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Sample records for affects colonic ion

  1. Colonic epithelial ion transport is not affected in patients with diverticulosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tilotta Maria C; Kaltoft Nicolai; Poulsen Steen S; Bindslev Niels; Osbak Philip S; Hansen Mark B

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Colonic diverticular disease is a bothersome condition with an unresolved pathogenesis. It is unknown whether a neuroepithelial dysfunction is present. The aim of the study was two-fold; (1) to investigate colonic epithelial ion transport in patients with diverticulosis and (2) to adapt a miniaturized Modified Ussing Air-Suction (MUAS) chamber for colonic endoscopic biopsies. Methods Biopsies were obtained from the sigmoid part of the colon. 86 patients were included. All ...

  2. Colonic epithelial ion transport is not affected in patients with diverticulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilotta Maria C

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colonic diverticular disease is a bothersome condition with an unresolved pathogenesis. It is unknown whether a neuroepithelial dysfunction is present. The aim of the study was two-fold; (1 to investigate colonic epithelial ion transport in patients with diverticulosis and (2 to adapt a miniaturized Modified Ussing Air-Suction (MUAS chamber for colonic endoscopic biopsies. Methods Biopsies were obtained from the sigmoid part of the colon. 86 patients were included. All patients were referred for colonoscopy on suspicion of neoplasia and they were without pathological findings at colonoscopy (controls except for diverticulosis in 22 (D-patients. Biopsies were mounted in MUAS chambers with an exposed area of 5 mm2. Electrical responses to various stimulators and inhibitors of ion transport were investigated together with histological examination. The MUAS chamber was easy to use and reproducible data were obtained. Results Median basal short circuit current (SCC was 43.8 μA·cm-2 (0.8 – 199 for controls and 59.3 μA·cm-2 (3.0 – 177.2 for D-patients. Slope conductance was 77.0 mS·cm-2 (18.6 – 204.0 equal to 13 Ω·cm2 for controls and 96.6 mS·cm-2 (8.4 – 191.4 equal to 10.3 Ω·cm2 for D-patients. Stimulation with serotonin, theophylline, forskolin and carbachol induced increases in SCC in a range of 4.9 – 18.6 μA·cm-2, while inhibition with indomethacin, bumetanide, ouabain and amiloride decreased SCC in a range of 6.5 – 27.4 μA·cm-2, and all with no significant differences between controls and D-patients. Histological examinations showed intact epithelium and lamina propria before and after mounting for both types of patients. Conclusion We conclude that epithelial ion transport is not significantly altered in patients with diverticulosis and that the MUAS chamber can be adapted for studies of human colonic endoscopic biopsies.

  3. Colonic epithelial ion transport is not affected in patients with diverticulosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip S; Bindslev, Niels; Poulsen, Steen S;

    2007-01-01

    to use and reproducible data were obtained. RESULTS: Median basal short circuit current (SCC) was 43.8 microA x cm(-2) (0.8 - 199) for controls and 59.3 microA x cm(-2) (3.0 - 177.2) for D-patients. Slope conductance was 77.0 mS x cm(-2) (18.6 - 204.0) equal to 13 Omega x cm(2) for controls and 96...... 6.5 - 27.4 microA x cm(-2), and all with no significant differences between controls and D-patients. Histological examinations showed intact epithelium and lamina propria before and after mounting for both types of patients. CONCLUSION: We conclude that epithelial ion transport is not significantly...

  4. Hypoxia inhibits colonic ion transport via activation of AMP kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal hypoxia is a common endpoint for many pathological processes including ischemic colitis, colonic obstruction and anastomotic failure. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia modulates colonic mucosal function through inhibition of chloride secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic energy regulator found in a wide variety of cells and has been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mediated chloride secretion in several different tissues. We hypothesized that AMPK mediates many of the acute effects of hypoxia on human and rat colonic electrolyte transport. METHODS: The fluorescent chloride indicator dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide was used to measure changes in intracellular chloride concentrations in isolated single rat colonic crypts. Ussing chamber experiments in human colonic mucosa were conducted to evaluate net epithelial ion transport. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that acute hypoxia inhibits electrogenic chloride secretion via AMPK mediated inhibition of CFTR. Pre-treatment of tissues with the AMPK inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) in part reversed the effects of acute hypoxia on chloride secretion. CONCLUSION: We therefore suggest that AMPK is a key component of the adaptive cellular response to mucosal hypoxia in the colon. Furthermore, AMPK may represent a potential therapeutic target in diseased states or in prevention of ischemic intestinal injury.

  5. Novel aspects of cholinergic regulation of colonic ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Sandra; Diener, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Nicotinic receptors are not only expressed by excitable tissues, but have been identified in various epithelia. One aim of this study was to investigate the expression of nicotinic receptors and their involvement in the regulation of ion transport across colonic epithelium. Ussing chamber experiments with putative nicotinic agonists and antagonists were performed at rat colon combined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of nicotinic receptor subunits within the epithelium. Dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) and nicotine induced a tetrodotoxin-resistant anion secretion leading to an increase in short-circuit current (I sc) across colonic mucosa. The response was suppressed by the nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium. RT-PCR experiments revealed the expression of α2, α4, α5, α6, α7, α10, and β4 nicotinic receptor subunits in colonic epithelium. Choline, the product of acetylcholine hydrolysis, is known for its affinity to several nicotinic receptor subtypes. As a strong acetylcholinesterase activity was found in colonic epithelium, the effect of choline on I sc was examined. Choline induced a concentration-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant chloride secretion which was, however, resistant against hexamethonium, but was inhibited by atropine. Experiments with inhibitors of muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors revealed that choline-evoked secretion was mainly due to a stimulation of epithelial M3 receptors. Although choline proved to be only a partial agonist, it concentration-dependently desensitized the response to acetylcholine, suggesting that it might act as a modulator of cholinergically induced anion secretion. Thus the cholinergic regulation of colonic ion transport - up to now solely explained by cholinergic submucosal neurons stimulating epithelial muscarinic receptors - is more complex than previously assumed. PMID:26236483

  6. Berberine inhibition of electrogenic ion transport in rat colon.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C T; Baird, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of the alkaloid berberine on basal and stimulated ion transport were investigated in voltage-clamped rat colonic epithelia. 2. Berberine (100-500 microM) reduced basal short circuit current (SCC) when applied basolaterally but not when applied apically. 3. SCC responses to mast cell activation by anti-rat IgE were significantly attenuated in the presence of berberine. 4. Berberine, applied to the basolateral bathing solution, also reduced SCC responses to the following agents w...

  7. Luminal oxidants selectively modulate electrogenic ion transport in rat colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julio M Mayol; Yolanda Adame-Navarrete; Pilar Alarma-Estrany; Elena Molina-Roldan; Fernando Huete-Toral; Jesus A Fernandez-Represa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of luminal exposure to H2O2 and two related thiol oxidizing agents on basal and stimulated chloride secretion in native colon using electrophysiological and pharmacological approaches.METHODS: Unstripped rat distal colon segments were mounted in Ussing chambers. Potential difference, cal culated resistance and short-circuit current across unstripped colon segments were monitored with a dual voltage/current clamp. Paracellular permeability was assessed by measuring the mucosa-to-serosa flux of a fluorescent probe (FITC).RESULTS: Luminal exposure to hydrogen peroxide transitorily stimulated chloride secretion without altering barrier function. This stimulatory effect could be blocked by basolateral atropine but not indomethacin. The cysteine and methionine oxidizing compounds, phenylarsine oxide and chloramine T respectively, mimicked the effect of H2O2, except for a drop in transcolonic resistance after 30 min. In contrast to the observed stimulatory effect on basal secretion, cAMP-stimulated electrogenic ion trans port was blunted by luminal H2O2. However, the Ca2+-activated response remained unchanged.CONCLUSION: H2O2 may be an important selective modulator of intestinal ion and water secretion in certain pathologic conditions such as inflammation or ischemiareperfusion by multiple mechanisms.

  8. Propionate alters ion transport by rabbit distal colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary anions of the colon are short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by intestinal microorganisms from endogenous secretions and dietary fiber. The effects of the SCFA propionate on ion transport by the epithelium of rabbit distal colon were studied on tissues stripped of underlying musculature and mounted in Ussing chambers. When tissues were bathed with NaCl Ringer's solutions at 370C (5% CO2-21mM HCO3, pH 7.4) replacement of 33mM Cl- in both tissue baths by propionate reduced short-circuit current (Isc) from 86 to 35 μA/cm2 and increased transepithelial conductance (G/sub t/) from 3.6 to 5.6mS/cm2. Unidirectional 14C-propionate flux measurements revealed that this ion was secreted at a rate of 0.5μEq/cm2hr. Intracellular measurements with potential and pH sensitive microelectrodes showed that propionate reduced intracellular pH (PH/sub i/) from 6.84 to 6.68 (P 2, decreased G/sub t/ to 5.3mS/cm2, hyperpolarized phi/sub a/ by 5mV (P + secretion

  9. Modulation of ion transport across rat distal colon by cysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MartinDiener

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the actions of stimulation of endogenous production of H2S by cysteine, the substrate for the two H2S-producing enzymes, cystathionin-beta-synthase and cystathionin-gamma-lyase, on ion transport across rat distal colon. Changes in short-circuit current (Isc induced by cysteine were measured in Ussing chambers. Free cysteine caused a concentration-dependent, transient fall in Isc, which was sensitive to amino-oxyacetate and beta-cyano-L-alanine, i.e. inhibitors of H2S-producing enzymes. In contrast, Na cysteinate evoked a biphasic change in Isc, i.e. an initial fall followed by a secondary increase, which was also reduced by these enzyme inhibitors. All responses were dependent on the presence of Cl- and inhibited by bumetanide, suggesting that free cysteine induces an inhibition of transcellular Cl- secretion, whereas Na cysteinate – after a transient inhibitory phase – activates anion secretion. The assumed reason for this discrepancy is a fall in the cytosolic pH induced by free cysteine, but not by Na cysteinate, as observed in isolated colonic crypts loaded with the pH-sensitive dye, BCECF. Intracellular acidification is known to inhibit epithelial K+ channels. Indeed, after preinhibition of basolateral K+ channels with tetrapentylammonium or Ba2+, the negative Isc induced by free cysteine was reduced significantly. In consequence, stimulation of endogenous H2S production by Na cysteinate causes, after a short inhibitory response, a delayed activation of anion secretion, which is missing in the case of free cysteine, probably due to the cytosolic acidification. In contrast, diallyl trisulfide, which is intracellularly converted to H2S, only evoked a monophasic increase in Isc without the initial fall observed with Na cysteinate. Consequently, time course and amount of produced H2S seem to strongly influence the functional response of the colonic epithelium evoked by this gasotransmitter.

  10. Propionate alters ion transport by rabbit distal colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, P.J.; Weiser, M.M.; Duffey, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    The primary anions of the colon are short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by intestinal microorganisms from endogenous secretions and dietary fiber. The effects of the SCFA propionate on ion transport by the epithelium of rabbit distal colon were studied on tissues stripped of underlying musculature and mounted in Ussing chambers. When tissues were bathed with NaCl Ringer's solutions at 37/sup 0/C (5% CO/sub 2/-21mM HCO/sub 3/, pH 7.4) replacement of 33mM Cl/sup -/ in both tissue baths by propionate reduced short-circuit current (Isc) from 86 to 35 ..mu..A/cm/sup 2/ and increased transepithelial conductance (G/sub t/) from 3.6 to 5.6mS/cm/sup 2/. Unidirectional /sup 14/C-propionate flux measurements revealed that this ion was secreted at a rate of 0.5..mu..Eq/cm/sup 2/hr. Intracellular measurements with potential and pH sensitive microelectrodes showed that propionate reduced intracellular pH (PH/sub i/) from 6.84 to 6.68 (P < 0.02), depolarized the apical membrane potential (phi/sub a/) by 4mV (P < 0.02) and decreased the membrane fractional resistance (f/sub R/) from .78 to .71 (P < 0.001). Addition of 0.1mM amiloride to the mucosal bath reversed Isc to -18..mu..A/cm/sup 2/, decreased G/sub t/ to 5.3mS/cm/sup 2/, hyperpolarized phi/sub a/ by 5mV (P < 0.05) and increased f/sub R/ to 0.85 (P < 0.001). Amiloride had no effect on pH/sub i/. These results show that propionate can be secreted by rabbit distal colon and that exposure to this SCFA causes cell acidification and electrophysiological changes consistent with H/sup +/ secretion.

  11. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Siobhan Yvonne; O'Mahony, Siobhain Mary; Grenham, Susan; Cryan, John Francis; Hyland, Niall Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders. PMID:24367692

  12. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Yvonne Carroll

    Full Text Available The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders.

  13. FAK and HAS Inhibition Synergistically Decrease Colon Cancer Cell Viability and Affect Expression of Critical Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Heffler, Melissa; Golubovskaya, Vita; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William; Dunn, Kelli B.

    2013-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hyaluronan (HA), and hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3) have been implicated in cancer growth and progression. FAK inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. HAS3 inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases FAK expression and activation, and exogenous HA increases FAK activation. We sought to determine the genes affected by HAS and FAK inhibition and hypothesized that dual inhibition would synergistically inh...

  14. Biotic interactions affect the colonization behavior of aquatic detritivorous macroinvertebrates in a heterogeneous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschut, Thomas A.; Meineri, Eric; Basset, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    It has previously been suggested that macroinvertebrates actively search for suitable patches to colonize. However, it is not well understood how the spatial arrangement of patches can affect colonization rates. In this study, we determined the importance of the environmental factors (distance, connectivity and resource availability) for patch colonization in an experimental system using Gammarus aequicauda (Amphipoda), Lekanesphaera hookeri (Isopoda) and Ecrobia ventrosa (Gastropoda). Furthermore, we also assessed how the relative importance of each of these environmental factors differed in interactions between the three species. The single species experiments showed that distance was the most important factor for G. aequicauda and E. ventrosa. However, while E. ventrosa preferred patches close to the release point, G. aequicauda strongly preferred patches further from the release point. High resource availability was a strong determinant for the patch colonization of G. aequicauda and L. hookeri. Connectivity was only of moderate importance in the study system for L. hookeri and E. ventrosa. The effects of the environmental factors were strongly affected by interspecific interactions in the multispecies experiments. For G. aequicauda, the distance preference was lowered in the presence of E. ventrosa. Moreover, while for L. hookeri the effect of resource availability was ruled out by the species interactions, resource availability gained importance for E. ventrosa in the presence of any of the other species. Our results suggest a strong link between environmental factors and biotic interactions in the colonization of habitat patches and indicate that the effect of biotic interactions is especially important for species sharing similar traits.

  15. Fecal calprotectin is equally sensitive in Crohn's disease affecting the small bowel and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Dam; Kjeldsen, Jens; Nathan, Torben

    2011-01-01

    The utility of fecal calprotectin (fCal) in small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) remains to be clarified. The primary aim of this study was to determine levels of fCal in CD restricted to the small bowel compared with CD affecting the colon, in patients undergoing their first diagnostic work-up. In...

  16. Mono-colonization with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects the intestinal metabolome as compared to germ-free mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Wilcks, Andrea; Hjort Skov, Thomas; Granato Villas-Boas, Silas; Licht, Tine Rask

    colonizing bacteria. In this study the effect of the Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM strain was investigated by comparing the metabolome of mono-colonized and germ-free mice in several compartments. By liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, we were able to show that the metabolome differed...... between the mono-colonized and germ-free mice, not only in ileum, caecum and colon, but also in plasma and liver. These observations suggest that L. acidophilus NCFM highly influence the metabolism in multiple compartments, underlying that the gut microbiota metabolism affects the host systemic metabolism....

  17. Factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon have been studied using boron, phosphorus, oxygen, and argon ions having energy range 0.5 ke V-200 ke V. It was found that the range of the ions in silicon increases with the increase of their energy and decreases with the increase of their masses. The ionization process is found to be the main process for causing damage in the silicon matrix whether it is produced by the accelerated ions or by the recoiled silicon atoms. The magnitude of ionization in silicon is found to be inversely proportional to the mass of ions. Ionization produced by ions or recoils shows different contributions to the damage depending on the mass of ions where the ions energy loss to ionization decreases from 70% to 23% as the mass is increased from 11 for boron (B) to 40 for argon (Ar). Its magnitude, as produced by ions, is found to decrease with the increase of their masses. Its value is observed to increase in a complementary way with the mass increase. Ions energy loss to vacancies and phonons is found to be independent of the mass of ions. Their values decrease sharply to a minimum within the energy range 0.5-5ke V and levels off at further energy increase up to 200 Ke V. Recoils energy loss to vacancy and phonon production is found to increase with the increase of mass and energy of the accelerated ions

  18. Factors Affecting Diffusion of Ions in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LICHENG-BAO; YANGDING-QING

    1993-01-01

    In this work the diffusion coefficients of Na+,K+,Ca2+,NO3- and Cl- ions were estimated in terms of measuring apparent direct current (DC) conductivities of latosol,red soil and yellow-brown earth containing,respectively,NaNO3,NCl,and CaCl2 of different concentrations (0.005,0.05,0.10,and 0.15 mol/L) in the case of moisture contents ranging from wet to water saturation.The results showed that when bulk density,moisture content,and electrolyte concentration were constant,the diffusion coefficients of cations were in the order Na+>K+>Ca2+ except for Na+ and K+ in latosol,while the order for anions was NO3->Cl-.The diffusion coefficients (Di) of cations and anions were linearly proportional to volumetric moisture content (θ) as electrolyte concentration and bulk density were unchanged.When moisture content and bulk density were constant,the diffusion coefficients of cations decreased,to varying extents,with the increase of electrolyte concentration,and the decrement in different soils followed the order yellow-brown earth> red soil> latosol,but the decrement order of different cations was Na+>K+>Ca2+.

  19. Regulation of the proliferation of colon cancer cells by compounds that affect glycolysis, including 3-bromopyruvate, 2-deoxyglucose and biguanides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Michael A; Qureshi, Mehreen S; Buxhoeveden, Michael; Gengel, Nicolette; Kleinschmit, Jessica; Desbordes, Charles

    2013-02-01

    In previous studies performed by our group, we observed that 2-deoxyglucose blocked the acidification of the medium used for culture of colon cancer cells caused by incubation with biguanides and it had an additive inhibitory effect on growth. In the present work, we found that 3-bromopyruvate can also prevent the lowering of pH caused by biguanide treatment. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibited colonic cancer cell proliferation, but the effect was not always additive to that of biguanides and an additive effect was more notable in combined treatment with 3-bromopyruvate and 2-deoxyglucose. The induction of alkaline phosphatase activity by butyrate was not consistently affected by combination with other agents that modified glucose metabolism. The drug combinations that were examined inhibited proliferation of wild-type and p53-null cells and affected colonic cancer lines with different growth rates. PMID:23393330

  20. Keratin23 (KRT23 knockdown decreases proliferation and affects the DNA damage response of colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Birkenkamp-Demtröder

    Full Text Available Keratin 23 (KRT23 is strongly expressed in colon adenocarcinomas but absent in normal colon mucosa. Array based methylation profiling of 40 colon samples showed that the promoter of KRT23 was methylated in normal colon mucosa, while hypomethylated in most adenocarcinomas. Promoter methylation correlated with absent expression, while increased KRT23 expression in tumor samples correlated with promoter hypomethylation, as confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. Demethylation induced KRT23 expression in vitro. Expression profiling of shRNA mediated stable KRT23 knockdown in colon cancer cell lines showed that KRT23 depletion affected molecules of the cell cycle and DNA replication, recombination and repair. In vitro analyses confirmed that KRT23 depletion significantly decreased the cellular proliferation of SW948 and LS1034 cells and markedly decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA damage response, mainly molecules of the double strand break repair homologous recombination pathway. KRT23 knockdown decreased the transcript and protein expression of key molecules as e.g. MRE11A, E2F1, RAD51 and BRCA1. Knockdown of KRT23 rendered colon cancer cells more sensitive to irradiation and reduced proliferation of the KRT23 depleted cells compared to irradiated control cells.

  1. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in rat colon, which is affected by dietary fructo-oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, G.C.H.; Keijer, J.; Kramer, E.H.M.; Roosing, S.; Vink, C.; Katan, M.B.; Meer, van der R.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. Howeve

  2. [Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Affects U0126-Induced Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT116)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljujic, M; Mijatovic, S; Bulatovic, M Z; Mojic, M; Maksimovic-Ivanic, D; Radojkovic, D; Topic, A

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), an acute phase protein, is the principal circulatory anti-protease. This multifunctional protein is encoded by the SERPINA1 gene. Although AAT was recognised as a potential tumour marker, its role in cancer biology remains unknown. Given that it has been demonstrated that AAT has an anti-apoptotic property against non-malignant cells, we aimed to investigate whether AAT affects apoptosis in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116). The presence of AAT in the HCT116 cell culture antagonized cytotoxicity of blockers of MEK1/2, PI3K/Akt pathways as well as NF-κB. The dominantly recovered cell viability was observed in the co-treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. In addition, it was revealed that AAT almost completely abolished U0126-induced apoptosis through maintenance of the autophagy process. Our study revealed for the first time that the observed cyto-protection triggered by AAT was accompanied by sustained autophagy which opposed apoptosis. These results may contribute to understanding of the role of AAT in cancer development and evaluation of efficacy of cancer therapy. PMID:27028823

  3. Sucrose, glucose and fructose have similar genotoxicity in the rat colon and affect the metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Baunsgaard, D.; Autrup, H.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Møller, P.; Lindecrona, R.; Wallin, H.; Poulsen, H. E.; Loft, S.; Dragsted, L. O.

    2008-01-01

    proliferation were determined in colon, and a metabonomic analysis was performed in plasma and urine. The sugars increased the mutation rates in colon and the bulky adduct levels in colon and liver to a similar extent. All sugars decrease the caecal concentration of acetic acid and propionic acid. The......% sucrose, glucose, fructose or potato starch as part of the diet. Mutation rates and bulky DNA adduct levels were determined in colon and liver. The concentration of short-chain fatty acids and pH were deter-mined in caecum, C-peptide was determined in plasma, biomarkers for oxidative damage and...... metabonomic studies indicated disturbed amino acid metabolism and decrease in plasma and urinary acetate as a common feature for all sugars and confirmed triglyceridemic effects of fructose. In conclusion, the genotoxicity may be related to the altered chemical environment in the caecum and thereby also in...

  4. Chemical ions affect survival of avian cholera organisms in pondwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.I.; Yandell, B.S.; Porter, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) is a major disease of wild waterfowl, but its epizootiology remains little understood. Consequently, we examined whether chemical ions affected survival of avian cholera organisms in water collected from the Nebraska Rainwater Basin where avian cholera is enzootic. We tested the response of P. multocida to ammonium (NH4), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), nitrate (NO3), and ortho-phosphate (PO4) ions individually and in combination using a fractional factorial design divided into 4 blocks. High concentrations of Ca and Mg, singly or in combination, increased survival of P. multocida organisms (P < 0.001). We developed a survival index to predict whether or not specific ponds could be "problem" or "nonproblem" avian cholera sites based on concentrations of these ions in the water.

  5. Factors affecting the molybdenum line slope by reactive ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors affecting the slope of the reactive ion etched molybdenum line have been studied with a simulation method and with experiments. Plasma chemistry and process parameters of the CF4/O2 mixture for the molybdenum etch have been examined. The theoretical calculation matches experimental results. Surface topography and composition of the etched molybdenum have been analyzed. A highly sloped molybdenum profile can be obtained by using the RIE method with a large process window

  6. Idiopathic and secondary acquired megacolon in dogs is associated with diminished vasoactive intestinal polypeptide innervation of the affected colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokić B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that megacolon in carnivores, including both cats and dogs, is a common finding. Megacolon occurs more often in the cat that the dog. Based on current data idiopathic megacolon is a common cause of constipation in cats (62% of constipated cats are affected by diopathic megacolon. There is no evidence of idiopathic megacolon in dogs and publications about this disease in this species is very scarce. We investigated the enteric nervous system in the dilated portion (DP of the colon in dogs with idiopathic aquired (n=7 or secondary aquired megacolon (n=21 and compared the results with a normal colon in control dogs (n=3. Colonic sections of surgical specimens were investigated by conventional and immunohistochemical methods, including pan-neuronal markers (NSE, synaptophisin, and neurofilament and VIP, as well as S-100 protein for detection of ganglionic glial cells. Compared to controls, the two megacolon groups showed no changes of density of enteric neurons in both submucosal and myenteric nervous plexuses in DP of the colon and of enteric glial cells. However, compared to controls and dogs with secondary megacolon, there was a significant decrease in the density of NFP-ir nerve fibers in the longitudinal muscle layer in dogs with idiopathic acquired megacolon. In addition, dogs with idiopathic megacolon display decreased VIP-ir in the myenteric plexus and lamina propria mucosae, and absence of VIP-ir neurons in the submucosal plexus of DP of the colon. Similar alterations, although of lesser severity, may be found in dogs with secondary aquired megacolon. We consider that both idiopathic and secondary aquired megacolon might occur on the basis of a dysplastic changes of VIP-ir enteric neurons.

  7. Clinical procedure for colon carcinoma tissue sampling directly affects the cancer marker-capacity of VEGF family members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    mRNA levels of members of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor family (VEGF-A, -B, -C, -D, Placental Growth Factor/PlGF) have been investigated as tissue-based markers of colon cancer. These studies, which used specimens obtained by surgical resection or colonoscopic biopsy, yielded contradictory results. We studied the effect of the sampling method on the marker accuracy of VEGF family members. Comparative RT-qPCR analysis was performed on healthy colon and colon carcinoma samples obtained by biopsy (n = 38) or resection (n = 39) to measure mRNA expression levels of individual VEGF family members. mRNA levels of genes encoding the eicosanoid enzymes cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and of genes encoding the hypoxia markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) were included as markers for cellular stress and hypoxia. Expression levels of COX2, 5-LOX, GLUT-1 and CAIX revealed the occurrence in healthy colon resection samples of hypoxic cellular stress and a concurrent increment of basal expression levels of VEGF family members. This increment abolished differential expression of VEGF-B and VEGF-C in matched carcinoma resection samples and created a surgery-induced underexpression of VEGF-D. VEGF-A and PlGF showed strong overexpression in carcinoma samples regardless of the sampling method. Sampling-induced hypoxia in resection samples but not in biopsy samples affects the marker-reliability of VEGF family members. Therefore, biopsy samples provide a more accurate report on VEGF family mRNA levels. Furthermore, this limited expression analysis proposes VEGF-A and PlGF as reliable, sampling procedure insensitive mRNA-markers for molecular diagnosis of colon cancer

  8. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase 1 Affects Host-Derived Immunopathology during Microbial Colonization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, G.; Severo, M. S.; Sakhon, O. S.; Choy, A.; Herron, M. J.; Felsheim, R. F.; Wiryawan, H.; Liao, J.; Johns, J. L.; Munderloh, U. G.; Sutterwala, F. S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 9 (2012), s. 3194-3205. ISSN 0019-9567 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ricketsia * microbial colonization * immunopathology * inflammation * signaling pathways Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.074, year: 2012 http://iai.asm.org/content/80/9/3194

  9. Antimicrobial resistances do not affect colonization parameters of intestinal E. coli in a small piglet group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schierack Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although antimicrobial resistance and persistence of resistant bacteria in humans and animals are major health concerns worldwide, the impact of antimicrobial resistance on bacterial intestinal colonization in healthy domestic animals has only been rarely studied. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status and the presence of resistance genes in intestinal commensal E. coli clones from clinically healthy pigs from one production unit with particular focus on effects of pheno- and/or genotypic resistance on different nominal and numerical intestinal colonization parameters. In addition, we compared the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes with the occurrence of virulence associated genes typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Results In general, up to 72.1% of all E. coli clones were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole or tetracycline with a variety of different resistance genes involved. There was no significant correlation between one of the nominal or numerical colonization parameters and the absence or presence of antimicrobial resistance properties or resistance genes. However, there were several statistically significant associations between the occurrence of single resistance genes and single virulence associated genes. Conclusion The demonstrated resistance to the tested antibiotics might not play a dominant role for an intestinal colonization success in pigs in the absence of antimicrobial drugs, or cross-selection of other colonization factors e.g. virulence associated genes might compensate "the cost of antibiotic resistance". Nevertheless, resistant strains are not outcompeted by susceptible bacteria in the porcine intestine. Trial Registration The study was approved by the local animal welfare committee of the "Landesamt für Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit" Berlin

  10. Risk factors affecting nasal colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus when admitted in intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiang; Zhuang Taifeng; Lin Ying; Xi Jingjing; Yao Gaiqi

    2014-01-01

    Background Colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a risk factor for subsequent invasive MRSA infection,particularly in patients admitted for critical care.The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors affecting nasal colonization of MRSA in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU).Methods Between August 1,2011 and June 30,2012,we screened for MRSA nasal colonization in 350 patients by Real-time PCR within 24 hours of admission by means of swab samples taken from the anterior nares.According to the results of PCR,the patients were divided into 2 groups:the positive group with nasal MRSA colonization and the negative group without nasal MRSA colonization.The 31 (8.86%) patients were MRSA positive.The risk factors evaluated included thirteen variables,which were analyzed by t test for continuous variables and X2 test for discrete variables.The variables with significance (P <0.05) were analyzed with stepwise Logistic regression.Results There were differences (P <0.05) in four variables between two groups.The duration of stay in hospital prior to ICU admission in the positive group was (35.7±16.1) days,vs.(4.5±3.1) days in the negative group.The average blood albumin level was (28.4±2.9) g/L in the positive group,vs.(30.5±4.3) g/L in the negative group.Of 31 patients in the positive group,seven had been treated with antibiotics longer than seven days vs.34 of 319 patients in the negative group.In the positive group,four of 31 patients received treatment with more than two classes of antibiotics prior to admission in ICU,contrasted to 13 of 319 patients in the negative group.Furthermore,stepwise Logistic regression analysis for these four variables indicates that the duration of stay in hospital prior to ICU admission may be an independent risk factor.Conclusions MRSA colonization in ICU admission may be related to many factors.The duration of stay in hospital prior to ICU admission is an independent risk

  11. Keratin23 (KRT23) knockdown decreases proliferation and affects the DNA damage response of colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Hahn, Stephan; Mansilla, Francisco; Thorsen, Kasper; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Christensen, Rikke; Øster, Bodil; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2013-01-01

    Keratin 23 (KRT23) is strongly expressed in colon adenocarcinomas but absent in normal colon mucosa. Array based methylation profiling of 40 colon samples showed that the promoter of KRT23 was methylated in normal colon mucosa, while hypomethylated in most adenocarcinomas. Promoter methylation...

  12. Methanolic Extracts of Bitter Melon Inhibit Colon Cancer Stem Cells by Affecting Energy Homeostasis and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Kwatra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon fruit is recommended in ancient Indian and Chinese medicine for prevention/treatment of diabetes. However its effects on cancer progression are not well understood. Here, we have determined the efficacy of methanolic extracts of bitter melon on colon cancer stem and progenitor cells. Both, whole fruit (BMW and skin (BMSk extracts showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation, with BMW showing greater efficacy. In addition, the cells were arrested at the S phase of cell cycle. Moreover, BMW induced the cleavage of LC3B but not caspase 3/7, suggesting that the cells were undergoing autophagy and not apoptosis. Further confirmation of autophagy was obtained when western blots showed reduced Bcl-2 and increased Beclin-1, Atg 7 and 12 upon BMW treatment. BMW reduced cellular ATP levels coupled with activation of AMP activated protein kinase; on the other hand, exogenous additions of ATP lead to revival of cell proliferation. Finally, BMW treatment results in a dose-dependent reduction in the number and size of colonospheres. The extracts also decreased the expression of DCLK1 and Lgr5, markers of quiescent, and activated stem cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the extracts of bitter melon can be an effective preventive/therapeutic agent for colon cancer.

  13. Herbivory on macro-algae affects colonization of beach-cast algal wrack by detritivores but not its decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Eereveld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial subsidies have increasingly been considered significant sources of matter and energy to unproductive ecosystems. However, subsidy quality may both differ between subsidizing sources and vary over time. In our studies, sub-littoral herbivory by snails or isopods on red or brown macro-algae induced changes in algal tissues that affected colonization of beach-cast algal wrack by supra-littoral detritivores (amphipods. However, microbial decay and decomposition through the joint action of detritivores and microbes of algal wrack in the supra-littoral remained unaffected by whether or not red or brown algae had been fed upon by snails or isopods. Thus, herbivory on marine macro-algae affects the cross-system connection of sub-littoral and supra-littoral food webs transiently, but these effects diminish upon ageing of macro-algal wrack in the supra-littoral zone.

  14. Impact of metal ion homeostasis of genetically modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and K12 (W3110) strains on colonization properties in the murine intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupz, Andreas; Fischer, André; Nies, Dietrich H; Grass, Gregor; Göbel, Ulf B; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M

    2013-09-01

    Metal ions are integral parts of pro- as well as eukaryotic cell homeostasis. Escherichia coli proved a valuable in vitro model organism to elucidate essential mechanisms involved in uptake, storage, and export of metal ions. Given that E. coli Nissle 1917 is able to overcome murine colonization resistance, we generated several E. coli Nissle 1917 mutants with defects in zinc, iron, copper, nickel, manganese homeostasis and performed a comprehensive survey of the impact of metal ion transport and homeostasis for E. coli colonization capacities within the murine intestinal tract. Seven days following peroral infection of conventional mice with E. coli Nissle 1917 strains exhibiting defined defects in zinc or iron uptake, the respective mutant and parental strains could be cultured at comparable, but low levels from the colonic lumen. We next reassociated gnotobiotic mice in which the microbiota responsible for colonization resistance was abrogated by broad-spectrum antibiotics with six different E. coli K12 (W3110) mutants. Seven days following peroral challenge, each mutant and parental strain stably colonized duodenum, ileum, and colon at comparable levels. Taken together, defects in zinc, iron, copper, nickel, and manganese homeostasis do not compromise colonization capacities of E. coli in the murine intestinal tract. PMID:24265943

  15. Drug membrane transporters and CYP3A4 are affected by hypericin, hyperforin or aristoforin in colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šemeláková, M; Jendželovský, R; Fedoročko, P

    2016-07-01

    Our previous results have shown that the combination of hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (HY-PDT) at sub-optimal dose with hyperforin (HP) (compounds of Hypericum sp.), or its stable derivative aristoforin (AR) stimulates generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to antitumour activity. This enhanced oxidative stress evoked the need for an explanation for HY accumulation in colon cancer cells pretreated with HP or AR. Generally, the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutics is limited by drug resistance related to the overexpression of drug efflux transporters in tumour cells. Therefore, the impact of non-activated hypericin (HY), HY-PDT, HP and AR on cell membrane transporter systems (Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1-MRP1/ABCC1, Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2-MRP2/ABCC2, Breast cancer resistance protein - BCRP/ABCG2, P-glycoprotein-P-gp/ABCC1) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) was evaluated. The different effects of the three compounds on their expression, protein level and activity was determined under specific PDT light (T0+, T6+) or dark conditions (T0- T6-). We found that HP or AR treatment affected the protein levels of MRP2 and P-gp, whereas HP decreased MRP2 and P-gp expression mostly in the T0+ and T6+ conditions, while AR decreased MRP2 in T0- and T6+. Moreover, HY-PDT treatment induced the expression of MRP1. Our data demonstrate that HP or AR treatment in light or dark PDT conditions had an inhibitory effect on the activity of individual membrane transport proteins and significantly decreased CYP3A4 activity in HT-29 cells. We found that HP or AR significantly affected intracellular accumulation of HY in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. These results suggest that HY, HP and AR might affect the efficiency of anti-cancer drugs, through interaction with membrane transporters and CYP3A4. PMID:27261575

  16. Mono-colonization with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects the intestinal metabolome in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper;

    deconjugation and dehydroxylation of bile acids. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine. Especially, the digestion of larger carbohydrates (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Interestingly, we also found vitamin E (α......-tocopherol acetate) in higher levels in the intestine of GF mice compared to MC mice, suggesting that NCFM either metabolizes the compound or indirectly affects the absorption by changing the metabolome in the intestine. The use of NCFM to increase the uptake of vitamin E supplements in humans and animals is a...

  17. Dietary interactions and interventions affecting Escherichia coli 0157 colonization and shedding in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli O157 is an important foodborne pathogen affecting human health and the beef cattle industry. Contamination of carcasses at slaughter is correlated to the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle feces. Many associations have been made between dietary factors and E. coli O157 prevalenc...

  18. Colonic involvement in non-necrotizing acute pancreatitis: correlation of CT findings with the clinical course of affected patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Studler, U.; Buitrago-Tellez, C.H.; Steinbrich, W. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031 Basel (Switzerland); Kocher, T. [Department of Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031 Basel (Switzerland); Degen, L. [Institute of Gastroenterology, University of Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031 Basel (Switzerland)

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe CT findings of colonic involvement in acute non-necrotizing pancreatitis and to analyze the correlation between colonic wall thickening at CT and the clinical course of these patients. The CT examinations of 19 consecutive patients with acute non-necrotizing pancreatitis who were not treated with antibiotics initially were analyzed retrospectively. The severity of acute pancreatitis was categorized according to the CT severity index (CTSI) and the presence of colonic wall thickening at the initial CT was compared with the clinical course of all patients. Seven of 11 patients with a CTSI of 4 showed a colonic wall thickening, whereas the remaining patients with a CTSI of 4 (n=4), CTSI of 3 (n=5), and CTSI of 2 (n=3) showed no colonic abnormalities at CT. Patients with colonic wall thickening presented more often with fever, showed higher levels of infectious parameters, needed more often antibiotic therapy, and had more requests for additional CT examinations and CT-guided fluid aspirations as well as a longer duration of hospital stay as compared with patients without colonic wall involvement, even if the latter presented with the same CTSI initially. It is well known that translocation of the colonic flora may significantly influence the clinical course of patients with acute pancreatitis, and our results indicate that patients with acute pancreatitis who present with colonic wall thickening at CT have an increased risk for a complicated clinical course regarding systemic infection. (orig.)

  19. Colonic involvement in non-necrotizing acute pancreatitis: correlation of CT findings with the clinical course of affected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to describe CT findings of colonic involvement in acute non-necrotizing pancreatitis and to analyze the correlation between colonic wall thickening at CT and the clinical course of these patients. The CT examinations of 19 consecutive patients with acute non-necrotizing pancreatitis who were not treated with antibiotics initially were analyzed retrospectively. The severity of acute pancreatitis was categorized according to the CT severity index (CTSI) and the presence of colonic wall thickening at the initial CT was compared with the clinical course of all patients. Seven of 11 patients with a CTSI of 4 showed a colonic wall thickening, whereas the remaining patients with a CTSI of 4 (n=4), CTSI of 3 (n=5), and CTSI of 2 (n=3) showed no colonic abnormalities at CT. Patients with colonic wall thickening presented more often with fever, showed higher levels of infectious parameters, needed more often antibiotic therapy, and had more requests for additional CT examinations and CT-guided fluid aspirations as well as a longer duration of hospital stay as compared with patients without colonic wall involvement, even if the latter presented with the same CTSI initially. It is well known that translocation of the colonic flora may significantly influence the clinical course of patients with acute pancreatitis, and our results indicate that patients with acute pancreatitis who present with colonic wall thickening at CT have an increased risk for a complicated clinical course regarding systemic infection. (orig.)

  20. Dietary heme-mediated PPARa activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssenagger, N.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Muller, M.R.; Meer, van der R.

    2012-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome anal

  1. Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Effects on Ion Transport across Rat Colonic Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindele, Sabine; Pouokam, Ervice; Diener, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia causes severe damage in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is interesting to study how the barrier and transport functions of intestinal epithelium change under hypoxia and subsequent reoxygenation. For this purpose we simulated hypoxia and reoxygenation on mucosa-submucosa preparations from rat distal colon in Ussing chambers and on isolated crypts. Hypoxia (N2 gassing for 15 min) induced a triphasic change in short-circuit current (Isc): a transient decrease, an increase and finally a long-lasting fall below the initial baseline. During the subsequent reoxygenation phase, Isc slightly rose to values above the initial baseline. Tissue conductance (Gt) showed a biphasic increase during both the hypoxia and the reoxygenation phases. Omission of Cl− or preincubation of the tissue with transport inhibitors revealed that the observed changes in Isc represented changes in Cl− secretion. The radical scavenger trolox C reduced the Isc response during hypoxia, but failed to prevent the rise of Isc during reoxygenation. All changes in Isc were Ca2+-dependent. Fura-2 experiments at loaded isolated colonic crypts revealed a slow increase of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration during hypoxia and the reoxygenation phase, mainly caused by an influx of extracellular Ca2+. Surprisingly, no changes could be detected in the fluorescence of the superoxide anion-sensitive dye mitosox or the thiol-sensitive dye thiol tracker, suggesting a relative high capacity of the colonic epithelium (with its low O2 partial pressure even under physiological conditions) to deal with enhanced radical production during hypoxia/reoxygenation. PMID:27445839

  2. Impact of metal ion homeostasis of genetically modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and K12 (W3110) strains on colonization properties in the murine intestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Kupz, Andreas; Fischer, André; Nies, Dietrich H.; Grass, Gregor; Göbel, Ulf B.; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2013-01-01

    Metal ions are integral parts of pro- as well as eukaryotic cell homeostasis. Escherichia coli proved a valuable in vitro model organism to elucidate essential mechanisms involved in uptake, storage, and export of metal ions. Given that E. coli Nissle 1917 is able to overcome murine colonization resistance, we generated several E. coli Nissle 1917 mutants with defects in zinc, iron, copper, nickel, manganese homeostasis and performed a comprehensive survey of the impact of m...

  3. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... often lead to a complete cure. Almost all colon cancers start in the lining of the colon and ...

  4. Hydrogen peroxide affects ion channels in lily pollen grain protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breygina, M A; Abramochkin, D V; Maksimov, N M; Yermakov, I P

    2016-09-01

    Ion homeostasis plays a central role in polarisation and polar growth. In several cell types ion channels are controlled by reactive oxygen species (ROS). One of the most important cells in the plant life cycle is the male gametophyte, which grows under the tight control of both ion fluxes and ROS balance. The precise relationship between these two factors in pollen tubes has not been completely elucidated, and in pollen grains it has never been studied to date. In the present study we used a simple model - protoplasts obtained from lily pollen grains at the early germination stage - to reveal the effect of H2 O2 on cation fluxes crucial for pollen germination. Here we present direct evidence for two ROS-sensitive currents on the pollen grain plasma membrane: the hyperpolarisation-activated calcium current, which is strongly enhanced by H2 O2 , and the outward potassium current, which is modestly enhanced by H2 O2 . We used low concentrations of H2 O2 that do not cause an intracellular oxidative burst and do not damage cells, as demonstrated with fluorescent staining. PMID:27115728

  5. Patch electrode glass composition affects ion channel currents.

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, R E; Tanaka, J C

    1988-01-01

    The influence of patch electrode glass composition on macroscopic IV relations in inside-out patches of the cGMP-activated ion channel from rod photoreceptors was examined for a soda lime glass, a Kovar sealing glass, a borosilicate glass, and several soft lead glasses. In several glasses the shape or magnitude of the currents changed as the concentration of EGTA or EDTA was increased from 200 microM to 10 mM. The changes in IV response suggest that, at low concentrations of chelator, divalen...

  6. Regulation of the Proliferation of Colon Cancer Cells by Compounds that Affect Glycolysis, Including 3-Bromopyruvate, 2-Deoxyglucose and Biguanides

    OpenAIRE

    Lea, Michael A.; Qureshi, Mehreen S.; Buxhoeveden, Michael; Gengel, Nicolette; Kleinschmit, Jessica; desBordes, Charles

    2013-01-01

    In previous studies we observed that 2-deoxyglucose blocked the acidification of the medium used for culture of colon cancer cells caused by incubation with biguanides and had an additive inhibitory effect on growth. In the present work, we found that 3-bromopyruvate can also prevent the lowering of pH caused by biguanide treatment. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibited colonic cancer cell proliferation but the effect was not always additive to that of biguanides and an additive effect was more notable i...

  7. Metal ions affecting the gastrointestinal system including the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Declan P; Nepusz, Tamás; Petroczi, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In the present context, metal ions can be categorized into several classes including those that are essential for life and those that have no known biological function and thus can be considered only as potentially hazardous. Many complexities arise with regard to metal toxicity and there is a paucity of studies relating to many metals which are frequent components of the diet. For many people ingestion of mineral supplements is considered a risk-free health choice despite growing evidence to the contrary. Numerous approaches have been developed to assess risk associated with ingestion of metal ions. These include straightforward estimation of safe limits such as oral reference dose which are often based on data derived from animal experiments. More convoluted approaches such as the Target Hazard Quotient involve assessment of hazard with frequent exposure over long durations such as a lifetime. The latter calculation also affords facile consideration of the effects of many metals together. In many cases, rigorous data are unavailable, hence, large factors of uncertainty are employed to relate risk to humans. Owing to the nature of metal toxicity, data pertaining to the gastrointestinal tract and liver are often acquired from diseases of metal homeostasis or episodes of considerable metal overload. Whilst these studies provide evidence for mechanisms of metal-induced toxicity such as enhancing oxidative stress, extrapolation of these results to healthy individuals or patients with chronic inflammatory diseases is not straightforward. In summary, the diverse nature of metals and their effects on human tissues along with a paucity of studies on the full range of their effects, warrant further in-depth studies on the association of metals to ageing, chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer. PMID:21473378

  8. Pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. pérola ex vitro growth and mycorrhizal colonization affected by in vitro sucrose concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Kunze

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sucrose concentration in the culture medium on growth and on the establishment of mycorrhizas during the acclimatization of pineapple cv. Pérola. The plantlets were micropropagated in MS culture medium with 0, 10, 20 and 30 g L-1 of sucrose and then they were acclimatized during 12 weeks under greenhouse conditions, in a sandy soil - compost mixture, uninoculated or inoculated with a Rhizophagus clarus isolate. Plantlets from the culture medium with 20 g and 30 g of sucrose L-1 showed higher shoot and root biomass than those from sugar-free medium. Mycorrhizal colonization was lower in plantlets micropropagated in sucrose-free medium, but the intensity of arbuscules did not differ among treatments. In the 12-week period of acclimatization, mycorrhizal colonization had no effect on plant biomass.

  9. Xylo-oligosaccharides and inulin affect genotoxicity and bacterial populations differently in a human colonic simulator challenged with soy protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, C. T.; Petersen, Anne; Licht, Tine Rask;

    2013-01-01

    High dietary intakes of some protein sources, including soy protein, can increase colonic DNA damage in animals, whereas some carbohydrates attenuate this. We investigated whether inulin and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) could be protective against DNA strand breaks by adding them to a human colonic...... simulator consisting of a proximal vessel (PV) (pH 5.5) and a distal vessel (DV) (pH 6.8) inoculated with human faeces and media containing soy protein. Genotoxicity of the liquid phase and microbial population changes in the vessels were measured. Soy protein (3%) was fermented with 1% low amylose...... cornstarch for 10 day followed by soy protein with 1% XOS or 1% inulin for 10 day. Inulin did not alter genotoxicity but XOS significantly reduced PV genotoxicity and increased DV genotoxicity. Inulin and XOS significantly increased butyrate concentration in the DV but not PV. Numbers of the key butyrate...

  10. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy

    Full Text Available Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+ supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa, its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+ levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer.

  11. Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Levels by Calcium Lactate Affects Colon Cancer Cell Motility through Calcium-Dependent Calpain

    OpenAIRE

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy; Jae Jun Sim; Yeong-Su Jang; Siddhartha Kumar Mishra; Keun-Yeong Jeong; Poonam Mander; Oh Byung Chul; Won-Sik Shim; Seung Hyun Oh; Ky-Youb Nam; Hwan Mook Kim

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstrea...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  13. Positional isomerism markedly affects the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by NOSH-aspirin: COX inhibition and modeling ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Vannini, Federica; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Rao, Praveen P.N.; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the synthesis of NOSH-aspirin, a novel hybrid that releases both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In NOSH-aspirin, the two moieties that release NO and H2S are covalently linked at the 1, 2 positions of acetyl salicylic acid, i.e. ortho-NOSH-aspirin (o-NOSH-aspirin). In the present study, we compared the effects of the positional isomers of NOSH-ASA (o-NOSH-aspirin, m-NOSH-aspirin and p-NOSH-aspirin) to that of aspirin on growth of HT-29 and HCT 15 colon canc...

  14. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  15. Acid production and conversion of konjac glucomannan during in vitro colonic fermentation affected by exogenous microorganisms and tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Huai; Geng, Qian

    2016-05-01

    Impacts of exogenous microorganisms and tea polyphenols on acid production and conversion during in vitro colonic fermentation of konjac glucomannan (KGM) were assessed in this study. Colonic fermentation of KGM by the fecal extract of healthy adults resulted in a propionate-rich profile, as acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids production were 16.1, 13.0, 3.3 and 20.2 mmol/L, respectively. Inoculation of one of ten exogenous microorganisms in the fermentative systems increased acetic, propionic and butyric acids production by 50-230%, 9-190% and 110-350%, respectively, and also accelerated lactic acid conversion by 14-40%. Tea polyphenols in the fermentative systems showed clear inhibition on both acid production and conversion; however, this inhibition could be partially or mostly antagonised by the inoculated exogenous microorganisms, resulting in improved acid production and conversion. In total, Lactobacillus brevis and Sterptococcus thermophilus were more able to increase acid production, and the propionate-rich profile was not changed in all cases. PMID:26902110

  16. Does vancomycin prescribing intervention affect vancomycin-resistant enterococcus infection and colonization in hospitals? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Lee W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE is a major cause of nosocomial infections in the United States and may be associated with greater morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs than vancomycin-susceptible enterococcus. Current guidelines for the control of VRE include prudent use of vancomycin. While vancomycin exposure appears to be a risk factor for VRE acquisition in individual patients, the effect of vancomycin usage at the population level is not known. We conducted a systematic review to determine the impact of reducing vancomycin use through prescribing interventions on the prevalence and incidence of VRE colonization and infection in hospitals within the United States. Methods To identify relevant studies, we searched three electronic databases, and hand searched selected journals. Thirteen studies from 12 articles met our inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and summarized for study setting, design, patient characteristics, types of intervention(s, and outcome measures. The relative risk, 95% confidence interval, and p-value associated with change in VRE acquisition pre- and post-vancomycin prescription interventions were calculated and compared. Heterogeneity in study results was formally explored by stratified analysis. Results No randomized clinical trials on this topic were found. Each of the 13 included studies used a quasi-experimental design of low hierarchy. Seven of the 13 studies reported statistically significant reductions in VRE acquisition following interventions, three studies reported no significant change, and three studies reported increases in VRE acquisition, one of which reported statistical significance. Results ranged from a reduction of 82.5% to an increase of 475%. Studies of specific wards, which included sicker patients, were more likely to report positive results than studies of an entire hospital including general inpatients (Fisher's exact test 0.029. The type of intervention

  17. Curcumin-Loading-Dependent Stability of PEGMEMA-Based Micelles Affects Endocytosis and Exocytosis in Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Teddy; Trench, David; Putnam, Joshua; Stenzel, Martina H; Lord, Megan S

    2016-03-01

    Polymeric micelles were formed from poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)-block-poly(styrene) (P(PEGMEMA)-b-PS) block copolymer of two different chain lengths. The micelles formed were approximately 16 and 46 nm in diameter and used to encapsulate curcumin. Upon loading of the curcumin into the micelles, their size increased to approximately 34 and 80 nm in diameter, respectively, with a loading efficiency of 58%. The unloaded micelles were not cytotoxic to human colon carcinoma cells, whereas only the smaller loaded micelles were cytotoxic after 72 h of exposure. The micelles were rapidly internalized by the cells within minutes of exposure, with the loaded micelles internalized to a greater extent owing to their enhanced stability compared to that of the unloaded micelles. The larger micelles were more rapidly internalized and exocytosed than the smaller micelles, demonstrating the effect of micelle size and drug loading on drug delivery and cytotoxicity. PMID:26755445

  18. Effects of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibition on basal- and serotonin-induced ion transport in rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Bodil Elisabeth; Bindslev, Niels; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2002-01-01

    ), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release and histological characteristics were measured. Muscle-stripped mucosal sheets of the proximal and distal segment of rat colon were investigated by employing the Ussing chamber technique, radioimmunoassays for PGE2 and light microscopy examinations for control of tissue integrity......-induced PGE2 release. Histological examination of the specimens demonstrated only minor changes following mounting in chambers. There were no apparent differences in the morphology following treatment with COX or LOX inhibitors. These results suggest that in rat colon only the COX-1 enzyme is expressed under...

  19. Stages of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for information about colorectal cancer in children. Health history can affect the risk of developing colon cancer. ... through. This procedure is called a colostomy. A bag is placed around the stoma to collect the ...

  20. Narrow bottlenecks affect Pea seedborne mosaic virus populations during vertical seed transmission but not during leaf colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Fabre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective size of populations (Ne determines whether selection or genetic drift is the predominant force shaping their genetic structure and evolution. Populations having high Ne adapt faster, as selection acts more intensely, than populations having low Ne, where random effects of genetic drift dominate. Estimating Ne for various steps of plant virus life cycle has been the focus of several studies in the last decade, but no estimates are available for the vertical transmission of plant viruses, although virus seed transmission is economically significant in at least 18% of plant viruses in at least one plant species. Here we study the co-dynamics of two variants of Pea seedborne mosaic virus (PSbMV colonizing leaves of pea plants (Pisum sativum L. during the whole flowering period, and their subsequent transmission to plant progeny through seeds. Whereas classical estimators of Ne could be used for leaf infection at the systemic level, as virus variants were equally competitive, dedicated stochastic models were needed to estimate Ne during vertical transmission. Very little genetic drift was observed during the infection of apical leaves, with Ne values ranging from 59 to 216. In contrast, a very drastic genetic drift was observed during vertical transmission, with an average number of infectious virus particles contributing to the infection of a seedling from an infected mother plant close to one. A simple model of vertical transmission, assuming a cumulative action of virus infectious particles and a virus density threshold required for vertical transmission to occur fitted the experimental data very satisfactorily. This study reveals that vertically-transmitted viruses endure bottlenecks as narrow as those imposed by horizontal transmission. These bottlenecks are likely to slow down virus adaptation and could decrease virus fitness and virulence.

  1. Dose- and time-dependent gene expression alterations in prostate and colon cancer cells after in vitro exposure to carbon ion and X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadrontherapy is an advanced form of radiotherapy that uses beams of charged particles (such as protons and carbon ions). Compared with conventional radiotherapy, the main advantages of carbon ion therapy are the precise absorbed dose localization, along with an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE). This high ballistic accuracy of particle beams deposits the maximal dose to the tumor, while damage to the surrounding healthy tissue is limited. Currently, hadrontherapy is being used for the treatment of specific types of cancer. Previous in vitro studies have shown that, under certain circumstances, exposure to charged particles may inhibit cell motility and migration. In the present study, we investigated the expression of four motility-related genes in prostate (PC3) and colon (Caco-2) cancer cell lines after exposure to different radiation types. Cells were irradiated with various absorbed doses (0, 0.5 and 2 Gy) of accelerated 13C-ions at the GANIL facility (Caen, France) or with X-rays. Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the RBE. RT-qPCR analysis showed dose- and time-dependent changes in the expression of CCDC88A, FN1, MYH9 and ROCK1 in both cell lines. However, whereas in PC3 cells the response to carbon ion irradiation was enhanced compared with X-irradiation, the effect was the opposite in Caco-2 cells, indicating cell-type–specific responses to the different radiation types. (author)

  2. Longitudinal instabilities affecting the moving critical layer laser-plasma ion accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Aakash Ajit

    2014-01-01

    In this work we analyze the longitudinal instabilities of propagating acceleration structures that are driven by a relativistically intense laser at the moving plasma critical layer [1]. These instabilities affect the energy-spectra of the accelerated ion-beams in propagating critical layer acceleration schemes [2][3]. Specifically, using analytical theory and PIC simulations we look into three fundamental physical processes and their interplay that are crucial to the understanding of energy spectral control by making the laser-plasma ion accelerators stable. The interacting processes are (i) Doppler-shifted ponderomotive bunching [1][4] (ii) potential quenching by beam-loading [2] and (iii) two-stream instabilities. These phenomenon have been observed in simulations analyzing these acceleration processes [5][6][7]. From the preliminary models and results we present in this work, we can infer measures by which these instabilities can be controlled [8] for improving the energy-spread of the beams.

  3. Higher Initial DNA Damage and Persistent Cell Cycle Arrest after Carbon Ion Irradiation Compared to X-irradiation in Prostate and Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetens, Annelies; Konings, Katrien; Moreels, Marjan; Quintens, Roel; Verslegers, Mieke; Soors, Els; Tabury, Kevin; Grégoire, Vincent; Baatout, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The use of charged-particle beams, such as carbon ions, is becoming a more and more attractive treatment option for cancer therapy. Given the precise absorbed dose-localization and an increased biological effectiveness, this form of therapy is much more advantageous compared to conventional radiotherapy, and is currently being used for treatment of specific cancer types. The high ballistic accuracy of particle beams deposits the maximal dose to the tumor, while damage to the surrounding healthy tissue is limited. In order to better understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for the increased biological effectiveness, we investigated the DNA damage and repair kinetics and cell cycle progression in two p53 mutant cell lines, more specifically a prostate (PC3) and colon (Caco-2) cancer cell line, after exposure to different radiation qualities. Cells were irradiated with various absorbed doses (0, 0.5, and 2 Gy) of accelerated 13C-ions at the Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds facility (Caen, France) or with X-rays (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 Gy). Microscopic analysis of DNA double-strand breaks showed dose-dependent increases in γ-H2AX foci numbers and foci occupancy after exposure to both types of irradiation, in both cell lines. However, 24 h after exposure, residual damage was more pronounced after lower doses of carbon ion irradiation compared to X-irradiation. Flow cytometric analysis showed that carbon ion irradiation induced a permanent G2/M arrest in PC3 cells at lower doses (2 Gy) compared to X-rays (5 Gy), while in Caco-2 cells the G2/M arrest was transient after irradiation with X-rays (2 and 5 Gy) but persistent after exposure to carbon ions (2 Gy). PMID:27148479

  4. Electrostatic Properties and Characterization of Textile Materials Affected by Ion Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranas Juozas ŽILINSKAS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the opportunities of wider characterization of textile materials, fabrics, upholstery fabrics, fibers, yarns or others, which may accumulate electric charge. A non-contact way for electrostatic properties measurement based on affecting those materials by ions with positive or negative charge is described. The method allows to measure simultaneously the time dependences of the surface voltage and the electric charge during the charging process and the time dependences of the surface voltage during the discharging process. From the measured dependencies the following set of parameters was measured or calculated: the surface voltage limiting value, the surface voltage semi-decay time, the maximum deposited charge, the layer capacitance, the energy of the accumulated charge and others. The surface voltage distribution measurement method when the investigated textile material is affected by ion flux was also described. To verify the applicability of the proposed methods for characterization of textile materials in order to determine the above-mentioned parameters of cotton, linen, wool, viscose, acetate, polyester, polyester coated with polytetrafluoroethylene, a series of experiments were performed. The surface voltage distribution measurement method based on affecting textile materials by ions with positive charge was described and a surface voltage distribution of a polyester-cotton upholstery fabric produced by a Jacquard mechanism was presented. The performed experiments demonstrate the possibilities of method application for comparison of the electrostatic properties of different textile materials used for the same tasks or the same materials produced by different technological processes.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3828

  5. Wheat bran affects the site of fermentation of resistant starch and luminal indexes related to colon cancer risk: a study in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Govers, M; Gannon, N; Dunshea, F; Gibson, P.; J. Muir

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent studies suggest that resistant starch (effective in producing butyrate and lowering possibly toxic ammonia) is rapidly fermented in the proximal colon; the distal colon especially would, however, benefit from these properties of resistant starch.
AIMS—To determine whether wheat bran (a rich source of insoluble non-starch polysaccharides), known to hasten gastrointestinal transit, could carry resistant starch through to the distal colon and thus shift its site of fermentation...

  6. Suppression of microRNA-31 increases sensitivity to 5-FU at an early stage, and affects cell migration and invasion in HCT-116 colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-Feng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously expressed noncoding RNAs with important biological and pathological functions. Although several studies have shown that microRNA-31 (miR-31 is obviously up-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC, there is no study on the functional roles of miR-31 in CRC. Methods Anti-miR™ miRNA 31 inhibitor (anti-miR-31 is a sequence-specific and chemically modified oligonucleotide to specifically target and knockdown miR-31 molecule. The effect of anti-miR-31 transfection was investigated by real-time PCR. HCT-116p53+/+ and HCT-116p53-/-colon cancer cells were treated by anti-miR-31 with or without 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay; apoptosis was detected by DAPI staining; cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry; colony formation, migration and invasion assays were performed to investigate the effect of suppression of miR-31 on the cell lines. Results Real-time PCR results showed that anti-miR-31 was efficiently introduced into the cells and reduced miR-31 levels to 44.1% in HCT-116p53+/+ and 67.8% in HCT-116p53-/-cell line (p = 0.042 and 0.046. MTT results showed that anti-miR-31 alone had no effect on the proliferation of HCT-116p53+/+ or HCT-116p53-/-. However, when combined with 5-FU, anti-miR-31 inhibited the proliferation of the two cell lines as early as 24 h after exposure to 5-FU (p = 0.038 and 0.044. Suppression of miR-31 caused a reduction of the migratory cells by nearly 50% compared with the negative control in both HCT-116p53+/+ and HCT-116p53-/-(p = 0.040 and 0.001. The invasive ability of the cells were increased by 8-fold in HCT-116p53+/+ and 2-fold in HCT-116p53-/- (p = 0.045 and 0.009. Suppression of miR-31 had no effect on cell cycle and colony formation (p > 0.05. Conclusions Suppression of miR-31 increases sensitivity to 5-FU at an early stage, and affects cell migration and invasion in HCT-116 colon cancer cells.

  7. Fungal infection of the colon

    OpenAIRE

    Praneenararat S

    2014-01-01

    Surat PraneenararatDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandAbstract: Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its con...

  8. Colonic lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Heng Yen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are benign soft tissue tumors derived from mature adipocytes. The colon is the most commonly involved organ in the entire gastrointestinal tract. Most gastrointestinal tract lipomas are asymptomatic and found incidentally during endoscopy, surgery or radiological examinations. In this video, we show the typical endoscopic findings of colonic lipomas.

  9. Investigation and optimization of parameters affecting the multiply charged ion yield in AP-MALDI MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryumin, Pavel; Brown, Jeffery; Morris, Michael; Cramer, Rainer

    2016-07-15

    Liquid matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) allows the generation of predominantly multiply charged ions in atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI ion sources for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The charge state distribution of the generated ions and the efficiency of the ion source in generating such ions crucially depend on the desolvation regime of the MALDI plume after desorption in the AP-to-vacuum inlet. Both high temperature and a flow regime with increased residence time of the desorbed plume in the desolvation region promote the generation of multiply charged ions. Without such measures the application of an electric ion extraction field significantly increases the ion signal intensity of singly charged species while the detection of multiply charged species is less dependent on the extraction field. In general, optimization of high temperature application facilitates the predominant formation and detection of multiply charged compared to singly charged ion species. In this study an experimental set-up and optimization strategy is described for liquid AP-MALDI MS which improves the ionization efficiency of selected ion species up to 14 times. In combination with ion mobility separation, the method allows the detection of multiply charged peptide and protein ions for analyte solution concentrations as low as 2fmol/μL (0.5μL, i.e. 1fmol, deposited on the target) with very low sample consumption in the low nL-range. PMID:26827934

  10. General Information about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for information about colorectal cancer in children. Health history can affect the risk of developing colon cancer. ... through. This procedure is called a colostomy. A bag is placed around the stoma to collect the ...

  11. MUTATION OF A DEGS HOMOLOG IN ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE DECREASES SEED AND ROOT COLONIZATION BUT DOES NOT AFFECT BIOCONTROL OF DAMPING-OFF CAUSED BY PYTHIUM ULTIMUM ON CUCUMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strains of Enterobacter cloacae show promise as biocontrol agents for Pythium ultimum-induced damping-off on cucumber and other crops. E. cloacae strain C10 is a mini-Tn5 Km transposon mutant of strain 501R3. Strain C10 was reduced in colonization of cucumber, sunflower, and pea seeds, but unaffecte...

  12. Ciprofloxacin Affects Host Cells by Suppressing Expression of the Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides Cathelicidins and Beta-Defensin-3 in Colon Epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protim Sarker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics exert several effects on host cells including regulation of immune components. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, e.g., cathelicidins and defensins display multiple functions in innate immunity. In colonic mucosa, cathelicidins are induced by butyrate, a bacterial fermentation product. Here, we investigated the effect of antibiotics on butyrate-induced expression of cathelicidins and beta-defensins in colon epithelial cells. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ciprofloxacin and clindamycin reduce butyrate-induced transcription of the human cathelicidin LL-37 in the colonic epithelial cell line HT-29. Suppression of LL-37 peptide/protein by ciprofloxacin was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that ciprofloxacin suppresses the rabbit cathelicidin CAP-18 in rectal epithelia of healthy and butyrate-treated Shigella-infected rabbits. Ciprofloxacin also down-regulated butyrate-induced transcription of the human beta-defensin-3 in HT-29 cells. Microarray analysis of HT-29 cells revealed upregulation by butyrate with subsequent down-regulation by ciprofloxacin of additional genes encoding immune factors. Dephosphorylation of histone H3, an epigenetic event provided a possible mechanism of the suppressive effect of ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, LL-37 peptide inhibited Clostridium difficile growth in vitro. In conclusion, ciprofloxacin and clindamycin exert immunomodulatory function by down-regulating AMPs and other immune components in colonic epithelial cells. Suppression of AMPs may contribute to the overgrowth of C. difficile, causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

  13. Target Promiscuity and Heterogeneous Effects of Tarantula Venom Peptides Affecting Na+ and K+ Ion Channels*

    OpenAIRE

    Redaelli, Elisa; Restano Cassulini, Rita; Fuentes Silva, Deyanira; Clement, Herlinda; Schiavon, Emanuele; Zamudio, Fernando Z.; Odell, George; Arcangeli, Annarosa; Clare, Jeffrey J.; Alagón, Alejandro; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.; Lourival D. Possani; Wanke, Enzo

    2009-01-01

    Venom-derived peptide modulators of ion channel gating are regarded as essential tools for understanding the molecular motions that occur during the opening and closing of ion channels. In this study, we present the characterization of five spider toxins on 12 human voltage-gated ion channels, following observations about the target promiscuity of some spider toxins and the ongoing revision of their “canonical” gating-modifying mode of action. The peptides were purified de novo from the venom...

  14. Colon Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses colon cancer and the importance of early detection.  Created: 11/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  15. Chicken Caecal Microbiome Modifications Induced by Campylobacter jejuni Colonization and by a Non-Antibiotic Feed Additive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic foodborne pathogen causing acute gastroenteritis in humans. Chickens are often colonized at very high numbers by C. jejuni, up to 10(9 CFU per gram of caecal content, with no detrimental effects on their health. Farm control strategies are being developed to lower the C. jejuni contamination of chicken food products in an effort to reduce human campylobacteriosis incidence. It is believed that intestinal microbiome composition may affect gut colonization by such undesirable bacteria but, although the chicken microbiome is being increasingly characterized, information is lacking on the factors affecting its modulation, especially by foodborne pathogens. This study monitored the effects of C. jejuni chicken caecal colonization on the chicken microbiome in healthy chickens. It also evaluated the capacity of a feed additive to affect caecal bacterial populations and to lower C. jejuni colonization. From day-0, chickens received or not a microencapsulated feed additive and were inoculated or not with C. jejuni at 14 days of age. Fresh caecal content was harvested at 35 days of age. The caecal microbiome was characterized by real time quantitative PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing. We observed that the feed additive lowered C. jejuni caecal count by 0.7 log (p<0.05. Alpha-diversity of the caecal microbiome was not affected by C. jejuni colonization or by the feed additive. C. jejuni colonization modified the caecal beta-diversity while the feed additive did not. We observed that C. jejuni colonization was associated with an increase of Bifidobacterium and affected Clostridia and Mollicutes relative abundances. The feed additive was associated with a lower Streptococcus relative abundance. The caecal microbiome remained relatively unchanged despite high C. jejuni colonization. The feed additive was efficient in lowering C. jejuni colonization while not disturbing the caecal microbiome.

  16. Statins Might Not Lower Colon Cancer Risk: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_158506.html Statins Might Not Lower Colon Cancer Risk: Study But cholesterol levels may be associated ... does not appear to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but a person's cholesterol levels might affect risk, ...

  17. Maternal antibiotic-induced early changes in microbial colonization selectively modulate colonic permeability and inducible heat shock proteins, and digesta concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and TLR-stimulants in swine offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Edith Arnal

    Full Text Available Elevated intake of high energy diets is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases and obesity. High fat diets cause alterations in colonic microbiota composition and increase gut permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and subsequent low-grade chronic inflammation in mice. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are increasing worldwide and may involve alterations in microbiota-host dialog. Metabolic disorders appearing in later life are also suspected to reflect changes in early programming. However, how the latter affects the colon remains poorly studied. Here, we hypothesized that various components of colonic physiology, including permeability, ion exchange and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP are influenced in the short- and long-terms by early disturbances in microbial colonization. The hypothesis was tested in a swine model. Offspring were born to control mothers (n = 12 or mothers treated with the antibiotic (ATB amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11. Offspring were slaughtered between 14 and 42 days of age to study short-term effects. For long-term effects, young adult offspring from the same litters consumed a normal or a palm oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age. ATB treatment transiently modified maternal fecal microbiota although the minor differences observed for offspring colonic microbiota were nonsignificant. In the short-term, consistently higher HSP27 and HSP70 levels and transiently increased horseradish peroxidase permeability in ATB offspring colon were observed. Importantly, long-term consequences included reduced colonic horseradish peroxidase permeability, and increased colonic digesta alkaline phosphatase (AP and TLR2- and TLR4-stimulant concentrations in rectal digesta in adult ATB offspring. Inducible HSP27 and HSP70 did not change. Interactions between early ATB treatment and later diet were noted for paracellular permeability and concentrations of colonic

  18. Ion distribution and gas exchange of hydroponically grown sunflower plants as affected by salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Rivelli

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a trial carried out on sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L., Romsun HS90 grown in the greenhouse using inert substrate and two automatic and closed hydroponic systems: one of them hosting the control (C with plants grown under optimal conditions on Hoagland nutrient solution, the other one, the salt treatment (S, with plants exposed to constant salt stress through adding 150 mM of NaCl to the nutrient solution. Salt supply caused a sharp reduction in leaf area development and dry matter production, especially in the first 4 weeks when leaves showed to be more sensitive than stem and roots. Such a reduction is attributable to the drop in net CO2 assimilation rate, transpiration and stomatal conductance and it was, on average, equal to 30, 26 and 40%, respectively, with respect to the control. The investigated genotype was not able to exclude Cl- and Na+ and considerable amounts accumulated in leaves, stem and roots. Concentration increased in leaves in the basipetal direction. Though sunflower has an efficient endogenous adaptation system by which it redistributes ions in the whole plant, with greater accumulation in older leaves, growth inhibition could be attributed to specific ion toxicity effects, and of chlorine in particular, on metabolic processes and thus on photosynthesis.

  19. Divalent Ion Parameterization Strongly Affects Conformation and Interactions of an Anionic Biomimetic Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, Michael D.; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2016-03-10

    The description of peptides and the use of molecular dynamics simulations to refine structures and investigate the dynamics on an atomistic scale are well developed. Through a consensus in this community over multiple decades, parameters were developed for molecular interactions that only require the sequence of amino-acids and an initial guess for the three-dimensional structure. The recent discovery of peptoids will require a retooling of the currently available interaction potentials in order to have the same level of confidence in the predicted structures and pathways as there is presently in the peptide counterparts. Here we present modeling of peptoids using a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and atomistic resolution classical forcefield (FF) to span the relevant time and length scales. To properly account for the dominant forces that stabilize ordered structures of peptoids, namely steric-, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions mediated through sidechain-sidechain interactions in the FF model, those have to be first mapped out using high fidelity atomistic representations. A key feature here is not only to use gas phase quantum chemistry tools, but also account for solvation effects in the condensed phase through AIMD. One major challenge is to elucidate ion binding to charged or polar regions of the peptoid and its concomitant role in the creation of local order. Here, similar to proteins, a specific ion effect is observed suggesting that both the net charge and the precise chemical nature of the ion will need to be described. MDD was supported by MS3 (Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales) Initiative at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Research was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. MDB acknowledges support from US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material & Engineering. CJM acknowledges

  20. A new Arabidopsis mutant induced by ion beams affects flavonoid synthesis with spotted pigmentation in testa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new stable mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana with a spotted pigment in the seed coat, named anthocyanin spotted testa (ast), was induced by carbon ion irradiation. The spotted pigmentation of ast mutant was observed in immature seeds from 1-2 days after flowering (DAF), at the integument of the ovule, and spread as the seed coat formed. Anthocyanin accumulation was about 6 times higher in ast mutant than in the wild-type at 6 DAF of the immature seeds, but was almost the same in mature dry seeds. A higher anthocyanin accumulation was not observed in the seedlings, leaves or floral buds of ast mutant compared with the wild-type, which suggests that a high accumulation of anthocyanins is specific to the seed coat of the immature ast seeds. Reciprocal crosses between ast mutant and the wild-type indicated that ast is a single recessive gene mutation and segregates as a delayed inheritance. The results of crossing with tt7 and ttg mutants also confirmed that the AST gene is probably a regulatory locus that controls flavonoid biosynthesis. A mapping analysis revealed that the gene is located on chromosome I and is closely linked to the SSLP DNA marker nga280 with a distance of 3.2 cM. AST has been registered as a new mutant of Arabidopsis

  1. The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T.; Venema, K.; Priebe, M.G.; Welling, G.W.; Brummer, R.J.M.; Vonk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the fer

  2. Metabolic profile of naringenin in the stomach and colon using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) and LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego-Lagarón, Naiara; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Escribano-Ferrer, Elvira

    2016-02-20

    Several biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic) are attributed to naringenin (NAR)-a predominant flavonoid of citrus fruit and tomato-despite its low bioavailability after ingestion. NAR undergoes extensive metabolism when crossing the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in enteric, hepatic and microbial metabolites, some of them with recognized beneficial effects on human health. This study sought to provide new insights into the metabolism of NAR in regions of the gastrointestinal tract where it has been less studied: the stomach and colon. With this purpose, liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization hybrid linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry technique (LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) was used for an accurate identification of NAR metabolites, and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) on a triple quadrupole was used for their identification and quantification. The combination of both analytical techniques provided a broader metabolic profile of NAR. As far as we know, this is the first in-depth metabolic profiling study of NAR in the stomach of mice. Three of the metabolites determined using the LC-LTQ-Orbitrap could not be identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS in stomach perfusion samples: apigenin, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid and phloroglucinol. The number of colonic metabolites determined using the LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was more than twice the number identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. PMID:26698229

  3. Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for information about colorectal cancer in children. Health history can affect the risk of developing colon cancer. ... through. This procedure is called a colostomy. A bag is placed around the stoma to collect the ...

  4. Red meat and colon cancer: a possible role for heme

    OpenAIRE

    Sesink, Aloysius Lambertus Antonia

    2000-01-01

    Sporadic colon cancer is a multifactorial aging disease affected by long-term exposure to environmental risk factors. Epidemiological studies have shown that risk for colon cancer is associated with diets high in red meat and/or animal fat. The mechanisms by which colonic tumors arise are, however, poorly understood (see General Introduction, chapter 1). The general hypothesis purports that animal saturated fat increases soluble secondary bile acids and fatty acids in the colonic lumen. These...

  5. Ocean acidification affects redox-balance and ion-homeostasis in the life-cycle stages of Emiliania huxleyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian D Rokitta

    Full Text Available Ocean Acidification (OA has been shown to affect photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan calcifier that significantly contributes to the regulation of the biological carbon pumps. Its non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage was found to be relatively unaffected by OA with respect to biomass production. Deeper insights into physiological key processes and their dependence on environmental factors are lacking, but are required to understand and possibly estimate the dynamics of carbon cycling in present and future oceans. Therefore, calcifying diploid and non-calcifying haploid cells were acclimated to present and future CO(2 partial pressures (pCO(2; 38.5 Pa vs. 101.3 Pa CO(2 under low and high light (50 vs. 300 µmol photons m(-2 s(-1. Comparative microarray-based transcriptome profiling was used to screen for the underlying cellular processes and allowed to follow up interpretations derived from physiological data. In the diplont, the observed increases in biomass production under OA are likely caused by stimulated production of glycoconjugates and lipids. The observed lowered calcification under OA can be attributed to impaired signal-transduction and ion-transport. The haplont utilizes distinct genes and metabolic pathways, reflecting the stage-specific usage of certain portions of the genome. With respect to functionality and energy-dependence, however, the transcriptomic OA-responses resemble those of the diplont. In both life-cycle stages, OA affects the cellular redox-state as a master regulator and thereby causes a metabolic shift from oxidative towards reductive pathways, which involves a reconstellation of carbon flux networks within and across compartments. Whereas signal transduction and ion-homeostasis appear equally OA-sensitive under both light intensities, the effects on carbon metabolism and light physiology are clearly modulated by light availability. These interactive effects

  6. Colon cancer - Series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States. Risk factors include a diet low ... The treatment of colon cancer depends on the stage of the disease. Stage I cancer is limited to the inner lining of the colon; ...

  7. 不同因素对离子膜电解槽电压的影响%Review of factors affecting cell voltage of ion membrane electrolyser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘存玉

    2015-01-01

    Different factors affecting cell voltage of ion membrane electrolyser were summarized ,including membrane,electrolyte and its impurities,anode and cathode etc.%概述了离子膜、电解液及其杂质、阴阳极等不同因素对离子膜电解槽电压的影响。

  8. NH4+ secretion in the avian colon. An actively regulated barrier to ammonium permeation of the colon mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtug, K.; Laverty, G.; Arnason, S.S.;

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were designed to characterize an active, electrogenic transport of NH(4)(+) ions across the colonic epithelium of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus). Colonic segments were isolated and stripped of underlying muscle. The mucosal epithelia were mounted in Ussing chambers and voltage-clam...

  9. Oxidative stability of egg and soy lecithin as affected by transition metal ions and pH in emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Wang, Tong

    2008-12-10

    Oxidative stability of egg and soy lecithin in emulsion was evaluated with two transition metal ions, cupric and ferric ion, at two concentration levels (50 and 500 microM). The effect of pH on lipid oxidation was also examined under these two concentrations for each ion. Egg lecithin (EL) had similar peroxide value (PV) development pattern as soy lecithin (SL) when treated with cupric ion under both acidic and neutral pH. Acidic pH of 3 accelerated oxidation of both EL and SL, especially under high concentration of copper. When treated with ferric ion, EL oxidized much faster than SL did. EL had higher value of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) than SL, possibly because of its higher content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Acidic pH accelerated TBARS development for both EL and SL, but EL had more significantly increased values. Cupric ion was more powerful than ferric in catalyzing oxidation of both EL and SL under both acidic and neutral pH conditions as measured by PV and TBARS. Linoleic acid may contribute to higher PV production, however, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may have contributed more to TBARS production. Overall, SL showed better oxidative stability than EL under the experimental conditions. This study also suggests that using multiple methods is necessary in properly evaluating lipid oxidative stability. PMID:18991454

  10. Colon capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Fernandez-Urien; Cristina Carretero; Ana Borda; Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become the first imaging tool for small bowel examination.Recently,new capsule endoscopy applications have been developed,such as esophageal capsule endoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy.Clinical trials results have shown that colon capsule endoscopy is feasible,accurate and safe in patients suffering from colonic diseases.It could be a good alternative in patients refusing conventional colonoscopy or when it is contraindicated.Upcoming studies are needed to demonstrate its utilty for colon cancer screening and other indications such us ulcerative colitis.Comparative studies including both conventional and virtual colonoscopy are also required.

  11. Journey of a Swallowed Toothbrush to the Colon

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, In Hee; Kim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Kang Hun; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Soo Teik

    2007-01-01

    Toothbrush swallowing is a rare event. Because no cases of spontaneous passage have been reported, prompt removal is recommended to prevent the development of complications. Most swallowed toothbrushes have been found in the esophagus or the stomach of affected patients, and there has been no previously reported case of a toothbrush in the colon. Here, we report a case of a swallowed toothbrush found in the ascending colon that caused a fistula between the right colon and the liver, with a co...

  12. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Palaniselvam Kuppusamy; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Gaanty Pragas Maniam; Solachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan; Ilavenil Soundharrajan; Natanamurugaraj Govindan

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment o...

  13. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  14. Colon and rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is about the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of colon cancer. The techniques used are the endoscopy with biopsy in the pre and post operative colon surgery, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray studies of hemogram as well as liver and renal function

  15. Factors affecting "in vitro" plant development and root colonization of sweet potato by Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd Fatores que afetam o desenvolvimento da planta e a colonização radicular "in vitro", da batata doce por Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bressan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients media (Murashige & Skoog, Hoagland & Arnon and White's media supplemented or not with sucrose and substrates (vermiculite, agar and natrosol were tested for their effects on plant development and root colonization of micropropagated sweet potato, cv. White Star, by Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann (isolate INVAM FL S329. Addition of sucrose (3% did not affect plant development. However, hyphal growth and root colonization were depressed. Contrasting responses to media nutrient concentration were observed for plant height, root colonization, and hyphal growth. The highest concentration of nutrients in Murashige & Skoog medium improved plant development, but this medium decreased hypha growth and inhibited root colonization. Plants growing in vermiculite substrate had higher (p£0.05 development and mycorrhizal root colonization than those growing in agar or natrosol. The results indicate that colonization of micropropagated sweet potato by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is affected by media composition and type of substrate.Os meios de Murashige e Skoog, Hoagland, Arnon e White, suplementados ou não com sacorose, e tendo como substratos vermiculita, ágar ou natrosol foram utilizados para avaliar seus efeitos sobre o desenvolvimento da batata doce, c.v. White Star, e sua colonização por Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd. (isolado INVAM FL S329. A adição de sacorose (3% ao meio não afetou o desenvolvimento da planta, porém reduziu o crescimento das hifas de G. etunicatum e a colonização das raízes. A concentração de nutrientes dos meios utilizados mostrou efeitos contrastantes entre altura da planta, crescimento das hifas e colonização das raízes por G. etunicatum. A alta concentração de nutrientes no meio Murashige e Skoog estimulou o crescimento das plantas, reduziu o desenvolvimento das hifas e inibiu a colonização das raízes pelo fungo micorrízico. Plantas desenvolvidas em vermiculita mostraram maior

  16. Silver-Ion Solid Phase Extraction Separation of Classical, Aromatic, Oxidized, and Heteroatomic Naphthenic Acids from Oil Sands Process-Affected Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongfu; Chen, Yuan; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-06-21

    The separation of classical, aromatic, oxidized, and heteroatomic (sulfur-containing) naphthenic acid (NA) species from unprocessed and ozone-treated oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) was performed using silver-ion (Ag-ion) solid phase extraction (SPE) without the requirement of pre-methylation for NAs. OSPW samples before SPE and SPE fractions were characterized using ultra performance liquid chromatography ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-IM-TOFMS) to corroborate the separation of distinct NA species. The mass spectrum identification applied a mass tolerance of ±1.5 mDa due to the mass errors of NAs were measured within this range, allowing the identification of O2S-NAs from O2-NAs. Moreover, separated NA species facilitated the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) characterization of NA compounds due to the removal of matrix and a simplified composition. MS/MS results showed that classical, aromatic, oxidized, and sulfur-containing NA compounds were eluted into individual SPE fractions. Overall results indicated that the separation of NA species using Ag-ion SPE is a valuable method for extracting individual NA species that are of great interest for environmental toxicology and wastewater treatment research, to conduct species-specific studies. Furthermore, the separated NA species on the milligram level could be widely used as the standard materials for environmental monitoring of NAs from various contamination sites. PMID:27183033

  17. Colonic diverticulitis in adolescents: an index case and associated syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Brian J; Prasad, Vinay; Caniano, Donna A

    2009-10-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon, a common problem among adults, is diagnosed rarely in children. We report an adolescent patient with sigmoid diverticulitis who required operative treatment. Pediatric patients with the complications of diverticula typically have conditions that result in genetic alterations affecting the components of the colonic wall. Our patient had Williams-Beuren syndrome, although Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and cystic fibrosis may also be associated with colonic diverticula in adolescence. Pediatric patients with these disorders who experience abdominal pain should be evaluated for the presence of colonic diverticular complications. PMID:19711089

  18. Salinity and Salicylic Acid Interactions in Affecting Nitrogen Assimilation, Enzyme Activity, Ions Content and Translocation Rate of Maize Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to establish the relationship between nitrogen metabolism, enzyme activity, ions concentration as well as the translocation rate (TR) of carbohydrates and salicylic acid (SA) in salt-stressed maize (Zea mays L). Salicylic acid plus salinity treatment highly significantly increased: nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), protein content, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) and nitrate reductase (NR) and inhibited nucleases (DNase and RNase) activities compared with Na CI-treated plants. In addition, the ionic levels of potassium (K), phosphorus (P), nitrate (NO3) and the translocation rate of the labelled photo assimilates have also been stimulated while sodium (Na) ions content was decreased. It is concluded that, salinazid maize plants might show an enhancement in their growth pattern upon salicylic acid application

  19. Sonography in Colonic Diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the sonographic findings and the diagnostic value of colonic diverticulitis. We evaluated the sonograms of 26 patients with colonic diverticulitis retrospectively. The final diagnosis was based on the pathologic interpretation of a surgical specimen (5 cases), clinical course (21 cases), on barium enema (12 cases) and colonoscopy (1 case). Twenty-five patients had acute diverticulitis in the cecum and 1 patient in the descending colon. On sonography, an oval or short tubular focus which protruded from the colonic wall was seen in 23 patients (88%) and the longest diameter were from 0.5 cm to 3 cm (mean 1.4cm). The lesions were echogenic in 8 cases and hypoechoic in 17 cases. Segmental thickening of the colonic wall was seen in 13 patients (50%), of these, protruding focus was seen in 92%. Pericolic abscess located inposterolateral and medial portion to the colon was seen in 11 patients (42%). Infiltration in pericolic fat(50%), enlargement of pericolic lymph nodes (27%) and small pericolic fluid (8%) were also seen. Our results show that ultrasonography is useful technique in the diagnosis of colonic diverticulitis and in the differentiation from acute appendicitis

  20. UVB radiation generates sunburn pain and affects skin by activating epidermal TRPV4 ion channels and triggering endothelin-1 signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Carlene; Cevikbas, Ferda; Pasolli, H. Amalia; Chen, Yong; Kong, Wei; Kempkes, Cordula; Parekh, Puja; Lee, Suk Hee; Kontchou, Nelly-Ange; Yeh, Iwei; Jokerst, Nan Marie; Fuchs, Elaine; Steinhoff, Martin; Liedtke, Wolfgang B.

    2013-01-01

    Skin protects against harmful external cues, one of them UV radiation, which, upon overexposure, causes sunburn as part of the UVB response. Using genetically engineered mice and cultured skin epithelial cells, we have identified the calcium-permeable TRPV4 ion channel in skin epithelial cells as critical for translating the UVB stimulus into intracellular signals and also into signals from epithelial skin cell to sensory nerve cell that innervates the skin, causing pain. These signaling mech...

  1. Lunar Colonization and NASA's Exploration Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2006-01-01

    Space colonization is not part of NASA's mission planning. NASA's exploration vision, mission goals and program implementations, however, can have an important affect on private lunar programs leading towards colonization. NASA's exploration program has been described as a journey not a race. It is not like the Apollo mission having tight schedules and relatively unchanging direction. NASA of this era has competing demands from the areas of aeronautics, space science, earth science, space operations and, there are competing demands within the exploration program itself. Under the journey not a race conditions, an entrepreneur thinking about building a hotel on the Moon, with a road to an exploration site, might have difficulty determining where and when NASA might be at a particular place on the Moon. Lunar colonization advocates cannot depend on NASA or other nations with space programs to lead the way to colonization. They must set their own visions, mission goals and schedules. In implementing their colonization programs they will be resource limited. They would be like ``hitchhikers'' following the programs of spacefaring nations identifying programs that might have a fit with their vision and be ready to switch to other programs that may take them in the colonization direction. At times they will have to muster their own limited resources and do things themselves where necessary. The purpose of this paper is to examine current changes within NASA, as a lunar colonization advocate might do, in order to see where there might be areas for fitting into a lunar colonization strategy. The approach will help understand how the ``hitchhiking'' technique might be better utilized.

  2. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniselvam Kuppusamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  3. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, M., E-mail: phyrenmq@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rajendran, Reshmi [Lab of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consotium, 11 Biopolis Way, 02-02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Ng, Mary [Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Jenner, Andrew Michael [Illawara Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  4. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  5. Laparoscopic Colon Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inches to complete the procedure. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Colon Resection? Results may vary depending ... type of procedure and patient’s overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain May shorten hospital stay ...

  6. COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW ON PHARMACEUTICAL APPROACHES WITH CURRENT TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaragiri Keerthi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years colon specific drug delivery has gained importance not just for the delivery of drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon but also as potential site for the systemic delivery of drugs like therapeutic proteins and peptides. This article reviews a detailed study about diseases of colon, diagnosis of diseases of colon, limitations and challenges, applications, anatomy of colon, factors affecting colon and different approaches of colon which include some current new approaches such as Pulsinicap system, Port system, Probiotic approach, Chronotropic system, Colal-pred system, Multiparticulate system, Enterion capsule technology and some past studies of colon drug delivery and also a study on evaluation for site specific drug delivery to colon.

  7. Effect of ageing on colonic mucosal regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferenc Sipos; Katalin Leiszter; Zsolt Tulassay

    2011-01-01

    The physiologic and pathologic cellular and molecular changes occurring with age in the human colon affect both the inflammatory process leading to mucosal injury and the regenerative capacity of the epithelium. On the one hand, age-related telomere shortening and inflamm-ageing may lead to the development of colonic inflammation, which results in epithelial damage. On the other hand, the altered migration and function of regenerative stem cells, the age-related methylation of mucosal healing-associated genes, together with the alterations of growth factor signaling with age, may be involved in delayed mucosal regeneration. The connections of these alterations to the process of ageing are not fully known. The understanding and customtailored modification of these mechanisms are of great clinical importance with regard to disease prevention and modern therapeutic strategies. Here, we aim to summarize the age-related microscopic and molecular changes of the human colon, as well as their role in altered mucosal healing.

  8. Effects of hydrogen sulfide on colonic contraction of rats and ion channel mechanisms%硫化氢对大鼠结肠收缩活动的影响及其离子通道机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全晓静; 罗和生; 夏虹; 樊菡; 余光; 唐勤彩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on colonic contraction of rats at low concentration and ion channel mechanisms.Methods Organ bath recordings were used to examine the contraction of colonic smooth muscle strips.The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record the currents of L-type calcium and large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels in smooth muscle cells isolated from 30 male Wistar rats.Results The H2S donor NaHS ((1-12) × 10-5mol/L) increased the spontaneous contractions of longitudinal and circular muscle strips in a dose-dependent manner (all P <0.05) and the effect could not be blocked by tetrodotoxin.NaHS (6 × 10-5 and 12 × 10-5 mol/L) reversibly increased the L-type calcium current (ICa,L) in a dose-dependent manner.And the peak of ICa,L at 0 mV increased from (-3.16 ± 0.47) to (-3.33 ± 0.54) and (-3.65 ± 0.66) pA/pF respectively (n =6,both P < 0.05).Current-voltage (Ⅰ-Ⅴ) curve had no shift after NaHS treatment and H2S donor caused no change in the curves of steady-state activation.Likewise BKCa channel was significantly inhibited by NaHS (6 × 10-5 and 12 × 10-5 mol/L) in a dose-dependent manner.And IBKCa at 60 mV decreased from (16.68 ± 1.23) to (15.26 ± 2.67) and (13.80 ± 3.04) pA/pF respectively (both P < 0.05).Conclusions H2S at low concentrations increases the spontaneous contraction of rat colonic smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner.Such an effect may be due to a direct activation of L-type calcium channel and an inhibition of BKCa channel in smooth muscle cells.%目的 探讨硫化氢(H2S)对大鼠结肠收缩活动的影响及其离子通道机制.方法 取30只雄性Wistar大鼠远端结肠制备纵行肌条(LMS)及环形肌条(CMS);张力换能器及多通道生理信号采集处理系统记录H2S供体硫氢化钠(NaHS)对LMS和CMS自发性收缩活动的影响及河豚毒素(TTX)孵育后NaHS对LMS和CMS收缩活动的影响;采用酶消化法分离近端结肠平滑肌细

  9. Radiological findings in total colonic aganglionosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological findings pathognomonic of Hirschsprung's disease have been known for quite a long time. However, in addition to those diseases characterized by rectum or rectum-sigmoid aganglionosis (as in the classic form of Hirschsprung's disease), in pediatric pathology of surgical interest severe affections exist characterized by aganglionosis extending from the rectum to the entire colon, and exceptionally as far as the small bowel (ultra-long Hirschsprung's disease). The authors report on the results they obtained in radiological studies of 6 cases of total colonic aganglionosis by means of the current radiological procedures, i.e. plain abdominal films and barium enema. As for total colonic aganglionosis, no diagnostic radiological parameters have been assessed yet. The authors compare their results with those taken from international literature: microcolon with reflux into megaileum (2 out of 6 cases) appears to be the most suggestive X-ray finding for total colonic aganglionosis. Finally, the role is discussed of radiological studies in the diagnostic approach to total colonic aganglionosis. The authors conclude that, even though radiological investigations are indispensable, they are often not conclusive. Therefore, an accurate evaluation of the proximal extension of aganglionosis can be made only at surgery

  10. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; de Haan, Laura H J; Koning, Rosella; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bovee, Toine F H

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on either the Na(+), K(+), or Ca(2+) channels or the Na(+)/K(+) ATP-ase pump, on the beating was assessed. Diphenhydramine, veratridine, isradipine, verapamil and ouabain induced specific beating arrests that were reversible and none of the concentrations tested induced cytotoxicity. Three K(+) channel blockers, amiodarone, clofilium and sematilide, and the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump inhibitor digoxin had no specific effect on the beating. In addition, two marine neurotoxins i.e. saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin elicited specific beating arrests in cardiomyocytes. Comparison of the results obtained with cardiomyocytes to those obtained with the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay revealed that the cardiomyocytes were generally somewhat more sensitive for the model compounds affecting Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, but less sensitive for the compounds affecting K(+) channels. The stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were not as sensitive as the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay for saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin. It is concluded that the murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes provide a sensitive model for detection of specific neurotoxins and that the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay may be a more promising cell-based assay for the screening of marine biotoxins. PMID:25479353

  11. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer risk factors are things that increase the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors ... risk factors never get cancer. Other people get colon cancer but do not have any known risk factors. ...

  12. Up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in primary afferent pathway regulates colon-to-bladder cross-sensitization in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Chun-Mei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, inflammation of either the urinary bladder or the distal colon often results in sensory cross-sensitization between these organs. Limited information is known about the mechanisms underlying this clinical syndrome. Studies with animal models have demonstrated that activation of primary afferent pathways may have a role in mediating viscero-visceral cross-organ sensitization. Methods Colonic inflammation was induced by a single dose of tri-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS instilled intracolonically. The histology of the colon and the urinary bladder was examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stain. The protein expression of transient receptor potential (TRP ion channel of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were examined by immunohistochemistry and/or western blot. The inter-micturition intervals and the quantity of urine voided were obtained from analysis of cystometrograms. Results At 3 days post TNBS treatment, the protein level of TRPV1 was increased by 2-fold (p Conclusion Acute colonic inflammation increases bladder activity without affecting bladder morphology. Primary afferent-mediated BDNF up-regulation in the sensory neurons regulates, at least in part, the bladder activity during colonic inflammation.

  13. Colonic interposition: radiographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, F P; Orringer, M B

    1984-04-01

    This report reviews the clinical and radiographic features of 40 patients who underwent visceral esophageal substitution with colon for benign or malignant lesions of the esophagus. The incidence and radiographic identification of complications are discussed. All patients were routinely examined with barium esophagrams on postoperative day 10. If an anastomotic leak was suspected clinically before this time, studies were performed using water-soluble iodinated contrast material. Follow-up barium esophagrams were obtained 1-96 months after operation (average, 60 months) in 24 patients. Eight patients (21%) demonstrated asymptomatic "jejunization" of the colonic mucosa with no attributable clinical manifestations; this finding resolved in 1-3 months, without sequelae, and has not been reported before. The spectrum of ischemic changes in the colonic segment included mucosal edema, spasm, ulceration, loss of haustration, and frank necrosis. Radiographically detectable early postoperative complications included anastomotic leak in six (three pharyngocolic, three cervical esophagocolic) and aspiration of barium into the tracheobronchial tree due to incoordinated swallowing in eight. Late postoperative complications included anastomotic narrowing (12) malfunctioning of the colon due to impaired emptying (five), recurrent aspiration pneumonia (three), small bowel obstruction (three), transhiatal herniation of small bowel through the diaphragmatic hiatus (one), and reflux into the retained bypassed esophagus (one). PMID:6608225

  14. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  15. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in the rat colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosing Susanne

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize time dependent Salmonella-induced changes of colonic mucosal gene expression in rats using whole genome microarrays. For this, rats were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis to mimic a foodborne infection and colonic gene expression was determined at days 1, 3 and 6 post-infection (n = 8 rats per time-point. As fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS affect colonic physiology, we analyzed colonic mucosal gene expression of FOS-fed versus cellulose-fed rats infected with Salmonella in a separate experiment. Colonic mucosal samples were isolated at day 2 post-infection. Results Salmonella affected transport (e.g. Chloride channel calcium activated 6, H+/K+ transporting Atp-ase, antimicrobial defense (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Defensin 5 and phospholipase A2, inflammation (e.g. calprotectin, oxidative stress related genes (e.g. Dual oxidase 2 and Glutathione peroxidase 2 and Proteolysis (e.g. Ubiquitin D and Proteosome subunit beta type 9. Furthermore, Salmonella translocation increased serum IFNγ and many interferon-related genes in colonic mucosa. The gene most strongly induced by Salmonella infection was Pancreatitis Associated Protein (Pap, showing >100-fold induction at day 6 after oral infection. Results were confirmed by Q-PCR in individual rats. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary FOS was accompanied by enhancement of the Salmonella-induced mucosal processes, not by induction of other processes. Conclusion We conclude that the colon is a target tissue for Salmonella, considering the abundant changes in

  16. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  17. Mutation of light-dependent phosphorylation sites of the Drosophila transient receptor potential-like (TRPL) ion channel affects its subcellular localization and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Alexander C; Oberacker, Tina; Pfannstiel, Jens; Weigold, Sebastian; Will, Carina; Huber, Armin

    2013-05-31

    The Drosophila phototransduction cascade terminates in the opening of the ion channel transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL). Contrary to TRP, TRPL undergoes light-dependent subcellular trafficking between rhabdomeric photoreceptor membranes and an intracellular storage compartment, resulting in long term light adaptation. Here, we identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of TRPL that affect TRPL stability and localization. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed a light-dependent change in the TRPL phosphorylation pattern. Mutation of eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites neither affected multimerization of the channels nor the electrophysiological response of flies expressing the mutated channels. However, these mutations resulted in mislocalization and enhanced degradation of TRPL after prolonged dark-adaptation. Mutation of subsets of the eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites also led to a reduction of TRPL content and partial mislocalization in the dark. This suggests that a light-dependent switch in the phosphorylation pattern of the TRPL channel mediates stable expression of TRPL in the rhabdomeres upon prolonged dark-adaptation. PMID:23592784

  18. Mutation of Light-dependent Phosphorylation Sites of the Drosophila Transient Receptor Potential-like (TRPL) Ion Channel Affects Its Subcellular Localization and Stability*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Alexander C.; Oberacker, Tina; Pfannstiel, Jens; Weigold, Sebastian; Will, Carina; Huber, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila phototransduction cascade terminates in the opening of the ion channel transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL). Contrary to TRP, TRPL undergoes light-dependent subcellular trafficking between rhabdomeric photoreceptor membranes and an intracellular storage compartment, resulting in long term light adaptation. Here, we identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of TRPL that affect TRPL stability and localization. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed a light-dependent change in the TRPL phosphorylation pattern. Mutation of eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites neither affected multimerization of the channels nor the electrophysiological response of flies expressing the mutated channels. However, these mutations resulted in mislocalization and enhanced degradation of TRPL after prolonged dark-adaptation. Mutation of subsets of the eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites also led to a reduction of TRPL content and partial mislocalization in the dark. This suggests that a light-dependent switch in the phosphorylation pattern of the TRPL channel mediates stable expression of TRPL in the rhabdomeres upon prolonged dark-adaptation. PMID:23592784

  19. NH4+ secretion in the avian colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtug, Klavs; Laverty, Gary; Árnason, Sighvatur S.;

    2009-01-01

      Experiments were designed to characterize an active, electrogenic transport of NH(4)(+) ions across the colonic epithelium of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus). Colonic segments were isolated and stripped of underlying muscle. The mucosal epithelia were mounted in Ussing chambers and voltage-cl...

  20. Sonographic Features of Colonic Diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate sonographic features, location of diverticulum, and usefulness of sonography as a primary diagnostic tool. Sonographic findings of 28 patients with acute diverticulitis were reviewed. The diagnosis was made by surgery (11 patients), barium enema (20 patients), colonoscopy (3 patients), or CT (2 patients). There were 13 men and 15 women with ages ranging from 23 to 71 years old (mean, 33 years old). Sonographic abnormalities were seen in the cecum in 12 patients, both the cecum and ascending colon in seven, the ascending colon in six, the descending colon in two, and the transverse colon in one. On sonography, segmental thickening of the colonic wall was the most common finding, seen in 16 patients. The second most common finidngs were pericolic omental thickening and pericolic localized fluid collection (15 patients). Pericolic inflammatory mass of varying echogenicity (10 patients), out pouching hyper echoic foci beyond the lumen of the colon into or beyond the thickened wall (5 patients), contracture of the colon (5 patients), slightly thickened terminal ileum (1 patient), and local enlargement of ileocecal lymph node (1 patient) were also seen. Most diverticulitis occurred in the right colon. The useful sonographic findings in acute diverticulitis were echogenic foci of the diverticulum in the thickened colonic wall, focally and eccentrically thickened colonic wall, and localized omental thickening or fluid collection. In cases of pericecal fluid collection, appendicitis or colonic diverticulitis can be considered as a differential diagnosis

  1. Comparative effects of enoxacin and norfloxacin on human colonic microflora.

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, C; Lidbeck, A.; Kager, L; Nord, C E

    1987-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received 400 mg of enoxacin and another ten healthy volunteers received 200 mg of norfloxacin orally twice a day for 7 days. Fecal specimens were collected before, during, and after drug administration to study the impact of enoxacin and norfloxacin on the normal colonic microflora. On day 7, the mean concentrations of enoxacin and norfloxacin were 350 and 950 mg/kg of feces, respectively. Enoxacin and norfloxacin affected the colonic microflora in similar ways. The num...

  2. On Justification of Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Skov, Stig; Schrøder, Ulrikke; Mortensen, Marianne; Memic, Inda; Asmussen, Pernille

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The project concerns the justification of the Spanish colonization in America during the 16th and 17th century, examined through the Spanish philosopher Francisco de Vitoria’s (1485 – 1546) Political Writings and the British philosopher John Locke’s (1632- 1704) Two Treatises of Government, in a historical as well as a philosophical context. The main problem has been the dispossession of the Indians and how the philosophers defended the occupation of the lands of America. Vitoria’...

  3. Diffuse lymphoid follicles of the colon associated with colonic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronen, R A; Glick, S N; Teplick, S K

    1984-01-01

    In four patients aged 59-75 years, colonic carcinoma was associated with diffuse lymphoid follicles in the colon. In one case, the prominence and distribution of the lymphoid follicles corresponded to the progression and regression of the tumor bulk. It is extremely unusual to demonstrate lymphoid follicles, particularly diffuse, on barium enema in patients in this age range. The colonic carcinomas and lymphoid follicles are directly related, possibly representing an immune response. PMID:6606941

  4. Severe Colonic Complications requiring Sub-Total Colectomy in Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis—A Retrospective Study of 8 Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nagpal, Anish P; Soni, Harshad; Haribhakti, Sanjiv

    2012-01-01

    Colonic involvement in acute pancreatitis is associated with high mortality. Diagnosis of colonic pathology complicating acute pancreatitis is difficult. The treatment of choice is resection of the affected segment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of aggressive surgical approach when colonic complication is suspected. Retrospectively, 8 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis and colonic complications (2006–2010) were reviewed. Eight patients with acute necrotizing p...

  5. Phosphorus availability changes the internal and external endomycorrhizal colonization and affects symbiotic effectivenes Disponibilidade de fósforo altera a colonização endomicorrízica interna e externa e afeta a eficiência simbiótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Nogueira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the awareness that high phosphorus (P availability decreases the mycorrhizal root colonization in higher plants, the effects on the external mycelium are contradicting. The aim of this work was to assess the external mycelium of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF Glomus intraradices and Gigaspora rosea, associated to soybean under increasing P levels (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1. The tested hypotheses were: a the amount of external mycelium depends on the fungal species; b the P levels affect diferentially each mycorrhizal species; c the mycorrhizal effectiveness depends on the amount of external mycelium. Mycorrhizal stimulus on plant biomass occurred at P levels of 0, 25 and 200 mg kg-1. Mycorrhizal root colonization and total external mycelium (TEM decreased with increasing P levels. At zero P level, G. rosea produced less TEM than G. intraradices, which may be related to the lower mycorrhizal effectiveness for G. rosea. Both AMF increased the active external mycelium along P levels, but this increase was not related with symbiotic effectiveness. TEM was found to be closely related to root colonization and mycorrhizal effectiveness. The root colonization and TEM are mutually afected by P availability. Althoug G. intraradices produced more TEM than G. rosea along the P levels, they seemed to affect similarly the TEM for both AMF. More AMF species should be assessed in order to attest whether P levels affect the external mycelium differentially among them.Apesar do conhecimento de que a disponibilidade de fósforo diminui a colonização micorrízica, os efeitos sobre o micélio externo são contraditórios. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o micélio externo dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA Glomus intraradices e Gigaspora rosea, associados à soja, sob doses crescentes de P (0, 25, 50, 100 e 200 mg kg-1. As hipóteses foram: a a quantidade de micélio externo depende da espécie fúngica; b cada espécie fúngica

  6. Short colon in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 11-year-old male Japanese domestic cat was referred to the veterinary hospital with a chronic diarrhea and signs of pain and vocalization when defecating. The cat has discharged unformed feces throughout his life. Morphological diagnosis of short colon was made radiographically after barium enema. The ileocolic junction and cecum was located to the left of the midline at the proximal end of the descending colon. Additional endoscopic examination demonstrated the difference in visual structures of the mucosal surface and in histological structures on mucosal biopsy specimens, between the colon and ileum. This is the first report of short colon in a cat in Japan

  7. Diverticulosis in total colonic aganglionosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two infants with total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) extending into the distal part of the ileum are described. Considerable diagnostic delay occurred with the correct diagnosis established first at 3 and 8 months, respectively. Radiologic findings compatible with TCA such as prolonged barium retention, reflux into ileum following barium enema, and foreshortening of colon were not clearly evident initially. Both patients demonstrated multiple acquired colon diverticula which increased both in number and size during the period of observation. These diverticula are probably a late manifestation of the spastic state of the anganglionic colon. Thus demonstration of diverticula supplies a strong evidence of TCA in infants with intestinal obstruction. (orig.)

  8. Leiomyosarcoma of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevski Vlado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. Leiomyosarcomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare mesenchymal neoplasms which grossly and histologically resemble gastrointestinal stromal tumors. They may be differentiated from gastrointestinal stromal tumors by using immunohistochemistry and they are typically positive for α smooth muscle actin and desmin and negative for c-kit, CD34 and DOG1.1. They often express calponin and h-caldesmon. Case Report. We present a case of a 59-year-old male with anemia, weight loss, intermittent abdominal pain and right abdominal mass. Colonoscopy revealed an exophytic ulcerated neoplastic mass in the ascending colon and abdominal computed tomography scan showed an ill-defined heterogeneous tumor mass which surrounded almost the whole ascending colon. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy and partial resection of ileum. Histopathological examination revealed a leiomyosarcoma composed of atypical spindle cells positive for α smooth muscle actin, desmin and vimentin, and negative for c-kit, CD34, S100 and neuron specific enolase. The patient is alive 8 months after the operation, undergoing chemotherapy. Conclusion. We have concluded that the multimodal approach comprising chemotherapy and complete surgical resection controls the leiomyosarcomas.

  9. The influence of fibrin sealant on the healing colonic anastomosis : an experimental study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, A.C. van der

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe experiments described in this thesis were performed in order to find methods to influence and improve colonic anastomotic wound healing. It is known that inflammation may affect the healing of colonic anastomoses. Eicosanoids are known mediators of the inflammatory process, being a part of the healing process. In order to influence the healing process anti inflammatory drugs may be used. To evaluate the possible role of eicosanoids in uncomplicated healing of colon anastomosis...

  10. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Local Offices Close + - Text Size Get Tested for Colon Cancer [Video] This free video explains the most commonly ... re like most people, the thought of getting colon cancer or even going for a colon cancer test ...

  11. Explant cultures of human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Barrett, L.A.; Jackson, F.E.;

    1978-01-01

    Human colonic epithelium has been cultured as explants in a chemically defined medium for periods of 1 to 20 days. The viability of the explants was shown by the preservation of the ultrastructural features of the colonic epithelial cells and by active incorporation of radioactive precursors into...

  12. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what steps you can take to prevent colon cancer . Risk Factors We do not know what causes colon cancer, ... Society. Colorectal cancer: detailed guide. What are the risk factors for colorectal cancer? Available at: www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/detailedguide/ ...

  13. Cathelicidin suppresses colon cancer development by inhibition of cancer associated fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Cheng,1,* Samantha Ho,1,* Jun Hwan Yoo,1,2,* Deanna Hoang-Yen Tran,1,* Kyriaki Bakirtzi,1 Bowei Su,1 Diana Hoang-Ngoc Tran,1 Yuzu Kubota,1 Ryan Ichikawa,1 Hon Wai Koon1 1Center for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Division of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Digestive Disease Center, CHA University Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam, Republic of Korea *These authors share co-first authorship Background: Cathelicidin (LL-37 in humans and mCRAMP in mice represents a family of endogenous antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides. Cancer-associated fibroblasts can promote the proliferation of colon cancer cells and growth of colon cancer tumors. Methods: We examined the role of cathelicidin in the development of colon cancer, using subcutaneous human HT-29 colon-cancer-cell-derived tumor model in nude mice and azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-mediated colon cancer model in C57BL/6 mice. We also determined the indirect antitumoral mechanism of cathelicidin via the inhibition of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT of colon cancer cells and fibroblast-supported colon cancer cell proliferation. Results: Intravenous administration of cathelicidin expressing adeno-associated virus significantly reduced the size of tumors, tumor-derived collagen expression, and tumor-derived fibroblast expression in HT-29-derived subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. Enema administration of the mouse cathelicidin peptide significantly reduced the size and number of colonic tumors in azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-treated mice without inducing apoptosis in tumors and the adjacent normal colonic tissues. Cathelicidin inhibited the collagen expression and vimentin-positive fibroblast expression in colonic tumors. Cathelicidin did not directly affect HT-29 cell viability, but did significantly reduce tumor growth factor-ß1-induced EMT of colon cancer cells. Media conditioned by the

  14. [Irritable colon and constipation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyenberger, C

    1993-04-20

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a very common clinical problem with a broad spectrum of severity. The management includes a combination of positive diagnosis of typical symptoms with limited investigations to exclude underlying structural or biochemical disorders. Therapeutic trials focus on the relief of predominant symptoms. Identification and modification of factors exacerbating symptoms, behavioural techniques and pharmacologic agents directed to the presumed gastrointestinal motor dysfunction are required. Psychological support by the physician is the most important part of treatment. Chronic constipation may be the predominant symptom of irritable bowel syndrome. Underlying organic disorders must be excluded by clinical examination and endoscopy. Severe chronic constipation requires further investigation of colonic motility and defecation. High fibre diet, osmotic laxatives and procinetic agents may lead to an improvement. In rare cases surgery may be indicated. PMID:8488351

  15. New analytical technique for establishing the quality of Soil Organic Matter affected by a wildfire. A first approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; Waggoner, Derek C.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Fire is one of the most important modulator factors of the environment and the forest. It is able to induce chemical and biological shifts and these, in turn, can alter the physical properties of soil. Generally, fire affects the most reactive fraction, soil organic matter (SOM) (González-Pérez et al., 2004) resulting in changes to several soil properties and functions. To study changes in SOM following a wildfire, researchers can count on several traditional as well as new analytical techniques. One of the most recently employed techniques is Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This new powerful ultra-high resolution mass spectral technique, together with graphic interpretation tools such as van Krevelen diagrams (Kim et al, 2003), may be used to shed light on alterations caused by the burning of SOM. The objective of this research is to study fire impacts on SOM, using a sandy soil collected under a Cork oak (Quercus suber) in Doñana National Park, Southwest Spain. that was affected by a wildfire in August 2012. Methods: The impact of fire on SOM was studied in various different sieve fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, families; condensed aromatic compounds, unspecific aromatics, tannins, lignin, lipids, protein and carbohydrate derived. The unburnt SOM in the coarse fraction was mainly composed of compounds with a high intensity in the tannin-like, lignin-like and carbohydrate-like regions of the van Krevelen diagram, whereas the SOM in the fine fraction showed a high intensity in the lipid-like and protein-like regions. These results suggest that the SOM in the coarse fraction was less altered than that of the fine fraction; the latter believed to be subjected to higher microbial activity. We suggest that the observed changes occurs via a methylation process, producing a SOM that is highly humified (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2014). The SOM in the coarse fraction affected by fire, showed a high relative

  16. New analytical technique for establishing the quality of Soil Organic Matter affected by a wildfire. A first approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; Waggoner, Derek C.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Fire is one of the most important modulator factors of the environment and the forest. It is able to induce chemical and biological shifts and these, in turn, can alter the physical properties of soil. Generally, fire affects the most reactive fraction, soil organic matter (SOM) (González-Pérez et al., 2004) resulting in changes to several soil properties and functions. To study changes in SOM following a wildfire, researchers can count on several traditional as well as new analytical techniques. One of the most recently employed techniques is Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This new powerful ultra-high resolution mass spectral technique, together with graphic interpretation tools such as van Krevelen diagrams (Kim et al, 2003), may be used to shed light on alterations caused by the burning of SOM. The objective of this research is to study fire impacts on SOM, using a sandy soil collected under a Cork oak (Quercus suber) in Doñana National Park, Southwest Spain. that was affected by a wildfire in August 2012. Methods: The impact of fire on SOM was studied in various different sieve fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, University. Results: The van Krevelen diagrams together with the relative intensity of each chemical compound, both obtained by FT-ICR-MS, allowed us to assess SOM quality for each sample and size fractions. The chemical compounds were grouped into the 7 main families; condensed aromatic compounds, unspecific aromatics, tannins, lignin, lipids, protein and carbohydrate derived. The unburnt SOM in the coarse fraction was mainly composed of compounds with a high intensity in the tannin-like, lignin-like and carbohydrate-like regions of the van Krevelen diagram, whereas the SOM in the fine fraction showed a high intensity in the lipid-like and protein-like regions. These results suggest that the SOM in the coarse fraction was less altered than that of the fine fraction; the latter believed to be

  17. Colon interposition for oesophageal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pascal A; Gilardoni, Adrian; Trousse, Delphine; D'Journo, Xavier B; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Doddoli, Christophe; Giudicelli, Roger; Fuentes, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The choice of the colon as an oesophageal substitute results primarily from the unavailability of the stomach. However, given its durability and function, colon interposition keeps elective indications in patients with benign or malignant oesophageal disease who are potential candidates for long survival. The choice of the colonic portion used for oesophageal reconstruction depends on the required length of the graft, and the encountered colonic vascular anatomy, the last being characterised by the near-invariability of the left colonic vessels, in contrast to the vascular pattern of the right side of the colon. Accordingly, the transverse colon with all or part of the ascending colon is the substitute of choice, positioned in the isoperistaltic direction, and supplied either from the left colic vessels for long grafts or middle colic vessels for shorter grafts. Technical key points are: full mobilisation of the entire colon, identification of the main colonic vessels and collaterals, and a prolonged clamping test to ensure the permeability of the chosen nourishing pedicle. Transposition through the posterior mediastinum in the oesophageal bed is the shortest one and thereby offers the best functional results. When the oesophageal bed is not available, the retrosternal route is the preferred alternative option. The food bolus travelling mainly by gravity makes straightness of the conduit of paramount importance. The proximal anastomosis is a single-layer hand-fashioned end-to-end anastomosis to prevent narrowing. When the stomach is available, the distal anastomosis is best performed at the posterior part of the antrum for the reasons of pedicle positioning and reflux prevention, and a gastric drainage procedure is added when the oesophagus and vagus nerves have been removed. In the other cases, a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop is preferable to prevent bile reflux into the colon. Additional procedures include re-establishment of the colonic continuity, a careful closure of

  18. The influence of fibrin sealant on the healing colonic anastomosis : an experimental study in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. van der Ham

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe experiments described in this thesis were performed in order to find methods to influence and improve colonic anastomotic wound healing. It is known that inflammation may affect the healing of colonic anastomoses. Eicosanoids are known mediators of the inflammatory process, being a p

  19. The effect of patch isolation on epifaunal colonization in two different seagrass ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Camilla; Salo, Tiina

    2012-01-01

    The macrofaunal colonization of isolated habitats is affected by many factors, ranging from distance to the nearest source population to the dispersal mechanism of the species. We investigated the initial epifaunal colonization at two sites, one situated in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the other...

  20. Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Valusis, Gintaras; Bernardo, Luis M.; Almeida, Abílio; Moreira, Joaquim A.; Lopes, Patricia C.; Macutkevic, Jan; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Adomavicius, Ramunas; Henrique, Rui; Lopes, Machado

    2011-12-01

    Human normal and cancer affected samples of colon tissue have been measured using transmission time-domain terahertz spectroscopy and continuous wave terahertz imaging. We show that it is possible to distinguish between normal and cancerous regions in the samples when they are fixed in formalin or embedded in paraffin. The still noticeable contrast in the dried paraffin-embedded tissues could indicate that there are additional contrast-contributing factors other than water, which is the main goal of the present work. Plots of the refractive index of normal and cancer affected tissues as well as 2-D transmission THz images are shown. Experimental results are presented and the conditions for discrimination between normal and affected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue are discussed.

  1. EZH2 depletion blocks the proliferation of colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Fussbroich

    Full Text Available The Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2 protein has been reported to stimulate cell growth in some cancers and is therefore considered to represent an interesting new target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we investigated a possible role of EZH2 for the growth control of colon cancer cells. RNA interference (RNAi-mediated intracellular EZH2 depletion led to cell cycle arrest of colon carcinoma cells at the G1/S transition. This was associated with a reduction of cell numbers upon transient transfection of synthetic EZH2-targeting siRNAs and with inhibition of their colony formation capacity upon stable expression of vector-borne siRNAs. We furthermore tested whether EZH2 may repress the growth-inhibitory p27 gene, as reported for pancreatic cancer. However, expression analyses of colon cancer cell lines and colon cancer biopsies did not reveal a consistent correlation between EZH2 and p27 levels. Moreover, EZH2 depletion did not re-induce p27 expression in colon cancer cells, indicating that p27 repression by EZH2 may be cell- or tissue-specific. Whole genome transcriptome analyses identified cellular genes affected by EZH2 depletion in colon cancer cell lines. They included several cancer-associated genes linked to cellular proliferation or invasion, such as Dag1, MageD1, SDC1, Timp2, and Tob1. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that EZH2 depletion blocks the growth of colon cancer cells. These findings might provide benefits for the treatment of colon cancer.

  2. Colonic lymphangiomatosis associated with anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo Chul Chung; Hye-Kang Kim; Jin Young Yoo; Jeong Rok Lee; Kang-Moon Lee; Chang Nyol Paik; U-Im Jang; Jin Mo Yang

    2008-01-01

    lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of lymphatic system.Multiple colonic lymphangioma named as lymphangiomatosis is considered an extremely rare disease.Although lymphangioma is a benign tumor and most colonic lymphangiomas do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment,resection of lymphangioma is necessary in the presence of symptoms such as abdominal pain,bleeding,intussusceptions.We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis in a man who presented with abdominal discomfort and anemia,which was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic snare polyperctomy.

  3. Colonic lymphangiomatosis associated with anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Chul Chung, Hye-Kang Kim, Jin Young Yoo, Jeong Rok Lee, Kang-Moon Lee, Chang Nyol Paik, U-Im Jang, Jin Mo Yang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of lymphatic system. Multiple colonic lymphangioma named as lymphangiomatosis is considered an extremely rare disease. Although lymphangioma is a benign tumor and most colonic lymphangiomas do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment, resection of lymphangioma is necessary in the presence of symptoms such as abdominal pain, bleeding, intussusceptions. We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis in a man who presented with abdominal discomfort and anemia, which was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic snare polypectomy.

  4. [Effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on colonic lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activities from patients with colonic neoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, G; Franchi, A; De Los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Farina, M; Fernández de Gimeno, M A

    2001-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with good gastrointestinal tolerance. Treatment with LC at levels equivalent to those found in plasma following therapeutic doses resulted in significant inhibition of both cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and production of 5 hydroxy-eicosatetraeonic acid (5-HETE) and slightly affected levels of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) in in vitro studies carried out on human tissues. This study deals with the in vivo effect of the drug on human colon segments. Experiment 1: Five patients about to undergo hemicholectomy due to colon neoplasia were treated preoperatively with a continuous infusion of LC, to achieve a steady-state concentration between 4 and 6 mg/ml. Human colon segments from the five patients and from another five control patients receiving no treatment with [14C]-arachidonic acid were incubated. Human colon segments treated with LC showed significant inhibition of PGE2, the only prostaglandin (PG) synthesised by the tissue, as well as of 5-HETE. Experiment 2: Fifteen patients received an i.v. bolus of LC 100 mg (n1 = 5); LC 200 mg (n2 = 5) or indomethacin (INDO) 50 mg (n3 = 5). Both doses of LC showed greater inhibition of PGE2 synthesis than the INDO bolus. Both NSAIDs studied proved to have different effects on the production of 5-HETE; while treatment with LC elicited significant inhibition, levels with INDO remained unchanged. Western blotting analysis showed expression of both COX isoforms in colon segments, COX-2 levels being 20% higher. Both types of in vivo studies conducted continuous infusion and i.v. bolus, revealed that LC exerted significant inhibition of basal synthesis of PGE2 and 5-HETE. PMID:11721323

  5. Epigenetic maturation in colonic mucosa continues beyond infancy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monozygotic twin and other epidemiologic studies indicate that epigenetic processes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases that commonly affect the colonic mucosa. The peak onset of these disorders in young adulthood, suggests that epigenetic changes normally o...

  6. Colonic perforations caused by migrated plastic biliary stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgilio, Edoardo; Pascarella, Agauido; Scandavini, Chiara Maria; Frezza, Barbara; Bocchetti, Tommaso; Balducci, Genoveffa [Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' , St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Endoscopic insertion of plastic endoprostheses has become an integral part of the management of many benign and malignant diseases affecting the hepatobiliary and pancreatic system. Clogging and dislocation into the duodenum are the most frequently described complications following stent placement. Distal migration with or without perforation of the colon is an exceedingly rare phenomenon and the treatment is not well defined, as discussed below.

  7. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L

    1986-10-01

    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli. PMID:3766731

  8. Colon Cleansing: Health or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing? Bugging my dad to save his life Music Therapy Helps People With Cancer Diary of a colon ... Cancer Patients Health Literacy Tests Underutilized; May Improve Elderly Cancer Patients’ Care and Outcomes Majority of Nurses ...

  9. Diets high in fermentable protein and fibre alter tight junction protein composition with minor effects on barrier function in piglet colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jan F; Pieper, Robert; Zakrzewski, Silke S; Günzel, Dorothee; Schulzke, Joerg D; Van Kessel, Andrew G

    2014-03-28

    Protein fermentation end products may damage the colonic mucosa, which could be counteracted by dietary inclusion of fermentable carbohydrates (fCHO). Although fermentable crude protein (fCP) and fCHO are known to affect microbial ecology, their interactive effects on epithelial barrier function are unknown. In the present study, in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, thirty-two weaned piglets were fed low-fCP/low-fCHO (14·5 % crude protein (CP)/14·5 % total dietary fibre (TDF)), low-fCP/high-fCHO (14·8 % CP/16·6 % TDF), high-fCP/low-fCHO (19·8 % CP/14·5 % TDF) and high-fCP/high-fCHO (20·1 % CP/18·0 % TDF) diets. After 21-23 d, samples of proximal and distal colonic mucosae were investigated in Ussing chambers with respect to the paracellular and transcytotic passages of macromolecules and epithelial ion transport. The high-fCHO diets were found to reduce the permeability of the distal colon to the transcytotic marker horseradish peroxidase (HRP, 44 kDa; P <0·05) and also reduce the paracellular permeation of N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin into the submucosa (443 Da; P <0·05), whereas that of HRP was decreased by the high-fCP diets (P <0·01). Short-circuit current (active ion transport), transepithelial resistance (barrier function) and charge selectivity were largely unaffected in both the segments. However, the high-fCP diets were found to suppress the aldosterone-induced epithelial Na channel activity (P <0·01) irrespective of fCHO inclusion. The high-fCP diets generally reduced the expression of colonic claudin-1, claudin-2 and claudin-3 (P <0·01), while that of claudin-4 was increased by the high-fCHO diets (P <0·01). The high-fCHO diets also altered the ratio between occludin forms (P <0·05) and increased the expression of tricellulin in the proximal colon, which was not observed with high-fCP diets. In conclusion, dietary fCHO and fCP exerted few and largely independent effects on functional measurements, but altered tight junction

  10. Colonization and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It stands out the man's paper in the deterioration of the soil and in the phenomenon of the desertization, the conflicts of the use of the soil in the country and the underestimate that it is made of this resource in the environmental analysis. The man's relationships are discussed with the earth and the problem of the soils of the Colombian Orinoquia is examined in terms of the excess of toxic elements as To the, Fe and Mn and the other elements like P, S, Ca, Mg, K, B, and Zn. It is examined the degradation and poverty of the organic complex of the soil, the physical degradation and chemistry and their susceptibility to the erosion, as well as the excess conditions and deficit of humidity. It is recognized that it lacks calibration of the analytic methods for the soils oxisoils of the Orinoquia and the Amazonia. The importance of the soils of the humid tropic is stood out as seat of colonization that have failed when not having an appropriate technology for its handling that it forces to undertake systems of migratory agriculture and to the transformation of the forest in prairie, phenomenon that comes accompanied by the degradation of the soils, illicit cultivations, social conflicts and alteration of the essential ecological processes for the survival

  11. Colon polyps and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronborg, O

    2004-01-01

    Screening for colorectal neoplasia still is the best method of reducing the mortality due to colorectal cancer, and it is to be hoped that fecal occult blood test programs will expand in the near future and be combined with appropriate endoscopy. There are substantial problems with compliance in large programs with occult blood tests as well as endoscopy. Colonography and DNA testing in feces are not yet suitable for population screening. Diagnostic strategies in symptomatic patients are becoming more selective, in the hope of avoiding many superfluous examinations without increasing the risk of missing cancers. New results have confirmed the preventive effect of long-term aspirin use on adenoma recurrence, but the most cost-effective dosage is not clear; the mechanism of action is also uncertain, but seems to involve cyclooxygenase-2. The risk of adenomas does not appear to be associated with low consumption of folate, but with low intake of fiber. A number of biomarkers have been evaluated in polyp patients, but so far surveillance is still based on endoscopic experience, which is less than optimal. Attempts have been made to restrict the number of surveillance endoscopies and reduce the pathologist's workload. The place of argon plasma coagulation has been clearly defined in connection with piecemeal removal of large sessile adenomas. Advances have been achieved in surgery and radiotherapy for rectal cancer, and acute surgery for colonic cancer with severe obstruction will be less common after the introduction of the metal stent. PMID:14722849

  12. Integrated datasets characterize metabolic interactions between mouse’s colonic mucosa, colonic-cecal contents and feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pattern of metabolites produced by the gut microbiome comprises a phenotype indicative of the means by which that microbiome affects the gut. We characterized that phenotype by conducting metabolomic analyses of the colonic-cecal contents, comparing that to the metabolite patterns of feces and c...

  13. The use of flagella and motility for plant colonization and fitness by different strains of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gorski

    Full Text Available The role of flagella and motility in the attachment of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to various surfaces is mixed with some systems requiring flagella for an interaction and others needing only motility for cells to get to the surface. In nature this bacterium is a saprophyte and contaminated produce is an avenue for infection. Previous studies have documented the ability of this organism to attach to and colonize plant tissue. Motility mutants were generated in three wild type strains of L. monocytogenes by deleting either flaA, the gene encoding flagellin, or motAB, genes encoding part of the flagellar motor, and tested for both the ability to colonize sprouts and for the fitness of that colonization. The motAB mutants were not affected in the colonization of alfalfa, radish, and broccoli sprouts; however, some of the flaA mutants showed reduced colonization ability. The best colonizing wild type strain was reduced in colonization on all three sprout types as a result of a flaA deletion. A mutant in another background was only affected on alfalfa. The third, a poor alfalfa colonizer was not affected in colonization ability by any of the deletions. Fitness of colonization was measured in experiments of competition between mixtures of mutant and parent strains on sprouts. Here the flaA and motAB mutants of the three strain backgrounds were impaired in fitness of colonization of alfalfa and radish sprouts, and one strain background showed reduced fitness of both mutant types on broccoli sprouts. Together these data indicate a role for flagella for some strains to physically colonize some plants, while the fitness of that colonization is positively affected by motility in almost all cases.

  14. Multi-instrumental Investigation of Affecting of Early Somatic Embryos of Spruce by Cadmium(II and Lead(II Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Kizek

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to use multi-instrumental analytical apparatus toinvestigate the effects of treatment with cadmium(II and/or lead(II ions (50, 250 and 500μM for twelve days on early somatic spruce embryos (ESEs. Primarily we used imageanalysis for estimation of growth and a fluorimetric sensor for enzymatic detection ofviability of the treated ESEs. It follows from the obtained results that Cd caused highertoxicity to ESEs than Pb. Besides this fundamental finding, we observed that ESEs grewand developed better in the presence of 500 μM of the metal ions than in the presence of250 μM. Based on the results obtained using nuclear magnetic resonance this phenomenonwas related to an increase of the area of ESE clusters by intensive uptake of water from thecultivation medium, due to dilution of the heavy metal concentration inside the cluster. Inaddition we studied the glutathione content in treated ESEs by the adsorptive transferstripping technique coupled with the differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. GSHcontents increased up to 148 ng/mg (clone 2/32 and 158 ng/mg (clone PE 14 after twelve day long treatment with Cd-EDTA ions. The GSH content was about 150 and 160 % higher in comparison with the ESEs treated with Pb-EDTA ions, respectively. The difference between GSH contents determined in ESEs treated with Pb-EDTA and Cd-EDTA ions correlates with the higher toxicity of cadmium(II ions.

  15. Colonic necrosis and perforation due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate in a uraemic patient: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akagun, Tulin; Yazici, Halil; Gulluoglu, Mine G.; Yegen, Gulcin; Turkmen, Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Sodium or calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate or analog) is an ion-exchange resin commonly used to treat hyperkalaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is known to cause digestive complications, such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. Although rare, colonic necrosis and perforation are very severe complications associated with the medication. In this case report, we present a case of calcium polystyrene sulfonate-induced colonic necrosis and perforation to remind clinician...

  16. Hyaluronic acid regulates normal intestinal and colonic growth in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Riehl, Terrence E.; Ee, Xueping; Stenson, William F

    2012-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the extracellular matrix, affects gastrointestinal epithelial proliferation in injury models, but its role in normal growth is unknown. We sought to determine the effects of exogenous HA on intestinal and colonic growth by intraperitoneal injection of HA twice a week into C57BL/6 mice from 3 to 8 wk of age. Similarly, to determine the effects of endogenous HA on intestinal and colonic growth, we administered PEP-1, a peptide that blocks the binding of HA t...

  17. Colonization and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental results of the colonization, process and their consequences are analyzed in the local, national and international order, the activities through which the acts on the means and the nature of these. It is examined the meaning of the sustainable development, the phenomenon of the exhaustion of the ecosystems and their responsible ones. It discusses the importance of the Orinoquia in the mark of the environmental problems in the international order, the region has been intensely exploded by means of intensive production systems, what has led to the exhaustion of these areas in the world environment. The colonist's paper is exposed in the environmental deterioration, in front of the function of the tropical humid forest and it confirms a focus that it approaches the environmental problem from a perspective that makes emphasis in the social component of that problem, in opposition to the conservators where the ecosystem is the only valid reason and the social groups that intervene him, they should simply disappear. It is necessary the necessity to focus of integral way, the colonist's nature like element of a social group, the list that completes in the mark of the nation and their development model, the political economic system and the nationality inside which makes their economic decisions and of production. It is recognized that they are not enough solutions of technical order to impact on the use and sustainable handling of the Orinoquia, but rather it should be contemplated the economic, social, environmental and political aspects of the problem simultaneously, as well as the growing and resolved participation of the social group in their group

  18. Non-surgical factors influencing lymph node yield in colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Patrick; Peirce, Colin; Mulsow, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous factors which can affect the lymph node (LN) yield in colon cancer specimens. The aim of this paper was to identify both modifiable and non-modifiable factors that have been demonstrated to affect colonic resection specimen LN yield and to summarise the pertinent literature on these topics. A literature review of PubMed was performed to identify the potential factors which may influence the LN yield in colon cancer resection specimens. The terms used for the search were: LN...

  19. Therapeutic Management of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Todosi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem worldwide, and a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Correct pretherapeutic staging has the role of guiding the management of colon cancer patients. The diagnosis is guided by the clinical symptoms. Chemotherapy is an important part of colon cancer treatment. Chemotherapy regimens are adapted to tumor stage and patient status and have various side effects and variable survival outcomes. International guidelines recommend different treatments depending on the presence or absence of metastases. The primary goal of treatment in nonmetastatic colon cancer is surgical removal of the tumor which could be the first step of the complex therapy or preceded by neoadjuvant therapy, depending on pretherapeutic staging. In resectable nonmetastatic tumors the preferred surgical procedure is colectomy with en bloc removal of regional lymph nodes. The extent of colectomy should be based on tumor location. The management of metastatic colon cancer also targets the therapeutic approach of the metastatic disease. Therapy is standardized and applied according to tumor stage. Surveillance has a major role in therapeutic success, reason why a time schedule and a protocol adapted to the primary lesion are essential. The goal of implementing the recommendations of international guidelines for the treatment of colon cancer is to provide a uniform treatment for this disease in view of improving overall survival of patients.

  20. Fast evolutionary genetic differentiation during experimental colonizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Josiane Santos; Marta Pascual; Pedro Simões; Inês Fragata; Michael R. Rose; Margarida Matos

    2013-08-01

    Founder effects during colonization of a novel environment are expected to change the genetic composition of populations, leading to differentiation between the colonizer population and its source population. Another expected outcome is differentiation among populations derived from repeated independent colonizations starting from the same source. We have previously detected significant founder effects affecting rate of laboratory adaptation among Drosophila subobscura laboratory populations derived from the wild. We also showed that during the first generations in the laboratory, considerable genetic differentiation occurs between foundations. The present study deepens that analysis, taking into account the natural sampling hierarchy of six foundations, derived from different locations, different years and from two samples in one of the years. We show that striking stochastic effects occur in the first two generations of laboratory culture, effects that produce immediate differentiation between foundations, independent of the source of origin and despite similarity among all founders. This divergence is probably due to powerful genetic sampling effects during the first few generations of culture in the novel laboratory environment, as a result of a significant drop in $N_{\\text{e}}$. Changes in demography as well as high variance in reproductive success in the novel environment may contribute to the low values of $N_{\\text{e}}$. This study shows that estimates of genetic differentiation between natural populations may be accurate when based on the initial samples collected in the wild, though considerable genetic differentiation may occur in the very first generations of evolution in a new, confined environment. Rapid and significant evolutionary changes can thus occur during the early generations of a founding event, both in the wild and under domestication, effects of interest for both scientific and conservation purposes.

  1. Zinc sulphate attenuates chloride secretion in human colonic mucosae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medani, Mekki; Bzik, Victoria A; Rogers, Ailin; Collins, Danielle; Kennelly, Rory; Winter, Des C; Brayden, David J; Baird, Alan W

    2012-12-01

    Zinc's usefulness in the treatment of diarrhoea is well established as an addition to oral rehydration. Mechanisms of action of zinc have been explored in intestinal epithelia from rodents and in cell lines. The aim was to examine how zinc alters ion transport and signal transduction in human colon in vitro. Voltage clamped colonic sheets obtained at the time of surgical resection were used to quantify ion transport responses to established secretagogues. Nystatin permeabilisation was used to study basolaterally-sited ion channels. Direct actions of zinc were determined using preparations of colonic crypts isolated from human mucosal sheets. Electrophysiological measurements revealed zinc to be an inhibitor of electrogenic ion transport stimulated by forskolin, PGE(2), histamine and carbachol in isolated human colonic epithelium. Basolateral addition of zinc sulphate had no direct effect on the epithelium. To further outline the mechanism of action, levels of secondary intracellular messengers (3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate; cAMP) were determined in isolated colonic crypts, and were found to be reduced by zinc sulphate. Finally, indirect evidence from nystatin-permeabilised mucosae further suggested that zinc inhibits basolateral K(+) channels, which are critical for transepithelial Cl(-) secretion linked to water flux. Anti-secretory, and therefore anti-diarrhoeal, actions of exogenous zinc are due, at least in part, to direct basolateral epithelial K(+) channel inhibition. PMID:23022335

  2. Sources of major ions and processes affecting the geochemical and isotopic signatures of subsurface waters along a tropical river, Southwestern India

    OpenAIRE

    Gurumurthy, G. P.; Balakrishna, K.; Tripti, M.; Riotte, Jean; Audry, S.; Braun, Jean-Jacques; Lambs, L.; Udaya Shankar, H. N.

    2015-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of subsurface hydrogeochemistry has been carried out for a period of one year in a humid tropical region along the Nethravati-Gurupur River. The major ion and stable isotope (delta O-18 and delta H-2) compositions are used to understand the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater and its interaction with surface water. In the study, it is observed that intense weathering of source rocks is the major source of chemical elements to the surface and subsurface waters. In addition, ...

  3. The EGFR mutation status affects the relative biological effectiveness of carbon-ion beams in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Amornwichet, Napapat; Oike, Takahiro; Shibata, Atsushi; Nirodi, Chaitanya S.; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Makino, Haruhiko; Kimura, Yuka; HIROTA, YUKA; Isono, Mayu; Yoshida, Yukari; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kohno, Takashi; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) holds promise to treat inoperable locally-advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), a disease poorly controlled by standard chemoradiotherapy using X-rays. Since CIRT is an extremely limited medical resource, selection of NSCLC patients likely to benefit from it is important; however, biological predictors of response to CIRT are ill-defined. The present study investigated the association between the mutational status of EGFR and KRAS, driver genes frequen...

  4. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Excited-States Interactions of Complexes between Some Visible Light-Emitting Lanthanide Ions and Cyclophanes Containing Spirobiindanol Phosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Attia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of excited-states interactions between lanthanide ions Tb3+ and Eu3+ and some new cyclophanes (I, II, and III has been studied in different media. High luminescence quantum yield values for terbium and europium complexes in DMSO and PMMA were obtained. The photophysical properties of the green and red emissive Tb3+ and Eu3+ complexes have been elucidated, respectively.

  5. Neurological manifestation of colonic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzair Chaudhary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are extremely rare in cancer patients and are most commonly associated with certain tumors, such as ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. We report here a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in a 53-year-old man with colonic adenocarcinoma with a solitary liver metastasis. His paraneoplastic syndrome was successfully treated by methylprednisolone and primary oncologic therapies including neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery. This is also the first documented case of simultaneous manifestation of a sensory neuropathy and limbic encephalitis with colon cancer.

  6. Synchronous colon and renal cancer - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary cancer may occur synchronously in two different organs. We present an example of pathologically proven, coexistent renal and colony double malignant tumors. A 59 year old man, was admitted to the Institute of Oncology due to left renal lesion, discovered during a routine abdominal ultrasound examination. The CT exam was performed before surgery. The CT scans reveled a second abnormality, presenting irregular shaped and thickened to 20 mm intestinal wall within a patient's large bowel. As a next diagnostic step a CT-colonoscopy was undertaken, which confirmed the presence of an exophytic sigmoid lesion, eccentrically affecting the colonic wall and protruding into the lumen moderately narrowing it, placed about 50 cm from the external rectal sphincter. Patient underwent simultaneous radical left nephrectomy and sigmoidectomy. Both tumors were confirmed in pathologic evaluation, reveling renal clear cell carcinoma (Fuhrman G II) and colonic adenocarcinoma (Astler-Coller B2). Preoperative careful imaging studies reveled neoplastic tumors in two different organs, allowing for radical resection at the same surgical procedure. (author)

  7. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examine the lining by filling the colon with air or with an x-ray blocking liquid and ... virtual colonoscopy. The radiologist fills your colon with air then scans it. The advantages: the procedure takes ...

  8. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... power to keep colon cancer out of your life. Let me tell you how. Most colon cancers ... the cancer and going on with a normal life. More good news: you have many choices of ...

  9. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  10. Colon Cancer Rising in People Under 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159004.html Colon Cancer Rising in People Under 50 Incidence up more ... TUESDAY, May 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Although overall colon cancer rates are declining, the rates among Americans under ...

  11. STUDIES OF DBP-INDUCED COLON CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of colon carcinomas by trihalomethanes in rats may be relevant to epidemiological findings of increased incidences of colon-rectal cancer associated with exposure to chlorination byproducts. These studies have demonstrated that the brominated THMs in drinking water ind...

  12. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer This page ... and rectal cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Colon Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Camptosar ( ...

  13. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a look at the entire colon. While some family doctors and internists perform colonoscopy, the test is ... be used whenever possible. If you have a family history of colon cancer or if you have ...

  14. Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159556.html Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer But researchers say it's ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have identified five new gene mutations that may be tied to colon cancer. ...

  15. Colonic urticaria pattern due to early ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unusual radiographic pattern of bleb-like mounds on the surface of the colon mucosa, previously described as colonic urticaria, was seen in 3 patients in whom no allergic state was present. This urticaria-like pattern was due to colonic distention in all 3, and represented only submucosal edema on the gross and microscopic specimens. We hypothesize that this pattern is due to early changes of ischemia caused by colon distention. (orig.)

  16. Vitamin D and colon cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidija; Klampfer

    2014-01-01

    Calcitriol, 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25(OH)2D3), the most active form of vitamin D, is a pleotropic hormone with a wide range of biological activities. Due to its ability to regulate calcium and phosphate metabolism, 1,25D3 plays a major role in bone health. In addition, 1,25D3 binds to the vitamin D receptor and thereby regulates the expression of a number of genes which control growth, differentiation and survival of cancer cells. In agreement, the levels of vitamin D3 appear to be an essential determinant for the development and progression of colon cancer and supplementation with vitamin D3 is effective in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis in animal models. Vitamin D3 has been estimated to lower the incidence of colorectal cancer by 50%, which is consistent with the inverse correlation between dietary vitamin D3 intake or sunlight exposure and human colorectal cancer. Several studies confirmed that increasing vitamin D3 lowers colon cancer incidence, reduces polyp recurrence, and that sufficient levels of vitamin D3 are associated with better overall survival of colon cancer patients. Vitamin D regulates the homeostasis of intestinal epithelium by modulating the oncogenic Wnt signaling pathway and by inhibiting tumor-promoting inflammation. Both activities contribute to the ability of 1,25D3 to prevent the development and progression of colon cancer.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, plant chemistry, and aboveground herbivory on Senecio jacobaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidinger, Stefan; Eschen, René; Gange, Alan C.; Finch, Paul; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect insect herbivores by changing plant growth and chemistry. However, many factors can influence the symbiotic relationship between plant and fungus, potentially obscuring experimental treatments and ecosystem impacts. In a field experiment, we assessed AMF colonization levels of individual ragwort ( Senecio jacobaea) plants growing in grassland plots that were originally sown with 15 or 4 plant species, or were unsown. We measured the concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), and assessed the presence of aboveground insect herbivores on the sampled plants. Total AMF colonization and colonization by arbuscules was lower in plots sown with 15 species than in plots sown with 4 species and unsown plots. AMF colonization was positively related to the cover of oxeye daisy ( Leucanthemum vulgare) and a positive relationship between colonization by arbuscules and the occurrence of a specialist seed-feeding fly ( Pegohylemyia seneciella) was found. The occurrence of stem-boring, leaf-mining and sap-sucking insects was not affected by AMF colonization. Total PA concentrations were negatively related to colonization levels by vesicles, but did not differ among the sowing treatments. No single factor explained the observed differences in AMF colonization among the sowing treatments or insect herbivore occurrence on S. jacobaea. However, correlations across the treatments suggest that some of the variation was due to the abundance of one plant species, which is known to stimulate AMF colonization of neighbouring plants, while AMF colonization was related to the occurrence of a specialist insect herbivore. Our results thus illustrate that in natural systems, the ecosystem impact of AMF through their influence on the occurrence of specialist insects can be recognised, but they also highlight the confounding effect of neighbouring plant species identity. Hence, our results emphasise the importance of field

  18. Ion-Induced Surface Diffusion in Ion Sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Makeev, Maxim A.; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    1997-01-01

    Ion bombardment is known to enhance surface diffusion and affect the surface morphology. To quantify this phenomenon we calculate the ion-induced diffusion constant and its dependence on the ion energy, flux and angle of incidence. We find that ion bombardment can both enhance and suppress diffusion and that the sign of the diffusion constant depends on the experimental parameters. The effect of ion-induced diffusion on ripple formation and roughening of ion-sputtered surfaces is discussed an...

  19. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity. PMID:25487536

  20. Detecting inflammation in the unprepared pediatric colon - how reliable is magnetic resonance enterography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Joy L.; Watson, Tom A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Lozinsky, Adriana Chebar; Kiparissi, Fevronia; Shah, Neil [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Gastroenterology, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease frequently affects the colon. MR enterography is used to assess the small bowel but it also depicts the colon. To compare the accuracy of MR enterography and direct visualization at endoscopy in assessing the colon in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. We included children with inflammatory bowel disease who had undergone both MR enterography and endoscopy, and we restrospectively assessed the imaging and endoscopic findings. We scored the colonic appearance at MR using a total colon score. We then compared scores for the whole colon and for its individual segments with endoscopy and histology. We included 15 children. An elevated MR colonic segmental score predicted the presence of active inflammation on biopsy with a specificity of 90% (95% confidence interval [CI] 79.5-96.2%) and sensitivity of 60% (CI 40.6-77.3%); this compares reasonably with the predictive values for findings at colonoscopy - specificity 85% (CI 73.4 - 92.9%) and sensitivity 53.3% (CI 34.3%-71.6%). Accuracy did not change significantly with increasing bowel distension. MR-derived scores had comparable accuracy to those derived during visualization at colonoscopy for detecting biopsy-proven inflammation in our patient group. MR enterography might prove useful in guiding biopsy or monitoring treatment response. Collapse of a colonic segment did not impair assessment of inflammation. (orig.)

  1. Ultrasonic and optical properties and emission of Er3+/Yb3+ doped lead bismuth-germanate glass affected by Bi+/Bi2+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth doped heavy metal oxide glasses instead of silicates are interesting research area, especially, for their potential application in optoelectronics. In addition, contribution of different bismuth ionization states in photoluminescence spectra is still an open question. In this research work, [GeO2]60–[PbO]40−x–[½Bi2O3]x, glass hosts where x=0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mol% and 0.5 wt% of Er2O3 and 1.5 wt% of Yb2O3 as doping agents were studied. The activated heavy metal oxide glass samples were synthesized by conventional melt quenching method. The optical properties were studied by refractive index, UV–visible absorption and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, and explained in terms of the Judd–Ofelt theory. The glass was also studied by ultrasonic measurements and showed that the velocity of sound is lower in Pb-rich samples. Our results also, showed that emission intensities are higher in host glasses with lower sound velocities, which is attributed mainly to multiphonon relaxation. In addition, variation of PL intensities with increase of bismuth composition was related not only to the variation of Debye temperature and refractive index; but also, to the increase of Ω6 in Pb-rich samples due to the ligand field and existence of Bi2+/Bi+ ions in Bi-rich glasses. -- Highlights: • The ultrasonic measurements on glass showed that the velocity of sound is higher in Pb-rich samples. • The PL intensity is higher in glasses with lower Debye temperature and higher refractive index. • The PL intensity is related to the multiphonon relaxation, ligand field (Ω6) and Bi2+/Bi+ ions

  2. Colonic protein fermentation and promotion of colon carcinogenesis by thermolyzed casein.

    OpenAIRE

    Corpet, Denis; Yin, Y; X. M. Zhang; Rémésy, C.; Stamp, D; Medline, A; Thompson, L.U.; Bruce, W R; Archer, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermolyzed casein is known to promote the growth of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colon cancer when it is fed to rats that have been initiated with azoxymethane. We speculated that the promotion was a consequence of increased colonic protein fermentation (i.e., that the thermolysis of the casein decreases its digestibility, increases the amount of protein reaching the colon, and increases colonic protein fermentation and that the potentially toxic products of this fermentation promote colon ...

  3. Colonic Protein Fermentation and Promotion of Colon Carcinogenesis by Thermolyzed Casein

    OpenAIRE

    Corpet, Denis E; Rémésy, Christian; Medline, Alan; Thompson, Lilian; Bruce, W. Robert; Archer, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermolyzed casein is known to promote the growth of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colon cancer when it is fed to rats that have been initiated with azoxymethane. We speculated that the promotion was a consequence of increased colonic protein fermentation (i.e., that the thermolysis of the casein decreases its digestibility, increases the amount of protein reaching the colon, and increases colonic protein fermentation and that the potentially toxic products of this fermentation promote colon ...

  4. Adult Intussusception Due to a Colonic Lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Poormazar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Colonic lipoma is a benign neoplasm that can lead to colonic obstruction but concomitant intussusception is rare in adults. In this case, colocolic intussusception due to a lipoma in the descending colon had occurred. By laparatomy, we diagnosed the problem , but reduction was impossible . So resection of the colon with mass was done and anastomosed. After surgery and 3 years follow up the patient was without any complications. We present this case, and briefly review literature of colonic intussusception in adults.

  5. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Williams, N.;

    2015-01-01

    This study was part of the EU financed project CamCon. The objective of the study was to identify on-farm risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broiler flocks based on comparable data from six European countries. The data included explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning...... backwards elimination and forward selection. Due to the structure of the data, several models were explored, by applying different strategies for categorizing explanatory variables and for selection and elimination of variables in the model. The risk of broiler flocks becoming colonized with Campylobacter...... of drinker systems were found to affect the risk of the broiler flocks becoming colonized by Campylobacter....

  6. Distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in lungs from colonized COPD patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sivam, Sheila; Sciurba, Frank C.; Lucht, Lorrie A.; Zhang, Yingze; Duncan, Steven R.; Norris, Karen A.; Morris, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii has been detected in lung tissue from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with disease severity. The regional distribution of the organism in lungs is unknown, but differences in distribution of Pneumocystis could affect estimates of colonization prevalence. We examined the distribution of Pneumocystis in the lungs of 19 non-HIV-infected patients with COPD who were undergoing lung transplantation. DNA was extracted from explanted...

  7. Radiologic imaging of a right pseudo colon: report of one case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 24-year old patient with history of appendectomy that some months later had episodes of fever that disappear with profuse diarrheas is presented. The radiologic and surgical diagnosis proved the presence of a colonic internal fistula with the confirmation of a right pseudocolon at the expense of the right parietocolic. The curative treatment included the resection of the affected colon segment with drainage and curettage of the right parietocolic

  8. Effects of Lubiprostone on Pacemaker Activity of Interstitial Cells of Cajal from the Mouse Colon

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Han-Yi; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ki, Jung Suk; Ryu, Kwon Ho; Choi, Seok; Jun, Jae Yeoul

    2014-01-01

    Lubiprostone is a chloride (Cl-) channel activator derived from prostaglandin E1 and used for managing constipation. In addition, lubiprostone affects the activity of gastrointestinal smooth muscles. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells that generate slow-wave activity in smooth muscles. We studied the effects of lubiprostone on the pacemaker potentials of colonic ICCs. We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to determine the pacemaker activity in cultured colonic ICCs ...

  9. Helicobacter pylori Colonization Ameliorates Glucose Homeostasis in Mice through a PPAR γ-Dependent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Josep Bassaganya-Riera; Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello; Barbara Kronsteiner; Adria Carbo; Pinyi Lu; Monica Viladomiu; Mireia Pedragosa; Xiaoying Zhang; Sobral, Bruno W.; Mane, Shrinivasrao P.; Mohapatra, Saroj K.; Horne, William T.; Guri, Amir J.; Michael Groeschl; Gabriela Lopez-Velasco

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is an inverse secular trend between the incidence of obesity and gastric colonization with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that can affect the secretion of gastric hormones that relate to energy homeostasis. H. pylori strains that carry the cag pathogenicity island (PAI) interact more intimately with gastric epithelial cells and trigger more extensive host responses than cag− strains. We hypothesized that gastric colonization with H. pylori strains differing in cag PAI stat...

  10. Soil Influences Colonization of Root-Associated Fungal Endophyte Communities of Maize, Wheat, and Their Progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Bokati; José Herrera; Ravin Poudel

    2016-01-01

    Root-associated fungal endophytes are vital component of root microbiome as some mitigate their host’s abiotic and biotic stress. We characterized root-associated fungal endophytes in cereal grains and their progenitors grown on two different soil-types. We aimed at determining how clay and desert soil affects the colonization of root fungal community. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were employed to identify endophytes that successfully colonized greenhouse-grown host ...

  11. Post larval, short-term, colonization patterns: The effect of substratum complexity across subtidal, adjacent, habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz, Sara; Tuya, Fernando; Navarro, Pablo G.; Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Haroun, Ricardo J.

    2012-10-01

    Benthic habitats are colonized by organisms from the water column and adjacent habitats. There are, however, variations in the 'acceptability' of any habitat to potential colonists. We assessed whether the structural complexity of artificial substrata affected patterns of short-term colonization of post larval faunal assemblages across subtidal habitats within a coastal landscape. Specifically, we tested whether short-term colonization patterns on 3 types of artificial substrata encompassing a range of complexities, including a leaf-like unit, a cushion-shaped leaf-like unit and a cushion-shaped unit, were consistent across 4 adjacent habitats: macroalgal-dominated bottoms, urchin-grazed barrens, seagrass meadows and sandy patches, at Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic). A total of 16,174 organisms were collected after 4 weeks and 4 taxonomic groups (Crustacea, Chordata, Echinodermata and Mollusca) dominated the assemblage. Despite considerable among-taxa variability being observed in response to habitat effects, the total abundance of colonizers, as well as the abundance of Arthropoda, Chordata and Echinodermata, was affected by the habitat where collectors were deployed, but did not differ among types of collectors. Similarly, the assemblage structure of colonizers was mainly affected by the habitat, but not by the type of collector; habitat contributed to explain most variation in the assemblage structure of the four dominant taxonomic groups (from ca. 5.44-19.23%), and obscured, in all cases, variation explained by the type of collector. As a result, the variation in short-term colonization patterns of faunal assemblages into artificial collectors was mostly affected by variation associated with habitats rather than by differences in the structural complexity of collectors. The largest abundances of colonizers, particularly Echinodermata, were found on sandy patches relative to other habitats, suggesting that the 'availability', rather than any particular attribute

  12. Medullary carcinoma of the colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Grauslund, Morten; Glenthøj, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the colon is a rare variant of colorectal cancer claimed to have a more favorable prognosis than conventional adenocarcinomas. The histopathologic appearance may be difficult to distinguish from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic...... interobserver agreement and to characterize the immunohistochemical and molecular differences between these two subgroups. Fifteen cases initially classified as medullary carcinoma and 30 cases of poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas were included. Two pathologists reviewed the slides independently without...... differences in CK20 (p = 0.005) expression and in the rate of BRAF mutations (p = 0.0035). In conclusion, medullary carcinomas of the colon are difficult to discriminate from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma even with the help of immunohistochemical and molecular analyses. This raises the question whether...

  13. Colonic perforation in Behcet's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine M Dowling; Arnold DK Hill; Carmel Malone; John J Sheehan; Shona Tormey; Kieran Sheahan; Enda McDermott; Niall J O'Higgins

    2008-01-01

    A 17-year-old gentleman was admitted to our hospital for headache, the differential diagnosis of which included Behcet's syndrome (BS). He developed an acute abdomen and was found to have air under the diaphragm on erect chest X-ray. Subsequent laparotomy revealed multiple perforations throughout the colon. This report describes an unusual complication of Behcets syndrome occurring at the time of presentation and a review of the current literature of reported cases.

  14. Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millo, Paolo; Rispoli, Corrado; Rocco, Nicola; Contul, Riccardo Brachet; Fabozzi, Massimiliano; Grivon, Manuela; Nardi, Mario Junior; Allieta, Rosaldo

    2013-01-01

    Colon cancer is a major problem in Western countries and complete surgical resection is the main treatment. Since its introduction the laparoscopic approach has been used to achieve bowel resection with a better postoperative course and better aesthetic outcomes. Initial concerns about the radicality of the resection and the oncologic outcomes have been overcome in the last decade. All over the world large trials have been conducted to compare the laparoscopic approach and the traditional lap...

  15. Primary lymphoma of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauro Leo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary lymphoma of the colon is a rare tumor of the gastrointestinal (GI tract and comprises only 0.2-1.2% of all colonic malignancies. The most common variety of colonic lymphoma is non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL. The GI tract is the most frequently involved site, accounting for 30-40% of all extra nodal lymphomas, approximately 4-20% of which are NHL. The stomach is the most common location of GI lymphomas, followed by the small intestine. Early diagnosis may prevent intestinal perforation; however, the diagnosis is often delayed in most cases. Therapeutic approaches described in two subsets include: Radical tumor resection (hemicolectomy plus multi-agent chemotherapy (polychemotherapy in early stage patients, biopsy plus multidrug chemotherapy in advanced stage patients. Radiotherapy is reserved for specific cases; surgery alone can be considered as an adequate treatment for patients with low-grade NHL disease that does not infiltrate beyond the sub mucosa. Although resection plays an important role in the local control of the disease and in preventing bleeding and/or perforation, it rarely eradicates the lymphoma by itself. Those with limited stage disease may enjoy prolonged survival when treated with aggressive chemotherapy.

  16. EP4 and EP2 receptor subtypes involved in colonic secretion in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosa, A.S.; Hansen, M.B.; Tilotta, C.M.;

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the prostaglandin EP receptor subtypes functionally involved in electrogenic ion secretion in rat colon. With 30 rats, measurements of short circuit current (SCC) and slope conductance were obtained by Ussing chamber technique. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) and other...

  17. Hereditary colon Cancer: Recommendations for prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention in individuals with hereditary risk of colon cancer, is subject to clinical and molecular facts because their behavior differs to sporadic cancer. Hereditary cancer diseases affecting the colon in particular linked to other locations or that are associated with pre-cancer (polyps, osteoma s, lentigines) phenotypic markers represent a dissimilar to those who present directly in colorectal cancer status or associated conditions. In the first, the presence of previous injury (phenotypes) allows us to identify, while the latter is essential to have other diagnostic pathway (genotypes) .The location of genomic alterations manages to delve into the problem and identify those who will develop disease. The perspective will be different in the general population and those who do not carry mutations in terms suggestions for prevention, both primary and secondary. Not always the mutation is detected and in these high-risk situations, the clinic is sovereign and agrees to keep all members of these events surveillance strict about not being able to characterize those who are carriers of alterations and our condition is different in the proposition of preventive attitudes: set from when control about which organs and often starts, suffer because of accelerated carcinogenesis. The presentation is focused on populations at increased risk of cancer colorectal, regarding the management of the suggestions for primary prevention, secondary prevention while analyzing the early diagnosis of the disease and the suggestion of treatment, compared to the general population management. Primary prevention, including chemo prevention are described. While in secondary prevention is emphasized to management time tracking, optimization diagnostics according to the pathology suspected, the most common therapeutic approaches and findings relating prophylactic surgery

  18. Malakoplakia of the colon associated with colonic adenocarcinoma diagnosed in colonic biopsies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Malakoplakia, typically involving the urinary tract, is an uncommon form of chronic inflammation caused by chronic nfections and characterized by accumulation of macrophages. It has also been found in many other sites such as the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, lymph Snodes, skin, respiratory tract, adrenal gland, vagina and brain. We present a case of a 64-year-old man referred to our hospital with cachexia and radiologic evidence of metastatic tumor of the liver.Colonoscopy revealed a large malignant-appearing polypoid mass of the ascending colon and multiple distinct polyps throughout the rest of the colon. Biopsies of the ascending colon mass confirmed the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma.Histological examination of two of the other polyps revealed malakoplakia which was characterized by aggregates of granular histiocytes with Michaelis-Gutmann bodies and histochemically confirmed with periodic acid-Schiff and von Kossa stains. This is a rare case diagnosed on endoscopic samples. The majority of reported cases were found in surgical specimens. In addition, the endoscopic appearance of multiple polyps is unusual in malakoplakia.

  19. Caesium inhibits the colonization of Medicago truncatula by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of soils with radioisotopes of caesium (Cs) is of concern because of their emissions of harmful β and γ radiation. Radiocaesium enters the food chain through vegetation and the intake of Cs can affect the health of organisms. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic symbioses with plants through colonization of the roots and previous studies on the influence of AM on Cs concentrations in plants have given inconsistent results. These studies did not investigate the influence of Cs on AM fungi and it is therefore not known if Cs has a direct effect on AM colonization. Here, we investigated whether Cs influences AM colonization and if this effect impacts on the influence of Rhizophagus intraradices on Cs accumulation by Medicago truncatula. M. truncatula was grown with or without R. intraradices in pots containing different concentrations of Cs. Here, we present the first evidence that colonization of plants by AM fungi can be negatively affected by increasing Cs concentrations in the soil. Mycorrhizal colonization had little effect on root or shoot Cs concentrations. In conclusion, the colonization by AM fungi is impaired by high Cs concentrations and this direct effect of soil Cs on AM colonization might explain the inconsistent results reported in literature that have shown increased, decreased or unaffected Cs concentrations in AM plants. - Highlights: • Colonization of plants by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is negatively affected by increasing soil caesium concentrations. • Shoot caesium concentrations are not influenced by AM fungi at soil caesium concentrations above about 3 μg Cs kg−1. • The direct effect of caesium on AM fungi might impact on the influence of AM fungi on Cs accumulation in plants. • This might explain the inconsistent results reported in literature on Cs accumulation in AM plants

  20. A Research on the Affecting Factors of Thermal Safety in Lithium-ion Power Battery%动力锂离子电池热安全性影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉涛; 何小颤

    2012-01-01

    根据锂离子电池的结构和热传导理论,建立了锂离子电池的三维稳态温度场的计算模型,分析了影响锂离子电池热安全性的主要因素.在此基础上,建立了某型号锂离子电池的有限元模型,并计算了不同放电倍率和不同对流系数下的电池三维温度场分布,为电池组温度场分析及其冷却系统设计奠定基础.%A 3D steady-state temperature field model for lithium-ion battery is set up based on heat transfer theory and the structure of battery, and the main factors affecting the thermal safety of battery are analyzed. On this basis, a FE model for a lithium-ion battery is established and the 3D temperature field distribution at different discharging currents and convection coefficients is calculated, laying a foundation for the thermal field analysis and cooling system design of battery pack.

  1. [Measures to anatomic variations of the colonic vessels in laparoscopic operations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Kai

    2013-10-01

    In laparoscopic colorectal resection, the poor blood supply of the anastomosis after tumor excision is difficult to be determined during the operations sometimes. The change in blood supply of the bowel is mainly due to the mesenteric anatomy and the operative techniques. The direct blood supply of colon is the marginal vessels in the mesentery. The integrity and patency of the marginal vessels determine the vitality of the bowel. However, the marginal vessels are different in diameter, pulsation or even discontinue in various areas, affecting the excision of the colon and following anastomosis. The most common three dangerous areas to anastomosis include:(1)area between ileocolic artery and right colonic artery; (2)area between middle colonic artery and left colonic artery-the Griffiths point. (3)area between the terminal branch of sigmoid colonic artery and superior rectal artery-Sudeck dangerous area. In laparoscopic colorectal resection, one should pay attention to protect the blood supply of the bowel and the marginal blood vessels, and be vigilant to the three vascular variations above mentioned. The vessels should be ligated accurately to ensure sufficient blood supply to the anastomosis and consequent normal healing of the rectal and colonic anastomosis. More attention should be paid to the elderly, morbid, and diabetic patients. If the safety of the anastomosis is unsure, prophylactic ileostomy should be performed. PMID:24158864

  2. Identification of bladder and colon afferents in the nodose ganglia of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrity, April N; Rau, Kristofer K; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Stirling, David P; Hubscher, Charles H

    2014-11-01

    The sensory neurons innervating the urinary bladder and distal colon project to similar regions of the central nervous system and often are affected simultaneously by various diseases and disorders, including spinal cord injury. Anatomical and physiological commonalities between the two organs involve the participation of shared spinally derived pathways, allowing mechanisms of communication between the bladder and colon. Prior electrophysiological data from our laboratory suggest that the bladder also may receive sensory innervation from a nonspinal source through the vagus nerve, which innervates the distal colon as well. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether anatomical evidence exists for vagal innervation of the male rat urinary bladder and to assess whether those vagal afferents also innervate the colon. Additionally, the relative contribution to bladder and colon sensory innervation of spinal and vagal sources was determined. By using lipophilic tracers, neurons that innervated the bladder and colon in both the nodose ganglia (NG) and L6/S1 and L1/L2 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were quantified. Some single vagal and spinal neurons provided dual innervation to both organs. The proportions of NG afferents labeled from the bladder did not differ from spinal afferents labeled from the bladder when considering the collective population of total neurons from either group. Our results demonstrate evidence for vagal innervation of the bladder and colon and suggest that dichotomizing vagal afferents may provide a neural mechanism for cross-talk between the organs. PMID:24845615

  3. The colon: Absorptive, seccretory and metabolic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, J G

    1975-01-01

    The role which the human colon fulfils in digestion and metabolism remains largely undocumented. Its capacity to conserve water and electrolytes is well known although how this is controlled is uncertain. In the animal kingdom, calcium and magnesium absorption from the colon are improtant as are absorption and synthesis of vitamins. The abundant microflora of the human colon gives it unique properties. Dietary residue is metabolised forming short-chain fatty acids, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane; whilst 20% of urea synthesised in man is broken down in the colon to ammonia, which is reabsorbed, and carbonic acid. The microflora also degrades a wide variety of organic compounds including food additives, drugs, bile salts, and cholesterol which may be relevant to the development of colon cancer. Regional differences in colonic function also exist making interpretation of data from this relatively inaccessible organ more difficult. PMID:1205009

  4. Colon Cancer Metastatic to the Biliary Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Alexandra T; Clayton, Steven B; Markow, Michael; Mamel, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma is commonly found in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. Common bile duct (CBD) tumors related to adenomas from familial adenomatous polyposis metastasizing from outside of the gastrointestinal tract have been reported. We report a case of biliary colic due to metastatic colon adenocarcinoma to the CBD. Obstructive jaundice with signs of acalculous cholecystitis on imaging in a patient with a history of colon cancer should raise suspicion for metastasis to CBD. PMID:27144209

  5. Mechanisms of ion channel in irritable bowel syndrome caused by depression induced abnormal colon motility in rats%抑郁引起大鼠结肠动力学改变导致肠易激综合征的离子通道机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴红; 王凤秀; 杨峥; 吴成云; 周成志; 谭诗云; 王高华; 罗和生

    2015-01-01

    ( - 7 .96 ± 5 .95) mV of control group to ( - 14 .81 ± 3 .33) mV .Moreover ,recovery of inactivation of ICa‐L was fast ,the recovery time of maximum half inactivation was shorten from (393 .28 ± 41 .79 ) ms of control group to (163 .29 ± 27 .34) ms ,58 .48% in advance .Conclusions Depression could induce obvious IBS in gastrointestinal of rats . The mechanisms maybe depression causes ICa‐L of colonic myocytes abnormally increasing ,steady‐state activation gate open in advance ,accelerate recovery time of inactivation and ion channel remodeling of ICa‐L .

  6. Contrasting preferences of arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate fungi colonizing boreal and subarctic Avenella flexuosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, M; Raveala, K; Wäli, P R; Ruotsalainen, A L

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi are ubiquitous in grass roots, but their colonizations may vary according to latitudinal gradient and site conditions. We investigated how vegetation zone (boreal vs. subarctic), humus thickness, and site openness affect root fungal colonizations of the grass Avenella flexuosa. More precisely, we hypothesized that AM and DSE fungal colonizations would have different responses to environmental conditions such that AM fungi could be more common in boreal zone, whereas we expected DSE fungi to be more affected by the amount of humus. We found site openness to affect AM and DSE fungi in a contrasting manner, in interaction with the vegetation zone. AM colonization was high at open coastal dunes, whereas DSE fungi were more common at forested sites, in the boreal zone. Humus thickness affected AM fungi negatively and DSE fungi positively. To conclude, the observed AM and DSE fungal colonization patterns were largely contrasting. AM fungi were favored in seashore conditions characterized by thin humus layer, whereas DSE fungi were favored in conditions of higher humus availability. PMID:24061928

  7. Quantitative measurement of feline colonic transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonic transit scintigraphy, a method for quantitatively evaluating the movement of the fecal stream in vivo, was employed to evaluate colonic transit in the cat. Scintigraphy was performed in duplicate in five cats and repeated four times in one cat. After instillation of an 111In marker into the cecum through a surgically implanted silicone cecostomy tube, colonic movement of the instillate was quantitated for 24 h using gamma scintigraphy. Antegrade and retrograde motion of radionuclide was observed. The cecum and ascending colon emptied rapidly, with a half-emptying time of 1.68 +/- 0.56 h (mean +/- SE). After 24 h, 25.1 +/- 5.2% of the activity remained in the transverse colon. The progression of the geometric center was initially rapid, followed later by a delayed phase. Geometric center reproducibility was found to be high when analyzed using simple linear regression (slope = 0.92; r = 0.73; P less than 0.01). Atropine (0.1 mg/kg im) was found to delay cecum and ascending colon emptying and delay progression of the geometric center. These results demonstrate both 1) the ability of colonic transit scintigraphy to detect changes in transit induced by pharmacological manipulation and 2) the fact that muscarinic blockade inhibits antegrade transit of the fecal stream. We conclude that feline colonic transit may be studied in a quantitative and reproducible manner with colonic transit scintigraphy

  8. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  9. Granularcelletumor i colon--Abrikossoffs tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Ibsen, Per; Gyrtrup, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman had a right hemicoletomy due to a large sessile polyp in the ascending colon, inappropriate for polypectomy. Histopathologic examination of the specimen showed a tubulovillous adenoma with moderate dysplasia and an adjacent 1 x 1 cm submucosal tumor classified as a benign GCT...... due to the appearance in the light microscope and immunohistochemical analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of synchronic adenoma and GCT in the colon. To date there is no evidence of any association or disposing factors between GCT in the colon and colonic adenomas or malignancy....

  10. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail: evonrose@medicine.umaryland.edu; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  11. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer

  12. Colonization of Crystalline Cellulose by Clostridium cellulolyticum ATCC 35319

    OpenAIRE

    Gelhaye, E.; Gehin, A; Petitdemange, H.

    1993-01-01

    Cellulose colonization by Clostridium cellulolyticum was studied by using [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation. The colonization process indicated that a part of the bacterial population was released from cellulose to the liquid phase before binding and colonizing another adhesion site of the cellulose. We postulate that cellulose colonization occurs according to the following process: adhesion, colonization, release, and readhesion.

  13. Highly Charged Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a study is made for the factors affecting the production and extraction of highly charged ion beams. Discussion is made for the production of highly charged ions from: the conventional vacuum are ion sources (Pinning PIG and Duoplasmatron DP) and the recent trends type which are (Electron Beam Ion Sources EBIS, Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources ECRIS and Laser Ion source LIS). The highly charged ions with charge state +7 , O+8 ,Ne+10 , Ar+18 have been extracted from the ECRIS while fully stripped Xe+54 has been extracted from EBIS. Improving the capabilities of the conventional RF ion source to produce multiply charged ions is achieved through the use of electron injection into the plasma or with the use of RF driven ion source. The later is based on coupling the RF power to the discharge through an internal antenna in vacuum are ion source. The argon ion species extracted from these upgraded RF ion sources could reach Ar+5

  14. Properties of cholinergic and non-cholinergic submucosal neurons along the mouse colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Jaime Pei Pei; Tough, Iain R; Cox, Helen M; Bornstein, Joel C

    2014-02-15

    Submucosal neurons are vital regulators of water and electrolyte secretion and local blood flow in the gut. Due to the availability of transgenic models for enteric neuropathies, the mouse has emerged as the research model of choice, but much is still unknown about the murine submucosal plexus. The progeny of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre × ROSA26(YFP) reporter mice, ChAT-Cre;R26R-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) mice, express YFP in every neuron that has ever expressed ChAT. With the aid of the robust YFP staining in these mice, we correlated the neurochemistry, morphology and electrophysiology of submucosal neurons in distal colon. We also examined whether there are differences in neurochemistry along the colon and in neurally mediated vectorial ion transport between the proximal and distal colon. All YFP(+) submucosal neurons also contained ChAT. Two main neurochemical but not electrophysiological groups of neurons were identified: cholinergic (containing ChAT) or non-cholinergic. The vast majority of neurons in the middle and distal colon were non-cholinergic but contained vasoactive intestinal peptide. In the distal colon, non-cholinergic neurons had one or two axons, whereas the cholinergic neurons examined had only one axon. All submucosal neurons exhibited S-type electrophysiology, shown by the lack of long after-hyperpolarizing potentials following their action potentials and fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). Fast EPSPs were predominantly nicotinic, and somatic action potentials were mediated by tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated channels. The size of submucosal ganglia decreased but the proportion of cholinergic neurons increased distally along the colon. The distal colon had a significantly larger nicotinic ion transport response than the proximal colon. This work shows that the properties of murine submucosal neurons and their control of epithelial ion transport differ between colonic regions. There are several key differences

  15. Suppression of colitis-related mouse colon carcinogenesis by a COX-2 inhibitor and PPAR ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally assumed that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related carcinogenesis occurs as a result of chronic inflammation. We previously developed a novel colitis-related mouse colon carcinogenesis model initiated with azoxymethane (AOM) and followed by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). In the present study we investigated whether a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor nimesulide and ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), troglitazone (a PPARγ ligand) and bezafibrate (a PPARα ligand) inhibit colitis-related colon carcinogenesis using our model to evaluate the efficacy of these drugs in prevention of IBD-related colon carcinogenesis. Female CD-1 (ICR) mice were given a single intraperitoneal administration of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight) and followed by one-week oral exposure of 2% (w/v) DSS in drinking water, and then maintained on the basal diets mixed with or without nimesulide (0.04%, w/w), troglitazone (0.05%, w/w), and bezafibrate (0.05%, w/w) for 14 weeks. The inhibitory effects of dietary administration of these compounds were determined by histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Feeding with nimesulide and troglitazone significantly inhibited both the incidence and multiplicity of colonic adenocarcinoma induced by AOM/DSS in mice. Bezafibrate feeding significantly reduced the incidence of colonic adenocarcinoma, but did not significantly lower the multiplicity. Feeding with nimesulide and troglitazone decreased the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling index and expression of β-catenin, COX-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine. The treatments increased the apoptosis index in the colonic adenocarcinoma. Feeding with bezafibrate also affected these parameters except for β-catenin expression in the colonic malignancy. Dietary administration of nimesulide, troglitazone and bezafibrate effectively suppressed the development of colonic epithelial malignancy induced by AOM/DSS in female ICR

  16. [Serpins in hyperplastic colon tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, O I; Frantsiiants, E M; Kozlova, L S; Terpugov, A L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to define α-2-macroglobulin (α-2M) and α-1-proteinase inhibitor (α-1PI) in tissues of malignant tumors and polyps of the lower parts of the colon. 28 patients had malignant tumors of the sigmoid colon or rectum (T3N0-1M0-2), 29 had polyps of the same location. Content of α-2M and α-1PI was studied in cytosols of the central, peripheral and conditionally healthy tissues (of resection line) of the mentioned hyperplasias by the ELISA method using standard test kits. Suppression of a-2M and increase of α-1PI (perifocal zone) were found in malignant tumor tissue, as well as α-1PI maintenance in tumorous focus. Increase of α-2M and decrease of α-1PI were detected in polyp tissue. Changes in physiological balance of serpins were assessed by α-1PI/α-2M ratio in comparison with the resection line. The risk of distortion of proliferation and differentiation processes increases in polyps in ineffective inhibition of proteolysis under the influence of released factors of malignancy. Endogenous or medicamentous restoration of balance of interaction of trypsin-like proteases and kallikrein with inhibitors will probably play the crucial role. PMID:25911925

  17. [Irritable colon and psychosomatic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morini, A; Mauceri, P; Pallotta, P; Pelliccia, G

    1984-08-25

    The authors, after having considered the close likeness between the collateral clinical picture described by others in regard to the irritable colon syndrome and the outstanding one pointed out by them in many cases of psychosomatic disorders, have analyzed again a large number of personal cases diagnosed as "psychosomatic" in order to find possible relations between these two unwholesome conditions. At the end of their examination, after having ascertained that the "Irritable colon" has not to be considered an isolated disease but a syndrome caused by many factors, hinged on a predisposing condition likely of constitutional nature, the authors remark how it may nest in the folds of a psychosomatic disorder and sometimes be its outbreaking feature. The authors by this way, don't want to conclude identifying the I.C. with a psychosomatic disorder and suggest that in such cases one may take this syndrome as the main manifestation of a condition marked by an impairment of the digestive tract motility inside a psychosomatic disorder with a somatic expression of this apparatus. PMID:6483246

  18. Mechanosensitive ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Takahashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface receptors are involved in numerous important biological processes including embryogenesis, tissue differentiation, and cellular homeostasis. Among them, mechanosensitive ion channels play an essential role in cellular functions of every cell including neurons, cardiomyocytes, and osteocytes. Here, we discuss types, roles, structures, and biophysical factors that affect the functions of mechanosensitive ion channels.

  19. Imaging of total colonic Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a functional obstruction of the bowel caused by the absence of intrinsic enteric ganglion cells. The diagnosis of total colonic HD (TCHD) based on contrast enemas is difficult in newborns because radiological findings vary. To evaluate the radiographic and contrast enema findings in patients with pathologically proven TCHD. From 1966 to 2007, 17 records from a total of 31 patients with TCHD were retrospectively evaluated for diameter and shape of the colon, diameter of the small bowel, bowel wall contour, ileal reflux, abdominal calcifications, pneumoperitoneum, filling defects, transitional zones and rectosigmoid index. Three colonic patterns of TCHD were found: microcolon, question-mark-shape colon and normal caliber colon. Additional findings included spasmodic colon, ileal reflux, delayed evacuation and abdominal calcifications. Colonic transitional zones were found in eight patients with TCHD. The diagnosis of TCHD is difficult to establish by contrast enema studies. The length of the aganglionic small bowel and the age of the patient can influence the radiological findings in TCHD. The transitional zone and the rectosigmoid index can be false-positive in TCHD. The colon can appear normal. Consider TCHD if the contrast enema study is normal but the patient remains symptomatic and other causes of distal bowel obstruction have been excluded. (orig.)

  20. Imaging of total colonic Hirschsprung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranzinger, Enno; DiPietro, Michael A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Teitelbaum, Daniel H. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a functional obstruction of the bowel caused by the absence of intrinsic enteric ganglion cells. The diagnosis of total colonic HD (TCHD) based on contrast enemas is difficult in newborns because radiological findings vary. To evaluate the radiographic and contrast enema findings in patients with pathologically proven TCHD. From 1966 to 2007, 17 records from a total of 31 patients with TCHD were retrospectively evaluated for diameter and shape of the colon, diameter of the small bowel, bowel wall contour, ileal reflux, abdominal calcifications, pneumoperitoneum, filling defects, transitional zones and rectosigmoid index. Three colonic patterns of TCHD were found: microcolon, question-mark-shape colon and normal caliber colon. Additional findings included spasmodic colon, ileal reflux, delayed evacuation and abdominal calcifications. Colonic transitional zones were found in eight patients with TCHD. The diagnosis of TCHD is difficult to establish by contrast enema studies. The length of the aganglionic small bowel and the age of the patient can influence the radiological findings in TCHD. The transitional zone and the rectosigmoid index can be false-positive in TCHD. The colon can appear normal. Consider TCHD if the contrast enema study is normal but the patient remains symptomatic and other causes of distal bowel obstruction have been excluded. (orig.)

  1. Inguinal lymph node metastasis of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloane McGraw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of adenocarcinoma of colon with unusual metastasis to inguinal lymph nodes. Our patient is a young male with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy, bone pains, and jaundice who presented as carcinoma of unknown primary. He was diagnosed as widely metastatic adenocarcinoma of colon for which he received chemotherapy and has had a good response to the treatment.

  2. Duplication Cyst of the Sigmoid Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Domajnko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male with developmental delay presented with abdominal pain of two days' duration. He was afebrile and his abdomen was soft with mild diffuse tenderness. There were no peritoneal signs. Plain x-ray demonstrated a large air-filled structure in the right upper quadrant. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a 9×8 cm structure adjacent to the hepatic flexure containing an air-fluid level. It did not contain oral contrast and had no apparent communication with the colon. At operation, the cystic lesion was identified as a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon that was adherent to the right upper quadrant. The cyst was excised with a segment of the sigmoid colon and a stapled colo-colostomy was performed. Recovery was uneventful. Final pathology was consistent with a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon. The cyst was attached to the colon but did not communicate with the lumen.

  3. Congenital pouch colon - Then and now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Devendra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital pouch colon (CPC, a condition associated with anorectal agenesis has been reported mainly from the Indian subcontinent though there have been few case reports from other areas. The pouch differs from a normal colon structurally, histologically and functionally. The management involves a diversion colostomy at birth with or without the excision of pouch followed by pull through. This review article attempts to compile all the available literature on pouch colon along with the authors′ experience and discuss the relevant issues for proper diagnosis and management. A changing trend has been seen in the most common type of CPC seen over the years from complete congenital pouch colon that accounted for more than 70% of cases earlier to incomplete pouch colon that is more commonly seen now.

  4. Proteases of an early colonizer can hinder Streptococcus mutans colonization in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B-Y; Deutch, A; Hong, J; Kuramitsu, H K

    2011-04-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary cariogen that produces several virulence factors that are modulated by a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) signaling system. In this study, we sought to determine if proteases produced by early dental plaque colonizers such as Streptococcus gordonii interfere with the subsequent colonization of S. mutans BM71 on the existing streptococcal biofilms. We demonstrated that S. mutans BM71 colonized much less efficiently in vitro on streptococcal biofilms than on Actinomyces naeslundii biofilms. Several oral streptococci, relative to A. naeslundii, produced proteases that inactivated the S. mutans CSP. We further demonstrated that cell protein extracts from S. gordonii, but not from A. naeslundii, interfered with S. mutans BM71 colonization. In addition, S. mutans BM71 colonized more efficiently on the sgc protease knockout mutant of S. gordonii than on the parent biofilms. In conclusion, proteases of early colonizers can interfere with subsequent colonization by S. mutans in vitro. PMID:21088146

  5. Macrofaunal colonization across the Indian Margin oxygen minimum zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Levin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to understand the ability of bathyal assemblages to recover from disturbance and oxygen stress, as human activities and expanding oxygen minimum zones increasingly affect deep continental margins. The effects of a pronounced oxygen minimum zone (OMZ on slope benthic community structure have been studied in both the Western and Eastern Arabian Sea; however, little is known about the dynamics or resilience of these benthic populations. To examine the influence of oxygen and phytodetritus on short-term settlement patterns we conducted colonization experiments along two cross-OMZ transects on the West Indian continental margin. Four colonization trays were deployed at each depth for 4 days at 542 and 802 m (16°58′ N and for 9 days at 817 m and 1147 m (17°31′ N. Oxygen concentrations ranged from 0.9 μM (0.02 mL L−1 at 542 m to 22 μM (0.5 mL L−1 at 1147 m. All trays contained local defaunated sediments; half of the trays at each depth also contained 13C/15N-labeled phytodetritus mixed into the sediments. Sediment cores were collected between 535 m and 1140 m for analysis of background (source macrofaunal (> 300 μm densities and composition. Background densities ranged from 0 ind. m−2 (at 535–542 m to 7400 ind. m−2, with maximum values on both transects at 700–800 m. Macrofaunal colonizer densities ranged from 0 ind. m−2 at 542 m, where oxygen was lowest, to average values of 142 ind. m−2 at 800 m, and 3074 ind. m−2 at 1147 m, where oxygen concentration was highest. These were equal to 4.3% and 151% of the ambient background community at 800 m and 1147 m, respectively. Community structure of settlers showed no response to the presence of phytodetritus. Increasing depth and oxygen concentration, however, significantly influenced the community composition and abundance of colonizing macrofauna. Polychaetes constituted 92.4% of the total colonizers, followed by crustaceans (4.2%, mollusks (2.5%, and

  6. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis. PMID:7890244

  7. Bacterial colonization and gut development in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilieborg, Malene S; Boye, Mette; Sangild, Per T

    2012-03-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) develops in 5-10% of preterm infants in association with enteral feeding and bacterial colonization. It remains unclear how diet and bacteria interact to protect or provoke the immature gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the factors that control bacterial colonization may provide the clue to prevent NEC, and studies in infants must be combined with animal models to understand the mechanisms of the microbiota-epithelium interactions. Analyses of infant fecal samples show that the density and distribution of bacterial species are highly variable with no consistent effects of gestational age, delivery mode, diet or probiotic administration, while low bacterial diversity and bacterial overgrowth are commonly associated with NEC. A series of recent studies in preterm pigs show that the mucosa-associated microbiota is affected by delivery method, prematurity and NEC progression and that diet has limited effects. Overgrowth of specific groups (e.g. Clostridia) appears to be a consequence of NEC, rather than the cause of NEC. Administration of probiotics either decreases or increases NEC sensitivity in preterm pigs, while in preterm infants probiotics have generally decreased NEC incidence and overall mortality. The optimal nature and amount of probiotic bacteria are unknown and host defense factors appear more important for NEC sensitivity than the nature of the gut microbiota. Host defense is improved by feeding the optimal amount of enteral diets, such as mother's colostrum or milk, that help the immature intestinal immune system to respond appropriately to the highly variable bacterial colonization. PMID:22284985

  8. [Dietary prevention and treatment of diverticular disease of the colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewska, Magdalena; Sińska, Beata; Kluciński, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Diverticular disease is more often categorized as a civilization disease that affects both women and men, especially at an old age. The pathophysiology remains complex and arises from the interaction between dietary fiber intake, bowel motility and mucosal changes in the colon. Obesity, smoking, low physical activity, low-fiber diet (poor in vegetables, fruit, whole grain products, seeds and nuts) are among factors that increase the risk for developing diverticular disease. Additionally, the colonic outpouchings may be influenced by involutional changes of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the fiber rich diet (25-40 g/day) plays an important role in prevention, as well as nonpharmacological treatment of uncomplicated diverticular disease. The successful goal of the therapy can be achieved by well-balanced diet or fiber supplements intake. Research indicate the effectiveness of probiotics in dietary management during the remission process. Moreover, drinking of appropriate water amount and excluding from the diet products decreasing colonic transit time - should be also applied. PMID:25938392

  9. Aldosterone induces myofibroblast EGF secretion to regulate epithelial colonic permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Lluïsa; Pérez-Bosque, Anna; Maijó, Mònica; Amat, Concepció; Naftalin, Richard J; Moretó, Miquel

    2013-05-01

    In vivo studies show that raised aldosterone (Aldo) during low-Na adaptation regulates the growth of pericryptal myofibroblasts and reduces the permeability of the colonic epithelium. The aim of this study was to reproduce in vitro the in vivo condition of increased Aldo using human CCD-18Co myofibroblasts and T84 colonic epithelial cells to measure myofibroblast and epithelial proliferation and the expression of intercellular junction proteins. Proliferation was quantified by measuring 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. The myofibroblast expression of EGF, VEGFa, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was measured by real-time PCR and the expression of junctional complex proteins by Western blot. Aldo stimulated the proliferation of myofibroblasts by 70% (P < 0.05) and increased EGF mRNA expression by 30% (P < 0.05) without affecting VEGFa and TGF-β1. EGF concentration in the incubation medium increased by 30% (P < 0.05) 24 h after Aldo addition, and these effects were prevented by the addition of spironolactone. Myofibroblast proliferation in response to Aldo was mediated by EGF receptor (EGFR) and involved both MAPKK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways. When T84 cells were incubated with medium from myofibroblasts stimulated with Aldo (conditioned medium), the expression of β-catenin and claudin IV was increased by 30% (P < 0.05) and proliferation by 40% (P < 0.05). T84 proliferation decreased when α-EGF, or the EGFR antagonist AG1478, was present. Results in vivo indicate that rats fed a low-salt diet showed an increased expression of EGF and EGFR in the colonic mucosa. These results support the view that changes in colonic permeability during low-Na adaptation are mediated by the EGF secreted by myofibroblasts in response to raised Aldo. PMID:23467299

  10. Tolfenamic acid downregulates β-catenin in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Taekyu; Lou, Zhiyuan; Baek, Seung Joon; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2016-06-01

    Tolfenamic acid is one of the fenamic acid-derived non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer activities in several types of cancer. Both mutations and aberrant expression of β-catenin are highly associated with progression of cancer. Therefore, β-catenin is considered to be a promising molecular target for cancer prevention and treatment. The current study investigates the role of tolfenamic acid on β-catenin expression in colon cancer. Treatment with tolfenamic acid led to inhibition of cell growth and down-regulation of β-catenin expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human colon cancer cell lines. Reduction of β-catenin upon tolfenamic acid treatment was associated with ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation, without affecting mRNA level and promoter activity of β-catenin. In addition, treatment with tolfenamic acid downregulated Smad2 and Smad3 expression, while overexpression of Smad2, but not Smad3, blocked tolfenamic acid-induced suppression of β-catenin expression. Tolfenamic acid also decreased expression of β-catenin target genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Compared to adjacent normal tissue, intestinal tumor tissues of Apc(Min/+) mice exhibited increased expression of β-catenin, Smad2, Smad3, and VEGF, which were down-regulated with tolfenamic acid treatment at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight. In conclusion, our findings suggest that tolfenamic acid inhibits growth of colon cancer cells through downregulation of Smad2 and, subsequently, facilitating ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated β-catenin degradation in colon cancer. PMID:27089389

  11. Colon interposition for esophageal reconstruction (esophagocoloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Neagoe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The colon is considered, after the stomac, a well-functioning and durable esophageal substitute. For esophageal reconstruction, an isoperistaltic colon graft is preferable because the antiperistaltic reconstruction could be associated with significant functional anomalies. AIM: The purpose of this retrospective study is to investigate the feasibility of colon interposition procedures as surgical option for esophageal reconstruction. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2012, 40 consecutive patients underwent colon interposition in our surgical department. The main indications were caustic injury and cancer of the esophagus; we reviewed clinical and operative data, intensive care unit and histopathological protocols. RESULTS: There were 24 patients (60.0% with caustic injuries of the esophagus, 13 patients with esophageal cancer (32.5% and 3 patients with other esophageal pathologies (7.5%. Ileocolon grafts were the prefered method for interposition, with the left colon graft being used mainly as a „salvage” procedure. The retrosternal route was prefered in bypass procedures; the posterior mediastinal route was applied only after curative esophagectomies. We performed hand-sewn anastomosis in the neck in all cases. One patient required microvascular surgery. The overall postoperative morbidity rate was 57.5% (n=23; the most common complications were pulmonary complications, anastomotic leakage, colon graft necrosis and late cervical anastomosis stenoses. In hospital mortality was 7.5%. CONCLUSION: Despite the high rate of postoperative morbidity, the colon interposition is a feasible procedure for esophageal reconstruction.

  12. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers

  13. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Mery

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71 and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84, respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC. An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29 for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10 for distal colon cancer (DCC. An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  14. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jinfu, E-mail: Jinfu.hu@phac-aspc.gc.ca [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); La Vecchia, Carlo [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Venezian, 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Negri, Eva [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Mery, Les [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2010-02-10

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  15. Inhibition of bacterial surface colonization by immobilized silver nanoparticles depends critically on the planktonic bacterial concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Stacy M; Bertuccio, Alex J; Cao, Feng; Lowry, Gregory V; Tilton, Robert D

    2016-04-01

    Immobilization of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on surfaces has been proposed as a method to inhibit biofouling or as a possible route by which incidental releases of AgNPs may interfere with biofilms in the natural environment or in wastewater treatment. This study addresses the ability of planktonic Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria to colonize surfaces with pre-adsorbed AgNPs. The ability of the AgNP-coated surfaces to inhibit colonization was controlled by the dissolved silver in the system, with a strong dependence on the initial planktonic cell concentration in the suspension, i.e., a strong inoculum effect. This dependence was attributed to a decrease in dissolved silver ion bioavailability and toxicity caused by its binding to cells and/or cell byproducts. Therefore, when the initial cell concentration was high (∼1×10(7)CFU/mL), an excess of silver binding capacity removed most of the free silver and allowed both planktonic growth and surface colonization directly on the AgNP-coated surface. When the initial cell concentration was low (∼1×10(5)CFU/mL), 100% killing of the planktonic cell inoculum occurred and prevented colonization. When an intermediate initial inoculum concentration (∼1×10(6)CFU/mL) was sufficiently large to prevent 100% killing of planktonic cells, even with 99.97% initial killing, the planktonic population recovered and bacteria colonized the AgNP-coated surface. In some conditions, colonization of AgNP-coated surfaces was enhanced relative to silver-free controls, and the bacteria demonstrated a preferential attachment to AgNP-coated, rather than bare, surface regions. The degree to which the bacterial concentration dictates whether or not surface-immobilized AgNPs can inhibit colonization has significant implications both for the design of antimicrobial surfaces and for the potential environmental impacts of AgNPs. PMID:26771749

  16. Colonization with the enteric protozoa Blastocystis is associated with increased diversity of human gut bacterial microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Christophe; Even, Gaël; Cian, Amandine; Loywick, Alexandre; Merlin, Sophie; Viscogliosi, Eric; Chabé, Magali

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of commensal bacterial populations, a phenomenon known as dysbiosis, are linked to multiple gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, or to infections by diverse enteric pathogens. Blastocystis is one of the most common single-celled eukaryotes detected in human faecal samples. However, the clinical significance of this widespread colonization remains unclear, and its pathogenic potential is controversial. To address the issue of Blastocystis pathogenicity, we investigated the impact of colonization by this protist on the composition of the human gut microbiota. For that purpose, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 48 Blastocystis-colonized patients and 48 Blastocystis-free subjects and performed an Ion Torrent 16S rDNA gene sequencing to decipher the Blastocystis-associated gut microbiota. Here, we report a higher bacterial diversity in faecal microbiota of Blastocystis colonized patients, a higher abundance of Clostridia as well as a lower abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. Our results contribute to suggesting that Blastocystis colonization is usually associated with a healthy gut microbiota, rather than with gut dysbiosis generally observed in metabolic or infectious inflammatory diseases of the lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27147260

  17. Basolateral K+ channel involvement in forskolin-activated chloride secretion in human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, B; Winter, D C; Cuffe, J E; O'Sullivan, G C; Harvey, B J

    1999-08-15

    1. In this study we investigated the role of basolateral potassium transport in maintaining cAMP-activated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelium. 2. Ion transport was quantified in isolated human colonic epithelium using the short-circuit current technique. Basolateral potassium transport was studied using nystatin permeabilization. Intracellular calcium measurements were obtained from isolated human colonic crypts using fura-2 spectrofluorescence imaging. 3. In intact isolated colonic strips, forskolin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) activated an inward transmembrane current (ISC) consistent with anion secretion (for forskolin DeltaISC = 63.8+/-6.2 microA cm(-2), n = 6; for PGE2 DeltaISC = 34.3+/-5.2 microA cm(-2), n = 6). This current was inhibited in chloride-free Krebs solution or by inhibiting basolateral chloride uptake with bumetanide and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid DIDS). 4. The forskolin- and PGE2-induced chloride secretion was inhibited by basolateral exposure to barium (5 mM), tetrapentylammonium (10 microM) and tetraethylammonium (10 mM). 5. The transepithelial current produced under an apical to serosal K+ gradient in nystatin-perforated colon is generated at the basolateral membrane by K+ transport. Forskolin failed to activate this current under conditions of high or low calcium and failed to increase the levels of intracellular calcium in isolated crypts 6. In conclusion, we propose that potassium recycling through basolateral K+ channels is essential for cAMP-activated chloride secretion. PMID:10432355

  18. Biobanking of Fresh-Frozen Human Adenocarcinomatous and Normal Colon Tissues: Which Parameters Influence RNA Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galissier, Thibaut; Schneider, Christophe; Nasri, Saviz; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Fichel, Caroline; Coquelet, Christelle; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Kianmanesh, Reza; Bellon, Georges; Dedieu, Stéphane; Marchal Bressenot, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Medical research projects become increasingly dependent on biobanked tissue of high quality because the reliability of gene expression is affected by the quality of extracted RNA. Hence, the present study aimed to determine if clinical, surgical, histological, and molecular parameters influence RNA quality of normal and tumoral frozen colonic tissues. RNA Quality Index (RQI) was evaluated on 241 adenocarcinomas and 115 matched normal frozen colon tissues collected between October 2006 and December 2012. RQI results were compared to patients’ age and sex, tumor site, kind of surgery, anastomosis failure, adenocarcinoma type and grade, tumor cell percentage, necrosis extent, HIF-1α and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, and BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites status. The RQI was significantly higher in colon cancer tissue than in matched normal tissue. RQI from left-sided colonic cancers was significantly higher than RQI from right-sided cancers. The RNA quality was not affected by ischemia and storage duration. According to histological control, 7.9% of the samples were unsatisfactory because of inadequate sampling. Biobanked tumoral tissues with RQI ≥5 had lower malignant cells to stromal cells ratio than samples with RQI <5 (p <0.05). Cellularity, necrosis extent and mucinous component did not influence RQI results. Cleaved caspase-3 and HIF-1α immunolabelling were not correlated to RQI. BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites molecular status did not influence RNA quality. Multivariate analysis revealed that the tumor location, the surgical approach (laparoscopy versus open colectomy) and the occurrence of anastomotic leakage were the only parameters influencing significantly RQI results of tumor samples. We failed to identify parameter influencing RQI of normal colon samples. These data suggest that RNA quality of colonic adenocarcinoma biospecimens is determined by clinical and surgical parameters. More attention should be paid during the biobanking procedure of

  19. Molecular Ion Beam Transportation for Low Energy Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for 100's of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past five years. Current density limitation associated with extracting and transporting low energy ion beams result in lower beam currents that in turn adversely affects the process throughput. The transport channel with electrostatic lenses for decaborane (B10H14) and carborane (C2B10H12) ion beams transportation was developed and investigated. The significant increase of ion beam intensity at the beam transport channel output is demonstrated. The transport channel simulation, construction and experimental results of ion beam transportation are presented.

  20. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Redal, María Ana [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Medicina Experimental, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Muñoz, Manuel J., E-mail: mmunoz@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  1. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer

  2. Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colon carcinoma Caco-2 cell responsiveness to topoisomerase inhibitor drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ricchi, P; Matola, T Di; Ruggiero, G; D. Zanzi; Apicella, A; Di Palma, A; M. Pensabene; S. Pignata; Zarrilli, R; Acquaviva, A M

    2002-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that the chemopreventive effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colon cancer is mediated through inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. For these effects non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been recently employed as sensitising agents in chemotherapy. We have shown previously that treatments with aspirin and NS-398, a cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitor, affect proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of the human colon aden...

  3. Analysis of farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Larsen, Lars Stehr;

    2016-01-01

    with Campylobacter was clearly affected by country. In descending order, broiler flocks were more likely to be colonized in Poland, the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Denmark and Norway due to country specific factors that could not be explained by the identified risk factors or any other variables from...

  4. Assessment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in uncomplicated acute diverticulitis of the colon

    OpenAIRE

    Tursi, Antonio; Brandimarte, Giovanni; Giorgetti, Gian Marco; Elisei, Walter

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may contribute to the appearance of several gastrointestinal nonspecific symptoms. Acute diverticulitis is affected by some similar symptoms and bacterial colonic overgrowth. We assessed the prevalence of SIBO in acute uncomplicated diverticulitis and evaluated its influence on the clinical course of the disease.

  5. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

  6. Colonic mucosal changes in Egyptian patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria A Salama

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion The prevalence of PHC and haemorrhoids increases with the progression of liver disease and worsening of the Child-Pugh grading in cirrhotic patients. However, haemorrhoids, rectal varices, hyperaemia and colonic angiodysplasia are not affected by the presence of portal hypertensive gastropathy.

  7. microRNA-143 down-regulates Hexokinase 2 in colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lea Haarup; Jacobsen, Anders; Frankel, Lisa;

    2012-01-01

    validated HK2 as a miR-143 target. Furthermore, our results indicate that miR-143 mediated down-regulation of HK2 affects glucose metabolism in colon cancer cells. We hypothesize that loss of miR-143-mediated repression of HK2 can promote glucose metabolism in cancer cells, contributing to the shift towards...

  8. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Colon Masquerading as a Primary Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Anstadt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While the majority of colonic malignancies represent primarytumors, secondary tumors are not uncommon. We present a case ofendometrial cancer metastatic to the colon masquerading as a primarycolonic adenocarcinoma. The clinical and pathologic characteristicsof each disease are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the firstreported case of endometrial cancer metastasis to the colon in theabsence of endometriosis. It demonstrates the importance of usingimmunohistochemistry to distinguish morphologically similar tumorsin a patient who seemingly presents with more than one primarymalignancy.

  9. Proteases of an Early Colonizer Can Hinder Streptococcus mutans Colonization in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, B.-Y.; Deutch, A.; Hong, J.; Kuramitsu, H K

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary cariogen that produces several virulence factors that are modulated by a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) signaling system. In this study, we sought to determine if proteases produced by early dental plaque colonizers such as Streptococcus gordonii interfere with the subsequent colonization of S. mutans BM71 on the existing streptococcal biofilms. We demonstrated that S. mutans BM71 colonized much less efficiently in vitro on streptococcal biofilms than...

  10. Berberine reduces cAMP-induced chloride secretion in T84 human colonic carcinoma cells through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BrianJosephHarvey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl- secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signalling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl- secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberine. Whole-cell current recordings were performed in T84 cells using the patch-clamp technique. Berberine decreased forskolin-induced short-circuit current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 80  8 M. In apically permeabilized monolayers and whole-cell current recordings, berberine inhibited a cAMP-dependent and chromanol 293B-sensitive basolateral membrane K+ current by 88%, suggesting inhibition of KCNQ1 K+ channels. Berberine did not affect either apical Cl- conductance or basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Berberine stimulated p38 MAPK, PKC and PKA, but had no effect on p42/p44 MAPK and PKC. However, berberine pre-treatment prevented stimulation of p42/p44 MAPK by epidermal growth factor. The inhibitory effect of berberine on Cl- secretion was partially blocked by HBDDE (65 %, an inhibitor of PKC and to a smaller extent by inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 (15 %. Berberine treatment induced an increase in association between PKC and PKA with KCNQ1 and produced phosphorylation of the channel. We conclude that berberine exerts its inhibitory effect on colonic Cl- secretion through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels responsible for K+ recycling via a PKC-dependent pathway.

  11. Berberine Reduces cAMP-Induced Chloride Secretion in T84 Human Colonic Carcinoma Cells through Inhibition of Basolateral KCNQ1 Channels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl(-) secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signaling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl(-) secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberine. Whole-cell current recordings were performed in T84 cells using the patch-clamp technique. Berberine decreased forskolin-induced short-circuit current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) 80 ± 8 μM). In apically permeabilized monolayers and whole-cell current recordings, berberine inhibited a cAMP-dependent and chromanol 293B-sensitive basolateral membrane K(+) current by 88%, suggesting inhibition of KCNQ1 K(+) channels. Berberine did not affect either apical Cl(-) conductance or basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Berberine stimulated p38 MAPK, PKCα and PKA, but had no effect on p42\\/p44 MAPK and PKCδ. However, berberine pre-treatment prevented stimulation of p42\\/p44 MAPK by epidermal growth factor. The inhibitory effect of berberine on Cl(-) secretion was partially blocked by HBDDE (∼65%), an inhibitor of PKCα and to a smaller extent by inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 (∼15%). Berberine treatment induced an increase in association between PKCα and PKA with KCNQ1 and produced phosphorylation of the channel. We conclude that berberine exerts its inhibitory effect on colonic Cl(-) secretion through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels responsible for K(+) recycling via a PKCα-dependent pathway.

  12. Berberine Reduces cAMP-Induced Chloride Secretion in T84 Human Colonic Carcinoma Cells through Inhibition of Basolateral KCNQ1 Channels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2012-02-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl(-) secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signaling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl(-) secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberine. Whole-cell current recordings were performed in T84 cells using the patch-clamp technique. Berberine decreased forskolin-induced short-circuit current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) 80 +\\/- 8 muM). In apically permeabilized monolayers and whole-cell current recordings, berberine inhibited a cAMP-dependent and chromanol 293B-sensitive basolateral membrane K(+) current by 88%, suggesting inhibition of KCNQ1 K(+) channels. Berberine did not affect either apical Cl(-) conductance or basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Berberine stimulated p38 MAPK, PKCalpha and PKA, but had no effect on p42\\/p44 MAPK and PKCdelta. However, berberine pre-treatment prevented stimulation of p42\\/p44 MAPK by epidermal growth factor. The inhibitory effect of berberine on Cl(-) secretion was partially blocked by HBDDE ( approximately 65%), an inhibitor of PKCalpha and to a smaller extent by inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 ( approximately 15%). Berberine treatment induced an increase in association between PKCalpha and PKA with KCNQ1 and produced phosphorylation of the channel. We conclude that berberine exerts its inhibitory effect on colonic Cl(-) secretion through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels responsible for K(+) recycling via a PKCalpha-dependent pathway.

  13. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Offices Close + - Text Size Get Tested for Colon Cancer [Video] This free video explains the most commonly ... Tools and Calculators Information for Health Care Professionals Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms ...

  14. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... explains the most commonly used screening methods, including test preparation, in simple language. View video Narrator : If ... cancer or even going for a colon cancer test can be frightening to you. “What if they ...

  15. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACS » Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Get Tested for Colon Cancer [Video] This free video explains ... 50 or older, make a decision and get tested. The only wrong choice is not getting tested. ...

  16. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACS » Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Get Tested for Colon Cancer [Video] This free video explains ... 50 or older, make a decision and get tested. The only wrong choice is not getting tested. ...

  17. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 800-227-2345 Home Learn About Cancer Stay Healthy Find Support & Treatment Explore Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Stay Healthy » Tools and Calculators » Videos » Get Tested for Colon ...

  18. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to close share window. Print Share Save Saved this Article Close Push escape to close saved articles ... Text Size Get Tested for Colon Cancer [Video] This free video explains the most commonly used screening ...

  19. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cat scan that yields three-dimensional images. Your physician can examine the lining of the bowel directly ... altered colon cell DNA, in your stools. Your doctor will give you one of a variety of ...

  20. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fecal occult blood test Fecal immunochemical test Stool DNA test Tests that prevent cancer: These tests examine ... of blood or cancerous material, altered colon cell DNA, in your stools. Your doctor will give you ...

  1. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  2. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used screening methods, including test preparation, in simple language. View video Narrator : If you're like most people, the thought of getting colon cancer or even going for ...

  3. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... each in detail. Tests that find cancer early: These tests detect tiny amounts of blood or cells ... test Stool DNA test Tests that prevent cancer: These tests examine the lining of the colon: the ...

  4. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as you age. Fortunately you do have the power to keep colon cancer out of your life. ... the flexible instrument examinations or x-ray tests. Now the tests that can prevent cancer by finding ...

  5. Redefining Adjuvant Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, patients with resected stage III colon cancer are being randomly assigned to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy for either 3 or 6 months and to take either a pill called celecoxib or a matching placebo pill for 3 years.

  6. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  7. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Get Tested for Colon ... a Car About ACS About Us Contact Us Local Offices Volunteer Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud ...

  8. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as you age. Fortunately you do have the power to keep colon cancer out of your life. ... Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope Lodge® Lodging Rides To Treatment ...

  9. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shall we say, not easy to talk about. Well, the good news is that colon cancer can ... Cancer Early ACS Programs to Help You Stay Well Tools and Calculators Information for Health Care Professionals ...

  10. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... life by finding cancer early. Each test has advantages and disadvantages. The challenge to you is to ... your colon with air then scans it. The advantages: the procedure takes only about 20 minutes, requires ...

  11. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bowel of feces. The procedure allows the emptying of the bowel by using fluid (similar to ... treatment of fecal incontinence in adults: use of gastric tube for catheterizable access to the descending colon. ...

  12. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These tests detect tiny amounts of blood or cells that are shed by large polyps or early ... traces of blood or cancerous material, altered colon cell DNA, in your stools. Your doctor will give ...

  13. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Close + - Text Size Get Tested for Colon Cancer [Video] This free video explains the most commonly used screening methods, including test preparation, in simple language. View video Narrator : If you're like most people, the ...

  14. Symptomatic colonic spirochaetosis in an immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, R K; Miyai, K; Carethers, J M

    2006-01-01

    Spirochaetes are organisms that can infect the colon of people with normal or compromised immune systems. Infected patients can present with a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhoea and rectal bleeding. However, some report a lack of association between specific symptoms and the presence of spirochaetes. It is therefore unclear whether the spirochaetes colonising the colon are true pathogens. Diagnosis is typically made by histological examination, with the biopsy specimen ...

  15. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to ...

  16. Is a drain necessary after colonic anastomosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, C.D.; Lamont, P. M.; Orr, N; Lennox, M

    1989-01-01

    To date, there have been no clinical investigations of the usefulness of drains following colonic anastomosis in elective operations. We report a prospective study in which 49 patients were randomized to have a corrugated silastic drain (Portex) placed next to the colonic anastomosis. These patients were compared with a control group of 57 patients who had no drain. The two groups were similar in age, sex, diagnosis and site of anastomosis. There was no difference in outcome between the two g...

  17. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in chronic pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez S.; Respaldiza N.; Campano E.; Martínez-Risquez M.T.; Calderón E.J.; De La Horra C.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii causes pneumonia in immunosuppressed individuals. However, it has been reported the detection of low levels of Pneumocystis DNA in patients without signs and symptoms of pneumonia, which likely represents colonization. Several studies performed in animals models and in humans have demonstrated that Pneumocystis induces a local and a systemic response in the host. Since P. jirovecii colonization has been found in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases it has been sugge...

  18. Oncolytic reovirus against ovarian and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Sandra G; Norman, Kara L; Alain, Tommy; Kossakowska, Anna; Lee, Patrick W K

    2002-03-15

    Reovirus selectively replicates in and destroys cancer cells with an activated Ras signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using reovirus (serotype 3, strain Dearing) as an antihuman colon and ovarian cancer agent. In in vitro studies, reovirus infection in human colon and ovarian cell lines was assessed by cytopathic effect as detected by light microscopy, [(35)S]Methionine labeling of infected cells for viral protein synthesis and progeny virus production by plaque assay. We observed that reovirus efficiently infected all five human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, DLD-1, HCT-116, HT-29, and SW48) and four human ovarian cancer cell lines (MDAH2774, PA-1, SKOV3, and SW626) which were tested, but not a normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) or a normal ovarian cell line (NOV-31). We also observed that the Ras activity in the human colon and ovarian cancer cell lines was elevated compared with that in normal colon and ovarian cell lines. In animal models, intraneoplastic as well as i.v. inoculation of reovirus resulted in significant regression of established s.c. human colon and ovarian tumors implanted at the hind flank. Histological studies revealed that reovirus infection in vivo was restricted to tumor cells, whereas the surrounding normal tissue remained uninfected. Additionally, in an i.p. human ovarian cancer xenograft model, inhibition of ascites tumor formation and the survival of animals treated with live reovirus was significantly greater than of control mice treated with UV-inactivated reovirus. Reovirus infection in ex vivo primary human ovarian tumor surgical samples was also confirmed, further demonstrating the potential of reovirus therapy. These results suggest that reovirus holds promise as a novel agent for human colon and ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:11912142

  19. Triclosan Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Adnan K.; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G.; Boles, Blaise R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here...

  20. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred

  1. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred.

  2. Hydrogen atomic pair-ion production on catalyst surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To generate a hydrogen pair-ion plasma consisting of only hydrogen atomic pair ions, i.e., H+ and H- ions, the efficient production of pair ions is required. When discharged hydrogen plasma is irradiated to a Ni catalyst, pair ions are produced on the catalyst surface. It is clarified that hydrogen chemisorption on the catalyst affects pair-ion production.

  3. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inman, C.F.; Haverson, K.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Jones, P.H.; Harris, C.; Smidt, H.; Miller, B.; Bailey, M.; Stokes, C.

    2010-01-01

    P>Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect th

  4. Type I Interferons Direct Gammaherpesvirus Host Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cindy S E; Lawler, Clara; May, Janet S; Belz, Gabrielle T; Stevenson, Philip G

    2016-05-01

    Gamma-herpesviruses colonise lymphocytes. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) infects B cells via epithelial to myeloid to lymphoid transfer. This indirect route entails exposure to host defences, and type I interferons (IFN-I) limit infection while viral evasion promotes it. To understand how IFN-I and its evasion both control infection outcomes, we used Mx1-cre mice to tag floxed viral genomes in IFN-I responding cells. Epithelial-derived MuHV-4 showed low IFN-I exposure, and neither disrupting viral evasion nor blocking IFN-I signalling markedly affected acute viral replication in the lungs. Maximising IFN-I induction with poly(I:C) increased virus tagging in lung macrophages, but the tagged virus spread poorly. Lymphoid-derived MuHV-4 showed contrastingly high IFN-I exposure. This occurred mainly in B cells. IFN-I induction increased tagging without reducing viral loads; disrupting viral evasion caused marked attenuation; and blocking IFN-I signalling opened up new lytic spread between macrophages. Thus, the impact of IFN-I on viral replication was strongly cell type-dependent: epithelial infection induced little response; IFN-I largely suppressed macrophage infection; and viral evasion allowed passage through B cells despite IFN-I responses. As a result, IFN-I and its evasion promoted a switch in infection from acutely lytic in myeloid cells to chronically latent in B cells. Murine cytomegalovirus also showed a capacity to pass through IFN-I-responding cells, arguing that this is a core feature of herpesvirus host colonization. PMID:27223694

  5. Berberine reduces cAMP-induced chloride secretion in T84 human colonic carcinoma cells through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels

    OpenAIRE

    Alzamora, Rodrigo; O’Mahony, Fiona; Ko, Wing-Hung; Yip, Tiffany Wai-Nga; Carter, Derek; Irnaten, Mustapha; Harvey, Brian Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl- secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signalling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl- secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberin...

  6. Prostaglandin E2-induced colonic secretion in patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Nicolai; Tilotta, Maria C; Witte, Anne-Barbara;

    2010-01-01

    colorectal neoplasia. Patients without endoscopic findings of neoplasia served as controls. Biopsy specimens were obtained from normally appearing mucosa in the sigmoid part of colon. Biopsies were mounted in miniaturized modified Ussing air-suction chambers. Indomethacin (10 microM), various stimulators and...... inhibitors of prostanoid receptors and ion transport were subsequently added to the chamber solutions. Electrogenic ion transport parameters (short circuit current and slope conductance) were recorded. Tissue pathology and tissue damage before and after experiments was assessed by histology. RESULTS...

  7. Differential expression of nanog1 and nanogp8 in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Tatsuya; Sato, Ai; Ohata, Hirokazu; Sakai, Hiroaki [Division of Cancer Differentiation, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Nakagama, Hitoshi, E-mail: hnakagam@ncc.go.jp [Division of Cancer Development System, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Okamoto, Koji, E-mail: kojokamo@ncc.go.jo [Division of Cancer Differentiation, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is expressed in a majority of colon cancer cell lines examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both nanog1 and nanogp8 are expressed in colon cancer cells with varying ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog mediates cell proliferation of colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog predominantly localizes in cytoplasm of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Nanog, a homeodomain transcription factor, is an essential regulator for promotion of self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and inhibition of their differentiation. It has been demonstrated that nanog1 as well as nanogp8, a retrogene of nanog1, is preferentially expressed in advanced stages of several types of cancer, suggesting their involvement during cancer progression. Here, we investigated the expression of Nanog in well-characterized colon cancer cell lines. Expression of Nanog was detectable in 5 (HCT116, HT29, RKO, SW48, SW620) out of seven cell lines examined. RNA expression analyses of nanog1 and nanogp8 indicated that, while nanog1 was a major form in SW620 as well as in teratoma cells Tera-2, nanogp8 was preferentially expressed in HT29 and HCT116. In accordance with this, shRNA-mediated knockdown of nanog1 caused the reduction of Nanog in SW620 but not in HT29. Inhibition of Nanog in SW620 cells negatively affected cell proliferation and tumor formation in mouse xenograft. Biochemical subcellular fractionation and immunostaining analyses revealed predominant localization of Nanog in cytoplasm in SW620 and HT29, while it was mainly localized in nucleus in Tera-2. Our data indicate that nanog1 and nanogp8 are differentially expressed in colon cancer cells, and suggest that their expression contributes to proliferation of colon cancer cells.

  8. Differential expression of nanog1 and nanogp8 in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Nanog is expressed in a majority of colon cancer cell lines examined. ► Both nanog1 and nanogp8 are expressed in colon cancer cells with varying ratios. ► Nanog mediates cell proliferation of colon cancer cells. ► Nanog predominantly localizes in cytoplasm of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Nanog, a homeodomain transcription factor, is an essential regulator for promotion of self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and inhibition of their differentiation. It has been demonstrated that nanog1 as well as nanogp8, a retrogene of nanog1, is preferentially expressed in advanced stages of several types of cancer, suggesting their involvement during cancer progression. Here, we investigated the expression of Nanog in well-characterized colon cancer cell lines. Expression of Nanog was detectable in 5 (HCT116, HT29, RKO, SW48, SW620) out of seven cell lines examined. RNA expression analyses of nanog1 and nanogp8 indicated that, while nanog1 was a major form in SW620 as well as in teratoma cells Tera-2, nanogp8 was preferentially expressed in HT29 and HCT116. In accordance with this, shRNA-mediated knockdown of nanog1 caused the reduction of Nanog in SW620 but not in HT29. Inhibition of Nanog in SW620 cells negatively affected cell proliferation and tumor formation in mouse xenograft. Biochemical subcellular fractionation and immunostaining analyses revealed predominant localization of Nanog in cytoplasm in SW620 and HT29, while it was mainly localized in nucleus in Tera-2. Our data indicate that nanog1 and nanogp8 are differentially expressed in colon cancer cells, and suggest that their expression contributes to proliferation of colon cancer cells.

  9. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  10. Amidated pectin/sodium carboxymethylcellulose microspheres as a new carrier for colonic drug targeting: Development and optimization by factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Hytham H; El-Gibaly, Ibrahim; Soliman, Ghareb M; Mohamed, Fergany A; El-Sayed, Ahmed M

    2016-11-20

    The colon is a promising site for drug targeting owing to its long transit time and mild proteolytic activity. The aim of this study was to prepare new low methoxy amidated pectin/NaCMC microspheres cross-linked by a mixture of Zn(2+) and Al(3+) ions and test their potential for colonic targeting of progesterone. A 2(4) factorial design was carried out to optimize the preparation conditions. High drug entrapment efficiency (82-99%) was obtained and it increased with increasing drug concentration but decreased with increasing polymer concentration. Drug release rate was directly proportional to the microsphere drug content and inversely related to Al(3+) ion concentration. Drug release was minimal during the first 3h but was significantly improved in the presence of 1% rat caecal contents, confirming the microsphere potential for colonic delivery. The microspheres achieved >2.3-fold enhancement of colonic progesterone permeability. These results confirm the viability of the produced microspheres as colon-targeted drug delivery vehicle. PMID:27561525

  11. PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  12. Ambivalent colonal relations in octavia butler’s wild seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Amer Jubouri Al Ogaili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores postcolonial powers of ambivalence in Octavia Butler’s Wild Seed (1980. It will offer an in-depth analysis of the thematic and ideological characteristics of selected work. We will mainly focus on the theme of the mutual relationship between the colonized and the colonizer in the novel. This relationship is specified to the concept of ambivalence that incarnates the dual, yet, uncontrolled relationship between the colonized and the colonizer. Nevertheless, the colonized considers the colonizer as oppressive but an envious power; and the colonizer judges the colonized as inferior but indigenous. The colonial relationship will also be revealed by using the concept of self-other. Such concept scrutinizes the way the colonized and the colonizer perceive and resist each other. Thus, the study’s main focus point is the power relationship developed in the light of colonial ambivalence and self-other continuum. The colonial characteristics of this study offer a new interpretation of the colonial relationship depicted in the novel. Accordingly, the ambivalent relationship between the colonized and the colonizer will be equal (i.e. both of them have positive and negative attributes. This interpretation paves the way for other discourse studies interested in the depiction of the colonized and the colonizer relationship in postcolonial literature in general, and in Butler’s fiction in particular.

  13. Hemangioma colorretal Colon rectal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Pinheiro Barreto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O hemangioma colorretal (HCR é uma lesão vascular benigna rara, com manifestação clínica geralmente entre 5 e 25 anos de idade. Faz parte do diagnóstico diferencial das causas de hemorragia digestiva baixa, sendo confundido, na maioria das vezes, com entidades mais comuns, como hemorróidas e doenças inflamatórias intestinais. O retardo do diagnóstico ocorre freqüentemente devido ao desconhecimento da doença, com taxas de mortalidade alcançando 40 a 50% na presença de sangramento importante. O caso relatado é de uma paciente de 17 anos de idade, admitida no Serviço de Colo-proctologia do Hospital Universitário - HUUFMA, em setembro de 2005, com anemia e sangramento retal, desde a infância, de forma intermitente e não dolorosa. Apresentado sua história clínica e propedêutica diagnóstica, realizada por meio de exames laboratoriais, endoscopia digestiva alta, colonoscopia e arteriografia de mesentéricas e ilíacas internas. O tratamento cirúrgico realizado foi retossigmoidectomia convencional com anastomose colorretal baixa, com boa evolução pós-operatória, tendo o exame histopatológico da peça cirúrgica ressecada, confirmado o diagnostico.The colon and rectum hemangioma is a rare benign vascular lesion, with clinical features usually between 5 and 25 years of age. It is included in the differential diagnose of the lower digestive bleeding causes, and has been frequently misdiagnosed with other more common entities, like hemorrhoids and bowel inflammatory disease. The late diagnose occurs usually because of the rarity of the disease, with mortality rates reaching 40 to 50% in presence of severe bleeding. We report a case of a 17 years old girl who was admitted at the Coloproctology Service of the Academic Hospital - HUUFMA, in September 2005, with anemia and intermittent rectal bleeding since childhood. Laboratorial findings included laboratorial exams, GI endoscopy, colonoscopy and arteriography of mesenteric and

  14. Stromal tumor of colon: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nićiforović Dijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is relatively new term, it can be localized anywhere inside the gastrointestinal system. It has formerly been called leiomyoma, leiomyoblastoma, and/or leiomyosarcoma. Case report Case report is about a female patient with indefinite difficulties described as 'bother', mild anemia and anamnesis data of her mother who had been operated on for colon tumor. After blood examination, which had shown values within referential limits except for mild anemia, patient underwent radiological examination. Primarily, an abdominal cavity ultrasound had been performed, where a suspicious formation in the right hemiabdomen was found, but without distinctive anatomical localization in the abdominal cavity. Secondly, a checkup by Duplex Doppler ultrasound was made, as well as radiological examination with double contrast of colon and computed tomography, where tumor was visualized on ascendant colon with extraluminal localization. Discussion Radiological findings were confirmed by surgery. Histopathological findings were positive for gastrointestinal stromal colon tumor. Conclusion Gastrointestinal stromal tumors represent extremely rare tumors of gastrointestinal system, especially when localized at the colon, but they should be included in a differential diagnosis for their malignant potential.

  15. PREOPERATIVE ENDOSCOPIC MARKING OF UNPALPABLE COLONIC TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Goncharov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.

  16. Space Colonization-Benefits for the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    We have begun to colonize space, even to the extent of early space tourism. Our early Vostok, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Spacehab, Mir and now ISS are humankind's first ventures toward colonization. Efforts are underway to provide short space tours, and endeavors such as the X-Prize are encouraging entrepreneurs to provide new systems. Many believe that extended space travel (colonization) will do for the 21st century what aviation did for the 20th. Our current concerns including terrorism, hunger, disease, and problems of air quality, safe abundant water, poverty, and weather vagaries tend to overshadow long-term activities such as Space Colonization in the minds of many. Our leading ``think tanks'' such as the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Brookings Institute do not rate space travel high on lists of future beneficial undertakings even though many of the concerns listed above are prominently featured. It is the contention of this paper that Space Colonization will lead toward solutions to many of the emerging problems of our Earth, both technological and sociological. The breadth of the enterprise far exceeds the scope of our normal single-purpose missions and, therefore, its benefits will be greater.

  17. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    , experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces...... capitalism not only changes urban life and its means of production, it specifically influences the way the city is designed and how it unfolds as events (Anderson & Harrison 2010) and affective, emotional production (Pile 2009). Through examples of urban design and events in the Carlsberg City in Copenhagen...... and The High Line in Chelsea, New York, the paper sets out to define and question these affective modes of production. Whether these productions are socio-material practices consisting of ludic designs (Stevens 2007), temporary architecture or art installations or evental practices consisting of...

  18. Mycelial colonization by bradyrhizobia and azorhizobia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gamini Seneviratne; H S Jayasinghearachchi

    2003-03-01

    This study examines mycelial colonization of common soil fungi by bradyrhizobia and an azorhizobial strain, resulting in the forming of biofilms. The effects of the fungal exudates on a bradyrhizobial strain have also been investigated. Bradyrhizobia gradually colonized the mycelia for about 18 days, after which the biofilm structures collapsed with the release of the rhizobial cell clusters to the culture medium. The azorhizobial strain showed differential colonization of the mycelia. In general, there were no considerable mycotoxin effects of the fungal exudates on the bradyrhizobial strain used, instead the rhizobial strain utilized the exudates as a source of nutrition. This study indicates that the present microbial association with biofilm formation has important implications in the survival of rhizobia under adverse soil conditions devoid of vegetation. Further, it could have developed an as yet unidentified nitrogen fixing system that could have contributed to the nitrogen economy of soils.

  19. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in chronic pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez S.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis jirovecii causes pneumonia in immunosuppressed individuals. However, it has been reported the detection of low levels of Pneumocystis DNA in patients without signs and symptoms of pneumonia, which likely represents colonization. Several studies performed in animals models and in humans have demonstrated that Pneumocystis induces a local and a systemic response in the host. Since P. jirovecii colonization has been found in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases it has been suggested that P. jirovecii may play a role in the physiopathology and progression of those diseases. In this report we revise P. jirovecii colonization in different chronic pulmonary diseases such us, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung diseases, cystic fibrosis and lung cancer.

  20. Extensive colonic stricture due to pelvic actinomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Cho, M K; Yook, J W; Choe, G Y; Lee, I C

    1995-04-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented with a palpable tender mass at the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. She had suffered from constipation for five years and had a previous history of intrauterine device-use for one year. Preoperative barium enema and abdominopelvic CT showed a compatible finding of rectosigmoid colon cancer or left ovary cancer. She underwent segmental resection of the sigmoid colon along with the removal of left distal ureter, left ovary and salpinx. Pathologic examination revealed actinomycotic abscesses containing sulfur granules. Thereafter, she took parenteral ampicillin (50mg/kg/day) for one month and oral amoxicillin (250mg, tid) for 2 months consecutively. The patient has no specific problems for 6 months after surgical resection and long-term antibiotic therapy. This report may be the first of intrauterine device-associated pelvic actinomycosis involving both sigmoid colon and rectum extensively. PMID:7576294

  1. The colon. Clinical radiology and endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive reference work presents in-depth information on the diagnostic radiology and endoscopy of the colon. After a brief review of the history of colon examinations, two chapters explain the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of the large intestine as well as the methods and techniques applied for radiological examination of the colon. The pathology and characteristical findings and the diagnostic evaluation of the various types of disease are the main subject, with the chapters discussing inflammations and tumors consuming by far most of the space, but there is also valuable information on vascular lesions, traumata, latrogenous or post-surgery lesions, among others, and on the characteristical findings in children. Numerous tables, radiographs and endoscopic images together with drawings illustrate and accompany the textbook information. (orig.). 492 figs., 95 tabs

  2. Colonic luminal surface retention of meloxicam microsponges delivered by erosion based colon-targeted matrix tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rishabh; Kumar, Deepesh; Pathak, Kamla

    2012-05-10

    The work was aimed at developing calcium-pectinate matrix tablet for colon-targeted delivery of meloxicam (MLX) microsponges. Modified quassi-emulsion solvent diffusion method was used to formulate microsponges (MS), based on 3(2) full factorial design. The effects of volume of dichloromethane and EudragitRS100 content (independent variables) were determined on the particle size, entrapment efficiency and %cumulative drug release of MS1-MS9. The optimized formulation, MS5 (d(mean)=44.47 μm, %EE=98.73, %CDR=97.32 and followed zero order release) was developed into colon-targeted matrix tablet using calcium pectinate as the matrix. The optimized colon-targeted tablet (MS5T2) shielded MLX loaded microsponges in gastrointestinal region and selectively delivered them to colon, as vizualized by vivo fluoroscopy in rabbits. The pharmacokinetic evaluation of MS5T2 in rabbits, revealed appearance of drug appeared in plasma after a lag time of 7h; a t(max) of 30 h with Fr=61.047%, thus presenting a formulation suitable for targeted colonic delivery. CLSM studies provided an evidence for colonic luminal retentive ability of microsponges at the end of 8h upon oral administration of MS5T2. Thus calcium pectinate matrix tablet loaded with MLX microsponges was developed as a promising system for the colon-specific delivery that has potential for use as an adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer. PMID:22306039

  3. 城市空气负离子浓度时空分布及其影响因素综述%Spatiotemporal distribution of negative air ion concentration in urban area and related affecting factors: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄向华; 王健; 曾宏达; 陈光水; 钟羡芳

    2013-01-01

    Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality,and has significance to human beings living environment.This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration,and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI.The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation,while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution,underlying surface characters,and urban heat island effect.The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation,while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways.The other environmental factors can also affect the generation,life span,component,translocation,and distribution of NAI to some extent.To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality.%空气负离子(NAI)是综合反映空气质量的重要指标,对人居环境有重要意义.本文综述了城市空气负离子时空分布特征,并根据不同环境因子对其理化过程的影响及其在城市中的特点探讨了城市NAI时空分布特征的成因:NAI分布的时间动态主要受控于太阳辐射的周期变化;空间分布的城乡梯度差异受城市气溶胶、下垫面性质及城市热岛效应影响;城市绿地的高NAI浓度与植被生命活动和土壤辐射有关;近水环境中NAI浓度较高的原因在于水分子通过多种途径参与NAI生成过程;其余环

  4. Colonization of tomato plants by Salmonella enterica is cultivar dependent, and type 1 trichomes are preferred colonization sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jeri D; Kramer, Lara C; Hao, Ling-yun

    2011-01-01

    Nontyphoid salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica is the most common bacterial food-borne illness in humans, and fresh produce, including tomatoes, is a common vehicle. Accumulating data indicate that human enteric pathogenic bacteria, including S. enterica, interact actively with plants. Tomato plants were inoculated with S. enterica to evaluate plausible contamination routes and to determine if the tomato cultivar affects S. enterica colonization. S. enterica population levels on tomato leaves were cultivar dependent. S. enterica levels on Solanum pimpinellifolium (West Virginia 700 [WVa700]) were lower than on S. lycopersicum cultivars. S. enterica preferentially colonized type 1 trichomes and rarely interacted with stomata, unlike what has been reported for cut lettuce leaves. Early S. enterica leaf colonization led to contamination of all fruit, with levels as high as 10(5) CFU per fruit. Reduced bacterial speck lesion formation correlated with reduced S. enterica populations in the phyllosphere. Tomato pedicels and calyxes also harbored large S. enterica populations following inoculation via contaminated water postharvest. WVa700 green fruit harbored significantly smaller S. enterica populations than did red fruit or S. lycopersicum fruit. We found that plants irrigated with contaminated water had larger S. enterica populations than plants grown from seeds planted in infested soil. However, both routes of contamination resulted in detectable S. enterica populations in the phyllosphere. Phyllosphere S. enterica populations pose a risk of fruit contamination and subsequent human disease. Restricting S. enterica phyllosphere populations may result in reduced fruit contamination. We have identified WVa700 as a tomato cultivar that can restrict S. enterica survival in the phyllosphere. PMID:21075871

  5. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  6. The Colonization of Space. An Anthropological Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Tiziani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of space implies an adaptation of both physical and cultural type. The human species is characterized by a great adaptive capacity that, in a basically extreme environment, reveals all its plasticity. However, this capacity must be aided by appropriate technological solutions that identify the problems related to long stays in space, and to long space voyages. Anthropology could aid future colonizers rethinking the environment of the spacecrafts, and the habitats of future colonies. Last but not least, anthropology can prepare them to a possible encounter with alien intelligences very different from human way of thinking.

  7. Our experience in congenital pouch colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharpure Vivek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital pouch colon is considered to be a malformation seen only in north india. we carried out a prospective study of congenital pouch colon from 1991 to 2005 to determine what interventions are most suited for the short and long term management of this compex malformation. anatomical details, procedures and continence outcomes were recorded. patients were managed in a private and public hospital by a single surgeon. 17 patients could be enrolled in the study. we could reconstruct 16/17 patients. with aggressive bowel management, 9/14 patients could achieve continence.

  8. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V N Misra

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar–Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500–1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide

  9. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  10. Prostaglandin E2-induced colonic secretion in patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen Steen S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis for colorectal cancer remains unresolved. A growing body of evidence suggests a direct correlation between cyclooxygenase enzyme expression, prostaglandin E2 metabolism and neoplastic development. Thus further understanding of the regulation of epithelial functions by prostaglandin E2 is needed. We hypothesized that patients with colonic neoplasia have altered colonic epithelial ion transport and express functionally different prostanoid receptor levels in this respect. Methods Patients referred for colonoscopy were included and grouped into patients with and without colorectal neoplasia. Patients without endoscopic findings of neoplasia served as controls. Biopsy specimens were obtained from normally appearing mucosa in the sigmoid part of colon. Biopsies were mounted in miniaturized modified Ussing air-suction chambers. Indomethacin (10 μM, various stimulators and inhibitors of prostanoid receptors and ion transport were subsequently added to the chamber solutions. Electrogenic ion transport parameters (short circuit current and slope conductance were recorded. Tissue pathology and tissue damage before and after experiments was assessed by histology. Results Baseline short circuit current and slope conductance did not differ between the two groups. Patients with neoplasia were significantly more sensitive to indomethacin with a decrease in short circuit current of 15.1 ± 2.6 μA·cm-2 compared to controls, who showed a decrease of 10.5 ± 2.1 μA·cm-2 (p = 0.027. Stimulation or inhibition with theophylline, ouabain, bumetanide, forskolin or the EP receptor agonists prostaglandin E2, butaprost, sulprostone and prostaglandin E1 (OH did not differ significantly between the two groups. Histology was with normal findings in both groups. Conclusions Epithelial electrogenic transport is more sensitive to indomethacin in normal colonic mucosa from patients with previous or present colorectal neoplasia compared

  11. Determination of short-circuit current in the in vivo perfused rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, H; Haag, K; Lübcke, R; Berger, E; Gerok, W

    1984-02-01

    Current pulses (I) were injected into the lumen of proximal colonic segments in vivo, and the corresponding voltage deflections (delta PD) superimposed on the transcolonic PD were recorded. From the exponential decay of delta PD along the colon axis, the electrical length constant (lambda) was determined. Based on cable analysis the input resistance (= delta PD x = 0/I) and lambda made it possible to calculate the specific resistance (Rm) of the colonic epithelium as 128 +/- 16 omega X cm2. As Rm proved to be an ohmic resistor, the extrapolation from open-circuit PD (8-12 mV, lumen negative) to zero PD was feasible and made the calculation of short-circuit current (= PD/Rm) equal to 70 +/- 16 microA/cm2. In the presence of amiloride short-circuit current decreased to about 50%, whereas with theophylline it increased by about 30%. Substitution of luminal Na+ with choline or Cl- with cyclamate was associated with a marked increase of Rm. The rheogenic component of net Na+ transport was estimated to be only 8%. Electroneutral Na+ absorption functionally coupled with Cl- absorption displayed the characteristic feature of ion transport in the rat proximal colon. PMID:6320673

  12. Aspirin inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates specificity protein (Sp transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Pathi

    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin is highly effective for treating colon cancer patients postdiagnosis; however, the mechanisms of action of aspirin in colon cancer are not well defined. Aspirin and its major metabolite sodium salicylate induced apoptosis and decreased colon cancer cell growth and the sodium salt of aspirin also inhibited tumor growth in an athymic nude mouse xenograft model. Colon cancer cell growth inhibition was accompanied by downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and decreased expression of Sp-regulated gene products including bcl-2, survivin, VEGF, VEGFR1, cyclin D1, c-MET and p65 (NFκB. Moreover, we also showed by RNA interference that β-catenin, an important target of aspirin in some studies, is an Sp-regulated gene. Aspirin induced nuclear caspase-dependent cleavage of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and this response was related to sequestration of zinc ions since addition of zinc sulfate blocked aspirin-mediated apoptosis and repression of Sp proteins. The results demonstrate an important underlying mechanism of action of aspirin as an anticancer agent and, based on the rapid metabolism of aspirin to salicylate in humans and the high salicylate/aspirin ratios in serum, it is likely that the anticancer activity of aspirin is also due to the salicylate metabolite.

  13. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    Recently, in human geography there has been a considerable attention paid to retheorising maps; less as a product and more as practice. This refers to the notion that rather than reading maps as fixed representations, digital mapping is by nature a dynamic, performative, and participatory practice....... In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology...

  14. Effects of activin and TGFβ on p21 in colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bauer

    Full Text Available Activin and TGFβ share SMAD signaling and colon cancers can inactivate either pathway alone or simultaneously. The differential effects of activin and TGFβ signaling in colon cancer have not been previously dissected. A key downstream target of TGFβ signaling is the cdk2 inhibitor p21 (p21(cip1/waf1. Here, we evaluate activin-specific effects on p21 regulation and resulting functions. We find that TGFβ is a more potent inducer of growth suppression, while activin is a more potent inducer of apoptosis. Further, growth suppression and apoptosis by both ligands are dependent on SMAD4. However, activin downregulates p21 protein in a SMAD4-independent fashion in conjunction with increased ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation to enhance migration, while TGFβ upregulates p21 in a SMAD4-dependent fashion to affect growth arrest. Activin-induced growth suppression and cell death are dependent on p21, while activin-induced migration is counteracted by p21. Further, primary colon cancers show differential p21 expression consistent with their ACVR2/TGFBR2 receptor status. In summary, we report p21 as a differentially affected activin/TGFβ target and mediator of ligand-specific functions in colon cancer, which may be exploited for future risk stratification and therapeutic intervention.

  15. Ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata from Calilegua National Park (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Alejandra; Zak, Marcelo R; Horton, Thomas R; Micolini, Jorge

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine patterns of ectomycorrhizas (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) colonization associated with Alnus acuminata (Andean alder), in relation to soil parameters (electrical conductivity, field H(2)O holding capacity, pH, available P, organic matter, and total N) at two different seasons (autumn and spring). The study was conducted in natural forests of A. acuminata situated in Calilegua National Park (Jujuy, Argentina). Nine ECM morphotypes were found on A. acuminata roots. The ECM colonization was affected by seasonality and associated positively with field H(2)O holding capacity, pH, and total N and negatively associated with organic matter. Two morphotypes (Russula alnijorullensis and Tomentella sp. 3) showed significant differences between seasons. Positive and negative correlations were found between five morphotypes (Alnirhiza silkacea, Lactarius omphaliformis, Tomentella sp. 1, Tomentella sp. 3, and Lactarius sp.) and soil parameters (total N, pH, and P). A significant negative correlation was found between field H(2)O holding capacity and organic matter with AM colonization. Results of this study provide evidence that ECM and AM colonization of A. acuminata can be affected by some soil chemical edaphic parameters and indicate that some ECM morphotypes are sensitive to changes in seasonality and soil parameters. PMID:16034621

  16. Suppression of colitis-related mouse colon carcinogenesis by a COX-2 inhibitor and PPAR ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugie Shigeyuki

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is generally assumed that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD-related carcinogenesis occurs as a result of chronic inflammation. We previously developed a novel colitis-related mouse colon carcinogenesis model initiated with azoxymethane (AOM and followed by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS. In the present study we investigated whether a cyclooxygenase (COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide and ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs, troglitazone (a PPARγ ligand and bezafibrate (a PPARα ligand inhibit colitis-related colon carcinogenesis using our model to evaluate the efficacy of these drugs in prevention of IBD-related colon carcinogenesis. Methods Female CD-1 (ICR mice were given a single intraperitoneal administration of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight and followed by one-week oral exposure of 2% (w/v DSS in drinking water, and then maintained on the basal diets mixed with or without nimesulide (0.04%, w/w, troglitazone (0.05%, w/w, and bezafibrate (0.05%, w/w for 14 weeks. The inhibitory effects of dietary administration of these compounds were determined by histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results Feeding with nimesulide and troglitazone significantly inhibited both the incidence and multiplicity of colonic adenocarcinoma induced by AOM/DSS in mice. Bezafibrate feeding significantly reduced the incidence of colonic adenocarcinoma, but did not significantly lower the multiplicity. Feeding with nimesulide and troglitazone decreased the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA-labeling index and expression of β-catenin, COX-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and nitrotyrosine. The treatments increased the apoptosis index in the colonic adenocarcinoma. Feeding with bezafibrate also affected these parameters except for β-catenin expression in the colonic malignancy. Conclusion Dietary administration of nimesulide, troglitazone and bezafibrate effectively suppressed the development of colonic

  17. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Erk Marjan J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an anti-oxidant and it can act as an anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms and effect of curcumin in colon cancer cells using gene expression profiling. Methods Gene expression changes in response to curcumin exposure were studied in two human colon cancer cell lines, using cDNA microarrays with four thousand human genes. HT29 cells were exposed to two different concentrations of curcumin and gene expression changes were followed in time (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. Gene expression changes after short-term exposure (3 or 6 hours to curcumin were also studied in a second cell type, Caco-2 cells. Results Gene expression changes (>1.5-fold were found at all time points. HT29 cells were more sensitive to curcumin than Caco-2 cells. Early response genes were involved in cell cycle, signal transduction, DNA repair, gene transcription, cell adhesion and xenobiotic metabolism. In HT29 cells curcumin modulated a number of cell cycle genes of which several have a role in transition through the G2/M phase. This corresponded to a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase as was observed by flow cytometry. Functional groups with a similar expression profile included genes involved in phase-II metabolism that were induced by curcumin after 12 and 24 hours. Expression of some cytochrome P450 genes was downregulated by curcumin in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. In addition, curcumin affected expression of metallothionein genes, tubulin genes, p53 and other genes involved in colon carcinogenesis. Conclusions This study has extended knowledge on pathways or processes already reported to be affected by curcumin (cell cycle arrest, phase

  18. Cardiovascular and respiratory changes and convalescence in laparoscopic colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, S; Lyng, K M; Bugge, K; Perner, A; Bendtsen, A; Thorup, J; Nielsen, H J; Rasmussen, V; Rosenberg, J

    1999-01-01

    Gasless laparoscopy produces smaller cardiopulmonary and systemic changes than carbon dioxide (CO2) laparoscopy during colonic surgery.......Gasless laparoscopy produces smaller cardiopulmonary and systemic changes than carbon dioxide (CO2) laparoscopy during colonic surgery....

  19. Small Study Supports New Stool-Based Colon Cancer Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158388.html Small Study Supports New Stool-Based Colon Cancer Test Cologuard may help spot tumors, but researcher, ... more evidence that a recently approved, stool-based colon cancer test may be effective for certain patients. Still, ...

  20. What Women Need to Know about Colon Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you love): What Women Need to Know about Colon Cancer Screening March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month ... the United States. Tests used for screening for colon cancer include digital rectal exam, stool blood test, barium ...

  1. Six Ways to Reduce Your Risk of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Six Ways to Reduce Your Risk of Colon Cancer Diet, weight and physical activity play a significant ... March 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Half of the colon cancer cases in the United States could be prevented ...

  2. A Little Excess Weight May Boost Colon Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158930.html A Little Excess Weight May Boost Colon Cancer Survival Researchers saw an effect, but experts stress ... a surprise, a new study found that overweight colon cancer patients tended to have better survival than their ...

  3. Elderly with Advanced Colon Cancer Often Get Costly, Dubious Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157714.html Elderly With Advanced Colon Cancer Often Get Costly, Dubious Treatments: Study Drugs come ... far more often to elderly patients with advanced colon cancer, but they offer almost no benefit, a new ...

  4. Colonization of PAH-contaminated dredged sediment by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.; Bruggeman, H.J.; Harmsen, J.; Kort, T.H.; Schakel, A.

    2009-01-01

    In freshly deposited dredged sediment contaminated with PAHs, we followed the colonization of earthworm species by monthly monitoring over two years. Already five months after deposition the first species, Lumbricus castaneus, appeared, although only temporarily. The first permanent colonizing speci

  5. Preterm Birth and Necrotizing Enterocolitis Alter Gut Colonization in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene S.; Boye, Mette; Mølbak, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates is dependent on bacterial colonization, but it remains unclear whether a particular microbiota or specific pathogens are involved. We hypothesized that gut colonization differs between preterm and term neonates and that overgrowth of Clostridium...

  6. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  7. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies de...

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Yashuan; Marks, Laura R.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over one million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease...

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yashuan eChao; Marks, Laura R.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over 1 million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease i...

  10. POLYSACCHARIDE MATRIX TABLET FOR COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Kumar Panigrahi et al

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare a matrix tablet for colon targeting. Natural gaums (guar gum and xanthan gum) were used for the preparation of colon targeted drug delivery system. Different concentrations of guar gum and xanthan gum and their combinations were tried for the purpose. The prepared tablets were evaluated for in-process parameters as well as colon targeting characteristics. The colon targeting properties were evaluated by analysing the formulations for drug rele...

  11. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  12. A Higher-Order Colon Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse Reichstein

    2001-01-01

    A lambda-encoding such as the CPS transformation gives rise to administrative redexes. In his seminal article ``Call-by-name, call-by-value and the lambda-calculus'', 25 years ago, Plotkin tackled administrative reductions using a so-called ``colon translation.'' 10 years ago, Danvy and Filinski...

  13. A Higher-Order Colon Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse R.

    2000-01-01

    A lambda-encoding such as the CPS transformation gives rise to administrative redexes. In his seminal article ``Call-by-name, call-by-value and the lambda-calculus'', 25 years ago, Plotkin tackled administrative reductions using a so-called ``colon translation.'' 10 years ago, Danvy and Filinski...

  14. Noninvasive measurement of human ascending colon volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacitance and motor functions of the colon are important determinants of its overall function. A simple, noninvasive method to quantify regional colonic volume is required for further physiologic and pharmacologic studies. Our aim was to determine whether measurements of human ascending colon (AC) volume using two-dimensional (2-D) images are as accurate as estimates using three-dimensional (3-D) images. Five healthy male volunteers each ingested a methacrylate-coated capsule containing 99Tcm-labelled Amberlite pellets. Two- and 3-D images were obtained using a gamma camera with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) capability. Ascending colon volume was estimated by a variable region of interest (VROI) program and by full-width half-maximum (FWHM) analysis, and results were compared to the volume estimates by SPECT. Full-width half-maximum analysis yielded volume estimates that were not significantly different from SPECT whereas VROI estimates were significantly different from volume measurements by SPECT and, hence, considered less accurate. Thus, the less expensive and more easily available planar imaging technique with analysis by FWHM estimates AC volume as accurately as SPECT. (Author)

  15. Bacteria interfere with A-actinomycetemcomitans colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Teughels, Wim; Haake, S. Kinder; Sliepen, Isabelle; Pauwels, Martine; Van Eldere, Johan; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Quirynen, Marc

    2007-01-01

    It is known that beneficial bacteria can suppress the emergence of pathogenic bacteria, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. This study examined the potential for a similar suppression of Aggregatibacter (formerly Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans colonization of epithelial cells, due to its potential relevance in periodontal diseases. Seven presumed beneficial bacteria were examined for their ability to interfere, exclude, or displace A. actinomycetemcomitans from epithelial cells...

  16. Metabolic Syndrome X and Colon Cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoulek, M.; Svobodová, S.; Svačina, Š.; Plavcová, Marie; Zvárová, Jana; Visokai, V.; Lipská, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, suppl. 1 (2003), s. 86. ISSN 0307-0565. [European Congress on Obesity /12./. 29.05.2003-01.06.2003, Helsinki] R&D Projects: GA MZd NB6635; GA MŠk LN00B107 Keywords : metabolic syndrome X * colon cancer Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  17. Radiologic analysis of total colonic aganglionosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologic findings of Total Colonic Aganglionosis (T.C.A) were analyzed in 15 patients with the results as follows; 1. Male to female ratio was 8:7. 2. There were six cases of small calibered colon, seven cases of normal colon and two cases of megacolon. 3. Free reflux of barium into the small bowel was observed in seven cases out of eight in which retrograde filling was tried. 4. Delayed films (24 hrs or more) were available in eight cases and most of the barium remained in bowel in six cases. 5. There were abnormal colonic contractions in three cases, decreased redundancy in five and five cases or irregular, hypertrophic mucosal wall suggesting enterocolitis. 6. Part of ileum were also aganglionic in five cases. There seems to be no pathognomonic barium enema findings in T.C.A But combination of these findings may suggest the possibility of T.C.A. T.C.A should be considered in differential diagnosis of bowel obstruction in infants. Barium enema should be complete and delayed films always be obtained

  18. Wnt signaling and colon carcinogenesis: Beyond APC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Najdi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway via mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC is a critical event in the development of colon cancer. For colon carcinogenesis, however, constitutive signaling through the canonical Wnt pathway is not a singular event. Here we review how canonical Wnt signaling is modulated by intracellular LEF/TCF composition and location, the action of different Wnt ligands, and the secretion of Wnt inhibitory molecules. We also review the contributions of non-canonical Wnt signaling and other distinct pathways in the tumor micro environment that cross-talk to the canonical Wnt pathway and thereby influence colon cancer progression. These ′non-APC′ aspects of Wnt signaling are considered in relation to the development of potential agents for the treatment of patients with colon cancer. Regulatory pathways that influence Wnt signaling highlight how it might be possible to design therapies that target a network of signals beyond that of APC and β-catenin.

  19. Lucy and the Mark of the Colonizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫枫

    2014-01-01

    The novel is a an initiation novel of Lucy.Through this novel Lucy grows from a girl resenting and fighting against the everything that tries to colonize her into an independent girl who begins to accept and understand the people and world around her. Colonial themes of identity confusion stand out in this novel.

  20. Colonic perianastomotic carcinogenesis in an experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the effect of anastomosis on experimental carcinogenesis in the colon of rats. Forty-three 10-week-old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were operated on by performing an end-to-side ileorectostomy. Group A:16 rats received no treatment. Group B: 27 rats received 18 subcutaneous injections weekly at a dose of 21 mg/kg wt of 1–2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH), from the eighth day after the intervention. Animals were sacrificed between 25–27 weeks. The number of tumours, their localization, size and microscopic characteristics were recorded. A paired chi-squared analysis was performed comparing tumoral induction in the perianastomotic zone with the rest of colon with faeces. No tumours appeared in the dimethylhydrazine-free group. The percentage tumoral area was greater in the perianastomotic zone compared to tumours which had developed in the rest of colon with faeces (p = 0.014). We found a cocarcinogenic effect due to the creation of an anastomosis, when using an experimental model of colonic carcinogenesis induced by DMH in rats

  1. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shall we say, not easy to talk about. Well, the good news is that colon cancer can often be prevented or it can be found and removed ... Away from Tobacco Eat Healthy and Get Active Be Safe in the Sun Other Ways to Protect ... and Calculators Information for Health Care Professionals ...

  2. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... filling the colon with air or with an x-ray blocking liquid and taking a special x-ray or performing a CT or cat scan that ... able to undergo the flexible instrument examinations or x-ray tests. Now the tests that can prevent cancer ...

  3. Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large cohort study of etiologic determinants of cancer carried out within an NCI trial for the evaluation of screening procedures for the early detection of prostate, lung, colon, and ovarian cancer (the PLCO Trial) at 10 U.S. screening centers

  4. Melanocyte colonization and pigmentation of breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mele, Marco; Laurberg, Tinne; Engberg Damsgaard, Tine;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Melanocyte colonization of breast carcinoma by nonneoplastic melanocytes of epidermal origin is a rare and serious condition first described in 1977. We report on the exceptional clinical and pathological features of this migration phenomenon in a 74-year-old patient. Discussion. The...

  5. Stercoral Perforation of the Colon in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson AL; Pepe A

    2010-01-01

    We report a 37 year old multi-parous lady, who in her third trimester of pregnancy, presented to the emergency room with acute diffuse abdominal pain and involuntary guarding. Findings on physical examination were consistent with peritonitis and a decision was made by the admitting team to perform an urgent laparotomy which surprisingly showed a stercoral perforation of the colon.

  6. Postoperative omental infarction following colonic resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, S.F., E-mail: skerr44@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Hyland, R.; Rowbotham, E.; Chalmers, A.G. [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Aim: To illustrate the computed tomography (CT) appearances and natural history of postoperative omental infarction following colonic resection and to highlight the important clinical implications of this radiological diagnosis. Materials and methods: Over a 3 year period, 15 patients with a history of colonic resection were identified as having a CT diagnosis of postoperative omental infarction. Relevant clinical and pathological data were retrospectively collected from the institution's electronic patient records system and all relevant imaging was reviewed, including serial CT images in 10 patients. Results: A diagnosis of postoperative omental infarction was made in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who had undergone open or laparoscopic colonic resection for benign or malignant disease. CT appearances ranged from diffuse omental stranding to discrete masses, which typically appeared within weeks of surgery and could persist for years. In four (36%) of the patients with colorectal cancer, the CT appearances raised concern for recurrent malignancy, but percutaneous biopsy and/or serial CT allowed a confident diagnosis of omental infarction to be made. Although most cases were self-limiting, three (20%) cases were complicated by secondary infection and required radiological or surgical intervention. Conclusion: Postoperative omental infarction is an under-recognized complication of colonic resection. It has the potential to mimic recurrent malignancy and may require radiological or surgical intervention for secondary infection.

  7. Postoperative omental infarction following colonic resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To illustrate the computed tomography (CT) appearances and natural history of postoperative omental infarction following colonic resection and to highlight the important clinical implications of this radiological diagnosis. Materials and methods: Over a 3 year period, 15 patients with a history of colonic resection were identified as having a CT diagnosis of postoperative omental infarction. Relevant clinical and pathological data were retrospectively collected from the institution’s electronic patient records system and all relevant imaging was reviewed, including serial CT images in 10 patients. Results: A diagnosis of postoperative omental infarction was made in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who had undergone open or laparoscopic colonic resection for benign or malignant disease. CT appearances ranged from diffuse omental stranding to discrete masses, which typically appeared within weeks of surgery and could persist for years. In four (36%) of the patients with colorectal cancer, the CT appearances raised concern for recurrent malignancy, but percutaneous biopsy and/or serial CT allowed a confident diagnosis of omental infarction to be made. Although most cases were self-limiting, three (20%) cases were complicated by secondary infection and required radiological or surgical intervention. Conclusion: Postoperative omental infarction is an under-recognized complication of colonic resection. It has the potential to mimic recurrent malignancy and may require radiological or surgical intervention for secondary infection.

  8. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that colon cancer can often be prevented or it can be found and removed before it has a chance to become a danger to ... common cancers. Both women and men can have it. And the chances of having it increase as ...

  9. Radiologic analysis of total colonic aganglionosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Duk; Yeon, Kyung Mo [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-08-15

    Radiologic findings of Total Colonic Aganglionosis (T.C.A) were analyzed in 15 patients with the results as follows; 1. Male to female ratio was 8:7. 2. There were six cases of small calibered colon, seven cases of normal colon and two cases of megacolon. 3. Free reflux of barium into the small bowel was observed in seven cases out of eight in which retrograde filling was tried. 4. Delayed films (24 hrs or more) were available in eight cases and most of the barium remained in bowel in six cases. 5. There were abnormal colonic contractions in three cases, decreased redundancy in five and five cases or irregular, hypertrophic mucosal wall suggesting enterocolitis. 6. Part of ileum were also aganglionic in five cases. There seems to be no pathognomonic barium enema findings in T.C.A But combination of these findings may suggest the possibility of T.C.A. T.C.A should be considered in differential diagnosis of bowel obstruction in infants. Barium enema should be complete and delayed films always be obtained.

  10. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  11. Colon,rectum and anus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950328 Stepwise regression analysis on affective fac-tor of the changes in gastrin and somatostatin in col-orectal cancer patients.WANG Yuanhe(王元和),etal.2nd Milit Med Univ,Shanghai,200003.Med J ChinPLA 1995:20(1):48-51.Gastrin and somatostatin (SS) levels in peripheralblood,tumor and its surrounding mucosa were deter-mined in 40 colorectal cancer patients by RIA with theserum gastrin (SG),plasma SS(PS),tumor SS(TS)or cancer-adjacent mucosa (CAMS)SS(CAMS)lev-els were taken as dependent variables and the remain-ing variables(including gastrin and SS levels,age and

  12. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colonic irrigation system. 876.5220 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5220 Colonic irrigation system. (a) Identification. A colonic irrigation system is a device intended to instill water into the...

  13. Segmental dilatation of colon associated with anorectal malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with segmental dilatation of the colon suffer severe constipation and are clinically indistinguishable from Hirschsprung disease. Segmental dilatation of colon is rare in neonates. In this report, a neonate with unusual combination of segmental dilatation of the colon and high anorectal malformation is presented.

  14. Schwannoma—A Rare Subepithelial Lesion of the Colon

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Barbeiro; Catarina Martins; Cláudia Gonçalves; Bruno Arroja; Manuela Canhoto; Filipe Silva; Isabel Cotrim; Cristina Amado; Liliana Eliseu; Helena Vasconcelos

    2015-01-01

    Schwannoma is a benign tumor arising from Schwann cells that form the neural sheath. Primary schwannoma of the colon is rare and a few cases have been reported. We report a case of schwannoma of the colon and present the differential diagnosis that must be considered in the evaluation of colonic subepithelial lesions.

  15. Isolation and in vitro expansion of human colonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, P.; Sato, T.; Merlos-Suarez, A.; Barriga, F.M.; Iglesias, M.; Rossell, D.; Auer, H.; Gallardo, M.; Blasco, M.A.; Sancho, E.; Clevers, H.; Batlle, E.

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe the isolation of stem cells of the human colonic epithelium. Differential cell surface abundance of ephrin type-B receptor 2 (EPHB2) allows the purification of different cell types from human colon mucosa biopsies. The highest EPHB2 surface levels correspond to epithelial colonic ce

  16. Neonatal small left colon in an infant with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small left colon has been observed in neonates due to several causes: aganglionosis, meconium plug, and neonatal small left colon syndrome. We report a case of small left colon in an infant with cystic fibrosis, underscoring the need to consider this diesease in the diagnostic work up. (orig.)

  17. Transverse colon tuberculosis. A case presentation and clinical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the clinical case of a 90 year old female patient presenting weight loss and anemia. The physical examination detected an abdominal mass in epigastrio. Abdominal scanner revealed wall thickness at transverse colon. A colonoscopy was performed, finding an infiltrating mass at this level. The biopsies informed colonic tuberculosis. We present a literature review of digestive TBC, emphasising in colonic tuberculosis.

  18. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina; Lindmark, Gudrun; Nilbert, Mef

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...... and excluded 61.5% of the tumors from MMR testing. This clinicopathologic index thus successfully selects MMR-defective colon cancers. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  19. Entamoeba histolytica-Secreted Products Degrade Colonic Mucin Oligosaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Moncada, Darcy; Keller, Kathy; Chadee, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Degradation of the mucus layer by Entamoeba histolytica is a prerequisite for invasion of the colonic mucosa. In this study, we demonstrate that amoeba-secreted products degrade 3H-labeled and native colonic mucin oligosaccharides independently of proteolytic activity. We conclude that E. histolytica degrades mucin oligosaccharides, which may facilitate parasite invasion of the colon.

  20. Strong spatial influence on colonization rates in a pioneer zooplankton metacommunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Frisch

    Full Text Available The magnitude of community-wide dispersal is central to metacommunity models, yet dispersal is notoriously difficult to quantify in passive and cryptic dispersers such as many freshwater invertebrates. By overcoming the problem of quantifying dispersal rates, colonization rates into new habitats can provide a useful estimate of the magnitude of effective dispersal. Here we study the influence of spatial and local processes on colonization rates into new ponds that indicate differential dispersal limitation of major zooplankton taxa, with important implications for metacommunity dynamics. We identify regional and local factors that affect zooplankton colonization rates and spatial patterns in a large-scale experimental system. Our study differs from others in the unique setup of the experimental pond area by which we were able to test spatial and environmental variables at a large spatial scale. We quantified colonization rates separately for the Copepoda, Cladocera and Rotifera from samples collected over a period of 21 months in 48 newly constructed temporary ponds of 0.18-2.95 ha distributed in a restored wetland area of 2,700 ha in Doñana National Park, Southern Spain. Species richness upon initial sampling of new ponds was about one third of that in reference ponds, although the rate of detection of new species from thereon were not significantly different, probably owing to high turnover in the dynamic, temporary reference ponds. Environmental heterogeneity had no detectable effect on colonization rates in new ponds. In contrast, connectivity, space (based on latitude and longitude and surface area were key determinants of colonization rates for copepods and cladocerans. This suggests dispersal limitation in cladocerans and copepods, but not in rotifers, possibly due to differences in propagule size and abundance.

  1. Sulphation of lithocholic acid in the colon-carcinoma cell line CaCo-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, B; Kase, B F; Prydz, K; Garagozlian, S; Andresen, M S; Kolset, S O

    1999-11-01

    High levels of bile acids in the colon may correlate with an increased risk of colon cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Proteoglycan structures have been shown to change when human colon cells differentiate in vitro. The expression of [(35)S]sulphated molecules was used as a phenotypic marker to study the effects of bile acids on the human-colon-carcinoma cell line CaCo-2. [(35)S]sulphated compounds were isolated from the medium of cell fractions of cells metabolically labelled with [(35)S]sulphate in the absence and presence of cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid (LA). Labelled molecules were analysed by gel chromatography, HPLC and SDS/PAGE in combination with chemical and enzymic methods. The expression of (35)S-labelled proteoglycans was not affected by any of the bile acids tested. However, the level of sulphated metabolites increased 7-18-fold in different experiments during a 22 h labelling period in the presence of an LA concentration of 10 microg/ml (26.6 nmol/ml) compared with controls. Further analyses showed that this was due, at least in part, to the sulphation of LA itself. This sulphation of LA was a rapid process followed by secretion back to the medium. Brefeldin A did not reduce the sulphation of LA, indicating that this conversion takes place in the cytosol, rather than in the Golgi apparatus of the CaCo-2 cells. LA in colon may be sulphated efficiently by the colonocytes to reduce the toxic effects of this particular bile acid. Sulphation may possibly be an important protective mechanism in the colon. PMID:10527930

  2. Dynamic occupancy models for explicit colonization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broms, Kristin M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Johnson, Devin S.; Altwegg, Res; Conquest, Loveday

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic, multi-season occupancy model framework has become a popular tool for modeling open populations with occupancies that change over time through local colonizations and extinctions. However, few versions of the model relate these probabilities to the occupancies of neighboring sites or patches. We present a modeling framework that incorporates this information and is capable of describing a wide variety of spatiotemporal colonization and extinction processes. A key feature of the model is that it is based on a simple set of small-scale rules describing how the process evolves. The result is a dynamic process that can account for complicated large-scale features. In our model, a site is more likely to be colonized if more of its neighbors were previously occupied and if it provides more appealing environmental characteristics than its neighboring sites. Additionally, a site without occupied neighbors may also become colonized through the inclusion of a long-distance dispersal process. Although similar model specifications have been developed for epidemiological applications, ours formally accounts for detectability using the well-known occupancy modeling framework. After demonstrating the viability and potential of this new form of dynamic occupancy model in a simulation study, we use it to obtain inference for the ongoing Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) invasion in South Africa. Our results suggest that the Common Myna continues to enlarge its distribution and its spread via short distance movement, rather than long-distance dispersal. Overall, this new modeling framework provides a powerful tool for managers examining the drivers of colonization including short- vs. long-distance dispersal, habitat quality, and distance from source populations.

  3. Second Colonization%第二殖民

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李士桥; 张天洁

    2012-01-01

    殖民虽然来自统治,但殖民的效果是双向的.当今的研究往往关注于权力流向源头的文化特征和殖民活动,而将反向的活动看做补充资料.提出第二殖民的观念,希望将反于权力流向的“殖民”活动以同等的框架来对待.这里,在抛开权力流向的基础上,一个文化对另一个文化同样施展了暴力,做出了修改.在这个前提下,可以将第二殖民分为主动的和被动的,模仿型的和变革型的.希望通过这些直接的描述,对文化交汇的研究,可以触及其一系列仍然比较模糊的研究内容和方向.%Colonization results from domination, but the effect of colonization is bilateral. In current scholarship in the activities of colonization, there seems to be a framework that assumes the primary position of the cultural features of the source of the flow of power, taking the activities in the reverse direction as supplementary materials. Second colonization suggests that these activities in the reverse direction should be studied in equal intensity; here, as we cast aside the direction of power, one culture commits violence to and revises influences from another culture equally. Under this assumption, we can understand second colonization as being internal and external, mimetic and figurative; through these direct descriptions, the paper hope to suggest ways to investigate directions and areas of research which are still indistinct.

  4. Effect of quercetin on colon contractility and L-type Ca(2+) channels in colon smooth muscle of guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Feng; Ouyang, Shou; Li, Shi-Ying; Lin, Yan-Fei; Ouyang, Hui; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Chun-Jing

    2009-12-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of quercetin on colon contractility and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in the single smooth muscle cell isolated from the proximal colon of guinea-pig and to clarify whether its effect on L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) would be related to its myorelaxing properties. Colon smooth muscle strips were used to take contractile tension recordings. Smooth muscle cells were freshly isolated from the proximal colon of guinea-pig by means of papain treatment. I(Ba,L) (barium instead of calcium as current carrier) was measured by using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. The results showed that quercetin relaxed colon muscle strips in a concentration-dependent manner and antagonized the contractile effect of acetylcholine and neostigmine. Preincubation with indomethcin [cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor] and methylene blue [guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor] significantly attenuated the relaxing effect of quercetin, respectively. Quercetin increased I(Ba,L) in a concentration- [EC(50)= (7.59+/-0.38) mumol/L] and voltage-dependent pattern, and shifted the maximum of the current-voltage curve by 10 mV in the depolarizing direction without modifying the threshold potential for Ca(2+) influx. Quercetin shifted the steady-state inactivation curve toward more positive potentials by approximately 3.75 mV without affecting the slope of activation and inactivation curve. H-89 (PKA inhibitor) abolished quercetin-induced I(Ba,L) increase, while cAMP enhanced the quercetin-induced I(Ba,L) increase. The patch-clamp results proved that quercetin increased I(Ba,L) via PKA pathway. It is therefore suggested that the relaxing effect of quercetin attributes to the interaction of GC and COX stimulation, as well as the antagonism effect on acetylcholine, which hierarchically prevails over the increase in the Ca(2+) influx to be expected from I(Ca,L) stimulation. PMID:20029691

  5. Effects of acarbose on fecal nutrients, colonic pH, and short-chain fatty acids and rectal proliferative indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, P R; Atillasoy, E; Lindenbaum, J; Ho, S B; Lupton, J R; McMahon, D; Moss, S F

    1996-09-01

    Acarbose, an alpha-glycosidase inhibitor, treats diabetes mellitus by delaying the digestion and intestinal absorption of dietary carbohydrates. In effective doses, acarbose induces some passage of carbohydrates into the colon. The effect of such chronic carbohydrate transfer on colonic structure and function is unknown. We studied the effects of 1 year of acarbose administration in diabetes mellitus on fecal energy, protein, and fat, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) output, fecal pH, and several metabolizing bacterial species. Changes in colonic histology and epithelial cell proliferation were investigated in rectal biopsies. Fecal macronutrient output was unaffected by acarbose, but pH decreased and total SCFA, butyrate, and acetate output were markedly greater. Breath hydrogen output increased after acarbose, but digoxin-metabolizing bacteria and diacylglycerol (DAG) production were unaltered. Compared with the control, acarbose did not induce hyperplasia or change rectal proliferation. However, total fecal SCFA and butyrate output correlated inversely with proliferation in the rectal upper crypt-a biomarker of risk for colonic neoplasia. In conclusion, long-term acarbose administration does not adversely affect colonic function or fecal nutrient output. If increased fecal SCFA and butyrate reduces upper-crypt proliferation, then acarbose may reduce the risk of colonic neoplasia. PMID:8781308

  6. Induction of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor TopIn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → TopIn activates p53-dependent transcription in colon cancer cells. → TopIn induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells. → TopIn selectively inhibits topoisomerase I activity. → TopIn does not affect the activity of BCRP and MDR-1. -- Abstract: The tumor suppressor p53 plays an important role in cellular emergency mechanisms through regulating the genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To identify small molecules that can activate p53-responsive transcription, we performed chemical screening using genetically engineered HCT116 reporter cells. We found that TopIn (7-phenyl-6H-[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-e]indole 3-oxide) efficiently activated p53-mediated transcriptional activity and induced phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15, thereby stabilizing the p53 protein. Furthermore, TopIn upregulated the expression of p21WAF1/CIP1, a downstream target of p53, and suppressed cellular proliferation in various colon cancer cells. Additionally, TopIn induced DNA fragmentation, caspase-3/7 activation and poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage, typical biochemical markers of apoptosis, in p53 wild-type and mutated colon cancer cells. Finally, we found that TopIn inhibited topoisomerase I activity, but not topoisomerase II, in vitro and induced the formation of the topoisomerase I-DNA complex in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Unlike camptothecin (CPT) and its derivative SN38, TopIn did not affect the activity of the ATP-binding cassette transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) or multidrug-resistant protein-1 (MDR-1). These results suggest that TopIn may present a promising new topoisomerase I-targeting anti-tumor therapeutics.

  7. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Schoolteachers in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Hanselman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA colonization was performed involving teachers at a science teachers’ conference in Toronto, Ontario. Nasal swabs and questionnaire data were collected from consenting individuals. MRSA colonization was identified in seven of 220 (3.2% participants. No colonized individuals reported recent contact with the health care system, antimicrobial therapy, residence with health care workers or previous MRSA infections. Methicillin-susceptible S aureus colonization was identified in 72 of 220 (33% individuals. The prevalence of MRSA colonization was higher than expected for a purportedly low-risk population.

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in schoolteachers in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Beth A; Kruth, Steven A; Rousseau, Joyce; Weese, J Scott

    2008-11-01

    A prospective study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization was performed involving teachers at a science teachers' conference in Toronto, Ontario. Nasal swabs and questionnaire data were collected from consenting individuals. MRSA colonization was identified in seven of 220 (3.2%) participants. No colonized individuals reported recent contact with the health care system, antimicrobial therapy, residence with health care workers or previous MRSA infections. Methicillin-susceptible S aureus colonization was identified in 72 of 220 (33%) individuals. The prevalence of MRSA colonization was higher than expected for a purportedly low-risk population. PMID:19436569

  9. Mechanisms and rates of bacterial colonization of sinking aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Grossart, H.P.; Ploug, H.;

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the rate at which bacteria colonize aggregates is a key to understanding microbial turnover of aggregates. We used encounter models based on random walk and advection-diffusion considerations to predict colonization rates from the bacteria's motility patterns (swimming speed, tumbling...... (0 to 2 s(-1)). The rates at which these bacteria colonized artificial aggregates (stationary and sinking) largely agreed with model predictions. We report several findings. (i) Motile bacteria rapidly colonize aggregates, whereas nonmotile bacteria do not. 00 Flow enhances colonization rates. (iii...

  10. The effects of fire severity on ectomycorrhizal colonization and morphometric features in Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Vásquez-Gassibe; Juan-Andrés Oria-de-Rueda; Luis Santos-del-Blanco; Pablo Martín-Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study: Mycorrhizal fungi in Mediterranean forests play a key role in the complex process of recovery after wildfires. A broader understanding of an important pyrophytic species as Pinus pinaster and its fungal symbionts is thus necessary for forest restoration purposes. This study aims to assess the effects of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on maritime pine seedlings and how fire severity affects fungal colonization ability.Area of study: Central Spain, in a Mediterranean region typical...

  11. Analysis of surgical complications of primary tumor resection after neoadjuvant treatment in stage IV colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    J. Arredondo; Martinez, P; J. Baixauli; Pastor, C.; RODRIGUEZ J; Pardo, F.; F. Rotellar; Chopitea, A; Hernandez-Lizoain, J.L. (José Luis)

    2014-01-01

    Assess the surgical complications of primary tumor resection in stage IV colon cancer patients previously treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Between July 2001 and September 2010, 67 consecutive patients received preoperative chemotherapy. Clinical and surgical complications were obtained from the medical records. This study was retrospective in design. RESULTS: All patients were affected with liver metastasis, and 29.8% had metastasis in additional organs. Three dif...

  12. The microbial metabolites, short chain fatty acids, regulate colonic Treg cell homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Patrick M.; Howitt, Michael R.; Panikov, Nicolai; Michaud, Monia; Gallini, Carey Ann; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Glickman, Jonathan N.; Wendy S. Garrett

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) that express the transcription factor Foxp3 are critical for regulating intestinal inflammation. Candidate microbe approaches have identified bacterial species and strain-specific molecules that can affect intestinal immune responses, including species that modulate Treg responses. Because neither all humans nor mice harbor the same bacterial strains, we posited that more prevalent factors exist that regulate the number and function of colonic Tregs. We determined t...

  13. The effects of kefir and enteral feeding products on colonic anastomosis: Experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Habibe D Genc; Selin Kapan; Halil Alis; Ersan Aygun; Hafize Uzun; Ahmet N Turhan; Mehmet Abdussamet Bozkurt; Mustafa U Kalayci; Hakan Yigitbas

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Kefir is rich and affective probiotic feeding material with evidence based medical effects. There are many studies about antimicrobial, scatrizant, anticancer effects of Kefir but there is not any study on anastomotic burst pressure and healing effects on intestinal wall around anastomosis in the postoperative period (8). In this study the efficacy of Kefir (Altınkılıç) and Ensure (Abbott) as enteral feeding products as colonic anastomotic healing has been investigated. Material an...

  14. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati

  15. Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, W

    2014-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders are large research tools in nuclear physics to study the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The range of collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operational considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species. Ion species range from protons, including polarized protons in RHIC, to heavy nuclei like gold, lead and uranium. Asymmetric collision combinations (e.g. protons against heavy ions) are also essential. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, limits are set by space charge, charge change, and intrabeam scattering effects, as well as beam losses due to a variety of other phenomena. Currently, there are two operating ion colliders, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  16. Omega 3 fatty acids chemosensitize multidrug resistant colon cancer cells by down-regulating cholesterol synthesis and altering detergent resistant membranes composition

    OpenAIRE

    Gelsomino, Giada; Corsetto, Paola A.; Campia, Ivana; Montorfano, Gigliola; Kopecka, Joanna; Castella, Barbara; Gazzano, Elena; Ghigo, Dario; Rizzo, Angela M; Riganti, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Background The activity of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance related protein 1 (MRP1), two membrane transporters involved in multidrug resistance of colon cancer, is increased by high amounts of cholesterol in plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes (DRMs). It has never been investigated whether omega 3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFAs), which modulate cholesterol homeostasis in dyslipidemic syndromes and have chemopreventive effects in colon cancer, may affect the respo...

  17. Activation of the umami taste receptor (T1R1/T1R3) initiates the peristaltic reflex and pellet propulsion in the distal colon

    OpenAIRE

    Kendig, Derek M; Hurst, Norman R.; Bradley, Zachary L.; Mahavadi, Sunila; Kuemmerle, John F.; Lyall, Vijay; DeSimone, John; Murthy, Karnam S.; John R Grider

    2014-01-01

    Intraluminal nutrients in the gut affect the peristaltic reflex, although the mechanism is not well defined. Recent evidence supports the presence of taste receptors and their signaling components in enteroendocrine cells, although their function is unclear. This study aimed to determine if nutrients modify colonic motility through activation of taste receptors. Colonic sections were immunostained for the umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3, which mediates the response to umami ligands, such as mo...

  18. Influence of Different Diets on Development of DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate certain dietary factors known to affect the development of colon cancer for their ability to modulate aberrant crypt foci (ACI;). Male Wistar rats were initiated with oral noses of dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCl, 20 mg/kg body wt) once a...

  19. Mutualistic interaction between Salmonella enterica and Aspergillus niger and its effects on Zea mays colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbontín, Roberto; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium inhabits a variety of environments and is able to infect a broad range of hosts. Throughout its life cycle, some hosts can act as intermediates in the path to the infection of others. Aspergillus niger is a ubiquitous fungus that can often be found in soil or associated to plants and microbial consortia. Recently, S. Typhimurium was shown to establish biofilms on the hyphae of A. niger. In this work, we have found that this interaction is stable for weeks without a noticeable negative effect on either organism. Indeed, bacterial growth is promoted upon the establishment of the interaction. Moreover, bacterial biofilms protect the fungus from external insults such as the effects of the anti-fungal agent cycloheximide. Thus, the Salmonella-Aspergillus interaction can be defined as mutualistic. A tripartite gnotobiotic system involving the bacterium, the fungus and a plant revealed that co-colonization has a greater negative effect on plant growth than colonization by either organism in dividually. Strikingly, co-colonization also causes a reduction in plant invasion by S. Typhimurium. This work demonstrates that S. Typhimurium and A. niger establish a mutualistic interaction that alters bacterial colonization of plants and affects plant physiology. PMID:25351041

  20. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Daniel Barrera-Maldonado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colon has been described scarcely in the literature. It affects elderly men more commonly than women and usually appears in the left side of the colon. A Hispanic 41-year-old female came to the emergency room with abdominal pain, vomiting, and distension. Physical exam revealed generalized tenderness without peritoneal signs. Laboratory data was unremarkable. A CT scan showed an apple-core lesion in the distal colon. A flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed an obstructive mass that made further evaluation impossible. Exploratory surgery revealed a hard mass obstructing the descending colon, which was resected. Histopathology analysis with immunohistochemistry staining was positive for cytokeratin 20, cytokeratin 10, CDX2, and villin, while it was negative for cytokeratin 7, RCC, vimentin, and CD31. These results confirmed the clear cell variant of the adenocarcinoma. Clear cell adenocarcinomas usually arise from the kidneys and Müllerian organs. Immunohistochemistry is crucial for establishing the origin of these neoplastic cells. A cytokeratin 20+/7− with positive CDX2 is highly specific and sensitive for intestinal neoplastic origin. The main treatment has been surgery alone with moderately good results. More research and information about this malignancy is needed, especially in regard to prognosis and in order to provide the best treatment option.

  1. Molecular and cellular pathways associated with chromosome 1p deletions during colon carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne CM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Claire M Payne, Cheray Crowley-Skillicorn, Carol Bernstein, Hana Holubec, Harris BernsteinDepartment of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Arizona Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Chromosomal instability is a major pathway of sporadic colon carcinogenesis. Chromosome arm 1p appears to be one of the “hot spots” in the non-neoplastic mucosa that, when deleted, is associated with the initiation of carcinogenesis. Chromosome arm 1p contains genes associated with DNA repair, spindle checkpoint function, apoptosis, multiple microRNAs, the Wnt signaling pathway, tumor suppression, antioxidant activities, and defense against environmental toxins. Loss of 1p is dangerous since it would likely contribute to genomic instability leading to tumorigenesis. The 1p deletion-associated colon carcinogenesis pathways are reviewed at the molecular and cellular levels. Sporadic colon cancer is strongly linked to a high-fat/low-vegetable/low-micronutrient, Western-style diet. We also consider how selected dietary-related compounds (eg, excess hydrophobic bile acids, and low levels of folic acid, niacin, plant-derived antioxidants, and other modulatory compounds might affect processes leading to chromosomal deletions, and to the molecular and cellular pathways specifically altered by chromosome 1p loss.Keywords: chromosome 1p, colon carcinogenesis, molecular pathways, cellular pathways

  2. Antiproliferative activity of tea catechins associated with casein micelles, using HT29 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratifar, S; Meckling, K A; Corredig, M

    2014-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that green tea polyphenols display anticancer activities in many organ sites by using different experimental models in rodents and in cultured cell lines in vitro. The present study tested the ability of casein micelles to deliver biologically active concentrations of polyphenols to HT-29 colon cancer cells. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major catechin found in green tea, was used as the model molecule, as it has been shown to have antiproliferative activity on colon cancer cells. In the present work, we hypothesized that due to the binding of caseins with EGCG, casein micelles may be an ideal platform for the delivery of this bioactive molecule and that the binding would not affect the bioaccessibility of EGCG. The cytotoxicity and proliferation behavior of HT-29 colon cancer cells when exposed to free EGCG was compared with that of nanoencapsulated EGCG in casein micelles of skim milk. Epigallocatechin gallate-casein complexes were able to decrease the proliferation of HT-29 cancer cells, demonstrating that bioavailability may not be reduced by the nanoencapsulation. As casein micelles may act as protective carriers for EGCG in foods, it was concluded that nanoencapsulation of tea catechins in casein micelles may not diminish their antiproliferative activity on colon cancer cells compared with free tea catechins. PMID:24359816

  3. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders; Andersen, Fahimeh; Fischer, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has proven valuable in several tumors, but it has not been elucidated in colon cancer. The present phase II trial addressed the issue in high-risk patients selected by computed tomography (CT) scan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with resectable colon cancer...... mutational status received three cycles of capecitabine 2000 mg/m(2) days 1-14 q3w and oxaliplatin 130 mg iv day 1 q3w. Wild-type patients received the same chemotherapy supplemented with panitumumab 9 mg/kg iv q3w. After the operation, patients fulfilling the international criteria for adjuvant chemotherapy......, i.e. high-risk stage II and III patients, received five cycles of the same chemotherapy without panitumumab. Patients not fulfilling the criteria were offered follow-up only. The primary endpoint was the fraction of patients not fulfilling the criteria for adjuvant chemotherapy (converted patients...

  4. Terahertz polarization imaging for colon cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, noninvasive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. The terahertz reflectance measurements of fresh 3 - 5 mm thick human colonic excisions were acquired using a continuous-wave polarization imaging technique. A CO2 optically pumped Far- Infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz was used to illuminate the colon tissue, while the reflected signals were detected using a liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer. Both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance from the samples was collected using wire grid polarizers in the experiment. The experimental analysis of 2D images obtained from THz reflection polarization imaging techniques showed intrinsic contrast between cancerous and normal regions based on increased reflection from the tumor. Also, the study demonstrates that the cross-polarized terahertz images not only correlates better with the histology, but also provide consistent relative reflectance difference values between normal and cancerous regions for all the measured specimens.

  5. Colon cancer stem cells: implications in carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Matthew A.; Majumdar, Adhip P. N.

    2011-01-01

    The cancer stem cell model was described for hematologic malignancies in 1997 and since then evidence has emerged to support it for many solid tumors as well, including colon cancer. This model proposes that certain cells within the tumor mass are pluripotent and capable of self-renewal and have an enhanced ability to initiate distant metastasis. The cancer stem cell model has important implications for cancer treatment, since most current therapies target actively proliferating cells and may...

  6. Congenital pouch colon in female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of 5-year (May 2000 to April 2005 29 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC were managed by single pediatric surgeon in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of a tertiary hospital. Of these, 11 were girls (M: F: 1.6:1. Detailed anatomy could be studied in nine patients, were included in this study. Age of presentation in female subjects ranged 1 day to 8 years. On examination, eight of the nine patients had single perineal opening suggesting a very high incidence of association of cloaca in female subjects with CPC. Four had short urogenital sinus with colonic pouch opening in the posterior wall of urinary bladder. In other two patients, CPC terminated in short cloaca. Anomalies of mullerian structures such as uterus didelphus and septate vagina ware commonly encountered. Proximal diversion with or without pouch excision was done as the initial preliminary treatment for all those patients who presented in early life. Of the nine girls, two died after the preliminary surgery. Only five patients have undergone definitive surgery. Definitive surgery included abdomino-perineal pull-through of proximal normal colon ( n =2, tubularization of pouch with abdomino- posterior sagittal- pull through ( n =2 and abdomino-posterior sagittal urethra-vaginoanorectoplasty with pull through of tapered pouch colon in one patient. Two of these patients had concomitant bowel vaginoplasty. Three patients with tubularized pouches had constipation and spurious diarrhea. However, good pseudo-continence of bowel was achieved on regular bowel washes. The cosmetic appearance of perineum in all these three patients was acceptable. The patients in whom pouch excision was done had diarrhea and severe perineal excoriation resistant to conservative management.

  7. Ants defend coffee from berry borer colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Gonthier, DJ; Ennis, KK; Philpott, SM; Vandermeer, J; Perfecto, I.

    2013-01-01

    Ants frequently prevent herbivores from damaging plants. In agroecosystems they may provide pest control services, although their contributions are not always appreciated. Here we compared the ability of eight ant species to prevent the coffee berry borer from colonizing coffee berries with a field exclusion experiment. We removed ants from one branch (exclusion) and left ants to forage on a second branch (control) before releasing 20 berry borers on each branch. After 24 h, six of eight spec...

  8. Experimental Colonic Obstruction and Anastomotic Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Rehn, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases world-wide. Most patients can be diagnosed, staged and treated by surgery in an elective setting. However, about one fifth of the patients will have an emergency presentation and in most cases due to malignant obstruction of the left colon. Immediate resection and anastomosis is feasible but carries a 3-fold higher risk of developing anastomotic leakage compared to elective surgery. Anastomotic healing in patients can be evaluated...

  9. Diversity of the autochthonous colonic microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Nava, Gerardo M.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

    2011-01-01

    A longstanding hypothesis in intestinal microbial ecology is that autochthonous microbes (resident) play a role that is distinct from allochthonous microbes (transient microbes in the fecal stream). A challenge has been to identify this pool of microbes. We used laser capture microdissection to collect microbes from the mouse ascending colon. This area contains transverse folds that mimic human intestinal folds and contains a distinct population of intestinal microbes that is associated with ...

  10. Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

  11. The actinobacterial colonization of etruscan paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Diaz-Herraiz; Valme Jurado; Soledad Cuezva; Leonila Laiz; Pasquino Pallecchi; Piero Tiano; Sergio Sanchez-Moral; Cesareo Saiz-Jimenez

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70′s when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and...

  12. Lactose intolerance: the role of colonic metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    He, Tao

    2006-01-01

    Dairy products provide us with calcium and other valuable nutrients. However, they also contain lactose which is maldigested by a large part of the world adult population. The mechanisms by which lactose maldigestion causes symptoms of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. Studies on the pathophysiology of lactose intolerance may aid to design strategies for dietary management of lactose intolerance. Limited evidence suggests that colonic metabolism of lactose, in addition to the smal...

  13. Fucose Sensing Regulates Bacterial Intestinal Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Alline R.; Curtis, Meredith M.; Ritchie, Jennifer M; Munera, Diana; Matthew K Waldor; Moreira, Cristiano G.; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract provides a complex and competitive environment for the microbiota 1 . Successful colonization by pathogens depends on scavenging nutrients, sensing chemical signals, competing with the resident bacteria, and precisely regulating expression of virulence genes 2 . The GI pathogen enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) relies on inter-kingdom chemical sensing systems to regulate virulence gene expression 3–4 . Here we show that these systems control the express...

  14. [Colonic microbial biocenosis in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul'neva, M Iu; Noskov, S M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study colonic microbial biocenosis and colonizing ability of opportunistic bacteria in 32 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 30 healthy subjects. RA was diagnosed based on the American Rheumatism Association criteria (1987). Qualitative and quantitative composition of the microflora was detected by a bacteriological method. StatSoft Statistics 6.0 was used to treat the data obtained. RA was associated with significant modification of the intestinal flora, viz. decrease in lactobacteria and significant increase of enterococci, clostridia, colibacteria showing reduced enzymatic activity, and opportunistic species. Also, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms altered. The fraction of bifidobacteria, bacteroids, and lactopositive colibacteria reduced while the abundance of opportunistic enterobacteria and staphylococci was elevated. Opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae were present in urine and nasal mucosa which suggested their translocation from the intestines. It is concluded that changes in intestinal microflora and colonization by opportunistic bacteria enhance the risk of development of co-morbid conditions in patients with RA. PMID:21932563

  15. [Clinical practice using colon capsule endoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakugawa, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Minori; Saito, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    PillCam COLON capsule endoscopy(CCE) (Given Imaging Ltd., Yoqneam, Israel) is one of the most recent diagnostic technologies designed to explore the colorectum. The first generation of CCE was released onto the market in 2006, and the second generation (PillCam COLON 2 : CCE-2), with increased sensitivity, was released in 2009. The CCE-2 has 2 imagers with a much wider angle of view that has been increased to 172 degrees per imager, allowing nearly 360 degrees coverage of the colon by two. The most unique feature of the CCE-2 is its adaptive frame rate (AFR). This new technology allows the CCE-2 to capture 35 images per second when in motion and 4 images per second when virtually stationary. The per-patient CCE-2 sensitivity for detecting polyps > or = 6 mm has been reported as 84%-91%. These recent advancements in this modality might offer physicians the option to screen for colorectal lesions noninvasively. PMID:24597367

  16. Malignant transformation of colonic epithelial cells by a colon-derived long noncoding RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Non-coding RNAs are found in the colonic crypt progenitor compartment. •Colonocytes transformed by ncNRFR are highly invasive and metastatic. •ncNRFR has a region similar to the miRNA, let-7 family. •ncNRFR expression alters let-7 activity as measured by reporter construct. •ncNRFR expression upregulates let-7b targets. -- Abstract: Recent progress has been made in the identification of protein-coding genes and miRNAs that are expressed in and alter the behavior of colonic epithelia. However, the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colonic homeostasis is just beginning to be explored. By gene expression profiling of post-mitotic, differentiated tops and proliferative, progenitor-compartment bottoms of microdissected adult mouse colonic crypts, we identified several lncRNAs more highly expressed in crypt bottoms. One identified lncRNA, designated non-coding Nras functional RNA (ncNRFR), resides within the Nras locus but appears to be independent of the Nras coding transcript. Stable overexpression of ncNRFR in non-transformed, conditionally immortalized mouse colonocytes results in malignant transformation, as determined by growth in soft agar and formation of highly invasive tumors in nude mice. Moreover, ncNRFR appears to inhibit the function of the tumor suppressor let-7. These results suggest precise regulation of ncNRFR is necessary for proper cell growth in the colonic crypt, and its misregulation results in neoplastic transformation

  17. Antiproliferative effects of fluoxetine on colon cancer cells and in a colonic carcinogen mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Kannen

    Full Text Available The antidepressant fluoxetine has been under discussion because of its potential influence on cancer risk. It was found to inhibit the development of carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions in colon tissue, but the mechanisms of action are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated anti-proliferative effects, and used HT29 colon tumor cells in vitro, as well as C57BL/6 mice exposed to intra-rectal treatment with the carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG as models. Fluoxetine increased the percentage of HT29 cells in the G(0/G(1 phase of cell-cycle, and the expression of p27 protein. This was not related to an induction of apoptosis, reactive oxygen species or DNA damage. In vivo, fluoxetine reduced the development of MNNG-induced dysplasia and vascularization-related dysplasia in colon tissue, which was analyzed by histopathological techniques. An anti-proliferative potential of fluoxetine was observed in epithelial and stromal areas. It was accompanied by a reduction of VEGF expression and of the number of cells with angiogenic potential, such as CD133, CD34, and CD31-positive cell clusters. Taken together, our findings suggest that fluoxetine treatment targets steps of early colon carcinogenesis. This confirms its protective potential, explaining at least partially the lower colon cancer risk under antidepressant therapy.

  18. Selling space colonization and immortality: A psychosocial, anthropological critique of the rush to colonize Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.

  19. Ion colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions (77Asb1, 81Bou1). The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  20. FasL EXPRESSION IN HUMAN COLON CARCINOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:The Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) play an important role in maintaining immune privilege on malignant tumors. In present study, we investigated the expression of FasL in SW480 and LS174 human colon carcinoma cell lines and twenty primary colon carcinoma specimens. Methods: The expression of FasL in human colon carcinoma cell lines and primary colon carcinomas specimens was detected by immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Results: We found that all of detected human colon carcinoma cell lines and primary colon carcinoma specimens constitutively expressed FasL at the mRNA and protein level. However, the expression of FasL was not found in normal colon epithelial cells. Conclusion: The expression of FasL may occur during malignant transformation from normal colon epithelial cells to colon carcinoma cells. Our results suggest that tumor cells kill cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLS) and natural killer (NK) cells by expression of FasL. It may be a new mechanism for tumor cells to escape the host's immune surveillance. The expression of FasL may contribute to the formation of colon carcinomas.

  1. Probing Ion-Ion and Electron-Ion Correlations in Liquid Metals within the Quantum Hypernetted Chain Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Anta, J. A.; Louis, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    We use the Quantum Hypernetted Chain Approximation (QHNC) to calculate the ion-ion and electron-ion correlations for liquid metallic Li, Be, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, and Ga. We discuss trends in electron-ion structure factors and radial distribution functions, and also calculate the free-atom and metallic-atom form-factors, focusing on how bonding effects affect the interpretation of X-ray scattering experiments, especially experimental measurements of the ion-ion structure factor in the liquid met...

  2. Normal human colon cells suppress malignancy when fused with colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal human colon mucosa cells and cells obtained from histologically normal tissues near that cancer were fused with human colon cancer cells. Resultant hybrid populations of normal and malignant cell fusions behaved as nonmalignant cells in culture, were unable to grow in soft agar, did not express tumor-associated antigens, and were nontumorigenic in nude mice. Autofusion of the cancer cell population led to a phenotype intermediate between normal and malignant cells. That is, the cultures had a much lower plating efficiency in soft agar, and the tumors had a longer latency and slower growth rate in nude mice. This is the first cell culture system to demonstrate that normal epithelial cells can suppress malignancy of their autologous cancer cells, and is a prelude to more extensive studies of genetic events involved in malignant conversion of human colonic epithelium

  3. Epidemiologic and Clinical Impact of Acinetobacter baumannii Colonization and Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Macarena; Cano, María E.; Gato, Eva; Garnacho-Montero, José; Miguel Cisneros, José; Ruíz de Alegría, Carlos; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Vila, Jordi; Pascual, Alvaro; Tomás, María; Bou, Germán; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important antibiotic-resistant nosocomial bacteria. We investigated changes in the clinical and molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii over a 10-year period. We compared the data from 2 prospective multicenter cohort studies in Spain, one performed in 2000 (183 patients) and one in 2010 (246 patients), which included consecutive patients infected or colonized by A. baumannii. Molecular typing was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The incidence density of A. baumannii colonization or infection increased significantly from 0.14 in 2000 to 0.52 in 2010 in medical services (p < 0.001). The number of non-nosocomial health care-associated cases increased from 1.2% to 14.2%, respectively (p < 0.001). Previous exposure to carbapenems increased in 2010 (16.9% in 2000 vs 27.3% in 2010, p = 0.03). The drugs most frequently used for definitive treatment of patients with infections were carbapenems in 2000 (45%) and colistin in 2010 (50.3%). There was molecular-typing evidence of an increase in the frequency of A. baumannii acquisition in non-intensive care unit wards in 2010 (7.6% in 2000 vs 19.2% in 2010, p = 0.01). By MSLT, the ST2 clonal group predominated and increased in 2010. This epidemic clonal group was more frequently resistant to imipenem and was associated with an increased risk of sepsis, although not with severe sepsis or mortality. Some significant changes were noted in the epidemiology of A. baumannii, which is increasingly affecting patients admitted to conventional wards and is also the cause of non-nosocomial health care-associated infections. Epidemic clones seem to combine antimicrobial resistance and the ability to spread, while maintaining their clinical virulence. PMID:25181313

  4. Bacterial colonization of colonic crypt mucous gel and disease activity in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize total bacterial 16S rRNA quantification in microdissected colonic crypts in healthy controls and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to characterize the findings with disease activity. BACKGROUND: Microscopic and molecular techniques have recently converged to allow bacterial enumeration in remote anatomic locations [eg, crypt-associated mucous gel (CAMG)]. The aims of this study were to combine laser capture microdissection (LCM) and 16S rRNA-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine total bacterial copy number in CAMG both in health and in UC and to characterize the findings with disease activity. METHODS: LCM was used to microdissect CAMG from colonic mucosal biopsies from controls (n = 20) and patients with acute (n = 10) or subacute (n = 10) UC. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA copy number per millimeter square in samples from 6 locations across the large bowel was obtained by qPCR using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans as a reference strain. Copy numbers were correlated with the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) and the simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI). RESULTS: Bacterial colonization of CAMG was detectable in all groups. Copy numbers were significantly reduced in acute UC. In subacute colitis, there was a positive correlation between copy number and UCDAI and SCCAI in the ascending, transverse and sigmoid colon. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a sensitive method of quantitatively assessing bacterial colonization of the colonic CAMG. A positive correlation was found between CAMG bacterial load and subacute disease activity in UC, whereas detectable bacterial load was reduced in acute UC.

  5. Negative hydrogen ion yields at plasma grid surface in a negative hydrogen ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative hydrogen (H−) ion yield from the plasma grid due to incident hydrogen ions and neutrals has been evaluated with the surface collision cascade model, ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target) coupled to a negative surface ionization models. Dependence of negative ion fractions upon the velocity component normal to the surface largely affect the calculation results of the final energy and angular distributions of the H− ions. The influence is particularly large for H− ions desorbed from the surface due to less than several eV hydrogen particle implact. The present calculation predicts that H− ion yield can be maximized by setting the incident angle of hydrogen ions and neutrals to be 65 degree. The Cs thickness on the plasma grid should also affect the yields and mean energies of surface produced H− ions by back scattering and ion induced desorption processes

  6. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Administration on Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Colonization in Adults with Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Shira; Hibberd, Patricia L; Goldin, Barry; Thorpe, Cheleste; McDermott, Laura; Snydman, David R

    2015-08-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are endemic in health care settings. These organisms colonize the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to infection which is associated with increased mortality. There is no treatment for VRE colonization. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to examine the safety and efficacy of administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) for the reduction or elimination of intestinal colonization by VRE. Colonized adults were randomized to receive LGG or placebo for 14 days. Quantitative stool cultures for LGG and VRE were collected at baseline and days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56. Day 14 stool samples from some subjects were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for LGG. Patients were closely monitored for adverse events. Eleven subjects, of whom 5 received LGG and 6 received placebo, were analyzed. No differences in VRE colony counts were seen at any time points between groups. No decline in colony counts was seen over time in subjects who received LGG. LGG was detected by PCR in all samples tested from subjects who received LGG but was only isolated in culture from 2 of 5 subjects in the LGG group. No treatment-related adverse events were seen. We demonstrated that LGG could be administered safely to patients with comorbidities and is recoverable in some patients' stool cultures. Concomitant administration of antibiotics may have resulted in an inability to recover viable organisms from stool samples, but LGG DNA could still be detected by qPCR. LGG administration did not affect VRE colonization in this study. (This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT00756262.). PMID:26014940

  7. Effects of dietary cellulose and psyllium husk on monkey colonic microbial metabolism in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M A; Mehta, T; Males, J R

    1989-07-01

    The effects of inoculating an in vitro continuous culture system with primate colon contents compared to fecal material, and the effect of feeding these cultures psyllium husk, a fermentable, or cellulose, a less fermentable, dietary fiber were tested. Modified 500-ml Bellco culture chambers were continuously infused with buffered medium containing vitamin mix, deoxycholate, urea, hemin, casein and mucin. Cultures were fed a mixture of minerals, sucrose, starch and either psyllium husk or cellulose twice daily. Chambers were inoculated with fecal or colonic samples obtained from adult male African green monkeys fed the respective fiber source in a purified diet for more than 3 yr. After a 5-d stabilization period, samples were collected for total viable anaerobe and aerobe counts, microbial beta-glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.31) activity, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and ammonia nitrogen concentrations, dry matter, pH and oxidation-reduction potential. Inoculation with fecal material or colon contents produced similar results for the above mentioned characteristics; major differences were found due to the fiber treatments. Psyllium-fed cultures had lower pH (P less than 0.01) and higher VFA concentration (P less than 0.01) and beta-glucuronidase activity (P less than 0.10) than cellulose-fed cultures. The ratio of anaerobes to aerobes was lower (P less than 0.01) in psyllium-fed than in cellulose-fed cultures. These results indicate that feces can be used as an inoculum source for in vitro studies of changes in colonic microbial metabolism due to diet, and that dietary fiber source affects the colonic microbial population and metabolism. PMID:2547037

  8. Determination of Normal Distribution of Distended Colon Volumes to Guide Performance of Colonic Imaging With Fluid Distention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Karen S; Small, William C; Mittal, Pardeep K; Cai, Qingpo; Kang, Jian; Moreno, Courtney C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the normal distribution of distended colon volumes as a guide for rectal contrast material administration protocols. All computed tomography colonography studies performed at Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia, between January 2009 and January 2015, were reviewed retrospectively. In total, 85 subjects were included in the analysis (64% [54 of 85] female and 36% [31 of 85] male). Mean patient age was 65 years (range: 42-86y). Distended colon volumes were determined from colon length and transaxial diameter measurements made using a 3-dimensional workstation. Age, sex, race, height, weight, and body mass index were recorded. The normal distributions of distended colon volumes and lengths were determined. Correlations between colonic volume and colonic length, and demographic variables were assessed. Mean colon volume was 2.1L (range: 0.7-4.4L). Nearly, 17% of patients had a distended colonic volume of >3L. Mean colon length was 197cm (range: 118-285cm). A weak negative correlation was found between age and colonic volume (r = -0.221; P = 0.04). A weak positive correlation was found between body mass index and colonic length (r = 0.368; P = 0.007). Otherwise, no significant correlations were found for distended colonic volume or length and demographic variables. In conclusion, an average of approximately 2L of contrast material may be necessary to achieve full colonic opacification. This volume is larger than previously reported volumes (0.8-1.5L) for rectal contrast material administration protocols. PMID:26684578

  9. Intestinal endometriosis-A rare cause of colonic perforation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neeraj Kumar Garg; Nitin Babulal Bagul; Sam Doughan; Paul Harold Rowe

    2009-01-01

    Endomet r iosis is the ectopic growth of viable endometrium outside the uterus, affecting approximately 7% of females. It commonly affects pelvic structures including the bowel. Perforation of the colon by endometriosis is very rare and the patients generally present with an asymptomatic or painful pelvic mass, often in the left iliac fossa. Our patient presented acutely unwell and her symptoms were more suggestive of pyelonephritis or diverticulitis. We therefore report an unusual cause of acute abdomen. The purpose of the following case report is to elucidate certain diagnostic and therapeutic problems of the disease, concerning both surgeons and gynaecologists. In summary, intestinal endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all post-menarche women with episodic gastrointestinal symptoms. A past history of endometriosis or co-existent gynaecological symptoms should increase the index of suspicion, and laparoscopy prior to formal laparotomy should be considered.Our patient, in retrospect, had a history of mild endometriosis, but we feel that this case serves as a reminder of a rare, but important, differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in females.

  10. Analysis of differentially expressed proteins in cancerous and normal colonic tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lay-Harn Gam; Chiuan-Herng Leow; Che Nin Man; Boon-Hui Gooi; Manjit Singh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To identify and analyze the differentially expressed proteins in normal and cancerous tissues of four patients suffering from colon cancer.METHODS: Colon tissues (normal and cancerous)were homogenized and the proteins were extracted using three protein extraction buffers. The extraction buffers were used in an orderly sequence of increasing extraction strength for proteins with hydrophobic properties. The protein extracts were separated using the SDS-PAGE method and the images were captured and analyzed using Quantity One software. The target protein bands were subjected to in-gel digestion with trypsin and finally analyzed using an ESI-ion trap mass spectrometer.RESULTS: A total of 50 differentially expressed proteins in colonic cancerous and normal tissues were identified.CONCLUSION: Many of the identified proteins have been reported to be involved in the progression of similar or other types of cancers. However, some of the identified proteins have not been reported before. In addition, a number of hypothetical proteins were also identified.

  11. Disodium Cromoglycate Reverses Colonic Visceral Hypersensitivity and Influences Colonic Ion Transport in a Stress-Sensitive Rat Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Siobhan Yvonne Carroll; Siobhain Mary O' Mahony; Susan Grenham; John Francis Cryan; Niall Patrick Hyland

    2013-01-01

    The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cell...

  12. A Preliminary Study Examining the Binding Capacity of Akkermansia muciniphila and Desulfovibrio spp., to Colonic Mucin in Health and Ulcerative Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Earley

    Full Text Available Akkermansia muciniphila and Desulfovibrio spp. are commensal microbes colonising the mucus gel layer of the colon. Both species have the capacity to utilise colonic mucin as a substrate. A. muciniphila degrades colonic mucin, while Desulfovibrio spp. metabolise the sulfate moiety of sulfated mucins. Altered abundances of these microorganisms have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC. However their capacity to bind to human colonic mucin, and whether this binding capacity is affected by changes in mucin associated with UC, remain to be defined.Mucin was isolated from resected colon from control patients undergoing resection for colonic cancer (n = 7 and patients undergoing resection for UC (n = 5. Isolated mucin was purified and printed onto mucin microarrays. Binding of reference strains and three clinical isolates of A. muciniphila and Desulfovibrio spp. to purified mucin was investigated.Both A. muciniphila and Desulfovibro spp. bound to mucin. The reference strain and all clinical isolates of A. muciniphila showed increased binding capacity for UC mucin (p < .005. The Desulfovibrio reference strain showed increased affinity for UC mucin. The mucin binding profiles of clinical isolates of Desulfovibrio spp. were specific to each isolate. Two isolates showed no difference in binding. One UC isolate bound with increased affinity to UC mucin (p < .005.These preliminary data suggest that differences exist in the mucin binding capacity of isolates of A. muciniphila and Desulfovibrio spp. This study highlights the mucin microarray platform as a means of studying the ability of bacteria to interact with colonic mucin in health and disease.

  13. In vivo relevant mixed urolithins and ellagic acid inhibit phenotypic and molecular colon cancer stem cell features: A new potentiality for ellagitannin metabolites against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Sánchez, María Ángeles; Karmokar, Ankur; González-Sarrías, Antonio; García-Villalba, Rocío; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Brown, Karen; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) offer a novel paradigm for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment and dietary polyphenols may contribute to battle these cells. Specifically, polyphenol-derived colon metabolites have the potential to interact with and affect colon CSCs. We herein report the effects against colon CSCs of two mixtures of ellagitannin (ET) metabolites, ellagic acid (EA) and the gut microbiota-derived urolithins (Uro) at concentrations detected in the human colon tissues following the intake of ET-containing products (pomegranate, walnuts). These mixtures reduce phenotypic and molecular features in two models of colon CSCs: Caco-2 cells and primary tumour cells from a patient with CRC. The mixture containing mostly Uro-A (85% Uro-A, 10% Uro-C, 5% EA) was most effective at inhibiting the number and size of colonospheres and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH, a marker of chemoresistance) whereas the mixture containing less Uro-A but IsoUro-A and Uro-B (30% Uro-A, 50% IsoUro-A, 10% Uro-B, 5% Uro-C, 5% EA) had some effects on the number and size of colonospheres but not on ALDH. These data support a role for polyphenols metabolites in the control of colon cancer chemoresistance and relapse and encourage the research on the effects of polyphenols against CSCs. PMID:26995228

  14. A new electronic colon cleansing method for virtual colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lihong; Wang, Su; Wang, Jing; Eremina, Daria; Wei, Xinzhou; Liang, Zhengrong

    2007-03-01

    Virtual colonoscopy has been developed as a non-invasive, safe, and low-cost method to evaluate colon polyps. Implementation and efficiency of virtual colonoscopy requires rigorous cleansing of colon prior to the examination. Electronic colon cleansing is a new technology that virtually clean stool residues tagged with contrast agents from the obtained computed tomography (CT) images. From our previous studies on electronic colon cleansing, we found that residual stool and fluid are often problematic for optimal viewing of colon. In this paper, we focus on developing a model-based approach to correct both non-uniformity and partial volume effects appearing in regions of bone and tagged stool residues. A statistical method for maximum a posterior probability (MAP) was developed to identify and virtually clean the tagged stool residuals. In calculating the solution, the well-known expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is employed. Experimental results of electronic colon cleansing are promising.

  15. Role of dietary factors in cell replication and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R

    1988-09-01

    Human studies and experimental data from animals suggest that high rates of colonic epithelial cell replication enhance the development of colon cancer. Vegetarians and individuals following a prudent diet have lower rates of colorectal cell proliferation than subjects at high risk for colon cancer. Animal studies show that colonic cell proliferation is stimulated by feeding in general and specifically by a number of dietary fibers, fats, bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids. Many of these growth factors also increase the induction of experimental tumorigenesis. On the other hand factors that reduce cell growth, including ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyanisole, inhibit colon carcinogenesis. These results support the concept that dietary chemoprevention is feasible and could significantly reduce the rate of colon cancer development in high risk populations. PMID:3046307

  16. Ion Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulik, James D.; Sawicki, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Accurate for the analysis of ions in solution, this form of analysis enables the analyst to directly assay many compounds that previously were difficult or impossible to analyze. The method is a combination of the methodologies of ion exchange, liquid chromatography, and conductimetric determination with eluant suppression. (Author/RE)

  17. Infrequent detection of germline allele-specific expression of TGFBR1 in lymphoblasts and tissues of colon cancer patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Guda, Kishore

    2009-06-15

    Recently, germline allele-specific expression (ASE) of the gene encoding for transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor (TGFBR1) has been proposed to be a major risk factor for cancer predisposition in the colon. Germline ASE results in a lowered expression of one of the TGFBR1 alleles (>1.5-fold), and was shown to occur in approximately 20% of informative familial and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. In the present study, using the highly quantitative pyrosequencing technique, we estimated the frequency of ASE in TGFBR1 in a cohort of affected individuals from familial clusters of advanced colon neoplasias (cancers and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia), and also from a cohort of individuals with sporadic CRCs. Cases were considered positive for the presence of ASE if demonstrating an allelic expression ratio <0.67 or >1.5. Using RNA derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines, we find that of 46 informative Caucasian advanced colon neoplasia cases with a family history, only 2 individuals display a modest ASE, with allelic ratios of 1.65 and 1.73, respectively. Given that ASE of TGFBR1, if present, would likely be more pronounced in the colon compared with other tissues, we additionally determined the allele ratios of TGFBR1 in the RNA derived from normal-appearing colonic mucosa of sporadic CRC cases. We, however, found no evidence of ASE in any of 44 informative sporadic cases analyzed. Taken together, we find that germline ASE of TGFBR1, as assayed in lymphoblastoid and colon epithelial cells of colon cancer patients, is a relatively rare event.

  18. Fungal colonization of air filters and insulation in a multi-story office building: production of volatile organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Crow, S. A.; Simmons, R. B.; Price, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary air filters in the air-handling units on four floors of a multi-story office building with a history of fungal colonization of insulation within the air distribution system were examined for the presence of growing fungi and production of volatile organic compounds. Fungal mycelium and conidia of Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were observed on insulation from all floors and both sides of the air filters from one floor. Lower concentrations of volatile organics were released from air filter medium colonized with fungi as compared with noncolonized filter medium. However, the volatiles from the colonized filter medium included fungal metabolites such as acetone and a carbonyl sulfide-like compound that were not released from noncolonized filter medium. The growth of fungi in air distribution systems may affect the content of volatile organics in indoor air.

  19. Effects of shading on photosynthesis, plant organic nitrogen uptake and root fungal colonization in a subarctic mire ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Hanna Maria Kerstin; Michelsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Arctic dwarf shrub ecosystems are predicted to be exposed to lower light intensity in a changing climate where mountain birch forests are expanding. We investigated how shading at 0%, 65%, and 97% affects photosynthesis, organic N uptake, C and N allocation patterns in plants, and root fungal...... colonization in an ericoid dwarf shrub ecosystem. The ecosystem was labeled by injection of [2-13C,15N]glycine into the soil, and the uptake of 15N and 13C in roots and leaves 24 h later was analysed. Fungal colonization in hair roots was determined visually. Hair root 13C:15N ratios showed that dwarf shrub...... deciduous and evergreen plant species decreased. Species dominance was correlated with uptake of 13C, i.e., the most productive species also took up the highest amount of glycine. The ecosystem exhibited a tendency towards lower colonization by ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes in hair...

  20. Modified Approaches for Colon Specific Drug Delivery System: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kumar1*, Amrish Chandra2, Pawan Kumar Gautam3

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can take place. Local delivery allows topicaltreatment of inflammatory bowel disease. However, treatment can be made effective if the drugs can be targeteddirectly into the colon, thereby reducing the systemic side effects. This review mainly describes the primaryapproaches for CDDS (Colon Specific Drug Delivery namely prodrugs, pH and time dependent systems, andmicrobially triggered systems, which achieved limited success and had limitations as compared with newer CDDSnamely pressure controlled colonic delivery capsules. Oral administration of different dosage forms is the mostcommonly used method due to flexibility in design of dosage form and high patient acceptance, but thegastrointestinal tract presents several formidable barriers to drug delivery. In oral colon-specific drug deliverysystem, colon has a large amount of lymphoma tissue (facilitates direct absorption in to the blood, negligible brushboarder membrane activity, and much less pancreatic enzymatic activity as compared with the small intestine.Colon-specific drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for treatment oflocal diseases associated with the colon but also for its potential for the delivery of proteins and therapeutic peptides.Different approaches are designed based on prodrug formulation, pH-sensitivity, time-dependency (lag time,microbial degradation and osmotic pressure etc to formulate the different dosage forms like tablets, capsules,multiparticulates, microspheres, liposomes for colon targeting. The delivery of drugs to the colon has a number oftherapeutic implications in the field of drug delivery. In the recent times, the colon specific delivery systems are alsogaining importance not only for local drug delivery of drugs but also for the systemic delivery of protein and peptidedrugs. This review updated the research on different approaches formulation and

  1. Arteria1 microvascularization and breast cancer colonization in bone

    OpenAIRE

    Yoneda, T

    1997-01-01

    Bone is one of the most preferential target organs of cancer metastases. Breast, prostate and lung cancers have a special predilection for colonization in bone. In an animal model in which inoculation of cancer cells into the left cardiac ventricle selectively develops osteolytic bone metastases but rarely forms metastases in non-bone organs, the pattern of breast cancer colonization in bone was studied radiologically and histologically. Colonization of cancer ...

  2. Multiparticulate system for colon targeted delivery of ondansetron

    OpenAIRE

    Jose S; Dhanya K; Cinu T; Aleykutty N

    2010-01-01

    Targeted delivery of drugs to colon has the potential for local treatment of a variety of colonic diseases. The main objective of the study was to develop a multiparticulate system containing chitosan microspheres for the colon targeted delivery of ondansetron for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. This work combines pH-dependent solubility of eudragit S-100 polymers and microbial degradability of chitosan polymers. Chitosan microspheres containing ondansetron were prepared by emulsio...

  3. Adjuvant Therapy of Colon Cancer: Current Status and Future Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Options for the adjuvant therapy of resected stage III colon cancer have expanded beyond the previously well-accepted standard of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combined with leucovorin. The Xeloda in Adjuvant Colon Cancer Therapy (X-ACT) study confirmed that capecitabine (Xeloda) is at least as effective and is less toxic than a bolus 5-FU and leucovorin regimen for patients with stage III colon cancer. This study, in addition to National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) C-06, which...

  4. Simultaneous Resection of Disseminated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, Yuki; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Ohira, Gaku; Kanai, Fumihiko; Yokota, Hajime; Motoyama, Tenyu; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Tawada, Akinobu; Miyauchi, Hideaki; Matubara, Hisahiro; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman with abdominal pain and vomiting was admitted to our hospital. Colonoscopy showed an advanced colon cancer that encompassed the entire circumference of the descending colon's lumen. The patient was diagnosed with occlusive ileus associated with the colon cancer. She had been watched for liver cirrhosis due to the hepatitis C virus and received radiofrequency ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) 6 years previously. Although she exhibited a gradual increase in...

  5. The social structure of microbial community involved in colonization resistance

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xuesong; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Guo, Lihong; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that host-associated microbial communities can interfere with the colonization and establishment of microbes of foreign origins, a phenomenon often referred to as bacterial interference or colonization resistance. However, due to the complexity of the indigenous microbiota, it has been extremely difficult to elucidate the community colonization resistance mechanisms and identify the bacterial species involved. In a recent study, we have established an in vitro mice oral...

  6. Bacterial and fungal colonization of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Lessa Soares de Macedo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of fungal and bacterial flora of burn wounds was carried out from February 2004 to February 2005 at the Burns Unit of Hospital Regional da Asa Norte, Brasília, Brazil. During the period of the study, 203 patients were treated at the Burns Unit. Wound swab cultures were assessed at weekly intervals for four weeks. Three hundred and fifty four sampling procedures (surface swabs were performed from the burn wounds. The study revealed that bacterial colonization reached 86.6% within the first week. Although the gram-negative organisms, as a group, were more predominant, Staphylococcus aureus (28.4% was the most prevalent organism in the first week. It was however surpassed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa form third week onwards. For S. aureus and P. aeruginosa vancomycin and polymyxin were found to be the most effective drugs. Most of the isolates showed high level resistance to antimicrobial agents. Fungi were found to colonize the burn wound late during the second week postburn, with a peak incidence during the third and fourth weeks. Species identification of fungi revealed that Candida tropicalis was the most predominant, followed by Candida parapsilosis. It is crucial for every burn institution to determine the specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, the time-related changes in the dominant flora, and the antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. This would enable early treatment of imminent septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics, without waiting for culture results, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality.

  7. REVIEW ON ADVANCES IN COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunena Sethi, SL Harikumar* and Nirmala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The colon is the terminal part of the GIT which has gained in recent years as a potential site for delivery of various novel therapeutic drugs, i.e. peptides. However, colon is rich in microflora which can be used to target the drug release in the colon. Colon is a site where both local and systemic drug delivery can take place. Local delivery allows the topical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. If drug can be targeted directly into the colon, treatment can become more effective and side effects can be minimized. These systemic side effects can be minimized by primary approaches for CDDS (Colon specific drug delivery namely prodrugs, pH and time dependent systems and microbially triggered system which gained limited success and have limitations as compared with recently new CDDS namely pressure controlled colon delivery capsules (PCDCS, CODESTM (Novel colon targeted delivery system osmotic controlled drug delivery system, Pulsincap system, time clock system, chronotropic system. This review is to understand the pharmaceutical approaches to colon targeted drug delivery systems for better therapeutic action without compromising on drug degradation (or its low bioavailability.

  8. THE COLONIC TRANSIT TEST IN THE ASSESSMENT OF CHRONIC CONSTIPATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In order to assess colonic motility of chronic constipation, colonic transit test was carried out in 34 patients with chronic constipation and in 20 healthy subjects. 20 radiopaque markers are ingested at 8 am before the day test, and plain abdominal films were obtained at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. The normal value of colonic transit test was 16(80%), or more markers passed after 72 h. By means of transit time study, 34 constipated patients were classified into 2 groups: 12 normal transit patients and 22 slow transit patients. There was no difference in colonic transit time between normal transit patients and controls (P>0.05). Patients with slow transit had more markers left in right colon, left colon and rectosigmoid colon at 48 h (P<0.01, respectively) and 72 h (P<0.01, respectively). According to the transit index, 22 slow transit patients were divided into 3 types: 10 cases colonic stasis, 8 cases outlet obstruction and 4 cases colorectal stasis. The study suggests that chronic constipated patients have abnormalbilities of colonic transit.

  9. COX MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF RECURRENCE FACTORS FOR COLONIC CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜寒松; 王国斌; 秦青平; 夏玉春; 司徒光伟

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the independent prognostic factors in the recurrence of colonic carcinoma after curative resection. Methods: Two hundred and one patients undergoing curative resections for colonic carcinoma were investigated by univariate and Cox multivariate regression analyses. Ten factors contributed to the rate were analyzed. Results: Dukes stages, obstruction, postoperative chemotherapy as well as the growth manner of the tumor were significantly associated with the recurrence rate of colonic carcinoma (P<0.05) by univariate analysis, while Dukes stages, obstruction, and postoperative chemotherapy were significant factors by the multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Dukes stages, obstruction, and postoperative chemotherapy are independent prognostic factors in the recurrence of colonic carcinoma.

  10. Delirium in fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurbegovic, Sorel; Andersen, Jens; Krenk, Lene; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (PD) is a common but serious problem after major surgery with a multifactorial pathogenesis including age, pain, opioid use, sleep disturbances and the surgical stress response. These factors have been minimised by the "fast-track methodology" previously...... demonstrated to enhance recovery and reduce morbidity. METHODS: Clinical symptoms of PD were routinely collected three times daily from preoperatively until discharge in a well-defined enhanced recovery program after colonic surgery in 247 consecutive patients. RESULTS: Total median length of hospital stay was...

  11. Interstellar colonization and the zoo hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    Michael Hart and others have pointed out that current estimates of the number of technological civilizations arisen in the Galaxy since its formation is in fundamental conflict with the expectation that such a civilization could colonize and utilize the entire Galaxy in 10 to 20 million years. This dilemma can be called Hart's paradox. Resolution of the paradox requires that one or more of the following are true: we are the Galaxy's first technical civilization; interstellar travel is immensely impractical or simply impossible; technological civilizations are very short-lived; or we inhabit a wildnerness preserve. The latter is the zoo hypothesis. (GHT)

  12. Diverticulosis of the colon and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonic diverticula in reality are herniations of the mucosa through a thickened musculature of the bowel wall where it is penetrated by the vasa recta. Their prevalence increases with western food and with age. Low-residue diet and increased intraluminal pressure are considered to be etiologic factors. Diverticular disease is characterised by inflammatory and bleeding complications. Diverticulitis may lead to peridiverticulitis and pericolitis with frank peritonitis. Uncomplicated diverticulosis warrants observation only under dietary guidance. Repeated complications indicate elective operation by one-stage-resection. Perforation, abscess and massive bleeding necessitate immediate operative treatment aimed at elimination of the involved segment. (orig.)

  13. Interstellar colonization and the zoo hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Hart and others have pointed out that current estimates of the number of technological civilizations arisen in the Galaxy since its formation is in fundamental conflict with the expectation that such a civilization could colonize and utilize the entire Galaxy in 10 to 20 million years. This dilemma can be called Hart's paradox. Resolution of the paradox requires that one or more of the following are true: we are the Galaxy's first technical civilization; interstellar travel is immensely impractical or simply impossible; technological civilizations are very short-lived; or we inhabit a wildnerness preserve. The latter is the zoo hypothesis

  14. Congenital pouch colon in female subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Sarin Y; Nagdeve N; Sengar M

    2007-01-01

    Over a period of 5-year (May 2000 to April 2005) 29 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC) were managed by single pediatric surgeon in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of a tertiary hospital. Of these, 11 were girls (M: F: 1.6:1). Detailed anatomy could be studied in nine patients, were included in this study. Age of presentation in female subjects ranged 1 day to 8 years. On examination, eight of the nine patients had single perineal opening suggesting a very high incidence of associati...

  15. Communication strategies for colonization mission to Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Machuca Varela, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Earth-Mars cycler trajectories could be used as a periodic and cost-efficient human transportation system from Earth to Mars in a future mission to colonize Mars. Continuous and reliable communication between Mars and the Earth will be required in such a mission. In a circular-coplanar model, the existance of a particularly interesting cycler trajectory (ballistic outbound Earth-Mars S1L1 cycler trajectory) is proven, which has relatively short Earth-Mars transfer times, low relative velociti...

  16. Combination of Quercetin and Kaempferol enhances in vitro Cytotoxicity on Human Colon Cancer (HCT-116 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jaramillo-Carmona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is one of the most common types of cancer malignancy. Although flavonoids naturally occur as mixtures, little information is available regarding the additive or synergistic biochemical interactions between flavonoids. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of combining two major structurally related flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol, to affect the cell viability, cell cycle, and proliferation of the human colon cancer HCT-116 cell line. The combination of quercetin and kaempferol exhibited a greater cytotoxic efficacy than did either quercetin or kaempferol alone. This effect was highest and acted in a synergistic fashion in a 2-fold quercetin and 1-fold kaempferol IC50 combination, which also arrested cell growth in the G2/M phase and suppressed proliferation. Our observations support a structure-activity relationship based on the presence of 3’–OH moiety and/or 4’–OH moiety on the B-ring of flavonoids.

  17. Stable isotope model for assessing production of short chain fatty acids from colon-derived sugar: application in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, C L; Murray, R D; Ailabouni, A; Powers, P; Kepner, J; Powers, L; Brunengraber, H

    1996-12-01

    Sugar reaching the colon because of intestinal maldigestion or malabsorption may be fermented to acetate and other short-chain fatty acids, resulting in stimulation of colonic water absorption and cell proliferation. To explore this phenomenon in more detail, we have developed a stable isotope model for estimating the fraction of colon-derived glucose or lactose that is fermented to acetate, propionate and butyrate. In an initial application of the model, [d3]-acetate and either [1-(13)C]-glucose or [D-1-(13)C]-lactose were infused into the cecum or colon of piglets, and plateau plasma acetate enrichment was monitored in the carotid artery. In acutely anesthetized piglets, the fractions of glucose and lactose fermented to acetate were 17.0 and 20.0%, respectively. In a chronically catheterized piglet, fermentation was higher (34.2%). When conducted in chronically catheterized animals or via a colostomy or ileostomy in infants, this model may be used to determine how age, previous surgery or antibiotic therapy affects the efficiency of colonic assimilation of carbohydrate. PMID:9001376

  18. Metabolic fate of ochratoxin A as a coffee contaminant in a dynamic simulator of the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouethrani, Minale; Van de Wiele, Tom; Verbeke, Ellen; Bruneau, Aurélia; Carvalho, Maryline; Rabot, Sylvie; Camel, Valérie

    2013-12-15

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin frequently encountered in coffee. The relevance of this contaminant in the colon upon digestion necessitates a study on its interaction with colon microbiota. Here, the fate of OTA during colon digestion was investigated using a dynamic simulator of the human gut. The influence of coffee as a food matrix was taken into account, as it may affect the colonic microbial ecosystem and, consequently, the fate of OTA. Biodegradation was followed by measuring OTA concentration over time, and by screening for several possible metabolites, using LC-ESI-MS and HRMS. The descending colon was found to be the main site of OTA biodegradation. Two metabolites, ochratoxin α and ochratoxin B, were identified, suggesting that biodegradation by gut microbiota is beneficial for the host, as they are considered less toxic than OTA. The extent of biodegradation was reduced in the presence of the coffee matrix, possibly due to competition for available carbon sources. Effects of OTA and the coffee matrix on the microbial ecosystem were contrasting. While OTA caused a specific, but lasting loss, of the beneficial species Lactobacillus reuteri, coffee temporarily altered the fermentation pattern towards lower ammonia and higher acetate and propionate production, likely due to its dietary fibre content. PMID:23993484

  19. Pectin-HPMC E15LV Vs pH sensitive polymer coating films for delayed drug delivery to colon: a comparison of two dissolution models to assess colonic targeting performance in-vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maria John Newton

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary.The study was designed to evaluate the in vitro dissolution characteristics comparatively between pH sensitive polymer coated tablets and natural polymer coated tablets in a various simulated fluids (pH values 1.2, 6, 6.8, 7.2, 5. The fabricated Mesalamine tablets were coated with pectin-HPMC(Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose E15LV (FC1-FC5 in combination and with Eudragit L100 ( FC6-FC10separately. Different buffer conditions were chosen to mimic the pH changes of the terminal part of the ileum as well as the colon.  Two in vitro studies were conducted separately in all the formulations. The impact of the pH changes on the coated tablets in normal pH condition and reduced pH condition (which occurs during inflammation in the colon were compared. The results showed that the impact of pH changes on the release profile of Eudragit L100  coated tablets was significant in reduced pH condition. In pH sensitive polymer coated tablets, drug release characteristics and the rate were affected when compared to the pectin coated tablets.  This study indicates that poly methacrylate polymers could not release the drug in predetermined rate in a variety of pH conditions. The present treatment methods of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD mostly depend on pH sensitive polymers. These pH sensitive polymers based colonic devices may not serve the patient need successfully because the influence of colonic pH on pH sensitive polymers plays an important role in drug release. The lowered pH condition in diseased state could not trigger the drug release, as it was not the threshold pH of the particular coated polymer. Therefore, in such diseased conditions natural polymer (pectinbased devices serve better for the objective of the therapy. The study on the effect of pH changes on the drug release profile of natural polymer-based colonic devices revealed that there was no impact by pH changes on the devices since they release the drug by the effect of colonic

  20. Ogilvie's syndrome (acute colonic pseudo-obstruction): review of the literature and report of 6 additional cases; Sindrome di Ogilvie (pseudo-ostruzione della letteratura acuta del colon): revisione della letteratura e descrizione di 6 nuovi casi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Roberto; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Porto, Annamaria; Montemarano, Emilio; De Rosa, Roberto [Napoli Univ., Napoli (Italy). Dipartimento medico-chirurgico di internistica clinica e sperimentale, Sezione scientifica di radiodiagnostica, radioterapia e medicina nucleare; Sacco, Maurizio; Quantarelli, Mario [Ospedale San Gennaro, Napoli (Italy). Servisio di radiodiagnostica; Di Mizio, Roberto [Ospedale S. Massimo, Penne (Italy). Servizio di radiologia

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Ogilvie's syndrome is defined as an acute pseudo-obstruction of the colon, characterized by the signs, symptoms and radiological pattern of a large-bowel obstruction, but without a detectable organic cause. The aetiology of Ogilvie's syndrome appears to be multifactorial, with a series of possibly interacting pathogenic noxae all resulting in colon inactivity. Our study reports on six cases of Ogilvie's syndrome diagnosed and treated between 1997 and 2002. Materials and methods: From October 1997 to September 2002 we studied six patients affected by pseudo-obstruction of the colon. The pseudo-obstruction was recurrent in two cases. Acute dilatation of the colon without radiologically-detectable organic obstruction was the inclusion criterion for the study. Results: Plain abdominal radiography revealed colon dilatation that extended to the splenic flexure in three patients, to the hepatic flexure in two patients, and confined to the transverse colon in one patient. None of the patients showed air-fluid levels of the small intestine. Conclusion: The most relevant clinical finding in Ogilvie's syndrome is abdominal distension, which arises suddenly, has a progressive course and reaches massive levels. The first-line diagnostic investigation is plain abdominal radiography which shows extreme colon dilatation without air-fluid levels of the small intestine. In three of our patients, conservative therapy alone was able to restore normal conditions within five days; two patients required decompressive colonoscopy, and one patient died from cardio-circulatory arrest after 48 hours. [Italian] Scopo: La sindrome di Ogilvie � definita come una pseudo-ostruzione acuta del colon, con i segni, i sintomi e l'aspetto radiologico di un'occlusione del grosso intestino senza una causa organica riconoscibile. L'eziologia della sindrome di Ogilvie appare multifattoriale, come se l'inerzia del colon fosse la via finale comune verso la

  1. Molecular Analysis of the Microbial Diversity Present in the Colonic Wall, Colonic Lumen, and Cecal Lumen of a Pig

    OpenAIRE

    Pryde, Susan E.; Anthony J. Richardson; Stewart, Colin S.; Flint, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    Random clones of 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequences were isolated after PCR amplification with eubacterial primers from total genomic DNA recovered from samples of the colonic lumen, colonic wall, and cecal lumen from a pig. Sequences were also obtained for cultures isolated anaerobically from the same colonic-wall sample. Phylogenetic analysis showed that many sequences were related to those of Lactobacillus or Streptococcus spp. or fell into clusters IX, XIVa, and XI of gram-positive bacteria...

  2. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the purpose of the present paper to give a review of surface alloy processing by ion implantation. However, rather than covering this vast subject as a whole, the survey is confined to a presentation of the microstructures that can be found in metal surfaces after ion implantation. The presentation is limited to alloys processed by ion implantation proper, that is to processes in which the alloy compositions are altered significantly by direct injection of the implanted ions. The review is introduced by a presentation of the processes taking place during development of the fundamental event in ion implantation - the collision cascade, followed by a summary of the various microstructures which can be formed after ion implantation into metals. This is compared with the variability of microstructures that can be achieved by rapid solidification processing. The microstructures are subsequently discussed in the light of the processes which, as the implantations proceed, take place during and immediately after formation of the individual collision cascades. These collision cascades define the volumes inside which individual ions are slowed down in the implanted targets. They are not only centres for vigorous agitation but also the sources for formation of excess concentrations of point defects, which will influence development of particular microstructures. A final section presents a selection of specific structures which have been observed in different alloy systems. (orig./GSCH)

  3. Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2013-04-01

    Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730

  4. Visualization of human colon carcinoma with 131I-antibodies to β1MA colonic antigen in experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I-antibodies to human β1 colonic antigen was administrated i.v. to nude mice with transplanted human colon carcinoma. Injections were followed by mouse whole-body investigation with the help of a gamma-camera and scanner. The distribution of radioactivity in murine tissues was investigated with a gamma-counter. Sharp images of tumor were obtained with the help of the gamma-camera and scanner. The results of visualization were in accord with radioimmunometric data. A conclusion was made of effective visualization of human colon carcinima transplanted to nude mice using iodinated antibodies to specific β1MA epithelial colonic antigen

  5. Diet and epigenetics in colon cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minna Nystr(o)m; Marja Mutanen

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few years, evidence has accumulated indicating that apart from genetic alterations, epigenetic alterations, through e.g. aberrant promoter methylation, play a major role in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Even in the hereditary colon cancer syndromes, in which the susceptibility is inherited dominantly, cancer develops only as the result of the progressive accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Diet can both prevent and induce colon carcinogenesis, for instance, through epigenetic changes, which regulate the homeostasis of the intestinal mucosa. Food-derived compounds are constantly present in the intestine and may shift cellular balance toward harmful outcomes, such as increased susceptibility to mutations. There is strong evidence that a major component of cancer risk may involve epigenetic changes in normal cells that increase the probability of cancer after genetic mutation. The recognition of epigenetic changes as a driving force in colorectal neoplasia would open new areas of research in disease epidemiology, risk assessment, and treatment, especially in mutation carriers who already have an inherited predisposition to cancer.(c) 2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng. All rights reserved.

  6. Gaia and the colonization of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; West, O.

    1993-01-01

    The Gaia hypothesis states that the atmosphere, hydrosphere, surface sediments, and life on Earth behave dynamically as a single integrated physiological system. What has been traditionally viewed as the passive environment is a highly active, integral part of the gaian system. Aspects of the surface temperature and chemistry are regulated by the sum of life, the biota. Formulated first by James E. Lovelock, in the late 1960s, the Gaia hypothesis has been in the scientific literature for more than 25 years. Because of its properties of exponential growth and propagation, life is a powerful geologic force. A useful aspect of the Gaia idea is that it requires integration of scientific disciplines for the study of Earth. The recently touted Earth system science is broadly parallel with the gaian concept of the physiochemical regulation of Earth's surface. We discuss here, in a gaian context, the colonization of Mars by Earth organisms. Although colonizing Mars may be impossible, its accomplishment would be exactly equivalent to "the reproduction of Gaia by budding.".

  7. [Colonic microenvironment in familial helicobacter infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, P L; Vorob'ev, A A; Nesvizhskiĭ, Iu V; Mitrokhin, S D; Kudriavtseva, L V; Minaev, V I; Filin, V A; Petrova, N N; Zaĭtseva, S V

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate the significance of the familial microenvironment in the genesis of Helicobacter infection, a clinical and instrumental investigation was made of 13 families selected by the probands who had digestive diseases associated with H. pylori: gastroduodenitis and duodenal ulcer disease. The occurrence of Helicobacter infection and gastritis in the family members was ascertained to be largely determined by their concurrent residence in the limited area, i.e. by the way of life. The contribution of the "family" factor in antral gastritis, fundal gastritis, and H. pylori infection was 60.0, 40.0, and about 90.0%, respectively. The patients with gastroenterological abnormalities associated with H. pylori were found to show changes in the species-specific and quantitative composition of the colonic microbiocenosis, which were symptomatic and revealed by bacteriological studies in 47.5% of cases and severe in 32.5%. When antihelicobacter therapy is planned, a through treatment of all family members and, if possible, pets should be made. Colonic microbiocenosis should be monitored while treating Helicobacter infection. PMID:9662996

  8. Gene Signature in Sessile Serrated Polyps Identifies Colon Cancer Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, Priyanka; Bronner, Mary P; Boucher, Kenneth M; Burt, Randall W; Neklason, Deborah W; Hagedorn, Curt H; Delker, Don A

    2016-06-01

    Sessile serrated colon adenoma/polyps (SSA/P) are found during routine screening colonoscopy and may account for 20% to 30% of colon cancers. However, differentiating SSA/Ps from hyperplastic polyps (HP) with little risk of cancer is challenging and complementary molecular markers are needed. In addition, the molecular mechanisms of colon cancer development from SSA/Ps are poorly understood. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on 21 SSA/Ps, 10 HPs, 10 adenomas, 21 uninvolved colon, and 20 control colon specimens. Differential expression and leave-one-out cross-validation methods were used to define a unique gene signature of SSA/Ps. Our SSA/P gene signature was evaluated in colon cancer RNA-Seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify a subtype of colon cancers that may develop from SSA/Ps. A total of 1,422 differentially expressed genes were found in SSA/Ps relative to controls. Serrated polyposis syndrome (n = 12) and sporadic SSA/Ps (n = 9) exhibited almost complete (96%) gene overlap. A 51-gene panel in SSA/P showed similar expression in a subset of TCGA colon cancers with high microsatellite instability. A smaller 7-gene panel showed high sensitivity and specificity in identifying BRAF-mutant, CpG island methylator phenotype high, and MLH1-silenced colon cancers. We describe a unique gene signature in SSA/Ps that identifies a subset of colon cancers likely to develop through the serrated pathway. These gene panels may be utilized for improved differentiation of SSA/Ps from HPs and provide insights into novel molecular pathways altered in colon cancer arising from the serrated pathway. Cancer Prev Res; 9(6); 456-65. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27026680

  9. Ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarter, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Similar in many ways to other liquid chromatographic techniques, ion chromatography (IC) is an invaluable method that is used all too rarely in chemical analysis. Its application is particularly promising in the analysis of inorganic anions, an area where more information is needed. Ion Chromatogrphy identifies the merits of this technique. Serving as a review and reference for experienced ion chromatographers and as a teaching aid for individuals new to the field, it provides the information necessary for determining the potential usefulness of IC for a given situation. Among the areas treated, this volume focuses on eluant-suppressed IC, especially for anion and cation analysis, single-column IC, plus ancillary techniques and applications, electrochemical, spectroscopic, and other detecting methods, ion chromatography exclusion (ICE), including its limits and applications.

  10. Methylselenol, a selenium metabolite, plays common and different roles in cancerous colon HCT116 cell and noncancerous NCM460 colon cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methylselenol has been hypothesized to be a critical selenium (Se) metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo. To determine differential chemopreventive effects of methylselenol on colon cancer cells versus colon noncancerous cells, colon-cancer-derived HCT-116 cells and noncancerous colonic NCM460 ...

  11. Effect of increased intake of dietary animal fat and fat energy on oxidative damage, mutation frequency, DNA adduct level and DNA repair in rat colon and liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Danesvar, B.; Autrup, H.;

    2003-01-01

    liver, colon, or urine. Thus, lard intake at the expense of other nutrients and a large increase in the fat energy consumption affects the redox state locally in the liver cytosol, but does not induce DNA-damage, systemic oxidative stress or a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency in rat colon...... was observed. Intake of lard fat resulted in increased ascorbate synthesis and affected markers of oxidative damage to proteins in liver cytosol, but not in plasma. The effect was observed at all lard doses and was not dose-dependent. However, no evidence of increased oxidative DNA damage was found in...

  12. Improved tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) to heavy metals by colonization of a dark septate endophyte (DSE) Exophiala pisciphila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous and abundant in stressful environments including heavy metal (HM) stress. However, our knowledge about the roles of DSE in improving HM tolerance of their host plants is poor. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with a HM tolerant DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila H93 in lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. E. pisciphila H93 successfully colonized and formed typical DSE structures in the inoculated maize roots. Colonization of E. pisciphila H93 alleviated the deleterious effects of excessive HM supplements and promoted the growth of maize (roots and shoots) under HM stress conditions, though it significantly decreased the biomass of inoculated maize under no HM stress. Further analysis showed that the colonization of E. pisciphila H93 improved the tolerance of maize to HM by restricting the translocation of HM ions from roots to shoots. This study demonstrated that under higher HM stress, such a mutual symbiosis between E. pisciphila and its host (maize) may be an efficient strategy to survive in the stressful environments. - Research Highlights: →Effect of DSE (E. pisciphila) on heavy metal tolerance of maize host was studied. →DSE alleviated the deleterious effect of excessive heavy metals on maize. →DSE restricted the transfer of heavy metals from the roots to shoots in maize. →DSE colonization improved the tolerance of their host plants to heavy metals.

  13. Improved tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) to heavy metals by colonization of a dark septate endophyte (DSE) Exophiala pisciphila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.; Liu, M.J.; Zhang, X.T. [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Zhang, H.B. [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Department of Biology, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Sha, T. [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Zhao, Z.W., E-mail: zhaozhw@ynu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous and abundant in stressful environments including heavy metal (HM) stress. However, our knowledge about the roles of DSE in improving HM tolerance of their host plants is poor. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with a HM tolerant DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila H93 in lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. E. pisciphila H93 successfully colonized and formed typical DSE structures in the inoculated maize roots. Colonization of E. pisciphila H93 alleviated the deleterious effects of excessive HM supplements and promoted the growth of maize (roots and shoots) under HM stress conditions, though it significantly decreased the biomass of inoculated maize under no HM stress. Further analysis showed that the colonization of E. pisciphila H93 improved the tolerance of maize to HM by restricting the translocation of HM ions from roots to shoots. This study demonstrated that under higher HM stress, such a mutual symbiosis between E. pisciphila and its host (maize) may be an efficient strategy to survive in the stressful environments. - Research Highlights: {yields}Effect of DSE (E. pisciphila) on heavy metal tolerance of maize host was studied. {yields}DSE alleviated the deleterious effect of excessive heavy metals on maize. {yields}DSE restricted the transfer of heavy metals from the roots to shoots in maize. {yields}DSE colonization improved the tolerance of their host plants to heavy metals.

  14. RHIC heavy ion operations performance

    CERN Document Server

    Satogata, T; Ferrone, R; Pilat, F

    2006-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) completed its fifth year of operation in 2005, colliding copper ion beams with ps=200 GeV/u and 62.4 GeV/u[1]. Previous heavy ion runs have collided gold ions at ps=130 GeV/u, 200 GeV/u, and 62.4 GeV/u[2], and deuterons and gold ions at ps=200 GeV/u[3]. This paper discusses operational performance statistics of this facility, including Cu- Cu delivered luminosity, availability, calendar time spent in physics stores, and time between physics stores. We summarize the major factors affecting operations efficiency, and characterize machine activities between physics stores.

  15. High dose metal ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To affect non-electronic surface properties (wear, corrosion and so on) the implanted material must reach measureable atom percentages, on the order of 10%, requiring ion implantation does in the range of 1017/cm2. For this reason, the MEVVA metallic ion source, developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, has been modified to provide metal ions for high dose metal ion implantation. The modifications inlcude increasing the arc efficiency, increasing beam spot size, and increasing beam divergence. The extracted beams have been characterized as to beam cross section and the depth profiles of implants. Time-average beam currents in excess of 20 mA have been extracted. Beams of titanium, tantalum, and other refractory metal ions, plus other refractory materials, such as titanium carbide, have been extracted and used to produce modifications in the surface properties of materials. (orig.)

  16. Intramural ganglia in diverticular disease of the colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, W. A. A. G.; Hawthorne, J. H. R.

    1965-01-01

    Intramural plexuses were studied in 30 colons, and a plethora of ganglionic tissue was observed in specimens with diverticula when compared with a control series. This alteration in the ganglionic pattern is considered real rather than apparent; the changes are confined to the region of the colon where muscular hypertrophy is present. Images PMID:14247702

  17. Case report: Stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic constipation can lead to fecal impaction. It can also rarely lead to catastrophic complications like perforation, colonic obstruction, and fecal peritonitis. We report a rare case of stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum, which was diagnosed on preoperative CT scan

  18. Cigarette smoking and genetic alterations in sporadic colon carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Vrieling, A.; Kraats, van A.A.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been inconsistently associated with colon cancer risk. To evaluate the hypothesis that smoking is primarily linked to a specific colon tumor subgroup(s), we assessed associations between smoking and the occurrence of mutations in the APC, K-ras and p53 genes, p53 overexpression

  19. Bacterial colonization of psoriasis plaques. Is it relevant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Marcus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial colonization was investigated retrospectively in patients with plaque psoriasis (n=98 inpatient treatments, n=73 patients. At least one pathogen was found in 46% of all cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent bacterium. Bacterial colonization of psoriasis plaques could be relevant in individual cases.

  20. Colonic stricture secondary to torsion of an ovarian cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intestinal obstruction in the newborn is a potentially life-threatening complication. The most common causes are meconium plug, meconium ileus, intestinal atresia, intestinal malrotation, and Hirschprung's disease. We present an unusual case of intestinal obstruction caused by torsion of an ovarian cyst. The left fimbria and ovary swirled around the sigmoid colon, causing colonic stricture. (orig.)

  1. Colonic stricture secondary to torsion of an ovarian cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazyn, Boaz; Ziv, Nitza; Horev, Gadi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva (Israel); Steinberg, Ran; Zer, Michael [Pediatric Surgery, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2002-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction in the newborn is a potentially life-threatening complication. The most common causes are meconium plug, meconium ileus, intestinal atresia, intestinal malrotation, and Hirschprung's disease. We present an unusual case of intestinal obstruction caused by torsion of an ovarian cyst. The left fimbria and ovary swirled around the sigmoid colon, causing colonic stricture. (orig.)

  2. Role of phytochemicals in colon cancer prevention. A nutrigenomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Specific food compounds, especially from fruits and vegetables, may protect against development of colon cancer. In this thesis effects and mechanisms of various phytochemicals in relation to colon cancer prevention were studied through application of large-scale gene expression profiling. Expressio

  3. Intestinal health functions of colonic microbial metabolites: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, R.

    2011-01-01

    This review tries to find a scientific answer on the following two questions: (1) to what extent do we understand the specific role of colonic microbial metabolites, especially short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), in maintaining the health status and prevention of diseases of the colon and the host; (2)

  4. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  5. Protozoa and their bacterial prey colonize sterile soil fast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2010-01-01

    We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them...

  6. Stercoral perforation of the colon: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Camacho Aguilera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Colon perforation has several causes, including stercoral perforation of the colon, which was first described in 1894. Currently, reported cases are fewer than 100. CASE REPORT Male patient of 67 years old, treated at Huichapan General Hospital, Hidalgo, Mexico, with abdominal pain, bloating and no bowel movements. He referred being constipated for the last ten years. Imaging revealed an extremely dilated sigmoid colon with fecal matter as well as free gas in the peritoneal cavity. The suspicion of stercoral colonic perforation is established. Exploratory laparotomy was performed immediately, finding a perforation and a hard scybalum protruding in the ascending colon. Colectomy, ileostomy and Hartmann´s pouch are performed. After surgery, the condition of the patient worsened and progressed to septic shock and respiratory failure. The patient died four hours after surgery, with the diagnosis of organ failure due to sepsis. LITERATURE REVIEW Stercoral perforation accounts for 3.2% of all colon perforations and is caused by a rupture of the intestinal wall through direct pressure of a fecaloma on the colon. It occurs especially in patients older than 70 years with severe chronic constipation, weakened and/or are hospitalized with multiple medications and immobilized. CONCLUSIONS Stercoral perforation of the colon is a rare cause of bowel perforation, which should be suspected in patients with a history of chronic constipation, acute abdominal pain, bloating and sepsis, in order to intervene in a timely fashion.

  7. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants...

  8. Prolapse of submucous lipoma of the sigmoid colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Mynster, Tommie

    2012-01-01

    Lipomas of the colon are rare and usually presenting in the later ages of life. This case describes and discusses the symptoms and signs of lipomas, recommendations and rationale for treatment.......Lipomas of the colon are rare and usually presenting in the later ages of life. This case describes and discusses the symptoms and signs of lipomas, recommendations and rationale for treatment....

  9. Histochemical and radioautographic studies of normal human fetal colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty fetal and infant colons ranging from 10 weeks in utero to 20 months postpartum, and 12 adult human colons were examined using histochemical techniques in conjunction with in vitro radioautography using Na235SO4 as a sulfomucin precursor. Only the sulfated components of mucus in fetal goblet cells was found to differ significantly from adult colonic mucins. In the fetus sulfomucin staining was much weaker than in the adult, and was more intense in the left colon which is the reverse of the adult pattern. Sulfomucin was concentrated in the crypts throughout the fetal colon whereas in the adult right colon it predominated in the surface cells. As in the adult, saponification liberated carboxyl groups, possibly belonging to sialic acid, and vicinal hydroxyl groups from fetal mucins suggesting that this procedure hydrolyses an ester linkage between these 2 reactive groups. During the middle trimester of fetal life the colon possesses villi whose constituent cells display alkaline phosphatase in their surface coat. These and other morphological and histochemical similarities to fetal small intestine suggest that the fetal colon may have a limited capacity to absorb materials contained within swallowed amniotic fluid during this period. (orig.)

  10. Short-term outcomes following laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection for colon cancer has been proven to have a similar oncological efficacy compared to open resection. Despite this, it is performed by a minority of colorectal surgeons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the short-term clinical, oncological and survival outcomes in all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

  11. Benign colonic neoplasm at the site of ureterosigmoidostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Kronborg, O; Hage, E;

    1986-01-01

    A benign colonic polyp with epithelial dysplasia developed in a young male at the site of ureteral implantation in the sigmoid colon following ureterosigmoidostomy for urinary incontinence. Patients with ureterosigmoidostomy represent a high-risk cancer group, and a review of the literature sugge...

  12. The treatment of locally advanced colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The results of therapy for 103 patients with locally advanced colon cancer who received radiotherapy were analyzed to determine the outcome and tolerance of therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1974 and 1994, 103 patients received radiotherapy and maximal resection of locally advanced colon cancers. Following resection, 50 patients had no residual disease, 18 patients had microscopic residual disease, and 35 patients had gross residual disease. External beam radiotherapy was initiated 1 to 4 months following resection except in two patients who received preoperative radiotherapy. Treatment was delivered to the tumor bed and adjacent lymph nodes using 4 to 18 MV X-rays with doses ranging from 16.2 to 60 Gy. Intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) was also administered to 11 of the patients with doses ranging from 10 to 20 Gy. Chemotherapy was administered to 77 patients. Follow-up in survivors ranged from 0.5 to 17 years (median: 5.8 years). Results: The 5-year actuarial local failure rate was 10% for patients with no residual disease, 54% for patients with microscopic residual disease, and 79% for patients with gross residual disease (p < 0.0001). For patients with residual disease, local failure occurred in 11% of patients receiving IOERT compared with 82% of patients receiving only external beam therapy (p 0.02). The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 66% for patients with no residual disease, 47% for patients with microscopic residual disease, and 23% for patients with gross residual disease (p = 0.0009). The 5-year survival rate in patients with residual disease was 76% for patients receiving IOERT and 26% for patients receiving external beam therapy alone (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Patients with locally advanced colon cancer who have had a complete resection have a high probability of local control after external beam irradiation ± 5 fluorouracil (5FU)-based systemic therapy. The toxicity of therapy can be minimized with attention to treatment

  13. Investigation of correlation between colonic cancer related anemia and characteristics of clinical pathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between colonic cancer-related anemia and the pathologic features of colonic cancer.Methods The relationship between colonic cancer-related anemia and the pathologic features of colonic cancer was analyzed in a statistical method.Results There was no statistical significance between the histopathological type and incidence of colonic cancer-related anemia(P>0.05).There was statistical significance between the general classification of colonic cancer

  14. Oxalobacter formigenes Colonization and Oxalate Dynamics in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingsheng; Ellis, Melissa L; Knight, John

    2015-08-01

    Animal and human studies have provided compelling evidence that colonization of the intestine with Oxalobacter formigenes reduces urinary oxalate excretion and lowers the risk of forming calcium oxalate kidney stones. The mechanism providing protection appears to be related to the unique ability of O. formigenes to rely on oxalate as a major source of carbon and energy for growth. However, much is not known about the factors that influence colonization and host-bacterium interactions. We have colonized mice with O. formigenes OxCC13 and systematically investigated the impacts of diets with different levels of calcium and oxalate on O. formigenes intestinal densities and urinary and intestinal oxalate levels. Measurement of intestinal oxalate levels in mice colonized or not colonized with O. formigenes demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of soluble oxalate by O. formigenes relative to other microbiota. The ratio of calcium to oxalate in diets was important in determining colonization densities and conditions where urinary oxalate and fecal oxalate excretion were modified, and the results were consistent with those from studies we have performed with colonized and noncolonized humans. The use of low-oxalate purified diets showed that 80% of animals retained O. formigenes colonization after a 1-week dietary oxalate deprivation. Animals not colonized with O. formigenes excreted two times more oxalate in feces than they had ingested. This nondietary source of oxalate may play an important role in the survival of O. formigenes during periods of dietary oxalate deprivation. These studies suggest that the mouse will be a useful model to further characterize interactions between O. formigenes and the host and factors that impact colonization. PMID:25979889

  15. Postpartum spontaneous colonic perforation due to antiphospholipid syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamran Ahmed; Amir Darakhshan; Eleanor Au; Munther A Khamashta; Iraklis E Katsoulis

    2009-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a multi-systemic disease being characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies that involves both arterial and venous systems resulting in arterial or venous thrombosis, fetal loss, thrombocytopenia, leg ulcers, livedo reticularis, chorea,and migraine. We document a previously unreported case of a 37-year-old female in whom APS was first manifested by infarction and cecal perforation following cesarean section. At laparotomy the underlying cause of colonic perforation was not clear and after resection of the affected bowel an ileo-colostomy was performed. The diagnosis of APS was established during post-operative hospital stay and the patient was commenced on warfarin.Eventually, she made a full recovery and had her stoma reversed after 4 mo. Pregnancy poses an increased risk of complications in women with APS and requires a more aggressive approach to the obstetric care. This should include full anticoagulation in the puerperium and frequent doppler ultrasound monitoring of uterine and umbilical arteries to detect complications such as preeclampsia and placental insufficiency.

  16. A child with colo-colonic intussusception due to a large colonic polyp: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colo-colonic intussusception (CI due to a colonic polyp is a rarely reported cause of intestinal obstruction in school-aged children. Hydrostatic reduction (HR and endoscopic polypectomy are minimally invasive and technically feasible for treating CI. We report a case of CI and review the literature, focusing on the diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Red meat and colon cancer : dietary haem, but not fat, has cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects on rat colonic epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, ALA; Termont, DSML; Kleibeuker, JH; Van der Meer, R

    2000-01-01

    High intake of red meat is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. It has been suggested that fat from red meat is responsible, because high fat intake increases the concentration of cytotoxic lipids in the colon. Experimental studies have not unequivocally supported such a role fbr fat,

  18. Ultraflex precision colonic stent placement as a bridge to surgery in patients with malignant colon obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fregonese, D.; Naspetti, R.; Ferrer, S.;

    2008-01-01

    colorectal SEMS may offer several advantages, but available evidence on the utility of this SEMS type remains highly limited. Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety as a bridge to surgery of a nitinol SEMS designed for colorectal use. Design: Prospective and retrospective......Background: Emergency surgery for malignant colon obstruction entails relatively high morbidity and mortality rates and typically necessitates a 2-step resection. These problems might be potentially mitigated by placement of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) as a bridge to surgery. A nitinol...... success in alleviating colonic obstructive symptoms, and bridging to elective surgery. Results: Technical success was achieved in 97% of patients with a 95% CI of 85% to 100% and clinical success in 81% (95% CI, 64%-92%). Elective surgery was performed in 94% (95% CI, 81%-99%) of patients at a median of...

  19. Colonic cell proliferation in normal mucosa of patients with colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell kinetics parameters have been analysed in colonic mucosa at different distances from a tumour in patients with colon carcinoma. Total cell number (TCN), 3H thymidine labelling index (TLI), mitotic index (MI), Goblet cell index (GCI) and the distribution of labelled cells along the crypt column (cell position frequency plot) were determined in well-aligned crypts. Total cell number, GCI and the labelled cell position frequency plots were similar in different samples from the same individual. A negative linear correlation between TCN and TLI was observed. The analysis of the cell position plots showed two patterns (1) with a high concentration in the bottom fifth of the crypt and (2) with frequent labelled cells at high positions. Whereas a negative correlation between overall TLI and the percent contribution to the TLI of the lowermost fifth was seen, the correlation was positive for the next 3 fifths and labelling was absent in the last part of the crypt. (orig.)

  20. Experimental evaluation of clinical colon anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    , ischemia and insufficient surgical technique have been suggested to play a central role. Animal models are valuable means to evaluate pathophysiological mechanisms and may be used to test preventive measures aiming at reducing the risk of anastomotic leakage, such as external anastomotic coating. The aim...... leakage. STUDY 1: This study is a systematic review using the databases MEDLINE and Rex. MEDLINE was searched up to October 2010 to identify studies on experimental animal models of clinical colon anastomotic leakage. From the Rex database, textbooks on surgical aspects as well as gastrointestinal...... physiology and anatomy of experimental animals were identified. The results indicated that the mouse and the pig are the best suited animals to evaluate clinical anastomotic leakage. However, the pig model is less validated and more costly to use compared with the mouse. Most frequently, rats are used as...

  1. Colonic gallstone ileus: the rolling stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Roisin Mary

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of cholelithiasis accounting for 1-4% of cases of intestinal obstruction with a predominance in the elderly population. Unfortunately, it has an insipid presentation and is associated with significant rates of morbidity and mortality. Controversy arises over the management of gallstone ileus, and while surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, the main point of contention surrounds the extent of surgery. We describe the case of an 85-year-old woman who presented with symptoms and signs of large bowel obstruction. Radiological evaluation revealed a 5 cm×3.5 cm gallstone impacted in the sigmoid colon. A laparoscopic-assisted enterolithotomy alone relieved the obstruction with minimal surgical insult and allowed for a swift and uneventful recovery. Our case emphasises the need for a high index of suspicion for the condition as well as highlighting the advantages of the use of laparoscopic surgery in an emergency setting. PMID:25323275

  2. Clinical imaging of the colon and rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical imaging of the colon and rectum is the first volume of a new series of practical reference works that enables radiologists to effectively utilize today's rapidly evolving imaging technologies in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal disorders. Organized in a disease-oriented format, each volume of the series focuses on specific gastrointestinal organs, offering concrete guidelines for performing and interpreting imaging studies of commonly encountered disorders. For each disease process, pathologic findings obtained using various imaging modalities are clearly described; illustrated by high-quality radiographs and scans; and correlated with the clinical features and basic pathology of the disease. The significance of these detected abnormalities is considered in detail, with emphasis on their importance in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning

  3. Ectopic Varices in Colonic Stoma: MDCT Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Jin Yong [Guro Hospital of Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    We describe the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images by MDCT in a patient with an episode of acute bleeding from the colonic stoma. This case indicates that the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images are useful to detect this rare complication of portal hypertension, and they help to tailor adequate treatment for the patients with bleeding from stomal varices. Ectopic varices are an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, but they account for up to 5% of all variceal bleedings (1). Bleeding from stomal varices has been reported in up to 20% of the patients suffering with chronic liver failure with permanent stoma (2). However, the diagnosis of stomal varices is difficult because bleeding from stoma may also be associated with lower gastrointestinal bleeding. To the best of our knowledge, the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images by MDCT for visualization of ectopic stomal varices have not been previously reported in the medical literature.

  4. Ectopic Varices in Colonic Stoma: MDCT Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images by MDCT in a patient with an episode of acute bleeding from the colonic stoma. This case indicates that the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images are useful to detect this rare complication of portal hypertension, and they help to tailor adequate treatment for the patients with bleeding from stomal varices. Ectopic varices are an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, but they account for up to 5% of all variceal bleedings (1). Bleeding from stomal varices has been reported in up to 20% of the patients suffering with chronic liver failure with permanent stoma (2). However, the diagnosis of stomal varices is difficult because bleeding from stoma may also be associated with lower gastrointestinal bleeding. To the best of our knowledge, the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images by MDCT for visualization of ectopic stomal varices have not been previously reported in the medical literature

  5. Bacteria,inflammation,and colon cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liying Yang; Zhiheng Pei

    2006-01-01

    Our relationship with the colonic bacterial flora has long been viewed as benign,but recent studies suggest that this symbiosis has risks as well as benefits.This relationship requires that the host not only provide a supportive environment for the symbiotic bacteria,but also actively maintain intact mechanisms for properly managing the physiologic stresses that are closely associated with the symbiont's essential survival functions.Failure to do so breaches the hostsymbiont contract,and can result in serious effects on the health of the host.Recent investigations that employ several knockout mouse models reveal the consequences of genetic deficiency in the host regarding these mechanisms,and the latent,pro-inflammatory,tumorigenic nature of normal bacterial flora.Further study of the interactions between normal bacterial flora and hosts could shed light on the etiologies and pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and related cancers,with implications for human health.

  6. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with metastases to colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatiee Swany Lahuri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the nasopharynx is amongst the most common head and neck cancers. The most common distant metastases are to the bone, liver and lung. Herein, we are reporting a rare case of a 61-year-old man with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC who presented with 3 weeks history of blood streaked sputum, post nasal drip and blocked nose with no history of epistaxis, tinnitus and unilateral hearing loss. Almost 2 years upon completion of his concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy, he developed a right hypochondrium mass and underwent colonoscopy which revealed a mass in ascending colon and which was then subsequently resected via right hemicolectomy. Histological analyses from the resected specimen confirmed its nasopharyngeal origin.

  7. Ectopic fascioliasis mimicking a colon tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozer Makay; Baris Gurcu; Cemil Caliskan; Deniz Nart; Muge Tuncyurek; Mustafa Korkut

    2007-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, a leaf shaped trematode that is common in cattle, sheep and goats, is acquired by eating raw water plants like watercress or drinking water infected with the encysted form of the parasite.The varied clinical presentations of fascioliasis still make a high index of suspicion mandatory. Besides having a wide spectrum of hepatobiliary symptoms like obstructive jaundice, cholangitis and liver cirrhosis, the parasitic infection also has extrabiliary manifestations.Until recently, extrahepatic fascioliasis has been reported in the subcutaneous tissue, brain, lungs, epididymis,inguinal lymph nodes, stomach and the cecum. In this report, a strange manifestation of the fasciola infection in a site other than the liver, a colonic fascioliasis, is presented.

  8. Where There's Smoke,There's Colon Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红

    2001-01-01

    @@ Besides causing 160,000 deaths annually from lung, mouth, bladder and other cancers, smoking also increases the risk of death from cancer of the colon or rectum,according to results of a large new study from the American Cancer Society.根据美国癌症协会一项大规模的新的研究结果表明,每年因抽烟而死于肺癌、口腔癌、膀胱癌以及其它癌症的人有16万人;除此之外,抽烟还会增加死于结肠癌、直肠癌的可能性.

  9. Na+ uptake into colonic enterocyte membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na+ uptake was studied in colonic enterocyte membrane vesicles prepared from normal and dexamethasone-treated rats. Vesicles from rats treated with dexamethasone demonstrated a fivefold greater 22Na+ uptake compared with vesicles from normal rats. Most of the tracer uptake in membranes derived from treated rats occurred through a conductive, amiloride-blockable pathway located in vesicles with low native K+ permeability and high Cl- permeability. Kinetic analysis of the amiloride inhibition curve revealed the presence of two amiloride-blockable pathways, one with a high affinity accounting for 85% of the uptake, and one with a low affinity accounting for only 12% of the uptake. Only the low-affinity pathway was detected with vesicles from normal rats. The high sensitivity to amiloride, the dependence on dexamethasone pretreatment, and the relative permeabilities to K+ and Cl- indicate that most of the 22Na+ uptake in membranes derived from treated rats is through a Na+-specific channel located in apical membrane vesicles. Preincubation of the isolated cells from dexamethasone-treated rats at 37 degree C in Ca2+-free solutions before homogenization and membrane vesicle purification caused a 5- to 10-fold increase in amiloride-blockable 22Na+ uptake compared with vesicles derived from cells maintained at 0 degree C. The addition of Ca2+, but not of Mg2+, to the incubation solution markedly reduced this temperature-dependent enhancement in 22Na+ uptake. These results suggest that Na+ transport in colonic enterocytes from dexamethasone-treated rats is regulated by a Ca2+-dependent, temperature-sensitive process which causes a sustained change in the apical membrane

  10. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  11. Uncommon presentation of actinomycosis mimicking colonic cancer: Colon actinomycosis with invasion of the abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Bali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is an uncommon chronic suppurative infectious disease that is caused by Actinomycetes organisms, which are gram-positive, microaerophilic, anaerobic bacteria. Herein, we present the case of a 42-year-old female patient who underwent surgical exploration following presentation with abdominal pain and an abdominal mass, initially thought to be a malignancy. Histological examination of the specimen revealed colon actinomycosis. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(2.000: 107-110

  12. Colonization with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Promotes the Growth of Morus alba L. Seedlings under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morus alba L. is an important tree species planted widely in China because of its economic value. In this report, we investigated the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF species, Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices, alone and together, on the growth of M. alba L. seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The growth parameters and physiological performance of M. alba L. seedlings were evaluated 90 days after colonization with the fungi. The growth and physiological performance of M. alba L. seedlings were significantly affected by the AMF species. The mycorrhizal seedlings were taller, had longer roots, more leaves and a greater biomass than the non-mycorrhizae-treated seedlings. In addition, the AMF species-inoculated seedlings had increased root activity and a higher chlorophyll content compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Furthermore, AMF species colonization increased the phosphorus and nitrogen contents of the seedlings. In addition, simultaneous root colonization by the two AMF species did not improve the growth of M. alba L. seedlings compared with inoculation with either species alone. Based on these results, these AMF species may be applicable to mulberry seedling cultivation.

  13. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae uses proteasome inhibitor syringolin A to colonize from wound infection sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana C Misas-Villamil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of plants by bacterial leaf pathogens at wound sites is common in nature. Plants defend wound sites to prevent pathogen invasion, but several pathogens can overcome spatial restriction and enter leaf tissues. The molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to suppress containment at wound infection sites are poorly understood. Here, we studied Pseudomonas syringae strains causing brown spot on bean and blossom blight on pear. These strains exist as epiphytes that can cause disease upon wounding caused by hail, sand storms and frost. We demonstrate that these strains overcome spatial restriction at wound sites by producing syringolin A (SylA, a small molecule proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, SylA-producing strains are able to escape from primary infection sites and colonize adjacent tissues along the vasculature. We found that SylA diffuses from the primary infection site and suppresses acquired resistance in adjacent tissues by blocking signaling by the stress hormone salicylic acid (SA. Thus, SylA diffusion creates a zone of SA-insensitive tissue that is prepared for subsequent colonization. In addition, SylA promotes bacterial motility and suppresses immune responses at the primary infection site. These local immune responses do not affect bacterial growth and were weak compared to effector-triggered immunity. Thus, SylA facilitates colonization from wounding sites by increasing bacterial motility and suppressing SA signaling in adjacent tissues.

  14. Soil Influences Colonization of Root-Associated Fungal Endophyte Communities of Maize, Wheat, and Their Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bokati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungal endophytes are vital component of root microbiome as some mitigate their host’s abiotic and biotic stress. We characterized root-associated fungal endophytes in cereal grains and their progenitors grown on two different soil-types. We aimed at determining how clay and desert soil affects the colonization of root fungal community. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were employed to identify endophytes that successfully colonized greenhouse-grown host plants. The Internal Transcriber Spacer region of fungal ribosomal DNA was utilized for identification purposes. This study revealed soil as a prominent factor influencing the composition of microfungal communities inhabiting the roots of maize (Zea mays subsp. mays and its conspecific progenitor, teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis. Similar results were found in wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp. aestivum and its progenitor (Triticum monococcum subsp. monococcum. The multidimensional comparisons of Morisita-Horn similarity values of fungal colonists of various host plant taxa indicated that soil plays a primary role in shaping the root fungal community; a secondary effect was plant host identity, even when the plant host is a conspecific. Future studies focused on characterizing root endophytes in other cereal grains, and studying the effect of edaphic factors on fungal colonization, can ultimately contribute to crop productivity.

  15. New optical method for enhanced detection of colon cancer by capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    AnkriEqually Contributed, Rinat; Peretz, Dolev; Motiei, Menachem; Sella-Tavor, Osnat; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2013-09-01

    PillCam®COLON capsule endoscopy (CE), a non-invasive diagnostic tool of the digestive tract, has dramatically changed the diagnostic approach and has become an attractive alternative to the conventional colonoscopy for early detection of colorectal cancer. However, despite the significant progress and non-invasive detection capability, studies have shown that its sensitivity and specificity is lower than that of conventional colonoscopy. This work presents a new optical detection method, specifically tailored to colon cancer detection and based on the well-known optical properties of immune-conjugated gold nanorods (GNRs). We show, on a colon cancer model implanted in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), that this detection method enables conclusive differentiation between cancerous and normal tissues, where neither the distance between the light source and the intestinal wall, nor the background signal, affects the monitored signal. This optical method, which can easily be integrated in CE, is expected to reduce false positive and false negative results and improve identification of tumors and micro metastases.

  16. Formulation, Evaluation and Optimization of Pectin- Bora Rice Beads for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Hemraj Ramteke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research was to established new polysaccharide for the colon targeted drug delivery system, its formulation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Methods: Microspheres containing pectin and bora rice were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique using zinc acetate as cross linking agent and model drug used was glipizide. A 32 full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, polymer to drug ratio (A, and concentration of cross linking agent (B on dependent variables, particle size, swelling index, drug entrapment efficiency and percentage drug release. Results: Results of trial batches indicated that polymer to drug ratio and concentration of cross linking agent affects characteristics of beads. Beads were discrete, spherical and free flowing. Beads exhibited small particle size and showed higher percentage of drug entrapment efficiency. The optimized batch P2 exhibited satisfactory drug entrapment efficiency 68% and drug release was also controlled for more than 24 hours. The polymer to drug ratio had a more significant effect on the dependent variables. In vivo gamma scintigraphy study of optimized pectin-bora rice beads demonstrated degradation of beads whenever they reached to the colon. Conclusion: Bora rice is potential polysaccharide for colon targeted drug delivery system.

  17. Diverticular disease of the colon: New perspectives in symptom development and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio Colecchia; Lorenza Sandri; Simona Capodicasa; Amanda Vestito; Giuseppe Mazzella; Tommaso Staniscia; Enrico Roda; Davide Festi

    2003-01-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon is a common disease worldwide. Although the disease is asymptomatic in about 70-80 % of patients, it represents, at least in Western countries, one of the most important gastrointestinal diseases in terms of direct and indirect health costs. Pathocenesis of the disease is still unknown. However, it is the result of complex interactions between colonic structure, intestinal motility, diet and genetic factors. Whilst efficacious preventive strategies remain to be identified, fibre supplementation in the diet is recommended. Why symptoms develop is still unclear. Results of recent experimental studies on irritable bowel syndrome speculated that low grade inflammation of colonic mucosa, induced by changes in bacterial microflora,could affect the enteric nervous system, which is crucial for normal gut function, thus favouring symptom development.This hypothesis could be extrapolated also for diverticular disease, since bacterial overgrowth is present, at least in a subgroup of patients. These perspectives on symptom development are reviewed and new therapeutic approaches are hypothesized.

  18. Affect of crop residue on colonization and survival of Phoma sclerotioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoma sclerotioides causes brown root rot (BRR) of alfalfa and root rot of other perennial legumes and some winter hardy grasses. It can survive as a saprophyte on crop debris so crop residues that support the fungus may increase inocula levels. Current management of BRR is based on crop rotation wi...

  19. Factors affecting colonization and dissemination of Candida albicans from the gastrointestinal tract of mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekenna, O; Sherertz, R J

    1987-01-01

    Male ICR Swiss mice (2 to 3 months old) were fed Candida albicans in their drinking water for 3 days, followed by no treatment, antibiotics in their drinking water (daily), or immunosuppressants given by intraperitoneal injection (two to three times weekly) over a 3- to 4-week period. The organs of animals were processed to determine the numbers of C. albicans and total aerobic bacteria per g of tissue. Untreated animals had mean Candida counts during the 1-month period of 10(2.3) CFU/g of ce...

  20. Vanillin Differentially Affects Azoxymethane-Injected Rat Colon Carcinogenesis and Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ket Li; Chong, Pei Pei; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rat...