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Sample records for affective picture system

  1. The Emotional Experience of People with Intellectual Disability: An Analysis Using the International Affective Pictures System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Belen G.; Mateos, Pedro M.; Sanchez-Mateos, Juan Degado

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides information on the emotional experience of people with intellectual disability. To evaluate this emotional experience, we have used the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). The most important result from this study is that the emotional reaction of people with intellectual disability to affective stimuli is…

  2. Nencki Affective Picture System: Cross-Cultural Study in Europe and Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Monika; Moslehi, Abnoos; Michałowski, Jarosław M.; Żurawski, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Wypych, Marek; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Although emotions have been assumed conventionally to be universal, recent studies have suggested that various aspects of emotions may be mediated by cultural background. The purpose of our research was to test these contradictory views, in the case of the subjective evaluation of visual affective stimuli. We also sought to validate the recently introduced Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) database on a different cultural group. Since there has been, to date, no attempt to compare the emotions of a culturally distinct sample of Iranians with those of Europeans, subjective ratings were collected from 40 Iranians and 39 Europeans. Each cultural group was asked separately to provide normative affective ratings and classify pictures according to discrete emotions. The results were analyzed to identify cultural differences in the ratings of individual images. One hundred and seventy NAPS pictures were rated with regard to the intensity of the basic emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust) they elicited, as well as in terms of affective dimensions (valence and arousal). Contrary to previous studies using the International Affective Picture System, our results for Europeans and Iranians show that neither the ratings for affective dimensions nor for basic emotions differed across cultural groups. In both cultural groups, the relationship between valence and arousal ratings could be best described by a classical boomerang-shaped function. However, the content of the pictures (animals, faces, landscapes, objects, or people) had a significant effect on the ratings for valence and arousal. These findings indicate that further studies in cross-cultural affective research should control for the content of stimuli. PMID:28316576

  3. Adaptación española del "International Affective Picture System" (IAPS: tercera parte

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    Javier Moltó

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo proporciona los valores normativos españoles de las 358 imágenes que forman los conjuntos 15 a 20 del International Affective Picture System (IAPS. En este estudio participaron 811 estudiantes universitarios (521 mujeres que evaluaron las imágenes en las dimensiones emocionales de valencia, activación y dominancia. Las correlaciones entre las evaluaciones estadounidenses y las españolas en todas las dimensiones fueron altamente significativas y, como en Estados Unidos, la distribución de las imágenes en el espacio bidimensional afectivo definido por las dimensiones de valencia y activación adoptó la típica forma de boomerang. Los resultados confirmaron, asimismo, las diferencias de género encontradas en Estados Unidos en las evaluaciones de las imágenes aversivas. Estos resultados son totalmente consistentes con los obtenidos en la primera y segunda parte de la adaptación española, y demuestran que la estandarización del IAPS en nuestro país ha sido adecuada. Por último, se ratificaron las pequeñas diferencias transculturales encontradas en las evaluaciones de activación y dominancia: los españoles tendieron a asignar a las imágenes mayores puntuaciones en activación y menores en dominancia que los estadounidenses. Estos datos apoyan los estereotipos culturales de estos países y sugieren que el IAPS podría ser un indicador fiable de diferencias transculturales en la disposición emocional.

  4. Normas brasileiras para o International Affective Picture System (IAPS: comunicação breve Normas brasileñas para el International Affective Picture System (IAPS: breve comunicación Brazilian norms for the International Affective Picture System (IAPS: brief report

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    Rafaela Larsen Ribeiro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta valores normativos brasileiros para o International Affective Picture System (IAPS, um conjunto de estímulos com potencial de eliciar emoções amplamente utilizado na investigação experimental. Também são apresentados aqui os resultados da comparação entre as respostas de homens e mulheres brasileiros. Um total de 1062 universitários brasileiros (364 homens e 698 mulheres foram incluídos e avaliaram as 707 fotografias do IAPS nas dimensões prazer, alerta e dominância, utilizando o mesmo procedimento do estudo normativo original realizado por Lang et al. nos Estados Unidos, em 1999.Este artículo presenta valores normativos brasileños para el International Affective System (IAPS, un conjunto de estímulos con potencial de poner al descubierto emociones, que es ampliamente utilizado en la investigación experimental. Además, se presentan los resultados de la comparación entre las respuestas de hombres y mujeres brasileños. Un total de 1062 universitarios brasileños (364 hombres y 698 mujeres han sido incluidos y evaluaron las 707 diapositivas del IAPS en los niveles placer, alerta y dominancia, utilizando el mismo procedimiento del estudio normativo original realizado por Lang et al. en Estados Unidos, en 1999.The present article provides Brazilian norms for the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, a set of affectively salient photographic slides widely used in experimental research. In addition, the article compares the responses of male and female volunteers to the system in Brazil. A total of 1062 Brazilian university students (364 men and 698 women were included, and they rated 707 pictures from the IAPS in terms of valence, arousal, and dominance, following the methodology of the original normative study carried out by Lang et al. in the United States in 1999.

  5. Comparison of Brazilian and American norms for the International Affective Picture System (IAPS Comparação entre normas brasileiras e norte-americanas do International Affective Picture System (IAPS

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    Rafaela Larsen Ribeiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present article compares Brazilian and American norms for the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, a set of normative emotional photographic slides for experimental investigations. METHODS: Subjects were 1,062 Brazilian university students (364 men and 698 women who rated 707 pictures from the IAPS in terms of pleasure, arousal, and dominance following the methodology of the original normative study in the US, enabling direct comparison of data from the two samples through Pearson product moment correlation and Student t test. RESULTS: All correlations were highly significant with the highest level for the pleasure dimension, followed by dominance and arousal. However, contrary to the American normative values, our data showed that Brazilian subjects generally assigned higher arousal ratings overall. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that this set of stimuli can be used in Brazil as an affective rating tool due to the high correlations found across the two populations, despite differences on the arousal dimension, which are discussed in detail.OBJETIVO: O presente artigo compara as normas obtidas no Brasil e nos EUA para o "International Affective Picture System" (IAPS, um conjunto de fotografias emocionais amplamente utilizado na investigação experimental. MÉTODOS: Os sujeitos foram 1.062 universitários brasileiros (364 homens e 698 mulheres que avaliaram as 707 fotografias do IAPS nas dimensões prazer, alerta e dominância, utilizando o mesmo procedimento do estudo normativo original realizado nos EUA, permitindo uma comparação direta dos dados através de correlações lineares de Pearson e testes t de Student. RESULTADOS: Todas as correlações entre as populações foram altamente significativas, sendo o maior coeficiente o da dimensão prazer, seguido da dimensão dominância e alerta. Entretanto, os brasileiros atribuíram maiores valores médios à dimensão alerta do que os norte-americanos. CONCLUSÃO: Os

  6. Um estudo dos relatos afetivos subjetivos a estímulos do International Affective Picture System em uma amostra geriátrica brasileira Subjective affective ratings to photographic stimuli of the International Affective Picture System in a Brazilian elderly sample

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    Weyler Galvão Porto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A literatura científica indica a possibilidade de a percepção da emoção e a formação da memória emocional serem discordantes entre jovens e idosos. A mesma é pobre ao explorar essa possibilidade. Neste estudo, relatamos os resultados obtidos em um experimento-piloto com uma amostra de idosos brasileiros, que classificaram subjetivamente, através da escala Self Assessment Manikin, imagens oriundas do International Affective Picture System. MÉTODO: Quarenta e oito idosos voluntários da Universidade Aberta da Terceira Idade, saudáveis clínica e cognitivamente, avaliaram o caráter alertante e a valência afetiva de 71 imagens do International Affective Picture System, aleatoriamente escolhidas. RESULTADOS: O grau de alerta reportado por idosos diante de um estímulo emocional é tanto maior quanto menor o prazer provocado por essa imagem-estímulo, resultando na existência de uma forte correlação negativa (r = 0,93 entre o grau de alerta e o estímulo desprazeroso. Em uma comparação do acima obtido com outro experimento normativo semelhante feito com jovens brasileiros e americanos, apontou-se para uma possível diferença cultural na forma de relatar subjetivamente um estímulo emocional. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos com esta amostra estudada sugerem que pode existir uma diferença nos relatos afetivos entre os jovens e idosos, onde uma normatização do International Affective Picture System para uma amostra maior, representativa da população de idosos, seria útil para responder esta questão.INTRODUCTION: The scientific literature points to a possible bias in the form perception and emotional memory are constructed when elderly and young individuals are compared. However, this possibility is underexplored. This paper presents the results obtained from a pilot study based on an elderly emotional subjective report after evaluation using the International Affective Picture System images and Self Assessment

  7. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

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    Beek Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that pictures with negative valence have a greater impact on postural control than neutral or positive ones. Thirty-four healthy subjects passively viewed a series of emotion eliciting images, while standing either in a bipedal or unipedal stance on a force plate. The images were adopted from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. We analysed mean and variability of the COP and the length of the associated sway path as a function of emotion. Results The mean position of the COP was unaffected by emotion, but unipedal stance resulted in overall greater body sway than bipedal stance. We found a modest effect of emotion on COP: viewing pictures of mutilation resulted in a smaller sway path, but only in unipedal stance. We obtained valence and arousal ratings of the images with an independent sample of viewers. These subjects rated the unpleasant images as significantly less pleasant than neutral images, and the pleasant images as significantly more pleasant than neutral images. However, the subjects rated the images as overall less pleasant and less arousing than viewers in a closely comparable American study, pointing to unknown differences in viewer characteristics. Conclusion Overall, viewing emotion eliciting images had little effect on body sway. Our finding of a reduction in sway path length when viewing pictures of mutilation was indicative of a freezing strategy, i.e. fear bradycardia. The results are consistent with current knowledge about the

  8. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

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    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both.

  9. Affective Pictures and the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF): Tools to Investigate Emotions toward Food in Adults

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    Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M. Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es. PMID:27513636

  10. Breathing and affective picture processing across the adult lifespan.

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    Gomez, Patrick; Filippou, Dimitra; Pais, Bruno; von Gunten, Armin; Danuser, Brigitta

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated differences between healthy younger, middle-aged, and older adults in their respiratory responses to pictures of different valence and arousal. Expiratory time shortened and end-tidal PCO2 decreased with increasing arousal in all age groups; yet, compared to younger adults, older adults' overall change from baseline was smaller for expiratory time and larger for end-tidal PCO2. Contrary to their younger counterparts, older adults' inspiratory time did not shorten with increasing arousal. Inspiratory duty cycle did not covary with affective ratings for younger adults, increased with unpleasantness for middle-aged adults, and increased with arousal for older adults. Thoracic breathing increased with increasing unpleasantness only among older adults. Age had no effects on mean inspiratory flow and minute ventilation, which both augmented as arousal increased. We discuss how age effects on respiratory response magnitude and pattern may depend on age-associated biological changes or reflect age-related differences in emotional processing.

  11. Emotional & electroencephalographic responses during affective picture viewing after exercise.

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    Crabbe, James B; Smith, J Carson; Dishman, Rod K

    2007-02-28

    We examined the effects of 30 min of cycling exercise at a moderate intensity of 50% peak oxygen uptake, compared to 30 min of rest, on changes in emotional responses to pictorial foreground stimuli that reliably elicit unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant affect. Emotional responses were measured by self-reports of valence (unpleasant to pleasant) and arousal (low to high) and by hemispheric asymmetry (R-L) of frontal and parietal brain electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in 13 females and 21 males (24+/-3 y). Compared to after rest, self-reports of arousal in response to unpleasant slides were diminished after exercise, but self-reports of valence and frontal asymmetry of alpha frequencies were generally unchanged. Even so, there were differential responses in asymmetry in the beta frequencies in the frontal region and for alpha and beta frequencies in the parietal region, indicative of decreased activity in the left frontal and right parietal regions after exercise compared to after rest. We conclude that moderately intense cycling exercise generally does not alter emotional responding to pleasant and neutral pictures, but may reduce emotional arousal during exposure to unpleasant stimuli.

  12. 21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Group (JPEG) Std., Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) Test Pattern). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Picture archiving and communications system. 892... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2050 Picture archiving...

  13. Picture models for 2-scene comics creating system

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    Miki UENO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.

  14. Effects of affective pictures on pain sensitivity and cortical responses induced by laser stimuli in healthy subjects and migraine patients.

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    de Tommaso, Marina; Calabrese, Rita; Vecchio, Eleonora; De Vito Francesco, Vito; Lancioni, Giulio; Livrea, Paolo

    2009-11-01

    Visually induced analgesia has been correlated with the affective content of pleasant, neutral or unpleasant pictures. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of affective images vision on laser evoked potentials and pain perception, in a cohort of healthy subjects and migraine patients. Twenty-two healthy subjects and 24 migraine without aura patients (recorded during the inter-critical phase) participated in the study. Eighty-four colour slides, arranged in two blocks, each consisting of 14 pleasant, 14 unpleasant and 14 neutral images, in random presentation, were chosen from the International Affective Picture System. The CO(2) laser stimuli were delivered on the dorsum of the right hand and supra-orbital zone at 7.5-watt intensity and 25-ms duration, in basal condition and during the viewing of affective pictures. Migraine patients expressed higher scores of valence and arousal for pleasant and unpleasant pictures, compared to controls. In both groups, a late positive potential in the 400-700 ms time range was clear for pleasant and unpleasant pictures, but its amplitude was significantly reduced in migraine patients. The pain rating and the N2 component were reduced in both groups during the visual task compared to basal condition. In migraineurs and controls the P2 wave was reduced during the vision of pleasant pictures, compared to basal condition. This indicates that stimulation by images with different affective content reduces subjective pain for a cognitive mechanism of attentive engagement, while a special inhibition of later LEPs is produced by a positive emotional impact. In migraine, affective images are able to modulate pain perception and LEPs, differently from other modalities of distraction, suggesting a possible emotive elaboration of painful stimuli.

  15. Amygdala responses to unpleasant pictures are influenced by task demands and positive affect trait

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    Tiago Arruda Sanchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed fMRI to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n=22, 12 male were scanned while viewing neutral (people or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0º or 90º orientation difference or (c in a hard condition (0º or 6º orientation difference. Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. ROI analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01 between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses.

  16. Social systems: unearthing the big picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Open peer commentary on the article “Social Autopoiesis?” by Hugo Urrestarazu. Upshot: Although accepting Urrestarazu’s view of how autopoietic dynamics can be sought in the domain of the non-living, we see no reason to trace the social to autonomy. Rather, we stress that social systems happen all...

  17. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: clinical picture and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Skov, Lone

    2009-01-01

    The classic hallmark symptoms of advanced nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) (skin thickening, hardening and hyperpigmentation, and disabling contractures in renal failure patients) in temporal association with Gd-based contrast agent (GBCA) exposure are almost pathognomonic of NSF. Less obvious......, and the histology of deep skin biopsies. Symptomatic treatment with intensive physiotherapy and painkillers is important, but there is no known curative medical treatment. Spontaneous remission of NSF symptoms may occur with recovery of renal function after an episode of acute renal failure, or with kidney...

  18. Single Integrated Air Picture (SIAP) Block 1 Candidate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    to produce joint warfighting capability. Since there was no process for the Single Integrated Air Picture System Engineering Task Force ( SIAP SE TF...to inherit or leverage, the SIAP SE TF had to build a process to identify candidate systems that will be impacted by the SIAP Block I upgrade.

  19. Theta phase coherence in affective picture processing reveals dysfunctional sensory integration in psychopathic offenders.

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    Tillem, Scott; Ryan, Jonathan; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J; Mayes, Linda C; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle

    2016-09-01

    Psychopathic offenders are described as emotionally cold, displaying deficits in affective responding. However, research demonstrates that many of the psychopathy-related deficits are moderated by attention, such that under conditions of high attentional and perceptual load psychopathic offenders display deficits in affective responses, but do not in conditions of low load. To date, most studies use measures of defensive reflex (i.e., startle) and conditioning manipulations to examine the impact of load on psychopathy-related processing, but have not examined more direct measures of attention processing. In a sample of adult male offenders, the present study examined time-frequency EEG phase coherence in response to a picture-viewing paradigm that manipulated picture familiarity to assess neural changes in processing based on perceptual demands. Results indicated psychopathy-related differences in the theta response, an index of readiness to perceive and integrate sensory information. These data provide further evidence that psychopathic offenders have disrupted integration of sensory information.

  20. Affective priming with pictures of emotional scenes: the role of perceptual similarity and category relatedness.

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    Avero, Pedro; Calvo, Manuel G

    2006-05-01

    Prime pictures portraying pleasant or unpleasant scenes were briefly presented (150-ms display; SOAs of 300 or 800 ms), followed by probe pictures either congruent or incongruent in emotional valence. In an evaluative decision task, participants responded whether the probe was emotionally positive or negative. Affective priming was reflected in shorter response latencies for congruent than for incongruent prime-probe pairs. Although this effect was enhanced by perceptual similarity between the prime and the probe, it also occurred for probes that were physically different, and the effect generalized across semantic categories (animals vs. people). It is concluded that affective priming is a genuine phenomenon, in that it occurs as a function of stimulus emotional content, in the absence of both perceptual similarity and semantic category relatedness between the prime and the probe.

  1. Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yu, E-mail: yu.pan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au; Miao, Zibo, E-mail: yu.pan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au [Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Amini, Hadis, E-mail: nhamini@stanford.edu [Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Gough, John, E-mail: jug@aber.ac.uk [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, SY23 3BZ Wales (United Kingdom); Ugrinovskii, Valery, E-mail: v.ugrinovskii@gmail.com [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales at ADFA, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); James, Matthew R., E-mail: matthew.james@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks.

  2. The pupil's response to affective pictures: Role of image duration, habituation, and viewing mode.

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    Snowden, Robert J; O'Farrell, Katherine R; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Newton, Naomi V; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-08-01

    The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100-3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate.

  3. Food depictions in picture books for preschool children: Frequency, centrality, and affect.

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    Goldman, Jane A; Descartes, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The food content and messages depicted in popular children's picture books were examined using a set of 100 "Favorite Books for Preschoolers." Sixty-nine of these books depicted food and comprised the sample. Examined were: the types and frequencies of food depicted in the text and/or illustrations of the books; the centrality (central, background); and the affect (positive, neutral, or negative) of those depictions. Each food item was counted, categorized by type, and where possible, coded for centrality and affect. Fruit was the most frequently depicted food, followed by sweetened baked goods, dairy, and vegetables. However, centrality and affect differed for these foods. For example, sweet baked goods were high in both centrality and affect. In contrast vegetables were relatively high in centrality but most often neutral in affect. Ice cream, although not in many books, always was associated with positive outcomes. Results were compared to findings in the literature on food messages presented in children's television programs. The ratio of healthy foods to nutrient-poor foods was higher in the books. However, as in television, the books emphasized the desirability of sweetened foods. The results point to the need for detailed analyses of the types of presentations associated with different foods presented in books for children, as well as for continued investigations into food messages in the growing range of media available to young children.

  4. The association between chronic exposure to video game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study.

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    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective picture processing observed with a single presentation of the stimuli, and (3) is the association between VGV and the response to violent stimuli sensitive to the relevance of emotion for task performance? The data revealed that transient modulations of the event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attentional orienting and sustained modulations of the ERPs related to evaluative processing were sensitive to VGV exposure.

  5. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

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    Kwak, Byung Joon [Dept. of Radiological Tecnology, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ji Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  6. Picture archiving and communication systems in digital cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Sandra; Grigioni, Mauro; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Balzano, Simone; Giansanti, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a fundamental feature of digital cytology relevant to the implementation of the technology in the hospital net services: the electronic recording of the virtual slides (VS) in the hospital information system (HIS) through a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Starting from the digital cytology (D-CYT) state of art and considering the most important products in the field, particular attention has been devoted in this review to the comparison with the digital radiology (D-RAD). Two main indications emerged from the study: 1. there is not a standard in the digital files relevant to the virtual slides in D-CYT, while in D-RAD the standard digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), introduced by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), has been adopted from several years; 2. the PACS in D-CYT are not standardized from manufacturers. The study makes a proposal of a useful software architecture to improve the PACS integration for D-CYT applications, with potentialities in the HIS.

  7. Picture archiving and communication systems in digital cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Morelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a fundamental feature of digital cytology relevant to the implementation of the technology in the hospital net services: the electronic recording of the virtual slides (VS in the hospital information system (HIS through a picture archiving and communication system (PACS. Starting from the digital cytology (D-CYT state of art and considering the most important products in the field, particular attention has been devoted in this review to the comparison with the digital radiology (D-RAD. Two main indications emerged from the study: 1. there is not a standard in the digital files relevant to the virtual slides in D-CYT, while in D-RAD the standard digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM, introduced by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA, has been adopted from several years; 2. the PACS in D-CYT are not standardized from manufacturers. The study makes a proposal of a useful software architecture to improve the PACS integration for D-CYT applications, with potentialities in the HIS.

  8. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard;

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...... of the association vary according to emotion category....

  9. Initial application of picture archiving and communication system and its benefit analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗敏; 彭承琳; 王小林; 罗松; 雷文勇; 王康; 温洪宇; 王学健; 曹军

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the daily clinical volume has increased rapidly to over 3000 patients in the Affiliated Hospital of Guiyang Medical College in southwestern China of Guizhou Province, and the pressure to improve working efficiency and scientific management has increased gradually. Previously, each imaging department and section did not liaise, so the archiving rate of image materials (film) is rather low. Damaged and missing films were a serious problem, adversely affecting the work of teaching, scientific research and clinics to a considerable extent. After establishing and applying a large-scale picture archiving and communication system (PACS), the administration of the hospital in these respects has been vastly improved.

  10. Radiology information systems, picture archiving and communication systems, teleradiology--overview and design criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, G H; Shieh, Y Y

    1998-11-01

    Information technology (IT), long taken for granted in commercial settings, is now being utilized for health-care applications. Medical imaging has lagged comparatively due to the extremely vast data content of each frame; thus, the requirement for expensive high-end components. Further, IT in radiology has evolved from two distinctly separate camps--information systems, known as RIS (radiology information systems) and PACS (picture archiving and communications systems). Both RIS and PACS applications have migrated to the PC environment, enabling cost-effective implementation, but from two backgrounds: RIS from vendors using conventional information systems platforms and products, and PACS from radiographic film and modality vendors. The radiology department at Texas Tech University has assembled a seamlessly integrated, enterprise-wide RIS/PACS/teleradiology intranet. The design criteria include user-friendliness, flexibility to respond to changing needs, and open modular architecture to assure interoperability, cost-effectiveness, and future-proofing of investment. Since no single venor could provide an integrated system meeting our specifications, we decided to assume the burden of constructing our own system. As the system integrator, we embrace open architecture, thus enabling the incorporation of industry-standard-compliant, COTS (commercially off the shelf) products as modules. Microsoft Windows NT operating system, Visual C++ programming language, TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internetworking protocol), relational SQL (structured query language) database, ODBC (open database connectivity), HL-7 (health level seven) and DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) interfaces are utilized. The usage of COTS components reduces the cost to very affordable levels. With this approach, any module in our system can be replaced when outmoded, without affecting other modules in our system, making it truly future-proof. Construction and evolution of

  11. Effects of prefrontal rTMS on autonomic reactions to affective pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christoph; Domes, Gregor; Balschat, Johannes; Thome, Johannes; Höppner, Jacqueline

    2017-02-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can modulate the excitability of stimulated cortical areas, such as prefrontal areas involved in emotion regulation. Low frequency (LF) rTMS is expected to have inhibitory effects on prefrontal regions, and thereby should disinhibit limbic activity, resulting in enhanced emotional and autonomic reactions. For high frequency (HF) rTMS, the opposite pattern might be assumed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different rTMS frequencies applied to the right dlPFC on autonomic functions and on emotional perception. In a crossover design, two groups of 20 healthy young women were either stimulated with one session of LF rTMS (1 Hz) or one session of HF rTMS (10 Hz), compared to sham stimulation. We assessed phasic cardiac responses (PCR), skin conductance reactions (SCR), and emotional appraisal of emotional pictures as well as recognition memory after each rTMS application. After LF rTMS, PCR (heart rate deceleration) during presentation of pictures with negative and neutral valence was significantly increased compared to the presentation of positive pictures. In contrast, the modulatory effect of picture valence and arousal on the cardiac orienting response was absent after HF rTMS. Our results suggest that frontal LF rTMS indirectly activates the ANS via inhibition of the right dlPFC activity, likely by enhancing the sensory processing or attention to aversive and neutral stimuli.

  12. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role.

  13. On the classification of emotional biosignals evoked while viewing affective pictures: an integrated data-mining-based approach for healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzidis, Christos A; Bratsas, Charalampos; Klados, Manousos A; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos; Lithari, Chrysa D; Vivas, Ana B; Papadelis, Christos L; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Pappas, Costas; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2010-03-01

    Recent neuroscience findings demonstrate the fundamental role of emotion in the maintenance of physical and mental health. In the present study, a novel architecture is proposed for the robust discrimination of emotional physiological signals evoked upon viewing pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Biosignals are multichannel recordings from both the central and the autonomic nervous systems. Following the bidirectional emotion theory model, IAPS pictures are rated along two dimensions, namely, their valence and arousal. Following this model, biosignals in this paper are initially differentiated according to their valence dimension by means of a data mining approach, which is the C4.5 decision tree algorithm. Then, the valence and the gender information serve as an input to a Mahalanobis distance classifier, which dissects the data into high and low arousing. Results are described in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format, thereby accounting for platform independency, easy interconnectivity, and information exchange. The average recognition (success) rate was 77.68% for the discrimination of four emotional states, differing both in their arousal and valence dimension. It is, therefore, envisaged that the proposed approach holds promise for the efficient discrimination of negative and positive emotions, and it is hereby discussed how future developments may be steered to serve for affective healthcare applications, such as the monitoring of the elderly or chronically ill people.

  14. A Sensitive and Specific Neural Signature for Picture-Induced Negative Affect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has identified many correlates of emotion but has not yet yielded brain representations predictive of the intensity of emotional experiences in individuals. We used machine learning to identify a sensitive and specific signature of emotional responses to aversive images. This signature predicted the intensity of negative emotion in individual participants in cross validation (n =121 and test (n = 61 samples (high-low emotion = 93.5% accuracy. It was unresponsive to physical pain (emotion-pain = 92% discriminative accuracy, demonstrating that it is not a representation of generalized arousal or salience. The signature was comprised of mesoscale patterns spanning multiple cortical and subcortical systems, with no single system necessary or sufficient for predicting experience. Furthermore, it was not reducible to activity in traditional "emotion-related" regions (e.g., amygdala, insula or resting-state networks (e.g., "salience," "default mode". Overall, this work identifies differentiable neural components of negative emotion and pain, providing a basis for new, brain-based taxonomies of affective processes.

  15. A multiprocessor system for the analysis of pictures of nuclear events

    CERN Document Server

    Bacilieri, P; Matteuzzi, P; Sini, G P; Zanotti, U

    1979-01-01

    The pictures of nuclear events obtained from the bubble chambers such as Gargamelle and BEBC at CERN and others from Serpukhov are geometrically processed at CNAF (Centro Nazionale Analysis Photogrammi) in Bologna. The analysis system includes an Erasme table and a CRT flying spot digitizer. The difficulties connected with the pictures of the four stereoscopic views of the bubble chambers are overcome by the choice of a strong interactive system. (0 refs).

  16. Affective facilitation of early visual cortex during rapid picture presentation at 6 and 15 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhtereva, Valeria; Müller, Matthias M

    2015-12-01

    The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), a neurophysiological marker of attentional resource allocation with its generators in early visual cortex, exhibits enhanced amplitude for emotional compared to neutral complex pictures. Emotional cue extraction for complex images is linked to the N1-EPN complex with a peak latency of ∼140-160 ms. We tested whether neural facilitation in early visual cortex with affective pictures requires emotional cue extraction of individual images, even when a stream of images of the same valence category is presented. Images were shown at either 6 Hz (167 ms, allowing for extraction) or 15 Hz (67 ms per image, causing disruption of processing by the following image). Results showed SSVEP amplitude enhancement for emotional compared to neutral images at a presentation rate of 6 Hz but no differences at 15 Hz. This was not due to featural differences between the two valence categories. Results strongly suggest that individual images need to be displayed for sufficient time allowing for emotional cue extraction to drive affective neural modulation in early visual cortex.

  17. Development of picture quality monitoring system for IPTV service based on the reduced reference framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Ryoichi; Koike, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    The authors developed a software-based realtime IPTV monitoring system based on Reduced Reference framework, and evaluated the proposed system. One of the quality issues of the IPTV service is the picture quality degradation caused by packet loss. The proposed system precisely estimates the PSNR of the corrupted received picture by extracting and comparing image features from transmission and receiver side. Computer simulations show that PSNR estimation with a 0.945 correlation coefficient at a data channel bitrate of 36kbps is possible using the proposed system.

  18. Affective priming of emotional pictures in parafoveal vision: left visual field advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Avero, Pedro

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated whether stimulus affective content can be extracted from visual scenes when these appear in parafoveal locations of the visual field and are foveally masked, and whether there is lateralization involved. Parafoveal prime pleasant or unpleasant scenes were presented for 150 msec 2.5 degrees away from fixation and were followed by a foveal probe scene that was either congruent or incongruent in emotional valence with the prime. Participants responded whether the probe was emotionally positive or negative. Affective priming was demonstrated by shorter response latencies for congruent than for incongruent prime-probe pairs. This effect occurred when the prime was presented in the left visual field at a 300-msec prime-probe stimulus onset asynchrony, even when the prime and the probe were different in physical appearance and semantic category. This result reveals that the affective significance of emotional stimuli can be assessed early through covert attention mechanisms, in the absence of overt eye fixations on the stimuli, and suggests that right-hemisphere dominance is involved.

  19. Use of the adult attachment projective picture system in psychodynamic psychotherapy with a severely traumatized patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Carol; Buchheim, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The following case study is presented to facilitate an understanding of how the attachment information evident from Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) assessment can be integrated into a psychodynamic perspective in making therapeutic recommendations that integrate an attachment perspective. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a valid representational measure of internal representations of attachment based on the analysis of a set of free response picture stimuli designed to systematically activate the attachment system (George and West, 2012). The AAP provides a fruitful diagnostic tool for psychodynamic-oriented clinicians to identify attachment-based deficits and resources for an individual patient in therapy. This paper considers the use of the AAP with a traumatized patient in an inpatient setting and uses a case study to illustrate the components of the AAP that are particularly relevant to a psychodynamic conceptualization. The paper discusses also attachment-based recommendations for intervention.

  20. General flat four-dimensional world pictures and clock systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J. P.; Underwood, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    We explore the mathematical structure and the physical implications of a general four-dimensional symmetry framework which is consistent with the Poincare-Einstein principle of relativity for physical laws and with experiments. In particular, we discuss a four-dimensional framework in which all observers in different frames use one and the same grid of clocks. The general framework includes special relativity and a recently proposed new four-dimensional symmetry with a nonuniversal light speed as two special simple cases. The connection between the properties of light propagation and the convention concerning clock systems is also discussed, and is seen to be nonunique within the four-dimensional framework.

  1. Video Feedforward for Rapid Learning of a Picture-Based Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jemma; Hand, Linda; Dowrick, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of video self modeling (VSM) using feedforward, to teach various goals of a picture exchange communication system (PECS). The participants were two boys with autism and one man with Down syndrome. All three participants were non-verbal with no current functional system of communication; the two children had long…

  2. A New Forensic Picture Polygraph Technique for Terrorist and Crime Deception System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, R. H. Brian; Axton, JoAnn; Gold, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    The Forensic Terrorist Detection System called Pinocchio Assessment Profile (PAP) employs standard issue polygraphs for a non-verbal picture technique originated as a biofeedback careers interest instrument. The system can be integrated readily into airport screening protocols. However, the method does not rely on questioning or foreign language…

  3. An Evaluation of Strategies for Training Staff to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Clarissa S.; Dunning, Johnna L.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a functional communication system frequently used with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders who experience severe language delays (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Few empirical investigations have evaluated strategies for training direct care staff how to effectively implement PECS with…

  4. The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Rocio; Stone, Karen; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a behavioral skills training (BST) package to teach the implementation of the first three phases of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was evaluated with 3 adults who had no history teaching any functional communication system. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness…

  5. Metaphor priming in sentence production: concrete pictures affect abstract language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Manami; Schafer, Amy J; Bergen, Benjamin K

    2015-03-01

    People speak metaphorically about abstract concepts-for instance, a person can be "full of love" or "have a lot of love to give." Over the past decade, research has begun to focus on how metaphors are processed during language comprehension. Much of this work suggests that understanding a metaphorical expression involves activating brain and body systems involved in perception and motor control. However, no research to date has asked whether the same is true while speakers produce language. We address this gap using a sentence production task. Its results demonstrate that visually activating a concrete source domain can trigger the use of metaphorical language drawn from that same concrete domain, even in sentences that are thematically unrelated to the primes, a metaphorical priming effect. This effect suggests that conceptual metaphors play a part in language production. It also shows that activation in the perceptual system that is not part of an intended message can nevertheless influence sentence formulation.

  6. Influence of trait behavioral inhibition and behavioral approach motivation systems on the LPP and frontal asymmetry to anger pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Poole, Bryan D

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral approach and avoidance are fundamental to the experience of emotion and motivation, but the motivational system associated with anger is not well established. Some theories posit that approach motivational processes underlie anger, whereas others posit that avoidance motivational processes underlie anger. The current experiment sought to address whether traits related to behavioral approach or avoidance influence responses to anger stimuli using multiple measures: ERP, electroencephalographic (EEG) α-asymmetry and self-report. After completing the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral approach system (BIS/BAS) scales, participants viewed anger pictures and neutral pictures. BAS predicted larger late positive potentials (LPPs) to anger pictures, but not to neutral pictures. In addition, BAS predicted greater left-frontal asymmetry to anger pictures. Moreover, larger LPPs to anger pictures related to greater left-frontal EEG asymmetry during anger pictures. These results suggest that trait approach motivation relates to neurophysiological responses of anger.

  7. Understanding the Picture Exchange Communication System and Its Application in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amanda; Sandt, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and its applications in physical education. The PECS is an appropriate communication intervention for students with autism who lack functional communication skills. It is often confused with other visual support strategies, so the authors delineate the six phases of PECS and…

  8. Quantitative Synthesis and Component Analysis of Single-Participant Studies on the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Devis, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) has emerged as the augmentative communication intervention of choice for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a supporting body of single-participant studies. This report describes a meta-analysis of 16 single-participant studies on PECS with percentage of nonoverlapping data…

  9. Using the Picture Exchange Communication System with Students with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Sarah E.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Students with visual impairment (VI) were taught to request using the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and tangible symbols. Participants were four males with additional disabilities, 5 to 11 years old, who had little to no functional vision. A functional relation between PECS Phase 1 and requesting was established using a multiple…

  10. Non-Fermi liquid picture and superconductivity in heavy fermion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykora, Steffen [IFW Dresden, D- 01171 Dresden (Germany); Becker, Klaus W. [Department of Physics, TU Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We study the S = 1/2 Kondo lattice model which is widely used to describe heavy fermion behavior. In conventional treatments of the model a hybridization of conduction and localized f electrons is introduced by decoupling the Kondo interaction. However, such an approximation has the detrimental effect that a breaking of a local gauge symmetry is imposed which implicates that the local f occupation n{sub i}{sup f} is no longer conserved. To avoid such an artifact, we treat the model in an alternative approach based on the Projective Renormalization Method (PRM). Thereby, within the conduction electron spectral function we identify the lattice Kondo resonance as an almost flat incoherent excitation near the Fermi surface which is composed of conduction electron creation operators combined with localized spin fluctuations. This leads to a new concept of the Kondo resonance without having to resort to a symmetry breaking and Fermi liquid theory. Based on this new picture we develop a microscopic theory for superconductivity in heavy fermion systems. Thereby we study the momentum-dependence of the superconducting order parameter for singlet as well as triplet pairing. We show that in particular the triplet pairing components are strongly affected by the incoherent excitations found to be responsible for the Kondo resonance.

  11. Transparent image access in a distributed picture archiving and communications system: The master database broker

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, R D; Henri, C. J.; Rubin, R. K.

    1999-01-01

    A distributed design is the most cost-effective system for small- to medium-scale picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) implementations. However, the design presents an interesting challenge to developers and implementers: to make stored image data, distributed throughout the PACS network, appear to be centralized with a single access point for users. A key component for the distributed system is a central or master database, containing all the studies that have been scanned int...

  12. The amodal system for conscious word and picture identification in the absence of a semantic task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doren, Leen; Dupont, Patrick; De Grauwe, Sophie; Peeters, Ronald; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2010-02-15

    Previous studies using explicit semantic tasks, such as category or similarity judgments, have revealed considerable neuroanatomical overlap between processing of the meaning of words and pictures. This result may have been influenced by the semantic executive control required by such tasks. We examined the degree of overlap while minimizing semantic executive demands. In a first fMRI experiment (n=28), we titrated word (35.3 ms, SD=9.6) and picture presentation duration (50.7 ms, SD=15.8) such that conscious stimulus identification became a stochastic process, with a 50% chance of success. Subjects had to indicate by key press whether or not they had been able to identify the stimulus. In a second fMRI experiment (n=19), the identification runs were followed by a surprise forced-choice recognition task and events were sorted on the basis of subsequent memory retrieval success rather than a subjective consciousness report. For both words and pictures, when stimulus processing exceeded the conscious identification threshold, the left occipitotemporal sulcus (OTS), intraparietal sulcus, inferior frontal junction, and middle third of the inferior frontal sulcus (IFS) were more active than when subjects had been unable to identify the stimulus. For both words and pictures, activity in two of these regions, IFS and OTS, predicted subsequent memory retrieval success. A Bayesian comparison revealed that the effective connectivity between IFS and the word- or picture-specific systems was mainly mediated via its connections with OTS. The amodal nature of left OTS and IFS involvement in word and picture processing extends to tasks with minimal semantic executive demands.

  13. Research and teaching access to a large clinical picture archiving and communication system

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Marc; Koh, Justin; Tran, Steven; Mongkolwat, Patanasak; Channin, David S.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To identify practical issues surrounding delivering digital images from picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) for research and teaching purposes. The complexity of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) access methods, security, patient confidentiality, PACS database integrity, portability, and scalability are discussed. A software prototype designed to resolve these issues is described.System Architecture: A six-component, three-tier, client server softw...

  14. Use of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy with a Severely Traumatized Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol eGeorge

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP is a valid representational measure of internal representations of attachment based on the analysis of a set of free response picture stimuli designed to systematically activate the attachment system (George & West, 2012. The AAP provides a fruitful diagnostic tool for psychodynamic-oriented clinicians to identify attachment-based deficits and resources for an individual patient in therapy. This paper considers the use of the AAP with a traumatized patient in an inpatient setting and uses a case study to illustrate the components of the AAP that are particularly relevant to a psychodynamic conceptualization. The paper discusses also attachment-based recommendations for intervention.

  15. Clinical integration of picture archiving and communication systems with pathology and hospital information system in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lisa D; Gray, Keith; Lewis, James M; Bell, John L; Bigge, Jeremy; McKinney, J Mark

    2010-09-01

    The complexity of our current healthcare delivery system has become an impediment to communication among caregivers resulting in fragmentation of patient care. To address these issues, many hospitals are implementing processes to facilitate clinical integration in an effort to improve patient care and safety. Clinical informatics, including image storage in a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), represents a tool whereby clinical integration can be accomplished. In this study, we obtained intraoperative photographs of 19 cases to document clinical stage, extent of disease, disease recurrence, reconstruction/grafting, intraoperative findings not identified by preoperative imaging, and site verification as part of the Universal Protocol. Photographs from all cases were stored and viewed in PACS. Images from many of the cases were presented at our interdepartmental cancer conferences. The stored images improved communication among caregivers and preserved pertinent intraoperative findings in the patients' electronic medical record. In the future, pathology, gastroenterology, pulmonology, dermatology, and cardiology are just a few other subspecialties which could accomplish image storage in PACS. Multidisciplinary image storage in a PACS epitomizes the concept of clinical integration and its goal of improving patient care.

  16. Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) of dynamic image processing for cardiologic diagnostics of transportation workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedenko, Valeri G.; Ioseliani, D. G.; Nikiforov, S. N.; Fainberg, Evgeny M.

    2002-04-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are the most perspective branch of medical technologies development. One of the most mass, cheap and effective methods of diagnostics and treatment of cardio-vascular diseases is interventional cardiology based on angiologic procedures. The principal difference of PACS for interventional cardiology is in necessity of gaining, analysis and archiving of dynamic images (angiology scenes). Russian Research Center > has developed and successfully implemented the first Russian PACS for interventional cardiology - complex for diagnostics, monitoring and treatment of cardio-vascular disease > which is described later in the article.

  17. [CORBA-based design and packaging of picture archiving and communication system object].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zu-jin; Sun, An-yu

    2009-10-01

    Regionalization has become one of the most important trends in the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) due to the existence of large amounts of information islands. The conventional PACS designed according to the DICOM standard on the basis of the C/S structure fails to meet the demand of regional information system maintenance. A regional PACS system based on common object request broker architecture (CORBA) distributed technology is therefore proposed and implemented. This article describes the design and packaging of the PACS objects. When mounting a series of separate logical and related functional PACS objects on the ORB bus, the multi-scale PACS systems can be established. This method eliminates the limitation of the C/S structure and offers good compatibility and scalability.

  18. Cover Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen

    2000-07-17

    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  19. Effects of picture exchange communication system on communication and behavioral anomalies in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Shahzadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication skills deficits and stereotyped behaviors are frequently found among people with pervasive developmental disabilities like autism. These communication and behavioral oddities of autism are often considered to be difficult to treat and are challenging. Picture exchange communication system (PECS is a six-phase picture system based on applied behavior analysis and is specially designed to overcome these communication difficulties in children with autism by encouraging the child to be the communication initiator. The present paper throws light on the process of using PECS along with other traditional behavioral approaches in managing communication deficits and behavioral stereotypies in a seven-year-old male child diagnosed as having childhood autism. The identified target behaviors of repeated head turning, flapping his hands, poor communication skills were assessed using various rating scales including visual analogue scale as per clinician observation and parental reports and managed using PECS as an adjunct to traditional behavioral techniques of contingency management, differential reinforcement, task direction and reprimand. Outcome was assessed using same tools after thirty-two sessions of interventions spread over three months. Significant improvements of around 60% were observed in the target behaviors.

  20. Effects of Picture Exchange Communication System on Communication and Behavioral Anomalies in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Bhatia, Manjeet S.; Singh, Tej B.

    2010-01-01

    Communication skills deficits and stereotyped behaviors are frequently found among people with pervasive developmental disabilities like autism. These communication and behavioral oddities of autism are often considered to be difficult to treat and are challenging. Picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a six-phase picture system based on applied behavior analysis and is specially designed to overcome these communication difficulties in children with autism by encouraging the child to be the communication initiator. The present paper throws light on the process of using PECS along with other traditional behavioral approaches in managing communication deficits and behavioral stereotypies in a seven-year-old male child diagnosed as having childhood autism. The identified target behaviors of repeated head turning, flapping his hands, poor communication skills were assessed using various rating scales including visual analogue scale as per clinician observation and parental reports and managed using PECS as an adjunct to traditional behavioral techniques of contingency management, differential reinforcement, task direction and reprimand. Outcome was assessed using same tools after thirty-two sessions of interventions spread over three months. Significant improvements of around 60% were observed in the target behaviors. PMID:21716776

  1. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Nijholt, Anton; Reidsma, Dennis; Hondorp, Hendri

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  2. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  3. Effects of picture size reduction and blurring on emotional engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Cesarei

    Full Text Available The activity of basic motivational systems is reflected in emotional responses to arousing stimuli, such as natural pictures. The manipulation of picture properties such as size or detail allows for investigation into the extent to which separate emotional reactions are similarly modulated by perceptual changes, or, rather, may subserve different functions. Pursuing this line of research, the present study examined the effects of two types of perceptual degradation, namely picture size reduction and blurring, on emotional responses. Both manipulations reduced picture relevance and dampened affective modulation of skin conductance, possibly because of a reduced action preparation in response to degraded or remote pictures. However, the affective modulation of the startle reflex did not vary with picture degradation, suggesting that the identification of these degraded affective cues activated the neural circuits mediating appetitive or defensive motivation.

  4. Some problems with picture archiving and communication system application in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 高培毅

    2003-01-01

    @@ The hospital information system (HIS) of China has been developed continuously from single computer to the whole hospital information network in the past 20 years. Now, many hospitals have abandoned the hospital information management system (HMIS) that focuses on finance management, and reconstructed the clinical information system (CIS). The center of CIS is a workstation, where doctor will make orders and acquire clinic data of patients in anytime. Of course, the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is an important portion of CIS. Through the interconnection between PACS and workstation, radiologists may acquire the basic information about patients from workstation, at the same time physicians will view medical images and diagnosis reports of these patients. By strict control of license permission, information of PACS may be shared in different degree by every physician. In radiology department, PACS is used for search reports, view images and also offer rich analysis and post-process function. PACS has become the hot topic of the radiology department construction in China. However, PACS in many hospitals has not yet brought our a significant benefit for radiology department and the whole hospital. Therefore, it is necessary to deal with these problems.

  5. Interference in Joint Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  6. Multidimensional radar picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waz, Mariusz

    2010-05-01

    In marine navigation systems, the three-dimensional (3D) visualization is often and often used. Echosonders and sonars working in hydroacustic systems can present pictures in three dimensions. Currently, vector maps also offer 3D presentation. This presentation is used in aviation and underwater navigation. In the nearest future three-dimensional presentation may be obligatory presentation in displays of navigation systems. A part of these systems work with radar and communicates with it transmitting data in a digital form. 3D presentation of radar picture require a new technology to develop. In the first step it is necessary to compile digital form of radar signal. The modern navigation radar do not present data in three-dimensional form. Progress in technology of digital signal processing make it possible to create multidimensional radar pictures. For instance, the RSC (Radar Scan Converter) - digital radar picture recording and transforming tool can be used to create new picture online. Using RSC and techniques of modern computer graphics multidimensional radar pictures can be generated. The radar pictures mentioned should be readable for ECDIS. The paper presents a method for generating multidimensional radar picture from original signal coming from radar receiver.

  7. A project plan for construction and cabling of picture archiving and communication system network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗敏; 王小林; 罗松; 雷文勇; 王学健; 温洪宇; 吴红星

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine a network solution to meet the network requirements of the heavy data flow, load balance, and potential network storms from expansion of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) application.Methods Intel Netstructure 480T Giga Switch was used as the main switch and connected to each building by fiber channel at 1 Giga speed to archive 100 MB/s to each port. At the same time, the in-dependence of the original network construction was physically kept. The layer 3 and 4 switchers were used as load balance to reduce the heavy load of the network, and all the cabling for PACS used the super CAT5 along with the Intel NetStructure 1520 to prepare for potential network storms.Results An advanced intranet was set up to fully meet the high standard requirement of the PACS. The foundation for upgrading the whole network system to 1 Giga application was built to achieve sharing and transmission of images, information, and patient data within the hospital. The base was established for the standardized management of the hospital.Conclusion Good planning is the first step in setting up PACS, and the equipment from the necessary platform to run PACS and all kinds of hospital information system (HIS). The networking construction is the foundation of e-hospital.

  8. Dynamic artificial neural networks with affective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Catherine D; Birdwell, J Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance.

  9. Encoding Systems and Evolved Message Processing: Pictures Enable Action, Words Enable Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Lang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on theories of ecological perception, embodied motivated cognition, and evolutionary psychology, proposes that pictures elicit evolved biologically imperative responses more quickly and thoroughly than do words. These biologically imperative responses are directly responsible for evolved automatic reactions away from biological threats (e.g. escaping predators, avoiding disease and noxious stimuli and towards opportunities (e.g. consuming food, approaching mates, finding shelter in the environment. When elicited, these responses take time to occur and may delay or interfere with other types of behavior. Thus, when environmental information is presented in pictures (which should elicit larger biological responses than words biological responses should interfere more with higher order tasks like information processing and cognitive decision-making. To test this proposition we designed an experiment in which participants performed speeded categorizations of 60 pairs of matched pleasant and unpleasant environmental opportunities and threats. They categorized the items based on their form (is this a word or a picture? or based on how the picture made them feel (is this pleasant or unpleasant to you?. If pictures do elicit greater biologically imperative responses than their word counterparts, participants should be able to make form decisions faster than feeling decisions, especially when presented with words rather than pictures and especially when the words and pictures have less biological relevance. This main proposition was supported. Implications for this proposition in terms of communication theory are discussed.

  10. Eye movement characteristics of college students' affective picture processing in positive and negative emotional states%积极和消极情绪状态下大学生加工情绪图片的眼动特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高淑青; 隋雪; 张连成

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨不同主体情绪状态下,个体对情绪图片加工的眼动特点.方法:选取35名大学生为被试,采用2(主体情绪状态:积极、消极)×2(图片情绪模式:积极、消极)的两因素被试内设计.通过情绪视频诱发被试的积极和消极情绪,使用ASL504型眼动仪记录被试观看不同情绪图片(积极、消极各4张,选自中国情绪图片系统)的眼动情况,眼动分析指标包括总注视时间、平均注视时间、注视次数、瞳孔直径、凝视次数.结果:被试在积极情绪比消极情绪时的平均注视时间长[ (0.51 ±0.13)s vs.(0.46±0.11)s;P<0.01]、瞳孔直径小[(4.7±0.8) mmvs.(5.2±0.9) mm;P<0.001]、注视次数少[ (27.3±6.2) vs.(30.0±8.0),P<0.05],观看积极图片较消极图片的总注视时间长[(14.7±3.1)s vs.(12.5±3.9)s;P<0.01],平均注视时间长[(0.51±0.14) s vs.(0.46±0.10)s;P<0.01],凝视次数多[(844.4±114.1) vs.(806.9±207.6);P<0.001],瞳孔直径小[(4.4±0.6)mmvs.(5.4±0.8)mm;P<0.001].在瞳孔直径、总注视时间、凝视次数三个指标上,主体情绪状态和图片情绪模式对图片信息加工产生交互影响.结论:个体处于积极和消极情绪状态下观看情绪图片的眼动模式不同,且主体情绪状态与图片情绪模式对图片加工具有协同作用,这在眼动指标上得到了表达.%Objective: To explore the eye movement characteristics in individuals affective picture processing in different emotional states. Methods: Totally 35 college students participated in this study. The experiment were conducted by 2 (positive and negative emotion state of subjects) × 2 (positive and negative pictures of emotional mode) within-subject designs. Mood induction procedures was applied to induce subjects' mood state, and the ASL504 Eye Tracking system was used to assess their affective picture processing (8 pictures including 4 positive pictures and 4 negative pictures were selected from the Chinese

  11. Consideration of vision and picture quality: psychological effects induced by picture sharpness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hideo

    1989-08-01

    A psychological hierarchy model of human vision(1)(2) suggests that the visual signals are processed in a serial manner from lower to higher stages: that is "sensation" - "perception" - "emotion." For designing a future television system, it is important to find out what kinds of physical factors affect the "emotion" experienced by an observer in front of the display. This paper describes the psychological effects induced by the sharpness of the picture. The subjective picture quality was evaluated for the same pictures with five different levels of sharpness. The experiment was performed on two kinds of printed pictures: (A) a woman's face, and (B) a town corner. From these experiments, it was found that the amount of high-frequency peaking (physical value of the sharpness) which psychologically gives the best picture quality, differs between pictures (A) and (B). That is, the optimum picture sharpness differs depending on the picture content. From these results, we have concluded that the psychophysical sharpness of the picture is not only determined at the stage of "perception" (e.g., resolution or signal to noise ratio, which everyone can judge immediately), but also at the stage of "emotion" (e.g., sensation of reality or beauty).

  12. "Permanent" records: experience with data migration in radiology information system and picture archiving and communication system replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlen, F M; Sayre, R E; Weldy, J B; Michael, J S

    2000-05-01

    In the replacement of both a radiology information system (RIS) and a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) archive, data were migrated from the prior system to the new system. We report on the process, the time and resources required, and the fidelity of data transfer. We find that for two PACS archives, both organized according to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) information model, data may be transferred with full fidelity, but the time required for transfer is significant. Transfer from off-line backup media was found to be faster than transfer from our robotic tape library. In contrast, the RIS replacement required extensive labor to translate prior data between dissimilar information models, and some data were inevitably lost in the translation. Standards for RIS information models are needed to promote the migration of data without loss of content.

  13. Image fusion using MIM software via picture archiving and communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The preliminary studies of the multimodality image registration andfusion were performed using an image fusion software and a picture archiving andcommunication system (PACS) to explore the methodology. Original image voluminaldata were acquired with a CT scanner, MR and dual-head coincidence SPECT, respec-tively. The data sets from all imaging devices were queried, retrieved, transferred andaccessed via DICOM PACS. The image fusion was performed at thc SPECT ICONwork-station, where the MIM (Medical Image Merge) fusion software was installed.The images were created by reslicing original volume on the fly. The image volumeswere aligned by translation and rotation of these view ports with respect to the origi-nal volume orientation. The transparency factor and contrast were adjusted in orderthat both volumes can be visualized in the merged images. The image volume data ofCT, MR and nuclear medicine were transferred, accessed and loaded via PACS suc-cessfully. The perfect fused images of chest CT/18F-FDG and brain MR/SPECT wereobtained. These results showed that image fusion technique using PACS was feasibleand practical. Further experimentation and larger validation studies were needed toexplore the full potential of the clinical use.

  14. Experience measuring performance improvement in multiphase picture archiving and communications systems implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G; Reed, D H

    1999-05-01

    When planning a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) implementation and determining which equipment will be implemented in earlier and later phases, collection and analysis of selected data will aid in setting implementation priorities. If baseline data are acquired relative to performance objectives, the same information used for implementation planning can be used to measure performance improvement and outcomes. The main categories of data to choose from are: (1) financial data; (2) productivity data; (3) operational parameters; (4) clinical data; and (5) information about customer satisfaction. In the authors' experience, detailed workflow data have not proved valuable in measuring PACS performance and outcomes. Reviewing only one category of data in planning will not provide adequate basis for targeting operational improvements that will lead to the most significant gains. Quality improvement takes into account all factors in production: human capacity, materials, operating capital and assets. Once we have identified key areas of focus for quality improvement in each phase, we can translate objectives into implementation requirements and finally into detailed functional and performance requirements. Here, Integration Resources reports its experience measuring PACS performance relative to phased implementation strategies for three large medical centers. Each medical center had its own objectives for overcoming image management, physical/geographical, and functional/technical barriers. The report outlines (1) principal financial and nonfinancial measures used as performance indicators; (2) implementation strategies chosen by each of the three medical centers; and (3) the results of those strategies as compared with baseline data.

  15. Process reengineering: the role of a planning methodology and picture archiving and communications system team building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrino, J A; Unkel, P J; Shelton, P; Johnson, T G

    1999-05-01

    The acquisition of a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) is an opportunity to reengineer business practices and should optimally consider the entire process from image acquisition to communication of results. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the PACS planning methodology used by the Department of Defense (DOD) Joint Imaging Technology Project Office (JITPO), outline the critical procedures for each phase, and review the military experience using this model. The methodology is segmented into four phases: strategic planning, clinical scenario planning, installation planning, and implementation planning. Each is further subdivided based on the specific tasks that need to be accomplished within that phase. By using this method, an institution will have clearly defined program goals, objectives, and PACS requirements before vendors are contacted. The development of an institution-specific PACS requirement should direct the process of proposal comparisons to be based on functionality and exclude unnecessary equipment. This PACS planning methodology is being used at more than eight DOD medical treatment facilities. When properly executed, this methodology facilitates a seamless transition to the electronic environment and contributes to the successful integration of the healthcare enterprise. A crucial component of this methodology is the development of a local PACS planning team to manage all aspects of the process. A plan formulated by the local team is based on input from each department that will be integrating with the PACS. Involving all users in the planning process is paramount for successful implementation.

  16. Assessing Attachment Representations in Adolescents: Discriminant Validation of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Manuela; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Buchheim, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of attachment to human development and clinical risk is well established for children and adults, yet there is relatively limited knowledge about attachment in adolescence due to the poor availability of construct valid measures. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a reliable and valid instrument to assess adult attachment status. This study examines for the first time the discriminant validity of the AAP in adolescents. In our sample of 79 teenagers between 15 and 18 years, 42 % were classified as secure, 34 % as insecure-dismissing, 13 % as insecure-preoccupied and 11 % as unresolved. The results demonstrated discriminant validity for using the AAP in that age group, with no associations between attachment classifications and verbal intelligence, social desirability, story length or sociodemographic variables. These results poise the AAP to be used in clinical intervention and large-scale research investigating normative and atypical developmental correlates and sequelae of attachment, including psychopathology in adolescence.

  17. Comparative Efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a Speech-Generating Device: Effects on Requesting Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Miriam C.; Wendt, Oliver; Subramanian, Anu; Hsu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    An experimental, single-subject research study investigated the comparative efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Results demonstrated increases in requesting…

  18. Teaching Children with Autism to Engage in Peer-Directed Mands Using a Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Amber R.; Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.; Gawley-Bullington, Elizabeth M.; Bouxsein, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) plus prompting to increase peer-directed mands for preferred items using a picture exchange communication system (PECS). Two nonvocal individuals with autism participated. Independent mands with a peer increased with the implementation of DRA plus prompting for both…

  19. SYSTEMIC DISORDERS AFFECTING DENTAL PATHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic R. Milan; Andjelic S. Gordana; Knezevic M. Milena

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective overview of systemic disorders which might be associated with dental pathology is made. They are grouped as follows: (a) congenital dental developmental disorders, (b) chromosomal anomalies, (c) radiations, (d) immune disorders, (e) intoxications, (f) neurological alterations, (g) gastrointestinal diseases, (h) osteodystrophy and associated conditions, (i) skin diseases, (j) metabolic and endocrine disorders, (k) craniofacial malformation syndromes and other congenital g...

  20. Systemic disorders affecting dental pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Milan R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective overview of systemic disorders which might be associated with dental pathology is made. They are grouped as follows: (a congenital dental developmental disorders, (b chromosomal anomalies, (c radiations, (d immune disorders, (e intoxications, (f neurological alterations, (g gastrointestinal diseases, (h osteodystrophy and associated conditions, (i skin diseases, (j metabolic and endocrine disorders, (k craniofacial malformation syndromes and other congenital general malformations. The associated dental pathology is described in each case.

  1. Picture perfect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik

    Picture perfect’ – when perfection becomes the new normal This paper draws on perspectives from three different studies. One study, which focuses on youth life and lack of well-being (Sørensen et al 2011), one study on youth life on the margins of society (Katznelson et al 2015) and one study on...

  2. Electronic teaching files: seven-year experience using a commercial picture archiving and communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, E; Reiner, B

    2001-06-01

    With the advent of electronic imaging and the internet, the ability to create, search, access, and archive digital imaging teaching files has dramatically improved. Despite the fact that a picture archival and communication system (PACS) has the potential to greatly simplify the creation of, archival, and access to a department or multifacility teaching file, this potential has not yet been satisfactorily realized in our own and most other PACS installations. Several limitations of the teaching file tools within our PACS have become apparent over time. These have, at our facility, resulted in a substantially reduced role of the teaching file tools for conferences, daily teaching, and research purposes. With the PACS at our institution, academic folders can only be created by the systems engineer, which often serves as an impediment to the teaching process. Once these folders are created, multiple steps are required to identify the appropriate folders, and subsequently save images. Difficulties exist for those attempting to search for the teaching file images. Without pre-existing knowledge of the folder name and contents, it is difficult to query the system for specific images. This is due to the fact that there is currently no fully satisfactory mechanism for categorizing, indexing, and searching cases using the PACS. There is currently no easy mechanism to save teaching, research, or clinical files onto a CD or other removable media or to automatically strip demographic or other patient information from the images. PACS vendors should provide much more sophisticated tools to create and annotate teaching file images in an easy to use but standard format (possibly Radiological Society of North America's Medical Image Resource Center [MIRC] format) that could be exchanged with other sites and other vendors' PAC systems. The privilege to create teaching or conference files should be given to the individual radiologists, technologists, and other users, and an audit

  3. Effect of Non-negative Chinese Affective Pictures on Patients with Chronic Pain%非负性中国情感图片对慢性疼痛患者的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷婷; 史婷奇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of non-negative Chinese affective pictures on the pain of patients with chronic pain. Methods A total of 77 hospitalized patients with chronic pain, according to admission number, were divided into intervention group and control group. In intervention group, routine nursing for pain and non-negative pictures from CAPS (non-negative Chinese affective picture system) were conducted and applied but in control group only routine nursing for pain was performed. NRS (numerical rating scale) was used for pain assessment in two groups. Results After intervention for 6 times, the NRS score of intervention group was lower than that of control group and the difference indicated statistical significance ( P<0.05). Conclusion Non-negative Chinese affective pictures can reduce the pain of patients.%目的:研究非负性中国情感图片对慢性疼痛患者疼痛的影响。方法将77例慢性疼痛的住院患者按住院号单双号分为干预组和对照组。干预组采用疼痛科护理常规和非负性中国情感图片疗法,对照组采用疼痛科护理常规,采集2组疼痛数字评分法(Numerical Ratingscale,NRS)的结果并进行2组干预前后疼痛数字评分法得分比较。结果干预6次后,干预组的疼痛数字评分低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论非负性中国情感图片可以减轻患者疼痛程度。

  4. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on oxytocin and cortisol blood levels in mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Krause

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the hormone of affiliation and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004 and cortisol decreased by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004. Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol, consistent with our hypotheses. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should

  5. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on Oxytocin and Cortisol Blood Levels in Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the “hormone of affiliation” and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as

  6. The filmless radiology reading room: a survey of established picture archiving and communication system sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, E; Reiner, B; Abiri, M; Chacko, A; Morin, R; Ro, D W; Spicer, K; Strickland, N; Young, J

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey radiologists experienced in soft-copy diagnosis using computer workstations about their current reading room environment, their impressions of the efficacy of their reading room design, and their recommendations based on their experience for improvement of the soft-copy reading environment. Surveys were obtained from radiologists at seven sites representing three major picture archiving and communication system (PACS) vendors throughout the world that have had extensive experience with soft-copy interpretation of radiology studies. The radiologists filled out a detailed survey, which was designed to assess their current reading room environment and to provide them with the opportunity to make suggestions about improvement of the PACS reading rooms. The survey data were entered into a database and results were correlated with multiple parameters, including experience with PACS, types of modalities interpreted on the system, and number of years of experience in radiology. The factors judged to be most important in promoting radiologist productivity were room lighting, monitor number, and monitor brightness. Almost all of the radiologists indicated that their lighting source was from overhead rather than indirect or portable light sources. Approximately half indicated they had the capability of dimming the brightness of the overhead lighting. Most radiologists indicated that they were able to adjust room temperature but that they did not have individual temperature controls at their workstations. The radiologists indicated that the most troublesome sources of noise included background noise, other radiologists, and clinicians much more than noise from computer monitors, technologists, or patients. Most radiologists did not have chairs that could recline or arm rests. Most did have wheels and the capability to swivel, both of which were judged important. The majority of chairs also had lumbar support, which was also seen to be

  7. PEOPLE RETRIEVAL BY MEANS OF COMPOSITE PICTURES: METHODS, SYSTEMS AND PRACTICAL DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Kukharev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problem of people retrieval by means of composite pictures and methods of its practical realization. Earlier on, the problem was posed in the previous paper by the authors, and this paper deals with its further development. The starting premise here is that for the successful search of people by their sketches it is necessary to transform these sketches into sets of populations of sketches imitating evidence of «group of witnesses» and evidence with incomplete information in verbal portraits. Variants of structures for benchmark «photo-sketch» databases are presented, intended for modeling and practical realization of original photos retrieval by sketches, which new component is a population of sketches. Problems of preprocessing for initial sketches and original photos and its influence on the result of their comparison are discussed. Simple sketch recognition systems (Simple FaRetSys and a problem of original photos retrieval by the sketches are considered. Shortcomings of such systems are shown and new decisions on extending and development of simple systems (Extended FaRetSys are presented. Experiments on searching of original photos by sketches in the CUFS database of sketches and similar experiments on widely known FERET and CUFSF facial databases are presented. Three frameworks are offered for retrieval performance improvement. In the first one, original sketches are transformed into populations, and then in these populations the sketch similar to the given sketch (Forensic Sketch is already defined. The class of the sketch found in a population «by definition» unambiguously corresponds to a class of the original photo. In the second framework, the Forensic Sketch is transformed to a population of sketches, and all original sketches in a benchmarking database are compared to sketches from populations of the Forensic Sketch. The class of matches is determined in the same manner as in the first framework. The third

  8. The amodal system for conscious word and picture identification in the absence of a semantic task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doren, L. Van; Dupont, P.; Grauwe, S.M.T. De; Peeters, R.; Vandenberghe, R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies using explicit semantic tasks, such as category or similarity judgments, have revealed considerable neuroanatomical overlap between processing of the meaning of words and pictures. This result may have been influenced by the semantic executive control required by such tasks. We exam

  9. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system - lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures.

  10. [Development of a batched image delete system for multi-vender picture archiving and communication system environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kenji; Amano, Masafumi; Yuasa, Masao; Yamamoto, Yuichiro; Tada, Akihisa; Harada, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    A picture archiving and communication system (PACS) for multi-vendor imaging servers is useful, since it can provide a variety of image-processing services. However, to delete an image file in the PACS, it is necessary to delete not only the image but all its associated images that are stored in multiple servers: this is a lengthy and painstaking process. To reduce this workload, we have developed a system consisting of a computer program with a graphical user interface that can delete the target image and all related images by means of batch processing. The developed system creates an extensible markup language (XML)-format file that describes the operation for deleting an image and forwards the XML file to the main server. Using a Windows file-sharing system (SMB/CIFS), each server shares the XML file and deletes the images in its own database in response to the instructions described in the XML file. We can also rigorously manage information concerning the deleted images using the information that is output from the main server to external storage. We also discuss the degree of load reduction in our system compared with that of ordinary systems.

  11. Ghosts, UFOs, and magic: positive affect and the experiential system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura A; Burton, Chad M; Hicks, Joshua A; Drigotas, Stephen M

    2007-05-01

    Three studies examined the potential interactions of the experiential system and positive affect (PA) in predicting superstitious beliefs and sympathetic magic. In Study 1, experientiality and induced positive mood interacted to predict the emergence of belief in videos purporting to show unidentified flying objects or ghosts. In Study 2, naturally occurring PA interacted with experientiality to predict susceptibility to sympathetic magic, specifically difficulty in throwing darts at a picture of a baby (demonstrating the law of similarity). In Study 3, induced mood interacted with experientiality to predict sitting farther away from, and expressing less liking for, a partner who had stepped in excrement (demonstrating the law of contagion). Results are interpreted as indicating that PA promotes experiential processing. Implications for the psychology of nonrational beliefs and behaviors are discussed.

  12. The Impact of the Picture Exchange Communication System on Requesting and Speech Development in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Similar Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Simpson, Richard L.; Corbin-Newsome, Jawanda

    2008-01-01

    By definition children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience difficulty understanding and using language. Accordingly, visual and picture-based strategies such as the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) show promise in ameliorating speech and language deficits. This study reports the results of a multiple baseline across…

  13. Recent developments in affective recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarya, Rahul; Verma, Om Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) are playing a significant role since 1990s as they provide relevant, personalized information to the users over the internet. Lots of work have been done in information filtering, utilization, and application related to RS. However, an important area recently draws our attention which is affective recommender system. Affective recommender system (ARS) is latest trending area of research, as publication in this domain are few and recently published. ARS is associated with human behaviour, human factors, mood, senses, emotions, facial expressions, body gesture and physiological with human-computer interaction (HCI). Due to this assortment and various interests, more explanation is required, as it is in premature phase and growing as compared to other fields. So we have done literature review (LR) in the affective recommender systems by doing classification, incorporate reputed articles published from the year 2003 to February 2016. We include articles which highlight, analyse, and perform a study on affective recommender systems. This article categorizes, synthesizes, and discusses the research and development in ARS. We have classified and managed ARS papers according to different perspectives: research gaps, nature, algorithm or method adopted, datasets, the platform on executed, types of information and evaluation techniques applied. The researchers and professionals will positively support this survey article for understanding the current position, research in affective recommender systems and will guide future trends, opportunity and research focus in ARS.

  14. How many people does it take to operate a picture archiving and communication system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honea, R

    2001-06-01

    The most frequently asked question without a correct answer is: "Just how many people does it take to operate a picture archiving and communication system (PACS)?" At Texas Children's Hospital, our consensus is that we do not yet know. As soon as we felt we had adequate staffing to provide timely response for routine services, we found that including the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) increased our demand for urgent response beyond our capacity. The addition of inpatient bedside imaging to PACS also increased the demand for round-the-clock and weekend PACS services. Our answer to the staffing question changes every year, in accordance with changes in the scope of services that our PACS is expected to provide. Our administration drew up a 5-year plan for PACS implementation, concentrating on purchase and installation of equipment, but neglected to estimate requirements for full-time equivalents (FTEs) for PACS. Our administration reasonably assumed that existing employees would be galvanized into PACS personnel. It is now clear that new FTEs need to be created strictly for the PACS service. Our 5-year plan also did not anticipate significant changes in the extent of our healthcare enterprise. Our PACS accommodates limited remote service: providing a PACS Analyst to travel to the site when a problem is not resolved remotely is another demand on staffing. Our PACS service was formed using staffing numbers based on assumptions about the minimum number of employees needed to perform routine duties, field trouble calls, conduct training, and work on special projects, such as adding new acquisition modalities or troubleshooting longstanding problems. This staffing was based on a single shift operation, with on-call coverage for second, third, and weekend shifts. The number of employees also considered absences for vacation, sick leave, and training. The service has administrative overhead that should be covered by a secretary. Someone is also needed to supervise the team

  15. Aversive picture processing: effects of a concurrent task on sustained defensive system engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangelin, Bethany C; Löw, Andreas; McTeague, Lisa M; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Viewing a series of aversive pictures prompts emotional reactivity reflecting sustained defensive engagement. The present study examined the effects of a concurrent visual task on autonomic, somatic, electrocortical, and facial components of this defensive state. Results indicated that emotional activation was largely preserved despite continuous visual distraction, although evidence of attenuation was observed in startle reflex and electrocortical measures. Concurrent task-specific reactivity was also apparent, suggesting that motivational circuits can be simultaneously activated by stimuli with intrinsic survival significance and instructed task significance and that these processes interact differently across the separate components of defensive engagement.

  16. Knowledge From Pictures (KFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Paterra, Frank; Bailin, Sidney

    1993-01-01

    The old maxim goes: 'A picture is worth a thousand words'. The objective of the research reported in this paper is to demonstrate this idea as it relates to the knowledge acquisition process and the automated development of an expert system's rule base. A prototype tool, the Knowledge From Pictures (KFP) tool, has been developed which configures an expert system's rule base by an automated analysis of and reasoning about a 'picture', i.e., a graphical representation of some target system to be supported by the diagnostic capabilities of the expert system under development. This rule base, when refined, could then be used by the expert system for target system monitoring and fault analysis in an operational setting. Most people, when faced with the problem of understanding the behavior of a complicated system, resort to the use of some picture or graphical representation of the system as an aid in thinking about it. This depiction provides a means of helping the individual to visualize the bahavior and dynamics of the system under study. An analysis of the picture augmented with the individual's background information, allows the problem solver to codify knowledge about the system. This knowledge can, in turn, be used to develop computer programs to automatically monitor the system's performance. The approach taken is this research was to mimic this knowledge acquisition paradigm. A prototype tool was developed which provides the user: (1) a mechanism for graphically representing sample system-configurations appropriate for the domain, and (2) a linguistic device for annotating the graphical representation with the behaviors and mutual influences of the components depicted in the graphic. The KFP tool, reasoning from the graphical depiction along with user-supplied annotations of component behaviors and inter-component influences, generates a rule base that could be used in automating the fault detection, isolation, and repair of the system.

  17. [Modular project of the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Preliminary operational experience. I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Palma, L; Ukovich, W; Stacul, F; Cuttin Zernich, R; Carbi, N; Giribona, P

    1990-01-01

    Since september 1988 a PAC System (Comm View by AT & T and Philips) has been operating in the Radiology Department of the University Hospital, Trieste. A research project is presently in progress aiming at providing factual evidence for the evaluation of this kind of systems as far as operational, technical, clinical and economic aspects are concerned. The general approach to this research consists in implementing and monitoring a PACS in a stepwise way, starting with a small system connected to some digital modalities only, in order to test the feasibility and effectiveness of the system within a Radiology Department, and to test the possibility of matching the PACS to the Radiological System. The present paper describes in detail the present configuration of this entry-level system and its technical features. The planned development (october 1989) is also depicted. Further developments devise at managing in an integrated way all the radiological images of the four hospitals of Trieste. At present, the PACS is currently used to manage and store on optical disks all the images acquired from the connected modalities plus the related reports, and to perform the reporting sessions for CT examinations (brain and abdomen). The present research effort is devoted to two main areas: clinical evaluation and operational analysis. The object of the operational analysis was the assessment of the impact of PACS on the operations of a Radiology Department. The general approach followed for this research consists in analysing the procedures as they are performed in the conventional way (manual operations), and comparing them to the way they are, or could be, performed using a PACS System (automatic operations). This stage of the project is divided into three phases, concerning respectively the analysis of the organization and operations before PACS, the analysis of the impact of PACS in its initial configuration and the forecast of the influence of PACS in its future setting. A

  18. Gaussification and entanglement distillation of continuous variable systems: a unifying picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Earl; Eisert, Jens [Dahlem Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Freie Universitaet Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Distillation of entanglement using only Gaussian operations is an important primitive in quantum communication, quantum repeater architectures, and distributed quantum computing. Existing distillation protocols for continuous degrees of freedom are only known to converge to a Gaussian state when measurements yield precisely the vacuum outcome. In sharp contrast, non-Gaussian states can be deterministically converted into Gaussian states while preserving their second moments, albeit by usually reducing their degree of entanglement. In this work - based on a novel instance of a non-commutative central limit theorem - we introduce a picture general enough to encompass the known protocols leading to Gaussian states, and also demonstrate convergence for a class of new protocols. This gives the experimental option of balancing the merits of success probability against entanglement produced. The generality of results also opens up entirely new territory, by providing means of multi-partite distillation and more efficient hybrid quantum repeater schemes.

  19. Picture Archiving And Communication System%医学影像存储和通讯系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟标

    2001-01-01

    This article described the development and character of Picture Archiving and Communication System.The present information of Digital Image Communication in Medical 3.0.The technology of the communication and archiving in PACS.It made the evaluation and prospect for profits of PACS.%本文叙述了PACS的发展和特点:DICOM3.0的现状;PACS的通讯和存储技术;并对PACS的效益进行评价和展望。

  20. 基于JSP的图片轮播系统实现%System Implementation of Picture Carousel Based on JSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红

    2016-01-01

    At present, general enterprises have set up a website,website can introduce enterprise,promote products,contact cus-tomers,improve image. The website in order to attract attention often uses the picture carousel function, system implementation of picture carousel can be achieved using JavaScript array or database in JSP files etc., in this paper, the realization methods and advantages and disadvantages of these two methods are introduced in detail.%目前,一般企业都建立了网站,网站可以介绍企业,推广产品,联系客户,提升形象。网站为了吸引注意力往往采用图片轮播功能,图片轮播可以采用JavaScript数组方式或者在JSP文件中使用数据库方式实现,JSP文件中使用数据库方式该文详细介绍了这两种方式各自的实现方法和优缺点。

  1. Streamlining the discovery, evaluation, and integration of data, models, and decision support systems: a big picture view (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniak, G.

    2013-12-01

    21st century environmental problems are wicked and require holistic systems thinking and solutions that integrate social and economic knowledge with knowledge of the environment. Computer-based technologies are fundamental to our ability to research and understand the relevant systems and to provide assessors and decision makers with appropriate data, tools, and strategies. There are significant science and technology challenges being confronted in an effort to streamline the movement of knowledge from its research and experience-based sources to its decision endpoints. In this presentation we explore this continuum and attempt to articulate a holistic and coherent picture of the relationship among the myriad elements of the environmental problem solving landscape. This is done in the hope that this view will enhance the ability of all environmental stakeholders to express their individual contributions in a technological form that will be accessible and usable to the greater community.

  2. Integrated, systems metabolic picture of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen; Seo, Seung-Oh; Celik, Venhar; Liu, Huaiwei; Kong, Wentao; Wang, Yi; Blaschek, Hans; Jin, Yong-Su; Lu, Ting

    2015-07-07

    Microbial metabolism involves complex, system-level processes implemented via the orchestration of metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. One canonical example of such processes is acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum, during which cells convert carbon sources to organic acids that are later reassimilated to produce solvents as a strategy for cellular survival. The complexity and systems nature of the process have been largely underappreciated, rendering challenges in understanding and optimizing solvent production. Here, we present a system-level computational framework for ABE fermentation that combines metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. We developed the framework by decomposing the entire system into three modules, building each module separately, and then assembling them back into an integrated system. During the model construction, a bottom-up approach was used to link molecular events at the single-cell level into the events at the population level. The integrated model was able to successfully reproduce ABE fermentations of the WT C. acetobutylicum (ATCC 824), as well as its mutants, using data obtained from our own experiments and from literature. Furthermore, the model confers successful predictions of the fermentations with various network perturbations across metabolic, genetic, and environmental aspects. From foundation to applications, the framework advances our understanding of complex clostridial metabolism and physiology and also facilitates the development of systems engineering strategies for the production of advanced biofuels.

  3. Performance enhancement of a web-based picture archiving and communication system using commercial off-the-shelf server clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Lin; Shih, Cheng-Ting; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Chang, Shu-Jun; Wu, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACSs) thoroughly changes the way of medical informatics communication and management. However, as the scale of a hospital's operations increases, the large amount of digital images transferred in the network inevitably decreases system efficiency. In this study, a server cluster consisting of two server nodes was constructed. Network load balancing (NLB), distributed file system (DFS), and structured query language (SQL) duplication services were installed. A total of 1 to 16 workstations were used to transfer computed radiography (CR), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) images simultaneously to simulate the clinical situation. The average transmission rate (ATR) was analyzed between the cluster and noncluster servers. In the download scenario, the ATRs of CR, CT, and MR images increased by 44.3%, 56.6%, and 100.9%, respectively, when using the server cluster, whereas the ATRs increased by 23.0%, 39.2%, and 24.9% in the upload scenario. In the mix scenario, the transmission performance increased by 45.2% when using eight computer units. The fault tolerance mechanisms of the server cluster maintained the system availability and image integrity. The server cluster can improve the transmission efficiency while maintaining high reliability and continuous availability in a healthcare environment.

  4. [Systemic karyomegaly with chronic interstitial nephritis. Discussion of the disease picture based on an autopsy case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, H; Spöndlin, M; Schmassmann, A; Mihatsch, M J

    1994-02-01

    Systemic karyomegaly associated with interstitial nephritis was first described in 1978 by Mihatsch. Seven cases have been reported to date. We give an account of an autopsy case of systemic karyomegaly in a 30-year-old Italian man. Bizarre enlargement of nuclei was found in renal tubular epithelial cells, Schwann cells and in smooth muscle cells of vessels and bowel and, less obviously, in endothelial and adventitial cells of vessels, in alveolar epithelial cells and in astrocytes of the brain. These findings were associated with chronic interstitial nephritis, nonspecific hepatopathy, adenocarcinoma of the rectum and multiple sclerosis. The clinical course was marked by chronic renal failure, chronic haemodialysis and renal transplantation. The patient died 8 years after diagnosis in septic-toxic shock. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the disease are discussed.

  5. Teaching Systems - Getting future IT entrepreneurs to see the full picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Resmini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Information is going everywhere. It is bleeding out of the Internet and out of personal computers, and it is being embedded into the real world. Mobile devices, networked resources, and real-time systems are making our interactions with information constant and ubiquitous. Information is becoming pervasive, and products and services are becoming parts of larger systems, many of these emergent, complex information-based ecosystems where participants are co-producers and where relationships between elements, channels and touchpoints are messy and non-linear. Still, by and large, within the area of informatics and information systems we teach management and design as if they were linear processes where cause and effect are easily ascertained and a solution readily provided. Could we try something different? How would that work and what results could it produce in terms of both learning outcomes and student satisfaction? This paper details the approach we followed and the early results we achieved in introducing business and informatics students to entrepreneurship and innovation through a holistic approach in the 2-year Master in IT, Management and Innovation at Jönköping International Business School (JIBS, in Jönköping, Sweden. 

  6. Picture Archiving And Communications Systems (PACS) And Radiation Therapy Planning: Data And Workstation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, R. J.; Zielonka, Jason S.

    1986-06-01

    PACS literature to date has emphasized the needs of diagnostic imaging; however, the ability to acquire, manipulate, and display data derived from multiple imaging modalities is also vital in the practice of radiation oncology and radiation therapy planning (RTP). Radiographic or scintigraphic images for RTP must include specific spatial calibration data, as well as data relating image acquisition to anatomic localization within the patient. The digital nature of PACS images and displays allows the radiation oncologist to interactively assist in evaluating whether or not near-by structures are tumor-free. The radiation oncologist may also need to review nonradiographic diagnostic images (e.g., endoscopic images or pathology tissue specimens). Finally, it must be possible to take data such as isodose lines and superimpose them onto images relating the proposed therapy field to patient anatomy. Not only would this be useful for the radiation oncologist, but it would also provide information currently not easily available to the diagnostician and useful in subsequent diagnostic efforts. The three-dimensional (volumetric) data creation for RTP is not currently widespread because of the difficulties in converting images into a coherent, reliable and registered data set; this is the unique contribution of PACS. Software must be developed to permit creation of volumetric models based on data derived from both planar images and various tomographic modalities, including calibration and localizaton data for accurate image registration and scaling. This will permit positive definition of tumor volume by diagnosticians and the radiation oncologists as an initial portion of the therapy planning process. As a part of the underlying data structure for such systems, there must be some uniformity of image format between modalities and vendors; this has been adequately addressed by the Digital Imaging and Communications Interface Standard recently adopted by the American College of

  7. Study of Radiologic Technologists' Perceptions of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) Competence and Educational Issues in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Daniel M; Trepp, Errol R; Ipaki, Maryam; Ng, Curtise K C

    2015-06-01

    Although the implementation of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) could increase productivity of radiology departments, this depends on factors such as the PACS competence of radiologic technologists (RTs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the RTs' perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues in Western Australia (WA). A hardcopy questionnaire was distributed to WA RTs for obtaining their perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues. Descriptive (percentage of frequency, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t test and analysis of variance) were used to analyze the responses of the multiple choice and five-point scale questions from the returned questionnaires. The questionnaire response rate was 57.7% (173 out of 300). The mean values of all PACS competence questions except questions 2e-g are in the range of 3.9-4.9, i.e., around competent to very competent. Participants indicated they received adequate PACS training (mean 3.8). Statistically significant variables influencing RTs' perceptions of their PACS competence and educational issues including the age (p competent in using the modality workstation, PACS and radiology information system, and received adequate training. However, future PACS education programs should be tailored to different RTs' groups. For example, multiple training modules might be necessary to support the PACS competence development of older RTs and those with lower general computer literacy.

  8. A medical application integrating remote 3D visualization tools to access picture archiving and communication system on mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Longjun; Ming, Xing; Liu, Qian

    2014-04-01

    With computing capability and display size growing, the mobile device has been used as a tool to help clinicians view patient information and medical images anywhere and anytime. However, for direct interactive 3D visualization, which plays an important role in radiological diagnosis, the mobile device cannot provide a satisfactory quality of experience for radiologists. This paper developed a medical system that can get medical images from the picture archiving and communication system on the mobile device over the wireless network. In the proposed application, the mobile device got patient information and medical images through a proxy server connecting to the PACS server. Meanwhile, the proxy server integrated a range of 3D visualization techniques, including maximum intensity projection, multi-planar reconstruction and direct volume rendering, to providing shape, brightness, depth and location information generated from the original sectional images for radiologists. Furthermore, an algorithm that changes remote render parameters automatically to adapt to the network status was employed to improve the quality of experience. Finally, performance issues regarding the remote 3D visualization of the medical images over the wireless network of the proposed application were also discussed. The results demonstrated that this proposed medical application could provide a smooth interactive experience in the WLAN and 3G networks.

  9. Behavioral modulation by mutilation pictures in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that women are more emotionally expressive than men. It is unclear, however, if women are also more susceptible to the emotional modulation of behavior imposed by an affective stimulus. To investigate this issue, we devised a task in which female subjects performed six sequential trials of visual target detection following the presentation of emotional (mutilation and erotic or neutral pictures (domestic utensils and objects and compared the data obtained in the present study with those described in a previous study with male subjects. The experiment consisted of three blocks of 24 pictures and each block had an approximate duration of 4 min. Our sample consisted of 36 subjects (age range: 18 to 26 years and each subject performed all blocks. Trials following the presentation of mutilation pictures (283 ms had significantly slower reaction times than those following neutral (270 ms pictures. None of the trials in the "pleasant block" (271 ms was significantly different from those in the "neutral block". The increase in reaction time observed in the unpleasant block may be related in part to the activation of motivational systems leading to an avoidance behavior. The interference effect observed in this study was similar to the pattern previously described for men. Thus, although women may be more emotionally expressive, they were not more reactive to aversive stimuli than men, as measured by emotional interference in a simple reaction time task.

  10. A review of brain oscillations in perception of faces and emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntekin, Bahar; Başar, Erol

    2014-05-01

    The differentiation of faces, facial expressions and affective pictures involves processes of higher mental activity that have considerable applications in the psychology of moods and emotions. At present, the search for functional correlates of brain oscillations is an important trend in neuroscience. Furthermore, analyses of oscillatory responses provide key knowledge on the physiology of brain dynamics. Studies analysing oscillatory dynamics in face perception and emotional pictures have increased in recent years; however, the literature lacks a review of the current state of the art. This study provides a comprehensive review of the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma oscillatory responses on presentation of faces, facial expressions and affective pictures (International Affective Picture System, IAPS). The reviewed literature revealed that the brain is more sensitive to emotional stimuli than neutral stimuli. A common and reliable finding from all reviewed studies was the increased brain responsiveness towards negative emotional pictures (face expression or IAPS).

  11. Systemic Imidacloprid Affects Intraguild Parasitoids Differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally V Taylor

    Full Text Available Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck (Hymenoptera, Braconidae and Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae are solitary endoparasitoids of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. They provide biological control of H. virescens populations in Southeastern US agricultural production systems. Field and greenhouse experiments conducted from 2011-2014 compared parasitism rates of parasitoids that developed inside H. virescens larvae fed on tobacco plants treated with and without imidacloprid. The parasitoids in our study did not have a similar response. Toxoneuron nigriceps had reduced parasitism rates, but parasitism rates of C. sonorensis were unaffected. Preliminary data indicate that adult female lifespans of T. nigriceps are also reduced. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and imidacloprid metabolites in H. virescens larvae that fed on imidacloprid-treated plants and in the parasitoids that fed on these larvae. Concentrations were detectable in the whole bodies of parasitized H. virescens larvae, T. nigriceps larvae and T. nigriceps adults, but not in C. sonorensis larvae and adults. These findings suggest that there are effects of imidacloprid on multiple trophic levels, and that insecticide use may differentially affect natural enemies with similar feeding niches.

  12. Systemic Imidacloprid Affects Intraguild Parasitoids Differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sally V; Burrack, Hannah J; Roe, R Michael; Bacheler, Jack S; Sorenson, Clyde E

    2015-01-01

    Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) and Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are solitary endoparasitoids of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). They provide biological control of H. virescens populations in Southeastern US agricultural production systems. Field and greenhouse experiments conducted from 2011-2014 compared parasitism rates of parasitoids that developed inside H. virescens larvae fed on tobacco plants treated with and without imidacloprid. The parasitoids in our study did not have a similar response. Toxoneuron nigriceps had reduced parasitism rates, but parasitism rates of C. sonorensis were unaffected. Preliminary data indicate that adult female lifespans of T. nigriceps are also reduced. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and imidacloprid metabolites in H. virescens larvae that fed on imidacloprid-treated plants and in the parasitoids that fed on these larvae. Concentrations were detectable in the whole bodies of parasitized H. virescens larvae, T. nigriceps larvae and T. nigriceps adults, but not in C. sonorensis larvae and adults. These findings suggest that there are effects of imidacloprid on multiple trophic levels, and that insecticide use may differentially affect natural enemies with similar feeding niches.

  13. Application of Computed Tomography Processed by Picture Archiving and Communication Systems in the Diagnosis of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Peng Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The applications of CT examination in the diagnosis of the acute Achilles tendon rupture (AATR were investigated. A total of 36 patients with suspected acute Achilles tendon rupture were tested using physical examination, ultrasound, and 3DCT scanning, respectively. Then, surgery was performed for the patients who showed positive result in at least two of the three tests for AATR. 3DVR, MPR, and the other CT scan image processing and diagnosis were conducted in PACS (picture archiving and communication system. PACS was also used to measure the length of distal broken ends of the Achilles tendon (AT to tendon calcaneal insertion. Our study indicated that CT has the highest accuracy in diagnosis of acute Achilles tendon complete rupture. The length measurement is matched between PACS and those actually measured in operation. CT not only demonstrates more details directly in three dimensions especially with the rupture involved calcaneal insertion flap but also locates the rupture region for percutaneous suture by measuring the length of distal stump in PACS without the effect of the position of ankle. The accuracy of CT diagnosis for Achilles tendon partial rupture is yet to be studied.

  14. Comparing the Picture Exchange Communication System and the iPad™ for Communication of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Doris Adams; Flores, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Both picture exchange, a low-tech picturebased communication system, and technologybased interventions, such as the iPad™ with communication application, are emerging treatments for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to the National Autism Center (2009). Recently, investigations regarding the use of the Apple iPad™ to…

  15. Design and Research of Picture Processing System Based on Web Requirement%基于web需求的图片处理系统设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娜

    2015-01-01

    随着网络技术的发展,在资料交换和信息获取的过程中,图片资料占据了越来越大的比重,然而上传前图片的处理功能相对比较单一,无法满足人们未来发展的需求,越来越多的网络用户希望在图片上传过程中,借助web页面就可以对图片进行处理和修饰。因此本文将会对web页面图片处理系统设计与研究进行介绍,以实现图片处理的人性化,提升用户工作效率。%With the development of the network technology,picture information occupies an increasingly large pro-portion during data exchange and information acquisition. However,the picture processing functions before upload-ing are comparatively simple,which can′t meet the development requirement of people in the future. More and more network users want to process and decorate the pictures during the picture uploading period by virtue of the web page. Therefore,this paper introduces the design and research of the picture processing system on the web to real-ize the humanization during the picture processing period and improve the working efficiency of the users.

  16. The Power of Pictures : Vertical Picture Angles in Power Pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessner, Steffen R.; Ryan, Michelle K.; Schubert, Thomas W.; van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the d

  17. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Attend Typically to Faces and Objects Presented within Their Picture Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Smith, K.; Riby, D. M.; Hancock, P. J. B.; Doherty-Sneddon, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may require interventions for communication difficulties. One type of intervention is picture communication symbols which are proposed to improve comprehension of linguistic input for children with ASD. However, atypical attention to faces and objects is widely reported across the autism…

  18. Tillage system affects microbiological properties of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; Avilés, M.; Perea, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil tillage significantly affects organic carbon accumulation, microbial biomass, and subsequently enzymatic activity in surface soil. Microbial activity in soil is a crucial parameter contributing to soil functioning, and thus a basic quality factor for soil. Since enzymes remain soil after excretion by living or disintegrating cells, shifts in their activities reflect long-term fluctuations in microbial biomass. In order to study the effects of no-till on biochemical and microbiological properties in comparison to conventional tillage in a representative soil from South Spain, an experiment was conducted since 1982 on the experimental farm of the Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research of Andalusia (IFAPA) in Carmona, SW Spain (37o24'07''N, 5o35'10''W). The soil at the experimental site was a very fine, montomorillonitic, thermic Chromic Haploxerert (Soil Survey Staff, 2010). A randomized complete block design involving three replications and the following two tillage treatments was performed: (i) Conventional tillage, which involved mouldboard plowing to a depth of 50 cm in the summer (once every three years), followed by field cultivation to a depth of 15 cm before sowing; crop residues being burnt, (ii) No tillage, which involved controlling weeds before sowing by spraying glyphosate and sowing directly into the crop residue from the previous year by using a planter with double-disk openers. For all tillage treatments, the crop rotation (annual crops) consisted of winter wheat, sunflower, and legumes (pea, chickpea, or faba bean, depending on the year), which were grown under rainfed conditions. Enzymatic activities (ß-glucosidase, dehydrogenase, aryl-sulphatase, acid phosphatase, and urease), soil microbial biomass by total viable cells number by acridine orange direct count, the density of cultivable groups of bacteria and fungi by dilution plating on semi-selective media, the physiological profiles of the microbial communities by BiologR, and the

  19. Redirection of client/server relationship of X Window system as a simple, low-cost, departmental picture archiving and communication system solution for nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datz, F L; Baune, D A; Christian, P E

    1994-08-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) offer significant advantages over current film-management techniques. However, PACS are complex and expensive, factors that have limited their entry into the radiology and nuclear medicine communities. We present a simple, low-cost PACS solution that allows viewing of images from different computer systems by redirection of the X Window system. In this technique, multiple copies of the imaging software are remotely opened from generic UNIX workstations interfaced to the main computer system via Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol over Ethernet. The X Window system that provides the windowing system for the main computer is redirected to the workstations' displays. With this technique, viewing and processing of images on a remote station is virtually identical to working at the main computer's console. The technique requires that the commercial imaging system's hardware, operating system, and imaging software support multiuser multitasking and the execution of multiple copies of its imaging software, and that they use X Windows as the graphical system. Advantages of the technique include low cost, ease of maintenance, ease of interconnecting different types of computers, the capacity to view images regardless of file format, and the capacity to both view and process images. The latter is a necessity for modalities such as nuclear medicine. A disadvantage of the technique is that the number of nodes that can be supported is limited.

  20. Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, John F.

    1993-01-01

    External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

  1. Adoption of alternative financing strategies to increase the diffusion of picture archiving and communication systems into the radiology marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, B; Siegel, E; McKay, P

    2000-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate current marketplace conditions and strategies employed by major picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) vendors in the creation of alternative financing strategies, to enhance the diffusion of filmless imaging. Data were collected from the major PACS vendors in the forms of survey questionnaires and review of existing leases. Topics evaluated in the survey included current financing options available, foreseeable changes in PACS financing, role of third-party financiers, and creation of risk-sharing arrangements. Generic leases were also reviewed evaluating the presence or absence of several key variables including technology obsolescence protection, hardware/software upgrades, end-of-term options, determination of fair market value, functionality/acceptance testing, uptime guarantees, and workflow management consulting. Eight of the 10 PACS vendors surveyed participated in the data collection. The vast majority of current PACS implementations (60% to 90%) occur through direct purchase, with conventional leasing (operating or capital) accounting for only 5% to 30% of PACS installations. The majority of respondents view fee-for-lease arrangements and other forms of risk sharing as increasing importance for future PACS financing. The specific targets for such risk-sharing arrangements consist of small hospital and privately owned imaging centers. Leases currently offered range in duration from 3 to 5 years and frequently offer technology obsolescence protection with upgrades, multiple end-of-term options, and some form of acceptance testing. A number of important variables frequently omitted from leases include uptime guarantees, flexibility in changing financing or vendors, and incorporation of expected productivity/operational efficiency gains. As vendors strive to increase the penetration of PACS into the radiology marketplace, there will be a shift from conventional financing (loan or purchase) to leasing. Fee

  2. Study of Picture Archiving and Communications System for application of orbital disease%眼眶病变中PACS图像系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓晖; 施明光

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨眼眶病变中PACS图像系统的诊断价值.方法 对70例眼眶病变患者行眼眶CT检查,部分行MRI,DSA检查.结果 在70例眼眶疾病中眼眶骨折38例,海绵状血管瘤4例,皮样囊肿3例,眼眶异物2例,其他23例.PACS图像系统能有效提高诊断率.结论 PACS图像系统在眼眶病变中的诊断中具有重要价值,并能指导手术方案的设计.%Objective To study of Picture Archiving and Communications System for application in orbital disease.Methods Picture Archiving and Communications System was performed on orbital disease of 70 cases.Results The orbital disease included blow-out fracture in 70 cases,blow-out fracture 38 cases,venous angioma 4 cases,dermoid cyst 3 cases,orbital foreign body 2 case and others 14 cases.Conclusions Picture Archiving and Communications System can provide accurate diagnosis for orbital disease and instruct operate scheme.

  3. Systemic and non-systemic vasculitis affecting the peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, J

    2009-06-01

    Vasculitis affecting the peripheral nerves predominantly manifests as subacute, progressive, asymmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy or mononeuritis multiplex, and more rarely as painful mononeuropathy, pure sensory neuropathy, neuropathy of the cranial nerves, plexopathy, or as autonomic neuropathy. Vasculitic neuropathy may occur isolated or non-isolated (systemic) together with involvement of other organs. Systemic vasculitis with involvement of the peripheral nerves is further subdivided into primary (Takayasu syndrome, giant cell arteritis, classical panarteritis nodosa, thrombangitis obliterans, Kawasaki disease, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Wegener granulomatosis, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, Behcet disease, microscopic polyangitis, Schoenlein Henoch purpura) or secondary systemic vasculitis (autoimmune connective tissue diseases, vasculitis from infection, sarcoidosis, malignancy, drugs, radiation, or diabetes). In addition to routine laboratory investigations and nerve conduction studies, nerve biopsy is essential for diagnosing the condition and to delineate it from differentials, although its sensitivity is only approximately 60%. Therapy of non-viral vasculitic neuropathy is based on corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide alone or in combination. Additional options include azathioprine, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, or rituximab. In single cases immunoglobulins, immunoadsorbtion, or plasma exchange have been successfully applied. In case of virus-associated vasculitis interferon-alpha plus lamivudine or ribaverin may be beneficial.

  4. Space perception in pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, A.J.; Wagemans, J.; De Ridder, H.; Koenderink, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A "picture" is a at object covered with pigments in a certain pattern. Human observers, when looking "into" a picture (photograph, painting, drawing, . . . say) often report to experience a three dimensional "pictorial space." This space is a mental entity, apparently triggered by so called pictori

  5. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  6. Picturing the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links for Students Glossary Picturing the Heart SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource Links for Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Government Resources Kids.gov – Science Information and services on the web ...

  7. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  8. Yangliuqing New Year Pictures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    HANGING up New Yearpictures during khe SpringFestival to symbolize goodluck in the coming year has longbeen a tradition in China,The pic-tures are both colorful and jubilantin theme and composition so as toattract everything good in the com-ing year and drive away evil.Four main“schools” of folk artdealing with New Year pictures ex-ist.Among the best known is thewoodblocK print from Yangliuqing,

  9. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inman, C.F.; Haverson, K.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Jones, P.H.; Harris, C.; Smidt, H.; Miller, B.; Bailey, M.; Stokes, C.

    2010-01-01

    P>Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect th

  10. A comparison between digital images viewed on a picture archiving and communication system diagnostic workstation and on a PC-based remote viewing system by emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasyn, A; Hanson, R M; Peat, J K; De Silva, M

    1998-02-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) make possible the viewing of radiographic images on computer workstations located where clinical care is delivered. By the nature of their work this feature is particularly useful for emergency physicians who view radiographic studies for information and use them to explain results to patients and their families. However, the high cost of PACS diagnostic workstations with fuller functionality places limits on the number of and therefore the accessibility to workstations in the emergency department. This study was undertaken to establish how well less expensive personal computer-based workstations would work to support these needs of emergency physicians. The study compared the outcome of observations by 5 emergency physicians on a series of radiographic studies containing subtle abnormalities displayed on both a PACS diagnostic workstation and on a PC-based workstation. The 73 digitized radiographic studies were randomly arranged on both types of workstation over four separate viewing sessions for each emergency physician. There was no statistical difference between a PACS diagnostic workstation and a PC-based workstation in this trial. The mean correct ratings were 59% on the PACS diagnostic workstations and 61% on the PC-based workstations. These findings also emphasize the need for prompt reporting by a radiologist.

  11. Virtual reality system for treatment of the fear of public speaking using image-based rendering and moving pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae M; Ku, Jeong H; Jang, Dong P; Kim, Dong H; Choi, Young H; Kim, In Y; Kim, Sun I

    2002-06-01

    The fear of speaking is often cited as the world's most common social phobia. The rapid growth of computer technology enabled us to use virtual reality (VR) for the treatment of the fear of public speaking. There have been two techniques used to construct a virtual environment for the treatment of the fear of public speaking: model-based and movie-based. Virtual audiences and virtual environments made by model-based technique are unrealistic and unnatural. The movie-based technique has a disadvantage in that each virtual audience cannot be controlled respectively, because all virtual audiences are included in one moving picture file. To address this disadvantage, this paper presents a virtual environment made by using image-based rendering (IBR) and chroma keying simultaneously. IBR enables us to make the virtual environment realistic because the images are stitched panoramically with the photos taken from a digital camera. And the use of chroma keying allows a virtual audience to be controlled individually. In addition, a real-time capture technique was applied in constructing the virtual environment to give the subjects more interaction, in that they can talk with a therapist or another subject.

  12. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianying Li; Cheng Xu; Xiaohua Cao; Qiang Gao; Yan Wang; Yanfang Wang; Juyi Peng; Kerang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  13. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Xu, Cheng; Cao, Xiaohua; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yanfang; Peng, Juyi; Zhang, Kerang

    2013-06-25

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  14. The Olig family affects central nervous system development and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Tan; Jing Yu; Ying Yin; Gongwei Jia; Wei Jiang; Lehua Yu

    2014-01-01

    Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system devel-opment. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system develop-ment and related diseases.

  15. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, C.R.

    1979-07-01

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation. (DLC)

  16. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  17. Comparative efficacy of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) versus a speech-generating device: effects on social-communicative skills and speech development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Miriam C; Wendt, Oliver; Subramanian, Anu; Hsu, Ning

    2013-09-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) were compared in a study with a multiple baseline, alternating treatment design. The effectiveness of these methods in increasing social-communicative behavior and natural speech production were assessed with three elementary school-aged children with severe autism who demonstrated extremely limited functional communication skills. Results for social-communicative behavior were mixed for all participants in both treatment conditions. Relatively little difference was observed between PECS and SGD conditions. Although findings were inconclusive, data patterns suggest that Phase II of the PECS training protocol is conducive to encouraging social-communicative behavior. Data for speech outcomes did not reveal any increases across participants, and no differences between treatment conditions were observed.

  18. An E-learning System based on Affective Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo, Sun; Song, Lu Xue

    In recent years, e-learning as a learning system is very popular. But the current e-learning systems cannot instruct students effectively since they do not consider the emotional state in the context of instruction. The emergence of the theory about "Affective computing" can solve this question. It can make the computer's intelligence no longer be a pure cognitive one. In this paper, we construct an emotional intelligent e-learning system based on "Affective computing". A dimensional model is put forward to recognize and analyze the student's emotion state and a virtual teacher's avatar is offered to regulate student's learning psychology with consideration of teaching style based on his personality trait. A "man-to-man" learning environment is built to simulate the traditional classroom's pedagogy in the system.

  19. Evaluation of Picture Archiving and Communication System (Pacs As A Process Improvement Sample (Sivas Numune Hospital Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rıza İnce

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is a realitythatthefirmsproducinggoods or services frequentlybenefited process improvementand similartechniques toachieve their objectives In today'scompetitive environment.Beingprocess-orientedmeans to give weight to the creation of quality but not to the control of quality. In this sense, process improvement is seen as an approach of Total Quality Management targeted. Hospital informationsystems are computer systems that collect andarchive all orthe majority of the hospitaldatafor use inthe assessment.It isa major problem that storage of visualdatawithout lossanddamage and also the being availableof these data as soon as possiblein this system.System that calledPACShas been developedto overcome this problem.PACS is an archiving system that archive the visual dataobtained fromimaging systems in different unitsin a spaceand, allows the transfer of these data to usersat different points when needed.In this study,efficiency of PACS asa process improvementtechniquewas examined by the application ofahospital.It is concluded that the system providea positive contributionto customers and hospitalas an example ofan importantprocess improvement at the evaluationof the results and implementation of the system.

  20. Adoption and resistance: reflections on human, organizational, and information technologies in picture archive and communication systems (PACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Rodney W.

    2005-04-01

    In research conducted at academic and community hospitals in the United States since 2001, this paper examines complex human and technological relationships employed to renegotiate behavior within hospital administrative and clinical cultures. In the planning and implementation of PACS in a four-facility hospital we will enter into what can be described as processes of "adoption" and "resistance", seemingly opposite approaches to system implementation, which I argue are in fact key responses to planning, design, and customization of imaging and information systems in a context of convergence. In a larger context of convergence known as NBIC tools (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive sciences) it has become increasingly clear to leaders in the field that it is essential to redesign organizational technologies. A novel system has little chance of being fully utilized by conventional organizational structures in an era of system convergence. The challenge of embracing a larger systems perspective lies in opening untapped potential within the healthcare enterprise by preparing the ground for reflection on new approaches to training, and bridging specialized knowledge across computer engineering, clinical decision making, and organizational perspectives for the benefit of patient care. Case studies will demonstrate how organizational and system design technologies are crucial in insuring that PACS implementation strategies can encourage the emergence of new levels of quality for patient care. The goal is to provide successful design-build models that are true to organizational specificity, persons, and clinical practices undergoing change and uncertainty.

  1. My Favorite Picture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳

    2007-01-01

    <正>I have many pictures.But one of them is my favortie.Now,I introduce it to everyone.The picture has three people.They are mother,father and I.Look! This is me.I am in middle of them.I have long,black hair.I have black eyes and red mouth.I like drawing pictures.My favorite food is noodle,and I don’t like to eat dumplings.Look! On the right is my father,my father is tall and he has black hair and black eyes.He likes to play ping-pong.My mother is on the left.She has black,curly hair.Her mouth is big.We have the same big mouths.She likes to go for a walk in the park.I am very pretty.My father is handsome and my mother is beautiful.I love my family very much.

  2. Development and validation of a visual body condition scoring system for dairy goats with picture-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A; Brandão, S; Monteiro, A; Ajuda, I; Stilwell, G

    2015-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is the most widely used method to assess changes in body fat reserves, which reflects its high potential to be included in on-farm welfare assessment protocols. Currently used scoring systems in dairy goats require animal restraint for body palpation. In this study, the Animal Welfare Indicators project (AWIN) proposes to overcome this constraint by developing a scoring system based only on visual assessment. The AWIN visual body condition scoring system highlights representative animals from 3 categories: very thin, normal, and very fat, and was built from data sets with photographs of animals scored by a commonly used 6-point scoring system that requires palpation in 2 anatomical regions. Development of the AWIN scoring system required 3 steps: (1) identification and validation of a body region of interest; (2) sketching the region from photographs; and (3) creation of training material. The scoring system's reliability was statistically confirmed. An initial study identified features in the rump region from which we could compute a set of body measurements (i.e., measures based on anatomical references of the rump region) that showed a strong correlation with the assigned BCS. To validate the result, we collected a final data set from 171 goats. To account for variability in animal size and camera position, we mapped a subset of features to a standard template and aligned all the rump images before computing the body measurements. Scientific illustrations were created from the aligned images of animals identified as representative of each category to increase clarity and reproducibility. For training material, we created sketches representing the threshold between consecutive categories. Finally, we conducted 2 field reliability studies. In the first test, no training was given to 4 observers, whereas in the second, training using the threshold images was delivered to the same observers. In the first experiment, interobserver results

  3. Looking at the “mental picture of reality” of an efl teacher: a systemic functional analysis Looking at the “mental picture of reality” of an efl teacher: a systemic functional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciani S. de O Malatér

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I analyze an interview conducted with a Brazilian EFL teacher. Through the analysis of transitivity, I aim at understanding how he2 encodes his teaching xperience and professional roles. The study highlights some of the potentialities of systemic functional linguistics (SFL (Halliday, 1994 as a theoretical framework to be used to categorize teachers’ discourse, making both the discussion and interpretation of data more systematic. Analysis of the research participant’s discourse reveals, on the one hand, his concerns with the quality and development of his teaching practice, as well as with his learners’ needs. The analysis also shows, on the other hand, that he does not seem to share his professional responsibilities collaboratively with his colleagues and students. These findings may be helpful to debates in language teacher education for the benefit of both prospective and practicing teachers. In this study, I analyze an interview conducted with a Brazilian EFL teacher. Through the analysis of transitivity, I aim at understanding how he2 encodes his teaching xperience and professional roles. The study highlights some of the potentialities of systemic functional linguistics (SFL (Halliday, 1994 as a theoretical framework to be used to categorize teachers’ discourse, making both the discussion and interpretation of data more systematic. Analysis of the research participant’s discourse reveals, on the one hand, his concerns with the quality and development of his teaching practice, as well as with his learners’ needs. The analysis also shows, on the other hand, that he does not seem to share his professional responsibilities collaboratively with his colleagues and students. These findings may be helpful to debates in language teacher education for the benefit of both prospective and practicing teachers.

  4. Streamlining the Discovery, Evaluation, and Integration of Data, Models, and Decision Support Systems: a Big Picture View

    Science.gov (United States)

    21st century environmental problems are wicked and require holistic systems thinking and solutions that integrate social and economic knowledge with knowledge of the environment. Computer-based technologies are fundamental to our ability to research and understand the relevant sy...

  5. Global research priorities for infections that affect the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Chandy C; Carabin, Hélène; Montano, Silvia M; Bangirana, Paul; Zunt, Joseph R; Peterson, Phillip K

    2015-11-19

    Infections that cause significant nervous system morbidity globally include viral (for example, HIV, rabies, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus and chikungunya virus), bacterial (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial meningitis and sepsis), fungal (for example, cryptococcal meningitis) and parasitic (for example, malaria, neurocysticercosis, neuroschistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths) infections. The neurological, cognitive, behavioural or mental health problems caused by the infections probably affect millions of children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. However, precise estimates of morbidity are lacking for most infections, and there is limited information on the pathogenesis of nervous system injury in these infections. Key research priorities for infection-related nervous system morbidity include accurate estimates of disease burden; point-of-care assays for infection diagnosis; improved tools for the assessment of neurological, cognitive and mental health impairment; vaccines and other interventions for preventing infections; improved understanding of the pathogenesis of nervous system disease in these infections; more effective methods to treat and prevent nervous system sequelae; operations research to implement known effective interventions; and improved methods of rehabilitation. Research in these areas, accompanied by efforts to implement promising technologies and therapies, could substantially decrease the morbidity and mortality of infections affecting the nervous system in low- and middle-income countries.

  6. Global research priorities for infections that affect the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Chandy C.; Carabin, Hélène; Montano, Silvia M.; Bangirana, Paul; Zunt, Joseph R.; Peterson, Phillip K.

    2015-01-01

    Infections that cause significant nervous system morbidity globally include viral (for example, HIV, rabies, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus and chikungunya virus), bacterial (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial meningitis and sepsis), fungal (for example, cryptococcal meningitis) and parasitic (for example, malaria, neurocysticercosis, neuroschistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths) infections. The neurological, cognitive, behavioural or mental health problems caused by the infections probably affect millions of children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. However, precise estimates of morbidity are lacking for most infections, and there is limited information on the pathogenesis of nervous system injury in these infections. Key research priorities for infection-related nervous system morbidity include accurate estimates of disease burden; point-of-care assays for infection diagnosis; improved tools for the assessment of neurological, cognitive and mental health impairment; vaccines and other interventions for preventing infections; improved understanding of the pathogenesis of nervous system disease in these infections; more effective methods to treat and prevent nervous system sequelae; operations research to implement known effective interventions; and improved methods of rehabilitation. Research in these areas, accompanied by efforts to implement promising technologies and therapies, could substantially decrease the morbidity and mortality of infections affecting the nervous system in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26580325

  7. The polycentric picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg, Ingelise

    2008-01-01

    The polycentric picture The presentation introduces a dynamic view on children's drawings inspired by J.J.Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception. Empirical research in children's drawings will be the basis for the documentation of the fact that children's drawings contain several...... strategies of vision, which can be activated, re-established and differentiated in relation to dynamic media productions. The significance of spatial orientation to our ability to see and to the way we are seeing is focused and a concept of the ex-centric observer is introduced....

  8. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuremoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  9. Pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Starting with this issue, we will publish special pictures illustrating the ongoing construction and commissioning efforts. If you wish to have a professionnal photographer immortalize your detector before it disappears in the heart of ATLAS or for a special event, don't hesitate to contact Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira (16-3687) from the CERN photo service. Members of the pixel team preparing to insert the outermost layer (the outer of the three barrel pixel layers) into the Global Support Frame for the Pixel Detector in SR1. Ongoing work on the first Big Wheel on the C side. Exploded view of the side-C Big Wheel and the barrel cryostat. The TRT Barrel services (HV, LV, cooling liquid, active gas, flushing gas) are now completely connected and tested. Hats off to Kirill Egorov, Mike Reilly, Ben Legeyt and Godwin Mayers who managed to fit everything within the small clearance margin!

  10. Health Information Technologies for Geriatrics: The Big Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Vallaurie; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir

    2016-01-01

    Nearly five decades ago in 1970, Simone de Beauvoir's "The Coming of Age" painted a broad-strokes picture of urgent issues affecting the welfare of elders in many cultures. Using her agenda and others, this panel will attempt to sketch what specific technological advances and applications offer to older citizens, clients and patients - over these 50 years and into the future. Rapid aging societies warrants the need to transform health systems to be focused on preventions and patient engagement rather than the curative care.

  11. AFFECTION OF ER FLUID ON STIFFNESS OF VIBRATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    On the application of an electric field, the mechanical properties of ER(Electro-rheological) fluid are very complex. The damping force of ER fluid is linear without electric field and is nonlinear when an electric field is applied. By increasing the strength of the electric field, the behavior of ER fluid changes from linear viscous to nonlinear viscoelastic-plastic. External electric fluid changes natural behavior of system with ER fluid besides the mechanical properties of ER fluid. The affect of ER fluid on the stiffness of nonlinear vibration system with ER dampers is analyzed by iterative perturbation method. The results show that the stiffness of structure would be increased with growing of the strength of the electric field.

  12. Thalidomide affects the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Folwarczna, Joanna; Trzeciak, Henryk I

    2009-01-01

    Apart from having written an inglorious chapter in the history of medicine, thalidomide is currently being intensely studied because of its multidimensional activity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of thalidomide on the skeletal system in ovariectomized and non-ovariectomized rats. The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats, divided into eight groups: sham-operated control rats; sham-operated rats receiving thalidomide at doses of 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg, po; ovariectomized control rats; ovariectomized rats receiving thalidomide at doses of 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg, po. The drug was administered for 4 weeks. Body mass gain and the mass of the uterus, liver, spleen and thymus were studied. Macrometric parameters and content of mineral substances, calcium and phosphorus in the femur, tibia and L-4 vertebra and histomorphometric parameters of the femur and tibia were examined. In the femur, the mechanical properties of the whole bone and of the femoral neck were examined. Thalidomide did not affect the skeletal system of the non-ovariectomized rats. Bilateral ovariectomy induced osteoporotic skeletal changes in mature female rats. The effects of thalidomide on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats depended on the dose used. With a dose of 15 mg/kg, po, thalidomide counteracted some osteoporotic changes induced by estrogen deficiency. With a dose of 60 mg/kg, po, thalidomide intensified the destructive effects of estrogen deficiency on the rat skeletal system.

  13. Painting Pictures with Whisky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungsoo; Boulogne, François; Um, Eujin; Jacobi, Ian; Stone, Howard

    2014-11-01

    Have you ever looked at the dried mark of whisky on the glass? While the whisky evaporates, various solid components inside the whisky are deposited with a peculiar pattern, which creates a beautiful picture. This particle patterning is induced by the solutal Marangoni effect. We investigate this effect on both the flow behavior and the particle deposition patterns in binary-mixture droplet evaporation by varying the concentration ratio between ethanol and water. To visualize the particle and fluid motion, we perform Particle Image Velocimetry. We observe that at the beginning stage complex circulating flow patterns occurred, which are triggered by the surface tension gradient, i.e. Marangoni effect. Ethanol first evaporates due to the lower vapor pressure compared to water. When the ethanol has vanished, a radial flow pattern is observed. Furthermore, we find that as the initial ethanol concentration increases, the mobility of the receding contact line increased. At high ethanol concentrations, the contact line kept receding so as to draw groups of particles that deposited in an annular pattern. We thank Ernie Button for sharing with us many beautiful images of whisky after it had dried.

  14. Picture-books: first structured reading materials for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Martinović

    2012-11-01

    research innovative. The findings and results of this research can be applicable in picture-book publishing, first of all in changing the attitude of publishers, i.e. their approach to age-appropriateness and quality of picture-books. The aim of the paper is to give on overview of the picture-book situation, trying to raise awareness of the importance of their quality and potential, and spark off further picture-book research in different fields of arts and sciences. Thus, this paper will have an indirect practical value that may affect the current practice. Key-words: picture-book, early literacy, historical development of picture-books, publishing, language.

  15. USING PICTURES IN ENGLISH CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction In China, some English teachers go to class with only a textbook and a teaching plan, nothing else. After a while, the students complain that their classes are becoming more and more boring. Teachers have tried many ways to make their classes more interesting, motivating and effective, but using pictures in the classroom to do this has not been a popular method. The world provides us with all kinds of beautiful pictures. There is no reason why we should not make better use of them in language learning and teaching. This article will discuss the reasons for using pictures, suggest ways of collecting pictures and ways of using pictures in reading, writing, listening and speaking classes.

  16. Cochlear Damage Affects Neurotransmitter Chemistry in the Central Auditory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Albert Godfrey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the perception of a monotonous sound not actually present in the environment, affects nearly 20% of the population of the United States. Although there has been great progress in tinnitus research over the past 25 years, the neurochemical basis of tinnitus is still poorly understood. We review current research about the effects of various types of cochlear damage on the neurotransmitter chemistry in the central auditory system and document evidence that different changes in this chemistry can underlie similar behaviorally measured tinnitus symptoms. Most available data have been obtained from rodents following cochlear damage produced by cochlear ablation, loud sound, or ototoxic drugs. Effects on neurotransmitter systems have been measured as changes in neurotransmitter level, synthesis, release, uptake, and receptors. In this review, magnitudes of changes are presented for neurotransmitter-related amino acids, acetylcholine, and serotonin. A variety of effects have been found in these studies that may be related to animal model, survival time, type of cochlear damage, or methodology. The overall impression from the evidence presented is that any imbalance of neurotransmitter-related chemistry could disrupt auditory processing in such a way as to produce tinnitus.

  17. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  18. Pictures in Pictures: Art History and Art Museums in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohlin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children's picture books that recreate, parody, or fictionalize famous artworks and introduce the art museum experience, a genre to which I will refer as "children's art books," have become increasingly popular over the past decade. This essay explores the pedagogical implications of this trend through the family program "Picture Books and Picture…

  19. Affect Theory and Autoethnography in Ordinary Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Chamberlain, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses philosophical theories of affect as a lens for exploring autoethnographic renderings of everyday experience with information technology. Affect theories, in the paper, denote a broad trend in post-humanistic philosophy that explores sensation and feeling as emergent and relational...... precognitive forces that impinge on a body and its capacity to act. A necessarily truncated account of affect theory, and three autoethnographic vignettes are presented to complement the philosophical exposition and to provide reflections on possible empirical tactics for affective research in IS. Inspired...

  20. Ubiquitous picture-rich content representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wiley; Dean, Jennifer; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The amount of digital images taken by the average consumer is consistently increasing. People enjoy the convenience of storing and sharing their pictures through online (digital) and offline (traditional) media. A set of pictures can be uploaded to: online photo services, web blogs and social network websites. Alternatively, these images can be used to generate: prints, cards, photo books or other photo products. Through uploading and sharing, images are easily transferred from one format to another. And often, a different set of associated content (text, tags) is created across formats. For example, on his web blog, a user may journal his experiences of his recent travel; on his social network website, his friends tag and comment on the pictures; in his online photo album, some pictures are titled and keyword-tagged. When the user wants to tell a complete story, perhaps in a photo book, he must collect, across all formats: the pictures, writings and comments, etc. and organize them in a book format. The user has to arrange the content of his trip in each format. The arrangement, the associations between the images, tags, keywords and text, cannot be shared with other formats. In this paper, we propose a system that allows the content to be easily created and shared across various digital media formats. We define a uniformed data association structure to connect: images, documents, comments, tags, keywords and other data. This content structure allows the user to switch representation formats without reediting. The framework under each format can emphasize (display or hide) content elements based on preference. For example, a slide show view will emphasize the display of pictures with limited text; a blog view will display highlighted images and journal text; and the photo book will try to fit in all images and text content. In this paper, we will discuss the strategy to associate pictures with text content, so that it can naturally tell a story. We will also list

  1. Affective feedback in a tutoring system for procedural tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, D.K.J.; Vissers, M.; Akker, op den H.J.A.; Nijholt, A.; André, E.; Dybkjaer, L.; Minker, W.; Heisterkamp, P.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the affective aspects of tutoring dialogues in an ITS -called INES- that helps students to practice nursing tasks using a haptic device and a virtual environment. Special attention is paid to affective control in the tutoring process by means of selecting the appropriate feedback, taking

  2. From emotion perception to emotion experience: emotions evoked by pictures and classical music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Esslen, Michaela; Jäncke, Lutz

    2006-04-01

    Most previous neurophysiological studies evoked emotions by presenting visual stimuli. Models of the emotion circuits in the brain have for the most part ignored emotions arising from musical stimuli. To our knowledge, this is the first emotion brain study which examined the influence of visual and musical stimuli on brain processing. Highly arousing pictures of the International Affective Picture System and classical musical excerpts were chosen to evoke the three basic emotions of happiness, sadness and fear. The emotional stimuli modalities were presented for 70 s either alone or combined (congruent) in a counterbalanced and random order. Electroencephalogram (EEG) Alpha-Power-Density, which is inversely related to neural electrical activity, in 30 scalp electrodes from 24 right-handed healthy female subjects, was recorded. In addition, heart rate (HR), skin conductance responses (SCR), respiration, temperature and psychometrical ratings were collected. Results showed that the experienced quality of the presented emotions was most accurate in the combined conditions, intermediate in the picture conditions and lowest in the sound conditions. Furthermore, both the psychometrical ratings and the physiological involvement measurements (SCR, HR, Respiration) were significantly increased in the combined and sound conditions compared to the picture conditions. Finally, repeated measures ANOVA revealed the largest Alpha-Power-Density for the sound conditions, intermediate for the picture conditions, and lowest for the combined conditions, indicating the strongest activation in the combined conditions in a distributed emotion and arousal network comprising frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital neural structures. Summing up, these findings demonstrate that music can markedly enhance the emotional experience evoked by affective pictures.

  3. Neural systems supporting cognitive-affective interactions in adolescence: The role of puberty and implications for affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile D. Ladouceur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that adolescence may represent a period of vulnerability that, in the context of adverse events, could contribute to developmental trajectories toward behavioral and emotional health problems, including affective disorders. Adolescence is also a sensitive period for the development of neural systems supporting cognitive-affective processes, which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders such as anxiety and mood disorders. In particular, the onset of puberty brings about a cascade of physical, hormonal, psychological, and social changes that contribute in complex ways to the development of these systems. This article provides a brief overview of neuroimaging research pertaining to the development of cognitive-affective processes in adolescence. It also includes a brief review of evidence from animal and human neuroimaging studies suggesting that sex steroids influence the connectivity between prefrontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions in ways that contribute to increased reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli. We integrate these findings in the context of a developmental affective neuroscience framework suggesting that the impact of rising levels of sex steroids during puberty on fronto-limbic connectivity may be even greater in the context of protracted development of prefrontal cortical regions in adolescence. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for future research aimed at identifying neurodevelopmental markers of risk for future onset of affective disorders.

  4. Complexity: The bigger picture

    CERN Document Server

    Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    If a concept is not well defined, there are grounds for its abuse. This is particularly true of complexity, an inherently interdisciplinary concept that has penetrated very different fields of intellectual activity from physics to linguistics, but with no underlying, unified theory. Complexity has become a popular buzzword used in the hope of gaining attention or funding -- institutes and research networks associated with complex systems grow like mushrooms. Why and how did it happen that this vague notion has become a central motif in modern science? Is it only a fashion, a kind of sociological phenomenon, or is it a sign of a changing paradigm of our perception of the laws of nature and of the approaches required to understand them? Because virtually every real system is inherently extremely complicated, to say that a system is complex is almost an empty statement - couldn't an Institute of Complex Systems just as well be called an Institute for Almost Everything? Despite these valid concerns, the world is ...

  5. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  6. Could positive affect help engineer robot control systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirin, Markus; Hertzberg, Joachim; Kuhl, Julius; Stephan, Achim

    2011-11-01

    Emotions have long been seen as counteracting rational thought, but over the last decades, they have been viewed as adaptive processes to optimize human (but also animal) behaviour. In particular, positive affect appears to be a functional aspect of emotions closely related to that. We argue that positive affect as understood in Kuhl's PSI model of the human cognitive architecture appears to have an interpretation in state-of-the-art hybrid robot control architectures, which might help tackle some open questions in the field.

  7. Snake pictures draw more early attention than spider pictures in non-phobic women: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, J W; Eijlers, R; Franken, I H A; Huijding, J

    2014-02-01

    Snakes were probably the first predators of mammals and may have been important agents of evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing rapid visual detection of fearful stimuli (Isbell, 2006). By means of early and late attention-related brain potentials, we examined the hypothesis that more early visual attention is automatically allocated to snakes than to spiders. To measure the early posterior negativity (EPN), 24 healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of 600 snake pictures, 600 spider pictures, and 600 bird pictures (three pictures per second). To measure the late positive potential (LPP), they also watched similar pictures (30 pictures per stimulus category) in a non-speeded presentation. The EPN amplitude was largest for snake pictures, intermediate for spider pictures and smallest for bird pictures. The LPP was significantly larger for both snake and spider pictures when compared to bird pictures. Interestingly, spider fear (as measured by a questionnaire) was associated with EPN amplitude for spider pictures, whereas snake fear was not associated with EPN amplitude for snake pictures. The results suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention and that early attention to snakes is more innate and independent of reported fear.

  8. Attentional disengagement is modulated by the offset of unpleasant pictures: a saccadic reaction time study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Pinheiro, Walter; Faria, Aydamari; Braga, Filipe; Guerra, Pedro; Perakakis, Pandelis; Caldas, Ariane Leão; Mocaiber, Izabela; Oliveira, Letícia; Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; Volchan, Eliane; Vila, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    We studied the influence of passively viewing a picture on saccade latencies to peripheral targets. Thirty-two volunteers were instructed to look at a central picture, wait for the onset of a peripheral target, and execute a saccade toward it as quickly as possible - saccadic reaction time (SRT). The central picture (neutral or unpleasant) could be turned off simultaneously with target onset (the no-gap condition) or 200ms prior to target onset (the gap-200 condition). We found that saccade latencies were influenced by emotional valence and condition. In the no-gap condition, SRTs were longer after viewing unpleasant pictures. In the gap-200 condition, the pattern was reversed, and unpleasant pictures induced shorter SRTs in relation to neutral pictures. Furthermore, the influence of unpleasant pictures gradually decreased when images were re-exposed to the participants - affective habituation. The results are discussed in terms of attentional avoidance and disengagement from unpleasant emotional pictures.

  9. Information Systems in Organisations --organisational culture affects information systems in organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟

    2013-01-01

    In today’s information age, the application and construction of information systems became the central element of organizational development. Except the influence of information technology, the organisational culture plays a most important role in the implementation of information systems. This paper aimed at information producers, information users, information content and the information channels four parts of information elements to analysis the affects of organisational culture on information system in organisations. In particular, power distance, individualism and collectivism and uncertainty avoidance as three main theory models of Hofstede’s culture theory were be applied in this paper.

  10. On the Color Dipole Picture

    CERN Document Server

    Schildknecht, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    We give a brief representation of the theoretical results from the color dipole picture, covering the total photoabsorption cross section, high-energy $J/\\psi$ photoproduction with respect to recent experimental data from the LHCb Collaboration at CERN, and ultra-high energy neutrino scattering, relevant for the ICE-CUBE experiment.

  11. The Picture of Dorian Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    On its first publication The Picture of Dorian Gray was regarded as dangerously modern in its depiction of fin-de-sicle decadence. In this updated version of the Faust story, the tempter is Lord Henry Wotton, who lives selfishly for amoral pleasure; Dorian's good angel is the portrait painter Basil

  12. Studying the factors affecting solar power generation systems performance ( SPGSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal A Al-Tabtabaei

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy is a huge, clean and renewable source of energy. It is also available everywhere on the earth. However, there are many technical and economic difficulties need to be solved so that solar energy becomes a strong competition against the traditional energy sources. Energy from the sun can be used successfully in electric power generation systems. Depending on the climate conditions and the use of a properly designed, installing and maintained system can meet a large dema...

  13. Analysis of Factors Affecting Testing in Object oriented systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Sujata Khatri,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an important software quality assurance activity to ensure that the benefits of Object oriented programming will be realized. Testing object oriented systems is little bit challenging ascomplexity shifted from functions and procedures as in traditional procedural systems to the interconnections among its components. Object oriented development has presented a numerous variety of new challenges due to its features like encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism and dynamic binding. Earlier the faults used to bein the software units, whereas the problem now is primarily in the way in which we connect the software. Development is writing the code, testing is finding out whether or not the code runs the way you expect it to. A major challenge to the software developers remains how to reduce the cost while improving the quality of software testing. Software testing is difficult and expensive, and testing object oriented system is even more difficult. A tester often needs to spend significant time in developing lengthy testing code to ensure that system under test is reasonably well tested. Substantial research has been carried out in object oriented analysis, design.However relatively less attention has been paid to testing of object oriented programs. This paper describes the various features of object oriented programming and how they effect testing of object oriented systems.

  14. Semi-supervised classification of emotional pictures based on feature combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Zhang, Yu-Jin

    2011-02-01

    Can the abundant emotions reflected in pictures be classified automatically by computer? Only the visual features extracted from images are considered in the previous researches, which have the constrained capability to reveal various emotions. In addition, the training database utilized by previous methods is the subset of International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that has a relatively small scale, which exerts negative effects on the discrimination of emotion classifiers. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes a novel and practical emotional picture classification approach, using semi-supervised learning scheme with both visual feature and keyword tag information. Besides the IAPS with both emotion labels and keyword tags as part of the training dataset, nearly 2000 pictures with only keyword tags that are downloaded from the website Flickr form an auxiliary training dataset. The visual feature of the latent emotional semantic factors is extracted by probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) model, while the text feature is described by binary vectors on the tag vocabulary. A first Linear Programming Boost (LPBoost) classifier which is trained on the samples from IAPS combines the above two features, and aims to label the other training samples from the internet. Then the second SVM classifier which is trained on all training images using only visual feature, focuses on the test images. In the experiment, the categorization performance of our approach is better than the latest methods.

  15. Factors Affecting Bacterial Growth in Drinking Water Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI LU; XIAO-JIAN ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To define the influence of some parameters, including assimilable organic carbon (AOC), chloramine residual, etc. on the bacterial growth in drinking water distribution systems. Methods Three typical water treatment plants in a northern city (City T) of China and their corresponding distribution systems were investigated. Some parameters of the water samples, such as heterotrophic plate content (HPC), AOC, CODMn, TOC, and phosphate were measured. Results The AOC in most water samples were more than 100 μg/L, or even more than 200 μg/L in some cases. The HPC in distribution systems increased significantly with the decrease of residual chlorine. When the residual chlorine was less than 0.1 mg/L, the magnitude order of HPC was 104 CFU/mL; when it was 0.5-0.7 mg/L, the HPC was about 500 CFU/mL. Conclusion For controlling the biostability of drinking water, the controlling of AOC and residual chlorine should be considered simultaneously. The influence of phosphors on the AOC tests of water is not significant. Phosphors may not be the limiting nutrient in the water distribution systems.

  16. Studying the factors affecting solar power generation systems performance ( SPGSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal A Al-Tabtabaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a huge, clean and renewable source of energy. It is also available everywhere on the earth. However, there are many technical and economic difficulties need to be solved so that solar energy becomes a strong competition against the traditional energy sources. Energy from the sun can be used successfully in electric power generation systems. Depending on the climate conditions and the use of a properly designed, installing and maintained system can meet a large demand in this request. Work plane for this research will include many steps, the first step will include an introduction to solar energy. The second step will be a short review of the solar energy availability, geometry, fields of applications and the largest commercial application of solar energy is the solar thermal power generation. In addition, the most common types of solar thermal power plants, the solar field, heat transfer fluid and the power conversion system types will be explained in detail. The third step, a simple analysis for the solar thermal power plant will be explained in order to predict the optimum conditions leading to maximum performance. Discussions of results will be the fourth step. The last step a conclusion and recommendation for future work will also be included.

  17. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeutigam S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system

  18. Metal ions affecting the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Some metals, such as copper and manganese, are essential to life and play irreplaceable roles in, e.g., the functioning of important enzyme systems. Other metals are xenobiotics, i.e., they have no useful role in human physiology and, even worse, as in the case of lead, may be toxic even at trace levels of exposure. Even those metals that are essential, however, have the potential to turn harmful at very high levels of exposure, a reflection of a very basic tenet of toxicology--"the dose makes the poison." Toxic metal exposure may lead to serious risks to human health. As a result of the extensive use of toxic metals and their compounds in industry and consumer products, these agents have been widely disseminated in the environment. Because metals are not biodegradable, they can persist in the environment and produce a variety of adverse effects. Exposure to metals can lead to damage in a variety of organ systems and, in some cases, metals also have the potential to be carcinogenic. Even though the importance of metals as environmental health hazards is now widely appreciated, the specific mechanisms by which metals produce their adverse effects have yet to be fully elucidated. The unifying factor in determining toxicity and carcinogenicity for most metals is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Metal-mediated formation of free radicals causes various modifications to nucleic acids, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and altered calcium and sulfhydryl homeostasis. Whilst copper, chromium, and cobalt undergo redox-cycling reactions, for metals such as cadmium and nickel the primary route for their toxicity is depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. This chapter attempts to show that the toxic effects of different metallic compounds may be manifested in the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. The knowledge of health effects due to metal exposure is necessary for practising physicians, and should be assessed by inquiring

  19. Statistical Inference: The Big Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Robert E

    2011-02-01

    Statistics has moved beyond the frequentist-Bayesian controversies of the past. Where does this leave our ability to interpret results? I suggest that a philosophy compatible with statistical practice, labelled here statistical pragmatism, serves as a foundation for inference. Statistical pragmatism is inclusive and emphasizes the assumptions that connect statistical models with observed data. I argue that introductory courses often mis-characterize the process of statistical inference and I propose an alternative "big picture" depiction.

  20. A Picture of My Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳习周

    2008-01-01

    My name is Yang Xizhou.I’m a Chinese boy.I am thirteen.This isa picture of my family at home.It’s an old photo of my family.You cansee my father,my mother,my sister and I.We all look young because wetake①it five years ago.I was eight years old that year.

  1. Short exposure to telestereoscope affects the oculomotor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Pascaline; Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Plantier, Justin; Roumes, Corinne

    2010-11-01

    Under natural viewing conditions, the accommodation and vergence systems adjust the focus and the binocular alignment of the eyes in response to changes in viewing distance. The two responses are linked via cross-coupling and proceed almost simultaneously. Some optical devices, such as virtual reality or helmet mounted displays, create an oculomotor conflict by modifying demands on both vergence and accommodation. Previous studies extensively investigated the effect of such a conflict on the cross-coupling between vergence and accommodation, but little is known about the plasticity of the whole oculomotor system. In the present study, an oculomotor conflict was induced by a telestereoscope which magnified the standard inter-pupillary separation threefold and thus increased the convergence demand while accommodation remained almost unchanged. The effect of a 10 min exposure was assessed via a series of optometric parameters selected on the basis of existing oculomotor models. Associated with subject's visual complaints, most of the oculomotor parameters tested were modified: there was (1) deterioration of stereoscopic threshold; (2) increase in AC/A ratio; (3) increase in near and far phorias; and (4) shift of the zone of clear and single binocular vision towards convergence. These results showed a change in gain of accommodative vergence and a shift of vergence reserves towards convergence in response to telestereoscopic viewing. The subject's binocular behaviour tended towards esophoria with convergence excess as confirmed by Sheard's and Percival's criteria. Such changes in oculomotor parameters support adaptive behaviour linked with telestereoscopic viewing.

  2. Does the Environment Responsibility Affect the Management Control System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem DKHILI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature suggests a problem emerging between management controls systems with the new responsibilities that companies must take into consideration. This study examines a system design management control tool orientation as behaviors that can overcome the uncertainties related to the environment and register the company in a voluntary approach which takes into account the environmental dimensions. A questionnaire survey sent to 306 Tunisian industrial companies was conducted. The results of the exploratory and confirmatory analysis are required. The results of the principal component factor analysis evidenced by Cronbach's alpha and KMO test, helped to cleanse the items selected from the literature. Similarly, the results of structural equations with indices of structural adjustment and parcimonies have devoted a good quality adjustment. Overall, findings suggest that most of the firm’s environment is uncertain, more tools to include in its environmental dimensions. On the other hand, the voluntary integration of an environmental approach is part of a strategy of cost leadership in the Tunisian industrial companies.

  3. Bianisotropy Picture of Higher Permeability at Higher Frequencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE De-Sheng; LI Fa-Shen; FAN Xiao-Long; WEN Fu-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    With an effective bianisotropy picture, high-frequency behaviours of different magnetic materials can be reconciled, and the higher permeability and higher resonance frequencies are achieved even in the GHz range. The validity of the bianisotropy picture is quantitatively refilled by the in-plane anisotropic Fe34Co55Zr11 thin films.A prolate elliptical precession of the magnetization about its equilibrium direction is the key point, which can be induced by an artificial or an intrinsic bianisotropy system.

  4. Brain systems for assessing the affective value of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Haxby, James V; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-06-12

    Cognitive neuroscience research on facial expression recognition and face evaluation has proliferated over the past 15 years. Nevertheless, large questions remain unanswered. In this overview, we discuss the current understanding in the field, and describe what is known and what remains unknown. In §2, we describe three types of behavioural evidence that the perception of traits in neutral faces is related to the perception of facial expressions, and may rely on the same mechanisms. In §3, we discuss cortical systems for the perception of facial expressions, and argue for a partial segregation of function in the superior temporal sulcus and the fusiform gyrus. In §4, we describe the current understanding of how the brain responds to emotionally neutral faces. To resolve some of the inconsistencies in the literature, we perform a large group analysis across three different studies, and argue that one parsimonious explanation of prior findings is that faces are coded in terms of their typicality. In §5, we discuss how these two lines of research--perception of emotional expressions and face evaluation--could be integrated into a common, cognitive neuroscience framework.

  5. Brassinosteroid signal transduction: An emerging picture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiaomei; MA Ligeng

    2003-01-01

    Steroid hormones play essential roles in animal growth and development. Steroid signaling in animal system is focused on the direct gene regulation response mediated by its nuclear receptors. Recently, steroid hormones are also found in plants. Identification of BRI1 - a critical component of the plasma-membrane steroid receptor complex, and the related signal transduction pathway mediated by the membrane receptor have revealed an elementary picture of BR signaling from the cell surface perception to the activation of BR-responsive nuclear genes.

  6. Do hospital physicians really want to go digital? Acceptance of a picture archiving and communication system in a university hospital; Moechten Krankenhausaerzte wirklich auf digitale Systeme umsteigen? Die Akzeptanz gegenueber einem Bildarchivierungs- und Uebermittlungssystem in einer Universitaetsklinik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duyck, P.; Pynoo, B.; Devolder, P.; Voet, T.; Adang, L.; Vercruysse, J. [Radiologie und medizinische Bildgebung, Universitaetsklinik Gent (Belgium)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: radiology departments are making the transition from analog film to digital images by means of PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System). It is critical for the hospital that its physicians adopt and accept the new digital work method regarding radiological information. The aim of this study is to investigate hospital physicians' acceptance of PACS using questionnaires pre- and post-implementation and to identify main influencing factors. Materials and methods: the study was conducted in an 1169 bed university hospital. The UTAUT (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) questionnaire was administered at two times: one month pre-implementation (T1) and 1.5 years post-implementation (T2) of PACS, targeting all hospital physicians with the exemption of radiologists. The UTAUT scales (Behavioral Intention BI; Facilitating Conditions FC; Effort Expectancy EE; Performance Expectancy PE; Anxiety ANX; Social Influence SI; System Use USE; Attitude toward technology ATT; Self-Efficacy SE) were used to assess questions regarding: (a) PACS' usefulness, (b) PACS' ease of learning/using, (c) PACS support availability, (d) the perceived pressure to use PACS, (e) physicians' attitude towards PACS and (f) physicians' intention to use and actual use of PACS. Results: at T1 scale ratings were positive toward the PACS implementation. The ratings on all scales with the exception of self-efficacy improved at T2. Regression analysis revealed that the key factor for intention to use PACS at T1 was the usefulness of PACS, while the availability and awareness of support was its most important predictor at T2. Overall, PE was the best predictor of BI, but all four UTAUT-determinants (PE, FC, EE and SI) were salient for its prediction. Variance explained in BI ranged from 31 to 37% while variance explained in USE was very low (3%). (orig.)

  7. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  8. A Picture of Subsidized Housholds 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2008. Picture 2008...

  9. 中医远程医学网中舌象分析系统的设计研究%Study on Designing of Tele-analysis of Tongue Picture System for TCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐公明; 马志庆; 柳澄; 郝莲花

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To design an tongue picture analysis system for telemedicine of traditional Chinese medicine. Method: We showed the features and advantages of the te]emedicine which.simulates the socia/and geographical environments, basing on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, then analyzed the key technology of tongue picture analysis, finally, designed the new system. Result: The newly designed system costs less and was practical and was adapted to telemedieine, characterized by traditional Chinese medicine. Conclusion: These new system and new telemedicine provides a new idea for the development of diagnosis, and have a good prospect for applying.%目的:设计能够应用于面向家庭的中医特色远程医学网的舌象分析系统.方法:结合模拟古代地理和社会环境的中医远程医学网的特点与优势,总结实现中医舌象分析的关键技术要求,设计远程化的舌象分析系统.结果:新型的舌象分析系统具有成本低,实用化的特点,适合在中医远程医学网中应用.结论:新型的舌象分析系统及中医远程医学网的设计为网络环境下中医诊疗的发展提供了一种很好的思路,并且具有很好的应用前景.

  10. Text-Picture Relations in Cooking Instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Leito, Shadira; Redeker, Gisela; Bunt, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Like many other instructions, recipes on packages with ready-to-use ingredients for a dish combine a series of pictures with short text paragraphs. The information presentation in such multimodal instructions can be compact (either text or picture) and/or cohesive (text and picture). In an explorato

  11. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in the preceding for TV will also apply to cooperation with commercial motion picture producers. (b)...

  12. 基于PACS医学影像数字化教学平台的构建和应用%Construction and application of picture archiving and communication system based on digital teaching platform of medical imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹利光; 张冬; 戚跃勇; 周宇; 张启川

    2012-01-01

    基于图像存档与传输系统( PACS)医学影像数字化教学平台由医学影像网络教学系统和医学影像教学资源库两部分组成.医学影像网络教学系统包括课堂管理、作业管理、教学管理和考试管理4大功能模块.医学影像教学资源库包括理论教材、典型病例、检查技术方法和医学影像设备的文字、图片、音频、视频、动画资料等.通过在理论课和阅片训练实践课教学中的应用,凸显了医学影像学教学的特点,发挥了学生学习的主观能动性.%Picture archiving and communication system ( PACS ) based on digital teaching platform of medical imaging consists of web teaching system and teaching resource library of medical imaging.The web teaching system includes four function modules of classroom management,work management,teaching management and test management.The teaching resource library includes script,pictures,and audio,video and animation materials of theoretical books,typical cases,examination techniques and medical imaging equipments.Utilized in theoretical and practical classes,the teaching characteristic of medical imaging is made prominent,and the subjective motility of the students is brought into play.

  13. Liquid Crystal Motion Picture Projector①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYongji

    1997-01-01

    A liquid crystal moving picture projector and method are described.Light incident on a liquid crystal display-type device is selectively scattered or transmitted by respective portions of liquid crystal display,and a projection mechanism projects an image formed by either such scattered light or such transmitted light.A liquid cystal moving picture projector includes a liquid crystal display for creating characteristics of an image,and projecttion optics for projecting images sequentially created by the display.The display includes a liquid crystal material capable of temporary storing information at respective areas.The temporary storage may be a function of charge storing directly on liquid crystal material.A method of projecting plural images in sequence includes:creating an image or characteristics of an image in a liquid crystal material,storing such image in such liquid crystal material,directing light at such liquid crystal material,projecting such image as a function of light transmitted through or scattered by such liquid crystal material,and creating a further image in such liquid crystal material for subsequent projection.

  14. Implantação de um mini-pacs (sistema de arquivamento e distribuição de imagens em hospital universitário Mini-PACS (picture archiving and communication system implementation at a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mazzoncini de Azevedo-Marques

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a implementação de um mini-PACS (sistema de arquivamento e comunicação de imagens que está sendo estruturado junto ao Serviço de Radiodiagnóstico do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, como parte do projeto de um serviço de radiologia digital ("filmless".This paper describes the implementation of a mini-PACS (picture archiving and communication system at a university hospital ("Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo", as a component of a project for a filmless radiology facility.

  15. Micro-Level Affect Dynamics in Psychopathology Viewed From Complex Dynamical System Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; Myin-Germeys, I.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role of moment-to-moment affect dynamics in mental disorder and aims to integrate recent literature on this topic in the context of complex dynamical system theory. First, we will review the relevance of temporal and contextual aspects of affect dynamics in relation to psy

  16. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study 1, we tested whether the enlarged EPN is specific for snakes or also generalizes to other reptiles. Twenty-four healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of snake, crocodile, and turtle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2) in the 225–300 ms time window after picture onset. The EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for pictures of the other reptiles. In Study 2, we tested whether disgust plays a role in the modulation of the EPN and whether preferential processing of snakes also can be found in men. 12 men and 12 women watched snake, spider, and slug pictures. Both men and women exhibited the largest EPN amplitudes to snake pictures, intermediate amplitudes to spider pictures and the smallest amplitudes to slug pictures. Disgust ratings were not associated with EPN amplitudes. The results replicate previous findings and suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention. PMID:25237303

  17. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study 1, we tested whether the enlarged EPN is specific for snakes or also generalizes to other reptiles. Twenty-four healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of snake, crocodile, and turtle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2) in the 225-300 ms time window after picture onset. The EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for pictures of the other reptiles. In Study 2, we tested whether disgust plays a role in the modulation of the EPN and whether preferential processing of snakes also can be found in men. 12 men and 12 women watched snake, spider, and slug pictures. Both men and women exhibited the largest EPN amplitudes to snake pictures, intermediate amplitudes to spider pictures and the smallest amplitudes to slug pictures. Disgust ratings were not associated with EPN amplitudes. The results replicate previous findings and suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention.

  18. Portrayals of Bullying: A Content Analysis of Picture Books for Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppliger, Patrice A.; Davis, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Bullying affects a significant number of school children in the United States. Great concern for teaching children about bullying is apparent in the number of picture books published with bullying themes. The following study is a content analysis of how bullies and victims are portrayed in picture books suitable for preschoolers. Many of the…

  19. Decreased pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Peláez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pain perception arises from a complex interaction between a nociceptive stimulus and different emotional and cognitive factors, which appear to be mediated by both automatic and controlled systems. Previous evidence has shown that whereas conscious processing of unpleasant stimuli enhances pain perception, emotional influences on pain under unaware conditions are much less known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures through an emotional masking paradigm. Two kinds of both somatosensory (painful and non-painful and emotional stimulation (negative and neutral pictures were employed. Fifty pain-free participants were asked to rate the perception of pain they were feeling in response to laser-induced somatosensory stimuli as faster as they can. Data from pain intensity and reaction times were measured. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect for the interaction between pain and emotional stimulation, but surprisingly this relationship was opposite to expected. In particular, lower pain intensity scores and longer reaction times were found in response to negative images being strengthened this effect for painful stimulation. Present findings suggest a clear pain perception modulation by unconscious emotional contexts. Attentional capture mechanisms triggered by unaware negative stimulation could explain this phenomenon leading to a withdrawal of processing resources from pain.

  20. SOFTWARE SUPPORT FOR RICH PICTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    , and gather requirements for the tool, we followed a user-centered design approach and performed a usability test with an early prototype. The findings suggest the presence of a gap between some of the modern object-oriented development practices and engineering students' values: some techniques, like RP......Rich pictures (RP) are common in object-oriented analysis and design courses, but students seem to have problems in integrating them in their projects' workflow. A new software tool is being developed, specific for RP authoring. To better understand students' issues and working practice with RP......, presuppose design skills that are alien to our students. To bridge this gap our tool aims at making design-specific skills optional, enhancing the conceptual analytical skills that software analysis shares with design. Further studies will be conducted to assess the impact of the tool on learning....

  1. The interaction of anticipatory anxiety and emotional picture processing: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublatzky, Florian; Flaisch, Tobias; Stockburger, Jessica; Schmälzle, Ralf; Schupp, Harald T

    2010-07-01

    The present study examined the interaction of anticipatory anxiety and selective emotion processing. Toward this end, a rapid stream of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures was presented in alternating blocks of threat-of-shock or safety, which were signaled by colored picture frames. The main finding is that pleasant pictures elicited a sustained negative difference potential over occipital regions during threat as compared to safety periods. In contrast, unpleasant and neutral picture processing did not vary as a function of threat-of-shock. Furthermore, in both the safety and threat-of-shock conditions, emotional pictures elicited an enlarged early posterior negativity and late positive potential. These data show that the activation of the fear/anxiety network exerts valence-specific effects on affective picture processing. Pleasant stimuli mismatching the current state of anticipatory anxiety apparently draw more attentional resources.

  2. On Assisting a Visual-Facial Affect Recognition System with Keyboard-Stroke Pattern Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, I.-O.; Alepis, E.; Tsihrintzis, G. A.; Virvou, M.

    Towards realizing a multimodal affect recognition system, we are considering the advantages of assisting a visual-facial expression recognition system with keyboard-stroke pattern information. Our work is based on the assumption that the visual-facial and keyboard modalities are complementary to each other and that their combination can significantly improve the accuracy in affective user models. Specifically, we present and discuss the development and evaluation process of two corresponding affect recognition subsystems, with emphasis on the recognition of 6 basic emotional states, namely happiness, sadness, surprise, anger and disgust as well as the emotion-less state which we refer to as neutral. We find that emotion recognition by the visual-facial modality can be aided greatly by keyboard-stroke pattern information and the combination of the two modalities can lead to better results towards building a multimodal affect recognition system.

  3. Aerial projection of three-dimensional motion pictures by electro-holography and parabolic mirrors

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Kakue; Takashi Nishitsuji; Tetsuya Kawashima; Keisuke Suzuki; Tomoyoshi Shimobaba; Tomoyoshi Ito

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an aerial projection system for reconstructing 3D motion pictures based on holography. The system consists of an optical source, a spatial light modulator corresponding to a display and two parabolic mirrors. The spatial light modulator displays holograms calculated by computer and can reconstruct holographic motion pictures near the surface of the modulator. The two parabolic mirrors can project floating 3D images of the motion pictures formed by the spatial light modulator wi...

  4. Looking under the Bonnet: Factors Affecting Student Adoption of E-Learning Systems in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Mahmood Abbad, David Morris, Carmel de Nahlik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary questions addressed in this paper are the following: what are the factors that affect students’ adoption of an e-learning system and what are the relationships among these factors?This paper investigates and identifies some of the major factors affecting students’ adoption of an e-learning system in a university in Jordan. E-learning adoption is approached from the information systems acceptance point of view. This suggests that a prior condition for learning effectively using e-learning systems is that students must actually use them. Thus, a greater knowledge of the factors that affect IT adoption and their interrelationships is a pre-cursor to a better understanding of student acceptance of e-learning systems. In turn, this will help and guide those who develop, implement, and deliver e-learning systems.In this study, an extended version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was developed to investigate the underlying factors that influence students’ decisions to use an e-learning system. The TAM was populated using data gathered from a survey of 486 undergraduate students using the Moodle based e-learning system at the Arab Open University. The model was estimated using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. A path model was developed to analyze the relationships between the factors to explain students’ adoption of the e-learning system. Whilst findings support existing literature about prior experience affecting perceptions, they also point to surprising group effects, which may merit future exploration.

  5. The effect of brain-behavioural systems and affects on dimensional obsessive-compulsive signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Khanjani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study examined the effects of fear and anxiety on obsessive-compulsive signs with the mediation of affects among students. Methods: This research was a correlational study with structural equation modeling approach. 423 (192 males and 231 females participants were selected using multistage sampling from among all students studying at Razi University in Kermanshah. They completed self-report measures of Behavioural Approach System/Behavioural Inhibition System Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expended Form and Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. The raw data collected were analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with maximum likelihood estimation using LISREL software (Version 8.80. Results: The results showed that the theoretical models are a good fit. The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS affected the obsessive-compulsive signs both directly and indirectly through negative affect. Besides, fear and guilt mediated the effect of fight-flight-freeze system and behavioral inhibition system on obsessive-compulsive signs, respectively,. Conclusions: Affects play an important role in determining the effects of the brain behavioral system of fear (fight-fight-freeze on Obsessive-Compulsive (OC signs.

  6. Distributed Speech Recognition Systems and Some Key Factors Affecting It's Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Lei; YANG Zhen

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we first analyze the Distributed Speech Recognition (DSR) system and the key factors that affect it's performance and then focus on the research on the relationship between the length of testing speech and the recognition accuracy of the system. Some experimental results are given at last.

  7. Affective Valence, Stimulus Attributes, and P300: Color vs. Black/White and Normal vs. Scrambled Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Maya E.; Class, Quetzal A.; Polich, John

    2009-01-01

    Pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) were selected to manipulate affective valence (unpleasant, neutral, pleasant) while keeping arousal level the same. The pictures were presented in an oddball paradigm, with a visual pattern used as the standard stimulus. Subjects pressed a button whenever a target was detected. Experiment 1 presented normal pictures in color and black/white. Control stimuli were constructed for both the color and black/white conditions by randomly rearranging 1 cm square fragments of each original picture to produce a “scrambled” image. Experiment 2 presented the same normal color pictures with large, medium, and small scrambled condition (2, 1, and 0.5 cm squares). The P300 event-related brain potential demonstrated larger amplitudes over frontal areas for positive compared to negative or neutral images for normal color pictures in both experiments. Attenuated and nonsignificant valence effects were obtained for black/white images. Scrambled stimuli in each study yielded no valence effects but demonstrated typical P300 topography that increased from frontal to parietal areas. The findings suggest that P300 amplitude is sensitive to affective picture valence in the absence of stimulus arousal differences, and that stimulus color contributes to ERP valence effects. PMID:18708099

  8. The Picture Book of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Siegmund

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to explain the basic concepts and phenomena of quantum mechanics by means of visualization. Computer-generated illustrations in color are used extensively throughout the text, helping to establish the relation between quantum mechanics—wave functions, interference, atomic structure, and so forth—and classical physics—point mechanics, statistical mechanics, and wave optics. Even more important, by studying the pictures in parallel with the text, readers develop an intuition for such notoriously abstract phenomena as • the tunnel effect • excitation and decay of metastable states • wave-packet motion within a well • systems of distinguishable and indistinguishable particles • free wave packets and scattering in 3 dimensions • angular-momentum decomposition • stationary bound states in various 3-dimensional potentials • hybrid states • Kepler motion of wave packets in the Coulomb field • spin and magnetic resonance Illustrations from experiments in a variety of f...

  9. Selected pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    View of a single MDT Big Wheel (on side A in UX15 cavern) taken during its last movement immediately after being assembled and just before being connected to the neighbouring TGC1 wheel. Assembly work on the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Wheel C in building 190. Connecting the services for the Cathode Strip Chambers. The installation of the optical fibers for the readout of the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Weel C by the Irvine group. Best from our archives: View of the End Cap Calorimeter and TGC big wheel from the Cryostat side A of ATLAS cavern taken on 22 May 2007. The picture above was taken from the platform in the middle, between the Cryostat and the End-Cap. Muriel hopes you all had a great vacation. She herself had a wonderful time sailing in Galicia (North Western Spain). She can be seen here wearing the traditional dress offered to her by "Los Amigos de las Dornas" (Friends of the Dornas -traditional sailing boats used for fishing) - when she became ...

  10. Emotional Processing in High-Functioning Autism--Physiological Reactivity and Affective Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Poustka, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    This study examined physiological response and affective report in 10 adult individuals with autism and 10 typically developing controls. An emotion induction paradigm using stimuli from the International Affective Picture System was applied. Blood pressure, heart and self-ratings of experienced valence (pleasure), arousal and dominance (control)…

  11. Extracting modal parameters of a cable on shaky motion pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa Kim, Byeong

    2014-12-01

    A set of modal parameters of a cable are extracted from a motion picture captured by a digital camera operated with shaking hands. It is difficult to identify the center of the targets attached to the cable surface from the blurred motion image of the cable, because of the high-speed motion of the cable, low sampling frequency of the camera, and the effect of shaking hands on the motion pictures. This paper proposes a multi-template matching algorithm to solve these difficulties. In addition, a sensitivity-based system identification algorithm is proposed for extracting the natural frequencies and the damping ratios from ambient cable vibration data. Three sets of vibration tests are performed to examine the validity of the proposed algorithms. The results show that the proposed approach of using these two algorithms is fairly feasible for extracting modal parameters from severely blurred motion pictures.

  12. Study of the impact of environmental pictures on emotional aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Miranda, Martha Patricia; Garza González, Arturo De la

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined emotions that automatically and implicitly trigger pictures of nature and the city, with the affective priming technique, and determined if the same phenomenon that has been studied in unimodal experiments was replicated in cross modality experiments. The sample included 57 psychology students from a Mexican public university who were exposed to images of natural and urban environments. They used words with positive and negative emotional connotations. The result...

  13. Holographic motion picture camera with Doppler shift compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A holographic motion picture camera is reported for producing three dimensional images by employing an elliptical optical system. There is provided in one of the beam paths (the object or reference beam path) a motion compensator which enables the camera to photograph faster moving objects.

  14. USING PICTURES IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Visuals are advantageous to language teaching and learning.Effective use of pictures in the lan-guage classroom contributes to stimulate the students’ imagination and creativity,enhance their basic lan-guage skills and heighten their communicative competence.This Paper will present some techniques andactivities with pictures for use in the language class.

  15. The Untapped Potential of Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role picture books play in helping young writers. Third-grade students were read engaging picture books for the sole purpose of noticing and naming different features they encountered during the read-alouds. Students were able to recognize the tools many authors and illustrators use such as onomatopoeia, varied font…

  16. Magazine Picture Collage in Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Blythe C.; Guenette, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    A magazine picture collage activity was used with three female counsellor education students as a vehicle to support them in processing their experience as counsellors in training. The use of magazine picture collage in group supervision is described, and the benefits and challenges are presented. The collages served as jumping-off points for…

  17. Wigner method dynamics in the interaction picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Dahl, Jens Peder; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of introducing an interaction picture in the semiclassical Wigner method is investigated. This is done with an interaction Picture description of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show that the dynamics of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show ...... integration of the Schrodinger equation....

  18. Attitudes toward Motion Pictures among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce A.

    Several reasons for studying motion pictures and patrons' attitudes toward them include the following: (1) current data show that motion pictures account for 53% of the total United States spectator amusement expenditures; (2) the average weekly United States movie attendance has plummeted by more than half since 1930; (3) despite this decline,…

  19. The Functions of Pictures in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Iliada; Philippou, George

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we assert that pictures serve four functions in problem solving: decorative, representational, organizational and informational. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pictures based on their functions in mathematical problem solving (MPS), by high achievement students of Grade 6 in Cyprus, in a communication setting. A…

  20. Application and analysis of debris-flow early warning system in Wenchuan earthquake-affected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. L.; Zhang, S. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zhao, L. Q.; Jiang, Y. H.; Tang, D.; Leng, X. P.

    2016-02-01

    The activities of debris flow (DF) in the Wenchuan earthquake-affected area significantly increased after the earthquake on 12 May 2008. The safety of the lives and property of local people is threatened by DFs. A physics-based early warning system (EWS) for DF forecasting was developed and applied in this earthquake area. This paper introduces an application of the system in the Wenchuan earthquake-affected area and analyzes the prediction results via a comparison to the DF events triggered by the strong rainfall events reported by the local government. The prediction accuracy and efficiency was first compared with a contribution-factor-based system currently used by the weather bureau of Sichuan province. The storm on 17 August 2012 was used as a case study for this comparison. The comparison shows that the false negative rate and false positive rate of the new system is, respectively, 19 and 21 % lower than the system based on the contribution factors. Consequently, the prediction accuracy is obviously higher than the system based on the contribution factors with a higher operational efficiency. On the invitation of the weather bureau of Sichuan province, the authors upgraded their prediction system of DF by using this new system before the monsoon of Wenchuan earthquake-affected area in 2013. Two prediction cases on 9 July 2013 and 10 July 2014 were chosen to further demonstrate that the new EWS has high stability, efficiency, and prediction accuracy.

  1. Identifying and Incorporating Affective States and Learning Styles in Web-based Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Khan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning styles and affective states influence students’ learning. The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework for identifying and integrating learning styles and affective states of a learner into web-based learning management systems and therefore provide learners with adaptive courses and additional individualized pedagogical guidance that is tailored to their learning styles and affective states. The study was carried out in three phases, the first of which was the investigation and determination of learning styles and affective states which are important for learning. Phase two consisted of the development of an approach for the identification of learning styles and affective states as well as the development of a mechanism to calculate them from the students’ learning interactions within web-based learning management systems. The third phase was to develop a learning strategy that is more personalized and adaptive in nature and tailored to learners’ needs and current situation through considering learners’ learning styles and affective states, aiming to lead to better learning outcomes and progress.

  2. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  3. Chemistry--The Big Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry produces materials and releases energy by ionic or electronic rearrangements. Three structure types affect the ease with which a reaction occurs. In the Earth's crust, "solid crystals" change chemically only with extreme heat and pressure, unless their fixed ions touch moving fluids. On the other hand, in living things, "liquid crystals"…

  4. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  5. Factors Affecting the Full Use of Library and Information Management Systems by Library Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skretas, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a general list of factors that affects and determines the full use of library information management systems (LIMS) by library staff. Design/methodology/approach: The factors, which were identified mainly during participation in the implementation of automation projects in Greece, are listed and briefly analysed in categories…

  6. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  7. Missile Defense: Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities For over half a century , the Department of Defense (DOD) has been...or bi-annually in support of its goals for the defense of regional allies and U.S. forces deployed to Asia -Pacific, the Middle East, and Europe, known

  8. Microtensile bond strength of three simplified adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.; Purwanta, K.; Dogan, N.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the microtensile bond strength of three different simplified adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin. Materials and Methods: Fifteen extracted human molars with primary carious lesions were ground flat until dentin was exposed. Soft caries-infect

  9. Employing Textual and Facial Emotion Recognition to Design an Affective Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Wang, Cheng-Hung; Chao, Ching-Ju; Chien, Ming-Kuan

    2012-01-01

    Emotional expression in Artificial Intelligence has gained lots of attention in recent years, people applied its affective computing not only in enhancing and realizing the interaction between computers and human, it also makes computer more humane. In this study, emotional expressions were applied into intelligent tutoring system, where learners'…

  10. Microtensile Bond Strength of Three Simplified Adhesive Systems to Caries-affected Dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, Johannes; Purwanta, Kenny; Dogan, Nilgun; Kleverlaan, Cees J.; Feilzer, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the microtensile bond strength of three different simplified adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin. Materials and Methods: Fifteen extracted human molars with primary carious lesions were ground flat until dentin was exposed. Soft caries-infect

  11. Development of NATO's recognized environmental picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad

    2006-05-01

    An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.

  12. Building Responsive Health Systems to Help Communities Affected by Migration: An International Delphi Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottie, Kevin; Hui, Charles; Rahman, Prinon; Ingleby, David; Akl, Elie A.; Russell, Grant; Ling, Li; Wickramage, Kolitha; Mosca, Davide; Brindis, Claire D.

    2017-01-01

    Persons affected by migration require health systems that are responsive and adaptable to the needs of both disadvantaged migrants and non-migrant populations. The objective of this study is to support health systems for populations affected by migration. Materials and Methods: An international Delphi consensus process was used to identify policy approaches to improve health systems for populations affected by migration. Participants were leading migrant health experts from Americas, Europe, Middle East, Asia, and Australasia. We calculated average ranking scores and qualitatively analyzed open-ended questions. Results: Participants identified the following key areas as priorities for policy development: health inequities, system discrimination, migrant related health data, disadvantaged migrant sub-groups, and considerations for disadvantaged non-migrant populations. Highly ranked items to improve health systems were: Health Equity Impact Assessment, evidence based guidelines, and the International Organization for Migration annual reports. Discussion: Policy makers need tools, data and resources to address health systems challenges. Policies need to avoid preventable deaths of migrants and barriers to basic health services. PMID:28165380

  13. Factors affecting the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The concentrations of approximately a dozen elements in the products of coal combustion affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used to construct the combustion system. The elements, including H, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe, affect corrosion rates in three ways: as primary corrodants of the materials, as secondary corrodants that affect the activities of the primary corrodants, and by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodants. A full factorial study of corrosion rates performed by varying the concentrations of these elements would involve X{sup n} tests, where X is the number of variations of each element and n is the number of different elements. For three variations (low, medium, and high concentrations) of each of 12 elements, the number of tests is 531,441 for a single temperature and pressure condition. The numbers can be reduced with the use of a fractional factorial test matrix, but the most effective way to perform corrosion tests is to base them on realistic system conditions. In this paper, the effects of the composition and physical state of the products of coal combustion on ceramic corrosion rates are given along with suggestions of appropriate test conditions for specific system components.

  14. Green roof soil system affected by soil structural changes: A project initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínková, Vladimíra; Dohnal, Michal; Šácha, Jan; Šebestová, Jana; Sněhota, Michal

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic soil systems and structures such as green roofs, permeable or grassed pavements comprise appreciable part of the urban watersheds and are considered to be beneficial regarding to numerous aspects (e.g. carbon dioxide cycle, microclimate, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). Expected performance of these systems is significantly affected by water and heat regimes that are primarily defined by technology and materials used for system construction, local climate condition, amount of precipitation, the orientation and type of the vegetation cover. The benefits and potencies of anthropogenic soil systems could be considerably threatened in case when exposed to structural changes of thin top soil layer in time. Extensive green roof together with experimental green roof segment was established and advanced automated monitoring system of micrometeorological variables was set-up at the experimental site of University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings as an interdisciplinary research facility of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The key objectives of the project are (i) to characterize hydraulic and thermal properties of soil substrate studied, (ii) to establish seasonal dynamics of water and heat in selected soil systems from continuous monitoring of relevant variables, (iii) to detect structural changes with the use of X-ray Computed Tomography, (iv) to identify with the help of numerical modeling and acquired datasets how water and heat dynamics in anthropogenic soil systems are affected by soil structural changes. Achievements of the objectives will advance understanding of the anthropogenic soil systems behavior in conurbations with the temperate climate.

  15. Eye movements characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children in picture searching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xu; JING Jin; ZOU Xiao-bing; WANG Meng-long; LI Xiu-hong; LIN Ai-hua

    2008-01-01

    Background Reading Chinese,a kind of ideogram,relies more on visual cognition.The visuospatial cognitive deficit of Chinese dyslexia is an interesting topic that has received much attention.The purpose of current research was to explore the visuopatial cognitive characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children by studying their eye movements via a picture searching test.Methods According to the diagnostic criteria defined by ICD-10,twenty-eight dyslexic children (mean age (10.12+1.42)years) were enrolled from the Clinic of Children Behavioral Disorder in the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.And 28 normally reading children (mean age (10.06±1.29) years),1:1 matched by age,sex,grade and family condition were chosen from an elementary school in Guangzhou as a control group.Four groups of pictures (cock,accident,canyon,meditate) from Picture Vocabulary Test were chosen as eye movement experiment targets.All the subjects carried out the picture searching task and their eye movement data were recorded by an Eyelink Ⅱ High-Speed Eye Tracker.The duration time,average fixation duration,average saccade amplitude,fixation counts and saccade counts were compared between the two groups of children.Results The dyslexic children had longer total fixation duration and average fixation duration (F=7.711,P<0.01;F=4.520,P<0.05),more fixation counts and saccade counts (F=7.498,P<0.01;F=11.040,P<0.01),and a smaller average saccade amplitude (F=29.743,P<0.01) compared with controls.But their performance in the picture vocabulary test was the same as those of the control group.The eye movement indexes were affected by the difficulty of the pictures and words,all eye movement indexes,except saccade amplitude,had a significant difference within groups (P<0.05).Conclusions Chinese dyslexic children have abnormal eye movements in picture searching,applying slow fixations,more fixations and small and frequent saccades.Their abnormal eye movement mode reflects the

  16. Reward system and temporal pole contributions to affective evaluation during a first person shooter video game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber René

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violent content in video games evokes many concerns but there is little research concerning its rewarding aspects. It was demonstrated that playing a video game leads to striatal dopamine release. It is unclear, however, which aspects of the game cause this reward system activation and if violent content contributes to it. We combined functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI with individual affect measures to address the neuronal correlates of violence in a video game. Results Thirteen male German volunteers played a first-person shooter game (Tactical Ops: Assault on Terror during fMRI measurement. We defined success as eliminating opponents, and failure as being eliminated themselves. Affect was measured directly before and after game play using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS. Failure and success events evoked increased activity in visual cortex but only failure decreased activity in orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nucleus. A negative correlation between negative affect and responses to failure was evident in the right temporal pole (rTP. Conclusions The deactivation of the caudate nucleus during failure is in accordance with its role in reward-prediction error: it occurred whenever subject missed an expected reward (being eliminated rather than eliminating the opponent. We found no indication that violence events were directly rewarding for the players. We addressed subjective evaluations of affect change due to gameplay to study the reward system. Subjects reporting greater negative affect after playing the game had less rTP activity associated with failure. The rTP may therefore be involved in evaluating the failure events in a social context, to regulate the players' mood.

  17. Brain activations to emotional pictures are differentially associated with valence and arousal ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje B M Gerdes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the neural responses triggered by emotional pictures, but the specificity of the involved structures such as the amygdala or the ventral striatum is still under debate. Furthermore, only few studies examined the association of stimuli’s valence and arousal and the underlying brain responses. Therefore, we investigated brain responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging of 17 healthy subjects to pleasant and unpleasant affective pictures with comparable arousal levels and afterwards assessed ratings of valence and arousal. As expected, unpleasant pictures strongly activated the right and left amygdala, the right hippocampus, and the medial occipital lobe, whereas pleasant pictures elicited significant activations in left occipital regions, and in parts of the medial temporal lobe. The direct comparison of unpleasant and pleasant pictures which were comparable in arousal clearly indicated stronger amygdala activation in response to the unpleasant pictures. Most important, correlational analyses revealed on the one hand that the arousal of unpleasant pictures was significantly associated with activations in the right amygdala and the left caudate body. On the other hand, valence of pleasant pictures was significantly correlated with activations in the right caudate head, extending to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc and the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. These findings support the notion that the amygdala is primarily involved in processing of unpleasant stimuli, and the stronger the more arousing the stimuli are, whereas reward-related structures like the NAcc primarily responds to pleasant stimuli, the stronger the more positive the valence of these stimuli is.

  18. Picturing perturbative parton cascades in QCD matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi Kurkela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on parametric reasoning, we provide a simple dynamical picture of how a perturbative parton cascade, in interaction with a QCD medium, fills phase space as a function of time.

  19. Dementia in the movies: the clinical picture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.; Kuin, Y.; Nijboer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Visual media influence the general public's perceptions and attitudes regarding people with mental conditions. This qualitative study investigates the depiction accuracy of dementia's clinical features in motion pictures.Method: Using the search terms dementia', Alzheimer's disease' and

  20. NIH Abroad: Pictures Are Crowd Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pictures Are Crowd Pullers …" Art, culture, and the Internet combine to intervene against malaria in Uganda NLM's ... Services Division collaborated on the project through the Internet. "We wanted to see if such a 'health ...

  1. Dementia in the movies: The clinical picture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.L.; Kuin, Y.; Nijboer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Visual media influence the general public's perceptions and attitudes regarding people with mental conditions. This qualitative study investigates the depiction accuracy of dementia's clinical features in motion pictures.Method: Using the search terms 'dementia', 'Alzheimer's disease' an

  2. Automaton based detection of affected cells in three dimensional biological system

    CERN Document Server

    Dundas, Jitesh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research review is to propose the logic and search mechanism for the development of an artificially intelligent automaton (AIA) that can find affected cells in a 3-dimensional biological system. Research on the possible application of such automatons to detect and control cancer cells in the human body are greatly focused MRI and PET scans finds the affected regions at the tissue level even as we can find the affected regions at the cellular level using the framework. The AIA may be designed to ensure optimum utilization as they record and might control the presence of affected cells in a human body. The proposed models and techniques can be generalized and used in any application where cells are injured or affected by some disease or accident. The best method to import AIA into the body without surgery or injection is to insert small pill like automata, carrying material viz drugs or leukocytes that is needed to correct the infection. In this process, the AIA can be compared to nano pills to ...

  3. Two Comments on Predictive Picture Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Two comments on predictive picture coding are given in this paper. 1) In lossy coding, the reconstructed values of picture samples, not its original values, should be used in the prediction formula. 2) In the design of optimum predictors, the minimum entropy or subjective assessment or other criterions, could be used, depending on the applications of the prediction encoder, instead of the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion.

  4. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in neglectful mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Inmaculada; Rodrigo, María José; Quiñones, Ileana; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Lage, Agustín; Padrón, Iván; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz) and lower alpha (8-10 Hz) bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers.

  5. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in neglectful mothers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada León

    Full Text Available Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1-4 Hz, theta (4-8 Hz and lower alpha (8-10 Hz bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers.

  6. The effect of selective REM-sleep deprivation on the consolidation and affective evaluation of emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Christian D; Pulst, Julika; Krause, Fanny; Elsner, Marike; Baving, Lioba; Pedersen, Anya; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Emotion boosts the consolidation of events in the declarative memory system. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is believed to foster the memory consolidation of emotional events. On the other hand, REM sleep is assumed to reduce the emotional tone of the memory. Here, we investigated the effect of selective REM-sleep deprivation, SWS deprivation, or wake on the affective evaluation and consolidation of emotional and neutral pictures. Prior to an 9-h retention interval, sixty-two healthy participants (23.5 ± 2.5 years, 32 female, 30 male) learned and rated their affect to 80 neutral and 80 emotionally negative pictures. Despite rigorous deprivation of REM sleep or SWS, the residual sleep fostered the consolidation of neutral and negative pictures. Furthermore, emotional arousal helped to memorize the pictures. The better consolidation of negative pictures compared to neutral ones was most pronounced in the SWS-deprived group where a normal amount of REM sleep was present. This emotional memory bias correlated with REM sleep only in the SWS-deprived group. Furthermore, emotional arousal to the pictures decreased over time, but neither sleep nor wake had any differential effect. Neither the comparison of the affective ratings (arousal, valence) during encoding and recognition, nor the affective ratings of the recognized targets and rejected distractors supported the hypothesis that REM sleep dampens the emotional reaction to remembered stimuli. The data suggest that REM sleep fosters the consolidation of emotional memories but has no effect on the affective evaluation of the remembered contents.

  7. Factors affecting the sustainability of solid waste management system-the case of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Ammar J; Al-Sari, Majed I; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Anayah, Fathi

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the predictors of sustainability in solid waste management (SWM) systems can significantly contribute to eliminate many waste management problems. In this paper, the sustainability elements of SWM systems of interest are (1) attitudes toward separation at the source, (2) behaviour regarding reuse and/or recycling and (3) willingness to pay for an improved service of SWM. The predictors affecting these three elements were studied in two Palestinian cities: Ramallah and Jericho. The data were collected via structured questionnaires and direct interviews with the respondents, and the analysis utilized a logistic regression model. The results showed that the place of residence and dwelling premises are the significant factors influencing attitudes toward separation at the source; the place of residence and age are the significant factors explaining behaviour regarding reuse and/or recycling; while the dwelling premises, gender, level of education and being received education on waste management are the significant factors affecting willingness to pay for an improved service of SWM.

  8. A Story Told by a Picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshayahu Shen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract (E: We investigate whether people use a narrative/story schema to organize visual information in figurative isolated pictures representing a "pregnant moment", and, if so, how they do this.  The participants in our study were asked to freely describe pictures that depict some event. Their descriptions were analyzed according to a system of categories developed especially for examining the use of an elaborated narrative organization. The findings support the hypothesis that observers use elaborated narrative organization that goes beyond mere temporal and causal organization (including, e.g., exposition, complication, resolution. Furthermore, the findings suggest that this elaborative narrative organization sometimes dominates the visual organization of the pictures.

     

    Abstract (F: Cet article tente de répondre à la question suivante: est-ce que les spectateurs se servent d’un schéma base sur l

  9. Study of One Rainstorm Being Affected by Two Weather Systems in Jinzhou Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study one rainstorm process being affected by two weather system. [Method] Influenced by high trough and Mongolia cold front, high latitude trough and subtropical high shear, rainstorm occurred in Jinzhou from October 19 to 22 in 2010. In order to make the analysis clear, there were two precipitation stages. Considering precipitation, weather situation, satellite image and numerical forecast, the rainstorm process was discussed. [Result] There were two raining stages during this p...

  10. Affect in Complex Decision-Making Systems: From Psychology to Computer Science Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Chohra, Amine; Chohra, Aziza; Madani, Kurosh

    2014-01-01

    Part 2: MHDW Workshop; International audience; The increasing progresses in both psychology and computer science allow continually to deal with more and more complex systems and closer to real-world applications in order to solve particularly the decision-making process with uncertain and incomplete information. The aim of this research work is to highlight the irrationality (affect) and to understand some different ways in which the irrationality enter into the decision-making from psycholog...

  11. Digital Picture Production and Picture aesthetic Competency in It-didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle

    subject Visual Arts – and crosswise of subjects in school. The overall research question has been: How can IT-didactic designs support lessons in production of complex meaning in digital pictures and increase the development of pupil’s picture aesthetic competences? By using the expression ‘complex...... of such aesthetic features makes the total potential of meaning in pictures nuanced, complex, relational, ambiguous and therefore impossible to articulate in its entirety. (Goodman 1968). Since digital pictures at the same time often interact with other kinds of symbols, such as sound and text, the meaning...... to overcome specific didactic challenges related to lessons in production of complex meaning in digital pictures and increases the development of pupil’s picture aesthetic competences. References: Buhl, Mie (2005): “Den æstetiske aktualisering af læringspotentialer med medier og it” in Mie Buhl m.fl. (red...

  12. Designing Effective Persuasive Systems Utilizing the Power of Entanglement: Communication Channel, Strategy and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiqing; Chatterjee, Samir

    With rapid advances in information and communication technology, computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies are utilizing multiple IT platforms such as email, websites, cell-phones/PDAs, social networking sites, and gaming environments. However, no studies have compared the effectiveness of a persuasive system using such alternative channels and various persuasive techniques. Moreover, how affective computing impacts the effectiveness of persuasive systems is not clear. This study proposes (1) persuasive technology channels in combination with persuasive strategies will have different persuasive effectiveness; (2) Adding positive emotion to a message that leads to a better overall user experience could increase persuasive effectiveness. The affective computing or emotion information was added to the experiment using emoticons. The initial results of a pilot study show that computer-mediated communication channels along with various persuasive strategies can affect the persuasive effectiveness to varying degrees. These results also shows that adding a positive emoticon to a message leads to a better user experience which increases the overall persuasive effectiveness of a system.

  13. Carl Linnaeus: pictures and propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2003-03-01

    How do scientists become famous? Carl Linnaeus was an expert at self-promotion who used portraits to gain patronage and consolidate his reputation. His sexualized classification system was hugely controversial, yet his successors celebrated him as a great hero of botany.

  14. Integration of Pictures and Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    in retrievability) and an extremely interactive system. Retrieval is based on a resonance metaphor, much like the Minerva II model (Hintzman, 1986...May 1991. Comprension del texto illustrado: los dibujos ayudan a crear modelos mentales. University of Salamanca, July 1991. Building mental models

  15. Developments in Indexing Picture Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of electronic image processing focuses on the need for indexing to ensure adequate retrieval. Highlights include icons, i.e., reduced pictorial surrogates; file staging; indexing languages, including examples of thesauri; and pictorial languages, including a HyperCard system. (Contains eight references.) (LRW)

  16. Additive effects of threat-of-shock and picture valence on startle reflex modulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bublatzky

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of sustained anticipatory anxiety on the affective modulation of the eyeblink startle reflex. Towards this end, pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures were presented as a continuous stream during alternating threat-of-shock and safety periods, which were cued by colored picture frames. Orbicularis-EMG to auditory startle probes and electrodermal activity were recorded. Previous findings regarding affective picture valence and threat-of-shock modulation were replicated. Of main interest, anticipating aversive events and viewing affective pictures additively modulated defensive activation. Specifically, despite overall potentiated startle blink magnitude in threat-of-shock conditions, the startle reflex remained sensitive to hedonic picture valence. Finally, skin conductance level revealed sustained sympathetic activation throughout the entire experiment during threat- compared to safety-periods. Overall, defensive activation by physical threat appears to operate independently from reflex modulation by picture media. The present data confirms the importance of simultaneously manipulating phasic-fear and sustained-anxiety in studying both normal and abnormal anxiety.

  17. A new cable truss support system for coal roadways affected by dynamic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yan; Fulian He

    2012-01-01

    The support of coal roadways is seriously affected by intense dynamic pressures.This can lead to problems with large deformation of the roof and the two side walls of coal roadways.Rapid convergence of the walls and roof,a high damage rate to the bolts and cables,or even abrupt roof collapse or rib spalling can occur during the service period of these coal roadways.Analyzing the main support measures used in China leads to a proposed new cable truss supporting system.Thorough study of the entire structure shows the superiority of this design for roadways suffering under dynamic pressure.A corresponding mechanical model of the rock surrounding the cable truss system is described in this paper and formulas for calculating pre-tightening forces of the truss cable,and the minimum anchoring forces,were deduced.The new support system was applied to a typical roadway affected by intensive dynamic pressure that is located in the Xinyuan Coal Mine.The results show that the largest subsidence of the roof was 97 mm,the convergence of the two sides was less than 248 mm,and the average depth of the loose,fractured layer was only 6.12 mm.This proves that the new support system is feasible and effective.

  18. Visualizing common operating picture of critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummukainen, Lauri; Oksama, Lauri; Timonen, Jussi; Vankka, Jouko

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a solution for visualizing the common operating picture (COP) of the critical infrastructure (CI). The purpose is to improve the situational awareness (SA) of the strategic-level actor and the source system operator in order to support decision making. The information is obtained through the Situational Awareness of Critical Infrastructure and Networks (SACIN) framework. The system consists of an agent-based solution for gathering, storing, and analyzing the information, and a user interface (UI) is presented in this paper. The UI consists of multiple views visualizing information from the CI in different ways. Different CI actors are categorized in 11 separate sectors, and events are used to present meaningful incidents. Past and current states, together with geographical distribution and logical dependencies, are presented to the user. The current states are visualized as segmented circles to represent event categories. Geographical distribution of assets is displayed with a well-known map tool. Logical dependencies are presented in a simple directed graph, and users also have a timeline to review past events. The objective of the UI is to provide an easily understandable overview of the CI status. Therefore, testing methods, such as a walkthrough, an informal walkthrough, and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), were used in the evaluation of the UI. Results showed that users were able to obtain an understanding of the current state of CI, and the usability of the UI was rated as good. In particular, the designated display for the CI overview and the timeline were found to be efficient.

  19. Quantum-like picture for intrinsic, classical, arrival distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Vega, Gabino [Physics Department, Cinvestav, Apdo. postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: gabino@fis.cinvestav.mx

    2009-11-20

    We introduce a marginal, quantum-like picture for the arrival of classical quantities in which the representation vectors are the quantities that evolve and probability densities remain static. The representation functions can be seen as probe functions which are the evolution of delta functions with support on a curve in phase space, the time fronts. This procedure provides a classical analog as well as a clear physical interpretation of the 'time eigenstates' used in quantum systems.

  20. Hierarchical Picture Coding Using Quadtree Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Yves; Fortier, Michel

    1987-10-01

    A new hierarchical encoding scheme for grey-level pictures is presented here. The picture field is split by a modified quadtree algorithm into blocks of size 32 x 32, 16 x 16, 8 x 8 and 4 x 4 pels, according to their subjective importance in the picture. The larger cells, of size 32 x 32, 16 x 16 and 8 x 8 pels, corresponding to uniform or low-detailed areas, are coded at a very low rates by block truncation in the Discrete Cosine Transform field. The smallest blocks, representing mainly high-detailed areas of the like edges or textures are coded with a multi-codebook vector quantization scheme. Due to its structure, such an encoding scheme is especially well adapted for coding "head and shoulders" pictures, mostly encountered in videophone or videoconference application, where large areas of background may appear. Concerning the vector quantization, several techniques were investigated in order to improve the subjective quality and to reduce the search time through the codebooks. This permits a faster elaboration of the codebooks. Results are presented with bit-rates ranging from 0.4 to 0.8 bits/pel depending on the picture complexity.

  1. Advancing the Assessment of Personality Pathology With the Cognitive-Affective Processing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past.

  2. Mating system affects population performance and extinction risk under environmental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesnar-Bielak, Agata; Skrzynecka, Anna M; Prokop, Zofia M; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-11-22

    Failure of organisms to adapt to sudden environmental changes may lead to extinction. The type of mating system, by affecting fertility and the strength of sexual selection, may have a major impact on a population's chances to adapt and survive. Here, we use experimental evolution in bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus robini) to examine the effects of the mating system on population performance under environmental change. We demonstrate that populations in which monogamy was enforced suffered a dramatic fitness decline when evolving at an increased temperature, whereas the negative effects of change in a thermal environment were alleviated in polygamous populations. Strikingly, within 17 generations, all monogamous populations experiencing higher temperature went extinct, whereas all polygamous populations survived. Our results show that the mating system may have dramatic effects on the risk of extinction under environmental change.

  3. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Elementary School Students’ BMI Values Based on the System Dynamics Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Syung Lan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students’ BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student’s personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students’ peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students’ amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students’ high-calorie diets.

  4. [Influence of the type of visualization on the construction of mental models during picture and text comprehension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnotz, W; Bannert, M

    1999-01-01

    The following article describes an integrative model of text and picture comprehension. Text and picture comprehension is considered as a task oriented process of constructing descriptive and depictive mental representations by selection and organisation of information, parsing of symbols, mapping of analog structures as well as mental model construction and model inspection. Based on this theoretical model an experiment was conducted in which subjects had to acquire knowledge about a complex learning content (time and date differences on the earth) through self directed learning with a hypertext and different, but informationally equivalent pictures. The study aimed to investigate under which conditions learners prefer which kind of information and whether the kind of visualisation has an effect on the mental model structure created during the comprehension of texts and pictures. The results indicate that simple pictures induce more superficial processing, in which picture comprehension replaces text comprehension to some extent and vice versa. Demanding pictures, on the contrary, induce more intensive processing in which text comprehension and picture comprehension stimulate each other. Furthermore, the results suggest that the surface structure of pictures affects the structure of mental models. Accordingly, the presentation of a visualisation which is not task adequate may interfere with the required mental model construction. In designing texts combined with pictures the form of visualisation deserves therefore special attention.

  5. A Framework for Picture Extraction on Search Engine Improved and Meaningful Result

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Anamika

    2011-01-01

    Searching is an important tool of information gathering, if information is in the form of picture than it play a major role to take quick action and easy to memorize. This is a human tendency to retain more picture than text. The complexity and the occurrence of variety of query can give variation in result and provide the humans to learn something new or get confused. This paper presents a development of a framework that will focus on recourse identification for the user so that they can get faster access with accurate & concise results on time and analysis of the change that is evident as the scenario changes from text to picture retrieval. This paper also provides a glimpse how to get accurate picture information in advance and extended technologies searching framework. The new challenges and design techniques of picture retrieval systems are also suggested in this paper.

  6. [Patients' experiences and picture processes during the art therapy in a psychosomatic day hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Jörg; Poetsch, Stephanie; Danner-Weinberger, Alexandra; von Wietersheim, Jörn

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was the examination of the experiences of patients participating in an art therapy during a psychosomatic day hospital. The data basis were 15 transliterated interviews from the end of the treatment, conducted with a presentation of the pictures painted in the art therapy sessions, as well as the digitised pictures. The evaluation was done with a qualitative analysis of the interviews and an analysis of the pictures, using a specially-developed category system. In the art therapy, most part of the pa-tients dealt with own conflicts. Nearly all pa-tients benefitted from the art therapy and indicated an improvement of their feeling. The picture processes are different; at the beginning, wishes and familiar techniques dominated. Pictures of turning points differed in their dimensions. The art therapy was seen as a part of the complete treatment in which several therapies assembled. The final interviews were experienced as helpful for further reflections.

  7. Development of a Rich Picture editor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    rich picture practice into software proved difficult, therefore, we decided to follow a user-centered approach: design and implement a prototype with basic functionalities, then run a usability test with a few students and professionals. The feedback collected in the test validated our hypothesis circa...... the need of software support for the authoring rich pictures, but also forced us to re-consider the design of our prototype. To gain a deeper understanding of the students' working practice, we also reviewed rich pictures from past student projects. All the information gathered through our study is guiding...... us in the design of the tool next version. At a more general level we realized that modern object-oriented development methodologies, such as agile methods, are informed by design, hence they sometimes assume design skills that programmers do not have or do not value....

  8. Cosmic Inflation from Emergent Spacetime Picture

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hyun Seok

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the emergent spacetime picture admits a background-independent formulation of cosmic inflation. The inflation in this picture corresponds to the dynamical emergence of spacetime while the conventional inflation is simply an (exponential) expansion of a preexisting spacetime owing to the vacuum energy carried by an inflaton field. We show that the cosmic inflation arises as a time-dependent solution of the matrix quantum mechanics describing the dynamical process of Planck energy condensate in vacuum without introducing any inflaton field as well as an {\\it ad hoc} inflation potential. Thus the emergent spacetime picture realizes a background-independent description of the inflationary universe which has a sufficiently elegant and explanatory power to defend the integrity of physics against the multiverse hypothesis.

  9. Picture or Text First? Explaining Sequence Effects When Learning with Pictures and Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitel, Alexander; Scheiter, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The present article reviews 42 studies investigating the role of sequencing of text and pictures for learning outcomes. Whereas several of the reviewed studies revealed better learning outcomes from presenting the picture before the text rather than after it, other studies demonstrated the opposite effect. Against the backdrop of theories on…

  10. The Role of Pictures in Picture Books on Children's Cognitive Engagement with Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Iliada; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Georgiou, Alexia

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the cognitive activity that is evoked in young children when they are read a picture book that is written for the purpose of teaching mathematics. The focus of this study is to explore the effects of pictures on children's spontaneous mathematical cognitive engagement. The study is based on the assumption that the…

  11. Effect of Picture Exchange Communication System on Children with Autism%图片交换沟通系统在儿童孤独症康复护理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥颖; 宋福祥; 历虹; 许洪伟; 王亚男; 刘洋

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨图片交换沟通系统(PECS)在儿童孤独症康复护理中的应用效果。方法孤独症患儿40例随机分为观察组(n=20)和对照组(n=20)。对照组接受常规护理,观察组在常规护理的基础上给予以PECS为指导的康复护理。治疗前、治疗6个月后使用心理教育量表(PEP-3)进行评估。结果两组患儿治疗6个月后,与各自治疗前相比PEP-3评分均有提高(P<0.05);治疗后观察组沟通与行为评分高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论采取PECS指导的康复护理措施能够有效改善孤独症患儿社交功能和语言功能。%Objective To observe the efficacy of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on children with autism applied in rehabilitation nursing care. Methods 40 children with autism were divided randomly into two groups. The control group (n=20) received routine nursing care, and the observation group (n=20) received rehabilitation nursing care based on PECS for 6 months. They were assessed with Psycho-Education Profile (PEP-3) before and after training. Results The scores of PEP-3 improved obviously in all the children (P<0.05) after training, and the score of communication and behaviour improved more in the observation group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion PECS applied in rehabilitation nursing care can improve the sociality and speech for children with autism.

  12. Tillage system does not affect soil macro fauna in southeastern Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manetti, P. L.; Lopez, A. N.; Clemente, N. L.; Faberi, J.

    2010-07-01

    Soil degradation increased incessantly in the Pampas region of Argentina, due to the intensification of agricultural activities, when carried out with conventional tillage (CT) systems. No-tillage system was adopted as conservation practices by the farmers. The objectives of this study were: a) to determine the macro fauna taxa and their relative abundance under CT and NT in two different seasons; and b) to evaluate soil tillage and seasonal effects on the density of the main macro fauna taxa. The study was conducted from 2002 to 2004 in 46 production farms, in Balcarce, Argentina. Ten soil monoliths (25.2 cm side; 30 cm depth) randomly directed field at July-August; and at October- November to determine the number of individuals of macro fauna and Enchytraeidae. Soil macro fauna density did not differ between tillage systems. Oligochaeta Megadrilli density was generally not affected by the tillage system (P > 0.05) except in 2004 when it was greater under CT in July-August (P = 0.0002). Chilopoda density was greater in soils under NT, with significant differences in 2002 in October-November (P = 0.0070). In July-August of 2003 it was higher in CT (P = 0.0109). Diplopoda were more abundant only under NT in July-August 2004 (P = 0.0010). In July-August a significantly (P < 0.05) higher density of Enchytraeidae was found in CT than NT fields. No differences were observed in the taxonomic composition and the relative abundance of the macro fauna when comparing CT and NT. It can be then concluded that in the study region tillage systems affected slightly soil macro fauna and significantly Enchytraeidae. (Author)

  13. The early atmosphere: a new picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J S

    1986-01-01

    Over the last several years, many of the fundamental ideas concerning the composition and chemical evolution of the Earth's early atmosphere have changed. While many aspects of this subject are clouded--either uncertain or unknown, a new picture is emerging. We are just beginning to understand how astronomical, geochemical, and atmospheric processes each contributed to the development of the gaseous envelope around the third planet from the sun some 4.6 billion years ago and how that envelope chemically evolved over the history of our planet. Simple compounds in that gaseous envelope, energized by atmospheric lightning and/or solar ultraviolet radiation, formed molecules of increasing complexity that eventually evolved into the first living systems on our planet. This process is called "chemical evolution" and immediately preceded biological evolution; once life developed and evolved, it began to alter the chemical composition of the atmosphere that provided the very essence of its creation. Photosynthetic organisms which have the ability to biochemically transform carbon dioxide and water to carbohydrates, which they use for food, produce large amounts of molecular oxygen (O2) as a by-product of the reaction. Atmospheric oxygen photochemically formed ozone, which absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun and shields the Earth's surface from this biologically lethal radiation. Once atmospheric ozone levels increased sufficiently, life could leave the safety of the oceans and go ashore for the first time. Throughout the history of our planet, there has been strong interaction between life and the atmosphere. Understanding our cosmic roots is particularly relevant as we embark on a search for life outside the Earth. At this very moment, several radio telescopes around the world are searching for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).

  14. Spatial Vegetation Data for Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The geographic information system (GIS) format spatial data set of vegetation for Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (PIRO) was created by the National Park Service...

  15. Implicit and explicit attention to pictures and words: An fMRI-study of concurrent emotional stimulus processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eFlaisch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms.

  16. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  17. Tracking social motivation systems deficits: the affective neuroscience view of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Arnaud; Chevallier, Coralie; Robel, Laurence; Barry, Caroline; Maria, Anne-Solène; Pouga, Lydia; Philippe, Anne; Pinabel, François; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal functioning of primary brain systems that express and modulate basic emotional drives are increasingly considered to underlie mental disorders including autism spectrum disorders. We hypothesized that ASD are characterized by disruptions in the primary systems involved in the motivation for social bonding. Twenty adults with ASD were compared to 20 neurotypical participants on the basis of self-reports and clinical assessments, including the Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS) and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS). ASD diagnosis was related to SAS, as well as to positive (PLAYFULNESS) and negative (FEAR) ANPS-traits. In the overall sample, levels of autistic traits (AQ) were related to SAS and PLAYFULNESS. We argue that PLAYFULNESS could be at the root of social bonding impairments in ASD.

  18. Factors affecting release of ethanol vapour in active modified atmosphere packaging systems for horticultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawate Utto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active modified atmosphere packaging (active MAP system , which provides interactive postharvest control , using ethanol vapour controlled release, is one of the current interests in the development of active packaging for horticultural products. A number of published research work have discussed the relationship between the effectiveness of ethanol vapour and its concentration in the package headspace, including its effect on postharvest decay and physiological controls. This is of importance because a controlled release system should release and maintain ethanol vapour at effective concentrations during the desired storage period. A balance among the mass transfer processes of ethanol vapour in the package results in ethanol vapour accumulation in the package headspace. Key factors affecting these processes include ethanol loading, packaging material, packaged product and storage environment (temperature and relative h umidity. This article reviews their influences and discusses future work required to better understand their influences on ethanol vapour release and accumulations in active MAP.

  19. Research into human factors affecting the railway system; Studien zu menschlichen Einflussfaktoren im Eisenbahnsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerl, Malte; Feldmann, Frederike; Rumke, Axel; Pelz, Markus [DLR e.V., Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Verkehrssystemtechnik

    2010-07-01

    The Institute for Transportation Systems (ITS) at the German Aerospace Center DLR in Braunschweig has for many years been conducting research into current and future topics relating to railway transportation. Supplementing the in-house technical infrastructure including e.g. RailSiTe {sup registered} (Rail Simulation and Testing) and RailDriVE {sup registered} (Rail Driving Validation Environment), a new test environment for Rail Human Factors Research has been established to investigate such factors as they affect locomotive drivers. The aim is to analyse current issues and new concepts regarding human-machine interaction and test them under conditions that are as true-to-life as possible without exposure to real-life safety-critical situations. The test environment allows for investigation across the spectrum, starting with workplace analysis and going on from potential modifications to existing user interfaces through to the analysis of prototype assistance systems. (orig.)

  20. Financial crisis. How it affects the public health and health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Sarafis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The economic situation affects health indicators like life expectancy, morbidity, mortality and access to health services. Methodology: Α research in bibliography was done in Pubmed, Scopus, Sciverse with key words: health, health systems, economic crisis, unemployment, poverty. Results: Unemployment is also associated with increased daily alcohol consumption, suicides increase, domestic violence, and it reduces road deaths at 1.4%. In particular, poverty leads to disease as people are forced to live in degraded environment, fed poorly and work in dangerous and unhealthy environments. Conclusions: In particular, the economic crisis is leading to job insecurity, unemployment and poverty that eventually lead to the exclusion of more people something that is responsible for various mental disorders. Health systems on the other hand in crisis are facing financial problems because of reduced government spending on health due to economic scarcity and because of disruption of foreign economic aid from richer countries, which cover a large part of health funding.

  1. Immunofluorescence in multiple tissues utilizing serum from a patient affected by systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Brzezinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs. Lupus can affect many parts of the body, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; affected tissues may include the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. Case report: A 46-year-old female presented with pruritus, photosensitivity and edema of the cheeks of about 2 years duration, and was evaluated by a dermatologist. On examination, multiple telangiectasias were present on the cheeks, with erythema, edema and a malar rash observed. A review of systems documented breathing difficulty and pleuitic pain, joint pain and joint edema, photosensitivity, cardiac dysrhythmia, and periodic pain in the back close to the kidneys. Methods: Skin biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin testing, as well for direct and indirect immunofluorescence were performed, in addition to multiple diagnostic blood tests, chest radiography and directed immunologic testing. Results: The blood testing showed elevated C-reactive protein. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence testing utilizing monkey esophagus, mouse and pig heart and kidney, normal human eyelid skin and veal brain demonstrated strong reactivity to several components of smooth muscle, nerves, blood vessels, skin basement membrane zone and sweat gland ducts and skin meibomian glands. Anti-endomysium antibodies were detected as well as others, especially using FITC conjugated Complement/C1q, FITC conjugated anti-human immunoglobulin IgG and FITC conjugated anti-human fibrinogen. Conclusions: We conclude that both direct and indirect immunofluorescence using several substrates can unveil previously undocumented autoantibodies in multiple organs in lupus erythematosus, and that these findings could be utilized to complement existing diagnostic testing for this disorder.

  2. The Support System in Distance Education:Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozhan M IDRUS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Support System in Distance Education:Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners Hanafi ATAN Zuraidah A. RAHMAN Omar MAJID Noraida A. GHANIRozhan M IDRUS School of Distance EducationUniversiti Sains Malaysia11800 Penang, MALAYSIA ABSTRACT Distance education has the potential to contribute to the enhancement of women’s development by overcoming not only temporal and spatial barriers but familial commitments as well. It brings education to their home and allows women to learn at their individual pace, seek skills for individual development and at the same time, enables them to fulfill family responsibilities. An important element of distance education is the provision of the learner support system that provides students the access to learning resources and means of communication that would facilitate the array of educational activities and exposure to various other guidance and advisories. This paper reports on the study undertaken to elucidate the dimensions of the support system provided by the School of Distance Education (SDE, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM to its women learners that would have significant impact on their achievements. The factorial analysis conducted revealed that the role of the faculty is the main contributing factor affecting these achievements, followed by the provision of the intensive course, the electronic portal, video conferencing and to a much lesser extent, the existence of the regional centres. The implications of this study are discussed with the view of improving the support system provided by the institution and the need to put into action the necessary strategies to further improve the achievement of the women learners.

  3. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  4. Young Children, National Tragedy, and Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMath, Joan S.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that, rather than exposing young children to media coverage of national tragedies and disasters, caregivers should read aloud to children from picture books that convey stability, calmness, and reassurance. Includes tips for helping children cope with tragedy, guidelines for selecting books, and an annotated list of 25 books that can help…

  5. Do Natural Pictures Mean Natural Tastes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe

    2015-01-01

    A widespread assumption in Danish consumer law is that if the package of a food product carries a picture of a potentially taste-giving ingredient (say, a strawberry), then consumers will expect the corresponding taste to stem primarily from that ingredient rather than from artificial flavouring......’ general level of food knowledge had a significant influence on their expectations about naturalness....

  6. The Work of the Motion Picture Cameraman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Freddie; Petzold, Paul

    Meant to serve as an authoritative source of information on camera work in large scale feature productions, this book attempts to give some basic understanding of the problems of motion picture photography, the working conditions and artistry of lighting for mood and dramatic effect, budget problems for making films, and facts about working with a…

  7. Bilingual Picture Books: Libros Para Todos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of including bilingual English/Spanish picture books in library collections, introduces some recent titles, and describes some programming ideas. Topics include second language study, children teaching English to Spanish-speaking parents, cultural studies, and bilingual presentations. (LRW)

  8. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the cinem

  9. Learning about Environmental Print through Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Patricia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes picture books that contain environmental print (print found in the natural environment of a child, such as logos, billboards, and road signs) and how they can be used in the classroom. Includes "ABC Drive!" by Naomi Howland (1994), "The Signmaker's Assistant" by Tedd Arnold (1992), and four others. Also provides a…

  10. Learning about Environmental Print through Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Patricia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes picture books that contain environmental print (print found in the natural environment of a child, such as logos, billboards, and road signs) and how they can be used in the classroom. Includes "ABC Drive!" by Naomi Howland (1994), "The Signmaker's Assistant" by Tedd Arnold (1992), and four others. Also provides a bibliography of other…

  11. Motion Picture and Videotape Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Geoffrey C.; Duvall, David

    1983-01-01

    Use of motion pictures and videotape recordings to analyze animal behavior is described. Indicates that accuracy/amount of data available is greatly increased and that simultaneous behaviors of different animals can be studied or individual behavior patterns increased/decreased, providing observers with temporal perceptions similar to the animals…

  12. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects incentive salience attribution in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serranová, Tereza; Jech, Robert; Dušek, Petr; Sieger, Tomáš; Růžička, Filip; Urgošík, Dušan; Růžička, Evžen

    2011-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can induce nonmotor side effects such as behavioral and mood disturbances or body weight gain in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We hypothesized that some of these problems could be related to an altered attribution of incentive salience (ie, emotional relevance) to rewarding and aversive stimuli. Twenty PD patients (all men; mean age ± SD, 58.3 ± 6 years) in bilateral STN DBS switched ON and OFF conditions and 18 matched controls rated pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System according to emotional valence (unpleasantness/pleasantness) and arousal on 2 independent visual scales ranging from 1 to 9. Eighty-four pictures depicting primary rewarding (erotica and food) and aversive fearful (victims and threat) and neutral stimuli were selected for this study. In the STN DBS ON condition, the PD patients attributed lower valence scores to the aversive pictures compared with the OFF condition (P weight gain correlated with arousal ratings from the food pictures in the STN DBS ON condition (P weight gain.

  13. Cowpea production as affected by dry spells in no-tillage and conventional crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different periods of water shortage in no-tillage and conventional crop systems on cowpea yield components and grain yield in the Mossoró-RN region. For this, an experiment was conducted using two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage subjected to periods of irrigation suspension (2; 6; 10; 14; 18 end 22 days, started at flowering (34 days after sowing. Plants were harvested 70 days after sowing, and the studied variables were: Pods length (CV, number of grains per pod (NGV, number of pods per plant (NPP, the hundred grains weight (PCG and grain yield (kg ha-1. The no-tillage system is more productive than the conventional under both irrigation and water stress treatments. The water stress length affected grain yield and all yield components studied in a negative way, except for the hundred grains weight. Among the systems studied, the no-tillage provides higher values for the yield components, except the hundred grains weight.

  14. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB. In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB- and M. bovis-infected young (TB+ and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+ or affecting multiple organs (TB++]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to

  15. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Vladimir; Villar, Margarita; Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Alves, Paulo C; Alberdi, Pilar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB). In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB-) and M. bovis-infected young (TB+) and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+) or affecting multiple organs (TB++)]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to limit pathogen

  16. Behavioral Functions of the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System: an Affective Neuroethological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaro, Antonio; Huber, Robert; Panksepp, Jaak

    2008-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopaminergic (ML-DA) system has been recognized for its central role in motivated behaviors, various types of reward, and, more recently, in cognitive processes. Functional theories have emphasized DA's involvement in the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors, and in the promotion and reinforcement of learning. The affective neuroethological perspective presented here, views the ML-DA system in terms of its ability to activate an instinctual emotional appetitive state (SEEKING) evolved to induce organisms to search for all varieties of life-supporting stimuli and to avoid harms. A description of the anatomical framework in which the ML system is embedded is followed by the argument that the SEEKING disposition emerges through functional integration of ventral basal ganglia (BG) into thalamocortical activities. Filtering cortical and limbic input that spread into BG, DA transmission promotes the “release” of neural activity patterns that induce active SEEKING behaviors when expressed at the motor level. Reverberation of these patterns constitutes a neurodynamic process for the inclusion of cognitive and perceptual representations within the extended networks of the SEEKING urge. In this way, the SEEKING disposition influences attention, incentive salience, associative learning, and anticipatory predictions. In our view, the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse are, in part, caused by the activation of the SEEKING disposition, ranging from appetitive drive to persistent craving depending on the intensity of the affect. The implications of such a view for understanding addiction are considered, with particular emphasis on factors predisposing individuals to develop compulsive drug seeking behaviors. PMID:17905440

  17. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  18. Adiabatic Floquet Picture for Hydrogen Atom in an Intense Laser Field

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yujun; Esry, B D

    2010-01-01

    We develop an adiabatic Floquet picture in the length gauge to describe the dynamics of a hydrogen atom in an intense laser field. In this picture, we discuss the roles played by frequency and intensity in terms of adiabatic potentials and the couplings between them, which gives a physical and intuitive picture for quantum systems exposed to a laser field. For simplicity, analyze hydrogen and give the adiabatic potential curves as well as some physical quantities that can be readily calculated for the ground state. Both linearly and circularly polarized laser fields are discussed.

  19. Factors affecting mito-nuclear codon usage interactions in the OXPHOS system of Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Codon usage bias varies considerably among genomes and even within the genes of the same genome.In eukaryotic organisms,energy production in the form of oxidative phosphorylation(OXPHOS)is the only process under control of both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes.Although factors affecting codon usage in a single genome have been studied,this has not occurred when both interactional genomes are involved.Consequently, we investigated whether or not other factors influence codon usage of coevolved genes.We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism.Our χ2 test on the number of codons of nuclear and mitochondrial genes involved in the OXPHOS system was significantly different (χ2=7945.16,P<0.01).A plot of effective number of codons against GC3s content of nuclear genes showed that few genes lie on the expected curve,indicating that codon usage was random.Correspondence analysis indicated a significant correlation between axis 1 and codon adaptation index(R=0.947,P<0.01)in every nuclear gene sequence.Thus,codon usage bias of nuclear genes appeared to be affected by translational selection.Correlation between axis 1 coordinates and GC content(R=0.814.P<0.01)indicated that the codon usage of nuclear genes was also affected by GC composition.Analysis of mitochondrial genes did not reveal a significant correlation between axis 1 and any parameter.Statistical analyses indicated that codon usages of both nDNA and mtDNA were subjected to context-dependent mutations.

  20. Affective Computing and the Impact of Gender and Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Rukavina

    Full Text Available Affective computing aims at the detection of users' mental states, in particular, emotions and dispositions during human-computer interactions. Detection can be achieved by measuring multimodal signals, namely, speech, facial expressions and/or psychobiology. Over the past years, one major approach was to identify the best features for each signal using different classification methods. Although this is of high priority, other subject-specific variables should not be neglected. In our study, we analyzed the effect of gender, age, personality and gender roles on the extracted psychobiological features (derived from skin conductance level, facial electromyography and heart rate variability as well as the influence on the classification results. In an experimental human-computer interaction, five different affective states with picture material from the International Affective Picture System and ULM pictures were induced. A total of 127 subjects participated in the study. Among all potentially influencing variables (gender has been reported to be influential, age was the only variable that correlated significantly with psychobiological responses. In summary, the conducted classification processes resulted in 20% classification accuracy differences according to age and gender, especially when comparing the neutral condition with four other affective states. We suggest taking age and gender specifically into account for future studies in affective computing, as these may lead to an improvement of emotion recognition accuracy.

  1. Form of an evolutionary tradeoff affects eco-evolutionary dynamics in a predator-prey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasada, Minoru; Yamamichi, Masato; Yoshida, Takehito

    2014-11-11

    Evolution on a time scale similar to ecological dynamics has been increasingly recognized for the last three decades. Selection mediated by ecological interactions can change heritable phenotypic variation (i.e., evolution), and evolution of traits, in turn, can affect ecological interactions. Hence, ecological and evolutionary dynamics can be tightly linked and important to predict future dynamics, but our understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics is still in its infancy and there is a significant gap between theoretical predictions and empirical tests. Empirical studies have demonstrated that the presence of genetic variation can dramatically change ecological dynamics, whereas theoretical studies predict that eco-evolutionary dynamics depend on the details of the genetic variation, such as the form of a tradeoff among genotypes, which can be more important than the presence or absence of the genetic variation. Using a predator-prey (rotifer-algal) experimental system in laboratory microcosms, we studied how different forms of a tradeoff between prey defense and growth affect eco-evolutionary dynamics. Our experimental results show for the first time to our knowledge that different forms of the tradeoff produce remarkably divergent eco-evolutionary dynamics, including near fixation, near extinction, and coexistence of algal genotypes, with quantitatively different population dynamics. A mathematical model, parameterized from completely independent experiments, explains the observed dynamics. The results suggest that knowing the details of heritable trait variation and covariation within a population is essential for understanding how evolution and ecology will interact and what form of eco-evolutionary dynamics will result.

  2. How volatilities nonlocal in time affect the price dynamics in complex financial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    What is the dominating mechanism of the price dynamics in financial systems is of great interest to scientists. The problem whether and how volatilities affect the price movement draws much attention. Although many efforts have been made, it remains challenging. Physicists usually apply the concepts and methods in statistical physics, such as temporal correlation functions, to study financial dynamics. However, the usual volatility-return correlation function, which is local in time, typically fluctuates around zero. Here we construct dynamic observables nonlocal in time to explore the volatility-return correlation, based on the empirical data of hundreds of individual stocks and 25 stock market indices in different countries. Strikingly, the correlation is discovered to be non-zero, with an amplitude of a few percent and a duration of over two weeks. This result provides compelling evidence that past volatilities nonlocal in time affect future returns. Further, we introduce an agent-based model with a novel mechanism, that is, the asymmetric trading preference in volatile and stable markets, to understand the microscopic origin of the volatility-return correlation nonlocal in time.

  3. How volatilities nonlocal in time affect the price dynamics in complex financial systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tan

    Full Text Available What is the dominating mechanism of the price dynamics in financial systems is of great interest to scientists. The problem whether and how volatilities affect the price movement draws much attention. Although many efforts have been made, it remains challenging. Physicists usually apply the concepts and methods in statistical physics, such as temporal correlation functions, to study financial dynamics. However, the usual volatility-return correlation function, which is local in time, typically fluctuates around zero. Here we construct dynamic observables nonlocal in time to explore the volatility-return correlation, based on the empirical data of hundreds of individual stocks and 25 stock market indices in different countries. Strikingly, the correlation is discovered to be non-zero, with an amplitude of a few percent and a duration of over two weeks. This result provides compelling evidence that past volatilities nonlocal in time affect future returns. Further, we introduce an agent-based model with a novel mechanism, that is, the asymmetric trading preference in volatile and stable markets, to understand the microscopic origin of the volatility-return correlation nonlocal in time.

  4. On the Convergence of Affective and Persuasive Technologies in Computer- Mediated Health-Care Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca I. García-Betances

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a portrayal of how affective computing and persuasive technologies can converge into an effective tool for interfacing biomedical engineering with behavioral sciences and medicine. We describe the characteristics, features, applications, present state of the art, perspectives, and trends of both streams of research. In particular, these streams are analyzed in light of the potential contribution of their convergence for improving computer-mediated health-care systems, by facilitating the modification of patients’ attitudes and behaviors, such as engagement and compliance. We propose a framework for future research in this emerging area, highlighting how key constructs and intervening variables should be considered. Some specific implications and challenges posed by the convergence of these two technologies in health care, such as paradigm change, multimodality, patients’ attitude improvement, and cost reduction, are also briefly addressed and discussed.

  5. How Equalization Techniques Affect the TCP Performance of MC-CDMA Systems in Correlated Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Leonardi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of several equalization techniques for multicarrier code division multiple access systems on the performance at both lower and upper layers (i.e., physical and TCP layers. Classical techniques such as maximal ratio combining, equal gain combining, orthogonality restoring combining, minimum mean square error, as well as a partial equalization (PE are investigated in time- and frequency-correlated fading channels with various numbers of interferers. Their impact on the performance at upper level is then studied. The results are obtained through an integrated simulation platform carefully reproducing all main aspects affecting the quality of service perceived by the final user, allowing an investigation of the real gain produced by signal processing techniques at TCP level.

  6. Anisotropy of the Subsoil Pore System As Affected by High Mechanical Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per; Keller, Thomas

    Arrangements of elementary soil particles during soil formation in combination with biological activity by plant roots and earthworms may yield anisotropy of the non-tilled subsoil pore system. Soil compaction by agricultural machinery is known to affect the soil pore characteristics but only few...... and horizontally at 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 m depths (the two lower depths only in Sweden) in two treatments (compacted and control). Water retention, air permeability (ka) and gas diffusivity (Ds/Do) were determined in the laboratory. We defined an anisotropy factor (AF) as the ratio of a certain soil property...... measured in the horizontal direction to the same property measured in vertical direction. For both soils and both treatments, ka at -100 hPa was higher in vertical direction than in horizontal direction (AF

  7. A review study on medicinal plants affecting amnesia through cholinergic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradaran Azar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitter modification is an important method for the treatment of memory loss or amnesia. Cholinomimetic drugs, particularly, acetylcholine esterase inhibitors are the mainstream in pharmacotherapy of amnesia. Donepezil, tacrine, galantamine, and rivastigmine are cholinesterase inhibitors which are widely used in the treatment of amnesia, however, their therapeutic effects are not significant. Therefore, other possibilities including herbal medicine sources have been considered for memory loss therapy. There are some Medicinal plants with cholinomimetic property which mostly possess antioxidant activity, too. These plants may not only ameliorate amnesia but also can be a good source for drug discovery. In this paper other than introducing the medicinal plants and their components affective on cholinergic system and effective on memory loss, their probable advantages over synthetic drugs are discussed.

  8. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Mobile Payment Systems: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İkram Daştan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The world witnessed a rapid growth in the e-commerce in the recent years. Widespread use of mobile devices in the e-commerce has a role in this augmentation. Associated with growth of trading volume and the introduction of new devices, new products and solutions emerge and they diversify concerning online payments. Consumer attitudes and behaviors may change according to these developments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors effecting adoption of mobile payment systems by the consumer. 225 individuals were surveyed online through convenience sampling method. A research model was developed and proposed relationships were tested using structural equation modeling. The empirical findings point out that perceived trust, perceived mobility and attitudes positively affect the adoption of MPS; perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have no effect on adoption of MPS. Furthermore perceived reputation positively related to perceived trust and finally environmental risk negatively related to perceived trust.

  9. [An Electroencephalogram-driven Personalized Affective Music Player System: Algorithms and Preliminary Implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Li, Juan; Lu, Bin

    2016-02-01

    In order to monitor the emotional state changes of audience on real-time and to adjust the music playlist, we proposed an algorithm framework of an electroencephalogram (EEG) driven personalized affective music recommendation system based on the portable dry electrode shown in this paper. We also further finished a preliminary implementation on the Android platform. We used a two-dimensional emotional model of arousal and valence as the reference, and mapped the EEG data and the corresponding seed songs to the emotional coordinate quadrant in order to establish the matching relationship. Then, Mel frequency cepstrum coefficients were applied to evaluate the similarity between the seed songs and the songs in music library. In the end, during the music playing state, we used the EEG data to identify the audience's emotional state, and played and adjusted the corresponding song playlist based on the established matching relationship.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid of dairy foods is affected by cows’ feeding system and processing of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Avilez Ruiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in dairy products commercially available in Chile is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the content of CLA in dairy cow products from Chile and the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products. Samples of raw milk were categorized into two groups based on the animal feeding system utilized by the dairy farm: 1 grazing based systems (Los Lagos region; and 2 housing systems using total mixed ration (TMR diets (Los Angeles region. Simultaneously, commercial samples of condensed milk, powdered milk, butter and Gouda cheese were analyzed. Furthermore, samples of raw milk and processed products (powdered and sweetened condensed milk were also analyzed. Dairy farms based on grazing systems had higher levels of CLA in raw milk than TMR farms. In addition, average values of CLA were 1.72 g 100 g−1 of total fatty acids, in spring milk in the Los Lagos region, and 0.42 g 100 g−1 in summer milk, in the Los Angeles region. Similarly, the CLA content of dairy products was higher than that of raw milk. Milk processing affected the transferring of CLA from fresh milk into the final products. Sweetened condensed milk presented lower CLA values than raw and powdered milk. In conclusion, this study indicates the importance of the production systems to the CLA content as well as the effects of milk processing into dairy products. To sum up, more research is needed to elucidate the exact effect of the processing conditions of dairy products on the CLA content.

  11. Get the picture? The effects of iconicity on toddlers' reenactment from picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; DeLoache, Judy

    2006-11-01

    What do toddlers learn from everyday picture-book reading interactions? To date, there has been scant research exploring this question. In this study, the authors adapted a standard imitation procedure to examine 18- to 30-month-olds' ability to learn how to reenact a novel action sequence from a picture book. The results provide evidence that toddlers can imitate specific target actions on novel real-world objects on the basis of a picture-book interaction. Children's imitative performance after the reading interaction varied both as a function of age and the level of iconicity of the pictures in the book. These findings are discussed in terms of children's emerging symbolic capacity and the flexibility of the cognitive representation.

  12. Remote sensing and geographic information system for appraisal of salt-affected soils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurbachan; Bundela, D S; Sethi, Madhurama; Lal, Khajanchi; Kamra, S K

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of the nature, extent, and spatial distribution of salt-affected soils (SAS) for India and the world is essential for planning and implementing reclamation programs in a timely and cost-effective manner for sustained crop production. The national extent of SAS for India over the last four decades was assessed by conventional and remote sensing approaches using diverse methodologies and class definitions and ranged from 6.0 to 26.1 million hectares (Mha) and 1.2 to 10.1 Mha, respectively. In 1966, an area of 6 Mha under SAS was first reported using the former approach. Three national estimates, obtained using remote sensing, were reconciled using a geographic information system, resulting in an acceptable extent of 6.73 Mha. Moderately and severely salt-encrusted lands having large contiguous area have been correctly mapped, but slightly salt-encrusted land having smaller affected areas within croplands has not been accurately mapped. Recent satellite sensors (e.g., Resourcesat-1, Cartosat-2, IKONOS-II, and RISAT-2), along with improved image processing techniques integrated with terrain and other spatial data using a geographic information system, are enabling mapping at large scale. Significant variations in salt encrustation at the surface caused by soil moisture, waterlogging conditions, salt-tolerant crops, and dynamics of subsurface salts present constraints in appraisal, delineation, and mapping efforts. The article provides an overview of development, identification, characterization, and delineation of SAS, past and current national scenarios of SAS using conventional and remote sensing approaches, reconciliation of national estimates, issues of SAS mapping, and future scope.

  13. Developmental programming by androgen affects the circadian timing system in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereness, Amanda L; Murphy, Zachary C; Sellix, Michael T

    2015-04-01

    Circadian clocks play essential roles in the timing of events in the mammalian hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. The molecular oscillator driving these rhythms has been localized to tissues of the HPO axis. It has been suggested that synchrony among these oscillators is a feature of normal reproductive function. The impact of fertility disorders on clock function and the role of the clock in the etiology of endocrine pathology remain unknown. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a particularly devastating fertility disorder, affecting 5%-10% of women at childbearing age with features including a polycystic ovary, anovulation, and elevated serum androgen. Approximately 40% of these women have metabolic syndrome, marked by hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. It has been suggested that developmental exposure to excess androgen contributes to the etiology of fertility disorders, including PCOS. To better define the role of the timing system in these disorders, we determined the effects of androgen-dependent developmental programming on clock gene expression in tissues of the metabolic and HPO axes. Female PERIOD2::luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice were exposed to androgen (dihydrotestosterone [DHT]) in utero (Days 16-18 of gestation) or for 9-10 wk (DHT pellet) beginning at weaning (pubertal androgen excess [PAE]). As expected, both groups of androgen-treated mice had disrupted estrous cycles. Analysis of PER2::LUC expression in tissue explants revealed that excess androgen produced circadian misalignment via tissue-dependent effects on phase distribution. In vitro treatment with DHT differentially affected the period of PER2::LUC expression in tissue explants and granulosa cells, indicating that androgen has direct and tissue-specific effects on clock gene expression that may account for the effects of developmental programming on the timing system.

  14. MIP- MULTIMISSION INTERACTIVE PICTURE PLANNING PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Multimission Interactive Picture Planner, MIP, is a scientifically accurate and fast, 3D animation program for deep space. MIP is also versatile, reasonably comprehensive, portable, and will run on microcomputers. New techniques were developed to rapidly perform the calculations and transformations necessary to animate scientifically accurate 3D space. At the same time, portability is maintained, as the transformations and clipping have been written in FORTRAN 77 code. MIP was primarily designed to handle Voyager, Galileo, and the Space Telescope. It can, however, be adapted to handle other missions. The space simulation consists of a rotating body (usually a planet), any natural satellites, a spacecraft, the sun, stars, descriptive labelling, and field of view boxes. The central body and natural satellites are tri-axial wireframe representations with terminators, limbs, and landmarks. Hidden lines are removed for the central body and natural satellites, but not for the scene as a whole so that bodies may be seen behind one another. The program has considerable flexibility in its step time, observer position, viewed object, field of view, etc. Most parameters may be changed from the keyboard while the simulation is running. When MIP is executed it will ask the user for a control file, which should be prepared before execution. The control file identifies which mission MIP should simulate, the star catalog files, the ephemerides files to be used, the central body, planets, asteroids, and comets, and solar system landmarks and constants such as planets, asteroids, and comets. The control file also describes the fields of view. Control files are included to simulate the Voyager 1 encounter at Jupiter and the Giotto spacecraft's flyby of Halley's comet. Data is included for Voyager 1 and 2 (all 6 planetary encounters) and Giotto. MIP was written for an IBM PC or compatibles. It requires 512K of RAM, a CGA or compatible graphics adapter, and DOS 2.0 or higher. Users

  15. NATIONAL WORLD PICTURE THROUGH THE PRISM OF SOCIO-POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurganova, N.I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on the methodological basis of studying the world picture specificity through the prism of social-political discourse. World picture as a system of knowledge, ideas, value judgments developed by all the members of a linguacultural community and represented in words and texts, reflects the results of a cognitive activity that permits to study it as a structured and systemic phenomenon. The authors propose a set of methods and procedures of modelling the parameters of world picture with special reference to the seasonal data collection from the Canadian newspaper Le Devoir (issued in French in the Province of Quebec, such as: distinguishing key concepts, modelling a cognitive, field, and semantic structure of concepts as elements of the world picture.

  16. Aestheticism in the Picture of Dorian Gray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康妮芝

    2009-01-01

    Aestheticism or aestheticism movement Was an impomuat phenomenon during the hter nineteenth century.Aestheticism advocated the phrase"art for art's sake".Oscar Wildewas the most famous aestheticism writer during the later nineteenth century in Enghnd.His novel the Picture of Dorian Gray was the representative show of his aestheticism thought.The passage mainly shows Wilde's aestheticism thought of the novel in three aspects.

  17. The Complex Picture Test in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gustaw Rothenberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed Complex Picture Test (CPT examines main cognitive domains, especially perceptual and visual-spatial abilities. The potential usefulness of the CPT in the assessment of dementia was evaluated. Patients with different forms of dementia [14 vascular dementia (VaD, 30 Alzheimer’s disease (AD, 6 Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD], 12 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and 30 matched controls were examined by the CPT, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the WAIS-R Digit Span subtest, and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT. The CPT consists of 10 complex pictures, each presenting characteristics paradoxically in opposition to each other. The subjects scored points for naming the object and noticing the paradox. One point was added for commenting on the paradox without prompting (3 points each picture/maximum of 30. CPT scores were significantly higher in the control group (mean ± SD, 29.46 ± 1.43 than in the AD, VaD, MCI, and PDD groups (13.1 ± 2.3, 16.9 ± 3.5, 23.2 ± 1.4, and 23.6 ± 3.4, respectively; p < 0.05. Significant positive correlations between MMSE, Digit Span, CDT, and CPT scores were observed (rho 0.76, 0.35, and 0.56, respectively. These data show perception of complex pictures being compromised in dementia. The correlation between CPT scores and MMSE scores suggests that tests may be used as a brief screening tool for dementia.

  18. Phenomenology on the QCD dipole picture revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Lengyel, A I

    2003-01-01

    We perform an adjust to the most recent structure function data, considering the QCD dipole picture applied to ep scattering. The structure function F2 at small x and intermediate Q2 can be described by the model containing an economical number of free-parameters, which encodes the hard Pomeron physics. The longitudinal structure function and the gluon distribution are predicted without further adjustments. The data description is effective, whereas a resummed next-to-leading level analysis is deserved.

  19. The ideal subject distance for passport pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoff, Marcel A; Witzel, Carsten; Kreutz, Kerstin; Ramsthaler, Frank

    2008-07-04

    In an age of global combat against terrorism, the recognition and identification of people on document images is of increasing significance. Experiments and calculations have shown that the camera-to-subject distance - not the focal length of the lens - can have a significant effect on facial proportions. Modern passport pictures should be able to function as a reference image for automatic and manual picture comparisons. This requires a defined subject distance. It is completely unclear which subject distance, in the taking of passport photographs, is ideal for the recognition of the actual person. We show here that the camera-to-subject distance that is perceived as ideal is dependent on the face being photographed, even if the distance of 2m was most frequently preferred. So far the problem of the ideal camera-to-subject distance for faces has only been approached through technical calculations. We have, for the first time, answered this question experimentally with a double-blind experiment. Even if there is apparently no ideal camera-to-subject distance valid for every face, 2m can be proposed as ideal for the taking of passport pictures. The first step would actually be the determination of a camera-to-subject distance for the taking of passport pictures within the standards. From an anthropological point of view it would be interesting to find out which facial features allow the preference of a shorter camera-to-subject distance and which allow the preference of a longer camera-to-subject distance.

  20. A motion picture presentation of magnetic pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, A.; Kim, J. S.; Sugura, M.; Nagano, H.

    1981-01-01

    Using the data obtained from the IMS North American magnetometer network stations at high latitudes, a motion picture was made by a computer technique, describing time changes of Pc5 and Pi3 magnetic pulsation vectors. Examples of pulsation characteristics derived from this presentation are regional polarization changes including shifts of polarization demarcation lines, changes in the extent of an active region and its movement with time.

  1. [Polymyositis/dermatomyositis--clinical picture and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anić, Branimir; Cerovec, Mislav

    2012-01-01

    The clinical presentation ofmyositis ranges from a painless muscle weakness to significant myalgia with muscle weakness and constitutional symptoms. Along with muscle and skin affection and constitutional symptoms, the disease can affect lungs, joints, heart and gastrointestinal system. It is important to note that the clinical presentation ofmyositis syndrome may overlap with symptoms of other connective tissue disease in overlap syndromes (SLE, SSCL, RA, SSjö). Common manifestations of the disease are weakness and muscle fatigue, which is the result of skeletal muscles inflammation (usually the proximal group of muscles, bilaterally and symmetrical). Severe forms of the disease with affection of the throat and respiratory muscles can vitally endan- ger patients. Among constitutional (general) symptoms, fever, malaise and weight loss are usually expressed. Skin affection in dermatomyositis can be localized or generalized like vesiculobullous erythroderma. Pathognomonic cutaneous manifestations of dermatomyositis are Gottron's papules and heliotrope erythema. Lungs are most commonly affected organs (with exception of muscles and skin) in polymyositis and dermatomyositis. The affection of lung can sometimes result in fatal outcome (interstitial lung disease, secondary pulmonary hypertension). Cardiac affection is usually subclinical, but can also be expressed as heart failure, acute coronary syndrome or conduction disturbances. Infrequent manifestations of the disease are gastroesophageal reflux, malabsorption, gastrointestinal mucosal ulceration, soft tissue calcification, Raynaud's syndrome, arthralgia/arthritis and some other less common clinical manifestations of the disease. Treatment of polymyositis/dermatomyositis includes immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory therapy and supportive, symptomatic treatment. The basis for myositis treatment are glucocorticoids, which are applied orally in a daily dosage regimen of 0.75 to 1 mg/kg/day, and in severe forms of the

  2. A Spectrum is Worth a Thousand Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, Richard F.

    2006-12-01

    A wise astronomer once pointed out that if a picture is worth a thousand words, then a spectrum is worth a thousand pictures. Unfortunately, spectra are rarely emphasized in the introductory astronomy courses and few students exit such a course with any meaningful understanding or appreciation of spectroscopy. Part of the problem is lack of background knowledge; the typical introductory astronomy student has little experience with spectroscopy or atomic physics. Another issue is that spectra are not pretty pictures and are not intuitively understandable. We present and discuss a series of “minds-on” exercises and activities built into a college-level “stars, galaxies, and cosmology” intro astronomy course. The lessons are structured to help students improve their ability to recognize patterns and improve their ability to really see the details in front of them. Another goal is for students to realize there is “more than meets the eye” to learn how to discover “hidden” diagnostics, such as different sources of light their eyes see as white light. A curriculum that emphasizes spectroscopy also provides the opportunity to stress the story of the “Harvard Women,” a tale that bridges gender gaps and often humanizes scientists in the eyes of non-science majors. Finally, with a solid foundation in spectroscopy, students are better prepared to understand exciting topics such as Hubble’s Law and the importance of primordial nucleosynthesis.

  3. Cut and paste pictures in surrealism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Milanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the idea of the readymade, Marko Ristić’s, Vane Bor’s and Dušan Matić’s collages regroup readymade pictorial and textual matrices according to the rules of free associative syntax. Everything that they collected cut out and pasted bears the hallmark of personal choice, i.e. objective chance, as the Surrealists would say. In the new structure of the collage, picture and text were of equal importance. However, we should not forget that both picture and text were only fragments, of different origin so that they could not function as autonomous elements in their own right nor could they establish logical interlinks. Cut and paste picture in Surrealism are primarily registered as visual wholes, in which the former principle of harmony has been substituted by the principle of discontinuity. In fact, they do not aspire to establish closed and unambiguous semantic structures either on a single paper or within a cycle, disregarding as they do conventional narrative and illustrative order in representing reality.

  4. Factors affecting the environmental carrying capacity of a freshwater tropical lake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullakkezhil Reghunathan, Vishnuprasad; Joseph, Sabu; Warrier, C Unnikrishnan; Hameed, A Shahul; Albert Moses, Sheela

    2016-11-01

    Environmental carrying capacity is a measure of competence of a lake to accommodate pollution inputs without degrading water quality. In the research reported here, we identified the factors influencing the environmental carrying capacity of Vellayani Lake or VL (a typical tropical freshwater lake), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala State, India. R-mode factor analysis is used to identify the factors controlling the carrying capacity of the lake, whereas hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) helped to classify the lake. The carrying capacity of the lake is low with respect to alkalinity, due to ion deficiency, and is potentially reactive to sudden changes in pH. Eutrophic condition exists in the entire lake system. Acidic factor, mineralization factor, fertilizer factor (P & K), evaporation factor and organic pollution factor are the controllers of VL water quality during the pre-monsoon period. The same factors (but not evaporation factor) and an additional runoff factor control the water quality during monsoon. In the post-monsoon, the aforesaid factors (other than runoff, alkalinity) and soil erosion factor influence the water quality. Hence, managers of the lake system need to also focus on combating acidic factor during pre- and post-monsoons and runoff during monsoon. Smaller areal extent and shallow depth of VL, reduced outflow from it, less rainfall, presence of lateritic rock and soil and absence of limestone strata in the catchment are the chief elements affecting the acidic factor of Vellayani Lake.

  5. An ERP study of recognition memory for concrete and abstract pictures in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Chouinard-Leclaire, Christine; Muckle, Gina; Westerlund, Alissa; Burden, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Recognition memory for concrete, nameable pictures is typically faster and more accurate than for abstract pictures. A dual-coding account for these findings suggests that concrete pictures are processed into verbal and image codes, whereas abstract pictures are encoded in image codes only. Recognition memory relies on two successive and distinct processes, namely familiarity and recollection. Whether these two processes are similarly or differently affected by stimulus concreteness remains unknown. This study examined the effect of picture concreteness on visual recognition memory processes using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a sample of children involved in a longitudinal study, participants (N=96; mean age=11.3years) were assessed on a continuous visual recognition memory task in which half the pictures were easily nameable, everyday concrete objects, and the other half were three-dimensional abstract, sculpture-like objects. Behavioral performance and ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection (respectively, the FN400 and P600 repetition effects) were measured. Behavioral results indicated faster and more accurate identification of concrete pictures as "new" or "old" (i.e., previously displayed) compared to abstract pictures. ERPs were characterized by a larger repetition effect, on the P600 amplitude, for concrete than for abstract images, suggesting a graded recollection process dependent on the type of material to be recollected. Topographic differences were observed within the FN400 latency interval, especially over anterior-inferior electrodes, with the repetition effect more pronounced and localized over the left hemisphere for concrete stimuli, potentially reflecting different neural processes underlying early processing of verbal/semantic and visual material in memory.

  6. PEOPLE RETRIEVAL BY MEANS OF COMPOSITE PICTURES: PROBLEM STATE-OF-THE-ART AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy A. Kukharev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problem of people retrieval by means of composite pictures constructed according to descriptive portrait. An overview of the problem state-of-the-art is provided beginning from the basic concepts and terminology to a modern technology for composite picture creation, real-world scenarios and search results. The development history of systems for forming composite portraits (photo robots and sketches and the ideas implemented in these systems are provided. The problem of automatic comparison of composite pictures with the original ones is discussed, and the reasons for unattainability of stable retrieval of originals by a composite picture in real-world scenarios are revealed. Requirements to composite pictures databases in addition to the existing benchmark databases of facial images and also methods for implementation of such databases are formulated. Approaches for generation of sketches population from an initial one that increase effectiveness of identikit-based photo image retrieval systems are proposed. The method of similarity index increasing in the couple identikit-photograph based on computation of an average identikit from the created population is provided. It is shown that such composite pictures are more similar to original portraits and their use in the discussed search problem can lead to good results. Thus the created identikits meet the requirements of the truthful scenario as take into account the possibility of incomplete information in descriptions. Results of experiments on CUHK Face Sketch and CUHK Face Sketch FERET databases and also open access identikits and corresponding photos are discussed.

  7. An investigation into factors affecting electron density calibration for a megavoltage cone-beam CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jessica; Holloway, Lois C; Quinn, Alexandra; Fielding, Andrew

    2012-09-06

    There is a growing interest in the use of megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) data for radiotherapy treatment planning. To calculate accurate dose distributions, knowledge of the electron density (ED) of the tissues being irradiated is required. In the case of MV CBCT, it is necessary to determine a calibration-relating CT number to ED, utilizing the photon beam produced for MV CBCT. A number of different parameters can affect this calibration. This study was undertaken on the Siemens MV CBCT system, MVision, to evaluate the effect of the following parameters on the reconstructed CT pixel value to ED calibration: the number of monitor units (MUs) used (5, 8, 15 and 60 MUs), the image reconstruction filter (head and neck, and pelvis), reconstruction matrix size (256 by 256 and 512 by 512), and the addition of extra solid water surrounding the ED phantom. A Gammex electron density CT phantom containing EDs from 0.292 to 1.707 was imaged under each of these conditions. The linear relationship between MV CBCT pixel value and ED was demonstrated for all MU settings and over the range of EDs. Changes in MU number did not dramatically alter the MV CBCT ED calibration. The use of different reconstruction filters was found to affect the MV CBCT ED calibration, as was the addition of solid water surrounding the phantom. Dose distributions from treatment plans calculated with simulated image data from a 15 MU head and neck reconstruction filter MV CBCT image and a MV CBCT ED calibration curve from the image data parameters and a 15 MU pelvis reconstruction filter showed small and clinically insignificant differences. Thus, the use of a single MV CBCT ED calibration curve is unlikely to result in any clinical differences. However, to ensure minimal uncertainties in dose reporting, MV CBCT ED calibration measurements could be carried out using parameter-specific calibration measurements.

  8. Land-use systems affect Archaeal community structure and functional diversity in western Amazon soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Aparecido Navarrete

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of the ecology of soil microbial communities at relevant spatial scales is primordial in the wide Amazon region due to the current land use changes. In this study, the diversity of the Archaea domain (community structure and ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (richness and community composition were investigated using molecular biology-based techniques in different land-use systems in western Amazonia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in two periods with high precipitation (March 2008 and January 2009 from Inceptisols under primary tropical rainforest, secondary forest (5-20 year old, agricultural systems of indigenous people and cattle pasture. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA (PCR-DGGE using the 16S rRNA gene as a biomarker showed that archaeal community structures in crops and pasture soils are different from those in primary forest soil, which is more similar to the community structure in secondary forest soil. Sequence analysis of excised DGGE bands indicated the presence of crenarchaeal and euryarchaeal organisms. Based on clone library analysis of the gene coding the subunit of the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase (amoA of Archaea (306 sequences, the Shannon-Wiener function and Simpson's index showed a greater ammonia-oxidizing archaeal diversity in primary forest soils (H' = 2.1486; D = 0.1366, followed by a lower diversity in soils under pasture (H' = 1.9629; D = 0.1715, crops (H' = 1.4613; D = 0.3309 and secondary forest (H' = 0.8633; D = 0.5405. All cloned inserts were similar to the Crenarchaeota amoA gene clones (identity > 95 % previously found in soils and sediments and distributed primarily in three major phylogenetic clusters. The findings indicate that agricultural systems of indigenous people and cattle pasture affect the archaeal community structure and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in western Amazon soils.

  9. Quasi-Linear Algebras and Integrability (the Heisenberg Picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Zhedanov

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We study Poisson and operator algebras with the ''quasi-linear property'' from the Heisenberg picture point of view. This means that there exists a set of one-parameter groups yielding an explicit expression of dynamical variables (operators as functions of ''time'' t. We show that many algebras with nonlinear commutation relations such as the Askey-Wilson, q-Dolan-Grady and others satisfy this property. This provides one more (explicit Heisenberg evolution interpretation of the corresponding integrable systems.

  10. A mental picture of the greenhouse effect - A pedagogic explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benestad, Rasmus E.

    2016-01-01

    The popular picture of the greenhouse effect emphasises the radiation transfer but fails to explain the observed climate change. An old conceptual model for the greenhouse effect is revisited and presented as a useful resource in climate change communication. It is validated against state-of-the-art data, and nontraditional diagnostics show a physically consistent picture. The earth's climate is constrained by well-known and elementary physical principles, such as energy balance, flow, and conservation. Greenhouse gases affect the atmospheric optical depth for infrared radiation, and increased opacity implies higher altitude from which earth's equivalent bulk heat loss takes place. Such an increase is seen in the reanalyses, and the outgoing long-wave radiation has become more diffuse over time, consistent with an increased influence of greenhouse gases on the vertical energy flow from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. The reanalyses further imply increases in the overturning in the troposphere, consistent with a constant and continuous vertical energy flow. The increased overturning can explain a slowdown in the global warming, and the association between these aspects can be interpreted as an entanglement between the greenhouse effect and the hydrological cycle, where reduced energy transfer associated with increased opacity is compensated by tropospheric overturning activity.

  11. Affective modulation of the startle reflex and the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality: The role of sensitivity to reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel; Blanco, Eduardo; Balada, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated differences in the amplitude of startle reflex and Sensitivity to Reward (SR) and Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) personality variables of the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST). We hypothesized that subjects with higher scores in SR would obtain a higher startle reflex when exposed to pleasant pictures than lower scores, while higher scores in SP would obtain a higher startle reflex when exposed to unpleasant pictures than subjects with lower scores in this dimension. The sample consisted of 112 healthy female undergraduate psychology students. Personality was assessed using the short version of the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Laboratory anxiety was controlled by the State Anxiety Inventory. The startle blink reflex was recorded electromyographically (EMG) from the right orbicularis oculi muscle as a response to the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. Subjects higher in SR obtained a significant higher startle reflex response in pleasant pictures than lower scorers (48.48 vs 46.28, p<0.012). Subjects with higher scores in SP showed a light tendency of higher startle responses in unpleasant pictures in a non-parametric local regression graphical analysis (LOESS). The findings shed light on the relationships among the impulsive-disinhibited personality, including sensitivity to reward and emotions evoked through pictures of emotional content.

  12. Using Children's Picture Books about Autism as Resources in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, Miranda L.; Tackett, Mary E.; Azano, Amy Price

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on developing teacher understanding of how to carefully select and use children's picture books about autism as a tool for teaching awareness, empathy, and acceptance in an elementary classroom setting. We describe how the increased rate of autism and growing practice of inclusive educational settings affect classroom practice…

  13. Evolution in totally constrained models: Schr\\"odinger vs. Heisenberg pictures

    CERN Document Server

    Olmedo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We study the relation between two evolution pictures that are currently considered for totally constrained theories. Both descriptions are based on Rovelli's evolving constants approach, where one identifies a (possibly local) degree of freedom of the system as an internal time. This method is well understood classically in several situations. The purpose of this manuscript is to further analyze this approach at the quantum level. Concretely, we will compare the (Schr\\"odinger-like) picture where the physical states evolve in time with the (Heisenberg-like) picture in which one defines parametrized observables (or evolving constants of the motion). We will show that in the particular situations considered in this manuscript (the parametrized relativistic particle and a spatially flat homogeneous and isotropic spacetime coupled to a massless scalar field) both descriptions are equivalent. We will finally comment on possible issues and on the genericness of the equivalence between both pictures.

  14. 'Reading' bubble chamber pictures with the Spiral Reader eyes.

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Interactive techniques were widely used to study bubble chamber pictures. After a visual scanning of the pictures and a vertex measurement on a Shivamatic, the Spiral Reader allowed the track polar coordinates to be easily measured. See photo 7408137X

  15. 基于量子力学的相互作用绘景构造非线性哈密顿系统的数值计算方法%Construction of Numerical Methods of Nonlinear Hamiltonian Systems Based on Interaction Picture of Quantum Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素英

    2012-01-01

    Numerical methods of nonlinear Hamiltonian systems are constructed in the interaction picture of quantum mechanics. Firstly the original system is transformed to interaction picture of quantum mechanics. This reduces the problem to a system of ordinary differential equations in time. Subsequently,the modified system is integrated in time and then transformed back to the initial representation of the state vector. Varies discrete schemes can be obtained based on different integration methods. The methods in this paper can also be used to solve multi-component Bose-Einstein condensate problem.%文章在量子力学的相互作用绘景中给出了非线性哈密顿系统离散格式的构造方法.首先将原非线性哈密顿问题变换至相互作用绘景,导出一个含时的常微分方程系统,离散该常微分方程并变换回原系统的态矢即可得到原问题的离散格式.基于不同的常微分方程数值方法,可得到原系统不同的离散格式.该方法还可以有效地求解多组分的Bose-Einstein凝聚态物理问题.

  16. Culture temperature affects human chondrocyte messenger RNA expression in monolayer and pellet culture systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ito

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy has been explored for articular cartilage regeneration. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising cell-based technique for repairing articular cartilage defects. However, there are several issues such as chondrocyte de-differentiation. While numerous studies have been designed to overcome some of these issues, only a few have focused on the thermal environment that can affect chondrocyte metabolism and phenotype. In this study, the effects of different culture temperatures on human chondrocyte metabolism- and phenotype-related gene expression were investigated in 2D and 3D environments. Human chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer or in a pellet culture system at three different culture temperatures (32°C, 37°C, and 41°C for 3 days. The results showed that the total RNA level, normalized to the threshold cycle value of internal reference genes, was higher at lower temperatures in both culture systems. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and citrate synthase (CS, which are involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, respectively, were expressed at similar levels at 32°C and 37°C in pellet cultures, but the levels were significantly lower at 41°C. Expression of the chondrogenic markers, collagen type IIA1 (COL2A1 and aggrecan (ACAN, was higher at 37°C than at 32°C and 41°C in both culture systems. However, this phenomenon did not coincide with SRY (sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9, which is a fundamental transcription factor for chondrogenesis, indicating that a SOX9-independent pathway might be involved in this phenomenon. In conclusion, the expression of chondrocyte metabolism-related genes at 32°C was maintained or enhanced compared to that at 37°C. However, chondrogenesis-related genes were further induced at 37°C in both culture systems. Therefore, manipulating the culture temperature may be an advantageous approach for regulating human chondrocyte metabolic activity and

  17. Fostering Critical Thinking in the Geosciences: Combining Geoethics, the Affective Domain, Metacognition, and Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Geissman, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is a compelling need to develop the geoscience workforce of the future to address the "grand challenges" that face humanity. This workforce must have a strong understanding of Earth history, processes and materials and be able to communicate effectively and responsibly to inform public policy and personal and societal actions, particularly with regard to geohazards and natural resources. Curricula to train future geoscientists must be designed to help students develop critical thinking skills across the curriculum, from introductory to senior capstone courses. Students will be challenged in their pre-professional training as geoscientists as they encounter an incomplete geologic record, ambiguity and uncertainty in observed and experimental results, temporal reasoning ("deep time", frequency, recurrence intervals), spatial reasoning (from microns to mountains), and complex system behavior. Four instructional approaches can be combined to address these challenges and help students develop critical thinking skills: 1) Geoethics and ethical decision making includes review and integration of the context/facts of the situation, stakeholders, decision-makers, and possible alternative actions and expected outcomes; 2) The affective domain which encompasses factors such as student motivation to learn, curiosity, fear, attitudes, perceptions, social barriers and values; 3) Metacognition which encourages students to be aware about their own thinking processes, and to develop self-monitoring and self-regulating behaviors; and 4) Systems thinking which requires integrative thinking about the interactions between physical, chemical, biological and human processes, feedback mechanisms and emergent phenomena. Guided inquiry and scaffolded exercises can be used to present increasingly complex situations that require a thorough understanding of geologic principles and processes as applied to issues of societal concern. These approaches are not "owned" by any single course or

  18. Amygdala-prefrontal pathways and the dopamine system affect nociceptive responses in the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onozawa Kitaro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated nociceptive discharges to be evoked by mechanical noxious stimulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. The nociceptive responses recorded in the PFC are conceivably involved in the affective rather than the sensory-discriminative dimension of pain. The PFC receives dense projection from the limbic system. Monosynaptic projections from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA to the PFC are known to produce long-lasting synaptic plasticity. We examined effects of high frequency stimulation (HFS delivered to the BLA on nociceptive responses in the rat PFC. Results HFS induced long lasting suppression (LLS of the specific high threshold responses of nociceptive neurons in the PFC. Microinjection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonists (2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV, dizocilpine (MK-801 and also metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR group antagonists (α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG, and 2-[(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl]-3-(9H-xanthen-9-yl-D-alanine (LY341495, prevented the induction of LLS of nociceptive responses. We also examined modulatory effects of dopamine (DA on the LLS of nociceptive responses. With depletion of DA in response to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA injection into the ipsilateral forebrain bundle, LLS of nociceptive responses was decreased, while nociceptive responses were normally evoked. Antagonists of DA receptor subtypes D2 (sulpiride and D4 (3-{[4-(4-chlorophenyl piperazin-1-yl] methyl}-1H-pyrrolo [2, 3-b] pyridine (L-745,870, microinjected into the PFC, inhibited LLS of nociceptive responses. Conclusions Our results indicate that BLA-PFC pathways inhibited PFC nociceptive cell activities and that the DA system modifies the BLA-PFC regulatory function.

  19. Effects of a disease affecting a predator on the dynamics of a predator-prey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Pierre; McHich, Rachid; Chowdhury, Tanmay; Sallet, Gauthier; Tchuente, Maurice; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2009-06-07

    We study the effects of a disease affecting a predator on the dynamics of a predator-prey system. We couple an SIRS model applied to the predator population, to a Lotka-Volterra model. The SIRS model describes the spread of the disease in a predator population subdivided into susceptible, infected and removed individuals. The Lotka-Volterra model describes the predator-prey interactions. We consider two time scales, a fast one for the disease and a comparatively slow one for predator-prey interactions and for predator mortality. We use the classical "aggregation method" in order to obtain a reduced equivalent model. We show that there are two possible asymptotic behaviors: either the predator population dies out and the prey tends to its carrying capacity, or the predator and prey coexist. In this latter case, the predator population tends either to a "disease-free" or to a "disease-endemic" state. Moreover, the total predator density in the disease-endemic state is greater than the predator density in the "disease-free" equilibrium (DFE).

  20. Critical notes on the neuro-evolutionary archaeology of affective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Barnaby B

    2015-04-01

    If progress is to be made in resolving the debate over the relevance of neuroscientific findings to psychoanalysis, a clearer distinction must be established between a narrow definition of psychoanalysis as "praxis" (the science of lived experience and its conflicts or contradictions) and a definition that focuses on metapsychology as objectivistic theory-building. The investigations of Jaak Panksepp on the "neuro-archaeology" of affective systems are reviewed as an example of how findings in neuroscience cannot be legitimately extrapolated to offer conclusions about the domain of lived experience. In this context, Freud's shifting standpoint is reviewed and, following the writings of Jean Laplanche, the significance of Freud's distinction between "drives" or libidinality, as acquired through experience, and "instincts," which are purely biological, is emphasized. It is argued that there is an unavoidable component of myth-making in any consideration of the connection between neural circuitry and the domain of psychic representations. Freud's need for a notion of drive or energy, which is required to understand the findings of free-associative method, is admittedly mythematic, but it implies a major challenge to extant philosophical doctrines of the "mind/body" question (emergentism, double-aspect monism, and neutral monism). Thus, whereas psychoanalysis as praxis is, in Freud's words, "free to follow its own requirements," the claims of metapsychology are not so unrestrained. Further debate is required on the irrelevance of a revised objectivistic theory of the "mental apparatus" to the venture of healing the fracturing of our lived experience.

  1. IL-9 signaling affects central nervous system resident cells during inflammatory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoli; Cao, Fang; Cui, Langjun; Ciric, Bogoljub; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin (IL) 9, a dominant cytokine in Th9 cells, has been proven to play a pathogenic role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), by augmenting T cell activation and differentiation; however, whether IL-9 signaling affects central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells during CNS autoimmunity remains unknown. In the present study, we found that the IL-9 receptor (IL-9R) was highly expressed in astrocytes, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), oligodendrocytes and microglia cells, and that its expression was significantly upregulated in brain and spinal cord during EAE. In addition, IL-9 increased chemokine expression, including CXCL9, CCL20 and MMP3, in primary astrocytes. Although IL-9 had no effect on the proliferation of microglia cells, it decreased OPC proliferation and differentiation when in combination with other pro-inflammatory cytokines, but not with IFN-γ. IL-9 plus IFN-γ promoted OPC proliferation and differentiation. These findings indicate that CNS-restricted IL-9 signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of MS/EAE, thus providing a potential therapeutic target for future MS/EAE treatment through disruption of CNS cell-specific IL-9 signaling.

  2. Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A A; Hoo, E A

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65{degree}C to 160{degree}C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

  3. Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Hoo, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65[degree]C to 160[degree]C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

  4. Diclofop-methyl affects microbial rhizosphere community and induces systemic acquired resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Li, Xingxing; Lavoie, Michel; Jin, Yujian; Xu, Jiahui; Fu, Zhengwei; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    Diclofop-methyl (DM), a widely used herbicide in food crops, may partly contaminate the soil surface of natural ecosystems in agricultural area and exert toxic effects at low dose to nontarget plants. Even though rhizosphere microorganisms strongly interact with root cells, little is known regarding their potential modulating effect on herbicide toxicity in plants. Here we exposed rice seedlings (Xiushui 63) to 100μg/L DM for 2 to 8days and studied the effects of DM on rice rhizosphere microorganisms, rice systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and rice-microorganisms interactions. The results of metagenomic 16S rDNA Illumina tags show that DM increases bacterial biomass and affects their community structure in the rice rhizosphere. After DM treatment, the relative abundance of the bacterium genera Massilia and Anderseniella increased the most relative to the control. In parallel, malate and oxalate exudation by rice roots increased, potentially acting as a carbon source for several rhizosphere bacteria. Transcriptomic analyses suggest that DM induced SAR in rice seedlings through the salicylic acid (but not the jasmonic acid) signal pathway. This response to DM stress conferred resistance to infection by a pathogenic bacterium, but was not influenced by the presence of bacteria in the rhizosphere since SAR transcripts did not change significantly in xenic and axenic plant roots exposed to DM. The present study provides new insights on the response of rice and its associated microorganisms to DM stress.

  5. Problems Brought about by "Reading" a Sequence of Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornens, Marie-Therese

    1990-01-01

    A study investigated 4 problems of children between 3 and 7.5 years of age: difficulty in seeing the same character in different representations; the process of linking several pictures into 1 story; the correlation between the temporal order and spatial disposition of pictures; and the tendency to consider the setting of pictures as a puzzle to…

  6. 78 FR 51064 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL... from portions of Chicago waterways due to the filming of a motion picture. These temporary safety zones... work, low-flying helicopter, and other hazards involved in the filming of a motion picture. DATES:...

  7. 29 CFR 541.709 - Motion picture producing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion picture producing industry. 541.709 Section 541.709... SALES EMPLOYEES Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.709 Motion picture producing industry... motion picture producing industry who is compensated at a base rate of at least $695 a week (exclusive...

  8. 50 CFR 27.71 - Motion or sound pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motion or sound pictures. 27.71 Section 27.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Equipment § 27.71 Motion or sound pictures. The taking or filming of any motion or sound pictures on...

  9. 78 FR 57570 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago... will enforce the temporary safety zone for motion picture filming in Calumet Harbor, Chicago, IL from 9... intended to ensure safety of life on navigable waters during nighttime filming of a motion picture...

  10. Java EE 7 the big picture

    CERN Document Server

    Coward, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Java EE 7: The Big Picture uniquely explores the entire Java EE 7 platform in an all-encompassing style while examining each tier of the platform in enough detail so that you can select the right technologies for specific project needs. In this authoritative guide, Java expert Danny Coward walks you through the code, applications, and frameworks that power the platform. Take full advantage of the robust capabilities of Java EE 7, increase your productivity, and meet enterprise demands with help from this Oracle Press resource.

  11. MISTY PICTURE EVENT, Test Execution Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-30

    Prather, oD ()Civ Photo Technologist MSgt Michael Yoas. USAF TRS NCO SSgt Danny Burns, USAF Administration NCO SSgt Ernesto Tagle , USAF Administration...I1 ARMTE J. Briones Evaluateý and cover 1365 E. Dunlap and 1371’. LANL J. Ylverton S-12 ARMTE R. Gomez Evaluate 1315, 1325 and 0. Melton secure SF3 1...PICTURE Observation Point. SITE TRAILER AGENCY FUNCTION NAME Admin Park Test Control DNA Test Control MAJ Walls CPT(P) Sauer SSgt Tagle SSgt Burns CDR Lund

  12. Venus in motion. [Mariner 10 television pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Danielson, G. E.; Evans, N.; Soha, J. M.; Belton, M. J. S.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive set of television pictures of Venus taken by the Mariner 10 spacecraft is presented. Included is a chronological sequence of television images illustrating the development, variety, and circulation of Venus upper-atmospheric phenomena as viewed in the near-ultraviolet. The higher-resolution images have been assembled into global mosaics to facilitate comparison. Figures and tables describing the imaging sequences have been included to provide a guide to the more complete set of 3400 Venus images on file at the National Space Science Data Center.

  13. Predicting naming latencies for action pictures: Dutch norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides Dutch norms for age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, word frequency, and word length (in syllables) for 124 line drawings of actions. Ratings were obtained from 117 Dutch participants. Word frequency was determined on the basis of the SUBTLEX-NL corpus (Keuleers, Brysbaert, & New, Behavior Research Methods, 42, 643-650, 2010). For 104 of the pictures, naming latencies and name agreement were determined in a separate naming experiment with 74 native speakers of Dutch. The Dutch norms closely corresponded to the norms for British English. Multiple regression analysis showed that age of acquisition, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, and name agreement were significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas word frequency and word length were not. Combined with the results of a principal-component analysis, these findings suggest that variables influencing the processes of conceptual preparation and lexical selection affect latencies more strongly than do variables influencing word-form encoding.

  14. Aberrantly flattened responsivity to emotional pictures in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Namkoong, Kee; An, Suk Kyoon; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Yu Jin; Kang, Jee In; Choi, Jae Hyuk; Hong, Taekyong; Jeon, Jong Hee; Lee, Hong Shick

    2006-08-30

    To investigate the nature of emotional experience in schizophrenia, we examined emotional responses to affective stimuli. Twenty-one outpatients with schizophrenia (9 paranoid, 12 nonparanoid) and 20 normal controls rated the arousal and valence that they experienced from the presentation of 60 pictures. Schizophrenia patients displayed less emotional responsivity to the positive stimuli and they displayed diverse responsivity to the negative stimuli, which depended upon arousal level. Further analysis, using schizophrenia subtype, indicated that nonparanoid patients reported increased negative responsivity and decreased positive responsivity, regardless of arousal level. However, paranoid schizophrenia patients showed enhanced self-reported experiences of emotion to the low arousing stimuli and diminished responsivity to the high arousing stimuli. This pattern was robust to the negative stimuli. These findings suggest that paranoid schizophrenia patients might suffer from aberrantly flattened responses to negative emotional stimuli, and that this may account for paranoid tendency and secondary social isolation in paranoid schizophrenia.

  15. Aerial-image enables diagrams and animation to be inserted in motion pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S. J., Jr.; Tressel, G. W.

    1967-01-01

    Aerial-image unit makes it possible to insert diagrams and animation into live motion pictures, and also lift an element from a confusing background by suppressing general details. The unit includes a combination of two separate lens systems, the camera-projector system and the field lens system.

  16. From a Perspective on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety to Develop an Affective Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chao, Ching-Ju; Huang, Tsu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    According to Krashen's affective filter hypothesis, students who are highly motivated have their self-consciousness. When they enter a learning context with a low level of anxiety, they are much more likely to become successful language acquirers than those who do not. Affective factors such as motivation, attitude, and anxiety, have a direct…

  17. Lynch syndrome: still not a familiar picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hes Frederik J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ line mutations in mismatch repair genes underlie Lynch syndrome and predispose carriers for colorectal carcinoma and malignancies in many other organ systems. Case presentation A large Lynch syndrome family with 15 affected family members and involvement in 7 organs is reported. It illustrates a lack of awareness and knowledge about this hereditary tumor syndrome among doctors as well as patients. None of the described family members underwent presymptomatic screening on the basis of the family history. Conclusion Hereditary features, like young age at diagnosis, multiple tumors in multiple organs and a positive family history, should lead to timely referral of suspected cases for genetic counseling and diagnostics. For Lynch syndrome, these features can be found in the Amsterdam and Bethesda criteria. Subsequently, early identification of mutation carriers might have diminished, at least in part, the high and early morbidity and mortality observed in this family.

  18. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Raison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behaviour, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that 1 thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, 2 these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and 3 activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders.

  19. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raison, Charles L; Hale, Matthew W; Williams, Lawrence E; Wager, Tor D; Lowry, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders.

  20. A bilocal picture of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, L. P., Jr.; Narducci, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    A new, bilocal picture of quantum mechanics is developed. We show that Born’s rule supports a virtual probability for a particle to arrive, as a wave, at any two locations (but no more). We discuss two ways to implement twin detectors suitable for detecting bilocal arrivals. The bilocal picture sheds light on currents in quantum mechanics. We find there are two types of bilocal current density, whose polar form and related mean velocities are given. In the bilocal context, the definitions of both current types simplify. In the unilocal case, the two types become the usual current and a fluctuation current. Their respective mean velocity fields are the usual de Broglie-Madelung-Bohm velocity and the imaginary (osmotic) velocity. We obtain a new, probabilistic Schrödinger equation for the bilocal probability by itself, solve the example of a free particle, develop the dyadic stationary states, and find that the von Neumann equation for time-varying density of states follows directly from the new equation. We also show how to include the electromagnetic potentials in this probabilistic Schrödinger equation.

  1. Information system for preserving culture heritage in areas affected by heavy industry and mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacina, Jan; Kopecký, Jiří; Bedrníková, Lenka; Handrychová, Barbora; Švarcová, Martina; Holá, Markéta; Pončíková, Edita

    2014-05-01

    The natural development of the Ústí region (North-West Bohemia, the Czech Republic) has been affected by the human activity during the past hundred years. The heavy industrialization and the brown coal mining have completely changed the land-use in the region. The open-pit coal mines are completely destroying the surrounding landscape, including settlement, communications, hydrological network and the over-all natural development of the region. The other factor affecting the natural development of the landscape, land-use and settlement was the political situation in 1945 (end of the 2nd World War) when the borderland was depopulated. All these factors caused vanishing of more than two hundreds of colonies, villages and towns during this period of time. The task of this project is to prepare and offer for public use a comprehensive information system preserving the cultural heritage in the form of processed old maps, aerial imagery, land-use and georelief reconstructions, local studies, text and photo documents covering the extinct landscape and settlement. Wide range of various maps was used for this area - Müller's map of Bohemia (ca. 1720) followed by the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Military survey of Habsburg empire (1792, 1894, 1938), maps of Stabile cadaster (ca. 1840) and State map derived in the scale 1:5000 (1953, 1972, 1981). All the maps were processed, georeferenced, hand digitized and are further used as base layers for visualization and analysis. The historical aerial imagery was processed in standard ways of photogrammetry and is covering the year 1938, 1953 and the current state. The other important task covered by this project is the georelief reconstruction. We use the old maps and aerial imagery to reconstruct the complete time-line of the georelief development. This time-line is covering the period since 1938 until now. The derived digital terrain models and further on analyzed and printed on a 3D printer. Other reconstruction task are performed using

  2. Antibiotics as a chemical stressor affecting an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Gessner, Mark O; Schulz, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a variety of antibiotic residues may affect the integrity of streams located downstream from wastewater treatment plants. Aquatic communities comprising bacterial and fungal decomposers and invertebrate detritivores (shredders) play an important role in the decomposition of allochthonous leaf litter, which acts as a primary energy source for small running waters. The aim of the present study was to assess whether an antibiotic mixture consisting of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin-H2O, roxithromycin, and clarithromycin has an effect on such a decomposer-detritivore system. Leaf discs were exposed to these antibiotics (total concentration of 2 or 200 microg/L) for approximately 20 d before offering these discs and corresponding control discs to an amphipod shredder, Gammarus fossarum, in a food choice experiment. Gammarus preferred the leaf discs conditioned in the presence of the antibiotic mixture at 200 microg/L over the control discs (pair-wise t test; p = 0.006). A similar tendency, while not significant, was observed for leaves conditioned with antibiotics at a concentration of 2 microg/L. The number of bacteria associated with leaves did not differ between treatments at either antibiotic concentration (t test; p = 0.57). In contrast, fungal biomass (measured as ergosterol) was significantly higher in the 200 microg/L treatment (t test; p = 0.038), suggesting that the preference of Gammarus may be related to a shift in fungal communities. Overall these results indicate that mixtures of antibiotics may disrupt important ecosystem processes such as organic matter flow in stream ecosystems, although effects are likely to be weak at antibiotic concentrations typical of streams receiving wastewater treatment plant effluents.

  3. Systemic injection of kainic acid differently affects LTP magnitude depending on its epileptogenic efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz M Suárez

    Full Text Available Seizures have profound impact on synaptic function and plasticity. While kainic acid is a popular method to induce seizures and to potentially affect synaptic plasticity, it can also produce physiological-like oscillations and trigger some forms of long-term potentiation (LTP. Here, we examine whether induction of LTP is altered in hippocampal slices prepared from rats with different sensitivity to develop status epilepticus (SE by systemic injection of kainic acid. Rats were treated with multiple low doses of kainic acid (5 mg/kg; i.p. to develop SE in a majority of animals (72-85% rats. A group of rats were resistant to develop SE (15-28% after several accumulated doses. Animals were subsequently tested using chronic recordings and object recognition tasks before brain slices were prepared for histological studies and to examine basic features of hippocampal synaptic function and plasticity, including input/output curves, paired-pulse facilitation and theta-burst induced LTP. Consistent with previous reports in kindling and pilocapine models, LTP was reduced in rats that developed SE after kainic acid injection. These animals exhibited signs of hippocampal sclerosis and developed spontaneous seizures. In contrast, resistant rats did not become epileptic and had no signs of cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. In slices from resistant rats, theta-burst stimulation induced LTP of higher magnitude when compared with control and epileptic rats. Variations on LTP magnitude correlate with animals' performance in a hippocampal-dependent spatial memory task. Our results suggest dissociable long-term effects of treatment with kainic acid on synaptic function and plasticity depending on its epileptogenic efficiency.

  4. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater affected by human activities in Nandong underground river system, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yongjun, E-mail: jiangjyj@swu.edu.cn [School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)] [Institute of Karst Environment and Rock Desertification Rehabilitation, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Spatio-temporal variations of Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic composition of groundwater were investigated in a karst underground river system. {yields} Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural Sr isotopic signature of karst groundwater. {yields} Sr in the carbonate aquifers was relatively non-radiogenic, with low Sr concentrations, while anthropogenic Sr correlated with agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents was relatively radiogenic, with higher Sr concentrations. {yields} {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios can provide key information for natural and anthropogenic sources in karst groundwater. - Abstract: The Nandong Underground River System (NURS) is located in a typical karst area dominated by agriculture in SE Yunnan Province, China. Groundwater plays an important role in the social and economical development in the area. The effects of human activities (agriculture and sewage effluents) on the Sr isotope geochemistry were investigated in the NURS. Seventy-two representative groundwater samples, which were collected from different aquifers (calcite and dolomite), under varying land-use types, both in summer and winter, showed significant spatial differences and slight seasonal variations in Sr concentrations and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios signature of groundwater that was otherwise dominated by water-rock interaction. Three major sources of Sr could be distinguished by {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios and Sr concentrations in karst groundwater. Two sources of Sr are the Triassic calcite and dolomite aquifers, where waters have low Sr concentrations (0.1-0.2 mg/L) and low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios (0.7075-0.7080 and 0.7080-0.7100, respectively); the third source is anthropogenic Sr from agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents with waters affected having radiogenic {sup 87

  5. Testing the Snake-Detection hypothesis : Larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, Jan W.; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird

  6. The role of the sound of objects in object identification: evidence from picture naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eMulatti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we were concerned with the role of sound representations in object recognition. In order to address this issue we made use of a picture naming task in which target pictures might be accompanied by a white-noise burst. White-noise was thought to interfere with the representation of the sound possibly associated with the depicted object. We reasoned that if such a representation is critical for the recognition of objects strongly associated with certain sounds, white-noise interference should affect the naming of pictures representing objects with typical sounds leaving the naming of object without typical sounds unaffected. The results were congruent with the predictions and consistent with a view of the semantic representations of objects as collection of related representations, modal in nature, and mandatorily accessed.

  7. Pictures from Year Two CNEC and CVT Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Jesson D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bahran, Rian Mustafa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McKenzie, George Espy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cutler, Theresa Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Below are all of the pictures for the CNEC and CVT measurements performed at the DAF in July 2016. In total there are 165 pictures. The photos on pages 2-105 were taken during the first week of measurements and the photos on pages 106-165 were taken during the second week of measurements. Many photos are applicable to both sets, which is why it is best to keep the entire set together. For most configurations, a description of the configuration was written on a white board; photos of the measurement setup were taken, then a photo of the white board was taken. For example, the pictures on pages 6-19 (which precede a white board picture on page 20) are of the configuration with Rocky Flats Shells 1-2 surrounded by 4 AmLi sources, which is listed on the white board picture on page 20. In some cases, the white board picture precedes the configuration pictures.

  8. Error resilient video coding using virtual reference picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanjun; Stevenson, Robert L.

    2005-03-01

    Due to widely used motion-compensated prediction coding, errors propagate along decoded video sequence and may result in severe quality degradation. Various methods have been reported to address this problem based on the common idea of diversifying prediction references. In this paper, we present an alternative way of concealing the references pictures errors. A generated virtual picture is used as a reference instead of an actual sequence picture in the temporal prediction. The virtual reference picture is generated in a way to filter damaged parts of previously decoded pictures so that the decoder can still get a clean reference picture in case of errors. Coding efficiency is effected due to the fact that the virtual reference is less correlated to the currently encoded picture. The simulations on H.264 codec have shown quality improvement of the proposed method over intra-coded macroblock refreshment. It can be used on any motion-compensated video codec to combat channel errors.

  9. Motion Pictures and Motion-Picture Equipment: A Handbook of General Information. Bulletin, 1919, No. 82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, F. W.; Anderson, Carl

    1920-01-01

    Motion-picture films have come to be recognized quite generally as a valuable and practical means of instruction in schools, college, and universities and for clubs and societies organized for educational purposes. The number of persons making such use of them is now very large and constantly becoming larger. To all these, a handbook of general…

  10. What Is an eBook? What Is a Book App? And Why Should We Care? An Analysis of Contemporary Digital Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Book apps have developed into a new format for the picture book. Given the crucial role that picture books have played in early childhood education, it seems pertinent to ascertain the ways in which they have been affected by digitisation. In response to concerns regarding a lack of models and design principles within children's digital…

  11. Thyroid hormones concentrations and ECG picture in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasławska, U; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Kungl, K; Bioły, K; Popiel, J; Nicpoń, J

    2006-01-01

    Disorders of the thyroid gland activity are the most commonly encountered disturbances of endocrine origin in the dog. Hypo- or hyperthyroidism may disturb the function of the cardiovascular system and cause arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of thyroid gland activity on electrocardiogram (ECG) picture in the dog by comparing ECG curves of healthy dogs, dogs with hypothyroidism and dogs with cardiac insufficiency caused by endocardiosis of the mitral valve. The study was performed on 38 dogs, patients of the Department of Internal and Parasitic Diseases with Clinic for Horses, Dogs and Cats in Wrocław. The animals were assigned to 3 groups: Group I--control group, 13 clinically healthy dogs; Group II--14 dogs with diagnosed cardiac insufficiency caused by endocardiosis of the mitral valve; Group III--11 dogs with hypothyroidism. Clinical examination of the animals was conducted according to the following pattern: anamnesis, general clinical examination, cardiological examination (ECG, USG of the heart) and laboratory analysis (triacylglycerydes, cholesterol, T3, T4, FT4). In this study, the significant influence of thyroid gland activity on ECG picture of the evaluated dogs was found. In the dogs with hypothyroidism a decrease in the sino-atrial node activity was observed, which led to decreased heart rate. In dogs with hypothyroidism, the innerheart conduction was reduced, which was demonstrated by prolongation of the P wave, QRS complex and the QT interval.

  12. Root-knot Nematode Management and Yield of Soybean as Affected by Winter Cover Crops, Tillage Systems, and Nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, N A; Parker, M B

    1987-01-01

    Management of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean as affected by winter small grain crops or fallow, two tillage systems, and nematicides was studied. Numbers of M. incognita did not differ in plots planted to wheat and rye. Yields of soybean planted after these crops also did not differ. Numbers of M. incognita were greater in fallow than in rye plots, but soybean yield was not affected by the two treatments. Soybean yields were greater in subsoil-plant than in moldboard plowed plots. Ethylene dibromide reduced nematode population densities more consistently than aldicarb and phenamiphos. Also, ethylene dibromide increased yields the most and phenamiphos the least. There was a positive correlation (P = 0.001) of seed size (weight of 100 seeds) with yield (r = 0.79), indicating that factors affecting yield also affected seed size.

  13. A New Evolutionary Picture for CVs and LMXBs

    CERN Document Server

    King, A R; King, Andrew R.; Schenker, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    We consider an alternative to the standard picture of CV and LMXB evolution, namely the idea that most CVs (and by extension LMXBs) may not yet have had time to evolve to their theoretical minimum orbital periods. We call this the Binary Age Postulate (BAP). The observed short-period cutoff in the CV histogram emerges naturally as the shortest period yet reached in the age of the Galaxy, while the post-minimum-period space density problem is removed. The idea has similar desirable consequences for LMXBs. In both cases systems with nuclear-evolved secondary stars form a prominent part of the short-period distributions. Properties such as the existence and nature of ultrashort-period systems, and the spread in mass transfer rates at a given orbital period, are naturally reproduced.

  14. Random Walk Picture of Basketball Scoring

    CERN Document Server

    Gabel, Alan

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence, based on play-by-play data from all 6087 games from the 2006/07--2009/10 seasons of the National Basketball Association (NBA), that basketball scoring is well described by a weakly-biased continuous-time random walk. The time between successive scoring events follows an exponential distribution, with little memory between different scoring intervals. Using this random-walk picture that is augmented by features idiosyncratic to basketball, we account for a wide variety of statistical properties of scoring, such as the distribution of the score difference between opponents and the fraction of game time that one team is in the lead. By further including the heterogeneity of team strengths, we build a computational model that accounts for essentially all statistical features of game scoring data and season win/loss records of each team.

  15. Hard diffraction in the QCD dipole picture

    CERN Document Server

    Bialas, A

    1995-01-01

    Using the QCD dipole picture of the BFKL pomeron, the gluon contribution to the cross-section for single diffractive dissociation in deep-inelastic high-energy scattering is calculated. The resulting contribution to the proton diffractive structure function integrated over t is given in terms of relevant variables, x_{\\cal P}, Q^2, and \\beta = x_{Bj}/x_{\\cal P}. It factorizes into an explicit x_{\\cal P}-dependent Hard Pomeron flux factor and structure function. The flux factor is found to have substantial logarithmic corrections which may account for the recent measurements of the Pomeron intercept in this process. The triple Pomeron coupling is shown to be strongly enhanced by the resummation of leading logs. The obtained pattern of scaling violation at small \\beta is similar to that for F_2 at small x_{Bj}.

  16. Picture analysing method of slag foaming behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhart, M.; Peter, M.; Koch, K. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallurgy; Lamut, J. [Faculty of Natural Science and Technology, Univ. Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-03-01

    Hot tests of foaming behaviour of steelmaking slags were conducted on a laboratory scale up to 1760 C using a Tammann furnace. The foaming behaviour of the slags was quantified on the basis of a new measuring method. The volume increase and the progress of the foaming process can be continuously observed and calculated by means of picture analysis. The gas content of foaming slags was compared with the results of the measurements performed in steel plants. The influence of the magnesia content on the foaming behaviour is investigated. The chemical composition of the slag is beside the CO evolution the decisive factor influencing slag foaming behaviour. The highest volume increase values observed lie in the region of 2500% in relation to the initial volume. (orig.)

  17. Factors affecting acceptance of web-based training system: Using extended UTAUT and structural equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Alrawashdeh, Thamer A; Alqatawnah, Sokyna M

    2012-01-01

    Advancement in information system leads organizations to apply e-learning system to train their employees in order to enhance its performance. In this respect, applying web based training will enable the organization to train their employees quickly, efficiently and effectively anywhere at any time. This research aims to extend Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use Technology (UTAUT) using some factors such flexibility of web based training system, system interactivity and system enjoyment, in order to explain the employees' intention to use web based training system. A total of 290 employees have participated in this study. The findings of the study revealed that performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, social influence and system flexibility have direct effect on the employees' intention to use web based training system, while effort expectancy, system enjoyment and system interactivity have indirect effect on employees' intention to use the system.

  18. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    /or injected fluids is critical to predict important chemical behaviors affecting fluid flow, such as mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions. We successfully achieved the project goal and objectives by demonstrating the ability of our modeling technology to correctly predict the complex pH dependent solution chemistry of the Al3+ cation and its hydrolysis species: Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)30, and Al(OH)4- as well as the solubility of common aluminum hydroxide and aluminosilicate minerals in aqueous brines containing components (Na, K, Cl) commonly dominating hydrothermal fluids. In the sodium chloride system, where experimental data for model parameterization are most plentiful, the model extends to 300°C. Determining the stability fields of aluminum species that control the solubility of aluminum-containing minerals as a function of temperature and composition has been a major objective of research in hydrothermal chemistry.

  19. An evaluation of a monitoring system intervention: falls, injuries, and affect in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Douglas; Teresi, Jeanne A; Ramirez, Mildred; Ellis, Julie; Eimicke, Joseph; Jian Kong; Orzechowska, Lucja; Silver, Stephanie

    2007-11-01

    This project assessed the extent to which modern technology (Vigil) can augment or substitute for direct staff intervention in nonacute late-evening and nighttime situations in a nursing home setting. Vigil was implemented for dementia residents of a special care unit (SCU) in a large nursing home. An SCU matched in terms of unit-wide case mix and cognition was used for comparison. Results showed that there was no significant reduction in falls and injuries, but there was a significant improvement in affective disorder in the intervention group as contrasted with the comparison group. There was no significant increase in staff-perceived burden, despite the significant increase in the amount of direct care time logged. Additional time spent in staff care was significantly related to decreased affective disorder. The findings related to Vigil are generally mixed. The question remains as to whether the improvement in affect was due to Vigil or vigilance.

  20. Factors affecting the efficiency of the BRICSs' national innovation systems: A comparative study based on DEA and Panel Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Yuezhou

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency scores of the National Innovation System (NIS) for 22 countries, including the BRICS, G7, are calculated with the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Relevant factors that may affect the innovation system efficiency are summarized based on the NIS Approach and the New Growth Theory. Empirical study is further made with the Panel Data Analysis (PDA) and the Principal Component Analysis. The results of efficiency calculation and empirical test show that: (1) The BRICS differ greatly in ...

  1. Isolated Isoflavones do not affect the circulating insulin-like growth factor system in men at increased colorectal cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Rookus, M.A.; Kampman, E.; Bonfrer, J.M.G.; Korse, C.M.; Doorn, van J.; Lampe, J.W.; Cats, A.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, van F.E.; van't Veer, L.J.; Voskuil, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that increased insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations are related to increased colorectal cancer risk. A reduced colorectal cancer risk has been associated with isoflavones, which might affect the IGF-system because of their weak estrogenic activity. We conduc

  2. Factors that Affect Science and Mathematics Teachers' Initial Implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment Using a Classroom Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan; Beatty, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to uncover and understand the factors that affect secondary science and mathematics teachers' initial implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA), a pedagogy developed for teaching with classroom response system (CRS) technology. We sought to identify the most common and strongest factors, and to…

  3. The application of holography as a real-time three-dimensional motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A historical introduction to holography is presented, as well as a basic description of sideband holography for stationary objects. A brief theoretical development of both time-dependent and time-independent holography is also provided, along with an analytical and intuitive discussion of a unique holographic arrangement which allows the resolution of front surface detail from an object moving at high speeds. As an application of such a system, a real-time three-dimensional motion picture camera system is discussed and the results of a recent demonstration of the world's first true three-dimensional motion picture are given.

  4. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control.

  5. The validity of the DSM-IV diagnostic classification system of non-affective psychoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Quee, Piotr J.; Boos, Heleen B.; Simons, Claudia J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The schizophrenia and other non-affective disorders categories listed in the DSM-IV, are currently under revision for the development of the fifth edition. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the validity of these categories by investigating possible differences between diagnos

  6. Mixtures of herbicides and metals affect the redox system of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumarie, Catherine; Aras, Philippe; Boily, Monique

    2017-02-01

    The increasing loss of bee colonies in many countries has prompted a surge of studies on the factors affecting bee health. In North America, main crops such as maize and soybean are cultivated with extensive use of pesticides that may affect non-target organisms such as bees. Also, biosolids, used as a soil amendment, represent additional sources of metals in agroecosystems; however, there is no information about how these metals could affect the bees. In previous studies we investigated the effects of environmentally relevant doses of herbicides and metals, each individually, on caged honey bees. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of mixtures of herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and metals (cadmium and iron), as these mixtures represent more realistic exposure conditions. Levels of metal, vitamin E, carotenoids, retinaldehyde, at-retinol, retinoic acid isomers (9-cis RA, 13-cis RA, at-RA) and the metabolites 13-cis-4-oxo-RA and at-4-oxo-RA were measured in bees fed for 10 days with contaminated syrup. Mixtures of herbicides and cadmium that did not affect bee viability, lowered bee α- and β-carotenoid contents and increased 9-cis-RA as well as 13-cis-4-oxo-RA without modifying the levels of at-retinol. Bee treatment with either glyphosate, a combination of atrazine and cadmium, or mixtures of herbicides promoted lipid peroxidation. Iron was bioconcentrated in bees and led to high levels of lipid peroxidation. Metals also decreased zeaxanthin bee contents. These results show that mixtures of atrazine, glyphosate, cadmium and iron may affect different reactions occurring in the metabolic pathway of vitamin A in the honey bee.

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Compartmental Picture Archiving and Communications System Model for Integration and Visualization of Multidisciplinary Biomedical Data to Facilitate Student Learning in an Integrative Health Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Meyrick; Chan, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Information technology (IT) has the potential to improve the clinical learning environment. The extent to which IT enhances or detracts from healthcare professionals' role performance can be expected to affect both student learning and patient outcomes. This study evaluated nursing students' satisfaction with a novel compartmental Picture…

  8. Fashion pictures and women pictures in French women magazine. Normatives parades or strategic masquerade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine MARILLONNET

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to study the fashion pictures within a representative sample of French women magazines. Based on the method of “sémiologie des indices”, used to analyze a corpus of woman’s body and fashion staged, this paper addresses the issue of new functions granted to the stereotyping process. Starting to the assumption of a contract between audience and media, this analysis shows that the gender stereotype may be prescribed, up to a caricature of the womanhood, to the female readers identified as co-producers of the media discourse. Demonstrating both the co-existence of a plurality of gender representations in its pictures and their variability, this work proposes the concept of strategic masquerade to apprehend the possible new functions for the process of gender stereotyping in media.

  9. An Evaluation of Extended Validation and Picture-in-Picture Phishing Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Collin; Simon, Daniel R.; Tan, Desney S.; Barth, Adam

    In this usability study of phishing attacks and browser anti-phishing defenses, 27 users each classified 12 web sites as fraudulent or legitimate. By dividing these users into three groups, our controlled study measured both the effect of extended validation certificates that appear only at legitimate sites and the effect of reading a help file about security features in Internet Explorer 7. Across all groups, we found that picture-in-picture attacks showing a fake browser window were as effective as the best other phishing technique, the homograph attack. Extended validation did not help users identify either attack. Additionally, reading the help file made users more likely to classify both real and fake web sites as legitimate when the phishing warning did not appear.

  10. Context factors affecting design and operation of Food Safety Management Systems in the fresh produce chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.; Nanyunja, J.; Jacxsens, L.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Uyttendaele, M.; Luning, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent food-borne outbreaks and cases of non-compliances to maximum residue limits of pesticides, indicated that food safety management systems (FSMS) in fresh produce chain are not yet performing in a satisfactory manner. However, the system output is not only dependent on the system design and ope

  11. Tillage system and cereal rye residue affects pigweed establishment and competitiveness in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integral component of conservation-agriculture systems in cotton is the use of a winter cover crop; however, managing problematic weeds in such systems is a challenge. To evaluate pigweed dynamics in conventional vs. conservation systems, a rye (Secale cereale L.) winter cover crop was establish...

  12. “Surprised!” Telling the pictures. Can the illustrations in picture books promote language acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandie Mourão

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura apresentar os resultados da re-análise dos dados recolhidos em dois projectos de investigaçãoacçãosobre a utilização de álbuns em língua inglesa nas aulas de Inglês da Educação Pré-Escolar em Portugal.Dois álbums forum usados, demonstrando diferentes interacções entre texto e imagem, ‘paralela’ e ‘interdependente’. Transcrições de gravações de horas do conto com estes livros foram categorizadas de acordo com asfalas em Inglês a que o texto ou imagem deram origem. Os resultados indicam que a linguagem que as criançasaprendem de facto, com os livros ‘inter-dependentes’ (onde a história escrita é diferente da história ilustrada émais rica e as próprias crianças tomam um papel mais activo na criação de um significado. As implicações destesresultados são discutidas.The following article presents the findings of a re-analysis of data from two action research projects investigatingthe use of English picture books in Pre-school English classes in Portugal. Two picture books were used, eachrepresenting parallel and interdependent storytelling models. Audio tapescripts of the picture book read aloudswere categorised according to the utterances prompted by the verbal and visual texts. Results show that foreignlanguage acquisition is extended when both the verbal and visual texts of a picture book are used for languageinput and that children are more actively involved in meaning making. Implications are discussed.

  13. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T. Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2009-02-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  14. Perceived Health System Causes of Obstetric Fistula from Accounts of Affected Women in Rural Tanzania: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mselle, Lilian T; Kohi, Thecla W

    2015-03-01

    Obstetric fistula is still a major problem in low income countries. While its main cause is untreated obstructed labour, misconceptions about it still persist. This study aimed at exploring and describing perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women affected by it in rural Tanzania. This exploratory qualitative study included twenty-eight women affected by obstetric fistula. Semi structured interviews and focus group discussions were held and thematic analysis used to analyse perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women's account. Perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula fundamentally reflected the poor quality of obstetric care women received at health care facilities relating to staff unaccountability, late referral, and torture by nurses. The women's perception emphasizes the importance of improving the quality of obstetric care provided by health care providers in health care facilities.

  15. Psychophysiological responses of female headache sufferers and controls using a picture-viewing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason C; Gramling, Sandra E; Vrana, Scott R; Nicholson, Robert A; Buenaver, Luis F

    2006-12-01

    Despite the advancement of the biopsychosocial model, the interrelationship between behavioral, emotional, and physiological factors in tension-type headache (TTH) remains unclear. Using a picture-viewing paradigm, the present study investigated differences between females with TTH and controls on physiological reactivity, affective valence and arousal, and oral motor habits. In addition, the concordance between EMG activity and self-reported oral habits (i.e., proprioceptive awareness) and EMG activity and self-reported affect (i.e., affective coherence) were measured using within-subject correlations per individual and then compared between groups. Data were analyzed for 27 TTH sufferers and 27 controls who completed a questionnaire packet followed by a psychophysiological assessment consisting of 3 phases (adaptation, scheduled-viewing, recovery) with EMG activity recorded continuously at 3 sites (frontalis, corrugator, zygomatic). During the scheduled-viewing phase, participants were presented with 24 pictures designed to elicit positive, neutral, and negative affect. Compared to controls, the headache group reported elevations in pain, oral habits, and stress across the 3 phases of the assessment, along with elevations in arousal while viewing the pictures. There were no significant differences between the groups in EMG activity while viewing the pictures. Analyses on concordance revealed partial evidence for poor proprioceptive awareness and affective coherence among the headache group, although the correlations were not significantly different than the control group. These findings suggest that arousal, stress perception, and oral habits may play a role in the pathophysiology of TTH and that within-subject designs should be tested further against group designs when measuring psychophysiological concordance.

  16. The potency of people in pictures: evidence from sequences of eye fixations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Katherine; Underwood, Geoffrey

    2010-08-19

    Does the presence of people in a natural scene affect the way that we inspect that picture? Previous research suggests that we have a natural tendency to look at the social information before other items in a scene. There is also evidence that accuracy of visual memory and the way we move our eyes are related. This experiment investigated whether eye movements differed when participants correctly and incorrectly identified stimuli at recognition, and how this is affected by the presence of people. Eye movements were recorded from 15 participants while they inspected photographs at encoding and during a recognition memory test. Half of the pictures contained people and half did not. The presence of people increased recognition accuracy and affected average fixation duration and average saccadic amplitude. Accuracy was not affected by the size of the Region of Interest (RoI), the number of people in the picture, or the distance of the person from the center. Analyses of the order and pattern of fixations showed a high similarity between encoding and recognition in all conditions, but the lack of relationship between string similarity and recognition accuracy challenges the idea that the reproduction of eye movements alone is enough to create a memory advantage.

  17. The sound picture of the Saami shamanic drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kristoffersson

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the Saami shamanic drum has mainly concerned the pictorial world of the drumhead. Therefore, studying the sound picture may give new insights into the Saami Shamanic drum. In my study of the Saami drum I have tried to find the answer to two questions: 1 Is it possible to detect the sound pictogram from some of the drums preserved? 2 Are there marks of usage which might indicate what kind of sounds the users preferred? A comparison of the different drums shows that the signs of usage are surprisingly consistent. The drum sounds reach the receptive organs in the human ear in a range of low but strong tones, with low frequencies but high amplitude. This means that more energy is transferred into the nervous system than with various other types of instrumental sounds.

  18. On two pictures in the heuristic approach to gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Nikishov, A I

    2007-01-01

    We examine the heuristic approach to constant gravitational field by Dehnen, H\\"onl and Westpfahl, extending it everywhere beyond linear approximation. Then it becomes flexible to accommodate possible modifications of General Relativity. We have found that two pictures introduced in the related paper by Thirring are helpful in better understanding some features of gravitation. In particular, this approach suggest that the privileged system for constant gravitational field must be the isotropic one and that the requirement of gauge invariance in gravitation theory may be a luxury; it is sufficient to take care that the nonphysical degrees of freedom do not invalidate calculations. It follows from this approach that gravitational constant should depend on gravitational field and some universality in the form of metric of an asymmetric body is suggested.

  19. Phase space picture of quantum mechanics group theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the theory and applications of the Wigner phase space distribution function and its symmetry properties. The book explains why the phase space picture of quantum mechanics is needed, in addition to the conventional Schrödinger or Heisenberg picture. It is shown that the uncertainty relation can be represented more accurately in this picture. In addition, the phase space picture is shown to be the natural representation of quantum mechanics for modern optics and relativistic quantum mechanics of extended objects.

  20. Meet OLAF, a good friend of the IAPS! The Open Library of Affective Foods: a tool to investigate the emotional impact of food in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miccoli

    Full Text Available In the last decades, food pictures have been repeatedly employed to investigate the emotional impact of food on healthy participants as well as individuals who suffer from eating disorders and obesity. However, despite their widespread use, food pictures are typically selected according to each researcher's personal criteria, which make it difficult to reliably select food images and to compare results across different studies and laboratories. Therefore, to study affective reactions to food, it becomes pivotal to identify the emotional impact of specific food images based on wider samples of individuals. In the present paper we introduce the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF, which is a set of original food pictures created to reliably select food pictures based on the emotions they prompt, as indicated by affective ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance and by an additional food craving scale. OLAF images were designed to allow simultaneous use with affective images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, which is a well-known instrument to investigate emotional reactions in the laboratory. The ultimate goal of the OLAF is to contribute to understanding how food is emotionally processed in healthy individuals and in patients who suffer from eating and weight-related disorders. The present normative data, which was based on a large sample of an adolescent population, indicate that when viewing affective non-food IAPS images, valence, arousal, and dominance ratings were in line with expected patterns based on previous emotion research. Moreover, when viewing food pictures, affective and food craving ratings were consistent with research on food cue processing. As a whole, the data supported the methodological and theoretical reliability of the OLAF ratings, therefore providing researchers with a standardized tool to reliably investigate the emotional and motivational significance of food. The OLAF database is publicly

  1. Meet OLAF, a good friend of the IAPS! The Open Library of Affective Foods: a tool to investigate the emotional impact of food in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Guerra, Pedro; García-Mármol, Eduardo; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, food pictures have been repeatedly employed to investigate the emotional impact of food on healthy participants as well as individuals who suffer from eating disorders and obesity. However, despite their widespread use, food pictures are typically selected according to each researcher's personal criteria, which make it difficult to reliably select food images and to compare results across different studies and laboratories. Therefore, to study affective reactions to food, it becomes pivotal to identify the emotional impact of specific food images based on wider samples of individuals. In the present paper we introduce the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF), which is a set of original food pictures created to reliably select food pictures based on the emotions they prompt, as indicated by affective ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance and by an additional food craving scale. OLAF images were designed to allow simultaneous use with affective images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), which is a well-known instrument to investigate emotional reactions in the laboratory. The ultimate goal of the OLAF is to contribute to understanding how food is emotionally processed in healthy individuals and in patients who suffer from eating and weight-related disorders. The present normative data, which was based on a large sample of an adolescent population, indicate that when viewing affective non-food IAPS images, valence, arousal, and dominance ratings were in line with expected patterns based on previous emotion research. Moreover, when viewing food pictures, affective and food craving ratings were consistent with research on food cue processing. As a whole, the data supported the methodological and theoretical reliability of the OLAF ratings, therefore providing researchers with a standardized tool to reliably investigate the emotional and motivational significance of food. The OLAF database is publicly available at zenodo.org.

  2. A Pedagogical Experiment Using Bubble Chamber Pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We have taken, in October 1981, 20.000 pictures of proton-proton interactions at 5 GeV/c in order to get some clean elastic events which can be easily studied by high school students. The purpose is to illustrate, by actual measurements of these real events, some basic concepts of relativistic mechanisms. This experiment will be an extension of our previous one, performed with HBC 2m events taken at 2 GeV/c. In 1980, all french lycees were provided with large size reproduction of HBC 2m events. Before distribution they were carefully selected and severe kinematical cuts were made. The students measured track curvatures by template, and checked the necessity and the validity of relativistic mechanics by computing the energy balance using non-relativistic and relativistic formulae. No practical problems have been encountered during this experiment and the pedagogical results are encouraging. This new sample of events will be interesting because they are relativistic than the old ones although with the same curv...

  3. Design of a Virtual Reality System for Affect Analysis in Facial Expressions (VR-SAAFE); application to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Esubalew; Bian, Dayi; Peterman, Joel; Park, Sohee; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2016-07-14

    Schizophrenia is a life-long, debilitating psychotic disorder with poor outcome that affects about 1% of the population. Although pharmacotherapy can alleviate some of the acute psychotic symptoms, residual social impairments present a significant barrier that prevents successful rehabilitation. With limited resources and access to social skills training opportunities, innovative technology has emerged as a potentially powerful tool for intervention. In this paper, we present a novel virtual reality (VR)-based system for understanding facial emotion processing impairments that may lead to poor social outcome in schizophrenia. We henceforth call it a VR System for Affect Analysis in Facial Expressions (VR-SAAFE). This system integrates a VR-based task presentation platform that can minutely control facial expressions of an avatar with or without accompanying verbal interaction, with an eye-tracker to quantitatively measure a participants real-time gaze and a set of physiological sensors to infer his/her affective states to allow in-depth understanding of the emotion recognition mechanism of patients with schizophrenia based on quantitative metrics. A usability study with 12 patients with schizophrenia and 12 healthy controls was conducted to examine processing of the emotional faces. Preliminary results indicated that there were significant differences in the way patients with schizophrenia processed and responded towards the emotional faces presented in the VR environment compared with healthy control participants. The preliminary results underscore the utility of such a VR-based system that enables precise and quantitative assessment of social skill deficits in patients with schizophrenia.

  4. Absence of system xc- in mice decreases anxiety and depressive-like behavior without affecting sensorimotor function or spatial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentea, Eduard; Demuyser, Thomas; Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Albertini, Giulia; Deneyer, Lauren; Nys, Julie; Merckx, Ellen; Michotte, Yvette; Sato, Hideyo; Arckens, Lutgarde; Massie, Ann; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable preclinical and clinical evidence indicating that abnormal changes in glutamatergic signaling underlie the development of mood disorders. Astrocytic glutamate dysfunction, in particular, has been recently linked with the pathogenesis and treatment of mood disorders, including anxiety and depression. System xc- is a glial cystine/glutamate antiporter that is responsible for nonvesicular glutamate release in various regions of the brain. Although system xc- is involved in glutamate signal transduction, its possible role in mediating anxiety or depressive-like behaviors is currently unknown. In the present study, we phenotyped adult and aged system xc- deficient mice in a battery of tests for anxiety and depressive-like behavior (open field, light/dark test, elevated plus maze, novelty suppressed feeding, forced swim test, tail suspension test). Concomitantly, we evaluated the sensorimotor function of system xc- deficient mice, using motor and sensorimotor based tests (rotarod, adhesive removal test, nest building test). Finally, due to the presence and potential functional relevance of system xc- in the eye, we investigated the visual acuity of system xc- deficient mice (optomotor test). Our results indicate that loss of system xc- does not affect motor or sensorimotor function, in either adult or aged mice, in any of the paradigms investigated. Similarly, loss of system xc- does not affect basic visual acuity, in either adult or aged mice. On the other hand, in the open field and light/dark tests, and forced swim and tail suspension tests respectively, we could observe significant anxiolytic and antidepressive-like effects in system xc- deficient mice that in certain cases (light/dark, forced swim) were age-dependent. These findings indicate that, under physiological conditions, nonvesicular glutamate release via system xc- mediates aspects of higher brain function related to anxiety and depression, but does not influence sensorimotor function

  5. Mapping one year's design processes at an architecture firm specialized in sustainable architecture- How do sustainability certification systems affect design processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgren, M.; Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Heller, Alfred;

    2016-01-01

    The current study mapped how a Danish architecture firm integrated sustainability in their projects over a year. All the projects concerned were aimed at being sustainable within the framework of the DGNB certification system. The focus of DGNB is equally divided between environmental, economic...... and social aspects. During the mapping process, a picture was drawn of the state of the art for integrating DGNB in design processes and of the challenges involved. Case studies formed the basis of the study and helped substantiate the complexity of integrating DGNB’s criteria as design parameters...

  6. Factors affecting farmers' adoption of integrated rice-fish farming systems in the Mekong delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Nhan, D.K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Kaymak, U.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the determinants of the adoption of improved rice–fish farming systems in the Mekong delta to support policy making, agricultural land-use planning and extension of integrated rice–fish farming. Recently these systems have been referred to as adaptations to climate change, wh

  7. Tracking Social Motivation Systems Deficits: The Affective Neuroscience View of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Arnaud; Chevallier, Coralie; Robel, Laurence; Barry, Caroline; Maria, Anne-Solène; Pouga, Lydia; Philippe, Anne; Pinabel, François; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal functioning of primary brain systems that express and modulate basic emotional drives are increasingly considered to underlie mental disorders including autism spectrum disorders. We hypothesized that ASD are characterized by disruptions in the primary systems involved in the motivation for social bonding. Twenty adults with ASD were…

  8. Development of Pupils Picture Aesthetic Competences on the Basis of IT-didactic Designs of Digital Picture Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle

    of subjects in school. The project is due to different facts: Digital pictures are increased factors in the development of culture, in socializing and in bildung. (Tholle 2007). Furthermore new genres and ways of using digital pictures and medias continuously develop. (Sørensen 2002). This ought...... digital picture production in schools topical in a new way. (Selander 2008). IT-didactic designs of digital picture production will be developed, tested, analyzed and re-designed on a basis of desk research, intervention in three 5. Classes and on a basis of dialogue with teachers and pupils involved...

  9. Concentrations of hormones, pharmaceuticals and other micropollutants in groundwater affected by septic systems in New England and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Schubert, Christopher E.; Argue, Denise M.; Fisher, Irene J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Septic-system discharges can be an important source of micropollutants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine active compounds) to adjacent groundwater and surface water systems. Groundwater samples were collected from well networks tapping glacial till in New England (NE) and sandy surficial aquifer New York (NY) during one sampling round in 2011. The NE network assesses the effect of a single large septic system that receives discharge from an extended health care facility for the elderly. The NY network assesses the effect of many small septic systems used seasonally on a densely populated portion of Fire Island. The data collected from these two networks indicate that hydrogeologic and demographic factors affect micropollutant concentrations in these systems.

  10. Out of mind, out of sight: Language affects perceptual vividness in memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Vandeberg (Lisa); A. Eerland (Anita); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe examined whether language affects the strength of a visual representation in memory. Participants studied a picture, read a story about the depicted object, and then selected out of two pictures the one whose transparency level most resembled that of the previously presented picture.

  11. Out of mind, out of sight: language affects perceptual vividness in memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandeberg, L.; Eerland, A.; Zwaan, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether language affects the strength of a visual representation in memory. Participants studied a picture, read a story about the depicted object, and then selected out of two pictures the one whose transparency level most resembled that of the previously presented picture. The stories

  12. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Resistance to Changes in Management Accounting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Angonese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite changes in the environment and management accounting practices, studies indicate that management accounting systems do not change or change at a much slower rate than expected. The stability of the management accounting systems used by companies may relate to resistance to changing these systems. This study analyzes the factors that contribute to resistance to implementing an integrated management system from the perspective of institutional theory, grounded in the old institutional economics. Methodologically, this study provides a qualitative assessment of the problem and a descriptive analysis of the resistance factors through a case-study approach. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed through content analysis. Two companies were selected for this study due to their differing characteristics. The following seven factors were analyzed for resistance to implementing integrated management systems: institutional power, ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. However, there was no evidence to characterize hierarchical power. The research findings indicate that changing management accounting systems, through the implementation of an integrated management system, faces internal resistance in these organizations. Each factor varies in intensity but is permanently present in these companies, such as ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. These factors are awakened when the change process begins and, if they gather enough force, can stop the change.

  13. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raison, Charles L.; Hale, Matthew W.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Tor D Wager; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinic...

  14. Music as the Representative of the World Picture, the Phenomenon of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossanova, Aigul Sh.; Yermanov, Zhanat R.; Bekenova, Aizhan S.; Julmukhamedova, Aizhan A.; Takezhanova, Roza Ph.; Zhussupova, Saule S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to the study of music as a representative of the picture of the world nomadic culture. With a systemic organization, rich expressive means, music reflects the diversity of the world in its complex, subtle and profound manifestations being the artistic value, key world modeling element. Music can satisfy the aesthetic…

  15. BONE PICTURE BOOK, A BOOK FOR STUDENTS USING THE ESS UNIT BONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS PICTURE BOOK WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT ON "BONES." THE UNIT PROVIDES AN OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP MANY CONCEPTS ABOUT THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. NUMEROUS PHOTOGRAPHS ARE PROVIDED OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE FIVE VERTEBRATE CLASSES AND SELECTED INVERTEBRATES. BOTH EXTANT AND EXTINCT MEMBERS ARE REPRESENTED. THE MEMBERS…

  16. Video Data Link Provides Television Pictures In Near Real Time Via Tactical Radio And Satellite Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Richard V.

    1987-02-01

    Advances in sophisticated algorithms and parallel VLSI processing have resulted in the capability for near real-time transmission of television pictures (optical and FLIR) via existing telephone lines, tactical radios, and military satellite channels. Concepts have been field demonstrated with production ready engineering development models using transform compression techniques. Preliminary design has been completed for packaging an existing command post version into a 20 pound 1/2 ATR enclosure for use on jeeps, backpacks, RPVs, helicopters, and reconnaissance aircraft. The system will also have a built-in error correction code 2 (ECC) unit, allowing operation via communicatons media exhibiting a bit error rate of 1 X 10-or better. In the past several years, two nearly simultaneous developments show promise of allowing the breakthrough needed to give the operational commander a practical means for obtaining pictorial information from the battlefield. And, he can obtain this information in near real time using available communications channels--his long sought after pictorial force multiplier: • High speed digital integrated circuitry that is affordable, and • An understanding of the practical applications of information theory. High speed digital integrated circuits allow an analog television picture to be nearly instantaneously converted to a digital serial bit stream so that it can be transmitted as rapidly or slowly as desired, depending on the available transmission channel bandwidth. Perhaps more importantly, digitizing the picture allows it to be stored and processed in a number of ways. Most typically, processing is performed to reduce the amount of data that must be transmitted, while still maintaining maximum picture quality. Reducing the amount of data that must be transmitted is important since it allows a narrower bandwidth in the scarce frequency spectrum to be used for transmission of pictures, or if only a narrow bandwidth is available, it

  17. A Review on Factors Affecting the EDI System Migration in Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umussaadah Adam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the state of the art of research in system migration. It is reviewed by elements of migration which are business, technology and people. The review of literature on system migration research is based on 70 referred journals, proceedings, thesis and books published from 1997 to 2010 in ISI, SCOPUS, Science Direct and IEEE explore, Emerald and JSTOR. The major findings show that there is high number of research that focused on element of technology particularly software. It is also identified that there are only a few research focused on element of people that provide migration frameworks to support organizations preparing to migrate from legacy system. Important issues highlighted in EDI migration are system integration, security and cost. None of literature found that propose migration framework from EDI to XML.

  18. Naloxone affects reproductive system in a rat model with polycystic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Karami

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Aspect of rat reproductive system may be linked with the cystic characteristic of ovary. This study involves opioid receptors in the naloxone efficacy on reproductive agents of rat with polycystic aspect.

  19. Delayed system response times affect immediate physiology and the dynamics of subsequent button press behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Christin; Hrabal, David; Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, André

    2014-11-01

    System response time research is an important issue in human-computer interactions. Experience with technical devices and general rules of human-human interactions determine the user's expectation, and any delay in system response time may lead to immediate physiological, emotional, and behavioral consequences. We investigated such effects on a trial-by-trial basis during a human-computer interaction by measuring changes in skin conductance (SC), heart rate (HR), and the dynamics of button press responses. We found an increase in SC and a deceleration of HR for all three delayed system response times (0.5, 1, 2 s). Moreover, the data on button press dynamics was highly informative since subjects repeated a button press with more force in response to delayed system response times. Furthermore, the button press dynamics could distinguish between correct and incorrect decisions and may thus even be used to infer the uncertainty of a user's decision.

  20. Characteristics affecting management of design information in the production system design process

    OpenAIRE

    Bruch, Jessica; Bellgran, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been argued that the design of production systems is crucial, there is a general lack of empirical studies analysing and identifying resources and capabilities required for an efficient production system design process. One of these resources is the critical role attributed to design information and one such capability is how the design information is managed. To address this research gap, this paper reports the results from two in-depth case studies in the automotive industry...

  1. Experiencing affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2010-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective move

  2. Carbon Allocation in Mojave Desert Plant-Soil Systems as Affected by Nitrogen and Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, P. S.; Kapitzke, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Changes in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition due to increased urbanization and precipitation due to climate change are likely to affect carbon (C) allocation in plants and soils in arid ecosystems in the Southwestern United States where net primary production is often limited by N and water availability. We conducted a greenhouse study to determine the effects of N and water availability on one year old creosote (Larrea tridentata) plants, the dominant shrub in the Mojave Desert. In our greenhouse study we employed two N levels (0 and 40 kg ha-1) and two soil moisture levels (7% and 15%). We grew creosote seedlings in PVC columns filled with topsoil from the Mojave Global Change Facility at the Nevada Test Site. The columns were covered and sealed at the base of the plant to separate the above- from belowground plant compartment. Plants were distributed over two growth chambers receiving ambient light while day/night temperatures were set at 25° C/15° C. In one chamber plants were labeled once a week with 13C-enriched CO2 while a second chamber acted as an unlabeled control. Throughout the six month study we measured soil CO2 concentrations, respired CO2 as well as their isotopic signatures. At the end of the study plants were harvested and we measured plant above- and belowground biomass and isotopic composition of the vegetation. In addition, we measured isotopic composition of soil organic and inorganic C. Increased N availability stimulated stem weight and decreased total C losses through soil respiration. Other plant and soil parameters including isotopic composition were not affected by changes in N availability. Increased soil moisture stimulated plant biomass mainly due to an increase in leaf weight while root biomass tended to decrease. Soil CO2 concentrations increased with increasing water availability despite a reduction in root biomass. The isotopic data showed that net new C uptake increased mostly in leaves, soil organic matter and soil

  3. Holographic picture of heavy vector meson melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Nelson R.F.; Diles, Saulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martin Contreras, Miguel Angel [Universidad de los Andes, High Energy Group, Department of Physics, Bogota (Colombia)

    2016-11-15

    The fraction of heavy vector mesons produced in a heavy ion collision, as compared to a proton-proton collision, serves as an important indication of the formation of a thermal medium, the quark-gluon plasma. This sort of analysis strongly depends on understanding the thermal effects of a medium like the plasma on the states of heavy mesons. In particular, it is crucial to know the temperature ranges where they undergo a thermal dissociation, or melting. AdS/QCD models are know to provide an important tool for the calculation of hadronic masses, but in general are not consistent with the observation that decay constants of heavy vector mesons decrease with excitation level. It has recently been shown that this problem can be overcome using a soft wall background and introducing an extra energy parameter, through the calculation of correlation functions at a finite position of anti-de Sitter space. This approach leads to the evaluation of masses and decay constants of S wave quarkonium states with just one flavor dependent and one flavor independent parameter. Here we extend this more realistic model to finite temperatures and analyze the thermal behavior of the states 1S, 2S and 3S of bottomonium and charmonium. The corresponding spectral function exhibits a consistent picture for the melting of the states where, for each flavor, the higher excitations melt at lower temperatures. We estimate for these six states the energy ranges in which the heavy vector mesons undergo a transition from a well-defined peak in the spectral function to complete melting in the thermal medium. A very clear distinction between the heavy flavors emerges, with the bottomonium state Υ(1S) surviving a deconfinement transition at temperatures much larger than the critical deconfinement temperature of the medium. (orig.)

  4. Multilingual Children's Interaction with Metafiction in a Postmodern Picture Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard, Line Møller; Johansen, Martin Blok

    2014-01-01

    When teachers and school librarians choose picture books for multilingual children, they often base their choice on an evaluation of linguistic comprehensibility, content familiarity and cultural appropriateness. This means that postmodern picture books may be excluded. This paper presents a case study of multilingual children's encounter with a…

  5. Effectiveness of Picture Books for Italian Instruction at Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomo, Minoru; Uni, Kazuhito; Moore, Danièle; Kiyose, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the use of children's picture books to teach English has been increasing in Japan. An advantage of these books is the high proportion of basic vocabulary they include. Can picture books also be useful for teaching Japanese students Italian and increasing their motivation? The present study analyses the effectiveness of employing a…

  6. Task choice and semantic interference in picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with

  7. Radical Visions: Five Picture Books by Peter Sis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don

    2000-01-01

    Examines five picture books by author/illustrator Peter Sis, and how they deal explicitly with people who through extraordinary journeys develop extraordinary ways of seeing the world. Discusses use of paratextual elements, multiple formats, multiple layers of narrative, and a merging of texts and pictures. Suggests ways these books might be used…

  8. Familiar Fairy Tale Picture Books Transformed into Teen Novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Rosemary

    2003-01-01

    Describes characteristics of fairy tales. Discusses use of fairy tales and novels for teens in the classroom. Presents annotations of 31 titles including both picture books and young adult novels grouped by nine popular tales. Concludes that through comparing picture books and teen novels, there is one last chance to introduce fairy tales to older…

  9. Picture Book Exposure Elicits Positive Visual Preferences in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Burton, Eliza; Hickinson, Rachel; Inett, Jade; Moore, Emma; Salmon, Katherine; Shiba, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Although the relationship between "mere exposure" and attitude enhancement is well established in the adult domain, there has been little similar work with children. This article examines whether toddlers' visual attention toward pictures of foods can be enhanced by repeated visual exposure to pictures of foods in a parent-administered picture…

  10. Using Picture Books as Paired Texts to Teach Educational Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Bintz, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Picture books, when used thoughtfully and artfully, can teach theories to graduate students in literacy and foreign language education. In this article, the authors described how a pair of picture books is used to teach Vygotsky's "Zone of Proximal Development" and Krashen's "Input Hypothesis" in the fields of literacy…

  11. Working through Children's Developmental and Existential Stress in Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Joseph H.

    The aesthetic quality and psychological subtlety of contemporary picture books give genuine expression to a child's conscious and unconscious thoughts and emotions. Increasingly, themes of existential and developmental stress are appearing in picture books. Typical reactions aroused by such stress factors--and also by themes treated in picture…

  12. Reading pictures for story comprehension requires mental imagery skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, I.E.; Mol, S.E.; Jolles, J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of mental imagery skills on story comprehension in 150 fifth graders (10- to 12-year-olds), when reading a narrative book chapter with alternating words and pictures (i.e., text blocks were alternated by one- or two-page picture spreads). A parallel group design was used, in whi

  13. Creating Science Picture Books for an Authentic Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFauw, Danielle L.; Saad, Klodia

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an authentic writing opportunity to help ninth-grade students use the writing process in a science classroom to write and illustrate picture books for fourth-grade students to demonstrate and share their understanding of a biology unit on cells. By creating a picture book, students experience the writing process, understand…

  14. Early Understanding of the Representational Function of Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoache, Judy S.; Burns, Nancy M.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four- and 30-month-old children were presented with a picture that showed the location of a hidden toy and were then asked to find the toy. The 30-month olds, but not the 24-month-olds, were successful in retrieving the toy. Concludes that 24-month olds did not interpret the pictures as representations of reality. (BC)

  15. Child Readers and the Worlds of the Picture Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Adela; Laugharne, Janet; Maagerø, Eva; Tønnessen, Elise Seip

    2016-01-01

    Children as readers of picture books and the ways they respond to, and make meaning from, such texts are the focus of this article, which reports on a small-scale study undertaken in Norway and Wales, UK. The theoretical framing of the research draws on concepts of the multimodal ensemble in picture books and of the reading event as part of a…

  16. The Picture of Reading: Deriving Meaning in Literacy through Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    Presents speculations on broadening the concept of literacy and using pictures to teach. Discusses the importance and value of training students to "read" a painting and, by extension, a visual image and how this fits into promoting a culture of literacy. Considers the application of reader-response theory to pictures as text. (SG)

  17. The Motion Picture in Science Education: "One Hundred Percent Efficiency."

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kenneth P.

    1999-01-01

    Provides an historical overview of the development of the motion picture as a tool within the context of science education. Examines the use of technology as a teaching tool in terms of scientific literacy and the means by which the motion picture helped to accomplish scientific literacy goals. (Author/CCM)

  18. The Motion Picture and the Teaching of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Marion C.; And Others

    Written to help a viewer watch a motion picture perceptively, this book explains the characteristics of the film as an art form and examines the role of motion pictures in the English curriculum. Specific topics covered include (1) the technical aspects of the production of films (the order of "shots," camera angle, and point of view), (2) the…

  19. Public Library Subject Headings for 16mm Motion Pictures. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Library Association, Sacramento.

    Suggested subject headings for 16mm motion pictures are listed. The intent of the list is to provide audiovisual librarians with a tool which will aid them in making subject indexes for their printed catalogs. It is also intended as an authority for professional catalogers who may be called upon to catalog 16mm motion pictures. (Author/KKC)

  20. In Search of Bibliographic Control for Instructional Motion Picture Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coover, Robert W.

    This historical study report describes phases in the development of applicable standards for cataloging instructional motion picture films. Steps leading to the present state of the art are objectively presented, focusing on standards developed to establish bibliographic control of instructional motion picture films, contemporary reaction to such…

  1. Altering the fat content affects flavor release in a model yogurt system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauss, M S; Linforth, R S; Cayeux, I; Harvey, B; Taylor, A J

    1999-05-01

    Flavored yogurts differing in fat content were eaten, and the release of flavor volatiles was measured by monitoring the volatile composition of air from the nose in real time by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. Low-fat yogurts (0.2%) were found to release volatiles more quickly and at higher intensity but with less persistence than yogurts containing fat at 3.5 and 10% fat. Yogurts with increasing fat content had higher viscosity and lower relative particle size. Lipophilic compounds were more affected by fat for maximum volatile intensity, but not time-to-maximum intensity or persistence. Sensory assessment of the yogurts found significant differences in intensity and speed of onset of flavor, but not overall length of perception.

  2. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands.

  3. Risk analysis of the governance system affecting outcomes in the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Allan P; Vella, Karen; Pressey, Robert L; Brodie, Jon; Gooch, Margaret; Potts, Ruth; Eberhard, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    The state and trend of the Great Barrier Reef's (GBR's) ecological health remains problematic, influencing United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) statements regarding GBR governance. While UNESCO's concerns triggered separate strategic assessments by the Australian and Queensland governments, there has been no independent and integrated review of the key risks within the overall system of governance influencing GBR outcomes. As a case study of international significance, this paper applies Governance Systems Analysis (GSA), a novel analytical framework that identifies the governance themes, domains and subdomains most likely to influence environmental and socio-economic outcomes in complex natural systems. This GBR-focussed application of GSA identifies governance subdomains that present high, medium, or low risk of failure to produce positive outcomes for the Reef. This enabled us to determine that three "whole of system" governance problems could undermine GBR outcomes. First, we stress the integrative importance of the Long Term Sustainability Plan (LTSP) Subdomain. Sponsored by the Australian and Queensland governments, this subdomain concerns the primary institutional arrangements for coordinated GBR planning and delivery, but due to its recent emergence, it faces several internal governance challenges. Second, we find a major risk of implementation failure in the achievement of GBR water quality actions due to a lack of system-wide focus on building strong and stable delivery systems at catchment scale. Finally, we conclude that the LTSP Subdomain currently has too limited a mandate/capacity to influence several high-risk subdomains that have not been, but must be more strongly aligned with Reef management (e.g. the Greenhouse Gas Emission Management Subdomain). Our analysis enables exploration of governance system reforms needed to address environmental trends in the GBR and reflects on the potential application of GSA in

  4. Platelet Derived Growth Factor And The Extent Of Skin Thickening As Potential Indicators Of Pulmonary Affection In Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mahmoud, Mona El Fangary*, Aya M Abdel Dayem

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem disease that has considerable variability in its presentation, course, and prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine serum levels of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF A/B in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc and to correlate these levels with the extent of skin sclerosis and presence of pulmonary affection. Moreover, the efficiency of PDGF and skin score in early detection of pulmonary affection were assessed. Patients and methods:The study included 22 female patients with SSc (according to the American College of Rheumatology (Masi et al., 1980 and 15 age-matched healthy control females. According to the classification by LeRoy et al. (1988, we divided our patients into limited SSc (10 patients-45.5% and diffuse SSc (12 patients-54.5%. The extent of skin sclerosis was assessed by the modified Rodnan total skin thickness scoring (TSS system (Clements et al.,1995. In our study, patients with limited SSc had a skin score 25. Five diffuse SSc patients had associated pulmonary affection, diagnosed by history taking, clinical examination, chest x-ray, arterial blood gases, spirometry and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO. Serum levels of PDGF were determined in SSc patients and healthy controls using quantitative sandwich ELISA technique. Results: Serum PDGF mean and standard deviation in healthy subjects was 5.2+2.466 ug/l. PDGF values showed continuous significant increment with progression of the disease. Mean PDGF serum levels in limited SSc, diffuse SSc without pulmonary affection and with pulmonary affection were 15.8+2.3, 20.86+2.41 and 32+3.08 ug/l, respectively. Furthermore, the results revealed that PDGF value 25 ug/l. This value provided a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100 %. As regards the total skin score, a statistical significance was found between limited and diffuse SSc but did not show a statistically significant

  5. Motivational Factors Affecting the Integration of a Learning Management System by Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gautreau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Online courses taught using a learning management system are common in higher education. Teaching online requires a new set of skills, knowledge, and professional growth. Faculty development programs often overlook factors that promote or inhibit the use of technologies among professors. This study identified the motivation factors that faculty consider relevant to their personal decision to adopt a learning management system. A needs assessment evaluation methodology was applied to investigate two research questions. The first question analyzed the demographics of the participants in this study including gender, age, tenure status, department, and years of experience using a technology and using an LMS. The second research question investigated the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that motivate faculty to adopt a learning management system in their instruction. Participants (N = 42 were tenured and tenure track faculty instructing at a four-year public university in California.

  6. Emotional sounds modulate early neural processing of emotional pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje B M Gerdes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In our natural environment, emotional information is conveyed by converging visual and auditory information; multimodal integration is of utmost importance. In the laboratory, however, emotion researchers have mostly focused on the examination of unimodal stimuli. Few existing studies on multimodal emotion processing have focused on human communication such as the integration of facial and vocal expressions. Extending the concept of multimodality, the current study examines how the neural processing of emotional pictures is influenced by simultaneously presented sounds. Twenty pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures of complex scenes were presented to 22 healthy participants. On the critical trials these pictures were paired with pleasant, unpleasant and neutral sounds. Sound presentation started 500 ms before picture onset and each stimulus presentation lasted for 2s. EEG was recorded from 64 channels and ERP analyses focused on the picture onset. In addition, valence, and arousal ratings were obtained. Previous findings for the neural processing of emotional pictures were replicated. Specifically, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures were associated with an increased parietal P200 and a more pronounced centroparietal late positive potential (LPP, independent of the accompanying sound valence. For audiovisual stimulation, increased parietal P100 and P200 were found in response to all pictures which were accompanied by unpleasant or pleasant sounds compared to pictures with neutral sounds. Most importantly, incongruent audiovisual pairs of unpleasant pictures and pleasant sounds enhanced parietal P100 and P200 compared to pairings with congruent sounds. Taken together, the present findings indicate that emotional sounds modulate early stages of visual processing and, therefore, provide an avenue by which multimodal experience may enhance perception.

  7. Susceptibility of South Korea to Extremes Affecting the Global Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, So Young; Puma, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Food security in South Korea is tightly linked to the global food system. The country's production of major grains declined from 5.8 million metric tons (mmt) in 1998 to 4.8 mmt in 2014, which caused the country's grain self suciency to decline from 31.4% to 24%. This decline is a consequence of several factors including reductions in domestic agricultural land, governmental policies supporting industry over agriculture, and a push towards trade liberalization. South Korea's self suciency is now one of the lowest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, leaving it vulnerable to disruptions in the global food system.

  8. Analysis Of Factors Affecting The Success Of The Application Of Accounting Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Iskandar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to find solutions for problems related to the quality of accounting information systems accounting information quality when connected with management commitment user competency and organizational culture. This research was conducted through deductive analysis supported the phenomenon then sought evidence through empirical facts especially about the effect of management commitment competence and users of organizational culture on the quality of accounting information systems and their impact on the quality of accounting information. This research was conducted at the State-Owned Enterprises SOEs.

  9. Prevalence and clinical picture of celiac disease in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamico, Margherita; Pasquino, Anna M; Mariani, Paolo; Danesi, Helene M; Culasso, Franco; Mazzanti, Laura; Petri, Antonella; Bona, Giovanni

    2002-12-01

    A multicenter study of Turner syndrome (TS) patients was carried out to estimate the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) and to detect clinical characteristics and laboratory data of affected patients. Three hundred eighty-nine girls with TS were screened by IgA antigliadin antibodies and/or antiendomysial antibodies. Intestinal biopsy was offered to positive cases. CD was diagnosed in 25 patients. In celiac subjects, anemia, anorexia, and delayed growth (with respect to Italian TS curves) were frequently present; whereas distended abdomen, chronic diarrhea, constipation, and vomiting occurred more rarely. In addition, low serum iron levels, hemoglobinemia, and high values of aminotransferases were observed. Ten patients showed classic CD, 8 showed atypical symptoms, and 7 showed a silent CD. In 11 symptomatic patients, the diagnosis of CD was made at the onset of symptoms, whereas 7 of them showed a median delay of 79 months in diagnosis. Other autoimmune disorders were observed in 40% of the patients. Our study confirms the high prevalence (6.4%) of CD in a large series of TS patients. Moreover, the subclinical picture in 60% of the cases, the diagnostic delay, and the incidence of other autoimmune disorders suggest that routine screening of CD in TS is indicated.

  10. Attention Bias of Avoidant Individuals to Attachment Emotion Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ding, Yi; Lu, Luluzi; Chen, Xu

    2017-01-01

    How attachment style affects emotion processing is tightly connected with individuals’ attention bias. This experiment explored avoidant individuals’ attentional engagement and attentional disengagement using a cue-target paradigm in fMRI. The experimental group consisted of 17 avoidant participants, while the control group consisted of 16 secure participants; these were identified by the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory and the Relationship Questionnaire. Each reacted to pictures of positive parent-child attachment, negative parent-child attachment, positive romantic attachment, negative romantic attachment, and neutral non-attachment. Behaviorally, avoidant individuals were slower than secure individuals in responding to emotions and their attentional disengagement effect for negative parent-child emotions was stronger than positive ones. fMRI results showed that avoidant compared to secure individuals activated more strongly in the right superior temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and the left medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, supplementary motor area, and cingulate gyrus. They also showed stronger activation in disengaging from positive than negative emotions in the bilateral fusiform and middle occipital gyri. In conclusion, avoidant individuals could detect emotions as effective as secure individuals in attentioal engaging stages. They can disengage from positive emotions with effective cognitive resources and were harder to get rid of negative emotions with insufficient resource. PMID:28128347

  11. Clinicogenetics of Parkinson's disease: a drawing but not completed picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Dong Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder mainly affecting the population over the age of 60 years. The past decade has seen rapidly emerging data supporting a major importance of genetic factors in the development of PD. Increasing number of large-scale and replicating association studies has facilitated the confirmation of the possible predisposing factors to PD and the selection of genetic variants for risk prediction. While evidences are accumulating that variations within the SNCA, LRRK2, MAPT and GBA genes increase the individuals' vulnerability to PD, inconclusive or negative results have been reported for an association between PD and variants of the parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, UCH-L1, Omi/HtrA2, GIGYF2, PLA2G6, VPS35, EIF4G1 and BST1 genes. However, our understanding of the genetic picture of PD remains preliminary. Molecular diagnosis of the disease is only recommended for cases with clear family history, and currently, there is no ideal genomic biomarker available to predict the disease onset and progression, or to make a molecular classification of the disease. Efforts are expected to identify more genetic predisposing factors and to further clarify their roles in the mechanisms of PD.

  12. Alexithymia and immunoendocrine parameters in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Terminio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of alexithymia in patients affected by SLE or RA and to investigate the correlation between alexithymia and immunoendocrine parameters (PRL, hGH, IL-6 and TNF-alfa. Methods: Twenty-five patients (12 and 13 affected by SLE and RA, respectively were enrolled into the study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20 was administered. PRL, hGH, IL-6 and TNF-alfa levels were measured by commercially available ELISA kits. Results: Alexithymia prevalence (TAS-20≥51 was 54% in RA and 42% in SLE patients. hGH serum levels were 3.1±4.2 and 1.1±0.9 IU/ml in SLE and RA, respectively. PRL concentration was 18.4±6.5 ng/ml and 14.2±4.0 ng/ml in SLE and RA patients, respectively (p=0.03. In RA group, TNF-alpha was 20±36.2 whereas in SLE it was 4.9±12.8 pg/ml (p=0.03; IL-6 serum concentrations were 24.4±25.1 and 2.9±5.4 pg/ml, in RA and SLE respectively (p=0.004. The serum level of hGH showed slight increase in alexithymic group (A compared to non alexithymic group (NA in both SLE and RA patients. PRL serum levels in SLE-A patients was 26.7±17.3 ng/ml while in SLE-NA patients was 12.4±3.3 ng/ml (p=0.04. In RA patients increased values of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were present in the A group compared to NA group (IL-6: 35.3±28 pg/mL vs 3.5±3.9 pg/mL, p=0.01; TNF-alpha: 34.7±39 pg/mL vs 3.1±3.4 pg/mL, p=0.01. Conclusions: In this preliminary results we found an high prevalence of alexithymia and a correlation between immunoendocrine parameters and alexhytimic features in SLE and RA, suggesting that an immunomodulatory pathway could influence this cognitive style in patients with autoimmune disorders. Other studies should contribute to find a common biological pathway linking alexithymia and autoimmunity.

  13. Is UV-B radiation affecting charophycean algae in shallow freshwater systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, NVJ; van Bodegom, PM; van de Poll, WH; Boelen, P; Nat, E; Rozema, J; Aerts, R

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of UV-B radiation on charophycean algae under natural conditions, since charophytes enhance water transparency in freshwater systems and levels of UV-B radiation have increased by ozone depletion. Potential and actual UV-B effects were studied

  14. Comprehensive association analysis of 27 genes from the GABAergic system in Japanese individuals affected with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Shabeesh; Yamada, Kazuo; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Hashimoto, Takanori; Toyota, Tomoko; Shimamoto, Chie; Maekawa, Motoko; Takagai, Shu; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Kameno, Yosuke; Kurita, Daisuke; Yamada, Kohei; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2017-01-07

    Involvement of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in schizophrenia pathogenesis through disrupted neurodevelopment has been highlighted in numerous studies. However, the function of common genetic variants of this system in determining schizophrenia risk is unknown. We therefore tested the association of 375 tagged SNPs in genes derived from the GABAergic system, such as GABAA receptor subunit genes, and GABA related genes (glutamate decarboxylase genes, GABAergic-marker gene, genes involved in GABA receptor trafficking and scaffolding) in Japanese schizophrenia case-control samples (n=2926; 1415 cases and 1511 controls). We observed nominal association of SNPs in nine GABAA receptor subunit genes and the GPHN gene with schizophrenia, although none survived correction for study-wide multiple testing. Two SNPs located in the GABRA1 gene, rs4263535 (Pallele=0.002; uncorrected) and rs1157122 (Pallele=0.006; uncorrected) showed top hits, followed by rs723432 (Pallele=0.007; uncorrected) in the GPHN gene. All three were significantly associated with schizophrenia and survived gene-wide multiple testing. Haplotypes containing associated variants in GABRA1 but not GPHN were significantly associated with schizophrenia. To conclude, we provided substantiating genetic evidence for the involvement of the GABAergic system in schizophrenia susceptibility. These results warrant further investigations to replicate the association of GABRA1 and GPHN with schizophrenia and to discern the precise mechanisms of disease pathophysiology.

  15. Soil water infiltration affected by biofuel and grain crop production systems in claypan landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of soil management systems on water infiltration is very crucial within claypan landscapes to maximize production as well as minimize environmental risks. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of topsoil thickness on water infiltration in claypan soils for grain and biofuel...

  16. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, J.L.T.; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T.B.; Tuyttens, F.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage h

  17. Characterization of Arabidopsis enhanced disease susceptibility mutants that are affected in systemically induced resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, J.; Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Buchala, Anthony; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r triggers jasmonate (JA)- and ethylene (ET)-dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) that is effective against different pathogens. Arabidopsis genotypes unable to express rhizobacteria-mediated ISR against the bacterial pat

  18. Does Students' Source of Knowledge Affect Their Understanding of Volcanic Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Thomas L.; Cervato, Cinzia; Gallus, William; Larsen, Michael; Hobbs, Jon; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A recent survey of undergraduates at five schools across the United States indicates that many undergraduates feel that they have learned more about volcanic systems from Hollywood films and the popular media than they learned in the course of their precollegiate formal education. Scores on the Volcanic Concept Survey, an instrument designed to…

  19. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...

  20. Diet affects the redox system in developing Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Penglase

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth and development of marine fish larvae fed copepods is superior to those fed rotifers, but the underlying molecular reasons for this are unclear. In the following study we compared the effects of such diets on redox regulation pathways during development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua larvae. Cod larvae were fed a control diet of copepods or the typical rotifer/Artemia diet commonly used in commercial marine fish hatcheries, from first feeding until after metamorphosis. The oxidised and reduced glutathione levels, the redox potential, and the mRNA expression of 100 genes in redox system pathways were then compared between treatments during larval development. We found that rotifer/Artemia-fed cod larvae had lower levels of oxidised glutathione, a more reduced redox potential, and altered expression of approximately half of the redox system genes when compared to copepod-fed larvae. This rotifer/Artemia diet-induced differential regulation of the redox system was greatest during periods of suboptimal growth. Upregulation of the oxidative stress response transcription factor, nrf2, and NRF2 target genes in rotifer/Artemia fed larvae suggest this diet induced an NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response. Overall, the data demonstrate that nutritional intake plays a role in regulating the redox system in developing fish larvae. This may be a factor in dietary-induced differences observed in larval growth.

  1. Fertilization regimes affect the soil biological characteristics of a sudangrass and ryegrass rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, WenXi; Lu, JianWei; Li, FangBai; Wang, Yan; Lu, JunMing; Li, XiaoKun

    2011-06-01

    The sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) rotation is an intensive and new cropping system in Central China. Nutrient management practices in this rotation system may influence soil fertility, the important aspects of which are soil biological properties and quality. As sensitive soil biological properties and quality indicators, soil microbial community activity, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, soil organic matter (SOM) and total N resulting from different fertilization regimes in this rotation system were studied through a four-year field experiment from April 2005 to May 2009. Treatments included control (CK), fertilizer phosphorus and potassium (PK), fertilizer nitrogen and potassium (NK), fertilizer nitrogen and phosphorus (NP) and a fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium combination (NPK). Soil microbial community activities in the NK, NP and NPK treatments were significantly lower than those in the CK and PK treatments after the sudangrass and ryegrass trial. The highest microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, SOM, total N, sucrase and urease activities were found in the NPK treatment, and these soil quality indicators were significantly higher in the NK, NP and NPK treatments than in the PK and CK treatments. Soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities were positively associated with SOM in the sudangrass and ryegrass rotation system, indicating that fertilization regimes, especially N application, reduced microbial community activity in the soil. Proper fertilization regimes will increase microbial biomass, enzyme activity and SOM and improve soil fertility.

  2. How non-zero initial conditions affect the minimality of linear discrete-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigenburg, van L.G.; Koning, de W.L.

    2008-01-01

    From the state-space approach to linear systems, promoted by Kalman, we learned that minimality is equivalent with reachability together with observability. Our past research on optimal reduced-order LQG controller synthesis revealed that if the initial conditions are non-zero, minimality is no long

  3. Does heparin pretreatment affect the haemostatic system during and after cardiopulmonary bypass?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinks, H.J.; Weerwind, P.W.; Bogdan, S.; Verbruggen, H.W.; Brouwer, M.H.J.

    2001-01-01

    In this clinical pilot study, the influence of heparin pretreatment on the haemostatic system during and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was investigated. Thirteen patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were divided into two groups: heparin pretreated (HP, n = 6) a

  4. Soil quality index as affected by different cropping systems in northwestern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, J A; Bhat, A G; Kirmai, N A; Wani, J A; Lone, Aabid H; Ganie, Mumtaz A; Dar, G I H

    2016-03-01

    Soil quality assessment provides a tool for evaluating the sustainability of soils under different crop cafeterias. Our objective was to develop the soil quality index for evaluating the soil quality indicators under different cropping systems in northwest Himalaya-India. Composite soil samples were taken from the study area from different cropping systems which include T1 (forest soil control), T2 (rice-oilseed, lower belts), T3 (rice-oilseed, higher belts), T4 (rice-oats), T5 (rice-fallow), T6 (maize-oats), T7 (maize-peas), T8 (apple), T9 (apple-beans), and T10 (apple-maize). Physical, chemical, and biological soil indicators were determined, and it was found that soil enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling were significantly higher in forest soils, which were reflected in higher levels of available pool of nutrients. Carbon stocks were found significantly higher in forest soil which was translated in improved soil physical condition. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce multidimensionality of data followed by scoring by homothetic transformation of the selected indicators. Pearson's interclass correlation was performed to avoid redundancy, and highly correlated variables were not retained. Inclusion of legumes in the apple orchard floor recorded highest soil quality rating across the treatments. Cereal-based cropping systems were found in lower soil quality rating; however, the incorporation of peas in the system improved soil health.

  5. HRT and nutrients affect bacterial communities grown on recirculation aquaculture system effluents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, O.; Chabrillon-Popelka, M.; Smidt, H.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Sereti, V.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    In a recirculation aquaculture system the drumfilter effluent can be used as substrate for heterotrophic bacterial production, which can be recycled as feed. Because the bacteria might contain pathogens, which could reduce its suitability as feed, it is important to characterize these communities. B

  6. Aerial projection of three-dimensional motion pictures by electro-holography and parabolic mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakue, Takashi; Nishitsuji, Takashi; Kawashima, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Keisuke; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2015-07-08

    We demonstrate an aerial projection system for reconstructing 3D motion pictures based on holography. The system consists of an optical source, a spatial light modulator corresponding to a display and two parabolic mirrors. The spatial light modulator displays holograms calculated by computer and can reconstruct holographic motion pictures near the surface of the modulator. The two parabolic mirrors can project floating 3D images of the motion pictures formed by the spatial light modulator without mechanical scanning or rotating. In this demonstration, we used a phase-modulation-type spatial light modulator. The number of pixels and the pixel pitch of the modulator were 1,080 × 1,920 and 8.0 μm × 8.0 μm, respectively. The diameter, the height and the focal length of each parabolic mirror were 288 mm, 55 mm and 100 mm, respectively. We succeeded in aerially projecting 3D motion pictures of size ~2.5 mm(3) by this system constructed by the modulator and mirrors. In addition, by applying a fast computational algorithm for holograms, we achieved hologram calculations at ~12 ms per hologram with 4 CPU cores.

  7. How Do Management Fees Affect Retirement Wealth under Mexico's Personal Retirement Accounts System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Emma; Hurd, Michael D; Rohwedder, Susann

    2014-12-01

    In 1997, Mexico transformed its pay-as-you-go social security system to a fully funded system with personal retirement accounts, including management fees. This article examines changes in retirement wealth resulting from this new system. It shows that management fees have drained a significant proportion of individuals' retirement wealth and have increased the number of persons claiming a government-subsidized minimum pension, particularly from the time the system was introduced in 1997 until adjustment to management fees in 2008. Since 2008, retirement wealth accumulation has been similar to that of the previous system. En 1997, México transformó su sistema de pensiones basado en cotizaciones individuales a uno de ahorro para el retiro que incluyen cuotas por la administración de las cuentas. El presente estudio examina los cambios en el monto de las pensiones como resultado de la introducción del nuevo sistema. Los resultados muestran que las cuotas de administración han drenado una proporción significativa del ahorro para el retiro de los individuos por lo que ha aumentado el número de personas que solicita la pensión mínima garantizada subsidiada por el gobierno desde que se introdujo el sistema en 1997 hasta que se hicieron ajustes en las cuotas de administración de los fondos de pensiones en 2008. A partir de 2008, la acumulación del ahorro para el retiro ha sido similar que la del sistema anterior.

  8. Picture Books Are for Little Kids, Aren't They? Using Picture Books with Adolescent Readers to Enhance Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits of using picture books with adolescent readers, describes strategies that can be taught with picture books, and provides examples of books the author has used. Some of the topics discussed include: reading comprehension, visual literacy, interactive read-aloud with facilitative talk, literary elements, and…

  9. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@rmit.edu.a [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  10. Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in a Patient Affected by Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Poggi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The currently recommended treatment for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV is pegilated interferon α (IFN α plus ribavirin. Despite the numerous benefits of this therapy, there is an increasing concern regarding his tolerance. Among the most common side effects, interferon may trigger the onset or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases. When chronic hepatitis C coexists with an autoimmune disorder, it is not clear whether using interferon is better than avoiding it. We evaluated the disease state of a 55-year old female affected by sistemic sclerosis (SSc, during and after therapy with IFNα pegilated plus ribavirin for chronic HCV infection. We were worried about the potential worsening of the autoimmune disease during the therapy, but we were confident that we would give our patient a short course of peginterferon and ribavirin. A mild, asymptomatic worsening of lung SSc was observed during IFN administration, without life threatening symptoms. After 24 months follow up we observed the maintenance of the virological response and a good control of the rheumatological disease. Thus, in liver disease at high risk of progression and concomitant SSc, the antiviral therapy with IFNα is a feasible approach.

  11. Skin-deep diagnosis: affective bias and zebra retreat complicating the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chad S

    2013-01-01

    Nearly half of medical errors can be attributed to an error of clinical reasoning or decision making. It is estimated that the correct diagnosis is missed or delayed in between 5% and 14% of acute hospital admissions. Through understanding why and how physicians make these errors, it is hoped that strategies can be developed to decrease the number of these errors. In the present case, a patient presented with dyspnea, gastrointestinal symptoms and weight loss; the diagnosis was initially missed when the treating physicians took mental short cuts and used heuristics as in this case. Heuristics have an inherent bias that can lead to faulty reasoning or conclusions, especially in complex or difficult cases. Affective bias, which is the overinvolvement of emotion in clinical decision making, limited the available information for diagnosis because of the hesitancy to acquire a full history and perform a complete physical examination in this patient. Zebra retreat, another type of bias, is when a rare diagnosis figures prominently on the differential diagnosis but the physician retreats for various reasons. Zebra retreat also factored in the delayed diagnosis. Through the description of these clinical reasoning errors in an actual case, it is hoped that future errors can be prevented or inspiration for additional research in this area will develop.

  12. Eukaryotic expression system Pichia pastoris affects the lipase catalytic properties: a monolayer study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bou Ali

    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA methods are being widely used to express proteins in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells for both fundamental and applied research purposes. Expressed protein must be well characterized to be sure that it retains the same properties as the native one, especially when expressed protein will be used in the pharmaceutical field. In this aim, interfacial and kinetic properties of native, untagged recombinant and tagged recombinant forms of a pancreatic lipase were compared using the monomolecular film technique. Turkey pancreatic lipase (TPL was chosen as model. A kinetic study on the dependence of the stereoselectivity of these three forms on the surface pressure was performed using three dicaprin isomers spread in the form of monomolecular films at the air-water interface. The heterologous expression and the N-His-tag extension were found to modify the pressure preference and decrease the catalytic hydrolysis rate of three dicaprin isomers. Besides, the heterologous expression was found to change the TPL regioselectivity without affecting its stereospecificity contrary to the N-tag extension which retained that regioselectivity and changed the stereospecificity at high surface pressures. The study of parameters, termed Recombinant expression Effects on Catalysis (REC, N-Tag Effects on Catalysis (TEC, and N-Tag and Recombinant expression Effects on Catalysis (TREC showed that the heterologous expression effects on the catalytic properties of the TPL were more deleterious than the presence of an N-terminal tag extension.

  13. Brief Report: Enhanced Picture Naming in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walenski, Matthew; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Gidley-Larson, Jennifer C.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are key diagnostic criteria for autism. However, not all aspects of language are equally affected. Here we present evidence of "enhanced" performance of a critical aspect of language--word processing--in children with autism. The results have implications for explanatory theories of autism and language, and for…

  14. Pharmacological activation of the GABAergic system does not affect GH and PRL release in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, F; Iovino, M; Monteleone, P; Agrusta, M; Steardo, L; Lombardi, G

    1988-11-01

    An extensive hypothalamic neurotransmitter impairment has been proposed in acromegaly. However, at the moment, the hypothalamic GABAergic system has been little investigated in this disorder. Since GABA has been shown to modulate growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion in human subjects, it seemed reasonable to investigate hypothalamic GABAergic functioning through the assessment of basal GH and PRL responses to pharmacological activation of this system. 800 mg of sodium valproate (SV), a drug with GABA facilitating properties, were administered orally to 7 acromegalic patients and 9 healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected before and after the drug administration for the measurement of plasma GH and PRL levels. SV induced a clear-cut rise in basal GH and a decrease in basal PRL in healthy subjects, but it did not induce any change in the basal levels of these hormones in acromegalics. These results suggest that the response of GH and PRL to SV in acromegaly is qualitatively different from normal controls.

  15. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  16. Target motifs affecting natural immunity by a constitutive CRISPR-Cas system in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Almendros

    Full Text Available Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR and CRISPR associated (cas genes conform the CRISPR-Cas systems of various bacteria and archaea and produce degradation of invading nucleic acids containing sequences (protospacers that are complementary to repeat intervening spacers. It has been demonstrated that the base sequence identity of a protospacer with the cognate spacer and the presence of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM influence CRISPR-mediated interference efficiency. By using an original transformation assay with plasmids targeted by a resident spacer here we show that natural CRISPR-mediated immunity against invading DNA occurs in wild type Escherichia coli. Unexpectedly, the strongest activity is observed with protospacer adjoining nucleotides (interference motifs that differ from the PAM both in sequence and location. Hence, our results document for the first time native CRISPR activity in E. coli and demonstrate that positions next to the PAM in invading DNA influence their recognition and degradation by these prokaryotic immune systems.

  17. Psychotic-affective symptoms and multiple system atrophy expand phenotypes of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kai-Hsiang; Lin, Chin-Hsien; Wu, Ruey-Meei

    2012-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterised by ataxic gait, slow saccades and peripheral neuropathy. Levodopa-responsive parkinsonism could be a clinical phenotype of SCA2, especially those of Chinese origin. In addition to these motor symptoms, SCA2 has been associated with depression and cognitive dysfunction, with only rare reports of psychosis. The authors report the presence of severe psychosis, major depression and multiple system atro...

  18. Factor Affecting the Computerised Accounting System (CAS) Usage in Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    AZLEEN ILIAS; NURUL NAZIRAH BINTI ZAINUDIN

    2013-01-01

    The purpose is to examine the significant factors of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, behavioural intention, actual use, and attitude toward using) and Psychological Attachment (compliance, identification as well as internalization) towards Computerised Accounting System (CAS) in Malaysian Accountant General Department (MAGD). This research is based on 99 valid respondents collected from a survey questionnaire and multiple regressions were employ...

  19. Does the transparency of the counting system affect children's numerical abilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowker, Ann; Roberts, Manon

    2015-01-01

    The Welsh language uses a regular counting system, whereas English uses an irregular counting system, and schools within Wales teach either through the medium of Welsh or English. This provides the opportunity to compare linguistic effects on arithmetical skills in the absence of many other confounding factors that arise in international comparisons. This study investigated the hypothesis that language properties influence children's performance in certain numerical tasks by comparing the performance of 20 Welsh- and 20 English-medium Year Two pupils in non-verbal line estimations and transcoding. Groups did not differ on global arithmetic abilities, but the pupils taught through the medium of Welsh on average performed better in the non-verbal line estimation tasks than the English-medium group. This superiority was most apparent in comparisons involving numbers over 20: a result which was complicated by the fact that Welsh-medium pupils showed a lower range of error scores than the English-medium pupils. These results were thought to be related to the increased transparency of the Welsh counting system.

  20. Does the transparency of the counting system affect children's numerical abilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann eDowker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Welsh language uses a regular counting system, whereas English uses an irregular counting system, and schools within Wales teach either through the medium of Welsh or English. This provides the opportunity to compare linguistic effects on arithmetical skills in the absence of many other confounding factors that arise in international comparisons. This study investigated the hypothesis that language properties influence children's performance in certain numerical tasks by comparing the performance of 20 Welsh- and 20 English-medium Year Two pupils in nonverbal line estimations and transcoding. Groups did not differ on global arithmetic abilities, but the pupils taught through the medium of Welsh on average performed better in the nonverbal line estimation tasks than the English-medium group. This superiority was most apparent in comparisons involving numbers over 20: a result which was complicated by the fact that Welsh-medium pupils showed a lower range of error scores than the English-medium pupils. These results were thought to be related to the increased transparency of the Welsh counting system.

  1. Nurses' perceptions of how clinical information system implementation affects workflow and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Marcia M; Vartak, Smruti; Schwichtenberg, Tammy; Wakefield, Douglas S

    2011-09-01

    There is a little evidence of the impact of clinical information system implementation on nurses' workflow and patient care to guide institutions across the nation as they implement electronic health records. This study compared changes in nurse's perceptions about patient care processes and workflow before and after a comprehensive clinical information system implementation at a rural referral hospital. The study used the Information Systems Expectations and Experiences survey, which consists of seven scales-provider-patient communication, interprovider communication, interorganizational communication, work-life changes, improved care, support and resources, and patient care processes. Survey responses were examined across three administrations-before and after training and after implementation. The survey responses decreased significantly for eight of the 47 survey items from the first administration to the second and for 37 items from the second administration to the third. Perceptions were more positive in nurses who had previous experience with electronic health records and less positive in nurses with more years of work experience. These findings point to the importance of setting realistic expectations, assessing user perceptions throughout the implementation process, designing training to meet the needs of the end user, and adapting training and implementation processes to support nurses who have concerns.

  2. Agricultural management systems affect the green lacewing community (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in olive orchards in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, M; Ruano, F; Cotes, B; Peña, A; Campos, M

    2013-02-01

    Green lacewings are generalist predators whose conservation is important for pest control in olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) Sustainable farming practices, as opposed to conventional management techniques, are believed to foster the presence of natural enemies. This study therefore aims to analyze the effect of 1) herbicidal weed cover removal and insecticide applications, and 2) the general management systems used in the olive orchards of southern Spain on chrysopid assemblages and abundance. Green lacewing adults and larvae were collected from olive orchards under conventional, integrated, and organic management systems. In addition, chemical analyses of residues were carried out to determine the presence of insecticidal and herbicidal residues. Eight adult species and three genera of larvae were identified. No rare species were captured from the most intensively farmed orchard, which therefore recorded the most limited chrysopid diversity with a very marked dominance of Chrysoperla carnea s.l.. No effect of dimethoate treatments on Chrysoperla larvae or C. carnea s.l. adults was observed. However, the presence of insecticide residues was associated with the depletion of Dichochrysa larvae. The absence of herbicide treatments favored C. carnea s.l. adult presence on olive trees while larval abundance decreased. Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant when weed cover received no treatment. In relation to the management systems studied, no difference in Chrysoperla larval abundance was observed between conventional and organic orchards. However, Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant in orchards under organic management.

  3. Early social environment affects the endogenous oxytocin system: a review and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eAlves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous oxytocin plays an important role in a wide range of human functions including birth, milk ejection during lactation and facilitation of social interaction. There is increasing evidence that both variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR and concentrations of oxytocin are associated with differences in these functions. The causes for the differences that have been observed in tonic and stimulated oxytocin release remain unclear. Previous reviews have suggested that across the life course, these differences may be due to individual factors, e.g. genetic variation (of the OXTR, age or sex, or be the result of early environmental influences such as social experiences, stress or trauma partly by inducing epigenetic changes. This review has three aims. First, we briefly discuss the endogenous oxytocin system, including physiology, development, individual differences and function. Secondly, current models describing the relationship between the early life environment and the development of the oxytocin system in humans and animals are discussed. Finally, we describe research designs that can be used to investigate the effects of the early environment on the oxytocin system, identifying specific areas of research that need further attention.

  4. Tracking and controlling everything that affects quality is the key to a quality management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Carl; Wray, Bruce; Winslow, Ford; Vilicich, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Every laboratory has a need to track and control the variables that drive the quality of the results. However, each laboratory is unique and what one organization deems to be a critical process to track and control will likely differ from other organizations. Furthermore, there is more than just the end product or result that needs to be tracked and controlled. All of the intermediate products and resources play a significant role in producing the final product and each of these needs to be included in the LIMS. At a high level, this article will present ideas and opinions on the following topics in relation to implementing a LIMS process tracking and control system in a laboratory: The difference between tracking and controlling processes; What to track and control in the lab; The "product" of the laboratory; Preventing mistakes in a laboratory; Comprehensive software platform options; The value of seeing a system as opposed to imagining it; The use of barcodes in the laboratory; and an assessment on using the Risk Based Approach in deciding what to include in the tracking system.

  5. When left is not right: handedness effects on learning object-manipulation words using pictures with left- or right-handed first-person perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nooijer, Jacqueline A; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Zwaan, Rolf A

    2013-12-01

    According to the body-specificity hypothesis, hearing action words creates body-specific mental simulations of the actions. Handedness should, therefore, affect mental simulations. Given that pictures of actions also evoke mental simulations and often accompany words to be learned, would pictures that mismatch the mental simulation of words negatively affect learning? We investigated effects of pictures with a left-handed, right-handed, or bimanual perspective on left- and right-handers' learning of object-manipulation words in an artificial language. Right-handers recalled fewer definitions of words learned with a corresponding left-handed-perspective picture than with a right-handed-perspective picture. For left-handers, there was no effect of perspective. These findings suggest that mismatches between pictures and mental simulations evoked by hearing action words can negatively affect right-handers' learning. Left-handers, who encounter the right-handed perspective frequently, could presumably overcome the lack of motor experience with visual experience and, therefore, not be influenced by picture perspective.

  6. Factors Affecting the Oxygenation Capacity of Disc Aerators in an Oxidation Ditch System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The use of aerobic biological methods for the treatment of livestock wastes has resulted in a proliferation of mechanical aeration devices to accomplish the desired treatment. The oxidation ditch system with disc aerators is among the aerobic systems that have been used to treat livestock waste. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of various disc design parameters and system operational parameters on the oxygen transfer coefficient and to study the physical phenomenon of oxygen transfer using high speed movie techniques. Approach: A bench-scale oxidation ditch with a disc aerator was used to conduct a series of experiments to determine the effects of immersion depth (2.5-7.5 cm, disc speed (50-250 rpm, disc thickness (0.32-2.55 cm, hole diameter (0.00-1.92 cm and number of rotating discs (1-2 on the oxygen transfer coefficient. The unsteady state method with sodium sulfite oxidation was used to deoxygenate the water and the dissolved oxygen concentration was measured with time. Results: The disc speed had the most significant effect on KLa with the immersion depth and hole diameter both showing strong effects and the disc thickness showing less effect. The effect of adding a second disc was comparable to using a single disc of double the thickness at lower speeds while at speeds higher than 200 rpm doubling the thickness of a single disc had less effect than a second disc. Conclusion: The highest oxygen transfer (1.526 min-1 was achieved using two coaxial discs with a disc speed of 250 rpm, a disc thickness of 0.64 cm, a hole diameter of 1.92 cm and an immersion depth of 7.5 cm. Bubble aeration and eddy aeration were the most prevalent mechanisms of oxygen transfer in the oxidation ditch while surface aeration played a relatively small role in oxygen transfer.

  7. Reference and counter electrode positions affect electrochemical characterization of bioanodes in different bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2014-06-16

    The placement of the reference electrode (RE) in various bioelectrochemical systems is often varied to accommodate different reactor configurations. While the effect of the RE placement is well understood from a strictly electrochemistry perspective, there are impacts on exoelectrogenic biofilms in engineered systems that have not been adequately addressed. Varying distances between the working electrode (WE) and the RE, or the RE and the counter electrode (CE) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can alter bioanode characteristics. With well-spaced anode and cathode distances in an MFC, increasing the distance between the RE and anode (WE) altered bioanode cyclic voltammograms (CVs) due to the uncompensated ohmic drop. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) also changed with RE distances, resulting in a calculated increase in anode resistance that varied between 17 and 31Ω (-0.2V). While WE potentials could be corrected with ohmic drop compensation during the CV tests, they could not be automatically corrected by the potentiostat in the EIS tests. The electrochemical characteristics of bioanodes were altered by their acclimation to different anode potentials that resulted from varying the distance between the RE and the CE (cathode). These differences were true changes in biofilm characteristics because the CVs were electrochemically independent of conditions resulting from changing CE to RE distances. Placing the RE outside of the current path enabled accurate bioanode characterization using CVs and EIS due to negligible ohmic resistances (0.4Ω). It is therefore concluded for bioelectrochemical systems that when possible, the RE should be placed outside the current path and near the WE, as this will result in more accurate representation of bioanode characteristics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Rongyan; Lu, Jianwei; Ren, Tao; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaokun; Cong, Rihuan

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N) mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM) and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN) contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR)/cotton-rapeseed (CR) rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile), intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles), and high (90th percentile) levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C) and N (POM-N) contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN) contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively) than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively). Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials) in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils.

  9. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyan Bu

    Full Text Available Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR/cotton-rapeseed (CR rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile, intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles, and high (90th percentile levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C and N (POM-N contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively. Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils.

  10. Housing system affects broiler characteristics of local Chinese breed reciprocal crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X L; Siegel, P B; Liu, Y P; Wang, Y; Gilbert, E R; Zhu, Q; Zhang, L

    2012-09-01

    Artificial selection in closed populations can fix or differentiate alternative alleles of loci associated with selected traits. Two closed chicken populations, A and B, originating from Jiuwu, a Chinese native breed, were bred for more than 10 generations. We compared progeny from reciprocal crosses (AB and BA) under free range (trial 1) and cage and pen (trial 2) systems. Traits measured included feed conversion, live BW, subcutaneous fat thickness, percentages of carcass, semi-eviscerated carcass, eviscerated carcass, breast muscle (pectoralis major and minor), leg muscle (boneless drum and thigh), heart, gizzard, proventriculus, liver, comb, and abdominal fat, plus moisture and fat content in breast muscle at 91 d. In trial 1, there were no significant differences between crosses for any trait except percentage proventriculus (AB > BA). Males were significantly heavier with greater proportions of semi-eviscerated carcass, leg muscle, heart, and comb than females, whereas females had thicker subcutaneous fat and higher percentage abdominal fat, breast muscle, gizzard, and proventriculus than males. In trial 2, chickens raised in cages were significantly heavier, had superior feed efficiency, thicker subcutaneous fat, higher fat content and percentage abdominal fat, carcass, semi-eviscerated carcass, liver, and comb than those reared in pens. Those reared in pens exhibited significantly greater proportions of breast muscle, gizzard, and proventriculus than those raised in cages. The only significant 2-way interaction was cross × sex for percentage semi-eviscerated and eviscerated carcass, because BA males were greater than other combinations. Interactions of cross × sex × housing system for percentage liver and abdominal fat were significant; cage-reared AB females displayed higher percentages than pen-reared BA males. Results implied that subpopulations should be considered rather than a single larger population as a way to reduce loss of genetic variation in

  11. Shorter Fallow Cycles Affect the Availability of Noncrop Plant Resources in a Shifting Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Paule. Dalle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation systems, one of the most widely distributed forms of agriculture in the tropics, provide not only crops of cultural significance, but also medicinal, edible, ritual, fuel, and forage resources, which contribute to the livelihoods, health, and cultural identity of local people. In many regions across the globe, shifting cultivation systems are undergoing important changes, one of the most pervasive being a shortening of the fallow cycle. Although there has been much attention drawn to declines in crop yields in conjunction with reductions in fallow times, little if any research has focused on the dynamics of noncrop plant resources. In this paper, we use a data set of 26 fields of the same age, i.e., ~1.5 yr, but differing in the length and frequency of past fallow cycles, to examine the impact of shorter fallow periods on the availability of noncrop plant resources. The resources examined are collected in shifting cultivation fields by the Yucatec Maya in Quintana Roo, Mexico. These included firewood, which is cut from remnant trees and stumps spared at the time of felling, and 17 forage species that form part of the weed vegetation. Firewood showed an overall decrease in basal area with shorter fallow cycles, which was mostly related to the smaller diameter of the spared stumps and trees in short-fallow milpas. In contrast, forage species showed a mixed response. Species increasing in abundance in short-fallow milpas tended to be short-lived herbs and shrubs often with weedy habits, whereas those declining in abundance were predominantly pioneer trees and animal-dispersed species. Coppicing tree species showed a neutral response to fallow intensity. Within the cultural and ecological context of our study area, we expect that declines in firewood availability will be most significant for livelihoods because of the high reliance on firewood for local fuel needs and the fact that the main alternative source of firewood, forest

  12. Interactive Software System Developed to Study How Icing Affects Airfoil Performance (Phase 1 Results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Yung K.; Vickerman, Mary B.

    2000-01-01

    SmaggIce (Surface Modeling and Grid Generation for Iced Airfoils), which is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, is an interactive software system for data probing, boundary smoothing, domain decomposition, and structured grid generation and refinement. All these steps are required for aerodynamic performance prediction using structured, grid-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD), as illustrated in the following figure. SmaggIce provides the underlying computations to perform these functions, as well as a graphical user interface to control and interact with them, and graphics to display the results.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of potential events affecting the double-shell tank system and fallback actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, B.J.

    1996-09-27

    Sensitivity analyses were performed for fall-back positions (i.e., management actions) to accommodate potential off-normal and programmatic change events overlaid on the waste volume projections and their uncertainties. These sensitivity analyses allowed determining and ranking tank system high-risk parameters and fall- back positions that will accommodate the respective impacts. This quantification of tank system impacts shows periods where tank capacity is sensitive to certain variables that must be carefully managed and/or evaluated. Identifying these sensitive variables and quantifying their impact will allow decision makers to prepare fall-back positions and focus available resources on the highest impact parameters where technical data are needed to reduce waste projection uncertainties. For noncomplexed waste, the period of capacity vulnerability occurs during the years of single-shell tank (SST) retrieval (after approximately 2009) due to the sensitivity to several variables. Ranked by importance these variables include the pretreatment rate and 200-East SST solids transfer volume. For complexed waste, the period of capacity vulnerability occurs during the period after approximately 2005 due to the sensitivity to several variables. Ranked by importance these variables include the pretreatment rate. 200-East SST solids transfer volume. complexed waste reduction factor using evaporation, and 200-west saltwell liquid porosity.

  14. Radiation from wireless technology affects the blood, the heart, and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Magda

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to electrosmog generated by electric, electronic, and wireless technology is accelerating to the point that a portion of the population is experiencing adverse reactions when they are exposed. The symptoms of electrohypersensitivity (EHS), best described as rapid aging syndrome, experienced by adults and children resemble symptoms experienced by radar operators in the 1940s to the 1960s and are well described in the literature. An increasingly common response includes clumping (rouleau formation) of the red blood cells, heart palpitations, pain or pressure in the chest accompanied by anxiety, and an upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system coincident with a downregulation of the parasympathetic nervous system typical of the "fight-or-flight" response. Provocation studies presented in this article demonstrate that the response to electrosmog is physiologic and not psychosomatic. Those who experience prolonged and severe EHS may develop psychologic problems as a consequence of their inability to work, their limited ability to travel in our highly technologic environment, and the social stigma that their symptoms are imagined rather than real.

  15. Ecological conditions affect evolutionary trajectory in a predator-prey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Romain; Tully, Thomas; Evans, Margaret E K

    2009-03-01

    The arms race of adaptation and counter adaptation in predator-prey interactions is a fascinating evolutionary dynamic with many consequences, including local adaptation and the promotion or maintenance of diversity. Although such antagonistic coevolution is suspected to be widespread in nature, experimental documentation of the process remains scant, and we have little understanding of the impact of ecological conditions. Here, we present evidence of predator-prey coevolution in a long-term experiment involving the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and the prey Pseudomonas fluorescens, which has three morphs (SM, FS, and WS). Depending on experimentally applied disturbance regimes, the predator-prey system followed two distinct evolutionary trajectories, where the prey evolved to be either super-resistant to predation (SM morph) without counter-adaptation by the predator, or moderately resistant (FS morph), specialized to and coevolving with the predator. Although predation-resistant FS morphs suffer a cost of resistance, the evolution of extreme resistance to predation by the SM morph was apparently unconstrained by other traits (carrying capacity, growth rate). Thus we demonstrate empirically that ecological conditions can shape the evolutionary trajectory of a predator-prey system.

  16. Development of Quality Management Systems: How Have Disruptive Technological Innovations in Quality Management Affected Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Hellman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the history of quality and development of quality management systems. History of quality is investigated from Hammurabi’s law all the way to today’s reigning quality initiatives including ISO, Six Sigma and Lean manufacturing. In the last chapters the current state of quality management is being examined. The foresight method is also opened up and examined. The Innovator’s dilemma concept, originally presented by Clayton Christensen, is used to analyse how quality management systems have been evolved in the last 100 years. Special emphasis is placed on the US manufacturing in the 1970s and 1980s. Based on the literature, the concept of Innovator’s dilemma and the fall of US manufacturing are merged. The result is a prime example that the Innovator’s Dilemma is a universal phenomenon. The industry leader is trying to maintain its position and do everything right but still it is destined to fail. The causes and effects are being discussed in later chapters.

  17. Sildenafil Can Affect Innate and Adaptive Immune System in Both Experimental Animals and Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kniotek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sildenafil, a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDE5-I, is primarily used for treating erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil inhibits the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP by competing with cGMP for binding site of PDE5. cGMP is a secondary messenger activating protein kinases and a common regulator of ion channel conductance, glycogenolysis, and cellular apoptosis. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE-Is found application in cardiology, nephrology, urology, dermatology, oncology, and gynecology. Positive result of sildenafil treatment is closely connected with its immunomodulatory effects. Sildenafil influences angiogenesis, platelet activation, proliferation of regulatory T cells, and production of proinflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies. Sildenafil action in humans and animals appears to be different. Surprisingly, it also acts differently in males and females organisms. Although the immunomodulatory effects of PDE5 inhibitors appear to be promising, none of them reached the point of being tested in clinical trials. Data on the influence of selective PDE5-Is on the human immune system are limited. The main objective of this review is to discuss the immunomodulatory effects of sildenafil in both patients and experimental animals. This is the first review of the current state of knowledge about the effects of sildenafil on the immune system.

  18. Radioactive impact in sediments from an estuarine system affected by industrial wastes releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar, Juan Pedro; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Mas, José Luis; Vaca, Federico

    2002-03-01

    A big fertilizer industrial complex and a vast extension of phosphogypsum piles (12 km2), sited in the estuary formed by the Odiel and Tinto river mouths (southwest of Spain), are producing an unambiguous radioactive impact in their surrounding aquatic environment through radionuclides from the U-series. The levels and distribution of radionuclides in sediments from this estuarine system have been determined. The analyses of radionuclide concentrations and activity ratios have provided us with an interesting information to evaluate the extension, degree and routes of the radioactive impact, as well as for the knowledge of the different pathways followed for the radioactive contamination to disturb this natural system. The obtained results indicate that the main pathway of radioactive contamination of the estuary is through the dissolution in its waters of the radionuclides released by the industrial activities and their later fixation on the particulate materials. Tidal activity also plays an important role in the transport and homogenization along the estuary of the radioactivity released from the fertilizer plants.

  19. Do high-commitment work systems affect creativity? A multilevel combinational approach to employee creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Song; Jia, Liangding; Takeuchi, Riki; Cai, Yahua

    2014-07-01

    In this article, some information about the data used in the article and a citation were not included. The details of the corrections are provided.] This study uses 3-level, 2-wave time-lagged data from a random sample of 55 high-technology firms, 238 teams, and 1,059 individuals in China to investigate a multilevel combinational model of employee creativity. First, we hypothesize that firm (macrolevel) high-commitment work systems are conducive to individual (microlevel) creativity. Furthermore, we hypothesize that this positive crosslevel main impact may be combined with middle-level (mesolevel) factors, including team cohesion and team task complexity, such that the positive impact of firm high-commitment work systems on individual creativity is stronger when team cohesion is high and the team task more complex. The findings from random coefficient modeling analyses provide support for our hypotheses. These sets of results offer novel insight into how firms can use macrolevel and mesolevel contextual variables in a systematic manner to promote employee creativity in the workplace, despite its complex nature.

  20. Sildenafil Can Affect Innate and Adaptive Immune System in Both Experimental Animals and Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Sildenafil, a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDE5-I), is primarily used for treating erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil inhibits the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by competing with cGMP for binding site of PDE5. cGMP is a secondary messenger activating protein kinases and a common regulator of ion channel conductance, glycogenolysis, and cellular apoptosis. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE-Is) found application in cardiology, nephrology, urology, dermatology, oncology, and gynecology. Positive result of sildenafil treatment is closely connected with its immunomodulatory effects. Sildenafil influences angiogenesis, platelet activation, proliferation of regulatory T cells, and production of proinflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies. Sildenafil action in humans and animals appears to be different. Surprisingly, it also acts differently in males and females organisms. Although the immunomodulatory effects of PDE5 inhibitors appear to be promising, none of them reached the point of being tested in clinical trials. Data on the influence of selective PDE5-Is on the human immune system are limited. The main objective of this review is to discuss the immunomodulatory effects of sildenafil in both patients and experimental animals. This is the first review of the current state of knowledge about the effects of sildenafil on the immune system.