari⁃ables, however, are of intense importance in determining English learning as well, because affect is a starting machine that sets the learning mechanism in motion and learning will run into difficulty if affect does not work properly. Besides, there is mounting in⁃terest in exploring the affective domain. Therefore, this paper focuses upon the analyses of four affective variables (attitude, moti⁃vation, self-esteem and anxiety) that have bearings on English learning and sets forth Implications for English teaching.

  2. Hooked on an Affect: Detroit Techno and Dystopian Digital Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pope


    Full Text Available Detroit techno is typically historicized as having grown out of the late 1970s and early 1980s middle-class, consumerist, and aspirational high school social party scene, giving the impression that Detroit techno artists created forward-thinking music as a means to acquire subcultural capital and (reproduce their identities. In this essay, this position is nuanced for a more complex understanding of techno’s relation to the quotidian phenomenological encounter with the dystopian setting of Detroit. Concomitantly, predominant theorizations of affect within the humanities, which emphasize the utopian, hopeful dimensions of affect’s inherent productivity, are supplemented for an understanding of productive energy revolving around affects of dystopia and on a certain hopelessness which scholars, in the years ahead, will increasingly have to negotiate.Keywords: techno, Detroit, dystopia, affect, aesthetic, desire, subculture

  3. Building and Leading a Learning Culture among Teachers: A Case Study of a Shanghai Primary School (United States)

    Haiyan, Qian; Walker, Allan; Xiaowei, Yang


    A positive teacher learning culture is important to effect meaningful changes in schools. Literature has established that successful school leaders can build and nurture learning cultures among teachers. However, less is known about how school leaders can shape the culture and make learning conditions happen at the schools in the Chinese education…

  4. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chun


    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  5. The evolution of culture: from primate social learning to human culture. (United States)

    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A


    Cultural transmission in our species works most of the time as a cumulative inheritance system allowing members of a group to incorporate behavioral features not only with a positive biological value but sometimes also with a neutral, or even negative, biological value. Most of models of dual inheritance theory and gene-culture coevolution suggest that an increase, either qualitative or quantitative, in the efficiency of imitation is the key factor to explain the transformation of primate social learning in a cumulative cultural system of inheritance as it happens during hominization. We contend that more efficient imitation is necessary but not enough for this transformation to occur and that the key factor enabling such a transformation is that some hominids developed the capacity to approve or disapprove their offspring's learned behavior. This capacity to approve or disapprove offspring's behavior makes learning both less costly and more accurate, and it transformed the hominid culture into a system of cumulative cultural inheritance similar to that of humans, although the system was still prelinguistic in nature.

  6. Mild hypoxia affects synaptic connectivity in cultured neuronal networks. (United States)

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Mulder, Alex T B; Farinha, Ana C; van Putten, Michel J A M; le Feber, Joost


    Eighty percent of patients with chronic mild cerebral ischemia/hypoxia resulting from chronic heart failure or pulmonary disease have cognitive impairment. Overt structural neuronal damage is lacking and the precise cause of neuronal damage is unclear. As almost half of the cerebral energy consumption is used for synaptic transmission, and synaptic failure is the first abrupt consequence of acute complete anoxia, synaptic dysfunction is a candidate mechanism for the cognitive deterioration in chronic mild ischemia/hypoxia. Because measurement of synaptic functioning in patients is problematic, we use cultured networks of cortical neurons from new born rats, grown over a multi-electrode array, as a model system. These were exposed to partial hypoxia (partial oxygen pressure of 150Torr lowered to 40-50Torr) during 3 (n=14) or 6 (n=8) hours. Synaptic functioning was assessed before, during, and after hypoxia by assessment of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses to electrical stimulation. Action potential heights and shapes and non-synaptic stimulus responses were used as measures of individual neuronal integrity. During hypoxia of 3 and 6h, there was a statistically significant decrease of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses, whereas direct responses and action potentials remained unchanged. These changes were largely reversible. Our results indicate that in cultured neuronal networks, partial hypoxia during 3 or 6h causes isolated disturbances of synaptic connectivity.

  7. Investigating Learner Affective Performance in Web-Based Learning by Using Entrepreneurship as a Metaphor (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Chou; Chi, Ming-Hsiao


    In the era of the Internet, factors which influence effective learning in a Web-based learning environment are well worth exploring. In addition to knowledge acquisition and skills training, affect is also an important factor, since successful learning requires excellent affective performance. Thus this study focuses on learners' affective…

  8. Cognitive styles, cultural pluralism and effective teaching and learning (United States)

    Singh, B. R.


    In a pluralistic society, there is a need for increased sensitivity in the selection of teaching styles. This paper considers evidence which shows that future responses to teaching and learning style are determined in pre-school years by the child's socio-cultural environment. The teaching methods in common use in Britain, however, presuppose cognitive styles current in white middle-class culture, which may be inappropriate to children from other backgrounds. While some will respond only to co-operative, social methods, others will act analytically and competitively. Factors of social class are also considered. The paper argues that curriculum, methodology and materials should allow all children to identify with the educational process, and should enable them eventually to function bi-cognitively. Teachers will therefore need to recognize the range of cognitive and learning styles among their pupils.

  9. Written culture: learning how to read and write in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Pires Vargas Bolzan


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the formal aspects of writing and reading within the classroom context, emphasizing the importance of the students’ role, favoring their authorship as writers and readers from written culture. We understand that it is indispensable that the school beholds a prospective view in relation to the students’ learning, taking their ideas and constructions into consideration; that is, bearing in mind the culture of which they are carriers. We highlight the literacy teacher’s role in the process of organizing the pedagogical work that is aimed at teaching and learning reading and writing for the students that are in the early years of elementary school. In this way, we point out that the organization of the teaching requires teaching investment towards the improvement of activities and knowledge that focus on the organization of the pedagogical work, marking a long path to go to allow the assumption of pedagogical protagonism.

  10. Socializing infants towards a cultural understanding of expressing negative affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin


    This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian the...... cultural ethnotheories on good child care in these two communities found in previous studies and by other researchers....... theorizing, it claims that caregivers’ appraisals of infants’ emotion expression are dialogically intertwined with broader speech genres or “communicative genres” of a community and the emotional-volitional tone and normative orientations embedded in them. It aims to investigate how communicative genres...... become visible in early caregiver–infant interactions. In a comparative study with 20 farming Cameroonian Nso mothers from Kikaikelaki and 20 German middle-class mothers from Muenster and their 3-month-old infants, we investigated discursive practices used by the mothers in reaction to the infants...

  11. Adult third culture kids and their intercultural learning and competence



    Due to globalization, there are more and more families are bringing their children abroad due to different reasons (Cockburn 2002, 475-476). Third culture kids (TCKs) have gradually become well known to people and the society. The aim of this research is to discuss TCKs’ intercultural learning and competence during their significant years of development and what this experience means to them in terms of their educational and career choices. This is a qualitative research based on semi-st...

  12. The Arc from the Body to Culture: How Affect, Proprioception, Kinesthesia, and Perceptual Imagery Shape Cultural Knowledge (and vice versa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kimmel


    Full Text Available This essay approaches the complex triadic relation between concepts, body, and culture from an angle rooted in the empirical cognitive research of the past three decades or so. Specifically, it reviews approaches to how the body shapes conceptualization, reasoning, and communication. One main section examines how the body contributes to cultural learning and another how abstract cultural concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience, perception, and inner somatic states. Their purpose is to survey and briefly critique different theoretical frameworks, probe into their complementarity, and summarily evaluate to what extent higher cognition is embodied. The third main section outlines elements of an epistemological framework that connects culture, concepts, and the body in a sensible way. The paper closes with a discussion of how the embodied cognition paradigm advances a rapprochement of different areas both within cognitive research and beyond.

  13. The role of culture in perceptual learning styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حسینی فاطمی ، پیشقدم حسینی فاطمی ، پیشقدم


    Full Text Available The major aim of this article is to determine the role of culture in perceptual learning style (PLS preferences of Iranian English learners, in order to minimize teacher-student style conflict in the classroom. To do this, 400 university students from different fields of study were selected from Allameh Tabatabaee University in Tehran, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were asked to answer Reid’s questionnaire (1987 which was designed to specify 6 types of learning styles including: visual, auditory, tactile, kinesthetic, individual and group. The results indicated that: (a the subjects mostly drew on tactile and kinesthetic styles and had the least preference for the individual style of learning. (b No meaningful association was found between gender, age, proficiency and preference for certain style.

  14. Cultural toolkits in the urban physics learning community (United States)

    Sabella, Mel S.; Van Duzor, Andrea Gay


    Chicago State University has been involved in curriculum development, teacher preparation, and education research that targets urban physics learners on the south-side of Chicago. Through this work we have begun to recognize specific cultural norms that our students bring to the classroom. These cultural norms appear to help our students establish strong communities in classes. Because of the homogeneity of our population, with most students coming from within a five-mile radius of our campus, there are a set of shared experiences that help establish a level of trust and sense of community that manifests itself in the science learning environment. Aspects of community play a major role in the preparation of teachers. In this paper we discuss our understanding of CSU student culture, its importance in the development of community, and its role in the preparation of future physics teachers. [1

  15. How does feedback and peer feedback affect collaborative writing in a virtual learning environment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guasch, Teresa; Espasa, Anna; Alvarez, Ibis; Kirschner, Paul A.


    Guasch, T., Espasa, A., Alvarez, I., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 31 May). How does feedback and peer feedback affect collaborative writing in a virtual learning environment? Presentation at a Learning & Cognition meeting, Open Universiteit in the Netherlands, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  16. Affected chromosome homeostasis and genomic instability of clonal yeast cultures. (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Panek, Anita; Golec, Ewelina; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej


    Yeast cells originating from one single colony are considered genotypically and phenotypically identical. However, taking into account the cellular heterogeneity, it seems also important to monitor cell-to-cell variations within a clone population. In the present study, a comprehensive yeast karyotype screening was conducted using single chromosome comet assay. Chromosome-dependent and mutation-dependent changes in DNA (DNA with breaks or with abnormal replication intermediates) were studied using both single-gene deletion haploid mutants (bub1, bub2, mad1, tel1, rad1 and tor1) and diploid cells lacking one active gene of interest, namely BUB1/bub1, BUB2/bub2, MAD1/mad1, TEL1/tel1, RAD1/rad1 and TOR1/tor1 involved in the control of cell cycle progression, DNA repair and the regulation of longevity. Increased chromosome fragility and replication stress-mediated chromosome abnormalities were correlated with elevated incidence of genomic instability, namely aneuploid events-disomies, monosomies and to a lesser extent trisomies as judged by in situ comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The tor1 longevity mutant with relatively balanced chromosome homeostasis was found the most genomically stable among analyzed mutants. During clonal yeast culture, spontaneously formed abnormal chromosome structures may stimulate changes in the ploidy state and, in turn, promote genomic heterogeneity. These alterations may be more accented in selected mutated genetic backgrounds, namely in yeast cells deficient in proper cell cycle regulation and DNA repair.

  17. The Impact of Personality Traits on the Affective Category of English Language Learning Strategies (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein


    The present study aims at discovering the impact of personality traits in the prediction use of the Affective English Language Learning Strategies (AELLSs) for learners of English as a foreign language. Four instruments were used, which were Adapted Inventory for Affective English Language Learning Strategies based on Affective category of…

  18. Colorblind or colorful? How diversity approaches affect cultural majority and minority employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Vos, Menno W.; Otten, Sabine; Podsiadlowski, Astrid; van der Zee, Karen I.


    We examined how perceived organizational diversity approaches (colorblindness and multiculturalism) relate to affective and productive work outcomes for cultural majority and minority employees. Using structural equation modeling on data collected in a panel study among 152 native Dutch majority and

  19. Cultural differences in affect intensity perception in the context of advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna ePogosyan


    Full Text Available Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1 perceptual differences in the extent to which high arousal images were discriminated from low arousal images, and (2 categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for cross-cultural communication and global advertising are discussed.

  20. The Role of Organizational Learning Culture and Psychological Empowerment in Reducing Turnover Intention and Enhancing Citizenship Behavior (United States)

    Islam, Talat; Khan, Mubbsher Munawar; Bukhari, Fida Hussain


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the association among organizational learning culture (OLC), psychological empowerment (PE), affective commitment (AC), organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intention. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study was undertaken via a questionnaire conducted among Malay-Chinese working in…

  1. Building Collaborative Structures for Teachers' Autonomy and Self-Efficacy: The Mediating Role of Participative Management and Learning Culture (United States)

    Lu, Jiafang; Jiang, Xinhui; Yu, Huen; Li, Dongyu


    This study focused on the collaborative structure-building behavior of school principals and examined how such behavior affects teacher empowerment. More important, it tested the mediating effects of participative management and learning culture. By collecting nested data from 104 schools in Hong Kong and adopting multilevel structural equation…

  2. Higher frequency of social learning in China than in the West shows cultural variation in the dynamics of cultural evolution. (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Chang, Lei; Murray, Keelin; Lu, Hui Jing


    Cultural evolutionary models have identified a range of conditions under which social learning (copying others) is predicted to be adaptive relative to asocial learning (learning on one's own), particularly in humans where socially learned information can accumulate over successive generations. However, cultural evolution and behavioural economics experiments have consistently shown apparently maladaptive under-utilization of social information in Western populations. Here we provide experimental evidence of cultural variation in people's use of social learning, potentially explaining this mismatch. People in mainland China showed significantly more social learning than British people in an artefact-design task designed to assess the adaptiveness of social information use. People in Hong Kong, and Chinese immigrants in the UK, resembled British people in their social information use, suggesting a recent shift in these groups from social to asocial learning due to exposure to Western culture. Finally, Chinese mainland participants responded less than other participants to increased environmental change within the task. Our results suggest that learning strategies in humans are culturally variable and not genetically fixed, necessitating the study of the 'social learning of social learning strategies' whereby the dynamics of cultural evolution are responsive to social processes, such as migration, education and globalization.

  3. Cultural Crisis? An Analysis of the Issues Affecting the Ascension of Women in the Australian Army (United States)


    publication of The Army Wife Handbook.92 In spite of the author’s attempt to downplay the stereotyped title, it clearly portrays the role of women ...CULTURAL CRISIS? AN ANALYSIS OF THE ISSUES AFFECTING THE ASCENSION OF WOMEN IN THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY A thesis presented to the...To) AUG 2013 – JUNE 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cultural Crisis? An Analysis of the Issues Affecting the Ascension of Women in the Australian

  4. Incorporating Meaningful Gamification in a Blended Learning Research Methods Class: Examining Student Learning, Engagement, and Affective Outcomes (United States)

    Tan, Meng; Hew, Khe Foon


    In this study, we investigated how the use of meaningful gamification affects student learning, engagement, and affective outcomes in a short, 3-day blended learning research methods class using a combination of experimental and qualitative research methods. Twenty-two postgraduates were randomly split into two groups taught by the same…

  5. Learning Style Preferences of Student Teachers: A Cross-Cultural Perspective (United States)

    Sywelem, Mohamed; Al-Harbi, Qassem; Fathema, Nafsaniath; Witte, James E.


    All students learn, but not all learn in the same way. Educational researchers postulate that everyone has a learning style. This article examines how cultural variability is reflected in the learning style of students in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and United States. In this study, the learning styles of over 300 students in Teacher Education…

  6. Discerning Culture in E-Learning and in the Global Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle A. Olaniran


    Full Text Available This paper explores issues relating to e-learning in the global workplaces and educational contexts. The literature on e-learning often touts the benefits of e-learning as an equalizing or democratizing force in learning and education at the detriment of significant challenges facing its implementation and eventual outcomes for users. Central to the challenges facing e-learning systems is cultural challenges. Therefore the author argues the need to attend to cultural issues in e-learning if e-learning is to be successful. First, the paper addresses the different dimensions of education as described by the learning societies. Second, the paper incorporates the role of culture in e-learning, and finally, implications of culture in e-learning in the global workplaces are addressed.

  7. Nencki Affective Picture System: Cross-Cultural Study in Europe and Iran (United States)

    Riegel, Monika; Moslehi, Abnoos; Michałowski, Jarosław M.; Żurawski, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Wypych, Marek; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur


    Although emotions have been assumed conventionally to be universal, recent studies have suggested that various aspects of emotions may be mediated by cultural background. The purpose of our research was to test these contradictory views, in the case of the subjective evaluation of visual affective stimuli. We also sought to validate the recently introduced Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) database on a different cultural group. Since there has been, to date, no attempt to compare the emotions of a culturally distinct sample of Iranians with those of Europeans, subjective ratings were collected from 40 Iranians and 39 Europeans. Each cultural group was asked separately to provide normative affective ratings and classify pictures according to discrete emotions. The results were analyzed to identify cultural differences in the ratings of individual images. One hundred and seventy NAPS pictures were rated with regard to the intensity of the basic emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust) they elicited, as well as in terms of affective dimensions (valence and arousal). Contrary to previous studies using the International Affective Picture System, our results for Europeans and Iranians show that neither the ratings for affective dimensions nor for basic emotions differed across cultural groups. In both cultural groups, the relationship between valence and arousal ratings could be best described by a classical boomerang-shaped function. However, the content of the pictures (animals, faces, landscapes, objects, or people) had a significant effect on the ratings for valence and arousal. These findings indicate that further studies in cross-cultural affective research should control for the content of stimuli. PMID:28316576

  8. Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces. (United States)

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander


    Different individuals have different (and different-looking) significant others, friends, and foes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether these social face environments can shape individual face preferences. First, participants learned to associate faces with positive, neutral, or negative behaviors. Then, they evaluated morphs combining novel faces with the learned faces. The morphs (65% and 80% novel faces) were within the categorical boundary of the novel faces: They were perceived as those faces in a preliminary study. Moreover, a second preliminary study showed that following the learning, the morphs' categorization as similar to the learned faces was indistinguishable from the categorization of actual novel faces. Nevertheless, in the main experiment, participants evaluated morphs of "positive" faces more positively than morphs of "negative" faces. This learning generalization effect increased as a function of the similarity of the novel faces to the learned faces. The findings suggest that general learning mechanisms based on similarity can account for idiosyncratic face preferences.

  9. The Effect of Cultural Background Knowledge on Learning English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of cultural background knowledge on learning English Language. It also aims to investigate if there are significant differences between subjects' performance in reading comprehension according to sex and general ability in English (GAE. The study aims at answering the following questions: 1 . To what extent is the effect of cultural background knowledge on subjects' performance in reading comprehension? 2 . What is the difference in performance in reading comprehension between male and female subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge? 3. What is the differenc e between subjects' performance in reading comprehension texts which are loaded with American culture and their general ability in English. ? The population of th is study consisted of all first - year students majoring in English at Hebron University in th e first semester of the academic year 2011/2012. They were 600. The sample of the study consisted of 60 subjects, males and females divided into four groups, two experimental and two controlled. The researcher followed the experimental method. Means, stand ard deviations and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were calculated by using SPSS program. The study revealed the following results: 1. There are statistically significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between subjects who have cu ltural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge . 2 . There are no statistically significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between male and female subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge. 3. Subjects' GAE revealed that there are significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge. In the light of the results of th e study, the researcher recommends the

  10. Cultural Models of Teaching and Learning in Math and Science: Exploring the Intersections of Culture, Cognition, and Pedagogical Situations (United States)

    Ferrare, Joseph J.; Hora, Matthew T.


    While researchers have examined how disciplinary and departmental cultures influence instructional practices in higher education, there has yet to be an examination of this relationship at the embodied level of culture. In this article we utilize cultural models theory to examine the theories of student learning and teaching practice espoused and…

  11. On the nature of cultural transmission networks: evidence from Fijian villages for adaptive learning biases


    Henrich, Joseph; Broesch, James


    Unlike other animals, humans are heavily dependent on cumulative bodies of culturally learned information. Selective processes operating on this socially learned information can produce complex, functionally integrated, behavioural repertoires—cultural adaptations. To understand such non-genetic adaptations, evolutionary theorists propose that (i) natural selection has favoured the emergence of psychological biases for learning from those individuals most likely to possess adaptive informatio...

  12. A Cultural Paradigm--Learning by Observing and Pitching In. (United States)

    Rogoff, Barbara; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca; Correa-Chávez, Maricela


    We discuss Learning by Observing and Pitching In (LOPI) as a cultural paradigm that provides an interesting alternative to Assembly-Line Instruction for supporting children's learning. Although LOPI may occur in all communities, it appears to be especially prevalent in many Indigenous and Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. We explain key features of this paradigm, previewing the chapters of this volume, which examine LOPI as it occurs in the lives of families and communities. In this introductory chapter, we focus especially on one feature of the paradigm that plays an important role in its uptake and maintenance in families, institutions, and communities-the nature of assessment. We consider the power of the dominant paradigm and the challenges in making paradigm shifts.

  13. Challenges Experienced by Korean Medical Students and Tutors during Problem-Based Learning: A Cultural Perspective (United States)

    Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Tae-Lee, Jong


    How people learn is influenced by the cultural contexts in which their learning occurs. This qualitative case study explored challenges Korean medical students and tutors experienced during their PBL sessions from a cultural perspective using Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Twelve preclinical medical students and nine tutors from a large Korean…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Liu


    Full Text Available The effectiveness of e-learning depends on technological support, institutional culture, staff development and students' receptivity and learning behaviours. The relationship of e-learning culture and the issues of cross-cultural delivery is important when learners expect online interactivity. Positive learning outcomes and academic achievement are not linked only to online course communication. Students' learning behaviours also play a role in the overall success of e-learning implementation. Successful online delivery requires shifts, both in understanding and in behaviours, for the change in pedagogical curriculum development. This article proposes a research framework to investigate the current e-learning diffusion in construction-related programmes in UK's higher education and the effect of organizational (and/or national culture on students' learning behaviours and e-learning effectiveness. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2009.0109 Source: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, Volume 6, Number 2, 2010 , pp. 91-102(12

  15. Feedback valence affects auditory perceptual learning independently of feedback probability


    Amitay, S.; Moore, D. R.; Molloy, K.; Halliday, L. F.


    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they wer...

  16. Cholesterol and Copper Affect Learning and Memory in the Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G. Schreurs


    Full Text Available A rabbit model of Alzheimer’s disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease including beta amyloid accumulation and learning and memory changes. Although we have shown that feeding 2% cholesterol and adding copper to the drinking water can retard learning, other studies have shown that feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition and feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explore the development of this model, the issues surrounding the role of copper, and the particular contributions of the late D. Larry Sparks.

  17. National culture and cultural orientations of owners affecting the innovation-growth relationship in five countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauch, Andreas; Frese, Michael; Wang, Zhong-Ming; Unger, Jens; Lozada, Maria; Kupcha, Vita; Spirina, Tanja


    This study tests the cross-cultural validity of the relationship between innovation and growth in a sample of 857 business owners from five different countries: China, Germany, the Netherlands, Peru and Russia. We found that innovation is effective in each country, suggesting universal relationships

  18. Challenges Affecting Adoption of E-Learning in Public Universities in Kenya (United States)

    Mutisya, Dorothy N.; Makokha, George L.


    Public universities in Kenya are, today, turning to the use of e-learning in an attempt to cope with the rapidly increasing demand for university education. This research was conducted between February 2012 and February 2014 to determine the challenges affecting the adoption of e-learning in these institutions of higher learning. Data were…

  19. Attitudes to Formal Business Training and Learning amongst Entrepreneurs in the Cultural Industries: Situated Business Learning through "Doing with Others." (United States)

    Raffo, Carlo; O'Connor, Justin; Lovatt, Andy; Banks, Mark


    Presents arguments supporting a social model of learning linked to situated learning and cultural capital. Critiques training methods used in cultural industries (arts, publishing, broadcasting, design, fashion, restaurants). Uses case study evidence to demonstrates inadequacies of formal training in this sector. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  20. Psychometric Characteristics of the EEAA (Scale of Affective Strategies in the Learning Process) (United States)

    Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción


    Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university…

  1. Affective Factors in Vocational College Students’English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper focuses on the vocational college students’ experiences in English learning, classroom activities, attitudes to their English learning and achievements. It aims to find out how to make use of their positive personal factors to improve their English achievement so that both vocational college teachers and students may gain some enlightenment from the study.

  2. Learning by Web Design: How it Affects Graduate Student Attitudes (United States)

    Lim, Byung-Ro; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara


    Can use of technology make a difference in student learning? Although a considerable literature describes its advantages in conceptual terms, research documenting its effective use in this context is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a graduate-level Web design activity on student attitudes toward learning. Students…

  3. The Importance of Affective Factors in Self-Access Language Learning courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Valdivia


    Full Text Available In this short summary, we investigate the importance of learners’ emotional involvement in self-directed learning. We begin by briefly examining the literature related to affective factors in self-access language learning. We then describe two examples of institutions with self-access centres that place particular importance on affective factors in courses of self-directed study. The first example is in a university in Japan, where affective strategies are introduced through self-directed learning modules. The second example is in a university in Mexico, where educators are investigating how feelings about self-access language learning can change over time.

  4. The Central Role of Affect in Learning English as a Foreign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It is recognized by both teachers and researchers that affect has played an important role in learning second or for-eign language. It can influence the rate and success of learning foreign or second language. It includes anxiety, motivation, atti-tude, inhibition, empathy, confidence, self-image etc. This paper analyzes the role of students ’self-image, motivation, attitude in learning English as a foreign language. Students’affect towards English learning are relatively positive if those affective factors are controlled well.

  5. Everyday complexities and sociomaterialities of learning, technology, affects and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala


    . Both projects focus on new waysto build relationships between digital technologies, professional education and learning. Each project takes a different take on how to approach and position digital technology and it’s relationships with the educational programs and students’ learning. Project Wellfare...... technologies into the educational design represents to the teachers radical refurnishments of the matters and ways of learning. The refurnisments, however, are made differently available and connected with the students’ learning trajectories. The cases illustrate the importance of including engagements...... with the ontological compositions of educational design and matters of learning as they come into being in relationships with students. This calls for an experimental approach to educational design (Cobb and Gravemeijer, 2008) which foregrounds the complex relationship between educational design with digital...

  6. Trade-off between learning and exploitation: the Pareto-optimal versus evolutionarily stable learning schedule in cumulative cultural evolution. (United States)

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Miura, Chiaki


    Inheritance of culture is achieved by social learning and improvement is achieved by individual learning. To realize cumulative cultural evolution, social and individual learning should be performed in this order in one's life. However, it is not clear whether such a learning schedule can evolve by the maximization of individual fitness. Here we study optimal allocation of lifetime to learning and exploitation in a two-stage life history model under a constant environment. We show that the learning schedule by which high cultural level is achieved through cumulative cultural evolution is unlikely to evolve as a result of the maximization of individual fitness, if there exists a trade-off between the time spent in learning and the time spent in exploiting the knowledge that has been learned in earlier stages of one's life. Collapse of a fully developed culture is predicted by a game-theoretical analysis where individuals behave selfishly, e.g., less learning and more exploiting. The present study suggests that such factors as group selection, the ability of learning-while-working ("on the job training"), or environmental fluctuation might be important in the realization of rapid and cumulative cultural evolution that is observed in humans.

  7. The Impact of Organizational Culture and Job Related Affective Well Being on Employees’ Conflict Resolution Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Özarallı


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of cooperative or competitive organizational culture and employees’ job related affective well being on their preferred conflict resolution styles. A total of 236 white collar employees in the private sector completed questionnaires on “Organizational Culture“, “Job Related Affective Well Being“and “Conflict Resolution Styles“. Results indicated that employees working in a cooperative organizational culture would choose problem solving, compromising and accomodating conflict resolution styles while those working in a competitive work environment would choose forcing and avoiding strategies. Results also showed that while positive job related affective well being is a major predictor o problem solving, compromising, accomodating and avoiding conflict resolution styles, negative job related affective well being significantly predicts forcing and avoiding strategies. Overall, the results draw attention to the preferred conflict resolution strategies assumed by Turkish employees, the role of the conflict environment as well as actors’ affective well being

  8. Metacognitive monitoring during category learning: how success affects future behaviour. (United States)

    Doyle, Mario E; Hourihan, Kathleen L


    The purpose of this study was to see how people perceive their own learning during a category learning task, and whether their perceptions matched their performance. In two experiments, participants were asked to learn natural categories, of both high and low variability, and make category learning judgements (CLJs). Variability was manipulated by varying the number of exemplars and the number of times each exemplar was presented within each category. Experiment 1 showed that participants were generally overconfident in their knowledge of low variability families, suggesting that they considered repetition to be more useful for learning than it actually was. Also, a correct trial, for a particular category, was more likely to occur if the previous trial was correct. CLJs had the largest increase when a trial was correct following an incorrect trial and the largest decrease when an incorrect trial followed a correct trial. Experiment 2 replicated these results, but also demonstrated that global CLJ ratings showed the same bias towards repetition. These results indicate that we generally identify success as being the biggest determinant of learning, but do not always recognise cues, such as variability, that enhance learning.

  9. The effects of corporate social responsibility on employees' affective commitment: a cross-cultural investigation. (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick


    This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed.

  10. Assessing culturally sensitive factors in the learning environment of science classrooms (United States)

    Fisher, Darrell L.; Waldrip, Bruce G.


    As schools are becoming increasingly diverse in their scope and clientele, any examination of the interaction of culturally sensitive factors of students' learning environments with learning science assumes critical importance. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop an instrument to assess learning environment factors that are culturally sensitive, to provide initial validation information on the instrument and to examine associations between students' perceptions of their learning environments and their attitudes towards science and achievement of enquiry skills. A measure of these factors of science student's learning environment, namely the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed from past learning environment instruments and influenced by Hofstede's four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism, and Masculinity/Femininity). The reliability and discriminant validity for each scale were obtained and associations between learning environment, attitude to science and enquiry skills achievement were found.

  11. Cross-Cultural Learning and Knowledge Transfer between Wetern and African Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John


    : (1) cultural sensitivity, (2) transfer and learning capacity of partners, and (3) the strategic importance and uniqueness of the relationships. The evidence also highlights the importance of inter-cultural communication skills in the knowledge transfer process...

  12. International service-learning: an opportunity to engage in cultural competence. (United States)

    Kohlbry, Pamela; Daugherty, JoAnn


    One-day international service-learning projects are an opportunity for nursing students to engage in learning cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills. At XXX University, faculty developed these international service-learning projects in Mexico where students participated in health promotion teaching for children and families and providing health care for older adults. The purpose of this article is to describe 3 types of student experiences gained during 1-day international service-learning projects. We named these experiences cultural communication, cultural confidence, and cultural surprise.

  13. Locus of Learning and Affective Strategy Use: Two Factors Affecting Success in Self-Instructed Language Learning (United States)

    Bown, Jennifer


    As distance learning and other nontraditional methods of language learning become more popular, it is important to understand the factors that influence learners' ability to succeed in such environments. This paper reports on two factors that have a significant impact on the student experience in a self-instructed language program: locus of…

  14. An Analysis on the Cultural Factors that Affect People’s Perceptions:A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li


    The intention of this present paper is to explore the relationship between culture and perception and the cultural fac⁃tors that affect people’s perceptions from different cultural backgrounds. This study is based on a case, which is a news report about the cultural conflict between an old Chinese father and her daughter who has been living in Canada for eight years. De⁃tailed information has been acquired by the author using relative books, journals as well as her own understanding and interpreta⁃tion. It is concluded that to be aware of the cultural factors is of great importance to understand why people from different cul⁃tures have quite different perceptions toward the same thing, which can help to reduce the conflicts and misunderstandings in in⁃tercultural communication.

  15. Chinese nursing students' culture-related learning styles and behaviours: A discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Chunfeng Wang


    Full Text Available Globalisation requires that nursing education focuses on culturally competent care. International students studying in Australia present a valuable resource for cultural learning, yet internationalisation presents opportunities and challenges for both lecturers and students. This paper explores Chinese nursing students, the single largest group of international students in Australia, their communication behaviour, patterns and learning styles at Australian universities from cultural and psychosocial perspectives. Our aim is to provide insight for educators in Western countries to better understand this particular ethnic group and help Chinese nursing students overcome learning difficulties and develop their potential learning capabilities. We further recommend coping strategies to help international Chinese nursing students' learning.

  16. Information Systems in Organisations --organisational culture affects information systems in organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In today’s information age, the application and construction of information systems became the central element of organizational development. Except the influence of information technology, the organisational culture plays a most important role in the implementation of information systems. This paper aimed at information producers, information users, information content and the information channels four parts of information elements to analysis the affects of organisational culture on information system in organisations. In particular, power distance, individualism and collectivism and uncertainty avoidance as three main theory models of Hofstede’s culture theory were be applied in this paper.

  17. The Role of Culture in Rural Ugandan Mathematics Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Kaahwa, Janet


    Education systems are culturally embedded and, therefore, difficult to improve without understanding actions, beliefs, and attitudes related to education existing within the culture. This article discusses the role culture plays in the teaching and learning of mathematics. It specifically dwells on the ways culture could benefit learners from…

  18. Learning What Matters: Exploring the Factors Affecting Learning Transfers in Child Welfare Competencies and Career Interest in Child Welfare (United States)

    Liao, Aries Meng-Wei


    The understanding of the factors impacting MSW students' interests and motivation to learn child welfare competencies, and how they affect learning transfer of the subject is important for the development of a knowledgeable, competent, and committed workforce that serves children and families in the United States. Practitioners need to attain…

  19. Looking under the Bonnet: Factors Affecting Student Adoption of E-Learning Systems in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Mahmood Abbad, David Morris, Carmel de Nahlik


    Full Text Available The primary questions addressed in this paper are the following: what are the factors that affect students’ adoption of an e-learning system and what are the relationships among these factors?This paper investigates and identifies some of the major factors affecting students’ adoption of an e-learning system in a university in Jordan. E-learning adoption is approached from the information systems acceptance point of view. This suggests that a prior condition for learning effectively using e-learning systems is that students must actually use them. Thus, a greater knowledge of the factors that affect IT adoption and their interrelationships is a pre-cursor to a better understanding of student acceptance of e-learning systems. In turn, this will help and guide those who develop, implement, and deliver e-learning systems.In this study, an extended version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was developed to investigate the underlying factors that influence students’ decisions to use an e-learning system. The TAM was populated using data gathered from a survey of 486 undergraduate students using the Moodle based e-learning system at the Arab Open University. The model was estimated using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. A path model was developed to analyze the relationships between the factors to explain students’ adoption of the e-learning system. Whilst findings support existing literature about prior experience affecting perceptions, they also point to surprising group effects, which may merit future exploration.

  20. Turning cross-cultural medical education on its head: Learning about ourselves and developing respectful curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Bansal


    Full Text Available Cross-cultural education is often understood to mean acquiring cultural knowledge about different cultural groups in order to serve people from diverse groups equitably. However, this article argues that to work effectively in cross-cultural situations, we need to learn about our own culture and develop an approach of respectful curiosity. The first goal of cross-cultural education is to understand how culture influences our thoughts, perceptions, biases, and values at an unconscious level. The second goal is to understand the nature of individual cultural identity as a multidimensional and dynamic construct through exploration of our own cultural identity. This exploration helps us understand the limitations of learning about ‘others’ through learning categorical information and helps us limit the effect of our implicit biases on our interactions. The approach of respectful curiosity is recommended to question our assumptions, understand each unique individual patient, connect with each patient, and build the therapeutic relationship.

  1. Integration Of Innovative Technologies And Affective Teaching amp Learning In Programming Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Prasad


    Full Text Available Abstract Technology has been integral component in the teaching and learning process in this millennium. In this review paper we evaluate the different technologies which are used to currently facilitate the teaching and learning of computer programming courses. The aim is to identify problems or gaps in technology usage in the learning environment and suggest affective solutions for technology integration into programming courses at the University levels in the future. We believe that with the inclusion of suggested innovative technologies and affective solutions in programming courses teaching and learning will be attractive and best for the programming industry.

  2. Affective Factors in English Vocabulary Learning for Senior High School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The role of affective factors in English learning is one of the most significant subjects in second language acquisition (SLA). Motivation , anxiety, attitude and personality are the four most important factors, and research has indicated that they are related to many aspects of SLA, including vocabulary . Based on Krashen ’ s affective -filter hypothesis theory, this thesis aims to study the influence of affective factors on senior high school English as a foreign language students’ vocabulary learning. At the same time some constructive suggestions on how to apply the positive affective factors in vocabulary learning are made as well. The significance of the study may help senior high school students overcome the negative influence of affective factors in English vocabulary learning, so as to build up their vocabulary acquisition skills.

  3. Application of Bloom's Taxonomy for Affective Learning and Teaching in College English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhou-xian


    Based on B. S. Bloom's Taxonomy for affective learning and teaching, an overview of how to apply affective teaching into English teaching is demonstrated. It is argued that to cultivate students' affective characteristics should be an indispensable ob-jective in college English teaching.

  4. New York scientific a culture of inquiry, knowledge, and learning

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, Istvan


    This book introduces the reader to the visible memorabilia of science and scientists in all the five boroughs of New York City—statues, busts, plaques, buildings, and other artifacts. In addition, it extends to some scientists and institutions currently operating in the city. New York is a world center of commerce, finance, communications, transportation, and culture, and it is also a world center in science. It is home to worldrenowned universities and research laboratories, a museum of natural history and other museums related to science, a science academy, historical societies, botanical gardens and zoos, libraries, and a hall of science as well as a large number of world-renowned scientists. The eight chapters of the book cover the following areas. 1 Explorers and Naturalists; 2 Scientists and Innovators; 3 Learning: A sampler of high schools and some of their famous graduates; 4 Aiming Higher in Education: Colleges of City University and New York University; 5 City of Medicine: Biomedical research, tea...

  5. Worrying affects associative fear learning: a startle fear conditioning study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Gazendam; M. Kindt


    A valuable experimental model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is that they originate from a learned association between an intrinsically non-aversive event (Conditioned Stimulus, CS) and an anticipated disaster (Unconditioned Stimulus, UCS). Most anxiety disorders, however, do not evolve f

  6. Ask the Cognitive Scientist: Why Does Family Wealth Affect Learning? (United States)

    Willingham, Daniel T.


    Disadvantaged children face a host of challenges to academic success. These challenges fall into two broad categories. First, as one might expect, wealthier parents have the resources to provide more and better learning opportunities for their children. Second, children from poorer homes are subject to chronic stress, which research from the last…

  7. Investigating Factors Affecting Group Processes in Virtual Learning Environments (United States)

    Hazari, Sunil; Thompson, Sandra


    With the widespread popularity of distance learning, there is a need to investigate elements of online courses that continue to pose significant challenges for educators. One of the challenges relates to creating and managing group projects. This study investigated business students' perceptions of group work in online classes. The constructs of…

  8. Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment Levels across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Jackson, Timothy A.; McInnis, Kate J.; Maltin, Elyse R.; Sheppard, Leah


    With increasing globalization of business and diversity within the workplace, there has been growing interest in cultural differences in employee commitment. We used meta-analysis to compute mean levels of affective (AC; K=966, N=433,129), continuance (CC; K=428, N=199,831), and normative (NC; K=336, N=133,277) organizational commitment for as…

  9. Culture in the mind's mirror: how anthropology and neuroscience can inform a model of the neural substrate for cultural imitative learning. (United States)

    Losin, Elizabeth A Reynolds; Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco


    Cultural neuroscience, the study of how cultural experience shapes the brain, is an emerging subdiscipline in the neurosciences. Yet, a foundational question to the study of culture and the brain remains neglected by neuroscientific inquiry: "How does cultural information get into the brain in the first place?" Fortunately, the tools needed to explore the neural architecture of cultural learning - anthropological theories and cognitive neuroscience methodologies - already exist; they are merely separated by disciplinary boundaries. Here we review anthropological theories of cultural learning derived from fieldwork and modeling; since cultural learning theory suggests that sophisticated imitation abilities are at the core of human cultural learning, we focus our review on cultural imitative learning. Accordingly we proceed to discuss the neural underpinnings of imitation and other mechanisms important for cultural learning: learning biases, mental state attribution, and reinforcement learning. Using cultural neuroscience theory and cognitive neuroscience research as our guides, we then propose a preliminary model of the neural architecture of cultural learning. Finally, we discuss future studies needed to test this model and fully explore and explain the neural underpinnings of cultural imitative learning.

  10. Learning Styles of Law Enforcement Officers: Does Police Work Affect How Officers Learn? (United States)

    Landry, John M.


    This quantitative study utilized the VARK learning style preference assessment instrument to examine how full-time sworn law enforcement officers learn and attempted to identify a predominant learning style preference among the participants. The primary question was: Which is the dominant learning style preference of full-time sworn law…

  11. Relationships among Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Learning Organization Culture in One Korean Private Organization (United States)

    Lim, Taejo


    The purpose of this study is to identify dynamic relationships among organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and learning organization culture in a Korean private company. Using a sample of 669 employees from five subsidiaries of a Korean conglomerate, this research found that learning organization culture is moderately and positively related…

  12. Adult Learning in Nonformal Settings: Cultural Festivals as Spaces for Socially Situated Cognition (United States)

    Ambrosino, Audrey M.


    Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in the role of museums and cultural festivals in adult learning. Once considered the keepers of physical and cultural history, there was only limited concern for if and how adults learned from these settings. The conventional view held that museums provided knowledge, and it was an individual's…

  13. High-Performance Sport, Learning and Culture: New Horizons for Sport Pedagogues? (United States)

    Penney, Dawn; McMahon, Jenny


    Background: Research in sport coaching and sport pedagogy including studies published in this special issue bring to the fore the relationship between learning and culture in contexts of high-performance sport. This paper acknowledged that how learning, culture and their relationship are conceptualised is a crucial issue for researchers and…

  14. Learning about Cells as Dynamic Entities: An Inquiry-Driven Cell Culture Project (United States)

    Palombi, Peggy Shadduck; Jagger, Kathleen Snell


    Using cultured fibroblast cells, undergraduate students explore cell division and the responses of cultured cells to a variety of environmental changes. The students learn new research techniques and carry out a self-designed experiment. Through this project, students enhance their creative approach to scientific inquiry, learn time-management and…

  15. Measuring enjoyable informal learning using augmented reality at cultural heritage site (United States)

    Pendit, Ulka Chandini; Zaibon, Syamsul Bahrin; Bakar, Juliana Aida Abu


    The instrument of evaluation of measuring enjoyable informal learning at cultural heritage site was produced by validity and reliability analysis. It involved two cycles of steps, content validity and face validity and content validity and reliability analysis. From the analysis, it was found out that the instrument is reliable to be measure enjoyable informal learning at cultural heritage site.

  16. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning (United States)

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  17. Traditional & Socio-Cultural Barriers to EFL Learning: A Case Study (United States)

    Ahmad, Jameel


    This research tends to ascertain several traditional and socio-cultural barriers to English language learning in Saudi Arabia and to explore more ways than before for making teaching and learning more effective. The findings of four quantitative and qualitative surveys conducted in this regard reveal a unique traditional and socio-cultural milieu,…

  18. On the Affective Factors in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The paper talks about the effective factors functioning in the field of education,psychology and foreign language teaching.And it also specifically elaborates the principles of helping language learners overcome negative affections and develop positive ones.

  19. Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans' responses toward American culture. (United States)

    No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi


    People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory.

  20. Cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of human adipose tissue stem cells. (United States)

    Kim, Dae Seong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Ko, Young Jong; Chun, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee


    In this study, we investigated the effect of cell density on the proliferation activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) over time in culture. Passage #4 (P4) and #12 (P12) AT-MSCs from two donors were plated at a density of 200 (culture condition 1, CC1) or 5000 (culture condition 2, CC2) cells cm(-2) . After 7 days of incubation, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs cultured in CC1 were thin and spindle-shaped, whereas those cultured in CC2 had extensive cell-to-cell contacts and an expanded cell volume. In addition, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs in CC1 divided more than three times, while those in CC2 divided less than once on average. Flow cytometric analysis using 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester dye showed that the fluorescence intensity of AT-MSCs was lower in CC1 than in CC2. Furthermore, expression of proliferation-associated genes, such as CDC45L, CDC20A and KIF20A, in P4 AT-MSCs was higher in CC1 than in CC2, and this difference was also observed in P12 AT-MSCs. These data demonstrated that cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of MSCs, suggesting that it is feasible to design a strategy to prepare suitable MSCs using specific culture conditions.

  1. Home-school learning of science: The culture of homes, and pupils' difficult border crossing (United States)

    Solomon, Joan


    A British project that explored the way parents and their children of elementary school age carried out simple science activities at home is described and illustrated. Previous research in this field has yielded ambiguous results when evaluated in terms of school science knowledge gained. The basis of the analysis carried out here is largely descriptive using some sociological theory to understand activities in the home. It is argued that home is a special place not only rich in supportive emotions, but also imbued with idiosyncratic attitudes toward science education, which often match with attitudes toward other matters. Schools create different and more uniform cultures for the same children. There has been a long history of calls for collaboration between the two constituencies; however, this article demonstrates that a number of these differences exist which cannot fail to affect children's learning in each situation. Extracts from the children's conversations with their parents during the investigations as well as parents' interpretations of what they are doing will be presented. These vignettes illustrate a wide variation in attitude which affects the children as they daily cross boundaries from one culture to another, trying to preserve what is precious in their home culture. At home the children's participation becomes far more relaxed and personal, just as discussion with their parents is more fluent than at school.

  2. Relations Among Cultural Learning Beliefs, Self-Regulated Learning, and Academic Achievement for Low-Income Chinese American Adolescents. (United States)

    Bempechat, Janine; Li, Jin; Ronfard, Samuel


    This mixed-methods study of urban low-income, English-proficient Chinese American, second-generation 15-year-olds (conducted in 2004; N = 32) examined the relation among the virtue model of learning communicated by parents and adolescents' learning beliefs, self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors, and academic achievement. Analysis of in-depth individual interviews revealed that for these adolescents, perceptions of family educational socialization predicted students' endorsement of their culture's virtue-oriented learning beliefs and that adolescents' endorsement of these learning beliefs predicted their academic achievement. Importantly, adolescents' reported that use of SRL strategies mediated the relationship between their endorsement of virtue-oriented learning beliefs and their academic achievement. Findings are discussed in the context of further research linking cultural learning beliefs, SRL, and children's academic achievement.

  3. Does Using Language Games Affect Vocabulary Learning in EFL Classes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza Silsüpür


    Full Text Available The present study attempted to investigate the role of using word games in L2 vocabulary acquisition. 12 female participants from Uludag University were selected for control and experimental groups. Additionally, 35 participants from different universities in Turkey were invited to attend the study. First, an online questionnaire about the effect of games on vocabulary learning was administered to 35 participants. And results were analysed.  Secondly, 12 female participants were divided into two groups as control group and experimental group. Both groups were taught certain words, however, a word game known as “Bingo” were utilized for the experimental group. Finally, a vocabulary quiz was administered to both groups to determine the differences between them. The scores obtained from vocabulary quiz showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in vocabulary quiz. Even so, there was not a significant difference between the results of the quiz. Similarly, the findings of the questionnaire indicated that the participants preferred learning through vocabulary games rather than traditional way. Also, the findings revealed that games reduce negative feelings during the learning process. It was suggested that teachers should reconsider the role of games and appreciate their educational value.

  4. Towards Real-Time Speech Emotion Recognition for Affective E-Learning (United States)

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim


    This paper presents the voice emotion recognition part of the FILTWAM framework for real-time emotion recognition in affective e-learning settings. FILTWAM (Framework for Improving Learning Through Webcams And Microphones) intends to offer timely and appropriate online feedback based upon learner's vocal intonations and facial expressions in order…

  5. Affect and Willingness to Communicate in Digital Game-Based Learning (United States)

    Reinders, Hayo; Wattana, Sorada


    The possible benefits of digital games for language learning and teaching have received increasing interest in recent years. Games are said, amongst others, to be motivating, to lower affective barriers in learning, and to encourage foreign or second language (L2) interaction. But how do learners actually experience the use of games? What impact…

  6. On the Correlations among Affective Variables,Learning Strategies and Language Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘容; 黄俐


    Affeetive variables and learning strategies are two important factors that influence language proficiency. In the investigation conducted by the author,there is no sure causal connection being found among the three factors. Further, affective variables seems prevail over learning strategies of the influence on language proficiency and it is the primary element in language study process.

  7. Does Technology Acceptance Affect E-Learning in a Non-Technology-Intensive Course? (United States)

    Buche, Mari W.; Davis, Larry R.; Vician, Chelley


    Prior research suggests that individuals' technology acceptance levels may affect their work and learning performance outcomes when activities are conducted through information technology usage. Most previous research investigating the relationship between individual attitudes towards technology and learning has been conducted in…

  8. A Framework to Support Global Corporate M-Learning: Learner Initiative and Technology Acceptance across Cultures (United States)

    Farrell, Wendy


    Corporations are growing more and more international and accordingly need to train and develop an increasingly diverse and dispersed employee based. M-learning seems like it may be the solution if it can cross cultures. Learner initiative has been shown to be a disadvantage of distant learning environments, which would include m-learning.…

  9. Using Cross-Cultural Dimensions Exercises to Improve and Measure Learning Outcomes in International Business Courses (United States)

    Zainuba, Mohamed; Rahal, Ahmad


    This article proposes an approach for using cross-cultural dimensions exercises to improve and measure learning outcomes in international business courses. The following key issues are highlighted: (a) what are the targeted learning outcomes to be assessed, (b) how to measure the accomplishment of these learning outcomes, (c) the input measures…

  10. Music lessons: revealing medicine's learning culture through a comparison with that of music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watling, C.; Driessen, E.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Vanstone, M.; Lingard, L.


    CONTEXT: Research on medical learning has tended to focus on the individual learner, but a sufficient understanding of the learning process requires that attention also be paid to the essential influence of the cultural context within which learning takes place. In this study, we undertook a compara

  11. Adult Learners' Perceptions of the Significance of Culture in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Brooks-Lewis, Kimberly Anne


    Is learning about culture important when learning a foreign language? One would think that after its long history in the field of foreign language teaching this question had been answered with a resounding "yes". However, I saw little evidence of this in the classroom when I returned to the university to learn a foreign language or when…

  12. What Videogame Making Can Teach Us about Literacy and Learning: Alternative Pathways into Participatory Culture (United States)

    Peppler, Kylie A.; Kafai, Yasmin B.


    In this paper we articulate an alternative approach to look at video games and learning to become a creator and contributor in the digital culture. Previous discussions have focused mostly on playing games and learning. Here, we discuss game making approaches and their benefits for illuminating game preferences and learning both software design…

  13. How Cultural Values Shape Learning in Older Adulthood: The Case of Malaysia. (United States)

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Mohamad, Mazanah


    Malaysian adults aged 60-83 (n=19) were interviewed about aging and learning activites. They primarily engaged in nonformal and experiential learning. Learning was communal and religious/spiritual in orientation; it was shaped by cultural context and values. (SK)

  14. Global Connectedness in Higher Education: Student Voices on the Value of Cross-Cultural Learning Dialogue (United States)

    Lehtomäki, Elina; Moate, Josephine; Posti-Ahokas, Hanna


    The study explores how sense of global connectedness can be enhanced by creating opportunities for cross-cultural dialogue in higher education. Thematic analysis of randomly selected 15 learning journals, students' reflections on their learning during an international seminar was used to identify students' significant learning experiences. The…

  15. The role of cultural background and team divisions in developing social learning relations in the classroom


    Rienties, Bart; Nanclares, Núria Hernández; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Alcott, Peter


    A common assumption is that students prefer to work together with students from similar cultural backgrounds. In a group work context, students from different cultural backgrounds are “forced” to work together. This might lead to stress and anxiety but at the same time may allow students to learn from different perspectives. The prime goal of this article is to understand how international and home students from different cultural backgrounds build learning and work relationships with other s...

  16. International Service-Learning: Ethics in Cross-Cultural Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jones


    Full Text Available All study abroad courses require the development of productive cross-cultural relationships. Working with local service providers from diverse cultural backgrounds, such as tour guides, hotel managers, and bus drivers, can be demanding work. However, these commercial relationships are reasonably well defined in terms of consumers and vendors of services. On the other hand, the collaboration and shared goals necessary for engaging in direct service abroad require the development of meaningful partnerships that extend beyond commercial interactions. Ethical partnerships are complicated by unequal power dynamics, different cultural expectations of reciprocity, and culturally specific understandings of relationship duration. The goal of this study is to identify divergent expectations amongst students providing the service, local service coordinators, and recipients of the service. An open-ended interview guide was developed for students and collaborators in three short-term international service-learning courses. Students wrote responses regarding their perceptions of the need for the project and the impact on all participants. Similar questions were asked of local service coordinators and members of the community in face-to-face interviews. This provided insight into the variety of perceptions of needs and outcomes. We argue that the process of aligning of mutual and individual goals and perceptions is integral to ascertaining informed consent for the participation of students, partner organizations, and community members in ISL programs. Furthermore, in striving for informed consent, the development of ethical, sensitive, and reciprocal ISL partnerships can be promoted. While it was not possible to obtain data from all groups in all three courses, this exploratory, qualitative investigation offered meaningful opportunities to maintain and further develop equitable relationships and to clarify expectations for future collaborations and coursework


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper contains the application of knowledge management in PT Unilever to create a learning culture within the organization. Which consists of: knowledge sharing, informal sharing, online sharing and other sources. With the implementation of cultural sharing between employees, the module is already owned by PT Unilever as many as 250 modules. With the application of Knowledge Management PT Unilever awarded a global level, the Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise (MAKE Award in the year 2005-2007 to the level of Indonesia and 2008 for the Asian level. In the end, knowledge-owned companies, creating a good performance by individuals or companies, and will create sustainable growth for the company. Sustainable growth is what is expected by the whole company in running its business activities.

  18. The Management Dimension of FDIs in a Culture and Learning Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The paper aims at integrating the theory of management with the theory of culture and learning. The concept of culture is discussed at three levels, macro, organisation and individual and it is advocated that culture in action at the individual level is useful in understanding how companies succe...

  19. Understanding and Influencing Teaching and Learning Cultures at University: A Network Approach (United States)

    Roxa, Torgny; Martensson, Katarina; Alveteg, Mattias


    Academic cultures might be perceived as conservative, at least in terms of development of teaching and learning. Through a lens of network theory this conceptual article analyses the pattern of pathways in which culture is constructed through negotiation of meaning. The perspective contributes to an understanding of culture construction and…

  20. The Relationship between National Culture and the Usability of an E-Learning System (United States)

    Downey, Steve; Wentling, Rose Mary; Wentling, Tim; Wadsworth, Andrew


    This study sought to measure the relationship between national culture and the usability of an e-Learning system by using Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Nielson's usability attributes. The study revealed that high uncertainty avoidance cultures found the system more frustrating to use. The study also revealed that individuals from cultures…

  1. Understanding and Theorizing the Role of Culture in the Conceptualizations of Successful Aging and Lifelong Learning (United States)

    Tam, Maureen


    Successful aging and lifelong learning are value-laden concepts that are culturally determined. To this effect, people with different value systems and cultural backgrounds may perceive and understand these two concepts differently, resulting in different definitions and conceptualizations by people in diverse cultural contexts. There have been…

  2. How Factors of Personal Attitudes and Learning Environments Affect Gender Difference toward Mobile Distance Learning Acceptance (United States)

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Me


    Mobile technology for learning empowers the shift from traditionally pure instructor-centered classroom teaching to fully learner-centered educational settings. Although mobile learning (m-learning) accessing Internet resources anytime and anywhere and it may cause gender difference toward it; thus the issue of the relationship between gender…

  3. How Teaching Science Using Project-Based Learning Strategies Affects the Classroom Learning Environment (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad


    This study involved 458 ninth-grade students from two different Arab middle schools in Israel. Half of the students learned science using project-based learning strategies and the other half learned using traditional methods (non-project-based). The classes were heterogeneous regarding their achievements in the sciences. The adapted questionnaire…

  4. Contrastive Analysis of Impact by Affective Factors on Adult Foreign Lan-guage Learning and Child Language Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Affective factors are the meaning of"decisive essence"in foreign language learning. Adult foreign language learning is much influenced by affective factors than children language development in the process of language development. In this pa-per, on the basis of a Krashen's"Affective Filter Hypothesis", the writer analyses the reasons, and analyses adult foreign lan-guage learning and child language development affect differently from four main affective factors:motivation, self-confidence, anxiety and empathy.

  5. Neonatal handling affects learning, reversal learning and antioxidant enzymes activities in a sex-specific manner in rats. (United States)

    Noschang, Cristie; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Huffell, Ana Paula; Dalmaz, Carla


    Early life experiences have profound influences on behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult life. The aim of this study is to verify neonatal handling-induced sex specific differences on learning and reversal learning as well as oxidative stress parameters in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of adult rats. Litters of rats were non-handled or handled (10 min/day, days 1-10 after birth). In adulthood, learning and reversal learning were evaluated using a Y maze associated with palatable food in male and female rats. Morris water maze reversal learning was verified in males. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in both genders. Male neonatal handled animals had a worse performance in the Y maze reversal learning compared to non-handled ones and no difference was observed in the water maze reversal learning task. Regarding females, neonatal handled rats had a better performance during the Y maze learning phase compared to non-handled ones. In addition, neonatal handled female animals showed a decreased SOD/CAT ratio in the PFC compared to non-handled females. We conclude that neonatal handling effects on learning and memory in adult rats are sex and task specific. The sex specific differences are also observed in the evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities with neonatal handling affecting only females.

  6. Ostracism and attachment orientation: Avoidants are less affected in both individualistic and collectivistic cultures. (United States)

    Yaakobi, Erez; Williams, Kipling D


    Ostracism--being excluded and ignored--is painful and threatens needs for belonging, self-esteem, control and meaningful existence. Many studies have shown that immediate responses to ostracism tend to be resistant to moderation. Once ostracized individuals are able to reflect on the experience, however, personality and situational factors moderate recovery speed and behavioural responses. Because attachment orientation is grounded in perceptions of belonging, we hypothesized that attachment orientation would moderate both immediate and delayed reactions to laboratory-induced ostracism. Participants from individualistic or collectivistic cultures were either included or ostracized in a game of Cyberball, a virtual ball-toss game. In both cultures, we found that compared to more securely attached individuals, more avoidant participants were less distressed by ostracism, but more distressed by inclusion. It is suggested that over and beyond differences in culture, individuals who avoid meaningful attachment may be less affected by ostracism.

  7. A Cross-cultural Exploration of Children's Everyday Ideas: Implications for science teaching and learning (United States)

    Wee, Bryan


    Children's everyday ideas form critical foundations for science learning yet little research has been conducted to understand and legitimize these ideas, particularly from an international perspective. This paper explores children's everyday ideas about the environment across the US, Singapore and China to understand what they reveal about children's relationship to the environment and discuss its implications for science teaching and learning. A social constructivist lens guides research, and a visual methodology is used to frame children's realities. Participants' ages range from elementary to middle school, and a total of 210 children comprized mainly of Asians and Asian Americans were sampled from urban settings. Drawings are used to elicit children's everyday ideas and analyzed inductively using open coding and categorizing of data. Several categories support existing literature about how children view the environment; however, novel categories such as affect also emerged and lend new insight into the role that language, socio-cultural norms and perhaps ethnicity play in shaping children's everyday ideas. The findings imply the need for (a) a change in the role of science teachers from knowledge providers to social developers, (b) a science curriculum that is specific to learners' experiences in different socio-cultural settings, and (c) a shift away from inter-country comparisons using international science test scores.

  8. E-Learning and Affective Student’s Profile in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannina Albano


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the personalisation of teaching/learning paths in mathematics education. Such personalisation would exploit the research results on the connection between the affective experience of the student learning mathematics and his/her success or failure in mathematics, which produces the learner’s attitude towards mathematics. We present a model for the learner’s affective profile in mathematics, which would extend the current user profile in an e-learning platform taking into account the learner’s attitude, to be used in order to offer and manage a Unit of Learning in mathematics better tailored on the global student’ needs. Tools for the implementation of the model in an e-learning platform have been devised. Activities templates suitable to various attitudes towards mathematics have been designed and their experimentation is in progress.

  9. An affective computing algorithm based on temperament type in E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Biyun


    Full Text Available This paper extracts five emotional features according to the emotions that may affect in learning,and introduces psychological theory to generate emotional susceptibility matrix and to draw personalized emotion vector by different learners' temperament type vectors,which all reflect the emotional state of the learners more realistically.This paper also recommends learners of different emotions and emotional intensity to learn the knowledge of different levels of difficulty,making learning more humane.Temperament type is a temperament doctrine evolved based on the Hippocratic humoral theory and can be a good expression of human personality foundation.Temperament type has been introduced into affective computing in the E-Learning in this paper so that computer can be better on the classification of the learner's personality and learning state and realistically be individualized.

  10. Imaging-guided percutaneous needle biopsy for infectious spondylitis: Factors affecting culture positivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Si Yoon; Kwon, Jong Won [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the variable factors affecting the results of percutaneous needle biopsies for infectious spondylitis. In all, 249 patients who underwent both MRI and percutaneous needle biopsies due to a suspicion of infectious spondylitis were evaluated with respect to the following factors: the usage of antibiotics before the procedure, the location of the biopsy, the guiding equipment used, the experience level of the operators, and the number of biopsies performed. The positivity of culture in cases of treated with antibiotics (16.3%) before the biopsy was lower than in the untreated cases (30.5%) (p = 0.004). Biopsies performed at the abscess (43.5%) and with fluoroscopic guidance (27.8%) showed higher culture positivity as well. The experience level of the operators and the number of biopsies had no effect on culture positivity. The usage of antibiotics before the biopsy, the biopsy's location, and the guiding equipment used affect the culture positivity, while the experience levels of the operators and the number of biopsies do not have an effect.

  11. Affections in Learning Situations: A Study of an Entrepreneurship Skills Development Course (United States)

    Gondim, Sonia Maria Guedes; Mutti, Clara


    Purpose: This paper aims to present the results of a study whose general objective is to characterize the affective states experienced in response to different teaching activities used in a workshop for developing entrepreneurial skills. It seeks to answer the following question: how affections and experiential learning strategies interrelate in…

  12. Does Inquiry Based Learning Affect Students' Beliefs and Attitudes towards Mathematics? (United States)

    McGregor, Darren


    Ill-structured tasks presented in an inquiry learning environment have the potential to affect students' beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics. This empirical research followed a Design Experiment approach to explore how aspects of using ill-structured tasks may have affected students' beliefs and attitudes. Results showed this task type and…

  13. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six? (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.


    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  14. From a Perspective on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety to Develop an Affective Tutoring System (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chao, Ching-Ju; Huang, Tsu-Ching


    According to Krashen's affective filter hypothesis, students who are highly motivated have their self-consciousness. When they enter a learning context with a low level of anxiety, they are much more likely to become successful language acquirers than those who do not. Affective factors such as motivation, attitude, and anxiety, have a direct…

  15. A Cultural Comparison of Trust in eLearning Artifacts (United States)

    Simmons, Lakisha L.; Simmons, Chris B.; Hayek, Mario; Parks, Rachida; Mbarika, Victor W.


    A significant body of literature focuses on learning mediated by technology (eLearning). We conceptually develop and empirically test a model of trust antecedents with online undergraduate students. Contributing to the student eLearning success literature, we posit that eLearning students require the support of technologies and trust in those…

  16. Factors affecting the accumulation of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in callus cultures of Eurycoma longifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Rosli; M. Maziah; K. L. Chan; S. Sreeramanan


    A study was conducted to improve 9-methoxycanthin-6-one productivity (potential anti-tumour compound) from callus cultures of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali). Several factors affecting 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in callus cultures such as different medium compositions and physical factors were investigated and analyzed. Results show that a higher production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (3.84 mg(g-1 DW (Dry Weight)) is obtained from callus cultured in 1/4 MS basal media. At fructose of 2% (w/v), the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (4.59 mg(g-1 DW) is promoted to gain the highest yield, compared to other carbon sources tested. The addition of 2.0-mg(L-1 dicamba also increases 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production (12.3 mg(g-1 DW). Higher production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one was obtained at pH 5.5 (1.53 mg(g-1 DW). Production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (2.34 mg(g-1 DW) in callus cultures is also increased when the medium is added with 1(10-1 μM phenylalanine. This study suggests that the successful production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in vitro cultures has a potential in large-scale production using bioreactor technology.

  17. Affective Imagination in Science Education: Determining the Emotional Nature of Scientific and Technological Learning of Young Children (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn


    Vygotsky (1986) draws attention to the interrelationship between thought and language and other aspects of mind. Although not widely acknowledged, Vygotsky (1999) also drew attention to the search for the relations between cognition and emotions. This paper discusses the findings of a study which examined imaginary scientific situations within the early years. The central research questions examined: What is the emotional nature of scientific learning? and How does affective imagination support early childhood science learning? Video observations were made of the teaching of science from one site in a south-eastern community in Australia (232 h of video observations). The teachers used fairy tales and Slowmation as cultural devices to support the concept formation of 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 53; range of 3.3 to 4.4; mean of 3.8 years). The findings of this under-researched area (e.g. Roth, Mind, Culture, and Activity 15:2-7, 2008) make a contribution to understanding how affective imagination can work in science education in the early years.

  18. Developing a learning culture: twelve tips for individuals, teams and organizations. (United States)

    Stinson, Lynn; Pearson, David; Lucas, Beverley


    A culture of learning in providing health services and education for health professionals is a constant challenge for individuals, team and organizations. The importance of such a culture was highlighted by the findings of the Bristol Royal Infirmary Inquiry (2001). This was discussed in the context of the literature on the Learning Organization (Senge, 1990) at the 2004 Association of Medical Education in Europe (AMEE) conference, and reviewed a year later at the 2005 AMEE conference. This paper outlines twelve tips for educational and health service organizations in facilitating a culture of learning for their members and also offers specific advice to individual students and professionals.

  19. Problem Based Learning as a Cultural Tool for Health and Safety Learning in a Multi-national Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Henrik; Petersson, Eva


    -national company context. Theoretically, the research takes its point of departure in a socio-cultural perspective on the role of cultural tools in learning, and in a complementary interest in the role of communicative framing of learning activities. In the research reported here, the focus is on how employees...... and several organisational changes, has not managed to secure adequate safety culture. Safety implementation processes traditionally involve a large amount of training; which is associated with reduced productivity for the time spent on training. Therefore, the company in question wants to find ways......The general background of this study is an interest in how cultural tools contribute to structuring learning activities. The specific interest is to explore how such tools co-determine employees’ problem solving actions in health, safety and environment (HSE) training activities in a multi...

  20. Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology? (United States)

    Choudhury, Suparna


    Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by 'culture' and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed.

  1. How A Flipped Learning Environment Affects Learning In A Course On Theoretical Computer Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnaur, Dorina; Hüttel, Hans


    This paper reports initial experiences with flipping the classroom in an undergraduate computer science course as part of an overall attempt to enhance the pedagogical support for student learning. Our findings indicate that, just as the flipped classroom implies, a shift of focus in the learning...

  2. Learning Collocations: Do the Number of Collocates, Position of the Node Word, and Synonymy Affect Learning? (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Kagimoto, Eve


    This study investigated the effects of three factors (the number of collocates per node word, the position of the node word, synonymy) on learning collocations. Japanese students studying English as a foreign language learned five sets of 12 target collocations. Each collocation was presented in a single glossed sentence. The number of collocates…

  3. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning of Engineering Students in Problem Based Learning Supported by Business Simulation (United States)

    Chaparro-Pelaez, Julian; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Pascual-Miguel, Felix J.; Hernandez-Garcia, Angel


    Although literature about problem based learning (PBL) is not scarce, there is little research on experiences about learning methodologies that combine PBL and the use of simulation tools. This lack of studies is even more notable in the case of engineering courses. The motivation for this study is to show how such a combination of PBL and…

  4. Learning Style, Culture and Delivery Mode in Online Distance Education (United States)

    Speece, Mark


    Adaptation to customer needs is a key component of competitiveness in any service industry. In online HE (higher education), which is increasingly worldwide, this adaptation must include consideration of learning styles. Most research shows that learning style has little impact on learning outcomes in online education. Nevertheless, students with…

  5. Learning English in Gabon: The Question of Cultural Content. (United States)

    Victor, Mbodouma


    Gabonese students who speak French as a second language and are educated through French, learn English using textbooks designed for students in France. Article discusses pedagogical issues, goals that Gabonese students have in learning English, and the linguistic and sociolinguistic context in which learning of English takes place. Materials used…

  6. Assessment of cultivation factors that affect biomass and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Vasilev

    Full Text Available A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼ 5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources.

  7. Selective breeding for endurance running capacity affects cognitive but not motor learning in rats


    Wikgren, Jan; Mertikas, Georgios; Raussi, Pekka; Tirkkonen, Riina; Äyräväinen, Laura; Pelto-Huikko, Markku; Koch, Lauren G.; Steven L Britton; Kainulainen, Heikki


    The ability to utilize oxygen has been shown to affect a wide variety of physiological factors often considered beneficial for survival. As the ability to learn can be seen as one of the core factors of survival in mammals, we studied whether selective breeding for endurance running, an indication of aerobic capacity, also has an effect on learning. Rats selectively bred over 23 generations for their ability to perform forced treadmill running were trained in an appetitively motivated discrim...



    A. Askim GULUMBAY, Anadolu University, TURKEY


    This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computersupported learning and human-computer interactions.Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cogni...

  9. The Role of Cultural Factors in Chinese non-English Majors' EFL Learning and Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红英; 谢秋恩


    This article aims at the discussion of cultural interferences in foreign language teaching and learning for Chinese non-English majors. It also calls for more attention from teachers, textbook compilers, and students themselves.

  10. Affective learning in end-of-life care education: the experience of nurse educators and students. (United States)

    Brien, Louise-Andrée; Legault, Alain; Tremblay, Nicole


    Preparing future nurses to care for dying patients and their families represents a challenge for nursing education. Affective learning, essential to nurture a caring perspective in end-of-life care, can elicit strong emotional reactions in students, to which nurse educators must remain keenly sensitive. This article presents the experience of nurse educators and students with experiential and reflective activities addressing the affective domain of learning, within an intensive 4-week undergraduate course on end-of-life care, developed with a competency-based approach. It stressed the importance of strategic teaching for developing interpersonal competencies in end-of-life care, but revealed difficulties for both nurse educators and students in assessing outcomes derived from affective learning.

  11. Trait anxiety and post-learning stress do not affect perceptual learning. (United States)

    Aberg, Kristoffer C; Clarke, Aaron M; Sandi, Carmen; Herzog, Michael H


    While it is well established that stress can modulate declarative learning, very few studies have investigated the influence of stress on non-declarative learning. Here, we studied the influence of post-learning stress, which effectively modulates declarative learning, on perceptual learning of a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). On day one, participants trained for one session with TDT and were instructed that they, at any time, could be exposed to either a high stressor (ice-water; Cold Pressor Test; CPT) or a low stressor (warm water). Participants did not know when or which stressor they would be exposed to. To determine the impact of the stressor on TDT learning, all participants returned the following day to perform another TDT session. Only participants exposed to the high stressor had significantly elevated cortisol levels. However, there was no difference in TDT improvements from day one to day two between the groups. Recent studies suggested that trait anxiety modulates visual perception under anticipation of stressful events. Here, trait anxiety did neither modulate performance nor influence responsiveness to stress. These results do not support a modulatory role for stress on non-declarative perceptual learning.

  12. Emergent Processes of Language Acquisition: Japanese Language Learning and the Consumption of Japanese Cultural Products in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Toyoshima


    Full Text Available Motivation for learning a second language varies among individuals: some people enjoy the process of learning languages, while others learn a second language for practical reasons. Previous fieldwork research in Thailand has shown that many consumers of Japanese cultural products are also learners of the Japanese language. This suggests that Japanese cultural products motivate consumers to start studying Japanese and to continue learning it. In this study, two hypotheses will be posed in order to reveal the relationship between the consumption of Japanese cultural products and Japanese language learning: (1 exposure to Japanese cultural products induces Japanese language learning, and (2 Japanese language learning induces the consumption of other Japanese cultural products. Through questionnaire research conducted on university students in Thailand and through ethnographic data, this study attempts to examine the hypotheses and to demonstrate a continuous cycle model of Japanese language learning and the consumption of Japanese cultural ­products.

  13. Using Cooperative Learning Strategies to Cultural Background Teaching in College English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-hua


    The aim of this innovation project is toconduct a pilot by employing cooperative learning strategies, peer assessment and self-assessment in the process of teaching cultural background in College English Integrated Course to change teachers ’role as a dominator as that to explore a feasible yet effective way which will help students to learn the cultural background and ob-tained some cognitive progress in performance and achievements. According to the findings obtained from the survey, we can see that by employing of the cooperative learning strategy, students’enthusiasm, participation and learning effectiveness have been greatly enhanced. What’s more, the application of cooperative learning strategy in teaching cultural background not only motivat-ed students, enhanced students’critical thinking but also reduced teachers’heavy workload. It is a win-win situation both for teacher and the students.

  14. Perceived Thermal Discomfort and Stress Behaviours Affecting Students’ Learning in Lecture Theatres in the Humid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaraukuro Tammy Amasuomo


    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between students’ perceived thermal discomfort and stress behaviours affecting their learning in lecture theatres in the humid tropics. Two lecture theatres, LTH-2 and 3, at the Niger Delta University, Nigeria, were used for the study. Two groups of students from the Faculties of Agriculture and Engineering and the Department of Technology Education constituted the population. The sample size selected through random sampling for Groups A and B was 210 and 370 students, respectively. Objective and self-report instruments were used for data collection. The objective instrument involved physical measurement of the two lecture theatres and of the indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement. The self-report instrument was a questionnaire that asked for the students perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and the effect of indoor thermal comfort level on perceived stress behaviours affecting their learning. The objective indoor environmental data indicated thermal discomfort with an average temperature of 29–32 °C and relative humidity of 78% exceeding the ASHARE [1] and Olgyay [2].The students’ experienced a considerable level of thermal discomfort and also perceived that stress behaviours due to thermal discomfort affected their learning. Further, there were no significant differences in the perceived thermal discomfort levels of the two groups of students in LTH-2 and 3. Furthermore, stress behaviours affecting learning as perceived by the two groups of students did not differ significantly. In addition, no correlation existed between the perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and stress behaviour levels affecting learning for students in LTH-2, because the arousal level of the students in the thermal environment was likely higher than the arousal level for optimal performance [3,4]. However, a correlation existed in the case of students in LTH-3, which was expected because it only

  15. How explicit and implicit test instructions in an implicit learning task affect performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Witt

    Full Text Available Typically developing children aged 5 to 8 years were exposed to artificial grammar learning. Following an implicit exposure phase, half of the participants received neutral instructions at test while the other half received instructions making a direct, explicit reference to the training phase. We first aimed to assess whether implicit learning operated in the two test conditions. We then evaluated the differential impact of age on learning performances as a function of test instructions. The results showed that performance did not vary as a function of age in the implicit instructions condition, while age effects emerged when explicit instructions were employed at test. However, performance was affected differently by age and the instructions given at test, depending on whether the implicit learning of short or long units was assessed. These results suggest that the claim that the implicit learning process is independent of age needs to be revised.

  16. The Importance of Culture in Second and Foreign Language Learning



    English has been designated as a source of intercultural communication among the people from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. A range of linguistic and cultural theories contribute meaningful insights on the development of competence in intercultural communication. The speculations suggest the use of communicative strategies focusing on the development of learners’ efficiency in communicating language through cultural context. However, the teaching of culture in communication has ...

  17. Developing Culturally Responsive Leaders through Online Learning and Teaching Approaches (United States)

    Taliaferro, Alisa


    The article will discuss culturally responsive leadership theory as a means to developing pre-service Master of School Administration (MSA) students as culturally responsive leaders who understand and are able to bridge differences that arise in diverse educational settings. The issues explored include those related to the cultural heritages and…

  18. Cultural Diversity and Information and Communication Impacts on Language Learning (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Hung; Chu, Ying-Chien


    Cultural diversity doesn't just entail differences in dress and language. It also encompasses different ways of thinking, managing, and communicating. The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one. Cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means of human interaction through…

  19. Active Learning in the Introductory Cultural Anthropology Course. (United States)

    Nanda, Serena


    Presents three exercises that encourage active participation in cultural anthropology classes: (1) use of a puzzle to demonstrate focal issues about culture; (2) discussion of a specific piece of fieldwork to demonstrate the relationship among fieldwork, ethics, and cultural relativity; and (3) use of study questions in ethnographic films to allow…

  20. The Effects of Cultural Instruction on Foreign Language Learning (United States)

    Tsou, Wenli


    Many elementary EFL teachers in Taiwan have concerns in integrating target culture teaching into their language classrooms for reasons such as teachers' limited knowledge of the target culture, lack of time, lack of methods and materials. In order to persuade more language teachers to teach target language culture, guidelines about designing an…

  1. Cultural competence: a conceptual framework for teaching and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Seeleman; J. Suurmond; K. Stronks


    The need to address cultural and ethnic diversity issues in medical education as a means to improve the quality of care for all has been widely emphasised. Cultural competence has been suggested as an instrument with which to deal with diversity issues. However, the implementation of culturally comp

  2. Influence of Demographic Factors and Ownership Type upon Organizational Learning Culture in Chinese Enterprises (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Baiyin; McLean, Gary N.


    This empirical study, using Western concepts incorporated into the Dimension of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) instrument and data collected from 919 employees in nine companies located in Guangdong Province, China, explored organizational learning culture in Chinese business settings. Findings suggest that the DLOQ is applicable to…

  3. A View of Professional Learning Communities through Three Frames: Leadership, Organization, and Culture (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.; Schunk, Dale H.


    In this discussion of professional learning communities (PLCs) in North American public schools, we examine three theoretical frames--leadership, organization, and culture. Issues related to learning are infused throughout our presentation of the frames. Based on our analysis of the current literature on this topic, PLCs offer a promising tool for…

  4. Examining College Students' Culture Learning before and after Summer Study Abroad in Japan (United States)

    Paik, Chie Matsuzawa; Anzai, Shinobu; Zimmerman, Erica


    With study abroad becoming an integral part of the American higher-education curriculum, home-institution instructors face the challenge of understanding the type and content of learning taking place abroad. We report on a study conducted at a service academy on the U.S. East Coast to examine American college students' cultural learning in the…

  5. Meaningful Cultural Learning by Imitative Participation: The Case of Abstract Thinking in Primary School (United States)

    van Oers, Bert


    The article describes a theory-driven approach to meaningful learning in primary schools, based on the Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development and learning. This approach is elaborated into an educational concept called "developmental education" that is implemented in the Netherlands in many primary schools. In this…

  6. The Impact of Cultural Background on the Choice of Language Learning Strategies in the JFL Context (United States)

    Grainger, Peter


    Language learning strategies have been researched for more than 30 years yet there remain many unanswered questions. Some of these questions relate to the target language being studied, specifically Japanese, and the influence of learner variables on the choice of language learning strategies, specifically cultural background. This study seeks to…

  7. Impact of Learning Organization Culture on Performance in Higher Education Institutions (United States)

    Ponnuswamy, Indra; Manohar, Hansa Lysander


    In this paper, an adapted version of the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) was employed to investigate the perception of academic staff on learning organization culture in Indian higher education institutions. The questionnaire was sent to 700 faculty members of different universities using a non-probability purposive…

  8. Mimetic Desire and Intersubjectivity in Disciplinary Cultures: Constraints or Enablers to Learning in Higher Education? (United States)

    Gunn, Vicky


    The interplay of the inner lives (intersubjectivity) of students and academics within a range of disciplinary cultural manifestations is a key element in the generation of student learning. This article suggests that research on student learning has yet to adequately articulate how this interplay occurs, suggesting that a focus on the influence of…

  9. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Student Learning Patterns in Higher Education (United States)

    Marambe, Kosala N.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.


    The aim of this study was to compare student learning patterns in higher education across different cultures. A meta-analysis was performed on three large-scale studies that had used the same research instrument: the Inventory of learning Styles (ILS). The studies were conducted in the two Asian countries Sri Lanka and Indonesia and the European…

  10. Native American Storytelling: Oral Tradition as a Cultural Component of Learning (United States)

    Ewing, Rebecca Jane


    The educational success of Native American students continues to be lower than both the general population and all other minorities, creating a learning gap that contributes to poverty. The use of mainstream pedagogies has not improved success rates, and there is limited research on how cultural practices impact learning. The purpose of this study…

  11. Social and Emotional Learning around Technology in a Cross-Cultural, Elementary Classroom (United States)

    Iaosanurak, Chuanpob; Chanchalor, Sumalee; Murphy, Elizabeth


    The purpose of the study reported on in this paper was to design and test an intervention with elementary-aged children to promote social and emotional learning around technology. The intervention structured learning around technology as a catalyst and scaffolding tool that engages learners in cross-cultural, collaborative interaction, dialogue,…

  12. The Relationship between Cultural Values and Learning Preference: The Impact of Acculturation Experiences upon East Asians (United States)

    Chuang, Szu-Fang


    Globalization and technology advancement are creating more biculturalism at workplaces and learning settings. However, little is known about acculturation experience and its influence on a person's cultural values and learning preference. The research reported in this study investigates the impact of acculturation experiences upon the relationship…

  13. Learning Online: Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), Connectivism, and Cultural Psychology (United States)

    Clara, Marc; Barbera, Elena


    In this reflection, we discuss the connectivist conception of learning in Web 2.0 environments, which underpins the pedagogy of what are known as cMOOCs (connectivist massive open online courses). We argue that this conception of learning is inadequate and problematic, and we propose that cultural psychology is best suited to address the…

  14. A Conceptual Framework for the Cultural Integration of Cooperative Learning: A Thai Primary Mathematics Education Perspective (United States)

    Park, Ji Yong; Nuntrakune, Tippawan


    The Thailand education reform adopted cooperative learning to improve the quality of education. However, it has been reported that the introduction and maintenance of cooperative learning has been difficult and uncertain because of the cultural differences. The study proposed a conceptual framework developed based on making a connection between…

  15. Transformative Learning around Issues of Language and Culture among ESL Teachers (United States)

    Schmick, Dara Pachence


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the significant teaching and learning experiences of ESL teachers around the issues of culture and language. The theoretical framework of the study was informed by transformative learning theory. The study began with semi-structured in-depth interviews with twelve teachers who obtained their ESL…

  16. Supporting Young Adolescent Students from Minority Cultural Groups Who Are Underachieving in Learning (United States)

    Fletcher, Jo; Parkhill, Faye; Harris, Christine


    Establishing appropriate learning environments for culturally diverse underachieving students continues to challenge educators across a range of international contexts. A synthesis of findings from our studies in New Zealand indicated that teachers and students from Pasifika and Maori backgrounds considered that learning is facilitated by the…

  17. The Pan African E-Network Project: A New Learning Culture (United States)

    Suniti, Nundoo-Ghoorah; Tara, Joyejob


    This paper sets out to explore the paradigm shift in learning culture brought about by the advent of online learning in the mostly print-based ODL system at the Mauritius College of the Air (MCA). It delves into the perceptions of learners and MCA staff involved in a range of undergraduate to Master's programmes forming part of the Pan African…

  18. Data on multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling: Culture, learning styles and creativity. (United States)

    Maseleno, Andino; Hardaker, Glenn; Sabani, Noraisikin; Suhaili, Nabilah


    This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i) culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii) learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii) cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv) creativity skills and problem solving skills; v) motivation; and vi) students' background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform.

  19. Data on multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling: Culture, learning styles and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andino Maseleno


    Full Text Available This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv creativity skills and problem solving skills; v motivation; and vi students’ background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform.

  20. Organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management: a literature review and synthesis. (United States)

    Bloor, G


    As health services face increasing pressure to meet the expectations of different stakeholders, they must continuously improve and learn from their experience. Many fail in attempts at continuous improvement programs because managers have not understood the complexity of making changes in organisations with multiple subcultures and interests. This article examines the related concepts of organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management and shows how a synthesis of this knowledge can assist in developing continuous organisational learning and improvement.

  1. Cross Cultural Analysis of the Use and Perceptions of Web-Based Learning Systems (United States)

    Arenas-Gaitan, Jorge; Ramirez-Correa, Patricio E.; Rondan-Cataluna, F. Javier


    The main objective of this paper is to examine cultural differences and technology acceptances from students of two universities, one is from a European country: Spain, and the other is in Latin America: Chile. Both of them provide their students with e-learning platforms. The technology acceptance model (TAM) and Hofstede's cultural dimensions…

  2. Is the Learning Approach of Students from the Confucian Heritage Culture Problematic? (United States)

    Tran, Thi Tuyet


    This article is concerned with the learning style adopted by Asian students who come from a Confucian heritage culture (CHC) such countries as China, Vietnam, Singapore, Korea and Japan are considered countries with Confucian heritage culture (Phuong-Mai et al. 2005). These students are generally viewed as typically passive, unwilling to ask…

  3. Communication and Assimilation of Polish Immigrants in British Columbia: An Exploration in Culture Learning. (United States)

    Chu, Godwin C.

    The problem of assimilation of immigrants was analyzed in the general framework of intercultural communication and culture learning. Results from a survey of 64 first-generation Polish immigrants in Victoria, Canada supported this theoretical approach. It was found that assimilation into Canadian culture was positively related to number of…

  4. Effects of a Culturally Adapted Social-Emotional Learning Intervention Program on Students' Mental Health (United States)

    Cramer, Kristine M.; Castro-Olivo, Sara


    Student self-reports of resiliency and social-emotional internalizing problems were examined to determine intervention effects of a culturally adapted social and emotional learning (SEL) program. Data were analyzed from 20 culturally and linguistically diverse high school students who participated in a school-based 12-lesson SEL intervention and…

  5. Using Critical Metaphor Analysis to Extract Parents' Cultural Models of How Their Children Learn to Read (United States)

    Bialostok, Steve


    This research presents an empirical study on metaphor based on numerous interviews with parents of young children. Contemporary metaphor theory is complemented by a well-articulated place for culture and the role metaphor plays in cultural understanding. I demonstrate that 1) parents understand learning to read as the acquisition of reading…

  6. E-Learning in India: The Role of National Culture and Strategic Implications (United States)

    Rao, Pramila


    Purpose: The primary purpose of this research paper is to understand the role of national cultural dimensions on e-learning practices in India. India is considered a major player in the world economy today. US multinationals are significantly increasing their presence in India and understanding cultural preferences will help global companies…

  7. The Role of Cultural Background and Team Divisions in Developing Social Learning Relations in the Classroom (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Nanclares, Núria Hernández; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Alcott, Peter


    A common assumption is that students prefer to work together with students from similar cultural backgrounds. In a group work context, students from different cultural backgrounds are "forced" to work together. This might lead to stress and anxiety but at the same time may allow students to learn from different perspectives. The prime…

  8. Infusing Culturally Responsive Instruction to Improve Mathematics Performance of Latino Students with Specific Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Shumate, Lorraine; Campbell-Whatley, Gloria D.; Lo, Ya-yu


    Culturally responsive instruction has the advantage of helping diverse students make academic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of culturally infused mathematics lessons on the academic achievement of five middle school Latino students with specific learning disabilities in a resource classroom. We used an ABACACA…

  9. Affect and Cognitive Interference: An Examination of Their Effect on Self-Regulated Learning



    The present study examined the relationships among affect, self-regulated learning (SRL) strategy use, and course attainment in the didactics of mathematics (teaching mathematics) subject matter domain. The sample consisted of 180 undergraduate students attending a didactics of mathematics course (mean age = 21.1 years) at the School of Early Childhood Education. The participants were asked to respond to the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Cognitive Interference Question...

  10. Affective verbal learning in hostility: an increased primacy effect and bias for negative emotional material. (United States)

    Mollet, Gina A; Harrison, David W


    The current experiment examined the effects of hostility and a pain stressor on affective verbal learning. Participants were classified as high or low hostile and randomly assigned to a cold pressor or a non-cold pressor group. The subsequent effects on acquisition of the Auditory Affective Verbal Learning Test [AAVLT; Snyder, K. A., & Harrison, D. W. (1997). The Affective Verbal Learning Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 12(5), 477-482] were measured. As expected, high hostiles learned negative emotional words significantly better than they learned positive words. Additionally, high hostiles were impaired in their acquisition of verbal material relative to low hostile participants. A significant primacy effect for negative emotional words and an overall better recall of negative information was also found. These results support the idea that high hostiles differ from low hostiles in a number of modalities and demonstrate the persistence of negative emotional material. Future work should address the implications these results have on high hostiles in daily interactions.

  11. Cooperative Learning in Mediterranean European Cultural Settings:Taking Classroom Teaching in UMA as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Guang-hai


    This paper provides an exploration of cooperative learning (CL) in a Mediterranean European cultural setting, taking classroom teaching in the University of Málaga (UMA) as an example. An important part of the paper is on the definitions of CL, second language acquisition (SLA) and relative literature by scholars or educators home and abroad, such as historical and contemporary views of CL, its development and application in a variety of classrooms, esp. in multi-lingual settings, in UMA. It also puts much emphasis on sociocultural aspects of CL. Besides, this paper compares the application of CL with that in SWUST, one public university in Southwest China. In views of current problems and awkward situations in the application of CL, the pa-per argues that the qualified teachers and quality monitoring systems are the two major decisive factors that affect the achievement of CL in Spanish institutions. This paper also analyzes the main characteristics of the classroom teaching in Mediterranean Europe-an Cultural Settings. Thus, the paper suggests that CL may be one of the most efficient approaches to improving the quality of ed-ucation in UMA. Finally, the paper concludes with recommendations and suggestions that Spanish institutions train more well-qualified teachers to meet the increasing demand of CL approach in multi-contextual or multi-lingual settings.

  12. Learning and Studying Strategies Used by General Chemistry Students with Different Affective Characteristics (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.


    Students in general chemistry were partitioned into three groups by cluster analysis of six affective characteristics (emotional satisfaction, intellectual accessibility, chemistry self-concept, math self-concept, self-efficacy, and test anxiety). The at-home study strategies for exam preparation and in-class learning strategies differed among the…

  13. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model (United States)

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian


    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  14. Factors Affecting Teachers' Perceived Readiness for Online Collaborative Learning: A Case Study in Malaysia (United States)

    Koo, Ah-Choo


    This paper investigates factors affecting the perceived readiness for online collaborative learning (OCL) of a sample of 86 mathematics teachers from 12 secondary schools. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structure equation modeling were used to analyze the data. A moderately fit model was generated and able…

  15. An Investigation into the Factors Affecting the Use of Language Learning Strategies by Persian EFL Learners (United States)

    Rahimi, Mohammad; Riazi, Abdolmehdi; Saif, Shahrzad


    As part of a larger study (Rahimi, 2004), this study investigates the use of language learning strategies by post-secondary level Persian EFL learners. Particular attention is paid to the variables affecting learners' choice of strategies, and the relationship, if any, between these variables and learners' patterns of strategy use. Data were…

  16. Affective Learning and Personal Information Management: Essential Components of Information Literacy (United States)

    Cahoy, Ellysa Stern


    "Affective competence," managing the feelings and emotions that students encounter throughout the content creation/research process, is essential to academic success. Just as it is crucial for students to acquire core literacies, it is essential that they learn how to manage the anxieties and emotions that will emerge throughout all…

  17. The Effect of Playing a Persuasive Game on Attitude and Affective Learning (United States)

    Ruggiero, Dana


    To investigate whether a persuasive game may serve as a way to change attitude towards the homeless and increase affective learning, this study examined, experimentally, the effects of persuasive rhetoric and ethos in a video game designed to put the player in the shoes of an almost-homeless person for thirty days. Data were collected from 5139…

  18. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach (United States)

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil


    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…

  19. The Impact of Affective and Cognitive Trust on Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Learning (United States)

    Swift, Peter E.; Hwang, Alvin


    Purpose: This paper seeks to add to the research on the role of cognitive and affective trust in promoting knowledge sharing between executives and consequently establishing an organizational learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper examines the influence of one conceptualization of trust, one that has two…

  20. The Role of Affective and Motivational Factors in Designing Personalized Learning Environments (United States)

    Kim, ChanMin


    In this paper, guidelines for designing virtual change agents (VCAs) are proposed to support students' affective and motivational needs in order to promote personalized learning in online remedial mathematics courses. Automated, dynamic, and personalized support is emphasized in the guidelines through maximizing "interactions" between VCAs and…

  1. Empirical Assessment of Some Learning Factors Affecting Spanish Students of Business English (United States)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.; Gomez-Martinez, Susana


    This article analyses factors affecting L2 learning, using Regression and Correlation Analysis. Some of the the results are in line with those reported in the literature: for example, the positive role of "Reading" and the negative role of "L1" transfer. Other results, however, are surprising, such as the current use of "Grammar Translation…

  2. Improving History Learning through Cultural Heritage, Local History and Technology (United States)

    Magro, Graça; de Carvalho, Joaquim Ramos; Marcelino, Maria José


    History learning is many times considered dull and demotivating by young students. Probably this is due because the learning process is disconnected from these students' reality and experience. One possible way to overcome this state of matters is to use technology like mobile devices with georeferencing software and local history and heritage…

  3. Work-Based Learning, Identity and Organisational Culture (United States)

    Ahlgren, Linda; Tett, Lyn


    This paper discusses the ways in which employers view the contribution of work-based learning, how participating learners' experience the provision offered to them and how far work-based programmes can contribute to changing the discourse about learning from one of deficit to one of strengths. It draws on two complementary studies of work based…

  4. Languages in a Global World: Learning for Better Cultural Understanding (United States)

    Chiesa, Bruno Della, Ed.; Scott, Jessica, Ed.; Hinton, Christina, Ed.


    The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or…

  5. Learning and Competence Building through Cross-cultural Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull


    The aim of the chapter is to study upgrading of companies in developing countries in a learning perspective. Both formal and experiential and tacit knowledge is discussed. Learning effects of different management modes, expatriates, linkages to customers and suppliers are discussed as are learnin...

  6. Cooperative learning in Confucian heritage cultures is a superficial success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Anders


    The use of cooperative learning in Asia does not take the sociocultural aspects into consideration. Researchers say that there is a need for healthy scepticism when importing any foreign educational reforms.......The use of cooperative learning in Asia does not take the sociocultural aspects into consideration. Researchers say that there is a need for healthy scepticism when importing any foreign educational reforms....

  7. Maker Culture and "Minecraft": Implications for the Future of Learning (United States)

    Niemeyer, Dodie J.; Gerber, Hannah R.


    Collaborative learning environments found with gaming communities can provide excellent structures to study the way that learners act within informal learning environments. For example, many of these gaming communities encourage gamers to create videogames and virtual world walkthroughs and commentaries. Walkthroughs and commentaries provide…

  8. School Cultures as Contexts for Informal Teacher Learning (United States)

    Jurasaite-Harbison, Elena; Rex, Lesley A.


    This study profiles and compares international social contexts for teacher workplace informal learning from the teachers' perspectives. Set in elementary schools in the U.S. and Lithuania, the study illustrates how teachers make sense of and engage in professional learning within their historical, political and administrative contexts. A…

  9. What Is Teacher Learning? A Socio-Cultural Perspective (United States)

    Kelly, Peter


    This article responds to Evans' (2002) framework for a research agenda for teacher development. The term teacher learning is introduced as the process by which novice teachers move towards expertise, and a distinction is made between teacher knowing and teacher identity. Cognitivism currently dominates considerations of teacher learning, but there…

  10. Comparing the Cultural Dimensions and Learners' Perceived Effectiveness of Online Learning Systems (OLS) among American and Malaysian Learners (United States)

    Keng, Seng C.


    With the rapid and exponential growth of Internet use worldwide, online learning has become one of the most widely used learning paradigms in the education environment. Yet despite the rapidly increasing cultural diversity of online learners, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of cross-cultural Online Learning Systems (OLS) using a…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1. Introduction The Lin Cang area lies in the southwest of Yunnan Province. Because of the high mountains and deep valleys, cultural, transportational and economic activities lag far behind those of many other areas in Yunnan Province, as well as the rest of China. With the development of a socialist market economy, the consequences of neglecting English learning among the students have become more serious than before.

  12. On the Class Culture Construction of College Students under the Individualized Learning Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷照亮; 谷凤苗


    With the development of the times and the reform of the education system, some new ideas of education and teaching have been presented. Personalized learning has received much attention while the status and special features of personalized learning environment are becoming increasingly prominent. Therefore, the author will review briefly from the following several aspects in this paper. Firstly, the author discusses that with the progress of the times, changes in teaching philosophy lead to per-sonalized learning environment;secondly, the author explores personalization of learning environment under the new situation lead to a shift in the class structure and the status of teachers, and briefly describes the effect on the construction of class culture and analyzes the existing opportunities and challenges. Finally, the author briefly discusses the necessarity of class collective cul-ture construction and realization path of the class culture construction in this paper.

  13. Mindfulness, Adult Learning and Therapeutic Education: Integrating the Cognitive and Affective Domains of Learning (United States)

    Hyland, Terry


    Although it has been given qualified approval by a number of philosophers of education, the so-called "therapeutic turn" in education has been the subject of criticism by several commentators on post-compulsory and adult learning over the last few years. A key feature of this alleged development in recent educational policy is said to be the…

  14. Lessons Learned from My Students: The Impact of SEM Teaching and Learning on Affective Development (United States)

    Hebert, Thomas P.


    Through reflection on his years as an enrichment teacher in Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) programs, the author describes significant ways the social and emotional development of his students was shaped by their involvement in enriched teaching and learning. Through portraits of his students engaged in Type II and Type III enrichment, the…

  15. Learning bias, cultural evolution of language, and the biological evolution of the language faculty. (United States)

    Smith, Kenny


    The biases of individual language learners act to determine the learnability and cultural stability of languages: learners come to the language learning task with biases which make certain linguistic systems easier to acquire than others. These biases are repeatedly applied during the process of language transmission, and consequently should effect the types of languages we see in human populations. Understanding the cultural evolutionary consequences of particular learning biases is therefore central to understanding the link between language learning in individuals and language universals, common structural properties shared by all the world’s languages. This paper reviews a range of models and experimental studies which show that weak biases in individual learners can have strong effects on the structure of socially learned systems such as language, suggesting that strong universal tendencies in language structure do not require us to postulate strong underlying biases or constraints on language learning. Furthermore, understanding the relationship between learner biases and language design has implications for theories of the evolution of those learning biases: models of gene-culture coevolution suggest that, in situations where a cultural dynamic mediates between properties of individual learners and properties of language in this way, biological evolution is unlikely to lead to the emergence of strong constraints on learning.

  16. International academic service learning: lessons learned from students' travel experiences of diverse cultural and health care practices in morocco. (United States)

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud; Puri, Aditi; Dominick, Christine A


    Academic service learning (ASL) is an active teaching-learning approach to engage students in meaningful hands-on activities to serve community-based needs. Nine health professions students from a private college and a private university in the northeastern United States volunteered to participate in an ASL trip to Morocco. The participants were interviewed to reflect on their experiences. This article discusses the lessons learned from students' ASL experiences regarding integrating ASL into educational programs. The authors recommend a paradigm shift in nursing and dental hygiene curricula to appreciate diversity and promote cultural competency, multidisciplinary teamwork, and ethics-based education.

  17. The Importance of Culture in Second and Foreign Language Learning (United States)

    Ali, Sheeraz; Kazemian, Bahram; Mahar, Israr Hussain


    English has been designated as a source of intercultural communication among the people from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. A range of linguistic and cultural theories contribute meaningful insights on the development of competence in intercultural communication. The speculations suggest the use of communicative strategies focusing…

  18. The Importance of Culture in Second and Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeraz Ali


    Full Text Available English has been designated as a source of intercultural communication among the people from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. A range of linguistic and cultural theories contribute meaningful insights on the development of competence in intercultural communication. The speculations suggest the use of communicative strategies focusing on the development of learners’ efficiency in communicating language through cultural context. However, the teaching of culture in communication has not been paid due importance in a number of academic and language settings of Pakistan and Iran. This assignment study indicates problems in view of teaching English as a medium of instruction in public sector colleges of interior Sindh, Pakistan and prescribed textbooks in Iranian schools. It also aims to identify drawbacks and shortcoming in prescribed textbooks for intermediate students at college level and schools. Therefore, the assignment study recommends integration of cultural awareness into a language teaching programme for an overall achievement of competence in intercultural communication.

  19. Approaches to Affective Computing and Learning towards Interactive Decision Making in Process Control Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Chong; LI Hong-Guang


    Numerous multi-objective decision-making problems related to industrial process control engineering such as control and operation performance evaluation are being resolved through human-computer interactions.With regard to the problems that traditional interactive evolutionary computing approaches suffer i.e.,limited searching ability and human's strong subjectivity in multi-objective-attribute decision-making,a novel affective computing and learning solution adapted to human-computer interaction mechanism is explicitly proposed.Therein,a kind of stimulating response based affective computing model (STAM) is constructed,along with quantitative relations between affective space and human's subjective preferences.Thereafter,affective learning strategies based on genetic algorithms are introduced which are responsible for gradually grasping essentials in human's subjective judgments in decision-making,reducing human's subjective fatigue as well as making the decisions more objective and scientific.Affective learning algorithm's complexity and convergence analysis are shown in Appendices A and B.To exemplify applications of the proposed methods,ad-hoc test functions and PID parameter tuning are suggested as case studies,giving rise to satisfying results and showing validity of the contributions.

  20. Towards a common theory for learning from reward, affect, and motivation: The SIMON framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Madan


    Full Text Available While the effects of reward, affect, and motivation on learning have each developed into their own fields of research, they largely have been investigated in isolation. As all three of these constructs are highly related, and use similar experimental procedures, an important advance in research would be to consider the interplay between these constructs. Here we first define each of the three constructs, and then discuss how they may influence each other within a common framework. Finally, we delineate several sources of evidence supporting the framework. By considering the constructs of reward, affect, and motivation within a single framework, we can develop a better understanding of the processes involved in learning and how they interplay, and work towards a comprehensive theory that encompasses reward, affect, and motivation.

  1. Does Augmented Reality Affect High School Students' Learning Outcomes in Chemistry? (United States)

    Renner, Jonathan Christopher

    Some teens may prefer using a self-directed, constructivist, and technologic approach to learning rather than traditional classroom instruction. If it can be demonstrated, educators may adjust their teaching methodology. The guiding research question for this study focused on how augmented reality affects high school students' learning outcomes in chemistry, as measured by a pretest and posttest methodology when ensuring that the individual outcomes were not the result of group collaboration. This study employed a quantitative, quasi-experimental study design that used a comparison and experimental group. Inferential statistical analysis was employed. The study was conducted at a high school in southwest Colorado. Eighty-nine respondents returned completed and signed consent forms, and 78 participants completed the study. Results demonstrated that augmented reality instruction caused posttest scores to significantly increase, as compared to pretest scores, but it was not as effective as traditional classroom instruction. Scores did improve under both types of instruction; therefore, more research is needed in this area. The present study was the first quantitative experiment controlling for individual learning to validate augmented reality using mobile handheld digital devices that affected individual students' learning outcomes without group collaboration. This topic was important to the field of education as it may help educators understand how students learn and it may also change the way students are taught.

  2. A Cultural Model of Learning: Chinese "Heart and Mind for Wanting T Learn." (United States)

    Li, Jin


    Examined the Chinese model of learning using the Chinese term, "hao-xue-xin" (heart and mind for wanting to learn.) College students described ideal learners. They considered learning a process of moral striving (self-perfection) that stressed seeking knowledge and cultivating passion for lifelong learning, fostering diligence, enduring…

  3. The role of cultural identity as a learning factor in physics: a discussion through the role of science in Brazil (United States)

    Gurgel, Ivã; Pietrocola, Mauricio; Watanabe, Graciella


    In recent decades, changes in society have deeply affected the internal organization and the main goals of schools. These changes are particularly important in science education because science is one of the major sources of change in peoples' lives. This research provided the opportunity to investigate how these changes affect the way teachers develop their classroom activities. In this work, we focus on science as part of the cultural identity of a society and how this identity affects the process of teaching and learning inside the classroom. Other works have shown that certain social characteristics such as gender, race, religion, etc., can create a cultural barrier to learning science. This results in an obstacle between those particular students and the science that is taught, hindering their learning process. We first aim to present the notion of identity in education and in other related fields such as social psychology and sociology. Our main purpose is to focus on identity in a school setting and how that identity affects the relationship students have with the science content. Next, we present and analyze an intervention in the subject of Modern and Contemporary Physics composed by a sequence of activities in a private school in the region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This intervention serves to illustrate how scientific topics may be explored while considering aspects of cultural differences as an obstacle. The intervention was completed in two steps: first, in the classroom with a discussion concerning scientific works and nationality of scientists, with one being a Brazilian physicist; second, taking students to visit a particle collider at the University of São Paulo. One of the results of our research was realizing that students do not perceive science as something representative of the Brazilian cultural identity. At the same time, the activity gave the students the opportunity to make the connection between doing physical sciences at an

  4. On the nature of cultural transmission networks: evidence from Fijian villages for adaptive learning biases. (United States)

    Henrich, Joseph; Broesch, James


    Unlike other animals, humans are heavily dependent on cumulative bodies of culturally learned information. Selective processes operating on this socially learned information can produce complex, functionally integrated, behavioural repertoires-cultural adaptations. To understand such non-genetic adaptations, evolutionary theorists propose that (i) natural selection has favoured the emergence of psychological biases for learning from those individuals most likely to possess adaptive information, and (ii) when these psychological learning biases operate in populations, over generations, they can generate cultural adaptations. Many laboratory experiments now provide evidence for these psychological biases. Here, we bridge from the laboratory to the field by examining if and how these biases emerge in a small-scale society. Data from three cultural domains-fishing, growing yams and using medicinal plants-show that Fijian villagers (ages 10 and up) are biased to learn from others perceived as more successful/knowledgeable, both within and across domains (prestige effects). We also find biases for sex and age, as well as proximity effects. These selective and centralized oblique transmission networks set up the conditions for adaptive cultural evolution.

  5. Effects of culture shock and cross-cultural adaptation on learning satisfaction of mainland China students studying in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen


    Full Text Available With the national impact of low fertility, the enrollment of higher education in Taiwan is facing a dilemma. To cope with such a problem, the government has actively promoted Mainland China students to study in Taiwan. In addition to enhancing the international competitiveness of domestic universities, cross-strait education, and real academic exchange, it is expected to solve the enrollment shortage of colleges. However, the situations and pressures of Culture Shock, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Learning Satisfaction are critical for Mainland China students. Taking Mainland China students who study in Taiwan for more than four months (about a semester as the research participants, a total of 250 questionnaires were distributed and 167 valid ones were retrieved, with a retrieval rate of 67%. The research findings show significant correlations between Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Culture Shock, Culture Shock and Learning Satisfaction, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Learning Satisfaction.Debido al impacto de la baja fertilidad en el país, Taiwán afronta un dilema en relación con la inscripción en la enseñanza superior. Para enfrentarse al problema el gobierno ha promovido activamente que estudiantes de la China continental estudien en Taiwán. Además de incrementar la competitividad internacional de las universidades taiwanesas, la formación a ambos lados del estrecho y un verdadero intercambio académico, se espera que ello solucione la escasez de inscripciones en las facultades. Sin embargo, las situaciones y las presiones que generan el choque cultural, la adaptación multicultural y la satisfacción con el aprendizaje resultan críticas para los estudiantes de la China continental. Tomando como muestra de investigación a estudiantes de la China continental que estudian en Taiwán durante más de cuatro meses (aproximadamente un semestre, se distribuyó un total de 250 cuestionarios, de los cuales 167 fueron válidos, con una tasa

  6. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  7. Analysis of factors affecting satisfaction level on problem based learning approach using structural equation modeling (United States)

    Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina


    Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant factors. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the factors of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload affected the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enie Novieastari


    Full Text Available Nursing students should be prepared to be culturally competent nurses. Cultural awareness is believed as the most important elements of cultural competence. The purpose of this article is to describe the effectiveness of Modified Simulation Learning Methods on cultural awareness as one atribute of cultural competence. Aquasi-experimental (control group design was used to explore the relationship between variabels among 98 first year nursing studentattending Basic Nursing Concept I course at Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia. The knowledge of cultural awareness was found statistically different between participants in Modified Simulation Methods group (intervention and participants using the regular method. However, there were no statistical differences in attitude of cultural awareness between intervention and control groups. It could be concluded that Modified Simulation Learning methods is an effective learning method for increasing cultural knowledge of nusing student to be a competent nurse. Further research should be developed in continuing the improvement of cultural competence such as cultural skills.

  9. Some Factor Approaches to Second Language Learning Affected by Learners'Characteristics and Learning Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By analyzing the learners'characteristics and their learning style,we can draw the conclusion in our teaching preparation that:"The best methods are therefore those that supply'comprehensible input'in low anxiety situations.containing messages that students really want to hear.These methods do not force early production in the second language,but allows students tO produce when they are"ready",recognizing that improvement comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input,and not from forcing and correcting production."(Krashen,1987)

  10. Cultural conceptualisations in learning English as an L2: Examples from Persian-speaking learners

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    Farzad Sharifian


    Full Text Available Traditionally, many studies of second language acquisition (SLA were based on the assumption that learning a new language mainly involves learning a set of grammatical rules, lexical items, and certain new sounds and sound combinations. However, for many second language learners, learning a second language may involve contact and interactions with new systems of conceptualising experience. Many learners bring the conceptual system that they have developed while learning their L1 into the learning of an L2, assuming that every single unit of conceptualisation in their repertoire has an equivalent in the conceptual system associated with the L2. This is never the case. In this paper, I will explicate some cultural conceptualisations that speakers of Persian may bring into the task of learning English as an L2 and discuss some possible implications of this process for intercultural sense making. The chapter begins with a background on the notion of cultural conceptualisation and then moves into the discussion of Persian cultural conceptualisations in L2 learning.

  11. The Interesting Teaching and Learning of Malay Language to Foreign Speakers: Language through Cultures

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    Mazlina Baharudin


    Full Text Available The interesting teaching and learning of Malay languages is a challenging effort and need a relevant plan to the students’ needs especially for the foreign students who already have the basic Indonesian Malay language variation that they have learned for four semesters in their own country, Germany. Therefore, the variety of teaching and learning strategies should be considered by the teachers to make teaching and learning become interesting, effective and not boring. Basic effectiveness of a language program was the factors of socio-culture, the style of teaching and learning, the students, and the characteristics of the program. This paper however focused on the socio-cultural factors (learning of cultures and the activities program that enable to generate excitement and effectiveness in the teaching and learning of Malay language as a foreign language. In the teaching and learning process found that the more we gave the activities to the students, the more the students acquired the meaning of the lessons. In this study, the selected respondents were the two groups of students from TWG, Konstanz, Germany who have followed the Malay Language and Culture Program in the Languages, Literacies and Translation Center, University of Sains Malaysia, Penang, in 2011. The first group was started in March to June, and the second group in September to November. The research was based on formal and informal observations and interviews. This paper also discussed about the outdoor activities program used as curriculum in the teaching and learning process that gives an interesting environment to foreign students


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Askim GULUMBAY, Anadolu University, TURKEY


    Full Text Available This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computersupported learning and human-computer interactions.Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cognitive sciences, various aspects of communication and human computer interaction, interface design andcomputer science on one hand and educators and game industry on the other, this should open gates to evolutionary changes of the learning industry. The major topics discussed are emotions, motivation, games and game-experience.

  13. Where the Two Shall Meet: Exploring the Relationship between Teacher Professional Culture and Student Learning Culture (United States)

    Weiner, Jennie M.; Higgins, Monica C.


    This study focuses on the understudied connection between teachers' and students' perceptions of school culture. Utilizing a longitudinal sample of approximately 130,000 students and 9000 teachers in 225 New York City traditional public schools, we investigate how professional culture among teachers intersects with students' collective emotional…

  14. Law and Pop Culture: Teaching and Learning about Law Using Images from Popular Culture. (United States)

    Joseph, Paul R.


    Believes that using popular culture images of law, lawyers, and the legal system is an effective way for teaching about real law. Offers examples of incorporating popular culture images when teaching about law. Includes suggestions for teaching activities, a mock trial based on Dr. Seuss's book "Yertle the Turtle," and additional resources. (CMK)

  15. Using Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions to Interpret Cross-Cultural Blended Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Cronje, Johannes C.


    This article reflects on the cross-cultural communicative experiences of professors from South Africa and students from Sudan, during a two-year Internet-supported Masters' course in Computers in Education. Four of Hofstede's cultural dimensions were considered as categories of interpretation. The purpose of the research was to determine the…

  16. Culture and cooperation: cooperative learning in Asian Confucian heritage cultures. The case of Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.M.


    The study is concerned with the influence of western educational approaches upon non-western societies and cultural groups. In applying western educational approaches, often a detailed consideration of its consequences to the culture and heritage of a non-western civilization is neglected. This is b

  17. Distal prosody affects learning of novel words in an artificial language. (United States)

    Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin; Dilley, Laura C; Zdziarska, Patrycja A; Jones, Katherine B; Sanders, Lisa D


    The distal prosodic patterning established at the beginning of an utterance has been shown to influence downstream word segmentation and lexical access. In this study, we investigated whether distal prosody also affects word learning in a novel (artificial) language. Listeners were exposed to syllable sequences in which the embedded words were either congruent or incongruent with the distal prosody of a carrier phrase. Local segmentation cues, including the transitional probabilities between syllables, were held constant. During a test phase, listeners rated the items as either words or nonwords. Consistent with the perceptual grouping of syllables being predicted by distal prosody, congruent items were more likely to be judged as words than were incongruent items. The results provide the first evidence that perceptual grouping affects word learning in an unknown language, demonstrating that distal prosodic effects may be independent of lexical or other language-specific knowledge.

  18. Toward interactive context-aware affective educational recommendations in computer-assisted language learning (United States)

    Santos, Olga C.; Saneiro, Mar; Boticario, Jesus G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M. C.


    This work explores the benefits of supporting learners affectively in a context-aware learning situation. This features a new challenge in related literature in terms of providing affective educational recommendations that take advantage of ambient intelligence and are delivered through actuators available in the environment, thus going beyond previous approaches which provided computer-based recommendation that present some text or tell aloud the learner what to do. To address this open issue, we have applied TORMES elicitation methodology, which has been used to investigate the potential of ambient intelligence for making more interactive recommendations in an emotionally challenging scenario (i.e. preparing for the oral examination of a second language learning course). Arduino open source electronics prototyping platform is used both to sense changes in the learners' affective state and to deliver the recommendation in a more interactive way through different complementary sensory communication channels (sight, hearing, touch) to cope with a universal design. An Ambient Intelligence Context-aware Affective Recommender Platform (AICARP) has been built to support the whole experience, which represents a progress in the state of the art. In particular, we have come up with what is most likely the first interactive context-aware affective educational recommendation. The value of this contribution lies in discussing methodological and practical issues involved.

  19. Design-Based Research for Professional Learning for "Cultural Mathematics" (United States)

    Kravia, Geori; Owens, Kay


    Design-based research is being used to develop and refine the principles used in professional learning workshops with teachers from three different Papua New Guinean ecologies: highlands, coastal, and inland in a coastal province. The appropriateness of the design of principles for Papua New Guinean Elementary Schools is tried over several phases…

  20. Science Fiction: Popular Culture as Reading and Learning Motivation. (United States)

    Ontell, Val

    Tools for teaching students how to question intelligently are badly needed. Science fiction provides many such tools in a variety of subjects by stimulating the imagination and thus motivating students to learn. Such vehicles are available at all grade levels. From Mark Twain and H.G. Wells to Anne McCaffrey and Isaac Asimov, novels and short…

  1. Teaching Immigrants Norwegian Culture to Support Their Language Learning (United States)

    Alhassan, Awal Mohammed; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa


    This study was conducted with 48 adult immigrant students studying Norwegian under basic education program of the Ski Municipality Adult Education Unit between 2009-2011. Using the framework of Genc and Bada (2005), we tried to replicate their study in a new setting--Norway. The study investigated migrant students' perceptions learning Norwegian…

  2. Humanitas: Learning Communities That Transform Teachers' Professional Culture. (United States)

    Lasiter, Doris Crowell

    This study examined how professional learning communities develop, using cross-subject teams within the context of HUMANITAS, a program designed to promote teachers' professional growth and effectiveness by creating a voluntary "community of learners" for teachers and students. Data were gathered from teacher interviews, team…

  3. Language and Culture Learning in Higher Education via Telecollaboration (United States)

    Chun, Dorothy M.


    This article focuses on the ways of researching the process of designing, developing, and using telecollaboration (also known as online intercultural exchange) to facilitate the learning of both linguistic and "intercultural communicative competence" (ICC) in higher education courses in different educational contexts in the United…

  4. Mood Inference Machine: Framework to Infer Affective Phenomena in ROODA Virtual Learning Environment

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    Magalí Teresinha Longhi


    Full Text Available This article presents a mechanism to infer mood states, aiming to provide virtual learning environments (VLEs with a tool able to recognize the student’s motivation. The inference model has as its parameters personality traits, motivational factors obtained through behavioral standards and the affective subjectivity identified in texts made available in the communication functionalities of the VLE. In the inference machine, such variables are treated under probability reasoning, more precisely by Bayesian networks.

  5. Caminhos da cidadania cultural: o ensino de artes no Brasil Paths to cultural citizenship: learning arts in Brazil

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    Marcelo Gruman


    Full Text Available O artigo trata do ensino da arte nas escolas brasileiras a partir dos conceitos de multiculturalismo, diversidade cultural e cidadania cultural, norteadores da atuação do Ministério da Cultura a partir da gestão do ex-Ministro Gilberto Gil iniciada no ano de 2003. Argumenta que é imprescindível um diálogo cada vez mais intenso entre o Ministério da Cultura e o Ministério da Educação na consecução deste objetivo, qual seja, garantir o cumprimento do direito humano à educação e à participação na cultura, inscritos na Constituição Brasileira de 1988, e ratificado pela Convenção sobre a Promoção e Proteção da Diversidade das Expressões Culturais da UNESCO, ratificada pelo Brasil no ano de 2006.The article deals with the learning of the arts in the Brazilian education system taking into account the concepts of multiculturalism, cultural diversity and cultural citizenship, guidelines of the public policies of the Ministry of Culture since 2003. It also argues the importance of the dialogue between the Ministries of Culture and Education to accomplish a common goal, that is, guarantee the human rights for education and culture, inscribed in the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and ratified by the Brazilian Government in 2006 in the scope of the UNESCO's Convention for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions.

  6. Six Tentative Approaches to Culture Acquisition in English Learning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      EFL teachers in China have come to realize that EFL teaching does not stop at the students' linguistic competence, but should go on to develop their communicative competence. To achieve this,it is essential for both teachers and students to be conscious of the sociolin-guistic functions of languages and take measures to increase their cultural awareness. Therefore, this article suggests some tentative approaches to culture acquisition in English learning,in the hope of increasing efficiency of English learning for the Chinese students.

  7. Addressing Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education through International Service Learning and Community Engagement

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    Rosemin Kassam


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience consisted of pre-departure preparation seminars followed by subsequent community immersion to experience, explore and confront personal attitudes and perceptions. A key feature of this course was its emphasis on a continuing cycle of learning, community engagement and reflection. Three students participated, a near-maximum cohort. Their daily self-reflections were qualitatively analyzed to document the impact of their cultural learning and experiences and revealed meaningful learning in the domains of self-assessment and awareness of their personal and professional culture, exposure to a participatory health delivery model involving the patient, the community and a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to engage in patient care in a different cultural setting. This proof-of-concept course provided students with experiences that were life-changing on both personal and professional levels and confirmed the viability and relevance of international service learning for the pharmacy field within its university-wide mandate.

  8. New Learning Environments: Ecology of the Soul – An innovative approach to teaching ethics and culture


    Kukubajska, Marija Emilija


    Purpose: share positive results from synchronized ethics, culture and the arts learning in educational and professional settings. Method: “Ecology of the Soul” inter-active reinforcement, inter-disciplinary interpretation of ethics and its positive impact upon mental, social health. Application: moral ideas diffused through Art-Po concept (visual and verbal multi-media learning, creativity and presentation), integrate literature with inspirational moral messages, internalized through inventiv...

  9. Influence of Tibetan Language and Culture on Tibetan College Students’ EFL Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trinle Digye


    Nowadays teaching English as a foreign language is becoming more and more important in Tibetan education. Since Ti⁃betan education system is complicated, Tibetan college students are facing many problems which interfere with their EFL learning. By carrying on a mini qualitative study of interviewing two Tibetan college students, this paper mainly discusses the major prob⁃lems and causes of the Tibetan college students on EFL learning on linguistic and cultural perspectives, and attempts to suggest some solutions.

  10. Globalization of problem-based learning (PBL): cross-cultural implications. (United States)

    Gwee, Matthew Choon-Eng


    Problem-based learning (PBL) is essentially a learning system design that incorporates several educational strategies to optimize student-centered learning outcomes beyond just knowledge acquisition. PBL was implemented almost four decades ago as an innovative and alternative pathway to learning in medical education in McMaster University Medical School. Since then, PBL has spread widely across the world and has now been adopted globally, including in much of Asia. The globalization of PBL has important cross-cultural implications. Delivery of instruction in PBL involves active peer teaching-learning in an open communication style. Consequently, this may pose an apparent serious conflict with the Asian communication style generally dominated by a cultural reticence. However, evidence available, especially from the PBL experience of some senior Korean medical students doing an elective in the University of Toronto Medical School and the cross-cultural PBL experience initiated by Kaohsiung Medical University, strongly suggests creating a conducive and supportive learning environment for students learning in a PBL setting can overcome the perceived cultural barriers; that is, nurture matters more than culture in the learning environment. Karaoke is very much an Asian initiative. The Karaoke culture and philosophy provide a useful lesson on how to create a conducive and supportive environment to encourage, enhance and motivate group activity. Some key attributes associated with Asian culture are in fact consistent with, and aligned to, some of the basic tenets of PBL, including the congruence between the Asian emphasis on group before individual interest, and the collaborative small group learning design used in PBL. Although there are great expectations of the educational outcomes students can acquire from PBL, the available evidence supports the contention the actual educational outcomes acquired from PBL do not really match the expected educational outcomes commonly

  11. Metacognitive, affective-motivational processes in self-regulated learning and students' achievement in native language

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    Cirila Peklaj


    Full Text Available Recent theoretical and empirical research has focused on metacognitive and affective processes in learning and performance in diverse domains of inquiry. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between these processes and achievement in native language (Slovene. 369 pupils in fifth grade of primary school participated in the study. A 41-item questionnaire was constructed to measure pupils' metacognitive and affective processes in learning native language. Factor analysis of the items revealed four different factors that accounted for 38.4% of the explained variance: two metacognitive (strategies of learning and solving tasks in Slovenian, searching for meaning and understanding in Slovenian and two affective (experiencing fear of Slovenian, feelings of success and interest in Slovenian. Further analysis showed negative correlations between achievement and these factors: searching for meaning and understanding in Slovenian, experiencing fear of Slovenian. Positive correlation was found between achievement and the factor feelings of success and interest in Slovenian. In conclusion, implications for educational practice are discussed.

  12. International Students in American Pathway Programs: Learning English and Culture through Service-Learning (United States)

    Miller, Julie; Berkey, Becca; Griffin, Francis


    As the number of international students studying in the United States continues to grow, the body of literature about service-learning in English Language Learning (ELL) curricula is growing in tandem. The primary goal of this paper is to explore how service-learning impacts the development and transition of pathway program students in the United…

  13. Marketing Across Cultures: Learning from U.S. Corporate Blunders. (United States)

    Raffield, Barney T., III

    Errors in judgment made in international marketing as a result of American corporate provincialism or cultural ignorance are chronicled, and ways to avoid similar problems in the future are discussed. The marketing blunders, which have been both expensive and embarrassing, include errors in language use and mistaken assumptions about cultural…

  14. School Culture and Leadership of Professional Learning Communities (United States)

    Carpenter, Daniel


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore supportive and shared leadership structures at schools as a function of school culture policies and procedures. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study was conducted at three secondary schools in the Midwestern USA. Administrators and teachers were interviewed, professional learning…

  15. Study Abroad in Psychology: Increasing Cultural Competencies through Experiential Learning (United States)

    Earnest, David R.; Rosenbusch, Katherine; Wallace-Williams, Devin; Keim, Alaina C.


    Despite the prominence of study abroad programs, few are offered in the field of psychology. The current study sought to investigate the impact of study abroad programs in psychology through a comparison of study abroad and domestic student cultural competencies. Participants included 104 undergraduate students enrolled in either a psychology…

  16. Managing IT for Business Innovation: Issues of Culture, Learning, and Leadership in a Jamaican Insurance Company



    The recent major changes in the general insurance sector have significantly increased the need for the development and use of IT for business innovation. This paper uses the case study method to explore how a Jamaican general insurance company responded to these pressures by establishing a cross-cultural joint venture for IT development. The research was guided at the meta-level by the principles of structuration theory, but explicitly uses the more familiar perspectives of culture, learning,...

  17. Technology uses in education and learning indigenous languages and cultures: the multimedia about Huastecan Nahuatl


    Van´t Hooft, Anuschka; Manuel F. AGUILAR TAMAYO


    This paper presents a Multimedia on Huastecan Nahuatl Language and Culture, a didactic resource developed originally for a course on Huastecan Nahuatl language and culture. It provides a description and explanation of the multimedia, as well as a series of reflections on the role of the new technologies in the learning process at a graduate level, particularly regarding indigenous languages as a second language. It also discusses the theoretical perspectives that guided the design of the mul...

  18. Selective breeding for endurance running capacity affects cognitive but not motor learning in rats. (United States)

    Wikgren, Jan; Mertikas, Georgios G; Raussi, Pekka; Tirkkonen, Riina; Äyräväinen, Laura; Pelto-Huikko, Markku; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki


    The ability to utilize oxygen has been shown to affect a wide variety of physiological factors often considered beneficial for survival. As the ability to learn can be seen as one of the core factors of survival in mammals, we studied whether selective breeding for endurance running, an indication of aerobic capacity, also has an effect on learning. Rats selectively bred over 23 generations for their ability to perform forced treadmill running were trained in an appetitively motivated discrimination-reversal classical conditioning task, an alternating T-maze task followed by a rule change (from a shift-win to stay-win rule) and motor learning task. In the discrimination-reversal and T-maze tasks, the high-capacity runner (HCR) rats outperformed the low-capacity runner (LCR) rats, most notably in the phases requiring flexible cognition. In the Rotarod (motor-learning) task, the HCR animals were overall more agile but learned at a similar rate with the LCR group as a function of training. We conclude that the intrinsic ability to utilize oxygen is associated especially with tasks requiring plasticity of the brain structures implicated in flexible cognition.

  19. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Maternal Health in Rural Gambia: An Exploratory Qualitative Study (United States)

    Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung; Huang, Song-Lih


    Background The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health. Methods and Findings Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15–30 years, with at least one child) and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women’s control, resulting in birth-related complications. Conclusions Our findings suggest that despite women’s multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality

  20. ‘Merantau’ - an Informal Entrepreneurial Learning Pattern in the Culture of Minangkabau Tribe in Indonesia

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    Hafiz Rahman


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to expose an informal entrepreneurial learning pattern that is undertaken by the Minangkabau tribe in Indonesia and relate it to cultural dimension and perceived value of a society. This informal entrepreneurial learning pattern is called as ‘Merantau’ - which can simply be meant as ‘to emigrate’, in which the young males (mostly during the ages of 15-20, or even younger leave their homeland; move to other places nationwide or abroad, and running entrepreneurial activities for their daily life. The existence of merantau as an informal cultural based entrepreneurial learning for the young Minangkabau tribe combined with their cultural dimension and perceived values have contributed to the creation of and bring positive impacts to entrepreneurial culture of the Minangkabau tribe. The Minangkabau tribe, as one of tribes in Indonesia, experiences very supportive social environment in which entrepreneurial culture is recognised as part of the way of life. Therefore, Minangkabau tribe is known as one of the most entrepreneurial tribes in Indonesia. This paper considers perceived value and cultural dimension that may bring consequence to entrepreneurial culture of a society, with particular analysis to Minangkabau tribe in Indonesia. Analysis is undertaken by considering the elements and index of cultural dimension and perceived values of a society that can create and intiate entreprenuerial habits and relate them to entrepreneurship. Result of the analysis shows an evidence that culture of a society also plays an important role to create and maintain entrepreneurial habits and experience of a society. Together with cultural dimension of a society, perceived values that a society has, also contributes to the creation of entrepreneurial culture of that society. This is shown in the context of the Minangkabau tribe who is well known as an entrepreneurial tribe in Indonesia. However, this study analyses one single cultural

  1. Does Culture Affect how People Receive and Resist Persuasive Messages? Research Proposals about Resistance to Persuasion in Cultural Groups

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    Renata Kolodziej-Smith


    Full Text Available Abstract Even though persuasion has been a widely researched topic in consumer behavior, the great majority of these studies have involved American consumers and focused on persuasion itself, with very few addressing resistance to persuasive attempts. None has addressed resistance to persuasion in a cross-cultural context. We aim to contribute to closing this gap in the literature with this paper. Specifically, we aim to expand knowledge of the persuasive process by applying the cultural dimensions of self-construal and face negotiation theories to Gopinath and Nyer’s (2009 work conducted on American consumers about the effect of public commitment on resistance to persuasion. Our research focus is on why people from different ethnic/cultural backgrounds will receive or resist persuasive messages differently. We anchor this notion in face negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 2005. This perspective addresses different types of facework behaviors that people choose in a multicultural environment, thus shedding light on processes underlying persuasion and resistance to persuasion mechanisms as influenced by culture. Understanding the effects of cultural differences on a person’s reception of, or resistance to, counter-attitudinal persuasion should be valuable to managers who make decisions about cultural adaptations and target audience changes.

  2. The evolution of culture: From primate social learning to human culture


    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A


    Cultural transmission in our species works most of the time as a cumulative inheritance system allowing members of a group to incorporate behavioral features not only with a positive biological value but sometimes also with a neutral, or even negative, biological value. Most of models of dual inheritance theory and gene-culture coevolution suggest that an increase, either qualitative or quantitative, in the efficiency of imitation is the key factor to explain the transformation of primate soc...

  3. Promote Mutual Exchanges and Learning between Various Civilizations and Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabindra; Adhikari


    <正>It is an honor for me and my organization to join commemoration of international peace day and the exchange programs among NGO leaders on the invitation of Chinese Peoples’Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD).The exchange forums have been always proved beneficial in terms of promoting mutual harmony and peace as it provides opportunity to understand various perspectives,history,culture

  4. Mapping epistemic cultures and learning potential of participants in citizen science projects. (United States)

    Vallabh, Priya; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; O'Donoghue, Rob; Schudel, Ingrid


    The ever-widening scope and range of global change and interconnected systemic risks arising from people-environment relationships (social-ecological risks) appears to be increasing concern among, and involvement of, citizens in an increasingly diversified number of citizen science projects responding to these risks. We examined the relationship between epistemic cultures in citizen science projects and learning potential related to matters of concern. We then developed a typology of purposes and a citizen science epistemic-cultures heuristic and mapped 56 projects in southern Africa using this framework. The purpose typology represents the range of knowledge-production purposes, ranging from laboratory science to social learning, whereas the epistemic-cultures typology is a relational representation of scientist and citizen participation and their approach to knowledge production. Results showed an iterative relationship between matters of fact and matters of concern across the projects; the nexus of citizens' engagement in knowledge-production activities varied. The knowledge-production purposes informed and shaped the epistemic cultures of all the sampled citizen science projects, which in turn influenced the potential for learning within each project. Through a historical review of 3 phases in a long-term river health-monitoring project, we found that it is possible to evolve the learning curve of citizen science projects. This evolution involved the development of scientific water monitoring tools, the parallel development of pedagogic practices supporting monitoring activities, and situated engagement around matters of concern within social activism leading to learning-led change. We conclude that such evolutionary processes serve to increase potential for learning and are necessary if citizen science is to contribute to wider restructuring of the epistemic culture of science under conditions of expanding social-ecological risk.

  5. Cross- cultural Communication in Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The factors in cross - cultural communication affects business activities should be paid attention through the process of learning Business English. The successful communication can be realized through the identity with inter- culture.

  6. A socio-cultural approach to learning in the practice setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Ciara


    Practice learning is an essential part of the curriculum and accounts for approximately 60% of the current pre-registration nursing programmes in the Republic of Ireland. The nature and quality of the clinical learning environment and the student nurses\\' experience of their practice placements is recognised as being influential in promoting the integration of theory and practice. However, the problem experienced by many learners is how to relate their theoretical knowledge to the situation-at-hand within the practice setting. Socio-cultural or activity theories of learning seek to explain the social nature of learning and propose that knowledge and learning are considered to be contextually situated. Lave and Wenger (1991) argue that learning is integrated with practice and through engagement with a community of practice, by means of sponsorship; students become increasingly competent in their identity as practitioners. This paper examines the changes which have occurred within the pre-registration nursing curriculum in the Republic of Ireland with the transition from the apprenticeship system to the graduate programme, and the resulting reduction in clinical learning hours. It also examines the potential impact on the development of student learning with the implementation of the concepts proposed by Lave and Wenger to learning in the practice setting.

  7. A socio-cultural approach to learning in the practice setting. (United States)

    White, Ciara


    Practice learning is an essential part of the curriculum and accounts for approximately 60% of the current pre-registration nursing programmes in the Republic of Ireland. The nature and quality of the clinical learning environment and the student nurses' experience of their practice placements is recognised as being influential in promoting the integration of theory and practice. However, the problem experienced by many learners is how to relate their theoretical knowledge to the situation-at-hand within the practice setting. Socio-cultural or activity theories of learning seek to explain the social nature of learning and propose that knowledge and learning are considered to be contextually situated. Lave and Wenger (1991) argue that learning is integrated with practice and through engagement with a community of practice, by means of sponsorship; students become increasingly competent in their identity as practitioners. This paper examines the changes which have occurred within the pre-registration nursing curriculum in the Republic of Ireland with the transition from the apprenticeship system to the graduate programme, and the resulting reduction in clinical learning hours. It also examines the potential impact on the development of student learning with the implementation of the concepts proposed by Lave and Wenger to learning in the practice setting.

  8. A cross-cultural study on emotion expression and the learning of social norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo eHareli


    Full Text Available When we do not know how to correctly behave in a new context, the emotions that people familiar with the context show in response to the behaviors of others, can help us understand what to do or not to do. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in how group emotional expressions (anger, sadness, neutral can be used to deduce a norm violation in four cultures (Germany, Israel, Greece and the US, which differ in terms of decoding rules for negative emotions. As expected, in all four countries, anger was a stronger norm violation signal than sadness or neutral expressions. However, angry and sad expressions were perceived as more intense and the relevant norm was learned better in Germany and Israel than in Greece and the US. Participants in Greece were relatively better at using sadness as a sign of a likely norm violation. The results demonstrate both cultural universality and cultural differences in the use of group emotion expressions in norm learning. In terms of cultural differences they underscore that the social signal value of emotional expressions may vary with culture as a function of cultural differences, both in emotion perception, and as a function of a differential use of emotions.

  9. Organizational Commitment for Knowledge Workers: The Roles of Perceived Organizational Learning Culture, Leader-Member Exchange Quality, and Turnover Intention (United States)

    Joo, Baek-Kyoo


    This article investigates the impact of perceived organizational learning culture and leader-member exchange (LMX) quality on organizational commitment and eventually on employee turnover intention. Employees exhibited the highest organizational commitment when they perceived a higher learning culture and when they were supervised in a supportive…

  10. Yeast culture supplement during nursing and transport affects immunity and intestinal microbial ecology of weanling pigs. (United States)

    Weedman, S M; Rostagno, M H; Patterson, J A; Yoon, I; Fitzner, G; Eicher, S D


    The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on innate immunity and intestinal microbial ecology after weaning and transport stress. In a randomized complete block design, before weaning and in a split-plot analysis of a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of yeast culture (YY) and transport (TT) after weaning, 3-d-old pigs (n = 108) were randomly assigned within litter (block) to either a control (NY, milk only) or yeast culture diet (YY; delivered in milk to provide 0.1 g of yeast culture product/kg of BW) from d 4 to 21. At weaning (d 21), randomly, one-half of the NY and YY pigs were assigned to a 6-h transport (NY-TT and YY-TT) before being moved to nursery housing, and the other one-half were moved directly to nursery housing (NY-NT and YY-NT, where NT is no transport). The yeast treatment was a 0.2% S. cerevisiae fermentation product and the control treatment was a 0.2% grain blank in feed for 2 wk. On d 1 before transport and on d 1, 4, 7, and 14 after transport, blood was collected for leukocyte assays, and mesenteric lymph node, jejunal, and ileal tissue, and jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents were collected for Toll-like receptor expression (TLR); enumeration of Escherichia coli, total coliforms, and lactobacilli; detection of Salmonella; and microbial analysis. After weaning, a yeast × transport interaction for ADG was seen (P = 0.05). Transport affected (P = 0.09) ADFI after weaning. Yeast treatment decreased hematocrit (P = 0.04). A yeast × transport interaction was found for counts of white blood cells (P = 0.01) and neutrophils (P = 0.02) and for the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.02). Monocyte counts revealed a transport (P = 0.01) effect. Interactions of yeast × transport (P = 0.001) and yeast × transport × day (P = 0.09) for TLR2 and yeast × transport (P = 0.08) for TLR4 expression in the mesenteric lymph node were detected. Day affected lactobacilli, total coliform, and E

  11. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meyer


    Full Text Available Background: Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective: The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method: Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34 to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST. Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results: Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions: The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area.

  12. Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community (United States)

    Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela


    Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

  13. Learning to Get Along: Language Acquisition and Literacy Development in a New Cultural Setting. (United States)

    Long, Susi


    Examines the author's daughter's experiences of being socialized into the language of Iceland through the eight-year-old's immersion in Icelandic culture. Shows how play-based activities with native-speaking peers was critical to her language and literacy development. Argues that authentic activity in social life is the key to learning literacy…

  14. The Effects of Cultural Video Resources on Teaching and Learning Korean Language (United States)

    Roh, Jaemin


    This dissertation sought to evaluate the potential of a customized, video-based instructional method, the Cultural Video Project (CVP), which was designed to meet the needs of both heritage and non-heritage students learning Korean as a second language in a university setting. The goal of this study was to design and create the CVP, document the…

  15. Development of an E-Learning Culture in the Australian Army (United States)

    Newton, Diane; Ellis, Allan


    For organisations with hierarchical management and training cultures, e-learning provides opportunities for standardising content, delivery, and course management while challenging traditional teacher-student relationships. This research based case study of the Australian Army provided a longitudinal perspective of the diverse factors influencing…

  16. Na Honua Mauli Ola: Hawaii Guidelines for Culturally Healthy and Responsive Learning Environments. (United States)

    Kawai'ae'a, Keiki

    This guidebook examines strategies, roles, and accountability measures necessary to embrace, share, and support the learning community in totality. The 16 guidelines offer strategies for each of five groups: learners, educators, schools/institutions, families, and communities. The guidelines include: incorporate cultural traditions, language,…

  17. Culture, Organizational Learning and Selected Employee Background Variables in Small-Size Business Enterprises (United States)

    Graham, Carroll M.; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between four independent variables educational level, longevity, type of enterprise, and gender and the dependent variable culture, as a dimension that explains organizational learning readiness in seven small-size business enterprises. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory…

  18. Perception toward Organizational Learning Culture in Small-Size Business Enterprises (United States)

    Graham, Carroll M.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.


    This study sought to determine the relationship between four independent variables educational level, longevity, gender, type of enterprise, and the dependent variable respondents' perception of culture toward organizational learning readiness. An exploratory correlational research design was employed to survey 498 employees in seven small…

  19. Strategic organisational transformation: The role of learning,leadership and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Viljoen


    Full Text Available Today's organisation need to continuously adapts itself to challenges, brought about by modern business environment. This paper argues that leadership, learning and culture play a major role in securing an organisation's ability to face and adapt to these new challenges.

  20. The Link between Organizational Learning Culture and Customer Satisfaction: Confirming Relationship and Exploring Moderating Effect (United States)

    Pantouvakis, Angelos; Bouranta, Nancy


    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework and conduct an empirical study across different service sectors to investigate the inter-relationships between organizational learning culture, employee job satisfaction and their impact on customer satisfaction. It also aims to examine an individual-level variable (educational…

  1. Japanese English Education and Learning: A History of Adapting Foreign Cultures (United States)

    Shimizu, Minoru


    This essay is a history that relates the Japanese tradition of accepting and adapting aspects of foreign culture, especially as it applies to the learning of foreign languages. In particular, the essay describes the history of English education in Japan by investigating its developments after the Meiji era. The author addresses the issues from the…

  2. Culture, Leadership, and Activism: Translating Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning into Pedagogical Practice (United States)

    Jenkins, Toby S.


    Through the article, I share the theoretical foundations, structure, knowledge acquisition, and outcomes of a cultural leadership course. The process for course development integrates several theories and research methods into practice: L. Dee Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning, Feminist Theory, Critical Race Theory, and…

  3. Learning India’s Martial Art of Kalarippayattu: Unsettled Ecologies of Gender, Class, Culture, and Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K. Schneider


    Full Text Available Rooted in the author’s field experience studying the traditional South Indian martial art kalarippayattu, this article examines the complexities of communication, including the use of touch as a teaching tool, in an intercultural teacher-student relationship, and surfaces how gender, culture, and class impacted learning in this embodied art form.

  4. The Role of E-Learning in Arts and Cultural Heritage Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, Marion


    Gruber, M. R. (2009). The Role of E-Learning in Arts and Cultural Heritage Education. In V. Hornung-Prähauser & M. Luckmann (Eds.), Kreativität und Innovationskompetenz im digitalen Netz - Creativity and Innovation Competencies in the Web, Sammlung von ausgewählten Fach- und Praxisbeiträgen der 5. E

  5. A Contrastive Study of Cultural Diversity of Learning Styles between China and the United States (United States)

    Jian, Hong


    This paper makes a contrastive study of learning styles between China and the U.S. from five aspects and recognizes that the differences are due to the influence of cultural diversity such as individualism and collectivism, Confucianism, utilitarianism and pragmatism etc.

  6. Digital Technology and the Culture of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (United States)

    Lai, Kwok-Wing


    This paper discusses how the use of digital technologies may support a shift of cultural practices in teaching and learning, to better meet the needs of 21st century higher education learners. A brief discussion of the changing needs of the learners is provided, followed by a review of the overall impact of digital technologies on teaching and…

  7. State Policy and Guidance for Identifying Learning Disabilities in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students (United States)

    Scott, Amy N.; Boynton Hauerwas, Laura; Brown, Rachel D.


    This study investigates how state Departments of Education address the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students as they relate to the identification of students with a specific learning disability (SLD). A qualitative research design of directed content analysis was used to examine each state's regulatory criteria for SLD, as…

  8. A Cross-Cultural Study of Taiwanese and Kuwaiti EFL Students' Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences (United States)

    Wu, Shu-hua; Alrabah, Sulaiman


    The purpose of the present study was to relate the findings of a survey of learning styles and multiple intelligences that was distributed among two different cultural groups of Freshman-level EFL students in Taiwan and Kuwait in order to confirm its consistency for developing teaching techniques appropriate for each group's general profiles. Data…

  9. Opportunities for Inquiry Science in Montessori Classrooms: Learning from a Culture of Interest, Communication, and Explanation (United States)

    Rinke, Carol R.; Gimbel, Steven J.; Haskell, Sophie


    Although classroom inquiry is the primary pedagogy of science education, it has often been difficult to implement within conventional classroom cultures. This study turned to the alternatively structured Montessori learning environment to better understand the ways in which it fosters the essential elements of classroom inquiry, as defined by…

  10. Cultivating Innovative Learning and Teaching Cultures: A Question of Garden Design (United States)

    Smith, Karen


    Calls for practitioners to "innovate" are common within higher education and universities, which go to some length to cultivate innovative learning and teaching cultures. The definition of innovation, however, is not clear cut and understandings of how innovations spread and innovative practices should be supported differ. This study aimed to…

  11. Team Creativity: The Effects of Perceived Learning Culture, Developmental Feedback and Team Cohesion (United States)

    Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Song, Ji Hoon; Lim, Doo Hun; Yoon, Seung Won


    This study investigates the influence of perceived learning culture, developmental feedback and team cohesion on team creativity. The results showed that the demographic variables, the three antecedents and their interactions explained 41 per cent of variance in team creativity. Team creativity was positively correlated with a higher level of…

  12. Transnational Intergenerationalities: Cultural Learning in Polish Migrant Families and Its Implications for Pedagogy (United States)

    Sime, Daniela; Pietka-Nykaza, Emilia


    In this qualitative study, we examine the impact of family migration on intergenerational learning, especially in relation to the transmission of cultural values and practices. Drawing on data collected through in-depth case studies with migrant Polish children and their parents, we explore the influence of intergenerationality on children's…

  13. A cross-cultural comparison of student learning patterns in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marambe, Kosala; Vermunt, Jan; Boshuizen, Els


    Marambe, K. N., Vermunt, J. D., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012). A cross-cultural comparison of student learning patterns in higher education. Higher Education, 64(3), 299-316. doi:10.1007/s10734-011-9494-z

  14. Assessing the Culture of Teaching and Learning through a Syllabus Review (United States)

    Stanny, Claudia; Gonzalez, Melissa; McGowan, Britt


    Content analysis of course syllabi can answer a variety of questions about the structure of courses and the campus culture of teaching and learning. The authors report a review of the full population of undergraduate syllabi at one institution during one academic term (n = 1153), including rubric design and training procedures for reviewers. The…

  15. Service Learning with "Third-Culture Kids": Preparing an Iftar in Egypt (United States)

    Hubbard, Janie


    Many international schools embrace social studies education, and service learning embedded within the social studies curriculum is often the norm rather than the exception. Helping students help others in any setting is powerful. In a richly diverse venue there are added benefits. The "third-culture kids" attending international schools…

  16. Transformative World Language Learning: An Approach for Environmental and Cultural Sustainability and Economic and Political Security (United States)

    Goulah, Jason


    In this article, the author responds to the Modern Language Association's report, "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" (2007) by arguing for an explicit and interdisciplinary transformative world language learning approach toward environmental and cultural sustainability and economic and political…

  17. The Effect of Learning Organization Culture on the Relationship between Interpersonal Trust and Organizational Commitment (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hong Min; Kolb, Judith A.


    The primary purpose of this research was to assess the effect of learning organization culture on the linkage between interpersonal trust and organizational commitment. The study sample was obtained from employees of two major Korean conglomerates. Online questionnaires were completed by 321 respondents. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used…

  18. Strengthening Pedagogy and Praxis in Cultural Anthropology and Service-Learning: Insights from Postcolonialism (United States)

    McCabe, Maryann


    This article argues cultural anthropology would make a good partner to service-learning pedagogy because it offers students a theoretical approach for understanding community life and its power structures. Anthropologists have been dealing with power vis-a-vis the people they study using concepts relevant to the reflection process in…

  19. Strategies for North American Missionaries' Relational Language-Culture Learning in the Japanese Context (United States)

    Manabe-Kim, Rie


    This study focused on presenting the fieldwork findings derived from studying North-American missionaries' relational dynamics with the Japanese people, and the strategies that impacted their language-culture learning. This study also focused on applying the fieldwork findings towards the creation of a coaching model designed to help…

  20. Strategies for North American Missionaries' Relational Language-Culture Learning in the Japanese Context (United States)

    Manabe-Kim, Rie


    This study focused on presenting the fieldwork findings derived from studying North-American missionaries' relational dynamics with the Japanese people, and the strategies that impacted their language-culture learning. This study also focused on applying the fieldwork findings towards the creation of a coaching model designed to help missionaries…

  1. The Determinants of Student Effort at Learning ERP: A Cultural Perspective (United States)

    Alshare, Khaled A.; El-Masri, Mazen; Lane, Peggy L.


    This paper develops a research model based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model (UTAUT) and Hofstede's cultural dimensions to explore factors that influence student effort at learning Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) using LISREL was utilized to validate the proposed research…

  2. Professional Learning for Cultural Mathematics in Papua New Guinea's Elementary Schools (United States)

    Owens, Kay; Edmonds-Wathen, Cris; Kravia, Geori; Sakopa, Priscilla


    A design of principles for teacher professional learning was developed to improve the teaching of "Cultural Mathematics" in elementary schools in Papua New Guinea. The design's appropriateness for PNG elementary schools is the focus of the research implemented through week-long workshops using technology enhancement. Implementation has…

  3. Learning and transition in a culture of professional identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine


    It has been argued that in higher education academic disciplines can be seen as communities of practices. This implies a focus on what constitutes identities in academic culture. In this article I argue that the transition from newcomer to a full participant in a community of practice of physicists......, where old-timers recognize particular playful qualities in newcomers as a legitimate access to a physicist identity. The article discusses how play which physicists connects with a scientific mind can constitute a relational zone of proximal developments in a community of practice as a particular "space...

  4. Learning to bridge the gap between adaptive management and organisational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Stirzaker


    Full Text Available Adaptive management is the problem-solving approach of choice proposed for complex and multistakeholder environments, which are, at best, only partly predictable. We discuss the implications of this approach as applicable to scientists, who have to overcome certain entrained behaviour patterns in order to participate effectively in an adaptive management process. The challenge does not end there. Scientists and managers soon discover that an adaptive management approach does not only challenge conventional scientific and management behaviour but also clashes with contemporary organisational culture. We explore the shortcomings and requirements of organisations with regard to enabling adaptive management. Our overall conclusion relates to whether organisations are learning-centred or not. Do we continue to filter out unfamiliar information which does not fit our world view and avoid situations where we might fail, or do we use new and challenging situations to reframe the question and prepare ourselves for continued learning? Conservation implications: For an organisation to effectively embrace adaptive management, its mangers and scientists may first have to adapt their own beliefs regarding their respective roles. Instead of seeking certainty for guiding decisions, managers and scientists should acknowledge a degree of uncertainty inherent to complex social and ecological systems and seek to learn from the patterns emerging from every decision and action. The required organisational culture is one of ongoing and purposeful learning with all relevant stakeholders. Such a learning culture is often talked about but rarely practised in the organisational environment.

  5. You Can Learn Something Every Day! Children Talk about Learning in Kindergarten--Traces of Learning Cultures (United States)

    Alvestad, Marit


    Discussion of learning in the kindergarten context is growing both in Norway and internationally. This article focuses on some central aspects of learning described by groups of children aged 4-6 years, in three Norwegian kindergartens. The research concerns children's descriptions of aspects of learning experienced in their everyday life in…

  6. E-learning in University: a case of study on cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Lorusso


    Full Text Available How much important and fundamental instruments, formation and information methods, different from the traditional ones in the different fields of human and experimental sciences, are today and will be in the future, is highlightened in this article. According to this, some problems typical of our instructive institutions (such as universities, public administrations, factories and their relevant possible solutions are underlined. These solutions can be achieved thanks to the introduction of the "e-learning" i.e. the possibility of learning through the web. It is important to note that the usage of data processing systems and telecom technologies could improve the access to the learning resources and to meet the different requirements. A case that can be considered emblematic, with reference to our specific experience, is represented by the cultural heritage field and by the university teledidactic and telecom courses as "Cultural heritage Operator".

  7. In vitro zygotic embryo culture of Pinus peuce Gris.: Optimization of culture conditions affecting germination and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Dragana


    Full Text Available This study reports a protocol for the germination and early seedling growth of Pinus peuce Gris. using zygotic embryo culture. In order to overcome seed dormancy and optimize organogenesis, the effect of nutritional, plant growth regulatory and physical factors on in vitro germination and growth of isolated mature zygotic embryos of P. peuce were investigated.

  8. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk from Clinically Affected Cows by PCR and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter


    -negative on intestinal mucosa, but culture-positive in milk, and both faeces and milk were negative in culture and PCR from 2 cows. In conclusion the presence of M. a. paratuberculosis could be detected in raw milk by PCR but cultivation of milk was more sensitive in detecting the organism.......Milk and faecal samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated in varied numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in 8 of 11...... animals. In milk from 5 cows (all faecal culture-positive) we cultivated a few colonies of M. a. paratuberculosis (less than 100 CFU per mi). Milk samples from 2 cows were PCR-positive (both animals were faecal culture-positive, and 1 cow was milk culture positive). One cow was culture...

  9. Culture medium type affects endocytosis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in BEAS-2B cells and subsequent biological response. (United States)

    Haniu, Hisao; Saito, Naoto; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Maruyama, Kayo; Usui, Yuki; Aoki, Kaoru; Takanashi, Seiji; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Nomura, Hiroki; Okamoto, Masanori; Shimizu, Masayuki; Kato, Hiroyuki


    We examined the cytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the resulting cytokine secretion in BEAS-2B cells or normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs) in two types of culture media (Ham's F12 containing 10% FBS [Ham's F12] and serum-free growth medium [SFGM]). Cellular uptake of MWCNT was observed by fluorescent microscopy and analyzed using flow cytometry. Moreover, we evaluated whether MWCNT uptake was suppressed by 2 types of endocytosis inhibitors. We found that BEAS-2B cells cultured in Ham's F12 and HBEpCs cultured in SFGM showed similar biological responses, but BEAS-2B cells cultured in SFGM did not internalize MWCNTs, and the 50% inhibitory concentration value, i.e., the cytotoxicity, was increased by more than 10-fold. MWCNT uptake was suppressed by a clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor and a caveolae-mediated endocytosis inhibitor in BEAS-2B cells cultured in Ham's F12 and HBEpCs cultured in SFGM. In conclusion, we suggest that BEAS-2B cells cultured in a medium containing serum should be used for the safety evaluation of nanomaterials as a model of normal human bronchial epithelial cells. However, the culture medium composition may affect the proteins that are expressed on the cytoplasmic membrane, which may influence the biological response to MWCNTs.

  10. Educational Organisations as "Cultures of Consumption": Cultural Contexts of Consumer Learning in Schools (United States)

    Fischer, Daniel


    High levels of consumption in the industrialised parts of the world such as Europe mark a central threat to global sustainable development. In recent years, growing attention has been paid to the contributions of education and educational organisations to the socialisation of youths and young adults into consumer culture. It is the contention of…

  11. Learning by Experience in a Standardized Testing Culture: Investigation of a Middle School Experiential Learning Program (United States)

    Scogin, Stephen C.; Kruger, Christopher J.; Jekkals, Regan E.; Steinfeldt, Chelsea


    Standardized testing pressure sometimes discourages schools from broadly implementing experiential learning opportunities. However, some K-12 schools are challenging the trend with greater commitment to learning by experience. STREAM (science, technology, reading, engineering, arts, mathematics) school is a project-based program providing students…

  12. A Case Study of the Experiences of Instructors and Students in a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) with Different Cultural Backgrounds (United States)

    Lim, Keol; Kim, Mi Hwa


    The use of virtual learning environments (VLEs) has become more common and educators recognized the potential of VLEs as educational environments. The learning community in VLEs can be a mixture of people from all over the world with different cultural backgrounds. However, despite many studies about the use of virtual environments for learning,…

  13. The Effectiveness of Local Culture-Based Mathematical Heuristic-KR Learning towards Enhancing Student's Creative Thinking Skill (United States)

    Tandiseru, Selvi Rajuaty


    The problem in this research is the lack of creative thinking skills of students. One of the learning models that is expected to enhance student's creative thinking skill is the local culture-based mathematical heuristic-KR learning model (LC-BMHLM). Heuristic-KR is a learning model which was introduced by Krulik and Rudnick (1995) that is the…

  14. Challenging the Western Approach to Cultural Comparisons: Young Pupils' Affective Structures Regarding Mathematics in Finland and Chile (United States)

    Tuohilampi, Laura; Hannula, Markku S.; Varas, Leonor; Giaconi, Valentina; Laine, Anu; Näveri, Liisa; i Nevado, Laia Saló


    Large-scale studies measure mathematics-related affect using questionnaires developed by researchers in primarily English-based countries and according to Western-based theories. Influential comparative conclusions about different cultures and countries are drawn based on such measurements. However, there are certain premises involved in these…

  15. General and Specific Culture Learning in EFL Textbooks Aimed at Adult Learners in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Antonio R. Raigón


    Full Text Available Since language teaching in modern-day society is closely linked to cultural instruction, this study employs the model of a cultural learning analysis based on the earlier work of Paige and Lee. Using this model, the authors analysed the cultural content of six B1 and B2-level textbooks for teaching English to adults in Spain, and carried out a comparative study of the results, contrasting the two levels. Findings show that the subjective aspects of culture receive less coverage in textbooks, despite being fundamental to an understanding of the values of a society. Regarding the comparison between B1 and B2 levels, the data indicate that the number of big “C” Culture occurrences is similar for both levels, although there are differences in other cultural aspects. So, for example, culture in general is dealt with more at the B1 level, whereas small “c” culture is dealt with more at the B2 level.

  16. Oxygen availability strongly affects chronological lifespan and thermotolerance in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M.M. Bisschops


    Full Text Available Stationary-phase (SP batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which growth has been arrested by carbon-source depletion, are widely applied to study chronological lifespan, quiescence and SP-associated robustness. Based on this type of experiments, typically performed under aerobic conditions, several roles of oxygen in aging have been proposed. However, SP in anaerobic yeast cultures has not been investigated in detail. Here, we use the unique capability of S. cerevisiae to grow in the complete absence of oxygen to directly compare SP in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor cultures. This comparison revealed strong positive effects of oxygen availability on adenylate energy charge, longevity and thermotolerance during SP. A low thermotolerance of anaerobic batch cultures was already evident during the exponential growth phase and, in contrast to the situation in aerobic cultures, was not substantially increased during transition into SP. A combination of physiological and transcriptome analysis showed that the slow post-diauxic growth phase on ethanol, which precedes SP in aerobic, but not in anaerobic cultures, endowed cells with the time and resources needed for inducing longevity and thermotolerance. When combined with literature data on acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance in retentostat cultures, the present study indicates that the fast transition from glucose excess to SP in anaerobic cultures precludes acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of a preceding, calorie-restricted conditioning phase in the acquisition of longevity and stress tolerance in SP yeast cultures, irrespective of oxygen availability.

  17. Theorizing Affect in Foreign Language Learning: An Analysis of One Learner's Responses to a Communicative Portuguese Course (United States)

    Garrett, Paula; Young, Richard F.


    In this study we explore a student's affective responses to classroom foreign language learning. In 2 meetings each week throughout an 8-week Portuguese course for beginners, the first author described her language learning experiences to the second author. Sessions were transcribed and then coded and analyzed. A theoretical model grounded in the…

  18. Social Support as a Neglected E-Learning Motivator Affecting Trainee's Decisions of Continuous Intentions of Usage (United States)

    Weng, Cathy; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Weng, Apollo


    Drawing from the social influence theory and acknowledging that the others' support within the work context affects employees' learning, values, and behaviours, an alternative framework was proposed to explain employees' learning satisfaction and future intention to participate in e-training programs in the current study. 578 survey data collected…

  19. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Learning Integrated with Metacognitive Prompts on Students' Affective Skills (United States)

    Tatar, Nilgün; Akpinar, Ercan; Feyzioglu, Eylem Yildiz


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-assisted learning integrated with metacognitive prompts on elementary students' affective skills on the subject of electricity. The researchers developed educational software to enable students to easily and comprehensively learn the concepts in the subject of electricity. A…

  20. Factors Affecting Student Success in Distance Learning Courses at a Local California Community College: Joint Governance Perspectives (United States)

    Gonzalez, Luis A.


    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of staff and faculty regarding factors affecting student success in distance learning at a California community college (CCC). Participants were members of the leadership group known as the distance learning committee. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using open-ended…