WorldWideScience

Sample records for affecting human performance

  1. Psychological biases affecting human cognitive performance in dynamic operational environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to identify cognitive error mechanisms observed in the dynamic operational environment, the following materials were analyzed giving special attention to psychological biases, together with possible cognitive tasks and these location, and internal and external performance shaping factors: (a) 13 human factors analyses of US nuclear power plant accidents, (b) 14 cases of Japanese nuclear power plant incidents, and (c) 23 cases collected in simulator experiments. In the resulting analysis, the most frequently identified cognitive process associated with error productions was situation assessment, and following varieties were KB processes and response planning, all of that were the higher cognitive activities. Over 70% of human error cases, psychological bias was affecting to cognitive errors, especially those to higher cognitive activities. In addition, several error occurrence patterns, including relations between cognitive process, biases, and PSFs were identified by the multivariate analysis. According to the identified error patterns, functions that an operator support system have to equip were discussed and specified for design base considerations. (author)

  2. Aversive Pavlovian Responses Affect Human Instrumental Motor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioral control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed) and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm), have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioral experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behavior, and psychopathology. PMID:23060738

  3. Aversive Pavlovian responses affect human instrumental motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eRigoli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioural control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm, have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioural experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behaviour, and psychopathology.

  4. The use of human resources literature regarding the relationship between affect and student academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Chris W. Callaghan; Elmarie Papageorgiou

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: In human resources literature affect, or affectivity, has been identified as contributing, either negatively or positively, to different forms of performance in a range of different contexts.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to empirically test theory that predicts that affect can influence performance; in this case the academic performance of students in the South African higher education context.Motivation for the study: Human resources job performance theory seems...

  5. Aversive Pavlovian responses affect human instrumental motor performance

    OpenAIRE

    GiovanniPezzulo; FrancescoRigoli; EneaFrancescoPavone

    2012-01-01

    In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioural control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed) and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm), have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in...

  6. The use of human resources literature regarding the relationship between affect and student academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W. Callaghan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In human resources literature affect, or affectivity, has been identified as contributing, either negatively or positively, to different forms of performance in a range of different contexts.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to empirically test theory that predicts that affect can influence performance; in this case the academic performance of students in the South African higher education context.Motivation for the study: Human resources job performance theory seems to offer important insights when extended into other contexts of individual performance. The specific potential influence of affect on student performance is unclear in this context.Research design, approach and method: A non-probability comprehensive sample of all students registered for first-year accountancy (n = 719 was used. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis and bivariate tests of association were used to empirically test theory predicting relationships between affect and student academic performance.Main findings: In general the findings support the predications derived from affect theory, that negative affect is negatively associated with student performance and that positive affect is positively associated with student performance. Yet, the results suggest that affect might not, in this context, reflect the two-dimensional theoretical structure. In particular, negative affectivity might better be considered as a three-dimensioned construct.Practical/managerial implications: These results suggest that proactive measures may need to be taken by higher education institutions to support first-year students affectively. Student advisors or counsellors should be appointed, with a specific focus on providing support for student anxiety and other contextual frustrations to which individuals with higher levels of negative affect might be particularly vulnerable.Contribution: These findings provide new insights into the importance of

  7. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation....... The paper will investigate how technology, humanity, affects, and synaesthesia are presented and combined with examples from everyday aesthetics, e.g. early computer tv-commercial, net-commercial for mobile phones. Technology and affects point, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not he...

  8. How does human capital affect the performance of academic spin-offs?

    OpenAIRE

    Rimestad, Mari Haga; Bjerkholt, Frøydis Folvik; Seeland, Ole Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Article 1: Investigates the field of academic spin-offs. This type of spin-offs commercialize research results from research institutions and are believed to be a source of wealth creation. Even though academic spin-offs have high survival rates they rarely grow into high performing ventures. Furthermore, performance of young academic spin-offs is closely linked to their human capital as they often have limited resources. Through a structured literature search we investigated how different ty...

  9. Cognitive and tactile factors affecting human haptic performance in later life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kalisch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vision and haptics are the key modalities by which humans perceive objects and interact with their environment in a target-oriented manner. Both modalities share higher-order neural resources and the mechanisms required for object exploration. Compared to vision, the understanding of haptic information processing is still rudimentary. Although it is known that haptic performance, similar to many other skills, decreases in old age, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. It is yet to be determined to what extent this decrease is related to the age-related loss of tactile acuity or cognitive capacity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the haptic performance of 81 older adults by means of a cross-modal object recognition test. Additionally, we assessed the subjects' tactile acuity with an apparatus-based two-point discrimination paradigm, and their cognitive performance by means of the non-verbal Raven-Standard-Progressive matrices test. As expected, there was a significant age-related decline in performance on all 3 tests. With the exception of tactile acuity, this decline was found to be more distinct in female subjects. Correlation analyses revealed a strong relationship between haptic and cognitive performance for all subjects. Tactile performance, on the contrary, was only significantly correlated with male subjects' haptic performance. CONCLUSIONS: Haptic object recognition is a demanding task in old age, especially when it comes to the exploration of complex, unfamiliar objects. Our data support a disproportionately higher impact of cognition on haptic performance as compared to the impact of tactile acuity. Our findings are in agreement with studies reporting an increase in co-variation between individual sensory performance and general cognitive functioning in old age.

  10. Human factors affecting the performance of inspection personnel in nuclear power plants: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the problem of poor performance among nuclear power plant inspection personnel both in training and in the field. First, a systems perspective is employed to explore the psychological processes and relevant human factors that may be associated with workers' inadequate performance. Second, two separate yet related approaches are used to clarify the definition of competence: (1) a theory-based (or ''top-down'') approach, in which effective performance is construed as a product of a skillful, motivated person interacting with a responsive environment; and (2) an empirical (or ''bottom-up'') approach, in which key persons and context characteristics are generated based on the opinions of experts in the industry. Using a series of semi-structured interviews, two empirical studies were conducted in the latter approach. Overall, the results of both studies converged with the theoretical analysis emphasizing (1) the reciprocal and dynamic interplay of contextual and motivational factors influencing performance, and (2) the salient role of supervisory practices in terms of support, cooperation, and efficiency in contributing to the outcome of performance. 53 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Human Factors Research in Anesthesia Patient Safety: Techniques to Elucidate Factors Affecting Clinical Task Performance and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Weinger, Matthew B.; Slagle, Jason

    2002-01-01

    Patient safety has become a major public concern. Human factors research in other high-risk fields has demonstrated how rigorous study of factors that affect job performance can lead to improved outcome and reduced errors after evidence-based redesign of tasks or systems. These techniques have increasingly been applied to the anesthesia work environment. This paper describes data obtained recently using task analysis and workload assessment during actual patient care and the use of cognitive ...

  12. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel

  13. Do Robot Performance and Behavioral Style affect Human Trust? : A Multi-Method Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Dotsch, Ron; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Haselager, Pim

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of a robot’s social behavior is to convey the right amount of trustworthiness. Task performance has shown to be an important source for trustworthiness judgments. Here, we argue that factors such as a robot’s behavioral style can play an important role as well. Our approach to st

  14. Factors Affecting Students' Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Harb, Nasri; El-Shaarawi, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Determinants of students' performance have been the subject of ongoing debate among educators, academics, and policy makers. There have been many studies that sought to examine this issue and their findings point out to hard work, previous schooling, parents’ education, family income and self motivation as factors that have a significant effect on the students GPA. Most of those studies have focused on students' performance in the U.S. and Europe. However, since cultural differences may play ...

  15. Factors Affecting Students' Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Harb, Nasri; El-Shaarawi, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Determinants of students' performance have been the subject of ongoing debate among educators, academics, and policy makers. There have been many studies that sought to examine this issue and their findings point out to hard work, previous schooling, parents’ education, family income and self motivation as factors that have a significant effect on the students GPA. Most of those studies have focused on students' performance in the U.S. and Europe. However, since cultural differences may p...

  16. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  17. Trends affecting hospitals' human resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, M M

    1985-01-01

    Hospital workers at every level--from administrators to housekeepers--will be affected by the interaction of changes already underway in the healthcare industry. Societal forces that will affect the hospital workforce include demographic change, the rise of the participatory ethic and decentralization, a growing philosophy of job entitlement, and new pressures for unionization. At the same time, the industry is faced with changing manpower requirements, cost containment, and the oversupply of physicians. This article identifies some of the likely effects of these changes on hospital human resources and suggests ways that administrators can prepare for them.

  18. Human Clay Models versus Cat Dissection: How the Similarity between the Classroom and the Exam Affects Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.; Van Meter, Peggy; Perrotti, William; Drogo, Salvatore; Cyr, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of different anatomic representations on student learning in a human anatomy class studying the muscular system. Specifically, we examined the efficacy of using dissected cats (with and without handouts) compared with clay sculpting of human structures. Ten undergraduate laboratory sections were assigned to three…

  19. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  20. Mentoring Human Performance - 12480

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the positive effects of implementing a human performance approach to operations can be hard to quantify, many organizations and industry areas are finding tangible benefits to such a program. Recently, a unique mentoring program was established and implemented focusing on improving the performance of managers, supervisors, and work crews, using the principles of Human Performance Improvement (HPI). The goal of this mentoring was to affect behaviors and habits that reliably implement the principles of HPI to ensure continuous improvement in implementation of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) within a Conduct of Operations framework. Mentors engaged with personnel in a one-on-one, or one-on-many dialogue, which focused on what behaviors were observed, what factors underlie the behaviors, and what changes in behavior could prevent errors or events, and improve performance. A senior management sponsor was essential to gain broad management support. A clear charter and management plan describing the goals, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes was established. Mentors were carefully selected with senior management endorsement. Mentors were assigned to projects and work teams based on the following three criteria: 1) knowledge of the work scope; 2) experience in similar project areas; and 3) perceived level of trust they would have with project management, supervision, and work teams. This program was restructured significantly when the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) and the associated funding came to an end. The program was restructured based on an understanding of the observations, attributed successes and identified shortfalls, and the consolidation of those lessons. Mentoring the application of proven methods for improving human performance was shown effective at increasing success in day-to-day activities and increasing confidence and level of skill of supervisors. While mentoring program effectiveness is difficult to

  1. Humans process dog and human facial affect in similar ways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Schirmer

    Full Text Available Humans share aspects of their facial affect with other species such as dogs. Here we asked whether untrained human observers with and without dog experience are sensitive to these aspects and recognize dog affect with better-than-chance accuracy. Additionally, we explored similarities in the way observers process dog and human expressions. The stimulus material comprised naturalistic facial expressions of pet dogs and human infants obtained through positive (i.e., play and negative (i.e., social isolation provocation. Affect recognition was assessed explicitly in a rating task using full face images and images cropped to reveal the eye region only. Additionally, affect recognition was assessed implicitly in a lexical decision task using full faces as primes and emotional words and pseudowords as targets. We found that untrained human observers rated full face dog expressions from the positive and negative condition more accurately than would be expected by chance. Although dog experience was unnecessary for this effect, it significantly facilitated performance. Additionally, we observed a range of similarities between human and dog face processing. First, the facial expressions of both species facilitated lexical decisions to affectively congruous target words suggesting that their processing was equally automatic. Second, both dog and human negative expressions were recognized from both full and cropped faces. Third, female observers were more sensitive to affective information than were male observers and this difference was comparable for dog and human expressions. Together, these results extend existing work on cross-species similarities in facial emotions and provide evidence that these similarities are naturally exploited when humans interact with dogs.

  2. Internal factors affecting brand performance

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Fiona J.

    2002-01-01

    In terms of effective branding, several recent trends have indicated the need for greater attention within the organisation than has traditionally been the case. With increased emphasis on corporate branding, the team responsible for managing a brand is becoming larger and more diverse and all staff, as the corporate brand's representatives, affect consumers' perceptions of the corporate brand. Furthermore, the shift in emphasis in the literature from the externally perceived brand image to t...

  3. How computers affected the humanities

    OpenAIRE

    Salerno Emanuele

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the interactions between information technology and the humanities, and focuses on how the humanities have changed since adopting computers. The debate among humanists on the subject initially focuses on the alleged methodological changes brought about by the introduction of computing technology. It subsequently analyses the changes in research that were caused by IT not directly but indirectly, as a consequence of the changes effected on society as a whole. After...

  4. Pedagogical affect, student interest, and learning performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abrantes, José Luís; Seabra, Cláudia; Lages, Luis Filipe

    2007-01-01

    Using a sample of more than 1000 students, this study reveals that students’ perceived learning depends directly on their interest, pedagogical affect, and their learning performance and indirectly on the student–instructor interaction, the instructor's responsiveness, course organization, the instructor's likeability/concern, and the student's learning performance. Likeability/concern indirectly affects student interest by influencing learning performance. The results yield recommendations f...

  5. How does concurrent sourcing affect performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    2010-01-01

    /methodology/approach – Based on transaction cost, agency, neoclassical economic, knowledge-based, and resource-based theory, it is proposed to show how concurrent sourcing affects performance. Findings – The paper argues that concurrent sourcing improves performance when firms face a combination of volume uncertainty......Abstract Purpose – “Concurrent sourcing” is a term used by Parmigiani to describe the phenomenon where a firm simultaneously buys and makes the same good or service. The purpose of this paper is to develop propositions that suggest how concurrent sourcing affects performance. Design...

  6. Identification of a common variant affecting human episodic memory performance using a pooled genome-wide association approach: a case study of disease gene identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Traci L; Huentelman, Matthew J

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an important tool for discovering novel genes associated with disease or traits. Careful design of case-control groups greatly facilitates the efficacy of these studies. Here we describe a pooled GWAS study undertaken to find novel genes associated with human episodic memory performance. A genomic locus for the WW and C2 domain-containing 1 protein, KIBRA (also known as WWC1), was found to be associated with memory performance in three cognitively normal cohorts from Switzerland and the USA. This result was further supported by correlation of KIBRA genotype and differences in hippocampal activation as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). These findings provide an excellent example of the application of GWAS using a pooled genomic DNA approach to successfully identify a locus with strong effects on human memory.

  7. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  8. How luck and performance affect stealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravert, Christina Annette

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how the way of earning payoff affects the probability of stealing. The participants who earned their payoff according to performance were three times more likely to take the (undeserved) maximum payoff than participants with randomly allocated payoff. Conditional on steali...

  9. Workers’ Affective Commitment and their Willingness to Perform Discretionary Work Behaviour: the Impact of Commitment-Oriented Human Resources Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Zeidan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the development of the human resource management (HRM literature through developing the linkages between HRM practices and employee attitudes and behaviours. It is widely believed that the implementation of high commitment human resource management (HRM practices (e.g., training and development, communication, and participative decision making can create strategic advantage for the organisation (e.g., Arthur, 1994; Delaney and Huselid, 1996. It is also suggested that HRM practices could shape employee attitudes and behaviours. However, the intervening mechanisms of this effect are yet to be examined. Researchers have pointed to the need to understand the means by which these practices exert their influence on employee commitment and other individual outcomes (Meyer and Smith, 2000.Drawing on social exchange theory (Blau, 1964, this paper aims to address this need by developing a theoretical framework which explicitly links employee perceptions of HRM practices and important work outcomes via perceived fulfilment of the psychological contract. Drawing upon psychological contract theory, it is proposed that commitment HRM practices create a more positive psychological contract (and thus higher perceptions of fulfilment of the psychological contract. This will in turn, lead to increased affective commitment and enhanced organisational citizenship behaviours (OCB.

  10. Action video game experience affects oculomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Greg L; Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Pratt, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Action video games have been show to affect a variety of visual and cognitive processes. There is, however, little evidence of whether playing video games can also affect motor action. To investigate the potential link between experience playing action video games and changes in oculomotor action, we tested habitual action video game players (VGPs) and non-video game players (NVGPs) in a saccadic trajectory deviation task. We demonstrate that spatial curvature of a saccadic trajectory towards or away from distractor is profoundly different between VGPs and NVGPs. In addition, task performance accuracy improved over time only in VGPs. Results are discussed in the context of the competing interplay between stimulus-driven motor programming and top-down inhibition during oculomotor execution.

  11. Human Factor Issues Affecting CAD Implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Short

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial companies have been implementing Computer Aided Engineering tools for many years with varying degrees of success. In the early implementations considerable emphasis was placed upon the organisational structure necessary to receive and optimise system output. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that any successful CAE implementation has to satisfy three inter-related factors of technology, organisation and human issues. This paper presents the results of an investigation into human factors affecting successful CAD implementation, undertaken through selected case studies and a more general survey of UK industry.

  12. Mental processes affecting the piano performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buğra Gültek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the mental processes that affect the piano performance. An efficient performance and education of the piano instrument depends on a complex systematic structure of a combination of some musical and technical challenges. To succeed in piano playing, one shall overcome the difficulties systematically over several years. Naturally, this process depends on many variables and the correct organization of the central nervous system plays a very important role on it. Having a complete understanding on the subject matter, it might guide the performance of piano playing and its educationBy the analysis of the historical processes, the activity of playing the piano was initially seen as a pure mechanical activity. However, at the beginning of the 20th Century, scholars had started to consider it not without its physiological and mental elements. This trend has reached today by gradually increasing its importance. Today in the contemporary piano performance and education, the mental processes are not being isolated from the whole matter of subject. In this study, the importance of the practicing methods that are based on correct organization of the central nervous system is set forth and to increase the efficiency of the piano performance, some practicing examples are given.

  13. Human activities affecting trace gases and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Earth's climate has been in a constant state of change throughout geologic time due to natural perturbations in the global geobiosphere. However, various human activities have the potential to cause future global warming over a relatively short amount of time. These activities, which affect the Earth's climate by altering the concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere, include energy consumption, particularly fossil-fuel consumption; industrial processes (production and use of chlorofluorocarbons, halons, and chlorocarbons, landfilling of wastes, and cement manufacture); changes in land use patterns, particularly deforestation and biomass burning; and agricultural practices (waste burning, fertilizer usage, rice production, and animal husbandry). Population growth is an important underlying factor affecting the level of growth in each activity. This paper describes how the human activities listed above contribute to atmospheric change, the current pattern of each activity, and how levels of each activity have changed since the early part of this century

  14. Affective Biases in Humans and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E S J; Roiser, J P

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common but poorly understood psychiatric conditions. Although drug treatments and psychological therapies are effective in some patients, many do not achieve full remission and some patients receive no apparent benefit. Developing new improved treatments requires a better understanding of the aetiology of symptoms and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets in pre-clinical studies. Recent developments in our understanding of the basic cognitive processes that may contribute to the development of depression and its treatment offer new opportunities for both clinical and pre-clinical research. This chapter discusses the clinical evidence supporting a cognitive neuropsychological model of depression and antidepressant efficacy, and how this information may be usefully translated to pre-clinical investigation. Studies using neuropsychological tests in depressed patients and at risk populations have revealed basic negative emotional biases and disrupted reward and punishment processing, which may also impact on non-affective cognition. These affective biases are sensitive to antidepressant treatments with early onset effects observed, suggesting an important role in recovery. This clinical work into affective biases has also facilitated back-translation to animals and the development of assays to study affective biases in rodents. These animal studies suggest that, similar to humans, rodents in putative negative affective states exhibit negative affective biases on decision-making and memory tasks. Antidepressant treatments also induce positive biases in these rodent tasks, supporting the translational validity of this approach. Although still in the early stages of development and validation, affective biases in depression have the potential to offer new insights into the clinical condition, as well as facilitating the development of more translational approaches for pre-clinical studies. PMID:27660073

  15. Analysis of parameters affecting beam gauge performance

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, S; Ozelis, J P

    2000-01-01

    Beam gauges have been used in the last decade or so for measuring the internal azimuthal compressive coil stresses in superconducting magnets. In early model Large Hadron Collider Interaction Region (LHC IR) quadrupoles tested at Fermilab, the beam gauges indicated excessively high amounts of inner and outer coil prestress during the collaring process, inconsistent with the coil size and modulus data. In response to these measurements, a simple mechanics based quantitative understanding of different factors affecting beam gauges has been developed. A finite element model with contact elements and non-linear material behavior, confirmed with experimental results, was developed. The results indicate that a small plastic deformation of either the beam or the backing plate can cause significant errors in the measured stress values. The effect of variations in coil modulus and support boundary conditions on beam gauge performance are also discussed. (3 refs).

  16. Workers’ Affective Commitment and their Willingness to Perform Discretionary Work Behaviour: the Impact of Commitment-Oriented Human Resources Management Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Zeidan

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the development of the human resource management (HRM) literature through developing the linkages between HRM practices and employee attitudes and behaviours. It is widely believed that the implementation of high commitment human resource management (HRM) practices (e.g., training and development, communication, and participative decision making) can create strategic advantage for the organisation (e.g., Arthur, 1994; Delaney and Huselid, 1996). It is also suggested ...

  17. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Mark L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis, food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis. Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears

  18. Pulmonary Function Affects Language Performance in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewina O Lee

    2014-04-01

    associated with better ES performance (B = 6.64, SE = 2.43, p = .01. Higher FVC and FEV1 were related to better MN performance, but this did not reach statistical significance (FVC: B = 3.68, SE = 2.16, p = .09; FEV1: B = 4.92, SE = 2.64, p = .06. Higher FVC (B = 3.98, SE = 1.44, p = .01 and FEV1 (B = 4.79, SE = 1.75, p = .01 were associated with better ANT performance. The positive association between PF and BNT performance was marginally significant (FVC: B = 4.19, SE = 2.18, p = .06; FEV1: B = 3.51, SE = 2.66, p = .10. Discussion and Conclusion Better PF was associated with higher accuracy on sentence processing and naming-based lexical retrieval tasks, consistent with the conclusion that pulmonary function affects older adults’ language performance. Our findings support the emerging thesis that language changes in aging are influenced by health-related physiological and neural mechanisms (e.g., Albert et al., 2009; Cahana-Amitay et al., 2013. From a clinical perspective, these findings highlight the promise of targeting PF as an intervention for improving language abilities among the elderly.

  19. Human behavior and human performance: Psychomotor demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The results of several experiments are presented in abstract form. These studies are critical for the interpretation and acceptance of flight based science to be conducted by the Behavior and Performance project. Some representative titles are as follow: External audio for IBM/PC compatible computers; A comparative assessment of psychomotor performance (target prediction by humans and macaques); Response path (a dependent measure for computer maze solving and other tasks); Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in Rhesus monkey (a dissociation between hand preference and skill); Testing primates with joystick based automated apparatus; and Environmental enrichment and performance assessment for ground or flight based research with primates;

  20. Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) is a systematic method for use by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel investigating incidents that include human error. The combination of techniques into an investigation procedure is designed to help investigators (for example, a typical resident inspector with little human factors training) find the root causes of human performance problems that contributed to the incident. This summary briefly outlines the process and the techniques. The full paper provides a more in-depth description of the process, the techniques, and their development and evaluation. The complete documentation of the process will be presented in NUREG/CR-5455, Development of the NRC Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) to be published late in 1991

  1. Do moods affect programmers’ debug performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, I.A.; Brinkman, W.P.; Hierons, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    There is much research that shows people’s mood can affect their activities. This paper argues that this also applies to programmers, especially their debugging. Literature-based framework is presented linking programming with various cognitive activities as well as linking cognitive activities with

  2. Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Pozzoli, Dario; Parrotta, Pierpaolo

    Using an employer-employee dataset, we analyze how diversity in cultural background, skills and demographic characteristics affects total factor productivity (TFP) of firms in Denmark. Implementing structural estimation of firms’ production function, we find evidence that labor diversity in skills...

  3. Do moods affect programmers’ debug performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, I A; Brinkman, W.P.; Hierons, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    There is much research that shows people’s mood can affect their activities. This paper argues that this also applies to programmers, especially their debugging. Literature-based framework is presented linking programming with various cognitive activities as well as linking cognitive activities with moods. Further, the effect of mood on debugging was tested in two experiments. In the first experiment, programmers (n = 72) saw short movie clips selected for their ability to provoke specific mo...

  4. Does worker wellbeing affect workplace performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Alex; Forth, John; Stokes, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses linked employer-employee data to investigate the relationship between employees' subjective well-being and workplace performance in Britain. The analyses show a clear, positive and statistically-significant relationship between the average level of job satisfaction at the workplace and workplace performance. This finding is present in both cross-sectional and panel analyses and is robust to various estimation methods and model specifications. In contrast, we find no associatio...

  5. Human Resources Key Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabčanová Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.

  6. Research strategies for human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reflects basic proposals derived from the discussions and results by the expert group on human performance within the frame of an OECD study on nuclear safety research. Different topics have identified which are herein briefly presented: cognitive models and errors of commission, organizational practices, validation of existing techniques for human reliability analysis, control room design and man-machine interactions, use of simulators, improvement of methods for evaluation of operating experience, safety culture, operator aids, shutdown, decommissioning

  7. Psychological Factor Affecting English Speaking Performance for the English Learners in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidara, Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…

  8. Notes on human performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains a framework for the integration of observation and analysis of human performance in nuclear environments - real or simulated. It identifies four main sources of data, and describes the characteristic data types and methods of analysis for each source in relation to a common conceptual background. The general conclusion is that it is highly useful to combine the knowledge and experience from different contexts into coherent picture of how nuclear operators perform under varying circumstances. (author)

  9. Factors affecting hospitality industry's economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Zalewska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Tourism yield is currently one of the most contemporary fields of tourism research. This paper is a contribution to the ongoing Tourism Yield Norway project conducted at the Norwegian School of Hotel Management. Data has been obtained of financial performances of businesses within the hospitality and tourism industry in one of Norway’s most tourism-wise developed region – Rogaland. This paper set out to test part of one of three dimensions (economic, environmental and socio-cul...

  10. Do temporary agency workers affect workplace performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Using nationally representative workplace data we find the use of temporary agency workers (TAW) is positively associated with financial performance in the British private sector and weakly associated with higher sales per employee. However TAW is not associated with value added per employee. Employees in workplaces with TAW receive higher wages than observationally equivalent employees in non-TAW workplaces. But the presence of TAW in the employee’s occupation is associated with lower wages ...

  11. Factors Affecting Performance of Women Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Ena-Mary Ibeh

    2009-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is the assumption of risk and responsibility in designing and implementing a business strategy or starting a business. It is common in all societies and is usually embarked upon by choice or as a last resort in economic hardship. Entrepreneurship is usually part of the informal sector in both developed and developing countries and the success rate of gender in this arm of business is dependent on a variety of factors. There are similarities in gender performance between diffe...

  12. The SACADA database for human reliability and human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lack of appropriate and sufficient human performance data has been identified as a key factor affecting human reliability analysis (HRA) quality especially in the estimation of human error probability (HEP). The Scenario Authoring, Characterization, and Debriefing Application (SACADA) database was developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to address this data need. An agreement between NRC and the South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) was established to support the SACADA development with aims to make the SACADA tool suitable for implementation in the nuclear power plants' operator training program to collect operator performance information. The collected data would support the STPNOC's operator training program and be shared with the NRC for improving HRA quality. This paper discusses the SACADA data taxonomy, the theoretical foundation, the prospective data to be generated from the SACADA raw data to inform human reliability and human performance, and the considerations on the use of simulator data for HRA. Each SACADA data point consists of two information segments: context and performance results. Context is a characterization of the performance challenges to task success. The performance results are the results of performing the task. The data taxonomy uses a macrocognitive functions model for the framework. At a high level, information is classified according to the macrocognitive functions of detecting the plant abnormality, understanding the abnormality, deciding the response plan, executing the response plan, and team related aspects (i.e., communication, teamwork, and supervision). The data are expected to be useful for analyzing the relations between context, error modes and error causes in human performance

  13. The SACADA database for human reliability and human performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. James Chang; Dennis Bley; Lawrence Criscione; Barry Kirwan; Ali Mosleh; Todd Madary; Rodney Nowell; Robert Richards; Emilie M. Roth; Scott Sieben; Antonios Zoulis

    2014-05-01

    Lack of appropriate and sufficient human performance data has been identified as a key factor affecting human reliability analysis (HRA) quality especially in the estimation of human error probability (HEP). The Scenario Authoring, Characterization, and Debriefing Application (SACADA) database was developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to address this data need. An agreement between NRC and the South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) was established to support the SACADA development with aims to make the SACADA tool suitable for implementation in the nuclear power plants' operator training program to collect operator performance information. The collected data would support the STPNOC's operator training program and be shared with the NRC for improving HRA quality. This paper discusses the SACADA data taxonomy, the theoretical foundation, the prospective data to be generated from the SACADA raw data to inform human reliability and human performance, and the considerations on the use of simulator data for HRA. Each SACADA data point consists of two information segments: context and performance results. Context is a characterization of the performance challenges to task success. The performance results are the results of performing the task. The data taxonomy uses a macrocognitive functions model for the framework. At a high level, information is classified according to the macrocognitive functions of detecting the plant abnormality, understanding the abnormality, deciding the response plan, executing the response plan, and team related aspects (i.e., communication, teamwork, and supervision). The data are expected to be useful for analyzing the relations between context, error modes and error causes in human performance.

  14. Research strategies for human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge about factors that influence Human Performance is essential for the safety of nuclear power plant operation. Through a number of tasks, workshops and projects, experience is shared among OECD countries. At its December 1996 meeting, the CSNI endorsed the SESAR/CAF report on 'Nuclear Safety Research in OECD Countries: Capabilities and Facilities' and requested that the Principal Working Groups (PWGs) review existing co-operative programmes and develop specifications for programmes which address the identified needs. Following discussions between the chairmen of these PWGs and the NEA Secretariat, it was concluded that, for this technical area, the development of programme specifications must be preceded by the development of a strategic document that further elaborates the conclusions of the SESAR/CAF report and set out the general orientation of the research over the medium and long term. Accordingly, a group of senior experts met in August 1997 to discuss possible strategies in the area of Human Performance. The objectives of this meeting were: - To exchange information on existing plans and strategies by different Member countries; - To determine relevant issues and realistic medium/long-term targets and expectations for their resolution, and - To determine, in general sense, possible research programmes, their priority and their likelihood for success. This document is the result of this meeting. Its objective is to present to the CSNI proposals for future work on Human Performance research. The proposals are built upon the work performed to date by PWG1 and PWG5. Carrying out these proposals will continue to require close coordination on joint activities between these two PWGs. Reinforced systematic networking activities are needed particularly in management and organisational performance research to initiate and manage comparison and benchmarking activities. Synchronising the availability of funding is a specific problem in many cases. Since most

  15. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  16. Infrasound from Wind Turbines Could Affect Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Alec N.; Kaltenbach, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Wind turbines generate low-frequency sounds that affect the ear. The ear is superficially similar to a microphone, converting mechanical sound waves into electrical signals, but does this by complex physiologic processes. Serious misconceptions about low-frequency sound and the ear have resulted from a failure to consider in detail how the ear…

  17. Factors affecting transmission of mucosal human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Veldhuijzen; P.J. Snijders; P. Reiss; C.J. Meijer; J.H. van de Wijgert

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The effect of HPV on public health is especially related to the burden of anogenital cancers, most notably cervical cancer. Determinants of exposure to HPV are similar to those for most sexually transmitted infections, but

  18. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  19. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve lineup verifications, containment closure verifications, safety and equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R and D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R and D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet. (author)

  20. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald K. Farris; Heather Medema

    2012-05-01

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve line-up verifications, containment closure verifications, safety & equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet.

  1. Human Factor Issues Affecting CAD Implementations

    OpenAIRE

    Short, C.; Cockerham, G

    2000-01-01

    Industrial companies have been implementing Computer Aided Engineering tools for many years with varying degrees of success. In the early implementations considerable emphasis was placed upon the organisational structure necessary to receive and optimise system output. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that any successful CAE implementation has to satisfy three inter-related factors of technology, organisation and human issues. This paper presents the results of an investigation into...

  2. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  3. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation.

  4. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  5. Negative Affect in Human Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Krogsager, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The vision of social robotics sees robots moving more and more into unrestricted social environments, where robots interact closely with users in their everyday activities, maybe even establishing relationships with the user over time. In this paper we present a field trial with a robot in a semi......-public place. Our analysis of the interactions with casual users shows that it is not enough to focus on modeling behavior that is similar to successful human interactions but that we have to take more deviant ways of interaction like abuse and impoliteness into account when we send robots into the users......’ environments. The analysis uses impoliteness theory as an analytical toolbox and exemplifies which strategies are employed by users in unexpected encounters with a humanoid robot....

  6. Mathematics Anxiety and the Affective Drop in Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Mark H.; Moore, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide a brief review of the history and assessment of math anxiety, its relationship to personal and educational consequences, and its important impact on measures of performance. Overall, math anxiety causes an "affective drop," a decline in performance when math is performed under timed, high-stakes conditions, both in laboratory…

  7. Maggot excretions affect the human complement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Schreurs, Marco W J; Renwarin, Lennaert; Dorresteijn, Corry; Hamann, Dörte; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2012-01-01

    The complement system plays an important role in the activation of the inflammatory response to injury, although inappropriate complement activation (CA) can lead to severe tissue damage. Maggot therapy is successfully used to treat infected wounds. In this study, we hypothesized that maggot excretions/secretions influence CA in order to modulate the host's inflammatory response. Therefore, the effect of maggot excretions on CA was investigated in preoperatively and postoperatively obtained sera from patients. Our results show that maggot excretions reduce CA in healthy and postoperatively immune-activated human sera up to 99.9%, via all pathways. Maggot excretions do not specifically initiate or inhibit CA, but break down complement proteins C3 and C4 in a cation-independent manner and this effect proves to be temperature tolerant. This study indicates a CA-reducing substrate that is already successfully used in clinical practice and may explain part of the improved wound healing caused by maggot therapy. Furthermore, the complement activation-reducing substance present in maggot excretions could provide a novel treatment modality for several diseases, resulting from an (over)active complement system.

  8. Affective and Emotional Performances of Danger on Tours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina; van Hoven, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how danger is affectively and emotionally experienced and performed in different tourism contexts. We draw on Brian Massumi’s work on affect as intensity to show how danger is experienced and outlived to tell the story. The exact origin of danger is not the most important, t

  9. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  10. Toward an Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ruyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education (APHRE) on a theoretical level and suggests a concept of curricular framework. APHRE highlights the significance of affectivity and body in the process of learning, factors usually neglected in the mainstream intellectualistic approach to learning, especially in areas…

  11. Exposure to scientific theories affects women's math performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J

    2006-10-20

    Stereotype threat occurs when stereotyped groups perform worse as their group membership is highlighted. We investigated whether stereotype threat is affected by accounts for the origins of stereotypes. In two studies, women who read of genetic causes of sex differences performed worse on math tests than those who read of experiential causes.

  12. Factors Affecting the Programming Performance of Computer Science Students

    OpenAIRE

    Raley, John B.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies of factors affecting the programming performance of first- and second year Computer Science students were conducted. In one study students used GIL, a simple application framework, for their programming assignments in a second-semester programming course. Improvements in student performance were realized. In the other study, students submitted detailed logs of how time was spent on p...

  13. Lighting affects student's performance positively: Findings from three Dutch studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleegers, P.J.C.; Moolenaar, N.M.; Galetzka, M.; Van Dijk, J.; Pruyn,A.; Sarroukh, B.E.; Van der Zande, B.M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of artificial and natural lighting for performance inhuman adults is well established. However, evidence on the extent to which lighting affects school performance of young children is sparse. This article evaluates the effect of lighting conditions (withvertical illuminances between

  14. Humidity affects the performance of von Frey monofilaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Nielsen, Per Rotbøll; Ellehuus-Hilmersson, C

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of tactile and nociceptive thresholds of the skin with calibrated polyamide monofilaments is an established testing method both in animal and in human research. It is known that changes in relative humidity may affect the physical properties of the monofilaments. As this effect has onl...

  15. How Does Human Capital Affect on Growth in Different Economies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Safdari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main objective of this study was to investigate how human capital can affect growth in different economies. Approach: For this purpose, we investigated the model, which the growth rate of total factor productivity depends on human capital stock level using a cross-country panel approach for 104 countries in five-year intervals during the 1980-2005. Results: The finding of this study showed that human capital through its effect on the speed of technology adoption from abroad has positive effect and significantly on growth in total samples of countries while human capital directly in developed countries enter negatively inverse developing countries. Conclusion: Moreover human capital affects growth in different ways it has more effects on per capital growth through technology/catch-up component than domestic innovation component. Moreover human capital of different ways has different effects on growth but in total it has positive effect on economic growth.

  16. Combined effects of positive and negative affectivity and job satisfaction on job performance and turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Raja, Usman; Butt, Arif Nazir

    2013-01-01

    Capturing data from employee-supervisor dyads (N = 321) from eight organizations in Pakistan, including human service organizations, an electronics assembly plant, a packaging material manufacturing company, and a small food processing plant, we used moderated regression analysis to examine whether the relationships between trait affect (positive affectivity [PA] and negative affectivity [NA]) and two key work outcome variables (job performance and turnover) are contingent upon the level of job satisfaction. We applied the Trait Activation Theory to explain the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between affect and performance and between affect and turnover. Overall, the data supported our hypotheses. Positive and negative affectivity influenced performance and the intention to quit, and job satisfaction moderated these relationships. We discuss in detail the results of these findings and their implications for research and practice.

  17. Host lifestyle affects human microbiota on daily timescales

    OpenAIRE

    David, Lawrence A; Materna, Arne C.; Friedman, Jonathan; Campos-Baptista, Maria I; Blackburn, Matthew C.; Perrotta, Allison; Erdman, Susan E; Eric J Alm

    2014-01-01

    Background Disturbance to human microbiota may underlie several pathologies. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of how lifestyle affects the dynamics of human-associated microbial communities. Results Here, we link over 10,000 longitudinal measurements of human wellness and action to the daily gut and salivary microbiota dynamics of two individuals over the course of one year. These time series show overall microbial communities to be stable for months. However, rare events in each su...

  18. Quantification of human performance in nuclear tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses how performance shaping factors (PSFs) can be quantitatively assessed. PSFs are those factors that affect human reliability in situations such as power plant operation, maintenance and testing. The study suggests the classification of the PSFs into qualitative and quantitative groups. Multi-attribute utility theory is then used to represent the PSFs as utility functions which need to be optimized. The Simplex method is suggested for use in optimizing the utility functions expressing the PSFs. The quantitative group of PSFs is formulated in a general analytical form. A trial was made to find the optimum characterization of some members in the quantitative group of PSFs and their effect on operator performance. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  19. 社会资本、人力资本与大学生就业绩效的关系研究%The research of relation between social capital and human capital affecting job performance for graduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭剑; 陈红艳

    2011-01-01

    Human and social capital on employment performance has caused wide attention of the society. This study focuses on the students'human capital and the definition of social capital, and human capital and social capital on college students employment performance in the role of, And put forward the effective use of social capital and human capital of the relevant measures to reach a higher level of employment performance.%社会资本、人力资本对就业绩效的影响已经引起社会的广泛关注。大学生人力资本和社会资本概念的厘清为大学生就业绩效的提升奠定了理论基础。社会资本是就业过程中的一个重要工具,有助于提高就业绩效;人力资本对毕业生选择工作以及以后工作后的收入、权利和地位的获得起重要作用,在持续绩效水平高低中起决定性作用:社会资本和人力资本在大学生就业绩效中起着相辅相成的作用。

  20. Analyzing Cost Parameters Affecting Map Reduce Application Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Seera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, big data analysis has become an imperative task for many big companies. Map-Reduce, an emerging distributed computing paradigm, is known as a promising architecture for big data analytics on commodity hardware. Map-Reduce, and its open source implementation Hadoop, have been extensively accepted by several companies due to their salient features such as scalability, elasticity, fault-tolerance and flexibility to handle big data. However, these benefits entail a considerable performance sacrifice. The performance of a Map-Reduce application depends on various factors including the size of the input data set, cluster resource settings etc. A clear understanding of the factors that affect Map-Reduce application performance and the cost associated with those factors is required. In this paper, we study different performance parameters and an existing Cost Optimizer that computes the cost of Map-Reduce job execution. The cost based optimizer also considers various configuration parameters available in Hadoop that affect performance of these programs. This paper is an attempt to analyze the Map-Reduce application performance and identifying the key factors affecting the cost and performance of executing Map-Reduce applications.

  1. Accounting for Non-Accounting Students: What Affects Their Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Suhaiza Ismail; Nurkamariah Kasim

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine the factors affecting the examination performance of non-accounting students in completing an accounting course, that is, Management Accounting. A questionnaire survey was administered to a total of 147 non-accounting students who enrolled in a Management Accounting course for a semester. The factors considered are gender, prior academic performance, year of study and learning approaches adopted which include deep, surface and strategic approaches. Using multiple re...

  2. Does the transition into daylight saving time affect students' performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Herber, Stefanie P.; Quis, Johanna Sophie; Heineck, Guido

    2015-01-01

    We use international student assessment data on more than 22,000 students from six European countries and a regression discontinuity design to investigate whether the transition into daylight saving time (DST) affects elementary students' test performance in the week after the time change. We do not find reliable statistical effects on students' performance, neither in math, science nor reading. Our results therefore challenge the prevailing public opinion that DST should be abandoned because...

  3. GENERATOR DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE AFFECTED BY PARAMETERâS UNCERTAINTY

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Beik Khormizi; Mohammad Reza Aghamohammadi; Mina Rezaee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of generator parameters inaccuracy on the transient stability performance of generator and power system. Normally, generator parameters are identified either by calculation based on design specification or by measurements. In both approaches the parameters are obtained with some degree of inaccuracy. Inaccuracy and uncertainty in the obtained parameters can affect the dynamic performance and transient behavior of synchronous generators in which this may affe...

  4. Performance pressure and caffeine both affect cognitive performance, but likely through independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boere, Julia J; Fellinger, Lizz; Huizinga, Duncan J H; Wong, Sebastiaan F; Bijleveld, Erik

    2016-02-01

    A prevalent combination in daily life, performance pressure and caffeine intake have both been shown to impact people's cognitive performance. Here, we examined the possibility that pressure and caffeine affect cognitive performance via a shared pathway. In an experiment, participants performed a modular arithmetic task. Performance pressure and caffeine intake were orthogonally manipulated. Findings indicated that pressure and caffeine both negatively impacted performance. However, (a) pressure vs. caffeine affected performance on different trial types, and (b) there was no hint of an interactive effect. So, though the evidence is indirect, findings suggest that pressure and caffeine shape performance via distinct mechanisms, rather than a shared one.

  5. Interaction Between Optical and Neural Factors Affecting Visual Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabesan, Ramkumar

    The human eye suffers from higher order aberrations, in addition to conventional spherical and cylindrical refractive errors. Advanced optical techniques have been devised to correct them in order to achieve superior retinal image quality. However, vision is not completely defined by the optical quality of the eye, but also depends on how the image quality is processed by the neural system. In particular, how neural processing is affected by the past visual experience with optical blur has remained largely unexplored. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the interaction of optical and neural factors affecting vision. To achieve this goal, pathological keratoconic eyes were chosen as the ideal population to study since they are severely afflicted by degraded retinal image quality due to higher order aberrations and their neural system has been exposed to that habitually for a long period of time. Firstly, we have developed advanced customized ophthalmic lenses for correcting the higher order aberration of keratoconic eyes and demonstrated their feasibility in providing substantial visual benefit over conventional corrective methodologies. However, the achieved visual benefit was significantly smaller than that predicted optically. To better understand this, the second goal of the thesis was set to investigate if the neural system optimizes its underlying mechanisms in response to the long-term visual experience with large magnitudes of higher order aberrations. This study was facilitated by a large-stroke adaptive optics vision simulator, enabling us to access the neural factors in the visual system by manipulating the limit imposed by the optics of the eye. Using this instrument, we have performed a series of experiments to establish that habitual exposure to optical blur leads to an alteration in neural processing thereby alleviating the visual impact of degraded retinal image quality, referred to as neural compensation. However, it was also found that

  6. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  7. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  8. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapper, A.S. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing secon

  9. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapper, A.S. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing secon

  10. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role.

  11. Relations between affective music and speech: Evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoluan eLiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory distance are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics, with fear in the middle. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory distance interacts with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role.

  12. Directors' human capital, firm strategy, and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Volonté, Christophe; Gantenbein, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Ideally, corporations are directed by boards whose directors provide valuable human capital that match the firms’ strategy. We investigate how directors’ human capital (international experience, industrial know-how, CEO experience, and financial know-how) affects firm performance including the firm’s strategy (diversification and internationalization) and how human capital is related to acquisition strategies (non-diversifying and international acquisitions). Our sample consists of 560 firm-y...

  13. Human NK Cell Subset Functions Are Differentially Affected by Adipokines

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Lena; Engeli, Stefan; Christiane D Wrann; Goudeva, Lilia; Laue, Tobias; Kielstein, Heike

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for various types of infectious diseases and cancer. The increase in adipose tissue causes alterations in both adipogenesis and the production of adipocyte-secreted proteins (adipokines). Since natural killer (NK) cells are the host’s primary defense against virus-infected and tumor cells, we investigated how adipocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) affects functions of two distinct human NK cell subsets. Methods: Isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell...

  14. Human body communication performance simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Mufti, H. (Haseeb)

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication (HBC) is a novel communication method between devices which use human body as a transmission medium. This idea is mostly based on the concept of wireless biomedical monitoring system. The on-body sensor nodes can monitor vital signs of a human body and use the body as a transmission medium. This technology is convenient for long durations of clinical monitoring with the option of more mobility and freedom for the user. In this thesis, IEEE 802.15.6-2012 phy...

  15. Socially triggered negative affect impairs performance in simple cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Svenja; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of a social-evaluative context on simple cognitive tasks. While another person present in the room evaluated photographs of beautiful women or landscapes by beauty/attractiveness, female participants had to perform a combination of digit-categorization and spatial-compatibility task. There, before every trial, one of the women or landscape pictures was presented. Results showed selective performance impairments: the numerical distance effects increased on trials that followed women pictures but only, if another person concurrently evaluated these women pictures. In a second experiment, using the affective priming paradigm, the authors show that female pictures have a more negative connotation when they are concurrently evaluated by another person (social-evaluative context) than when they are not evaluated (neutral context). Together, these results suggest that the social-evaluative context triggers mild negative affective reactions to women pictures which then impair performance in an unrelated task. PMID:23423348

  16. On goals and strategies : How a fit between performance goals and regulatory strategies affects performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, L.J.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    2008-01-01

    In the present research, we argue and demonstrate that a fit or non-fit between regulatory strategy and performance goal affects task performance. Specifically, we found that a prevention strategy results in better performance among performance avoidance (PAv) goal participants compared to performan

  17. Performance pressure and caffeine both affect cognitive performance, but likely through independent mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boere, J.J.; Fellinger, L.; Huizinga, D.J.H.; Wong, S.F.; Bijleveld, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    A prevalent combination in daily life, performance pressure and caffeine intake have both been shown to impact people's cognitive performance. Here, we examined the possibility that pressure and caffeine affect cognitive performance via a shared pathway. In an experiment, participants performed a mo

  18. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddeland, I.; Heinke, J.; Biemans, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Konzmann, M.; Ludwig, F.; Masaki, Y.; Schewe, J.; Stacke, T.; Tessler, Z.; Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct

  19. Global water resources affected by human interventionss and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddeland, I.; Heinke, J.; Biemans, H.; Eisner, S.; Florke, M.F.; Hanasaki, N.; Konzmann, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct

  20. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  1. Heat acclimation and human performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Ling, S. van; Tan, T.K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that endurance performance after one night of sleep deprivation is not compromised despite the feeling of fatigue and that, in contrast, performance in the heat deteriorates even though people may feel good. However, it is essentially unknown how the estimation of perfo

  2. Human localization and performance measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    Localization is for some scenarios and situations vital for the success of hearing, e. g. when listening out single sources in multi-source environments, or when navigating primarily by audible information. It is therefore of interest to know the limits of the human localization capacity, and its...

  3. How do Performance Targets Affect Future Performance by Students and Schools?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sartarelli; Tampieri, A

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines whether meeting performance targets in tests at school has an effeect on students' subsequent achievement in education and the take-up by schools of financial support from the government for students. We build a theoretical model to describe the channels through which students' belief of their ability, as proxied by previous performance in tests, affect their current effort in preparing for a test, and how previous performance affects the effort in teaching by a school. We ...

  4. Health behaviors, affect, and academic performance : three longitudinal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Flückiger, Lavinia Heidy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Health behaviors are a fundamental and highly fluctuating component of everyday life. Evidence capturing these natural daily fluctuations is limited. Therefore, this dissertation investigates how these daily dynamics in health behaviors are associated with other important aspects of young adults’ everyday lives and bridges separate research strands by integrating health behaviors, affect, stress, and academic performance in three intensive longitudinal studies. Method: These three ...

  5. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Knapper, A.S. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing secondary, i.e. mobile phone and navigation system tasks. The results show that mean speed was lower in all experimental conditions, compared to baseline driving, while subjective effort increased. Late...

  6. Human performance improvement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA assists NPP operating organizations to improve plant performance through a focus on human performance improvement in areas like organizational and leadership development, senior management decision making, organization and management of HPI programmes including tools needed for effective HPI implementation, safety culture enhancement, knowledge management, personnel selection and staffing, career development, training and development, work design, scheduling and conditions, procedure and other job-aid development and use, effective communications, human performance monitoring, motivation. Many NPP operating organizations in Member States, are not yet achieving the full potential of their NPP technology/equipment regarding safety, operational or economic performance due to human performance weaknesses. The IAEA's HPI (Human Performance Improvement) services provide a means for these organizations to efficiently and effectively learn from international experts and the experiences of others in improving plant performance through human performance improvements. NPP operating organizations can benefit from these services in a number of ways, including requesting a national project, participating in a regional project, or requesting an assist visit. The types of activities provided through these services include assistance in benchmarking practices of successful organizations, providing information exchange and reviews of current practices through assist missions, conducting workshops on focused human performance topics, evaluating current human performance methods, including assistance in implementing self assessment programmes and providing support to safety culture enhancement programmes based on self-assessment

  7. Cyclic Variations in Sustained Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, William R.; Arruda, James E.; Kass, Steven J.; Stanny, Claudia J.

    2009-01-01

    Biological rhythms play a prominent role in the modulation of human physiology and behavior. [Smith, K., Valentino, D., & Arruda, J. (2003). "Rhythmic oscillations in the performance of a sustained attention task." "Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology," 25, 561-570] suggested that sustained human performance may systematically…

  8. Does School Duration Affect Student Performance? Findings from Canton-Based Variation in Swiss Educational Length

    OpenAIRE

    Skirbekk, V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates Swiss canton-based regulations to determine the number of school years required to graduate from academic track secondary school. The results show that the variation (12, 12.5 or 13 years) does not affect human capital levels (TIMSS math and science performance). This suggests that one could decrease school length from 13 to 12 years without decreasing student performance levels. A younger school leaving age could extend the working life, soften the burden of populatio...

  9. Does Question Structure Affect Exam Performance in the Geosciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, E. A.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Craig, L.; Streule, M. J.; Passmore, E.; Irving, J. C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The jump to university level exams can be challenging for some students, often resulting in poor marks, which may be detrimental to their confidence and ultimately affect their overall degree class. Previous studies have found that question structure can have a strong impact on the performance of students in college level exams (see Gibson et al., 2015, for a discussion of its impact on physics undergraduates). Here, we investigate the effect of question structure on the exam results of geology and geophysics undergraduate students. Specifically, we analyse the performance of students in questions that have a 'scaffolded' framework and compare them to their performance in open-ended questions and coursework. We also investigate if observed differences in exam performance are correlated with the educational background and gender of students, amongst other factors. It is important for all students to be able to access their degree courses, no matter what their backgrounds may be. Broadening participation in the geosciences relies on removing systematic barriers to achievement. Therefore we recommend that exams are either structured with scaffolding in questions at lower levels, or students are explicitly prepared for this transition. We also recommend that longitudinal studies of exam performance are conducted within individual departments, and this work outlines one approach to analysing performance data.

  10. Emotional stability components of human performance problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over half of all significant events that occur in nuclear plants involve human performance problems. There is increasing worldwide recognition that human performance problems have a significant impact on the safety, cost, and efficiency of nuclear plant operations. Emotional stability components have an important direct and indirect impact on human performance problems. This paper examines emotional stability components that are currently incorporated into human performance evaluation systems (HPES) in nuclear plants. It describes HPES programs being developed around the world, the emotional stability components that are currently referred to in these programs, and suggestions for improving HPES programs through a greater understanding of emotion stability components. A review of emotional stability components that may hinder or promote a plant environment that encourages the voluntary reporting and correction of human error is also presented

  11. Error framing effects on performance: cognitive, motivational, and affective pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-Johnson, Debra; Kalinoski, Zachary T

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine whether positive error framing, that is, making errors salient and cuing individuals to see errors as useful, can benefit learning when task exploration is constrained. Recent research has demonstrated the benefits of a newer approach to training, that is, error management training, that includes the opportunity to actively explore the task and framing errors as beneficial to learning complex tasks (Keith & Frese, 2008). Other research has highlighted the important role of errors in on-the-job learning in complex domains (Hutchins, 1995). Participants (N = 168) from a large undergraduate university performed a class scheduling task. Results provided support for a hypothesized path model in which error framing influenced cognitive, motivational, and affective factors which in turn differentially affected performance quantity and quality. Within this model, error framing had significant direct effects on metacognition and self-efficacy. Our results suggest that positive error framing can have beneficial effects even when tasks cannot be structured to support extensive exploration. Whereas future research can expand our understanding of error framing effects on outcomes, results from the current study suggest that positive error framing can facilitate learning from errors in real-time performance of tasks. PMID:24617273

  12. Error framing effects on performance: cognitive, motivational, and affective pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-Johnson, Debra; Kalinoski, Zachary T

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine whether positive error framing, that is, making errors salient and cuing individuals to see errors as useful, can benefit learning when task exploration is constrained. Recent research has demonstrated the benefits of a newer approach to training, that is, error management training, that includes the opportunity to actively explore the task and framing errors as beneficial to learning complex tasks (Keith & Frese, 2008). Other research has highlighted the important role of errors in on-the-job learning in complex domains (Hutchins, 1995). Participants (N = 168) from a large undergraduate university performed a class scheduling task. Results provided support for a hypothesized path model in which error framing influenced cognitive, motivational, and affective factors which in turn differentially affected performance quantity and quality. Within this model, error framing had significant direct effects on metacognition and self-efficacy. Our results suggest that positive error framing can have beneficial effects even when tasks cannot be structured to support extensive exploration. Whereas future research can expand our understanding of error framing effects on outcomes, results from the current study suggest that positive error framing can facilitate learning from errors in real-time performance of tasks.

  13. Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Losada, Marcial F.

    2005-01-01

    Extending B. L. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada's (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N=188) completed an initial survey to…

  14. How does self-efficacy affect performance of learner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakani, Farhan; Sheerani, Mughis; Afzal, Azam; Amin, Almas

    2012-01-01

    All types of attribution based on which learners make their judgement (i.e., self efficacy), about academic success or failure or about a specific task usually affect their performance and their capabilities to deal with different realities. It is perhaps the most distinctive capability of self-reflection. Many of the cognitive theorists have defined it as a meta-cognitive capability. This judgement influence learners choose what to do, how much effort to be invested in the activity, how long to carry the phase of disappointment, and whether to approach the task anxiously or with assurance.

  15. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  16. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency's increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  17. Human NK cell subset functions are differentially affected by adipokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Huebner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for various types of infectious diseases and cancer. The increase in adipose tissue causes alterations in both adipogenesis and the production of adipocyte-secreted proteins (adipokines. Since natural killer (NK cells are the host's primary defense against virus-infected and tumor cells, we investigated how adipocyte-conditioned medium (ACM affects functions of two distinct human NK cell subsets. METHODS: Isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were cultured with various concentrations of human and murine ACM harvested on two different days during adipogenesis and analyzed by fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS. RESULTS: FACS analyses showed that the expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, granzyme A (GzmA and interferon (IFN-γ in NK cells was regulated in a subset-specific manner. ACM treatment altered IFN-γ expression in CD56(dim NK cells. The production of GzmA in CD56(bright NK cells was differentially affected by the distinct adipokine compositions harvested at different states of adipogenesis. Comparison of the treatment with either human or murine ACM revealed that adipokine-induced effects on NK cell expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R, TRAIL and IFN-γ were species-specific. CONCLUSION: Considering the growing prevalence of obesity and the various disorders related to it, the present study provides further insights into the roles human NK cell subsets play in the obesity-associated state of chronic low-grade inflammation.

  18. Students' Interest in Surgery Affects Laparoscopic Practicing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao Wu, Sheng; Kuei Chien, Wen; Sheng Huang, Chen; Cheng Lin, Wei; Chun Chang, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Earlier exposure to laparoscopic techniques is thought to be beneficial for medical students. Reports have demonstrated that practice improves performance in laparoscopies. In this study, we intended to evaluate whether medical students' interest in surgery is affected by the amount of practice and the performance on a laparoscopic simulator. Methods: A laparoscopic simulation curriculum was introduced at Taipei Medical University, Wan-Fang Medical Center. Study participants included 36 sixth-year and 14 seventh-year students who were divided according to whether they had indicated an interest (group A) or not (group B) in surgery. The students had twice-a-week practice sessions for 2 weeks. They underwent baseline measurement (BM) before training and posttraining measurement (PTM). Self-guided practice on the simulator was allowed. The learning outcomes were assessed comparing the BM and PTM scores by using the interquartile range (IQR) test. We also tested the correlation between total score and number of self-guided practice sessions. Results: All study participants showed improvement. No differences were observed between BM and PTM scores and between 6th- and 7th-year medical students. Significant differences were found in PTM scores between groups A and B (P students in group A than for those in group B (P performance scores were improved with a higher number of self-guided practice sessions. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between the number of self-guided practice sessions and total performance score (P performance correlated highly with trainees' number of self-guided practice sessions. PMID:27493472

  19. The science of cycling: factors affecting performance - part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Erik W; Parker, Daryl L; Faria, Irvin E

    2005-01-01

    This review presents information that is useful to athletes, coaches and exercise scientists in the adoption of exercise protocols, prescription of training regimens and creation of research designs. Part 2 focuses on the factors that affect cycling performance. Among those factors, aerodynamic resistance is the major resistance force the racing cyclist must overcome. This challenge can be dealt with through equipment technological modifications and body position configuration adjustments. To successfully achieve efficient transfer of power from the body to the drive train of the bicycle the major concern is bicycle configuration and cycling body position. Peak power output appears to be highly correlated with cycling success. Likewise, gear ratio and pedalling cadence directly influence cycling economy/efficiency. Knowledge of muscle recruitment throughout the crank cycle has important implications for training and body position adjustments while climbing. A review of pacing models suggests that while there appears to be some evidence in favour of one technique over another, there remains the need for further field research to validate the findings. Nevertheless, performance modelling has important implications for the establishment of performance standards and consequent recommendations for training. PMID:15831060

  20. Toward an affective pedagogy of human rights education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Ruyu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion of Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education (APHRE on a theoretical level and suggests a concept of curricular framework. APHRE highlights the significance of affectivity and body in the process of learning, factors usually neglected in the mainstream intellectualistic approach to learning, especially in areas under the Confucian tradition. The paper’s first section explores the thinking of three philosophers - Rorty, Merleau-Ponty, and Beardsley - who serve as sources for APHRE. The second section explains how their concepts contribute to APHRE’s development. In the third section, a practical curricular framework is presented. Finally, the paper discusses implementing the framework and concludes by recognizing APHRE as a pedagogic approach for crossing borders among nationalities, cultures, and languages

  1. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  2. New Metacognitive Model for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Addressing metacognitive functions has been shown to improve performance at the individual, team, group, and organizational levels. Metacognition is beginning to surface as an added cognate discipline for the field of human performance technology (HPT). Advances from research in the fields of cognition and metacognition offer a place for HPT to…

  3. Preanalytical Variables Affecting the Integrity of Human Biospecimens in Biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Vaught, Jim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most errors in a clinical chemistry laboratory are due to preanalytical errors. Preanalytical variability of biospecimens can have significant effects on downstream analyses, and controlling such variables is therefore fundamental for the future use of biospecimens in personalized...... medicine for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. CONTENT: The focus of this review is to examine the preanalytical variables that affect human biospecimen integrity in biobanking, with a special focus on blood, saliva, and urine. Cost efficiency is discussed in relation to these issues. SUMMARY: The quality...

  4. Household characteristics affecting drinking water quality and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan's water crisis, especially serious water shortages have had a great impact on the health of the general population. Today majority of Pakistanis have no access to improved water sources which force people to consume polluted drinking water that results in the shape of waterborne diseases. In addition to this, household characteristics, includes mother's education and family income, also have an impact on drinking water quality and ultimately on human health. This study was conducted in three districts of Province Punjab both in urban and rural areas. The sample size of this study was 600 females of age group 20-60 years. From the data, it was concluded that mother's education and family income were affecting drinking water quality and human health. As the mother's years of education increased, the health issues decreased. Similarly, as the level of income increased, people suffered from water related diseases decreased. (author)

  5. Health literacy affects peritoneal dialysis performance and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpeter, Myra A

    2003-01-01

    Health literacy (HL) is the ability to perform the basic reading, writing, and numerical skills required to function in a health care setting. Patients with adequate HL are able to read, interpret, and respond to health care information provided by health care providers and health plans. Several means of assessing HL are available for English- and Spanish-speaking patients. A review of the English-language literature on HL indicated that no prior studies included a subset of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. I administered the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) assessment tool to PD patients. I also asked patients for information about their highest education level completed. Following completion of the REALM, patients were classified as having adequate, marginal, or inadequate HL. As other studies have shown, patients with lower levels of education have inadequate HL. Patients with some college education or higher have adequate HL. However, at the average education level of patients, most patients have marginal HL. Relative lack of HL affects a patient's ability to make decisions regarding care as part of a home self-management program for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and other chronic illnesses. Consequently, relative HL level affects the method of instruction and the time required for instruction during training of PD patients.

  6. Interactive affective sharing versus non-interactive affective sharing in work groups : Comparative effects of group affect on work group performance and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klep, Annefloor; Wisse, Barbara; Van Der Flier, Henk

    2011-01-01

    This study explores whether the dynamic path to group affect, which is characterized by interactive affective sharing processes, yields different effects on task performance and group dynamics than the static path to group affect, which arises from non-interactive affective sharing. The results of o

  7. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  8. Factors Affecting Exercise Test Performance in Patients After Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotarska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. In addition, low physical activity is a risk factor for cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. Objectives This study examined potential relationships between physical activity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an exercise test in liver-graft recipients. Patients and Methods A total of 107 participants (62 men/45 women who had received a liver transplantation (LT at least 6 months previously were evaluated. Physical activity was assessed using three different questionnaires, while HRQoL was assessed using the medical outcomes study short form (SF-36 questionnaire, and health behaviors were evaluated using the health behavior inventory (HBI. The exercise test was performed in a standard manner. Results Seven participants (6.5% had a positive exercise test, and these individuals were older than those who had a negative exercise test (P = 0.04. A significant association between a negative exercise test and a higher level of physical activity was shown by the Seven-day physical activity recall questionnaire. In addition, HRQoL was improved in various domains of the SF-36 in participants who had a negative exercise test. No correlations between physical activity, the exercise test and healthy behaviors, as assessed via the HBI were observed. Conclusions Exercise test performance was affected by lower quality of life and lower physical activity after LT. With the exception of hypertension, well known factors that affect the risk of coronary artery disease had no effect on the exercise test results.

  9. Composition of human skin microbiota affects attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels O Verhulst

    Full Text Available The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant cues derived from the human skin. Microbial communities on the skin play key roles in the production of human body odour. We demonstrate that the composition of the skin microbiota affects the degree of attractiveness of human beings to this mosquito species. Bacterial plate counts and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that individuals that are highly attractive to An. gambiae s.s. have a significantly higher abundance, but lower diversity of bacteria on their skin than individuals that are poorly attractive. Bacterial genera that are correlated with the relative degree of attractiveness to mosquitoes were identified. The discovery of the connection between skin microbial populations and attractiveness to mosquitoes may lead to the development of new mosquito attractants and personalized methods for protection against vectors of malaria and other infectious diseases.

  10. Affective consciousness: Core emotional feelings in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2005-03-01

    The position advanced in this paper is that the bedrock of emotional feelings is contained within the evolved emotional action apparatus of mammalian brains. This dual-aspect monism approach to brain-mind functions, which asserts that emotional feelings may reflect the neurodynamics of brain systems that generate instinctual emotional behaviors, saves us from various conceptual conundrums. In coarse form, primary process affective consciousness seems to be fundamentally an unconditional "gift of nature" rather than an acquired skill, even though those systems facilitate skill acquisition via various felt reinforcements. Affective consciousness, being a comparatively intrinsic function of the brain, shared homologously by all mammalian species, should be the easiest variant of consciousness to study in animals. This is not to deny that some secondary processes (e.g., awareness of feelings in the generation of behavioral choices) cannot be evaluated in animals with sufficiently clever behavioral learning procedures, as with place-preference procedures and the analysis of changes in learned behaviors after one has induced re-valuation of incentives. Rather, the claim is that a direct neuroscientific study of primary process emotional/affective states is best achieved through the study of the intrinsic ("instinctual"), albeit experientially refined, emotional action tendencies of other animals. In this view, core emotional feelings may reflect the neurodynamic attractor landscapes of a variety of extended trans-diencephalic, limbic emotional action systems-including SEEKING, FEAR, RAGE, LUST, CARE, PANIC, and PLAY. Through a study of these brain systems, the neural infrastructure of human and animal affective consciousness may be revealed. Emotional feelings are instantiated in large-scale neurodynamics that can be most effectively monitored via the ethological analysis of emotional action tendencies and the accompanying brain neurochemical/electrical changes. The

  11. Ranking factors affecting the productivity of human resources using MADM techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shekari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company. The objective of this research is an applied and the data collection methods and conclusions are descriptive - survey. Statistical sample size by using Cochran's formula is considered equal to 120. To perform this study with the Delphi method, we identify the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company and by using MADM techniques, prioritization of these factors has been done. Also Team Expert Choice2000 software have used for analysis. Research results show that factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company in order of importance are: Health aspects, leadership style, motivational factors, organizational commitment, work experience, general and applied education, demographic characteristics, physical environment within the organization, external environment and competitive spirit.

  12. Applying lessons learned to enhance human performance and reduce human error for ISS operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-09-01

    A major component of reliability, safety, and mission success for space missions is ensuring that the humans involved (flight crew, ground crew, mission control, etc.) perform their tasks and functions as required. This includes compliance with training and procedures during normal conditions, and successful compensation when malfunctions or unexpected conditions occur. A very significant issue that affects human performance in space flight is human error. Human errors can invalidate carefully designed equipment and procedures. If certain errors combine with equipment failures or design flaws, mission failure or loss of life can occur. The control of human error during operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be critical to the overall success of the program. As experience from Mir operations has shown, human performance plays a vital role in the success or failure of long duration space missions. The Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is developed a systematic approach to enhance human performance and reduce human errors for ISS operations. This approach is based on the systematic identification and evaluation of lessons learned from past space missions such as Mir to enhance the design and operation of ISS. This paper describes previous INEEL research on human error sponsored by NASA and how it can be applied to enhance human reliability for ISS.

  13. Human Performance in Simulated Reduced Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. Our current understanding of human performance in reduced gravity in a planetary environment (the moon or Mars) is limited to lunar observations, studies from the Apollo program, and recent suit tests conducted at JSC using reduced gravity simulators. This study will look at our most recent reduced gravity simulations performed on the new Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) compared to the C-9 reduced gravity plane. Methods: Subjects ambulated in reduced gravity analogs to obtain a baseline for human performance. Subjects were tested in lunar gravity (1.6 m/sq s) and Earth gravity (9.8 m/sq s) in shirt-sleeves. Subjects ambulated over ground at prescribed speeds on the ARGOS, but ambulated at a self-selected speed on the C-9 due to time limitations. Subjects on the ARGOS were given over 3 minutes to acclimate to the different conditions before data was collected. Nine healthy subjects were tested in the ARGOS (6 males, 3 females, 79.5 +/- 15.7 kg), while six subjects were tested on the C-9 (6 males, 78.8 +/- 11.2 kg). Data was collected with an optical motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and was analyzed using customized analysis scripts in BodyBuilder (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Results: In all offloaded conditions, variation between subjects increased compared to 1-g. Kinematics in the ARGOS at lunar gravity resembled earth gravity ambulation more closely than the C-9 ambulation. Toe-off occurred 10% earlier in both reduced gravity environments compared to earth gravity, shortening the stance phase. Likewise, ankle, knee, and hip angles remained consistently flexed and had reduced peaks compared to earth gravity. Ground reaction forces in lunar gravity (normalized to Earth body weight) were 0.4 +/- 0.2 on

  14. Human performance in radiological survey scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability of detecting residual contamination in the field using portable radiological survey instruments depends not only on the sensitivity of the instrumentation used in scanning, but also on the surveyor's performance. This report provides a basis for taking human performance into account in determining the minimum level of activity detectable by scanning. A theoretical framework was developed (based on signal detection theory) which allows influences on surveyors to be anticipated and understood, and supports a quantitative assessment of performance. The performance of surveyors under controlled yet realistic field conditions was examined to gain insight into the task and to develop means of quantifying performance. Then, their performance was assessed under laboratory conditions to quantify more precisely their ability to make the required discriminations. The information was used to characterize surveyors' performance in the scanning task and to provide a basis for predicting levels of radioactivity that are likely to be detectable under various conditions by surveyors using portable survey instruments

  15. Sugar Beet Performance Affected by Uniformity of N Fertigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nouri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In common with the majority of crop species, in sugar beet nutrition nitrogen is an important element due to its role in sucrose utilization and plant growth. Application of precision agriculture, in order to apply the right amount of input at the right time in the right area, is appropriate to decrease chemical use and increase plant growth. Problem statement: More often farmers apply fertilizers with low efficiency, low uniformity and high price such as spinner spreader, boom spreader or application with planting machines simultaneously. Fertigation can reduce labor cost and may improve uniformity, effectiveness and timeliness of application. Approach: The main objective of this study was to determine spatial variability of sugar beet performance affected by urea fertigation as well as established a management strategy based on spatial variability of tubers and soil total N. This study was conducted in Fesaran village, Isfahan Province of Iran and limited to sugar beet (monogerm seed. Urea applied through sprinklers. Soil samples were taken to determine soil total N as well as sugar beet tubers samples to specify yield. Results of soil and crop analysis were used to produce spatial variability maps through GS+ and ArcGIS 9.2 software. Semivariogram results were used to perform an ordinary kriging to obtain interpolated values of selected variables from the sample points through and across the study area. Results: It was found that there was a low spatial variability of soil total N and yield which indicates that the soil has a homogenous total N as well as homogenous yield through and across the field. Yield variability map of sugar beet properties demonstrated that the higher yield was seen in the southern part of the study area where laterals were closer to pump. Conclusion: The results of urea fertigation through sprinklers showed pipeline layout and pump station position impact on variability of sugar beet properties.

  16. Do R&D Investments Affect Export Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Valdemar; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Dilling-Hansen, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    other, and an empirical model is formulated in order to estimate which factors affect the firm's export. It is argued that besides R&D, firm size, wages and a number of other firm-specific factors controlling for risks are highly important for the export performance. In the empirical part of the paper...... the model is tested on a sample of 3,500 Danish firms. Using a FIML estimation form in order to deal with endogeneity problems between the R&D and export decisions of the firms, the computation clearly verifies the theoretical model put forward. Moreover, R&D is an important factor for being an exporting......This paper analyses the role of R&D in the export behaviour of Danish firms. Export behaviour is defined as the export intensity and the likelihood of a firm being an exporter. In the theoretical part of the paper it is argued that export and being R&D active are endogenous with respect to each...

  17. Human Resource management, Institutionalisation and Organisational Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); J. Paauwe (Jaap); R. Richardson

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe relationship between Human Resource Management (HRM) and firm performance has been a hotly debated topic over the last decade, especially in the United States (e.g. Osterman, 1994; Huselid, 1995; MacDuffie, 1995). The question arises whether the domination of USA oriented models, how

  18. Shifting Human Performance Technology to Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the benefits and potential drawbacks of transferring HPT (human performance technology) skills from outside consultants to managers within organizations. Discusses HPT competence and control over work environment, the role of traditional HPT experts after the shift, and three approaches to implementing the change. (PEN)

  19. Research opportunities in human behavior and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. M. (Editor); Talbot, J. M. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Extant information on the subject of psychological aspects of manned space flight are reviewed; NASA's psychology research program is examined; significant gaps in knowledge are identified; and suggestions are offered for future research program planning. Issues of human behavior and performance related to the United States space station, to the space shuttle program, and to both near and long term problems of a generic nature in applicable disciplines of psychology are considered. Topics covered include: (1) human performance requirements for a 90 day mission; (2) human perceptual, cognitive, and motor capabilities and limitations in space; (3) crew composition, individual competencies, crew competencies, selection criteria, and special training; (4) environmental factors influencing behavior; (5) psychosocial aspects of multiperson space crews in long term missions; (6) career determinants in NASA; (7) investigational methodology and equipment; and (8) psychological support.

  20. Affective and inflammatory responses among orchestra musicians in performance situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, Alexander; Haslacher, Helmuth; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Böhm, Karl; Budinsky, Alexandra; Girard, Angelika; Klien, Katharina; Jordakieva, Galateja; Pezawas, Lukas; Wagner, Oswald; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Winker, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that mental challenge under controlled experimental conditions is associated with elevations in inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, relatively little work has been done on the effects of 'naturalistic' stressors on acute changes in inflammatory markers. The present study examined whether perceived arousal, valence and dominance in musicians are associated with pro-inflammatory and oxidative responses to a concert situation. Blood and salivary samples obtained from 48 members of a symphony orchestra on the day of rehearsal (i.e., control situation) and on the following day of premiere concert (i.e., test situation) were used to determine changes in salivary cortisol, pro-inflammatory markers (plasma myeloperoxidase, serum CRP, plasma IL-6), oxidative stress markers (paraoxonase1 activity and malondialdehyde), and homocysteine, a risk factor for vascular disease. Results of regression analyses showed a significant trend to increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) response in individuals with low valence score. Both affective states, valence and arousal, were identified as significant predictors of cortisol response during concert. In addition, control levels of plasma malondialdehyde were positively correlated with differences in IL-6 levels between premiere and rehearsal (r=.38, p=.012), pointing to higher oxidative stress in individuals with pronounced IL-6 response. Our results indicate that stress of public performance leads to increased concentrations of plasma MPO (20%), IL-6 (27%) and salivary cortisol (44%) in musicians. The decreasing effect of pleasantness on the MPO response was highly pronounced in non-smokers (r=-.60, p<.001), suggesting a significant role of emotional valence in stress-induced secretion of MPO. Additional studies are needed to assess the generalizability of these findings to other 'naturalistic' stress situations.

  1. Job performance aids: Human factoring maintenance procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job performance aids (JPAs) are human factors engineering techniques used to strengthen operating, maintenance, and engineering procedures. They are not a new concept, but one whose time has come. This paper focuses on the application of JPAs to maintenance procedures. Job performance aids research originates from US Department of Defense (DOD) efforts, primarily in maintenance-oriented tasks. While at Connecticut Yankee power plant, the authors, an instructional consultant, and the training manager were investigating ways to enhance training effectiveness. Based on historic research efforts, there is strong evidence that JPAs have the potential to improve human performance and realize additional benefits of reduced training time and should be incorporated into the training time and should be incorporated into the training curriculum

  2. Performing the web: negotiating affect and online aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Buiani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On October 1, 2011, following its public debut at a gallery in Toronto, the Sandbox Project made its appearance online, timidly emerging from the bursting folds of the popular Wordpress Content Management System (CMS. The Sandbox Project is an itinerant community art and activism laboratory consisting of a series of live events and a complementary online platform, both conceived as a collaborative effort of countless individuals. The project explores ways in which respectful and anti-oppressive processes of collaboration, the formation of alliances, and new lines of solidarity may occur between activists and artists working with different media and creative tactics. Now in its third year of existence, the website combines different CMS formats to experiment with new forms of online interaction and to respond to the diversity of interventions featured during the live events. Rather than functioning as a space that simply records and documents each event, the website took it upon itself to play with the live events (the laboratory dynamically: it sought to give the visitor a sense of the vibrant atmosphere that the participants had been experiencing during live events, in order to elicit further online interactions and initiatives among past and current participants. The website and the live events aspired to complete each other, to become together one continuous and contiguous performance. But to what extent can the vibrancy of human behavior be played and conveyed online? This paper critically reflects on the difficulties in incorporating the project into today's manifold, yet homogeneous and homogenizing, online publishing options. In acknowledging this difficult process of mediation, it urges to reflect on the material and conceptual complications emerging from the involvement of diverse and far-apart communities and individuals.

  3. A Study on Factors Affecting the Performance of SMEs in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krishna Moorthy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, despite SMEs’ have a significant contribution to the economy, they have not been given adequate attention as the various researchers have been biased towards larger and listed enterprises in Malaysia. So, this study aims to investigate the factors affecting the performance of SMEs in the manufacturing sector in Malaysia. The Contingency Theory developed by Fiedler (1964 was used to support this research. Based on the data collected from 300 SMEs in the Malaysian manufacturing sector, the results showed that there is a significant negative relationship between ineffective entrepreneurship as well as inappropriate human resource management (HRM and the performance of SMEs. On the other hand, the results also proved that there is a significant positive relationship between the use of marketing information as well as the application of information technology and the performance of SMEs. In short, this study found out that the use of marketing information can influence the performance of SMEs at the highest.

  4. Affective Match: Leader Emotional Displays, Follower Positive Affect, and Follower Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. Damen (Frederic); B. van Knippenberg (Barbara); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractLeader emotions may play an important role in leadership effectiveness. Extending this earlier research on leader emotional displays and leadership effectiveness, we propose that the “affective match” between follower positive affect (PA) and leaders’ emotional displays moderates the eff

  5. Cross-species affective neuroscience decoding of the primal affective experiences of humans and related animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaak Panksepp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1 It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB; these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2 These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3 All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4 Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as 'rewards' and 'punishments' in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5 Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1, which are regulated by

  6. Affective Match: Leader Emotional Displays, Follower Positive Affect, and Follower Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Damen, Frederic; Knippenberg, Barbara; Van Knippenberg, Daan

    2006-01-01

    textabstractLeader emotions may play an important role in leadership effectiveness. Extending this earlier research on leader emotional displays and leadership effectiveness, we propose that the “affective match” between follower positive affect (PA) and leaders’ emotional displays moderates the effectiveness of leader emotional displays. Leader display of emotions has more positive effects on follower behavior if the match between the valence of leader emotion and follower PA is strong rathe...

  7. On the link between different combinations of Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA) and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the assumed orthogonality of Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), the effects of the different combinations of NA and PA on work-related outcomes such as job performance have been neglected. The present study among 42 employees of a local social services department in the

  8. Affective Man-Machine Interface: Unveiling Human Emotions through Biosignals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Egon L.; Lisý, Viliam; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; Schut, Marleen H.; Tuinenbreijer, Kees

    As is known for centuries, humans exhibit an electrical profile. This profile is altered through various psychological and physiological proce-sses, which can be measured through biosignals; e.g., electromyography (EMG) and electrodermal activity (EDA). These biosignals can reveal our emotions and, as such, can serve as an advanced man-machine interface (MMI) for empathic consumer products. However, such a MMI requires the correct classification of biosignals to emotion classes. This chapter starts with an introduction on biosignals for emotion detection. Next, a state-of-the-art review is presented on automatic emotion classification. Moreover, guidelines are presented for affective MMI. Subsequently, a research is presented that explores the use of EDA and three facial EMG signals to determine neutral, positive, negative, and mixed emotions, using recordings of 21 people. A range of techniques is tested, which resulted in a generic framework for automated emotion classification with up to 61.31% correct classification of the four emotion classes, without the need of personal profiles. Among various other directives for future research, the results emphasize the need for parallel processing of multiple biosignals.

  9. Learners' Metalinguistic and Affective Performance in Blogging to Write

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The documentation of the benefits of blog use in foreign language education has proliferated since 2006. In the field of blogging to write, most studies focus on learners' linguistic performance and perceptions. To provide an analysis of learners' writing performance by using blogs, in addition to the often-researched areas, this study examines…

  10. Factors affecting the performance of undergraduate medical students: A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Performance of medical students in developing nations like India is perceived to have largely declined. Aims: We attempted to assess the reasons behind such trends. Settings and Design: Students in their third year of medical study were given a predesigned, pretested structured and validated questionnaire that they filled in anonymously. The key areas assessed were concentration, interest and understanding of the subject and other perceived causes of poor performance. Tests for descriptive statistics were applied for evaluation. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and fifty students participated in the study. Fifty-five (36.66% students performed poorly. Male gender, inability to clear the previous professional examination at the first attempt, difficulty in understanding medium of instruction, self-assessed depression, sleep disorders and perceived parental and peer pressure and dissatisfaction with career choice were significantly linked with poor performance (P<0.05 for each factor. Socioeconomic status and regularity in class were not linked to academic performance.

  11. Epidemic features affecting the performance of outbreak detection algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Jie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreak detection algorithms play an important role in effective automated surveillance. Although many algorithms have been designed to improve the performance of outbreak detection, few published studies have examined how epidemic features of infectious disease impact on the detection performance of algorithms. This study compared the performance of three outbreak detection algorithms stratified by epidemic features of infectious disease and examined the relationship between epidemic features and performance of outbreak detection algorithms. Methods Exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA, cumulative sum (CUSUM and moving percentile method (MPM algorithms were applied. We inserted simulated outbreaks into notifiable infectious disease data in China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS, and compared the performance of the three algorithms with optimized parameters at a fixed false alarm rate of 5% classified by epidemic features of infectious disease. Multiple linear regression was adopted to analyse the relationship of the algorithms’ sensitivity and timeliness with the epidemic features of infectious diseases. Results The MPM had better detection performance than EWMA and CUSUM through all simulated outbreaks, with or without stratification by epidemic features (incubation period, baseline counts and outbreak magnitude. The epidemic features were associated with both sensitivity and timeliness. Compared with long incubation, short incubation had lower probability (β* = −0.13, P  Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the MPM is a prior algorithm for outbreak detection and differences of epidemic features in detection performance should be considered in automatic surveillance practice.

  12. Reduced Muscle Glycogen Differentially Affects Exercise Performance and Muscle Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Lees; Williams, Jay H; Batts, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of reduced muscle glycogen on exercise performance and muscle fatigue. Male rats were assigned to a low glycogen group (LG) that participated in a protocol of exercise and fasting, a high glycogen group (HG) that exercised but were allowed free access to food, or control group (CON) that did not exercise but were allowed free access to food. Following the protocol, muscle glycogen content of the LG animals was reduced by 45%. The LG animals also perform...

  13. Factors Affecting the Performance of Undergraduate Medical Students: A Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Ananya; Ghosh, Arijit; Sengupta, Gairik; Bera, Tapas; Das, Nina; Mukherjee, Subir

    2012-01-01

    Context: Performance of medical students in developing nations like India is perceived to have largely declined. Aims: We attempted to assess the reasons behind such trends. Settings and Design: Students in their third year of medical study were given a predesigned, pretested structured and validated questionnaire that they filled in anonymously. The key areas assessed were concentration, interest and understanding of the subject and other perceived causes of poor performance. Tests for descr...

  14. Factors affecting the performance of undergraduate medical students: A perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ananya Mandal; Arijit Ghosh; Gairik Sengupta; Tapas Bera; Nina Das; Subir Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Context: Performance of medical students in developing nations like India is perceived to have largely declined. Aims: We attempted to assess the reasons behind such trends. Settings and Design: Students in their third year of medical study were given a predesigned, pretested structured and validated questionnaire that they filled in anonymously. The key areas assessed were concentration, interest and understanding of the subject and other perceived causes of poor performance. Tests for descr...

  15. How failure to align climate and leadership style affects performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Burton, Richard; Obel, Børge;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how misalignments between the organizational climate (measured as information-processing demand) and the leadership style (measured as information-processing capability) may result in negative performance consequences.......The purpose of this paper is to investigate how misalignments between the organizational climate (measured as information-processing demand) and the leadership style (measured as information-processing capability) may result in negative performance consequences....

  16. THERMOREGULATION AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank E Marino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vol 53 (Medicine & Sport Science This collection on the latest interpretation of research data about the relationship between thermoregulation, exercise performance and fatigue is published as the 53rd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal. PURPOSE The book aims to explain how the advances in technology and methodology allowed studying the affects of the changing body temperature on metabolism and the role played by the nervous system in shaping human performance under challenging thermal situations. FEATURES This publication provides different interpretations of recent research for a better understanding of the limitations of thermoregulation in nine titles. The presented titles are: The Evolutionary Basis of Thermoregulation and Exercise Performance; Comparative Thermoregulation and the Quest for Athletic Supremacy; Thermoregulation, Fatigue and Exercise Modality; Neuromuscular Response to Exercise Heat Stress; Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, Endotoxemia and Gastrointestinal Symptoms: The 'Canary in the Coal Mine' during Exercise-Heat Stress?; Effects of Peripheral Cooling on Characteristics of Local Muscle; Cooling Interventions for the Protection and Recovery of Exercise Performance from Exercise-Induced Heat Stress; Ethnicity and Temperature Regulation; Exercise Heat Stress and Metabolism. The evidence for the human's ability to adjust their performance according to the thermal limits in order to preserve cellular homeostasis is particularly noteworthy. AUDIENCE This is a fundamental book for any students and/or researchers involved in the fields of medicine, exercise physiology and human performance with special reference to thermal regulation. ASSESSMENT This publication is a must-read text for all those working in thermal medicine, exercise physiology and human performance fields

  17. When children affect parents: Children's academic performance and parental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurk Quadlin, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Sociologists have extensively documented the ways that parent resources predict children's achievement. However, less is known about whether and how children's academic performance shapes parental investment behaviors. I use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and longitudinal fixed effects models to examine how changes in teacher assessments are related to changes in the conferral of various parent resources. Overall, I find that the relationship between achievement and investment varies based on the directionality in children's achievement and the type of resource at hand. Children whose performance improves receive a broad range of enrichment resources, while declines in performance are met with corrective educational resources. Results are largely consistent whether language or math assessments are used to predict investment, and also among children whose achievement does not change over time. I discuss these patterns, along with implications for the use of parent resources in education and family research. PMID:26004488

  18. Research opportunities in human behavior and performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. M.; Talbot, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA research program in the biological and medical aspects of space flight includes investigations of human behavior and performance. The research focuses on psychological and psychophysiological responses to operational and environmental stresses and demands of spaceflight, and encompasses problems in perception, cognition, motivation, psychological stability, small group dynamics, and performance. The primary objective is to acquire the knowledge and methodology to aid in achieving high productivity and essential psychological support of space and ground crews in the Space Shuttle and space station programs. The Life Sciences Research Office (LSRO) of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology reviewed its program in psychology and identified its research for future program planning to be in line with NASA's goals.

  19. Prioritizing the Factor Weights Affecting Tourism Performance by FAHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Hung Do

    2013-10-01

    determine the relative weights of the factors and subfactors in contributing to tourism performance. An application case related to the Vietnamese context is used to illustrate the proposed framework. The results of this study consolidated the tourism theory and suggested recommendations and solutions for the Vietnamese tourism industry. The proposed framework could be used by a group of decision-makers to achieve a consensus, as well as deal with uncertainty in the decision-making process. The findings of the study may serve as a tool for assistance for planners in improving the efficiency of tourism performance.

  20. Factors Affecting School District Performance Scores in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between District Performance Scores (DPS) in Louisiana and (a) socio-economic status of students, (b) academic achievement using average ACT scores, (c) percentage of certified teachers, (d) district class size, (e) per pupil expenditure, and (f) percentage of minority students in…

  1. Genetic Factors Affecting Performance Traits of Sahiwal Cattle in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rehman*§ and M. S. Khan1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on 23925 lactations of 5897 Sahiwal cows in five Government herds of Punjab province were collected to estimate the genetic control and genetic correlations among performance traits. A repeatability animal model having herd-year-season and parity was used for this purpose. The repeatability estimates for 305-d milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period were 0.40±0.015, 0.40±0.016, 0.33±0.013, 0.14±0.005, 0.15±0.004, and 0.14±0.005 respectively. The heritability estimates for these traits were 0.10±0.016, 0.09±0.016, 0.06±0.013, 0.14±0.009, 0.15±0.010, and 0.14±0.010, respectively. The phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlation of 305-d milk yield with lactation length was 0.71, 0.48 and 0.70, respectively, with dry period was -0.31, -0.43 and -0.22, respectively while with calving interval and service period exhibited similar pattern (0.08, 0.25 and 0.08, respectively. The estimated breeding values ranged from -447 to 1254 kg, -442 to 1265 kg, -24 to 38, -78 to 116, -84 to 107 and -81 to 91, days for 305-day milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period, respectively. No specific genetic trend was observed for performance traits during the period under study. Cows have not improved in their ability to perform in various economic traits. Accurate recording of pedigree and performance is necessary for improving the performance traits of Sahiwal. Due to high repeatability estimates of yield traits selection or culling may be practised from first few records.

  2. Haptic interfaces: Hardware, software and human performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandayam A.

    1995-01-01

    Virtual environments are computer-generated synthetic environments with which a human user can interact to perform a wide variety of perceptual and motor tasks. At present, most of the virtual environment systems engage only the visual and auditory senses, and not the haptic sensorimotor system that conveys the sense of touch and feel of objects in the environment. Computer keyboards, mice, and trackballs constitute relatively simple haptic interfaces. Gloves and exoskeletons that track hand postures have more interaction capabilities and are available in the market. Although desktop and wearable force-reflecting devices have been built and implemented in research laboratories, the current capabilities of such devices are quite limited. To realize the full promise of virtual environments and teleoperation of remote systems, further developments of haptic interfaces are critical. In this paper, the status and research needs in human haptics, technology development and interactions between the two are described. In particular, the excellent performance characteristics of Phantom, a haptic interface recently developed at MIT, are highlighted. Realistic sensations of single point of contact interactions with objects of variable geometry (e.g., smooth, textured, polyhedral) and material properties (e.g., friction, impedance) in the context of a variety of tasks (e.g., needle biopsy, switch panels) achieved through this device are described and the associated issues in haptic rendering are discussed.

  3. Should the Specificity of Human Capital Affect Unemployment Insurance Generosity ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdan, Ophélie

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the argument whereby the more specific the human capital of the workforce is, the less such individuals can expect to receive in benefits if and when they experience unemployment. We present a theoretical model for understanding how the composition of human capital determines the level of unemployment benefits. This model shows that, depending on the scenario chosen for the management of the insurance fund, the proportion of individuals with specific human capital can le...

  4. Scales affect performance of Monarch butterfly forewings in autorotational flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demko, Anya; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Butterfly wings are characterized by rows of scales (approximately 100 microns in length) that create a shingle-like pattern of cavities over the entire surface. It is hypothesized that these cavities influence the airflow around the wing and increase aerodynamic performance. A forewing of the Monarch butterfly (Danus plexippus) naturally undergoes autorotational flight in the laminar regime. Autorotational flight is an accurate representation of insect flight because the rotation induces a velocity gradient similar to that found over a flapping wing. Drop test flights of 22 forewings before and after scale removal were recorded with a high-speed camera and flight behavior was quantified. It was found that removing the scales increased the descent speed and decreased the descent factor, a measure of aerodynamic efficacy, suggesting that scales increased the performance of the forewings. Funded by NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  5. The Antecedents Affecting Employee Engagement and Organizational Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa Nimer AbuKhalifeh; Ahmad Puad Mat Som

    2013-01-01

    Employee engagement becomes an important issue as employee turnover rises due to the demand and shortage of skilful employees. Though organizational performances of many organizations have deteriorated due to high turnover rates and related issues such as high absenteeism, low loyalty and productivity, there is still a lack of academic research that addresses the antecedents required for high employee engagement in the food and beverage departments in the service industry. This paper focuses ...

  6. SLEEP COMPLAINTS AFFECTING SCHOOL PERFORMANCE AT DIFFERENT EDUCATIONAL LEVELS

    OpenAIRE

    Pagel, James F.; KWIATKOWSKI, CAROL F.

    2010-01-01

    The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA’s in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness...

  7. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, S.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Fein, G. (Neurobehavioral Lab. Software, San Rafael, CA (United States)); Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F. (ABRATech Corp., Mill Valley, CA (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m[sup 2] and 73 cd/m[sup 2]. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  8. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, S.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fein, G. [Neurobehavioral Lab. Software, San Rafael, CA (United States); Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F. [ABRATech Corp., Mill Valley, CA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m{sup 2} and 73 cd/m{sup 2}. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  9. Does Corporate Social Responsibility Affect the Performance of Firms?

    OpenAIRE

    Comincioli, Nicola; Poddi, Laura; Vergalli, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades in OECD countries an increasing number of firms are obtaining certification as Socially Responsible (CSR is the acronym for Corporate Social Responsibility). Several studies (including Preston and O'Bannon, 1997; Waddock and Graves, 1997; McWilliams and Sieger, 2001; Ullman, 1985) have sought to test whether there is a relation between Social Responsibility certification and firm performance. Our work builds a CSR index that intersects two of the three main internati...

  10. Oligosaccharides Affect Performance and Gut Development of Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Ao, Z; Choct, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, flock uniformity and GIT development of broiler chickens were investigated. Four diets, one negative control, one positive control supplemented with zinc-bacitracin, and two test diets supplemented with mannoligosaccharide (MOS) and fructooligosaccharide (FOS), were used for the experiment. Birds given MOS or FOS had improved body weight (BW) and feed efficiency (FCR), compared to those fed the negative control diet dur...

  11. Do foreclosures affect Boston public school student academic performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine L. Bradbury; Burke, Mary A.; Robert K. Triest

    2013-01-01

    Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show that students who live at an address that experiences a foreclosure tend to score substantially lower on standardized tests (math and English) and al...

  12. Human performance assessment: methods and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP) was initiated in 1994. The aim of the project was to acquire insights on how and why cognitive errors occur when operators are engaged in problem solving in advanced integrated control rooms. Since human error had not been studied in the HAlden Man-Machine LABoratory (HAMMLAB) before, it was also necessary to carry out research in methodology. In retrospect, it is clear that much of the methodological work is relevant to human-machine research in general, and not only to research on human error. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to give practitioners and researchers an overview of the methodological parts of HEAP. The scope of the report is limited to methods used throughout the data acquisition process, i.e., data-collection methods, data-refinement methods, and measurement methods. The data-collection methods include various types of verbal protocols, simulator logs, questionnaires, and interviews. Data-refinement methods involve different applications of the Eyecon system, a flexible data-refinement tool, and small computer programs used for rearranging, reformatting, and aggregating raw-data. Measurement methods involve assessment of diagnostic behaviour, erroneous actions, complexity, task/system performance, situation awareness, and workload. The report concludes that the data-collection methods are generally both reliable and efficient. The data-refinement methods, however, should be easier to use in order to facilitate explorative analyses. Although the series of experiments provided an opportunity for measurement validation, there are still uncertainties connected to several measures, due to their reliability still being unknown. (Author). 58 refs.,7 tabs

  13. Investigating factors affecting students’ performance to PISA Science items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Hatzinikita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to investigate, on the one hand, the extent to which PISA Science items validly assess the knowledge and skills of 15 year-old Greek students, while, on the other hand, to examine the effect of the following factors: student’s gender, scientific processes and contexts (situations on the students’ performance in these PISA items. The research used paper-and-pencil test with published PISA Science items, conducted individual semi-structured interviews with 15 year-old students and finally marked the students’ responses, according to the PISA marking guide. Τhe basic finding resulting from the data analysis is that the paper-and-pencil test with the PISA Science items does not tend, unlike the interview, to effectively record the Greek students’ Science knowledge and skills. Moreover, the analysis revealed that the performance of students in the PISA Science items (paper-and-pencil test and interview tend to be independent of the student’s gender and depend on the context in which the knowledge and processes are assessed. Additionally, the possible correlation between the students’ performance and the factor of scientific processes seems to depend on the setting in which the students provide their responses (paper-and-pencil test or interview.

  14. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics: combat performance-shaping factors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2006-01-01

    The US military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives. To support this goal, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has undertaken a program of HPM as an integral augmentation to its system-of-system (SoS) analytics capabilities. The previous effort, reported in SAND2005-6569, evaluated the effects of soldier cognitive fatigue on SoS performance. The current effort began with a very broad survey of any performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that also might affect soldiers performance in combat situations. The work included consideration of three different approaches to cognition modeling and how appropriate they would be for application to SoS analytics. This bulk of this report categorizes 47 PSFs into three groups (internal, external, and task-related) and provides brief descriptions of how each affects combat performance, according to the literature. The PSFs were then assembled into a matrix with 22 representative military tasks and assigned one of four levels of estimated negative impact on task performance, based on the literature. Blank versions of the matrix were then sent to two ex-military subject-matter experts to be filled out based on their personal experiences. Data analysis was performed to identify the consensus most influential PSFs. Results indicate that combat-related injury, cognitive fatigue, inadequate training, physical fatigue, thirst, stress, poor perceptual processing, and presence of chemical agents are among the PSFs with the most negative impact on combat performance.

  15. Regression analysis of technical parameters affecting nuclear power plant performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the 80's many studies have been conducted in order to explicate good and bad performances of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs), but yet no defined correlation has been found out to be totally representative of plant operational experience. In early works, data availability and the number of operating power stations were both limited; therefore, results showed that specific technical characteristics of NPPs were supposed to be the main causal factors for successful plant operation. Although these aspects keep on assuming a significant role, later studies and observations showed that other factors concerning management and organization of the plant could instead be predominant comparing utilities operational and economic results. Utility quality, in a word, can be used to summarize all the managerial and operational aspects that seem to be effective in determining plant performance. In this paper operational data of a consistent sample of commercial nuclear power stations, out of the total 433 operating NPPs, are analyzed, mainly focusing on the last decade operational experience. The sample consists of PWR and BWR technology, operated by utilities located in different countries, including U.S. (Japan)) (France)) (Germany)) and Finland. Multivariate regression is performed using Unit Capability Factor (UCF) as the dependent variable; this factor reflects indeed the effectiveness of plant programs and practices in maximizing the available electrical generation and consequently provides an overall indication of how well plants are operated and maintained. Aspects that may not be real causal factors but which can have a consistent impact on the UCF, as technology design, supplier, size and age, are included in the analysis as independent variables. (authors)

  16. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26208085

  17. Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  18. Investigating factors affecting students’ performance to PISA Science items

    OpenAIRE

    V. Hatzinikita; C. Apostolopoulos; Psalidas, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate, on the one hand, the extent to which PISA Science items validly assess the knowledge and skills of 15 year-old Greek students, while, on the other hand, to examine the effect of the following factors: student’s gender, scientific processes and contexts (situations) on the students’ performance in these PISA items. The research used paper-and-pencil test with published PISA Science items, conducted individual semi-structured interviews with 15 year-old st...

  19. Modern Virtual Reality. And the effects of affecting human senses to increase immersion

    OpenAIRE

    Ekros, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Modern virtual reality is an ever growing subject in today’s society. I delved deeper into some key moments in the development of modern virtual reality. Oculus Rift has shown incredible potential. Some developments even seek to envelope the human senses in virtual reality as well.   With several different approaches to the same solution there are many ways that the experience can affect the overall immersion of a consumer into the product.  The tests I performed were primarily focused around...

  20. Factors affecting the performance of large-aperture microphone arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Harvey F.; Patterson, William R.; Sachar, Joshua

    2002-05-01

    Large arrays of microphones have been proposed and studied as a possible means of acquiring data in offices, conference rooms, and auditoria without requiring close-talking microphones. When such an array essentially surrounds all possible sources, it is said to have a large aperture. Large-aperture arrays have attractive properties of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise enhancement. This paper presents a careful comparison of theoretical and measured performance for an array of 256 microphones using simple delay-and-sum beamforming. This is the largest currently functional, all digital-signal-processing array that we know of. The array is wall-mounted in the moderately adverse environment of a general-purpose laboratory (8 m×8 m×3 m). The room has a T60 reverberation time of 550 ms. Reverberation effects in this room severely impact the array's performance. However, the width of the main lobe remains comparable to that of a simplified prediction. Broadband spatial resolution shows a single central peak with 10 dB gain about 0.4 m in diameter at the -3 dB level. Away from that peak, the response is approximately flat over most of the room. Optimal weighting for signal-to-noise enhancement degrades the spatial resolution minimally. Experimentally, we verify that signal-to-noise gain is less than proportional to the square root of the number of microphones probably due to the partial correlation of the noise between channels, to variation of signal intensity with polar angle about the source, and to imperfect correlation of the signal over the array caused by reverberations. We show measurements of the relative importance of each effect in our environment.

  1. Factors affecting the performance of large-aperture microphone arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Harvey F; Patterson, William R; Sachar, Joshua

    2002-05-01

    Large arrays of microphones have been proposed and studied as a possible means of acquiring data in offices, conference rooms, and auditoria without requiring close-talking microphones. When such an array essentially surrounds all possible sources, it is said to have a large aperture. Large-aperture arrays have attractive properties of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise enhancement. This paper presents a careful comparison of theoretical and measured performance for an array of 256 microphones using simple delay-and-sum beamforming. This is the largest currently functional, all digital-signal-processing array that we know of. The array is wall-mounted in the moderately adverse environment of a general-purpose laboratory (8 m x 8 m x 3 m). The room has a T60 reverberation time of 550 ms. Reverberation effects in this room severely impact the array's performance. However, the width of the main lobe remains comparable to that of a simplified prediction. Broadband spatial resolution shows a single central peak with 10 dB gain about 0.4 m in diameter at the -3 dB level. Away from that peak, the response is approximately flat over most of the room. Optimal weighting for signal-to-noise enhancement degrades the spatial resolution minimally. Experimentally, we verify that signal-to-noise gain is less than proportional to the square root of the number of microphones probably due to the partial correlation of the noise between channels, to variation of signal intensity with polar angle about the source, and to imperfect correlation of the signal over the array caused by reverberations. We show measurements of the relative importance of each effect in our environment. PMID:12051434

  2. Human and organizational biases affecting the management of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management of safety is always based on underlying models or theories of organization, human behavior and system safety. The aim of the article is to review and describe a set of potential biases in these models and theories. We will outline human and organizational biases that have an effect on the management of safety in four thematic areas: beliefs about human behavior, beliefs about organizations, beliefs about information and safety models. At worst, biases in these areas can lead to an approach where people are treated as isolated and independent actors who make (bad) decisions in a social vacuum and who pose a threat to safety. Such an approach aims at building barriers and constraints to human behavior and neglects the measures aiming at providing prerequisites and organizational conditions for people to work effectively. This reductionist view of safety management can also lead to too drastic a strong separation of so-called human factors from technical issues, undermining the holistic view of system safety. Human behavior needs to be understood in the context of people attempting (together) to make sense of themselves and their environment, and act based on perpetually incomplete information while relying on social conventions, affordances provided by the environment and the available cognitive heuristics. In addition, a move toward a positive view of the human contribution to safety is needed. Systemic safety management requires an increased understanding of various normal organizational phenomena - in this paper discussed from the point of view of biases - coupled with a systemic safety culture that encourages and endorses a holistic view of the workings and challenges of the socio-technical system in question. - Highlights: → Biases in safety management approaches are reviewed and described. → Four thematic areas are covered: human behavior, organizations, information, safety models. → The biases influence how safety management is defined

  3. Studying the factors affecting solar power generation systems performance ( SPGSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal A Al-Tabtabaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a huge, clean and renewable source of energy. It is also available everywhere on the earth. However, there are many technical and economic difficulties need to be solved so that solar energy becomes a strong competition against the traditional energy sources. Energy from the sun can be used successfully in electric power generation systems. Depending on the climate conditions and the use of a properly designed, installing and maintained system can meet a large demand in this request. Work plane for this research will include many steps, the first step will include an introduction to solar energy. The second step will be a short review of the solar energy availability, geometry, fields of applications and the largest commercial application of solar energy is the solar thermal power generation. In addition, the most common types of solar thermal power plants, the solar field, heat transfer fluid and the power conversion system types will be explained in detail. The third step, a simple analysis for the solar thermal power plant will be explained in order to predict the optimum conditions leading to maximum performance. Discussions of results will be the fourth step. The last step a conclusion and recommendation for future work will also be included.

  4. Does hallucination affect vigilance performance in schizophrenia? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeshna; Ray, Deepshikha; Banerjee, Mallika

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigates the role of "auditory verbal hallucination" (AVH) in the attentional processes of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia compared with healthy participants. The sample consisted of 26 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia divided into - "schizophrenia with hallucination" (N=12) and "schizophrenia without hallucination" (N=14). 13 matched healthy participants were taken. A general health questionnaire was used to screen out psychiatric morbidity in healthy participants. The presence and/or absence of AVH were substantiated through the administration of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Only individuals having higher composite scores in the positive scale were included. Edinburgh Handedness Inventory was administered to all participants. Software designed to measure vigilance was used to assess attentional deficits in the three groups included in the study. The complexity of the "vigilance task" was varied across three parameters: (1) spatial position of the target stimulus and buffer, (2) frequency of the target stimulus and buffer and (3) colour of target stimulus and buffer. The performances of the 3 groups were compared statistically in terms of Hit, Miss and False Alarm scores. Results revealed that schizophrenia patients are deficient as compared to their healthy counterparts in the ability to focus on a specific target while inhibiting non-relevant information across all conditions. Also, schizophrenia patients who have AVH are relatively more deficient as compared to the schizophrenia patients without AVH. It can be concluded that perceptual abnormality in schizophrenia patients with hallucination has an additional negative impact on attentional processes. PMID:23051117

  5. Analysis of human performance observed under simulated emergencies of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have continuously and commonly revealed that human performance is decisive factor affecting the safety of complicated process systems. Subsequently, extensive effort has been spent to suggest serviceable countermeasures for human performance related problems under emergencies. However, several obstacles including very limited number of available data have hindered researchers from elucidating effective ways to cope with human performance related problems. In this study, human performance data under simulated emergencies have been extracted using a full scope simulator located in the reference NPP. The main purpose of this study is to provide plant-specific and domain-specific human performance data that can be used to premeditate human performance related problems under emergencies. To accomplish this goal, over 100 records that were collected from retraining sessions for licensed MCR operators have been analyzed by the time-line and protocol analysis technique. As a result, many kinds of useful information that can play a remarkable role in scrutinizing human performance related problems have been secured. Although it is still careful to make some predictions about human performance under a real situation on the basis of that under a simulated situation. However, it is also true that the simulator is a basic tool in observing human behaviors under emergencies. Thus, it is strongly believed that human performance data obtained from this study will be a concrete foundation in scrutinizing the change of human performance under emergencies

  6. Toward affective brain-computer interfaces : exploring the neurophysiology of affect during human media interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Affective Brain-Computer Interfaces (aBCI), the sensing of emotions from brain activity, seems a fantasy from the realm of science fiction. But unlike faster-than-light travel or teleportation, aBCI seems almost within reach due to novel sensor technologies, the advancement of neuroscience, and the

  7. [Effects of sleep deprivation on human performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z J; Ma, R S

    2000-08-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on human performance. Method. 8 healthy male college students participated the test. During 26 h of continuous awakeness (from 6:00 to 8:00 the next day), the volunteers were demanded to perform a battery of tests at 9 different time (7:00, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00, 0:00, 2:00, 4:00, 6:00, 8:00). The tests include: (1) single task: aural Oddball response, the response time (RT1) and correct rate (CR1) were recorded; (2) dual tasks: manual tracking and aural Oddball response, the response time (RT2), tracking error (ER) and correct rate (CR2) were recorded; (3) The Stanford sleepiness scale and subjective ratings of task difficulty access. Result. SD had significant effects on CT1, CT2 and ER (P=0.0001, P=0.00001, P=0.0004 respectively); SD increased RT1, RT2, ER at night time. SD had significant effects on SR, SSS score (P=0.0001, P=0.0000 respectively); SD increased SR, SSS score at night time. Since the subjects changed their response strategy, CR1 and CR2 were not influenced by SD at night time. Conclusion. SD has significant effects on response time, tracking error, subjective difficulty of cognitive tasks and subjective sleepiness. PMID:11892744

  8. Mental fatigue impairs physical performance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcora, Samuele M; Staiano, Walter; Manning, Victoria

    2009-03-01

    Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity. Although the impact of mental fatigue on cognitive and skilled performance is well known, its effect on physical performance has not been thoroughly investigated. In this randomized crossover study, 16 subjects cycled to exhaustion at 80% of their peak power output after 90 min of a demanding cognitive task (mental fatigue) or 90 min of watching emotionally neutral documentaries (control). After experimental treatment, a mood questionnaire revealed a state of mental fatigue (P = 0.005) that significantly reduced time to exhaustion (640 +/- 316 s) compared with the control condition (754 +/- 339 s) (P = 0.003). This negative effect was not mediated by cardiorespiratory and musculoenergetic factors as physiological responses to intense exercise remained largely unaffected. Self-reported success and intrinsic motivation related to the physical task were also unaffected by prior cognitive activity. However, mentally fatigued subjects rated perception of effort during exercise to be significantly higher compared with the control condition (P = 0.007). As ratings of perceived exertion increased similarly over time in both conditions (P < 0.001), mentally fatigued subjects reached their maximal level of perceived exertion and disengaged from the physical task earlier than in the control condition. In conclusion, our study provides experimental evidence that mental fatigue limits exercise tolerance in humans through higher perception of effort rather than cardiorespiratory and musculoenergetic mechanisms. Future research in this area should investigate the common neurocognitive resources shared by physical and mental activity. PMID:19131473

  9. Sleep deprivation impairs performance in the 5-choice continuous performance test: similarities between humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Acheson, Dean; Risbrough, Victoria; Drummond, Sean; Geyer, Mark A; Young, Jared W

    2014-03-15

    Several groups undergo extended periods without sleep due to working conditions or mental illness. Such sleep deprivation (SD) can deleteriously affect attentional processes and disrupt work and family functioning. Understanding the biological underpinnings of SD effects may assist in developing sleep therapies and cognitive enhancers. Utilizing cross-species tests of attentional processing in humans and rodents would aid in mechanistic studies examining SD-induced inattention. We assessed the effects of 36h of: (1) Total SD (TSD) in healthy male and female humans (n=50); and (2) REM SD (RSD) in male C57BL/6 mice (n=26) on performance in the cross-species 5-choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT). The 5C-CPT includes target trials on which subjects were required to respond and non-target trials on which subjects were required to inhibit from responding. TSD-induced effects on human psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) were also examined. Effects of SD were also examined on mice split into good and poor performance groups based on pre-deprivation scores. In the human 5C-CPT, TSD decreased hit rate and vigilance with trend-level effects on accuracy. In the PVT, TSD slowed response times and increased lapses. In the mouse 5C-CPT, RSD reduced accuracy and hit rate with trend-level effects on vigilance, primarily in good performers. In conclusion, SD induced impaired 5C-CPT performance in both humans and mice and validates the 5C-CPT as a cross-species translational task. The 5C-CPT can be used to examine mechanisms underlying SD-induced deficits in vigilance and assist in testing putative cognitive enhancers.

  10. Personality traits affect teaching performance of attending physicians : Results of a multi-center observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Renée A.; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H; Van Aken, Marcel A G; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent wit

  11. Affective Man-Machine Interface: Unveiling human emotions through biosignals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den Egon L.; Lisy, Viliam; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Schut, Marleen H.; Tuinenbreijer, Kees; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2010-01-01

    As is known for centuries, humans exhibit an electrical profile. This profile is altered through various psychological and physiological processes, which can be measured through biosignals; e.g., electromyography (EMG) and electrodermal activity (EDA). These biosignals can reveal our emotions and, a

  12. The sexuality assemblage: Desire, affect, anti-humanism

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, NJ; Alldred, P

    2013-01-01

    Two theoretical moves are required to resist the ‘humanist enticements’ associated with sexuality. Post-structuralism supplies the first, showing how the social produces culturally-specific sexual knowledgeabilities. A second anti-humanist move is then needed to overturn anthropocentric privileging of the human body and subject as the locus of sexuality. In this paper we establish a language and landscape for a Deleuze inspired anti-humanist sociology of sexuality that shifts the location of ...

  13. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  14. Human health and performance considerations for near earth asteroids (NEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2013-11-01

    Humans are considered as a system in the design of any deep space exploration mission. The addition of many potential near asteroid (NEA) destinations to the existing multiple mission architecture for Lunar and Mars missions increases the complexity of human health and performance issues that are anticipated for exploration of space. We suggest that risks to human health and performance be analyzed in terms of the 4 major parameters related to multiple mission architecture: destination, duration, distance and vehicle design. Geological properties of the NEA will influence design of exploration tasks related to sample handling and containment, and extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities including suit ports and tools. A robotic precursor mission that collects basic information on NEA surface properties would reduce uncertainty about these aspects of the mission as well as aid in mission architecture and exploration task design. Key mission parameters are strongly impacted by duration and distance. The most critical of these is deep-space radiation exposure without even the temporary shielding of a nearby large planetary body. The current space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) limits mission duration to 3-10 months depending on age, gender and stage of the solar cycle. Duration also impacts mission architectures including countermeasures for bone, muscle, and cardiovascular atrophy during continuous weightlessness; and behavioral and psychological issues resulting from isolation and confinement. Distance affects communications and limits abort and return options for a NEA mission. These factors are anticipated to have important effects on crew function and autonomous operations, as well as influence medical capability, supplies and training requirements of the crew. The design of a habitat volume that can maintain the physical and psychological health of the crew and support mission operations with limited intervention from earth will require an

  15. Controlling human fixed-interval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, H

    1969-05-01

    Both high and relatively constant rates of responding without post-reinforcement pauses and lower rates with pauses after reinforcement are produced by human subjects under fixed-interval (FI) schedules. Such FI rates and patterns may be controlled when subjects are provided with different histories of conditioning and different conditions of response cost (reinforcement penalties per response). Subjects with a conditioning history under ratio schedules typically produce high and relatively constant rates of responding under FI schedules; this responding does not change systematically with changes in FI value. In contrast, subjects with a history under schedules which produce little or no responding between reforcements [such as differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules] tend to pause after reinforcement and respond at low rates under FI schedules, whether or not they also have ratio conditioning histories; cost increases the likelihood of this type of performance. For DRL-history subjects, post-reinforcement pauses increase and response rates decrease as FI values increase.

  16. Basic human needs affected for arterial hypertension and Lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Gleudson Alves Xavier; Maysa Oliveira Rolim; Vera Maria da Conceição Lopes de Sousa; Maria Euridéa de Castro

    2003-01-01

    Knowing that hypertension is a chronic disease, in which the individual may have his basic needs changed, resulting in having to learn to deal with a new life-style, we considered it appropriate to study this theme. It was designed to identify the affected basic needs and to discover the influence of life-style and of hypertension in alteration of those needs. The study is a descriptive-exploratory, accomplished at the Campus of a State Public University in Fortaleza – Ceará, Brazil. This stu...

  17. Effectively managing nuclear risk through human performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    is to apply the principles of Human Performance Technology, or HPT, to the nuclear workplace. HPT is a relatively new field that has been emerging over the several decades. Its principles are derived from the research and practice of behavioral and cognitive psychologist, instructional technologists training designers, organizational developers and various human resource specialists. Relying heavily on general systems theory as applied to organizations, HPT takes a systemic approach to risk assessment and performance analysis/ change as opposed to making piecemeal interventions which often happens in designing training programs intended to be the only fix specific organizational behavior problems in the short term. Specifically, HPT methodology emphasizes examining any given problem in relation to the more global aims of the setting or environment within which the problem is identified. Its consistent driver is measurable performance and the structuring of elements within the system to improve and reward desirable performance and effective risk management. In general, HPT is more than another way to look at training, HPT is a systemized process that combines selection, analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of programs to most cost effectively influence human behavior and accomplishment. By taking a systems view of organizations rather than discreetly focusing on pockets of concern within an organization, it seeks to link the actions and interventions of all the organizational elements that affect overall performance. It does this through identifying, among other things, current performance levels, required performance levels for effective risk management, exemplary performance, and developing measurements for each step in the process. It examines such things as the external and organizational environments as well as the influences that directly impact individual performance. Direct application to the nuclear industry is evident when

  18. Culture conditions affect photoreactivating enzyme levels in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoreactivation of pyrimidine dimers occured under the experimental conditions given in this study, but has not been observed under conditions used by others. Three possible differences were tested in experimental procedures including dimer separation and analysis methods, illumination conditions and cell culture techniques. The methods in this study of dimer separation and analysis indeed measure cis-syn pyrimidine dimers and give results in quantitative agreement with the methods of others. It was found that white light pre-illumination of fibroblasts from the xeroderma pigmentosum line XP12BE or of normal cells does not affect the cellular capacity for dimer photoreactivation. However, the cell culture conditions can affect photoreactivating enzyme levels, and thus cellular dimer photoreactivation capacity. Cells grown in Eagle's minimal essential medium (supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum) contain very low levels of photoreactivating enzyme and cannot photoreactivate dimers in their DNA; but companion cultures maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimal medium do contain photoreactivating enzyme and can reactivate photoreactive cellular dimers

  19. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species.

  20. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species. PMID:27147100

  1. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause event at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, is a field manual for use by investigators when performing event investigations. Volume II includes the HPIP Procedure, the HPIP Modules, and Appendices that provide extensive documentation of each investigation technique

  2. The differential influences of positive affect, random reward, and performance-contingent reward on cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröber, Kerstin; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that positive affect and reward have differential effects on cognitive control. So far, however, these effects have never been studied together. Here, the authors present one behavioral study investigating the influences of positive affect and reward (contingent and noncontingent) on proactive control. A modified version of the AX-continuous performance task, which has repeatedly been shown to be sensitive to reward and affect manipulations, was used. In a first phase, two experimental groups received either neutral or positive affective pictures before every trial. In a second phase, the two halves of a given affect group additionally received, respectively, performance-contingent or random rewards. The results replicated the typical affect effect, in terms of reduced proactive control under positive as compared to neutral affect. Also, the typical reward effects associated with increased proactive control were replicated. Most interestingly, performance-contingent reward counteracted the positive affect effect, whereas random reward mirrored that effect. In sum, this study provides first evidence that performance-contingent reward, on the one hand, and positive affect and performance-noncontingent reward, on the other hand, have oppositional effects on cognitive control: Only performance-contingent reward showed a motivational effect in terms of a strategy shift toward increased proactive control, whereas positive affect alone and performance-noncontingent reward reduced proactive control. Moreover, the integrative design of this study revealed the vulnerability of positive affect effects to motivational manipulations. The results are discussed with respect to current neuroscientific theories of the effects of dopamine on affect, reward, and cognitive control. PMID:24659000

  3. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  4. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  5. Personality interacts with implicit affect to predict performance in analytic versus holistic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazén, Miguel; Kuhl, Julius; Quirin, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Both theoretical approaches and empirical evidence suggest that negative affect fosters analytic processing, whereas positive affect fosters holistic processing, but these effects are inconsistent. We aim to show that (a) differences in affect regulation abilities ("action orientation") and (b) implicit more so than self-reported affect assessment need to be considered to advance our understanding of these processes. Forty participants were asked to verify whether a word was correctly or incorrectly spelled to measure analytic processing, as well as to intuitively assess whether sets of three words were coherent (remote associates task) to measure holistic processing. As expected, implicit but not explicit negative affect interacted with low action orientation ("state orientation") to predict higher d' performance in word spelling, whereas implicit but not explicit positive affect interacted with high action orientation to predict higher d' performance in coherence judgments for word triads. Results are interpreted according to personality systems interaction theory. These findings suggest that affect and affect changes should be measured explicitly and implicitly to investigate affect-cognition interactions. Moreover, they suggest that good affect regulators benefit from positive affect for holistic processing, whereas bad affect regulators benefit from negative affect for analytical processing. PMID:24725069

  6. Multiple Factors Affecting Human Repregnancy after Microsurgical Vasovasostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明孔; 吴晓庆; 付成善; 邹平; 高晓平; 黄强

    1997-01-01

    To determine the factors which might affect the recover), of fertility after an accurate microsurgical vasovasostomy, we conducted a 3 year-follow-up study in 56 men after microsurgical vasovasostomy. Twenty-two variables as putative factors associated with recovery of fertility were measured. The results of Logistic regression and ather statistical analyses suggest that 8 factors including age of husband, age of wife, history of past pregnancies of current wife, number of vasovasostomies, serum FSH, LH and T before vasovasostomy, and sperm granuloma of vas nodule are of no significance in recovery of fertility, whereas 14 factors including years after vasectomy, sperm concentration, progressive motility, sperm motility, viability, normal morphology, sperm egg penetration rate, TAT and SIT before and after vasovasostomy, MAR, IBT adherent IgG and IgA after vasovasostomy are significantly, associated with repregnancy.

  7. Task performance on constrained reconstructions: human observer performance compared with suboptimal Bayesian performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert F.; Myers, Kyle J.; Hanson, Kenneth M.

    1992-06-01

    We have previously described how imaging systems and image reconstruction algorithms can be evaluated on the basis of how well binary-discrimination tasks can be performed by a machine algorithm that `views' the reconstructions. Algorithms used in these investigations have been based on approximations to the ideal observer of Bayesian statistical decision theory. The present work examines the performance of an extended family of such algorithmic observers viewing tomographic images reconstructed from a small number of views using the Cambridge Maximum Entropy software, MEMSYS 3. We investigate the effects on the performance of these observers due to varying the parameter (alpha) ; this parameter controls the stopping point of the iterative reconstruction technique and effectively determines the smoothness of the reconstruction. For the detection task considered here, performance is maximum at the lowest values of (alpha) studied; these values are encountered as one moves toward the limit of maximum likelihood estimation while maintaining the positivity constraint intrinsic to entropic priors. A breakdown in the validity of a Gaussian approximation used by one of the machine algorithms (the posterior probability) was observed in this region. Measurements on human observers performing the same task show that they perform comparably to the best machine observers in the region of highest machine scores, i.e., smallest values of (alpha) . For increasing values of (alpha) , both human and machine observer performance degrade. The falloff in human performance is more rapid than that of the machine observer at the largest values of (alpha) (lowest performance) studied. This behavior is common to all such studies of the so-called psychometric function.

  8. Do corporate boards affect firm performance? New evidence from the financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Wu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the current financial crisis as a quasi-experiment to examine whether and to what extent corporate boards affect the performance of firms. Using cumulative stock returns over the crisis to measure of firm performance, we find that board independence, as traditionally defined, does not significantly affect firm performance. However, when we re-define independent directors as outside directors who are less connected with current CEOs, a measure we call true independence, there i...

  9. Proceedings from Specialists Meeting on human performance in operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference on human performance in operational events is composed of 34 papers, grouped in 11 sessions. After an invited contribution on the human factor in the nuclear industry, the sessions are: session 1 (Operational events: Human performance in operational events - how to improve it?, Human performance research strategies for human performance, The development of a model of control room operator cognition), session 2 (Operational response: A study of the recovery from 120 events, Empirical study of the influence of organizational and procedural characteristics on team performance in the emergency situation using plant simulators, Cognitive skills and nuclear power plant operational decision making), session 3 (PSA for Probabilistic Safety Analysis: A sensitivity study of human errors in optimizing surveillance test interval (STI) and allowed outage time (AOT) of standby safety system, Analysis of Parks nuclear power plant personnel activity during safety related event sequences, An EDF project to update the Probabilistic Human Reliability Assessment PHRA methodology), session 4 (modelling with ATHEANA: Atheana, a technique for human error analysis, an overview of its methodological basis, Common elements on operational events across technologies, Results of nuclear power plant application of new technique for human error analysis), session 5 (Regulatory practice: US.NRC Research and analysis activities concerning human reliability assessment and human performance evaluation, Introduction of simulator-based examinations and its effects on the nuclear industry, Regulatory monitoring of human performance in PWR operation in France), session 6 (Simulation: Human performance in Bavarian nuclear power plant as a preventive element, Human performance event database, Crew situation awareness, diagnoses and performance in simulated nuclear power plant process disturbances), session 7 (Operator aids: Development of a plant navigation system, Operation system

  10. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program

  11. Human Performance Modeling for Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory; Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reac- tor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Charac- terization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk framework. In this paper, we review simulation based and non simulation based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This paper summarizes the founda- tional information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human in- teractions in RISMC simulations.

  12. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Hanson

    Full Text Available Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77. In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES, with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems.

  13. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Changpeng; Yin Tangwen; Zhao Weina; Huang Dan; Fu Shan

    2014-01-01

    A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recog-nition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantify-ing the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled:information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  14. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  15. Effects of Process and Human Performance Improvement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Alvero, Alicia M.; Austin, John

    2006-01-01

    Organizational performance is a function of many variables, two of which are work process factors and human performance factors. Our study compared the effects of changing a work process versus human performance improvement techniques and the combined effects of combing both techniques. A 2 (manual vs electronic process) x 2 (with vs without…

  16. Osmotic stress affects functional properties of human melanoma cell lines

    CERN Document Server

    La Porta, Caterina A M; Pasini, Maria; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J; Zapperi, Stefano; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of microenvironment in cancer growth and metastasis is a key issue for cancer research. Here, we study the effect of osmotic pressure on the functional properties of primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. In particular, we experimentally quantify individual cell motility and transmigration capability. We then perform a circular scratch assay to study how a cancer cell front invades an empty space. Our results show that primary melanoma cells are sensitive to a low osmotic pressure, while metastatic cells are less. To better understand the experimental results, we introduce and study a continuous model for the dynamics of a cell layer and a stochastic discrete model for cell proliferation and diffusion. The two models capture essential features of the experimental results and allow to make predictions for a wide range of experimentally measurable parameters.

  17. How Does Public Service Motivation Among Teachers Affect Student Performance in Schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Heinesen, Eskil; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    The literature expects public service motivation (PSM) to affect performance, but most of the existing studies of this relationship use subjective performance data and focus on output rather than outcome. This article investigates the association between PSM and the performance of Danish teachers...

  18. IT Performance Dashboard: Human Resources Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The IT Performance Dashboard is a trusted source for IT performance information across VA. This is available only on the VA intranet. The dashboard is a collection...

  19. Human performance models for computer-aided engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, Jerome I. (Editor); Card, Stuart K. (Editor); Hochberg, Julian (Editor); Huey, Beverly Messick (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses a topic important to the field of computational human factors: models of human performance and their use in computer-based engineering facilities for the design of complex systems. It focuses on a particular human factors design problem -- the design of cockpit systems for advanced helicopters -- and on a particular aspect of human performance -- vision and related cognitive functions. By focusing in this way, the authors were able to address the selected topics in some depth and develop findings and recommendations that they believe have application to many other aspects of human performance and to other design domains.

  20. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  1. The Impact of Strategic Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Luftim CANIA

    2014-01-01

    Organizational performance is getting more and more important, especially in a market with greater competition and dynamic. Organizational performance is measured through different indicators. It guarantees the continuity of the organization to be competitive in a global marketplace. Normally, the implementation of performance indicators achieved through human resources. Human resources are the key for keeping the organization in the market so competitive. These human resources need to be man...

  2. Job Satisfaction and Performance: The Moderating Effects of Value Attainment and Affective Disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Ferris, Gerald R.; Brymer, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    A study of 270 hotel managers found that the strongest positive relationship between job satisfaction and performance occurred when high attainment of values associated with work was coupled with high-positive or low-negative affective disposition. (SK)

  3. Investigating Learner Affective Performance in Web-Based Learning by Using Entrepreneurship as a Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Chou; Chi, Ming-Hsiao

    2012-01-01

    In the era of the Internet, factors which influence effective learning in a Web-based learning environment are well worth exploring. In addition to knowledge acquisition and skills training, affect is also an important factor, since successful learning requires excellent affective performance. Thus this study focuses on learners' affective…

  4. To branch out or stay focused? Affective shifts differentially predict organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu-Qin; Simon, Lauren S; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    We draw from personality systems interaction (PSI) theory (Kuhl, 2000) and regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) to examine how dynamic positive and negative affective processes interact to predict both task and contextual performance. Using a twice-daily diary design over the course of a 3-week period, results from multilevel regression analysis revealed that distinct patterns of change in positive and negative affect optimally predicted contextual and task performance among a sample of 71 employees at a medium-sized technology company. Specifically, within persons, increases (upshifts) in positive affect over the course of a workday better predicted the subsequent day's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) when such increases were coupled with decreases (downshifts) in negative affect. The optimal pattern of change in positive and negative affect differed, however, in predicting task performance. That is, upshifts in positive affect over the course of the workday better predicted the subsequent day's task performance when such upshifts were accompanied by upshifts in negative affect. The contribution of our findings to PSI theory and the broader affective and motivation regulation literatures, along with practical implications, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882443

  5. Endozoochorous dispersal of aquatic plants: does seed gut passage affect plant performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figuerola, J.; Santamaría, L.; Green, A.J.; Luque, I.; Alvarez, R.; Charalambidou, I.

    2005-01-01

    The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates can affect the germinability and/or germination rate of seeds. It is, however, unclear if an earlier germination as a result of ingestion affects later plant performance. For sago pondweed, Potamogeton pectinatus, the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on both g

  6. Cesium's Affects on Morphological Changes of Human Erythrocytes%Cesium's Affects on Morphological Changes of Human Erythrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng, Yunxiao; La, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Cesium could play a toxic role in several pathological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study morphological changes of human erythrocytes after incubating with different concentrations of CsCI, and the Raman spectra were used to study the effects of CsCl on the chemistry components of erythrocyte membrane. The AFM images showed that the "domain structures" that appeared after incubation with higher concentration of CsCl (150 mmol-L-1), are featured by the particles aggregated to form ranges and the separations among them enlarged to gorges, and this change may increase the permeability of cell membranes. The Raman results showed that the polar part of membrane phospholipid become more order and with the increasing of the concentration of CsCl, the longitudinal order of nonpolar parts first decreased and then increased. It is concluded that the aggregation of mem- brane proteins and the order changes of the phospholipid cause a change in the distribution and conformation of the phospholipid membrane. And the effects of CsCl on the erythrocyte membrane are mainly dependent on its concentration.

  7. The Effects of Self-Focus On Affect and Vertical Jump Performance of NCAA Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas G. Hammond; Henry (Hap) Davis IV; Leonard Ziachowsky

    2015-01-01

    Self-focused attention is often associated with a process of evaluation that has implications for affect, motivation and performance. However, this topic has received little attention in elite sport. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand the relationship between self-focused attention, affective responses and physical performance of successfully (n=12) and unsuccessful (n=12) NCAA athletes. Each athlete was presented with a self-focused and other-focused condition. They provided ratin...

  8. Human space exploration - From surviving to performing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles; Bukley, Angelia P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper explores the evolution of human spaceflight by examining the space programs of the United States, Russia, including the former Soviet Union, and China. A simple analysis of the numbers of humans who have flown into space, the durations of the missions flown, and the accumulated flight time of the individuals reveals that spaceflight is decidedly male-dominated and that approximately one out of six individuals flown was a non-career astronaut. In addition, 31 individuals have accumulated long-duration flight experience equivalent to a round trip to Mars. An examination of the evolution of spacecraft that have made these missions possible indicates that the time to accomplish the first four to five flights of a new human space vehicle has increased from less than one year to nearly 10 years.

  9. Neural coding of cooperative vs. affective human interactions: 150 ms to code the action's purpose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado Proverbio

    Full Text Available The timing and neural processing of the understanding of social interactions was investigated by presenting scenes in which 2 people performed cooperative or affective actions. While the role of the human mirror neuron system (MNS in understanding actions and intentions is widely accepted, little is known about the time course within which these aspects of visual information are automatically extracted. Event-Related Potentials were recorded in 35 university students perceiving 260 pictures of cooperative (e.g., 2 people dragging a box or affective (e.g., 2 people smiling and holding hands interactions. The action's goal was automatically discriminated at about 150-170 ms, as reflected by occipito/temporal N170 response. The swLORETA inverse solution revealed the strongest sources in the right posterior cingulate cortex (CC for affective actions and in the right pSTS for cooperative actions. It was found a right hemispheric asymmetry that involved the fusiform gyrus (BA37, the posterior CC, and the medial frontal gyrus (BA10/11 for the processing of affective interactions, particularly in the 155-175 ms time window. In a later time window (200-250 ms the processing of cooperative interactions activated the left post-central gyrus (BA3, the left parahippocampal gyrus, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA10, as well as the right premotor cortex (BA6. Women showed a greater response discriminative of the action's goal compared to men at P300 and anterior negativity level (220-500 ms. These findings might be related to a greater responsiveness of the female vs. male MNS. In addition, the discriminative effect was bilateral in women and was smaller and left-sided in men. Evidence was provided that perceptually similar social interactions are discriminated on the basis of the agents' intentions quite early in neural processing, differentially activating regions devoted to face/body/action coding, the limbic system and the MNS.

  10. Personality traits affect teaching performance of attending physicians : Results of a multi-center observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Scheepers, Renée A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Maas Jan Heineman; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied effects of personality traits on job performance and academic performance in medicine. However, up till date, research in clinical teaching practice did not use quantitative methods and d...

  11. Affective computing with primary and secondary emotions in a virtual human

    OpenAIRE

    Becker-Asano, Christian; Wachsmuth, Ipke

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the WASABI ([W]ASABI [A]ffect [S]imulation for [A] gents with [B]elievable [I]nteractivity) Affect Simulation Architecture, in which a virtual human's cognitive reasoning capabilities are combined with simulated embodiment to achieve the simulation of primary and secondary emotions. In modeling primary emotions we follow the idea of "Core Affect" in combination with a continuous progression of bodily feeling in three-dimensional emotion space ( PAD space), that is subsequently ca...

  12. Human Performance at the Perry Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provides a description of human performance training for plant workers as implemented at the Perry Nuclear Power Plant. Practical concepts regarding the training are presented as well as a demonstration of some of the training material. Concepts are drawn from INPO, Reason and Deming. The paper encourages the use of site-wide and individual organizational unit training in human performance management techniques. (author)

  13. How Live Performance Moves the Human Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Haruka; Adachi, Mayumi; Umeda, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how the audience member's physiological reactions differ as a function of listening context (i.e., live versus recorded music contexts). Thirty-seven audience members were assigned to one of seven pianists' performances and listened to his/her live performances of six pieces (fast and slow pieces by Bach, Schumann, and Debussy). Approximately 10 weeks after the live performance, each of the audience members returned to the same room and listened to the recorded performances of the same pianists' via speakers. We recorded the audience members' electrocardiograms in listening to the performances in both conditions, and analyzed their heart rates and the spectral features of the heart-rate variability (i.e., HF/TF, LF/HF). Results showed that the audience's heart rate was higher for the faster than the slower piece only in the live condition. As compared with the recorded condition, the audience's sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) was less while their vagal nervous system (HF/TF) was activated more in the live condition, which appears to suggest that sharing the ongoing musical moments with the pianist reduces the audience's physiological stress. The results are discussed in terms of the audience's superior attention and temporal entrainment to live performance.

  14. The developmental dynamics of children's academic performance and mothers' homework-related affect and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their affect, practices, and perceptions while their children were in Grades 2, 3, and 4. The results showed, first, that the more help in homework the mothers reported, the slower was the development of their children's academic performance from Grade 1 to Grade 4. This negative association was true especially if mothers perceived their children not to be able to work autonomously. Second, children's good academic performance in Grade 1 predicted mothers' perception of child's ability to be autonomous and positive affect in homework situations later on, whereas poor performance predicted mothers' negative affect, help, and monitoring. Finally, mothers' negative affect mediated the association between children's poor performance, maternal practices, and perceptions of their children. PMID:25798959

  15. Almost Human: The Study of Physical Processes and the Performance of a Prosthetic Digital Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Almost Human is an investigation of interdisciplinary performance through music that looks to the self to try to further understand subjective performance practices in expression, gesture and sonic output. This text presents experimental methods of examining and creating music through kinaesthetic and electronic-assisted means within instrumental, dance and interactive works. The extraction of affective, performative and sonic properties from these works aids in unlocking the relationship bet...

  16. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-01-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects' affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain's motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states. PMID:26996254

  17. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-03-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.

  18. How capital structure affects business performance in Chinese listed commercial banks

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Ting

    2011-01-01

    In the end of 2006, China realized the opening of financial market, thus Chinese commercial banks have to face the global competitors. The business performance of banks is the overall reflection of competence; however, the performance of Chinese banking industry is still weaker. According to some theoretical basis of capital structure, capital structure affects overall business performance by influencing the corporate governance of corporations. The capital structure of commercial banks also ...

  19. Improving human performance in maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous evolution and improvement of safety-related processes has included the analysis, design and development of training plans for the qualification of maintenance nuclear power plant personnel. In this respect, the international references in this area recommend the establishment of systematic qualification programmes for personnel performing functions or carrying out safety related tasks. Maintenance personnel qualification processes have improved significantly, and training plans have been designed and developed based on Systematic Approach to Training methodology to each job position. These improvements have been clearly reflected in recent training programmes with new training material and training facilities focused not only on developing technical knowledge and skills but also on improving attitudes and safety culture. The objectives of maintenance training facilities such as laboratories, mock-ups real an virtual, hydraulic loops, field simulators and other training material to be used in the maintenance training centre are to cover training necessities for initial and continuous qualification. Evidently, all these improvements made in the qualification of plant personnel should be extended to include supplemental personnel (external or contracted) performing safety-related tasks. The supplemental personnel constitute a very spread group, covering the performance of multiple activities entailing different levels of responsibility. Some of these activities are performed permanently at the plant, while others are occasional or sporadic. In order to establish qualification requirements for these supplemental workers, it is recommended to establish a rigorous analysis of job positions and tasks. The objective will be to identify the qualification requirements to assure competence and safety. (authors)

  20. The Impact of Strategic Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luftim CANIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational performance is getting more and more important, especially in a market with greater competition and dynamic. Organizational performance is measured through different indicators. It guarantees the continuity of the organization to be competitive in a global marketplace. Normally, the implementation of performance indicators achieved through human resources. Human resources are the key for keeping the organization in the market so competitive. These human resources need to be managed effectively to achieve the required performance of the organization. It is necessary to manage strategically the human resources and to adapt at its strategy with organizational strategy. The aim of this study is focused on the impact of the strategic management of human resource in achieving organizational performance. This study was conducted based on primary and secondary sources. How much organizations appear competitive in the market through achieving the performance indicators? How important is the management of human resources in achieving organizational performance? So, through the skills, behaviors and attitudes would be expected by human resources to achieve the required performance in the organization.

  1. The Effects of Self-Focus On Affect and Vertical Jump Performance of NCAA Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Hammond

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-focused attention is often associated with a process of evaluation that has implications for affect, motivation and performance. However, this topic has received little attention in elite sport. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand the relationship between self-focused attention, affective responses and physical performance of successfully (n=12 and unsuccessful (n=12 NCAA athletes. Each athlete was presented with a self-focused and other-focused condition. They provided ratings of positive affect and then completed vertical squat jumps after each stimulus condition. Significant interactions were observed between stimulus condition and athlete performance group for all dependent variables. Successful athletes demonstrated significantly more positive affect, and greater jump height and energy output following the self-focused condition. The opposite trend was observed for unsuccessful athletes. These findings highlight the potential for self-focused attention to enhance or detract from sport performance based on the direction of self-discrepancies.Keywords: self-focused attention, self-evaluation, elite athletes, positive affect, athletic performance

  2. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline W. ede Borst

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, animations, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the Uncanny Valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

  3. Causal attribution and affective response as mediated by task performance and self-acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T D; Bailey, R C; Zinser, O; Williams, D E

    1994-12-01

    Predictions derived from cognitive consistency theories, self-esteem theories, and ego-serving-bias theory concerning how students would make attributional and affective responses to their academic performance were investigated. 202 university students completed a measure of self-acceptance of their college ability and made attributional and affective responses to an hypothetical examination performance. Analyses showed that students receiving positive feedback perceived greater internal causality and responded with greater positive affect than students receiving negative feedback. Self-acceptance did not moderate the attributions or affective reactions. The results supported the ego-serving-bias theory and provided partial support for self-esteem theory. Findings did not support predictions from cognitive-consistency theory.

  4. The limits of human athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J

    2005-01-01

    For each individual, there is a limit to the capacity to perform exercise. The limitation, however, depends on the nature of the task and is also influenced by a number of other factors. Muscle strength is determined largely by muscle mass, specifically muscle cross-sectional area, but is also influenced by neural drive and biomechanical factors. Endurance performance depends on both cardiovascular capacity and the metabolic characteristics of the skeletal muscles. These factors are determined in part by genetic endowment: the elite sprinter has a high proportion of Type 2 muscle fibres while the leg muscles of the successful marathon runner are composes mainly of Type 1 fibres. Whatever the genetic potential, expression of this depends on the intensity, duration and frequency of the applied training stimulus, diet and other factors. The limitation may also depend on environmental factors, such as altitude and temperature.

  5. Genome scan identifies a locus affecting gamma-globin expression in human beta-cluster YAC transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.D.; Cooper, P.; Fung, J.; Weier, H.U.G.; Rubin, E.M.

    2000-03-01

    Genetic factors affecting post-natal g-globin expression - a major modifier of the severity of both b-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, have been difficult to study. This is especially so in mice, an organism lacking a globin gene with an expression pattern equivalent to that of human g-globin. To model the human b-cluster in mice, with the goal of screening for loci affecting human g-globin expression in vivo, we introduced a human b-globin cluster YAC transgene into the genome of FVB mice . The b-cluster contained a Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) g allele resulting in postnatal expression of human g-globin in transgenic mice. The level of human g-globin for various F1 hybrids derived from crosses between the FVB transgenics and other inbred mouse strains was assessed. The g-globin level of the C3HeB/FVB transgenic mice was noted to be significantly elevated. To map genes affecting postnatal g-globin expression, a 20 centiMorgan (cM) genome scan of a C3HeB/F VB transgenics [prime] FVB backcross was performed, followed by high-resolution marker analysis of promising loci. From this analysis we mapped a locus within a 2.2 cM interval of mouse chromosome 1 at a LOD score of 4.2 that contributes 10.4% of variation in g-globin expression level. Combining transgenic modeling of the human b-globin gene cluster with quantitative trait analysis, we have identified and mapped a murine locus that impacts on human g-globin expression in vivo.

  6. Key Performance Indicators Supporting Decision-Making Affecting Malaysian Enterprise' Project Performance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah B. Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The cost due to corrosion Damage have estimated to be 3-4% of their gross national product which significantly Countries problem around the world. Approach: In this study, a novel carbon steel pipe protection based on RBFNN was proposed. The RBFNN used to predict the minimum current density required in impressed current cathodic protection to protect low carbon steel pipe. Learning data was performed by using a 30 samples test with different concentration C%, temperature T, distance D and pH. The RBFNN model has four input nodes representing the (concentration C%, temperature T, distance D and pH, eight nodes at hidden layer and one output node representing the min. current density. Results: Generalization test used 5 data samples taken from the experimental results other than those data samples used in the learning process to check the performance of the neural network on these data. Conclusion: In addition, the experimental results indicate that proposed system can be used successfully to obtain minimum cathodic protection current density to protect low carbon steel pipes.

  7. Human capital, social capital and organizational performance: A structural modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    J. Augusto Felicio; Eduardo Couto; Jorge Caiado

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates the human capital and social capital of managers and its influence on the performance of small and medium-sized Portuguese companies. We resorted to the structural modeling methodology approach applied to a sample of 192 small and medium companies aged between four and fifteen years from five different activity sectors. It was concluded that human capital affects social capital and the experience and cognitive ability influence personal relations and complicity. The or...

  8. The Impact of Human Resource Practices and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors on Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Babaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The examination of organizational citizenship behaviors as the mediating variable through which human resource practices affect firm performance is still scarce. Approach: This study examined the mediation effects of organizational citizenship behaviors on the relationships between selected human resource practices and firm performance. The human resource practices studied were reward and performance appraisal practices and firm performance was studied in terms of quality of services. Data were collected from a sample of 179 branches of two banks in Tehran, Iran. The participants in this study included 176 managerial employees, 352 non-managerial employees and 871 customers. To achieve these objectives a mediation model was tested using structural equation modeling procedure to examine if the hypothesized model fit the data. Results: The results showed that organizational citizenship behaviors fully mediated the relationships between reward practices and quality of services and partially mediated the relationships between performance appraisal practices and quality of services. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings of this study suggest that human resource practices play a critical role in enhancing employees organizational citizenship behaviors and firm performance. Organizational citizenship behaviors mediate the effects of reward and performance appraisal practices on service quality. To improve service quality, employers should improve reward and performance appraisal practices since these practices have an impact on employees organizational citizenship behaviors which in turn would affect service quality.

  9. The brain's emotional foundations of human personality and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kenneth L; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Six of the primary-process subcortical brain emotion systems - SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, CARE, GRIEF and PLAY - are presented as foundational for human personality development, and hence as a potentially novel template for personality assessment as in the Affective Neurosciences Personality Scales (ANPS), described here. The ANPS was conceptualized as a potential clinical research tool, which would help experimentalists and clinicians situate subjects and clients in primary-process affective space. These emotion systems are reviewed in the context of a multi-tiered framing of consciousness spanning from primary affect, which encodes biological valences, to higher level tertiary (thought mediated) processing. Supporting neuroscience research is presented along with comparisons to Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory and the Five Factor Model (FFM). Suggestions are made for grounding the internal structure of the FFM on the primal emotional systems recognized in affective neuroscience, which may promote substantive dialog between human and animal research traditions. Personality is viewed in the context of Darwinian "continuity" with the inherited subcortical brain emotion systems being foundational, providing major forces for personality development in both humans and animals, and providing an affective infrastructure for an expanded five factor descriptive model applying to normal and clinical human populations as well as mammals generally. Links with ontogenetic and epigenetic models of personality development are also presented. Potential novel clinical applications of the CARE maternal-nurturance system and the PLAY system are also discussed.

  10. Analysis of Factors Affecting Execution Performance of OpenMP Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianjiang; SHU Jiwu; CHEN Yongjian; WANG Dingxing; ZHENG Weiming

    2005-01-01

    OpenMP is able to develop multithreaded programs with lower cost as a promising way to quickly parallelize a great number of serial programs. However, there are many difficulties when developing OpenMP multithreaded programs. Most importantly, the performance of OpenMP programs cannot be guaranteed, which has greatly affected the application of OpenMP. This paper examines several factors that affect the execution performance of OpenMP programs, including loop transformation, scheduling strategy, the number of threads, and nested parallelism. The results show that one of the key reasons for performance degradation is load imbalance, which can be corrected by reasonable use of these key factors to improve the execution performance of OpenMP programs.

  11. The Affective Dimension and Human Oriented Management of the Human Capital%人力资本的情感维度与人本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓峰

    2011-01-01

    现代管理正以前所未有的力度从物性向人性回归,组织员工越来越重视自身的情感满足,情感作为分析人力资本的一个重要维度,与体力维度、智力维度三者相互重叠、交互作用,构成人力资本的三重结构。随着情感在组织发展中的地位提升,情感维度对于开发与利用人力资本日渐重要,体现在战略管理上的意义就是人本管理。包含情感维度的人本管理是提升组织人力资本优势的重要途径之一。全面的人力资本与人本管理是组织实现绩效的有力管理工具,是组织挖掘潜在人力资源,提升核心竞争力的根本保证。在人力资本开发利用方面,情感维度能比体力、智力维度发挥更大作用,其协同效应将能创造更为显著的基于人本的竞争优势。%Modem management is more human oriented than physical property oriented. The stuff of any organization is attaching more and more importance to its own emotional satisfaction. The affection, an aspect of analyzing human capital, together with physical strength and intelligence, three of which overlap and interact with each other form the three structure of the human capital. With the role promotion of the affection in the development of the organization, its function is becoming more and more important in exploiting and using human capital, strategically, it is human oriented manage- ment. Affective human oriented management is one of the ways to promote the human capital advantage of the organization. The all-round human capital and human oriented management is an effective tool in the implementation of performance evaluation in the organization, and the basic guarantee of promoting its competitiveness through exploiting the human recourse potential. The function of affection is more significant than that of the physical strength and intelligence, its coordinating function can create more significant human oriented competitive

  12. Load carriage, human performance, and employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Peoples, Gregory E; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-06-01

    The focus of this review is on the physiological considerations necessary for developing employment standards within occupations that have a heavy reliance on load carriage. Employees within military, fire fighting, law enforcement, and search and rescue occupations regularly work with heavy loads. For example, soldiers often carry loads >50 kg, whilst structural firefighters wear 20-25 kg of protective clothing and equipment, in addition to carrying external loads. It has long been known that heavy loads modify gait, mobility, metabolic rate, and efficiency, while concurrently elevating the risk of muscle fatigue and injury. In addition, load carriage often occurs within environmentally stressful conditions, with protective ensembles adding to the thermal burden of the workplace. Indeed, physiological strain relates not just to the mass and dimensions of carried objects, but to how those loads are positioned on and around the body. Yet heavy loads must be borne by men and women of varying body size, and with the expectation that operational capability will not be impinged. This presents a recruitment conundrum. How do employers identify capable and injury-resistant individuals while simultaneously avoiding discriminatory selection practices? In this communication, the relevant metabolic, cardiopulmonary, and thermoregulatory consequences of loaded work are reviewed, along with concomitant impediments to physical endurance and mobility. Also emphasised is the importance of including occupation-specific clothing, protective equipment, and loads during work-performance testing. Finally, recommendations are presented for how to address these issues when evaluating readiness for duty.

  13. Load carriage, human performance, and employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Peoples, Gregory E; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-06-01

    The focus of this review is on the physiological considerations necessary for developing employment standards within occupations that have a heavy reliance on load carriage. Employees within military, fire fighting, law enforcement, and search and rescue occupations regularly work with heavy loads. For example, soldiers often carry loads >50 kg, whilst structural firefighters wear 20-25 kg of protective clothing and equipment, in addition to carrying external loads. It has long been known that heavy loads modify gait, mobility, metabolic rate, and efficiency, while concurrently elevating the risk of muscle fatigue and injury. In addition, load carriage often occurs within environmentally stressful conditions, with protective ensembles adding to the thermal burden of the workplace. Indeed, physiological strain relates not just to the mass and dimensions of carried objects, but to how those loads are positioned on and around the body. Yet heavy loads must be borne by men and women of varying body size, and with the expectation that operational capability will not be impinged. This presents a recruitment conundrum. How do employers identify capable and injury-resistant individuals while simultaneously avoiding discriminatory selection practices? In this communication, the relevant metabolic, cardiopulmonary, and thermoregulatory consequences of loaded work are reviewed, along with concomitant impediments to physical endurance and mobility. Also emphasised is the importance of including occupation-specific clothing, protective equipment, and loads during work-performance testing. Finally, recommendations are presented for how to address these issues when evaluating readiness for duty. PMID:27277563

  14. Association of Affective Commitment with Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and Task Performance of Employees in Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    DANISH, Rizwan Qaiser; SHAHID, Ahmad Usman; HUMAYON, Asad Afzal; Nawaz, Muhammad Musarrat

    2015-01-01

    The basic objective of this study was to determine the impact of organizational commitment especially affective commitment on extra role and in role performance of employees working in banks in the capital of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. In addition, the secondary purpose of this study was to explore what level of commitment these employees demonstrate towards their organizations and what are their behaviours in performing jobs accordingly. So the present study had contributed to enhance the con...

  15. Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Lab Study Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    The HEMAP (Human Engineering Modeling and Performance) Lab is a joint effort between the Industrial and Human Engineering group and the KAVE (Kennedy Advanced Visualiations Environment) group. The lab consists of sixteen camera system that is used to capture human motions and operational tasks, through te use of a Velcro suit equipped with sensors, and then simulate these tasks in an ergonomic software package know as Jac, The Jack software is able to identify the potential risk hazards.

  16. A conceptual model for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Ghafari Ashtiani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain is a widely used concept around the world. Nowadays, companies need to integrate their production processes, from the raw materials to the end-user. Supply chain management is a phenomenon that achieves this in a way that ensures customers get reliable and fast service and high quality products at the lowest possible cost. There is very limited and sporadic research on supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance. Therefore there is no real understanding of the concept of supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance nor is there a holistic model. This paper thus aims to present a model that identifies factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. After analyzing the collected data on supply chain integration and customer delivery performance, the preliminary model was proposed and completed, and using expert opinion in the Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery the final model and for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance were presented. To determine how these factors interrelate with each other, the DEMATEL method was then used. The statistical population included the staff at Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery in Shazand. The data, collected through the standard DEMATEL questionnaire, were analyzed using the DEMATEL method and a MATLAB program. The DEMATEL results indicate that intra-organizational factors, institutional norms, technological certainties are causal factors which influence other factors that affect the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. Intra-organizational factor have a greater influence also among effect factors, substructures have the greatest influence.

  17. Human Resource Practices and Firm Performance in Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study uses data from 201 Chinese firms to test two competing theories concerning human resource practices and firm performance. "Best practice theory" is supported for many of the human resource practices examined in the study. Contingency theory is generally not supported for three contingencies: business strategy, ownership and industry.

  18. Specific Human Capital as a Source of Superior Team Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Egon Franck; Stephan Nüesch; Jan Pieper

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we empirically investigate the performance effect of team-specific human capital in highly interactive teams. Based on the tenets of the resource-based view of the firm and on the ideas of typical learning functions, we hypothesize that team members’ shared experience in working together positively impacts team performance, but at diminishing rates. Holding a team’s stock of general human capital and other potential drivers constant, we find support for this prediction. Implica...

  19. Alpha suppression following performance errors is correlated with depression, affect, and coping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Rebecca J; Hofheimer, Julia; Kazinka, Rebecca; Levinson, Amanda; Zheutlin, Amanda

    2013-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that enhanced neural arousal in response to performance errors would predict poor affect and coping behaviors in everyday life. Participants were preselected as either low-depressed (LD) or high-depressed (HD) based on a screening questionnaire, and they then completed a laboratory Stroop task while EEG was recorded, followed by a 2-week period of daily reports of affect and coping behaviors. The EEG measure of arousal response to errors was the degree of error-related alpha suppression (ERAS) in the intertrial interval, that is the reduction in alpha power following errors compared with correct responses. ERAS was relatively heightened at frontal sites for the HD versus the LD group, and frontal ERAS predicted lower positive affect, higher negative affect, and less adaptive coping behaviors in the daily reports. Together, the results imply that heightened arousal following mistakes is associated with suboptimal emotion and coping with stressors. PMID:23731439

  20. Internal Challenges Affecting Academic Performance of Student-Athletes in Ghanaian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaak, Daniel; Sarpong, Emmanuel Osei

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined internal challenges affecting academic performance of student-athletes in Ghanaian public universities, using a descriptive survey research design. Proportionate random sampling technique was employed to select Three Hundred and Thirty-Two (332) respondents for the study. The instrument used in gathering data for the study was…

  1. Factors affecting contrasting results between self-reported and performance-based levels of physical limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, GIJM; vanHeuvelen, MJG; vandenBrink, RHS; Kooijman, AC; Klein, M; Houx, PJ; Ormel, J

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the role of socio-demographic variables, cognitive and affective functioning, and personality in discrepancies between performance-based and self-report measures within three domains of physical limitations: motor functioning, hearing and vision. Data are drawn from a community-base

  2. Factors Affecting University Entrants' Performance in High-Stakes Tests: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Chin; Manalo, Ronaldo A.; Cabauatan, Ronaldo R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Philippines, students seeking admission to a university are usually required to meet certain entrance requirements, including passing the entrance examinations with questions on IQ and English, mathematics, and science. This paper aims to determine the factors that affect the performance of entrants into business programmes in high-stakes…

  3. Study of Core Competency Elements and Factors Affecting Performance Efficiency of Government Teachers in Northeastern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the core competency elements and the factors affecting the performance efficiency of the civil service teachers in the northeastern region, Thailand. The research procedure consisted of two steps. In the first step, the data were collected using a questionnaire with the reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of 0.90. The…

  4. Managing Human Performance to Improve Nuclear Facility Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-2.1, Managing Human Resources in the Field of Nuclear Energy, was published in 2009. In that publication, four interrelated objectives of the management of human resources were identified and discussed: ensuring that nuclear industry personnel have the necessary competence for their jobs; effectively organizing work activities; anticipating human resource needs; and monitoring and continually improving performance. This publication addresses the fourth objective and, in particular, summarizes good practices in the area of managing human performance

  5. Factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon, with emphasis on human impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2008-01-01

    We review factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on the factors affecting migration is essential...... migration. Impacts of human activities may also cause altered migration patterns, affect the within-river distribution of the spawning population, and severe barriers may result in displacement of the spawning population to other rivers. Factors documented to affect within-river migration include previous...... experience, water discharge, water temperature, water velocity, required jump heights, fish size, fish acclimatisation, light, water quality/pollution, time of the season, and catch and handling stress. How each of these factors affects the upstream migration is to a varying extent understood; however...

  6. Development of Human Performance Analysis and Advanced HRA Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to build a systematic framework that can evaluate the effect of human factors related problems on the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as develop a technology that can be used to enhance human performance. The research goal of this project is twofold: (1) the development of a human performance database and a framework to enhance human performance, and (2) the analysis of human error with constructing technical basis for human reliability analysis. There are three kinds of main results of this study. The first result is the development of a human performance database, called OPERA-I/II (Operator Performance and Reliability Analysis, Part I and Part II). In addition, a standard communication protocol was developed based on OPERA to reduce human error caused from communication error in the phase of event diagnosis. Task complexity (TACOM) measure and the methodology of optimizing diagnosis procedures were also finalized during this research phase. The second main result is the development of a software, K-HRA, which is to support the standard HRA method. Finally, an advanced HRA method named as AGAPE-ET was developed by combining methods MDTA (misdiagnosis tree analysis technique) and K-HRA, which can be used to analyze EOC (errors of commission) and EOO (errors of ommission). These research results, such as OPERA-I/II, TACOM, a standard communication protocol, K-HRA and AGAPE-ET methods will be used to improve the quality of HRA and to enhance human performance in nuclear power plants

  7. Affective States and Performance Outcomes – The Findings of Preliminary Research Involving Pentathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samełko Aleksandra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this article is to discuss the relationship between affective states experienced by athletes and the outcome of their performance. The article presents the findings of a pilot study which made it possible to determine the relationship between the emotional states, mood, and level of stress of a group of pentathletes and the outcomes they achieved in a sports competition. Material and methods. The study involved 12 senior modern pentathletes, including 7 male and 5 female athletes. The following standard psychology questionnaires were used in the study: the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, and the Profile of Mood State (POMS. Performance was assessed based on the number of points achieved by the pentathletes in particular events in the pentathlon, which are held according to the rules set by the International Modern Pentathlon Union (UIPM. Results. The findings of the study confirmed that there was a correlation between the athletes’ mood and emotions and the outcome of their performance. The level of stress strongly negatively correlated with both the outcome they expected to achieve and the one they actually achieved for the combined event (running and shooting. For this event a relationship was also found between the athletes’ affective states and their outcomes: in running and shooting there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between the level of positive emotions and anger and the results achieved. However, friendliness, one of the other affective state variables that were measured, correlated negatively with the outcomes of the athletes’ performance. Conclusions. In the group of pentathletes who participated in the study, a high level of anger was associated with better outcomes, and a high level of friendliness had an adverse effect on the results achieved. The findings of the current study confirm that there is a relationship

  8. Characterization of human arterial tissue affected by atherosclerosis using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baria, Enrico; Cicchi, Riccardo; Rotellini, Matteo; Nesi, Gabriella; Massi, Daniela; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a widespread cardiovascular disease caused by the deposition of lipids (such as cholesterol and triglycerides) on the inner arterial wall. The rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, resulting in a thrombus, is one of the leading causes of death in the Western World. Preventive assessment of plaque vulnerability is therefore extremely important and can be performed by studying collagen organization and lipid composition in atherosclerotic arterial tissues. Routinely used diagnostic methods, such as histopathological examination, are limited to morphological analysis of the examined tissues, whereas an exhaustive characterization requires immune-histochemical examination and a morpho-functional approach. Instead, a label-free and non-invasive alternative is provided by nonlinear microscopy. In this study, we combined SHG and FLIM microscopy in order to characterize collagen organization and lipids in human carotid ex vivo tissues affected by atherosclerosis. SHG and TPF images, acquired from different regions within atherosclerotic plaques, were processed through image pattern analysis methods (FFT, GLCM). The resulting information on collagen and cholesterol distribution and anisotropy, combined with collagen and lipids fluorescence lifetime measured from FLIM images, allowed characterization of carotid samples and discrimination of different tissue regions. The presented method can be applied for automated classification of atherosclerotic lesions and plaque vulnerability. Moreover, it lays the foundation for a potential in vivo diagnostic tool to be used in clinical setting.

  9. NASA Human Health and Performance Information Architecture Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Kadwa, Binafer; VanBaalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at NASA's Johnson Space Center has a mission to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable mission success, optimizing human health and productivity in space before, during, and after the actual spaceflight experience of our crews, and include support for ground-based functions. Many of our spaceflight innovations also provide solutions for terrestrial challenges, thereby enhancing life on Earth.

  10. Nuclear power plant life extension: How aging affects performance of containments & other structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert A Dameron; Sun Junling

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on how aging can affect performance of safety-related structures in nuclear power plant (NPP).Knowledge and assessment of impacts of aging on structures are essential to plant life extension analysis,especially performance to severe loadings such as loss-of-coolant-accidents or major seismic events.Plant life extension issues are of keen interest in countries (like the United States) which have a large,aging fleet of NPPs.This paper addresses the overlap and relationship of structure aging to severe loading performance,with particular emphasis on containment structures.

  11. Does social capital affect investment in human capital? Family ties and schooling decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, Di Salvatore; Bulte, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    We analyse whether traditional sharing norms within kinship networks affect education decisions of poor black households in KwaZulu-Natal. Theory predicts that the size of the kinship network ambiguously impacts on the incentive to invest in human capital (due to opposing ‘empathy’ and ‘free-ride

  12. Does social capital affect investment in human capital? Family ties and schooling decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Falco, Salvatore; Bulte, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    We analyse whether traditional sharing norms within kinship networks affect education decisions of poor black households in KwaZulu-Natal. Theory predicts that the size of the kinship network ambiguously impacts on the incentive to invest in human capital (due to opposing ‘empathy’ and ‘free-rider’

  13. Affective Education: A Teacher's Manual to Promote Student Self-Actualization and Human Relations Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Thomas R.

    This teacher's manual presents affective education as a program to promote student self-actualization and human relations skills. Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Erik Erikson's life stages of psychosocial development form the conceptual base for this program. The goals and objectives of this manual are concerned with problem-solving…

  14. GENERATOR DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE AFFECTED BY PARAMETER’S UNCERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Beik Khormizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of generator parameters inaccuracy on the transient stability performance of generator and power system. Normally, generator parameters are identified either by calculation based on design specification or by measurements. In both approaches the parameters are obtained with some degree of inaccuracy. Inaccuracy and uncertainty in the obtained parameters can affect the dynamic performance and transient behavior of synchronous generators in which this may affect transient stability evaluation of power systems. In this study by introducing a sensitivity analysis concept for dynamic performance of generator the effect of inaccuracy of generator parameters on the transient stability of power system is evaluated and the acceptable and tolerable inaccuracy in the identification of each parameter is analyzed. The proposed concept and approach is demonstrated on the IEEE 39-bus test.

  15. Neuropsychological performance and affective temperaments in Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ester; Holtzman, Jessica N; Tannenhaus, Lucila; Monchablon, Romina; Rago, Carlo Mario; Lolich, Maria; Vázquez, Gustavo H

    2016-04-30

    Affective temperament has been suggested as a potential mediator of the effect between genetic predisposition and neurocognitive functioning. As such, this report seeks to assess the extent of the correlation between affective temperament and cognitive function in a group of bipolar II subjects. 46 bipolar II outpatients [mean age 41.4 years (SD 18.2); female 58.9%] and 46 healthy controls [mean age 35.1 years (SD 18); female 56.5%] were evaluated with regard to their demographic and clinical characteristics, affective temperament, and neurocognitive performance. Crude bivariate correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were constructed between five affective temperament subscales and eight neurocognitive domains. Significant correlations were identified in bipolar patients between hyperthymic temperament and verbal memory and premorbid IQ; cyclothymic temperament and attention; and irritable temperament, attention, and verbal fluency. In adjusting for potential confounders of the relationship between temperament and cognitive function, the strongest mediating factors among the euthymic bipolar patients were found to be residual manic and depressive symptoms. It is therefore concluded that affective temperaments may partially influence the neurocognitive performance of both healthy controls and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II in several specific domains. PMID:27086230

  16. Entrance Qualifications Affect the Performance of Nutrition Students at University: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Apenten, Richard; Xu, Wen Li

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of admissions qualifications on the subsequent academic performances of BSc nutrition students at a UK university. Entrance qualifications for three groups (Grp01, Grp02, Grp03) reading for a BSc(Hons) degree in, Dietetics, Food & Nutrition or Human Nutrition (n = 105) were determined from their UCAS (Universities…

  17. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

    2010-01-01

    This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

  18. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Flueckiger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. METHODS: On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. RESULTS: Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. CONCLUSION: Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  19. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption... industry entitled ``Evaluating the Safety of Flood-affected Food Crops for Human Consumption''...

  20. How sleep deprivation affects psychological variables related to college students' cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, J J; Walters, A S

    1997-11-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance psychological variables related to cognitive performance were studied in 44 college students. Participants completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal after either 24 hours of sleep deprivation or approximately 8 hours of sleep. After completing the cognitive task, the participants completed 2 questionnaires, one assessing self-reported effort, concentration, and estimated performance, the other assessing off-task cognitions. As expected, sleep-deprived participants performed significantly worse than the nondeprived participants on the cognitive task. However, the sleep-deprived participants rated their concentration and effort higher than the nondeprived participants did. In addition, the sleep-deprived participants rated their estimated performance significantly higher than the nondeprived participants did. The findings indicate that college students are not aware of the extent to which sleep deprivation negatively affects their ability to complete cognitive tasks. PMID:9394089

  1. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  2. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such a s situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  3. Gender Differences in Introductory University Physics Performance: The Influence of High School Physics Preparation and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra

    2006-12-01

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school has been a continuing concern for the physics education community. If females are well prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory college physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study uses HLM to identify factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that predict female and male performance in introductory college physics. The study includes controls for student demographic and academic background characteristics, and the final dataset consists of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory college physics classes. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially predict female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believe that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that similarly predict female and male performance. The results paint a dynamic picture of the factors from high school physics and the affective domain that influence the future physics performance of females and males. The implication is that there are many aspects to the teaching of physics in high school that, although widely used and thought to be effective, need reform in their implementation in order to be fully beneficial to females and/or males in college.

  4. Processes, Performance Drivers and ICT Tools in Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Oškrdal Václav; Pavlíček Antonín; Jelínková Petra

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an insight to processes, performance drivers and ICT tools in human resources (HR) management area. On the basis of a modern approach to HR management, a set of business processes that are handled by today’s HR managers is defined. Consequently, the concept of ICT-supported performance drivers and their relevance in the area of HR management as well as the relationship between HR business processes, performance drivers and ICT tools are defined. The theoretical outcomes ...

  5. Centrality and charisma: comparing how leader networks and attributions affect team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A

    2011-11-01

    When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model according to which the leader's charisma facilitates the occupation of a central position in the informal advice network. From this central position, the leader positively influences team performance. Second, we examined the centrality-to-charisma model according to which charisma is attributed to those leaders who are socially active in terms of giving and receiving advice. Attributed charisma facilitates increased team performance. We tested these 2 models in 2 different studies. In the first study, based on time-separated, multisource data emanating from members of 56 work teams, we found support for the centrality-to-charisma model. Formal leaders who were central within team advice networks were seen as charismatic by subordinates, and this charisma was associated with high team performance. To clarify how leader network centrality affected the emergence of charismatic leadership, we designed Study 2 in which, for 79 student teams, we measured leader networking activity and leader charisma at 2 different points in time and related these variables to team performance measured at a third point in time. On the basis of this temporally separated data set, we again found support for the centrality-to-charisma model. PMID:21895351

  6. Factors Affecting the Performance of Small Indigenous Contractors in Papau New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wasi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Contractors’ performance, amongst other things, has been associated with the high costof public housing in Papua New Guinea. Given that small indigenous contractorsundertake construction of all public housing, this paper investigates the performance ofsmall indigenous contractors.Eight likely factors that affect small indigenous contractors' performance are identifiedfrom the literature. An empirical study is then described aimed at determining how80Page (iv The Australian Journal of Construction Economics and Buildingthese factors affect project cost, time and quality. This comprised a survey conducted inPort Moresby by personally administered questionnaires to a sample of smallindigenous contractors to assess the level of factors associated with the problem of lackof performance. Additionally, the view of each firm concerning the effect of each factoron performance was also obtained. The results show that, with the exception of culture,all the factors are perceived to have an effect of construction performance. It is alsoshown that the incidence of these factors, within the firms surveyed, are quite low. Ofparticular concern is the level of cash flow.

  7. Unsafe Acts from Human Performance Analysis with Simulator Training Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Seunghwan; Jung, Wondea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this research, UA is defined as an inappropriate human behavior that has a potential for leading the safety of NPPs to a negative direction. The purpose of this paper is to describe a process of UA analysis through a case study under a simulated emergency and the analysis results. In this paper, we described the process for UA identification and demonstrated examples of UA accompanied by consequence by a case study on ISLOCA scenario. It is well known that the contribution of human performance related problems (or human error) to the safety of sociotechnical systems is critical. Moreover, it is reported that about 75% of all accidents and/or incidents that have occurred in the complicated process control systems are attributable to human error. Therefore lots of efforts to perform an HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) based on various approaches made to enhance their safety. HRA data is an important prerequisite for improving HRA quality. For this reason, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) developed a standardized guideline is to specify how to gather HRA data from simulator training records and crated IGT (Information Gathering Template) specifying what kinds of measures should be observed during the simulations. Based on the data collection framework, we have performed data collection to analyze inappropriate human behavior (or UA; Unsafe Act) with simulator training data about various scenario needed AOP (Abnormal Operation Procedure) or EOP (Emergency Operation Procedure) operations for HEP (Human Error Probability) calculation.

  8. A new method to evaluate human-robot system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the key issues in space exploration is that of deciding what space tasks are best done with humans, with robots, or a suitable combination of each. In general, human and robot skills are complementary. Humans provide as yet unmatched capabilities to perceive, think, and act when faced with anomalies and unforeseen events, but there can be huge potential risks to human safety in getting these benefits. Robots provide complementary skills in being able to work in extremely risky environments, but their ability to perceive, think, and act by themselves is currently not error-free, although these capabilities are continually improving with the emergence of new technologies. Substantial past experience validates these generally qualitative notions. However, there is a need for more rigorously systematic evaluation of human and robot roles, in order to optimize the design and performance of human-robot system architectures using well-defined performance evaluation metrics. This article summarizes a new analytical method to conduct such quantitative evaluations. While the article focuses on evaluating human-robot systems, the method is generally applicable to a much broader class of systems whose performance needs to be evaluated.

  9. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Falco, Simona; Bornstein, Marc H; Caria, Andrea; Buffolino, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs) infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors. PMID:24282537

  10. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Paolo Senese

    Full Text Available Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.

  11. Preschoolers' attribution of affect to music: A comparison between vocal and instrumental performance

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Fabia; Chew, Marcia; Swaine, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown inconsistent results concerning the ability of young children to identify musical emotion. This study explores the influence of the type of musical performance (vocal vs. instrumental) on children’s affect identification. Using an independent-group design, novel child-directed music was presented in three conditions: instrumental, vocal-only, and song (instrumental plus vocals) to 3- to 6-year-olds previously screened for language development (n = 76). A forced-choice task ...

  12. Factors affecting cadence choice during submaximal cycling and cadence influence on performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Smith, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Cadence choice during cycling has been of considerable interest among cyclists, coaches, and researchers for nearly 100 years. The present review examines and summarizes the current knowledge of factors affecting the freely chosen cadence during submaximal cycling and of the influence of cadence choice on performance. In addition, suggestions for future research are given along with scientifically based, practical recommendations for those involved in cycling. Within the past 10 years, a numb...

  13. Combining Work and Study in Tatarstan Higher Education Institutions: How Academic Performance Is Affected?

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Yanbarisova

    2014-01-01

    Diana Yanbarisova - Research Fellow at Institute of Education, HSE. E-mail: s, combining work and study is typical for both low-income students and those who are well off. Such students have an array of reasons to start working, from the ambition to get integrated into the job market and build a career to the desire to fill their spare time. The paper investigates how different combinations of work and study affect academic performance of students in their final ...

  14. Structural Factors That Affect the Performance of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-08-27

    The performance of polymer:fullerene solar cells is strongly affected by the active layer morphology and polymer microstructure. In this Perspective, we review ongoing research on how structural factors influence the photogeneration and collection of charge carriers as well as charge carrier recombination and the related open-circuit voltage. We aim to highlight unexplored research opportunities and provide some guidelines for the synthesis of new conjugated polymers for high-efficiency solar cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. How Income Diversification, Size and Capital Ratio Affect BHC’s Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Brighi; Valeria Venturelli

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the range of activities conducted by banks influences their performance and risk. Using an unbalanced panel dataset which includes 308 bank-year observations, for the period 2006-2011, corresponding to 52 Italian Bank Holding Companies in the last year, the core question is to analyse the effect of diversification across and within both traditional and non-traditional income and if the results have been affected by the financial crisis. The main results suggest...

  16. Computer-Detected Attention Affects Foreign Language Listening but Not Reading Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping

    2016-08-01

    No quantitative study has explored the influence of attention on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). This study investigated whether computer-detected attention is associated with EFL reading and listening and reading and listening anxiety. Traditional paper-based English tests used as entrance examinations and tests of general trait anxiety, reading, listening, reading test state anxiety, and listening test state anxiety were administered in 252 Taiwan EFL college students who were divided into High Attention (Conners' Continuous Performance Test, CPT EFL students with computer-detected low attention tendency was elevated and their EFL listening performance was affected, but those differences were not found in reading. PMID:27371638

  17. Event analysis for safety relevance rating of human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a project for establishing instruments allowing identification and evaluation of safety relevance of human action without the need for prior, detailed PSA. Criteria and auxiliary means such as tabulated information for rapid acquisition, analysis and evaluation of available technical and organisational/administrative information have been elaborated, and are applied for safety relevance rating of human factors. The method has been applied to evaluate human performance under specified normal operating conditions including in-service inspections. Human performance in notifiable events was analysed, and particularly comprehensive examinations have been carried out relating to maintenance and repair work, in-service inspections, standard switching processes, modifications, and work scheduling. (orig./CB)

  18. A Framework for Evaluating the Effects of Degraded Digital I and C Systems on Human Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara,J.; Gunther, B.; Hughes, N.; Barnes, V.

    2009-04-09

    New and advanced reactors will use integrated digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems to support operators in their monitoring and control functions. Even though digital systems are typically highly reliable, their potential for degradation or failure could significantly affect operator situation awareness and performance and, consequently, impact plant safety. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a research project to investigate the effects of degraded I&C systems on human performance and plant operations. The ultimate objective of this project is to develop the technical basis for human factors review guidance for conditions of degraded I&C, including complete failure. Based on the results of this effort, NRC will determine the need for developing new guidance or revising NUREG-0800, NUREG-0711, NUREG-0700 and other pertinent NRC review guidance. This paper reports on the first phase of the research, the development of a framework for linking degraded I&C system conditions to human performance. The framework consists of three levels: I&C subsystems, human-system interfaces, and human performance. Each level is composed of a number of discrete elements. This paper will describe the elements at each level and their integration. In the next phase of the research, the framework will be used to systematically investigate the human performance consequences of various classes of failures.

  19. Human capital measures, strategy and performance: HR managers' perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Stephen; Langevin, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a survey and interviews with human resource (HR) professionals to identify and better understand their perceptions and expectations of human capital measures' (HCM) content, links to strategy, and impact on performance. This paper relies on a quantitative analysis of survey questionnaires collected from 104 HR executives, as well as on a qualitative investigation using six interviews. Two types of HCM are derived using principal component ...

  20. Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Reynolds, C. F. 3rd; Berga, S. L.; Jarrett, D. B.; Begley, A. E.; Kupfer, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between circadian performance rhythms and rhythms in rectal temperature, plasma cortisol, plasma melatonin, subjective alertness and well-being. Seventeen healthy young adults were studied under 36 h of 'unmasking' conditions (constant wakeful bedrest, temporal isolation, homogenized 'meals') during which rectal temperatures were measured every minute, and plasma cortisol and plasma melatonin measured every 20 min. Hourly subjective ratings of global vigour (alertness) and affect (well-being) were obtained followed by one of two performance batteries. On odd-numbered hours performance (speed and accuracy) of serial search, verbal reasoning and manual dexterity tasks was assessed. On even-numbered hours, performance (% hits, response speed) was measured at a 25-30 min visual vigilance task. Performance of all tasks (except search accuracy) showed a significant time of day variation usually with a nocturnal trough close to the trough in rectal temperature. Performance rhythms appeared not to reliably differ with working memory load. Within subjects, predominantly positive correlations emerged between good performance and higher temperatures and better subjective alertness; predominantly negative correlations between good performance and higher plasma levels of cortisol and melatonin. Temperature and cortisol rhythms correlated with slightly more performance measures (5/7) than did melatonin rhythms (4/7). Global vigour correlated about as well with performance (5/7) as did temperature, and considerably better than global affect (1/7). In conclusion: (1) between-task heterogeneity in circadian performance rhythms appeared to be absent when the sleep/wake cycle was suspended; (2) temperature (positively), cortisol and melatonin (negatively) appeared equally good as circadian correlates of performance, and (3) subjective alertness correlated with performance rhythms as well as (but not better than) body temperature, suggesting that

  1. Human performance: An essential element in materials control and accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the role of human performance in the successful and effective operation of many activities throughout many industries has been well documented. Most closely related to the materials control and accountability area is the work in human factors that has been ongoing in the U.S. nuclear industry since the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1979. Research related to the role of human reliability, human-system interface, and organization and management influences has been and is still being conducted to identify ways to enhance the safe and effective operation of nuclear facilities. This paper will discuss these human performance areas and how they relate to the materials control and accountability area. Particular attention will be focussed on the notion of open-quotes safety cultureclose quotes and how it can be defined and measured for understanding the values and attitudes held by individuals working in the materials control area. It is widely believed that the culture of an organization, which reflects the expectations and values of the management of an organization, is a key element to the operation of that organization. The human performance element is one which has not received a great deal of consideration in the materials control and accountability area and yet it will be demonstrated that it is an essential component to ensure the success of safeguards activities

  2. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kevin R.; Lawton, Craig R.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Longsine, Dennis E. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX); Forsythe, James Chris; Gauthier, John Henry; Le, Hai D.

    2008-10-01

    A Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project was initiated in 2005 to investigate Human Performance Modeling in a System of Systems analytic environment. SAND2006-6569 and SAND2006-7911 document interim results from this effort; this report documents the final results. The problem is difficult because of the number of humans involved in a System of Systems environment and the generally poorly defined nature of the tasks that each human must perform. A two-pronged strategy was followed: one prong was to develop human models using a probability-based method similar to that first developed for relatively well-understood probability based performance modeling; another prong was to investigate more state-of-art human cognition models. The probability-based modeling resulted in a comprehensive addition of human-modeling capability to the existing SoSAT computer program. The cognitive modeling resulted in an increased understanding of what is necessary to incorporate cognition-based models to a System of Systems analytic environment.

  3. An overview of artificial gravity. [effects on human performance and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The unique characteristics of artificial gravity that affect human performance and physiology in an artificial gravity environment are reviewed. The rate at which these unique characteristics change decreases very rapidly with increasing radius of a rotating vehicle used to produce artificial gravity. Reducing their influence on human performance or physiology by increasing radius becomes a situation of very rapidly diminishing returns. A review of several elements of human performance has developed criteria relative to the sundry characteristics of artificial gravity. A compilation of these criteria indicates that the maximum acceptable rate of rotation, leg heaviness while walking, and material handling are the factors that define the minimum acceptable radius. The ratio of Coriolis force to artificial weight may also be significant. Based on current knowledge and assumptions for the various criteria, a minimum radius between 15.2 and 16.8 m seems desirable.

  4. Minimizing Human Risk: Human Performance Models in the Space Human Factors and Habitability and Behavioral Health and Performance Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration has never been more exciting than it is today. Human presence to outer worlds is becoming a reality as humans are leveraging much of our prior knowledge to the new mission of going to Mars. Exploring the solar system at greater distances from Earth than ever before will possess some unique challenges, which can be overcome thanks to the advances in modeling and simulation technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is at the forefront of exploring our solar system. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) focuses on discovering the best methods and technologies that support safe and productive human space travel in the extreme and harsh space environment. HRP uses various methods and approaches to answer questions about the impact of long duration missions on the human in space including: gravity's impact on the human body, isolation and confinement on the human, hostile environments impact on the human, space radiation, and how the distance is likely to impact the human. Predictive models are included in the HRP research portfolio as these models provide valuable insights into human-system operations. This paper will provide an overview of NASA's HRP and will present a number of projects that have used modeling and simulation to provide insights into human-system issues (e.g. automation, habitat design, schedules) in anticipation of space exploration.

  5. The Effect of Noise on Human Performance: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Azam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise is defined as unwanted or meaningless sound that apart from auditory adverse health effects may distract attention from cues that are important for task performance. Human performance is influenced by many job-related factors and workplace conditions including noise level.Objective: To study the effect of noise on human performance.Methods: The participants included 40 healthy male university students. The experimental design consisted of 3 (sound pressure level x 3 (noise schedule x 2 (noise type factors. To investigate occupational skill performance, some specific test batteries were used: 1 steadiness test, 2 Minnesota manual dexterity test, 3 hand tool dexterity test, and 4 two-arm coordination test. Time duration of test completion was measured as speed response; to determine error response, the time taken during committing an error by participants while performing a task was measured.Results: Speed response obtained from the 4 tests in combined conditions of noise schedule, harmonic index, and sound pressure level was highest for (intermittent, treble, 95 dB, (continuous, treble, 95 dB, (continuous, treble, 85 dB and (intermittent, treble, 95 dB, respectively.Conclusion: Treble noise was found significant in reducing human performance; also, intermittent noise, especially at high pressure levels, was responsible for worsening environmental conditions during performing a task.

  6. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Analysis of Factors Affecting Its Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce A.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly to form a complete water recovery system for future missions. A preliminary chemical process simulation was previously developed using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM), but it could not simulate thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. This paper describes modifications to the ACM simulation of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version can be used to model thermal startup and predicts the total energy consumption of the CDS. The simulation has been validated for both NaC1 solution and pretreated urine feeds and no longer requires retuning when operating parameters change. The simulation was also used to predict how internal processes and operating conditions of the CDS affect its performance. In particular, it is shown that the coefficient of performance of the thermoelectric heat pump used to provide heating and cooling for the CDS is the largest factor in determining CDS efficiency. Intrastage heat transfer affects CDS performance indirectly through effects on the coefficient of performance.

  7. Endozoochorous dispersal of aquatic plants: does seed gut passage affect plant performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, Jordi; Santamaría, Luis; Green, Andy J; Luque, Isabel; Alvarez, Raquel; Charalambidou, Iris

    2005-04-01

    The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates can affect the germinability and/or germination rate of seeds. It is, however, unclear if an earlier germination as a result of ingestion affects later plant performance. For sago pondweed, Potamogeton pectinatus, the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on both germinability and germination rate have been previously reported from laboratory experiments. We performed an experiment to determine the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on germination, seedling survival, plant growth and asexual multiplication. Both at the start and end of the winter, seeds were fed to three captive shovelers (Anas clypeata) and planted outdoors in water-filled containers. Plant biomass and its allocation to vegetative parts (shoot and roots), tubers, and seeds were determined in autumn. More duck-ingested seeds than control (uningested) seeds germinated in early winter, but this difference disappeared for seeds planted in late winter, when the treatments were first stratified for 3 mo. None of the variables for measuring seedling survival and plant performance varied between treatments. Under our experimental conditions (no herbivory or competition), ingestion by ducks in early winter resulted in increased performance for seeds surviving gut passage due to enhanced seed germinability, without other costs or benefits for the seedlings.

  8. Factors affecting the performance of maternal health care providers in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltero Lauren

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last five years, international development organizations began to modify and adapt the conventional Performance Improvement Model for use in low-resource settings. This model outlines the five key factors believed to influence performance outcomes: job expectations, performance feedback, environment and tools, motivation and incentives, and knowledge and skills. Each of these factors should be supplied by the organization in which the provider works, and thus, organizational support is considered as an overarching element for analysis. Little research, domestically or internationally, has been conducted on the actual effects of each of the factors on performance outcomes and most PI practitioners assume that all the factors are needed in order for performance to improve. This study presents a unique exploration of how the factors, individually as well as in combination, affect the performance of primary reproductive health providers (nurse-midwives in two regions of Armenia. Methods Two hundred and eighty-five nurses and midwives were observed conducting real or simulated antenatal and postpartum/neonatal care services and interviewed about the presence or absence of the performance factors within their work environment. Results were analyzed to compare average performance with the existence or absence of the factors; then, multiple regression analysis was conducted with the merged datasets to obtain the best models of "predictors" of performance within each clinical service. Results Baseline results revealed that performance was sub-standard in several areas and several performance factors were deficient or nonexistent. The multivariate analysis showed that (a training in the use of the clinic tools; and (b receiving recognition from the employer or the client/community, are factors strongly associated with performance, followed by (c receiving performance feedback in postpartum care. Other – extraneous

  9. The Relationship Between Human Resource Management and Organizational Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Peregrino de Brito; Lucia Barbosa de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and organizational performance. Theoretically, we discuss the importance of HRM for the development of resources and its impact on business performance. Empirically, we evaluated articles published on Brazilian academic journals that addressed such relationships. The results showed a lack of studies conducted at this intersection. From the universe of 2,469 articles, only 16 (0...

  10. Human resource management and performance in European firms

    OpenAIRE

    Rizov, M.I.; Croucher, R

    2009-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework to examine three hypotheses on the relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices and organisational performance in European firms. The first is that collaborative forms of HRM practice are more strongly associated with superior firm performance than calculative forms. The second is that these associations are strongest where national institutional and normative settings support them. The third is that employer–employee consultative committee...

  11. Factors Affecting Sustainable Performance of Construction Projects during Project Life Cycle Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Enshassi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development (SD is one of the main challenges faced by the construction industry, which has acquired global attention. Sustainable performance (SP of a construction project during its life cycle (LC is considered crucial to achieve the SD. The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting sustainable performance of construction projects throughout project life cycle phases in the Gaza Strip. A total of 53 sustainable factors (economic, social, and environmental sustainable factors were identified through extensive literature review and confirmed by experts’ interviews and a pilot study. These factors are classified in relation to the project life cycle phases; inception phase, design phase, construction phase, operation phase, and demolition phase. A structured questionnaire survey is employed in this study for primary data collection. A total of 119 questionnaires were distributed randomly to engineers working in construction projects in the Gaza Strip to solicit their views regarding the factors affecting sustainable performance of construction projects throughout project life cycle phases. The results revealed that five factors among the top ten factors that impacting the sustainable performance of construction projects are classified under the construction phase, which confirmed that the construction process has the most effect on the projects SP. Three factors are classified under the inception phase, which assured that the inception of a potential project has a considerable effect projects. In addition, one factor was classified under operation phase and one factor was classified under demolition phase. The most common factors affecting the SP of construction project through the overall sustainability elements: reusable/recyclable element, provision of services, energy consumption, water cost, and water pollution assessment. Further studies are recommended to explore how to integrated sustainability concepts into

  12. A case study to determine stress sources affecting the academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytaç Aydın

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Job stress affects academicians in terms of performance, scientific production, job satisfaction and health. This effect may differ according to the academicians in the structure of the organization. It is possible to mention about positive stress if organization structure positively affects academician, but it is called negative stress if it negatively affects. Lack of fee and powers, injustice employee evaluation, not getting in return for work are important stress sources. In this study, some of the factors that affect stress levels (individual, organizational and physical environmental factors of academicians (professors, associate professors and assistant professors who work in Karadeniz Technical University are investigated by questionnaire method. The survey data is evaluated with Structural Equation Model (SEM which is prepared in statistical package programs SPSS 16.0 and AMOS 16.0 and the results are revealed. As a result, factors effecting academic members' stress levels are determined as individual and organizational factors (p<0,1. Thus, it is concluded that physical environmental factors such as noise, lightening and crowded place do not cause tension on academician

  13. Gender differences in introductory university physics performance: The influence of high school physics preparation and affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra Sana

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school is a concern to the science education community. Most undergraduate science programs require introductory physics coursework. Thus, success in introductory physics is necessary for students to progress to higher levels of science study. Success also influences attitudes; if females are well-prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study using multilevel modeling focused on determining factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that influenced female and male performance in introductory university physics. The study controlled for some university/course level characteristics as well as student demographic and academic background characteristics. The data consisted of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory physics courses within 35 universities across the US. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially influenced female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects, cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believed that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that had a similar influence on female and male performance. Positively related to performance were: covering fewer topics for longer periods of time, the history of physics as a recurring topic, physics-related videos, and test/quiz questions that involved calculations and/or were drawn from standardized tests. Negatively related to performance were: student-designed projects, reading/discussing labs the day before performing them, microcomputer based laboratories, discussion after demonstrations, and family

  14. Warning signals for poor performance improve human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brule, R. van den; Bijlstra, G.; Dotsch, R.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot's nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the robot

  15. Improving public administration performance demands investment in human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes that investments in human resources are one of the important factors for improving public sector performance. In strategic papers of Slovenian government and during the reform process of public administration, government stressed out that human resources are one of the most important factors for improving performance. This is originating point of research. The main hypothesis of presented research is that investments in human resources improve efficiency and effectiveness of public sector. For several reasons explained in the paper, tax administration was chosen to test the hypothesis. We used a number of training participations per employee as an indicator of investments in human resources. For determination of effi ciency and effectiveness, we used selected performance indicators and survey among taxpayers about their satisfaction. The main obstacle of the research is that not long-time series are used for better test of hypothesis since surveys among taxpayers are not regular. The results indicate a positive correlation between training and performance indicators and training and taxpayers’ satisfaction.

  16. Driving Performance Improvements by Integrating Competencies with Human Resource Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Gu; Park, Yongho; Yang, Gi Hun

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the issues in the development and application of a competency model and provides implications for more precise integration of competencies into human resource (HR) functions driving performance improvement. This research is based on a case study from a Korean consumer corporation. This study employed document reviews,…

  17. Alignment of Human Resource Practices and Teacher Performance Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman III, Herbert G.; Milanowski, Anthony T.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we argue that human resource (HR) management practices are important components of strategies for improving student achievement in an accountability environment. We present a framework illustrating the alignment of educational HR management practices to a teacher performance competency model, which in turn is aligned with student…

  18. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  19. Factors affecting cadence choice during submaximal cycling and cadence influence on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ernst A; Smith, Gerald

    2009-03-01

    Cadence choice during cycling has been of considerable interest among cyclists, coaches, and researchers for nearly 100 years. The present review examines and summarizes the current knowledge of factors affecting the freely chosen cadence during submaximal cycling and of the influence of cadence choice on performance. In addition, suggestions for future research are given along with scientifically based, practical recommendations for those involved in cycling. Within the past 10 years, a number of papers have been published that have brought novel insight into the subject. For example, under the influence of spinal central pattern generators, a robust innate voluntary motor rhythm has been suggested as the primary basis for freely chosen cadence in cycling. This might clarify the cadence paradox in which the freely chosen cadence during low-to-moderate submaximal cycling is considerably higher and thereby less economical than the energetically optimal cadence. A number of factors, including age, power output, and road gradient, have been shown to affect the choice of cadence to some extent. During high-intensity cycling, close to the maximal aerobic power output, cyclists choose an energetically economical cadence that is also favorable for performance. In contrast, the choice of a relatively high cadence during cycling at low-to-moderate intensity is uneconomical and could compromise performance during prolonged cycling.

  20. Human Resource Flexibility as a Mediating Variable Between High Performance Work Systems and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Martín, Inmaculada; Roca Puig, Vicente; Escrig Tena, Ana Belén; Bou Llusar, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Much of the human resource management literature has demonstrated the impact of high performance work systems (HPWS) on organizational performance. A new generation of studies is emerging in this literature that recommends the inclusion of mediating variables between HPWS and organizational performance. The increasing rate of dynamism in competitive environments suggests that measures of employee adaptability should be included as a mechanism that may explain the relevance of H...

  1. Human Resource Management and Organisational Performance: Does HRM lead to better organisational performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Byremo, Cathrine Søbye

    2015-01-01

    Human Resource Management (HRM) has grown very popular over the past decades, and it is now a common characteristic for nearly all larger companies and many smaller ones. One of the reasons for this popularity is the assumption that HRM is a source for competitive advantage and will influence the organisational results and performance in a positive direction. The thesis takes a closer look at the presumed relationship between HRM and performance. The main idea behind the HRM-performance presu...

  2. Human resource systems and employee performance in Ireland and the Netherlands : A test of the complementarity hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horgan, J.; Muhlau, P.

    2006-01-01

    A central claim of strategic HRM is the notion that the way a firm manages its workforce affects its corporate performance. In particular, 'high performance human resource management', a systematic approach toward HR management consisting of internally consistent HR dimensions that develop the skill

  3. Factors affecting Safety Performance in Repair, Maintenance, Alteration, and Addition (RMAA Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Enshassi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Repair, Maintenance, Alteration and Addition (RMAA works are playing an increasingly important role in developing countries. The accidents and fatalities records of RMAA sector in Gaza Strip have been alarmingly high; however, research in the RMAA sector remains limited. Safety of RMAA works has long been neglected because the project sizes of RMAA are small and only last for a short period of time, which make the working environment of RMAA works more difficult to control than new building works. The aim of this paper is to identify, valuate and rank the most important factors that affect safety performance and the most important causes of fatal accidents in RMAA projects. A questionnaire survey was used in this study. The results revealed that poor safety awareness of managers in maintenance firms and lack of training of RMAA workers for handling multi-tasks were the most important factors that affecting safety performance of RMAA works. The results showed that ineffectiveness of lack of training and certification of competence; immature corporate systems of firms which does not care with safety and health through RMAA works, and lack of leadership from government as a key client are the most significant causes of construction fatal accidents of RMAA projects. The results also indicated that the macro level factor is the most important category that causes fatal accidents in RMAA works. It is recommended to enhance the awareness of construction firms, project managers and workers regarding the importance of safety performance in repair and maintenance works and strengthen site monitoring and supervision system in construction firms. Safety training courses should be organized for workers and project managers in order to improve their safety culture and competence regarding safety performance through repair and maintenance works. Furthermore the RMAA subcontractors should be selected according to their good records of safety performance.

  4. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Integrating From the Nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early decades of the twenty-first century, concentrated efforts can unify science based on the unity of nature, thereby advancing the combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and new humane technologies based in cognitive science. Converging technologies integrated from the nanoscale could determine a tremendous improvement in human abilities and societal outcomes. This is a broad, cross cutting, emerging, and timely opportunity of interest to individuals, society, and humanity in the long term.About eighty scientific leaders, industry experts, and policy makers across a range of fields have contributed to develop a vision for the potential to improve human physical, mental, and social capabilities through the convergence of the four technologies. Six major themes have emerged: (a) The broad potential of converging technologies; (b) Expanding human cognition and communication; (c) Improving human health and physical capabilities; (d) Enhancing group and societal outcomes; (e) National security, and (f) Unifying science and education. This article summarizes the observations, conclusions, and recommendations made in the report (Roco and Bainbridge, eds., 2002. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance, NSF-DOC Report, June 2002, Arlington VA, USA)

  5. A few days of social separation affects yearling horses' response to emotional reactivity tests and enhances learning performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansade, Léa; Neveux, Claire; Levy, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Learning performance is influenced by emotional reactivity, low reactivity being generally beneficial. Previous experiments show that emotional reactivity can be modified after a period of social isolation. We hypothesized that eleven days of isolation would affect yearlings' emotional reactivity and improve their learning abilities. Twenty-five yearlings were divided into two groups: 12 were continuously isolated for 11 days (isolated) and 13 stayed together (control). During the period of isolation, all yearlings underwent two learning tasks: a habituation procedure in which a novel object was presented for 120 s every day, either when the horse was alone (isolated) or with conspecifics (control); an instrumental learning task in which the yearling had to walk forwards or backwards to obtain a food reward. At the end of the isolation period, animals performed tests to assess aspects of emotional reactivity: reactivity to novelty, to humans, to social separation, to suddenness and to sensory stimuli. Results showed that isolated yearlings habituated more to the novel object than controls and performed better in the instrumental task. Moreover, they were less reactive to novelty, to social separation and to suddenness than controls. Overall, these data suggest that the better performance of isolated yearlings could be explained by a decrease in their emotional reactivity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. PMID:22705773

  6. Imagination in human social cognition, autism, and psychotic-affective conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Leach, Emma; Dinsdale, Natalie; Mokkonen, Mikael; Hurd, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Complex human social cognition has evolved in concert with risks for psychiatric disorders. Recently, autism and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression) have been posited as psychological 'opposites' with regard to social-cognitive phenotypes. Imagination, considered as 'forming new ideas, mental images, or concepts', represents a central facet of human social evolution and cognition. Previous studies have documented reduced imagination in autism, and increased imagination in association with psychotic-affective conditions, yet these sets of findings have yet to be considered together, or evaluated in the context of the diametric model. We first review studies of the components, manifestations, and neural correlates of imagination in autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Next, we use data on dimensional autism in healthy populations to test the hypotheses that: (1) imagination represents the facet of autism that best accounts for its strongly male-biased sex ratio, and (2) higher genetic risk of schizophrenia is associated with higher imagination, in accordance with the predictions of the diametric model. The first hypothesis was supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis showing that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations. The second hypothesis was supported, for males, by associations between schizophrenia genetic risk scores, derived from a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and the AQ Imagination subscale. Considered together, these findings indicate that imagination, especially social imagination as embodied in the default mode human brain network, mediates risk and diametric dimensional phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions. PMID:26896903

  7. Evidence that emotional intelligence is related to job performance and affect and attitudes at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paulo N; Grewal, Daisy; Kadis, Jessica; Gall, Michelle; Salovey, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The relation between emotional intelligence, assessed with a performance measure, and positive workplace outcomes was examined in 44 analysts and clerical employees from the finance department of a Fortune 400 insurance company. Emotionally intelligent individuals received greater merit increases and held higher company rank than their counterparts. They also received better peer and/or supervisor ratings of interpersonal facilitation and stress tolerance than their counterparts. With few exceptions, these associations remained statistically significant after controlling for other predictors, one at a time, including age, gender, education, verbal ability, the Big Five personality traits, and trait affect. PMID:17295970

  8. Factors affecting students’ attitude and performance when using a web-enhanced learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hammoud, Lamis

    2010-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the use of a course management system in a University learning environment and the factors that affect students' attitude and performance in such environments and to study the relationship between these factors. The course management system that was used in the research studies in this thesis was WebCT. Three in-field studies were carried out to ac...

  9. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate....../sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired...... by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin...

  10. Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Raaymakers, J S; Saris, W H;

    1995-01-01

    1. An increased uptake of tryptophan in the brain may increase serotoninergic activity and recently has been suggested to be a cause of fatigue during prolonged exercise. The present study, therefore, investigates whether ingestion of tryptophan or the competing branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs......) affect performance. Ten endurance-trained male athletes were studied during cycle exercise at 70-75% maximal power output, while ingesting, ad random and double-blind, drinks that contained 6% sucrose (control) or 6% sucrose supplemented with (1) tryptophan (3 g l-1), (2) a low dose of BCAA (6 g l-1......) or (3) a high dose of BCAA (18 g l-1). 2. These treatments greatly increased the plasma concentration of the respective amino acids. Using the kinetic parameters of transport of human brain capillaries, BCAA supplements were estimated to reduce brain tryptophan uptake at exhaustion by 8-12%, while...

  11. Rapid weight loss followed by recovery time does not affect judo-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson; Gualano, Bruno; Kashiwagura, Daniel B; Solis, Marina Y; Benatti, Fabiana B; Fuchs, Marina; Lancha Junior, Antonio H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of rapid weight loss followed by a 4-h recovery on judo-related performance. Seven weight-cycler athletes were assigned to a weight loss group (5% body weight reduction by self-selected regime) and seven non-weight-cyclers to a control group (no weight reduction). Body composition, performance, glucose, and lactate were assessed before and after weight reduction (5-7 days apart; control group kept weight stable). The weight loss group had 4 h to re-feed and rehydrate after the weigh-in. Food intake was recorded during the weight loss period and recovery after the weigh-in. Performance was evaluated through a specific judo exercise, followed by a 5-min judo combat and by three bouts of the Wingate test. Both groups significantly improved performance after the weight loss period. No interaction effects were observed. The energy and macronutrient intake of the weight loss group were significantly lower than for the control group. The weight loss group consumed large amounts of food and carbohydrate during the 4-h recovery period. No changes were observed in lactate concentration, but a significant decrease in glucose during rest was observed in the weight loss group. In conclusion, rapid weight loss did not affect judo-related performance in experienced weight-cyclers when the athletes had 4 h to recover. These results should not be extrapolated to inexperienced weight-cyclers.

  12. Computer-Detected Attention Affects Foreign Language Listening but Not Reading Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping

    2016-08-01

    No quantitative study has explored the influence of attention on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). This study investigated whether computer-detected attention is associated with EFL reading and listening and reading and listening anxiety. Traditional paper-based English tests used as entrance examinations and tests of general trait anxiety, reading, listening, reading test state anxiety, and listening test state anxiety were administered in 252 Taiwan EFL college students who were divided into High Attention (Conners' Continuous Performance Test, CPT anxieties, general English reading anxiety scales, and general English listening anxiety scales. The Low Attention group had higher test state anxiety and lower listening test scores than the High Attention group, but not in reading. State anxiety during listening tests for EFL students with computer-detected low attention tendency was elevated and their EFL listening performance was affected, but those differences were not found in reading.

  13. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( Pchickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  14. How Does the Driver's Perception Reaction Time Affect the Performances of Crash Surrogate Measures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Kuang

    Full Text Available With the merit on representing traffic conflict through examining the crash mechanism and causality proactively, crash surrogate measures have long been proposed and applied to evaluate the traffic safety. However, the driver's Perception-Reaction Time (PRT, an important variable in crash mechanism, has not been considered widely into surrogate measures. In this regard, it is important to know how the PRT affects the performances of surrogate indicators. To this end, three widely used surrogate measures are firstly modified by involving the PRT into their crash mechanisms. Then, in order to examine the difference caused by the PRT, a comparative study is carried out on a freeway section of the Pacific Motorway, Australia. This result suggests that the surrogate indicators' performances in representing rear-end crash risks are improved with the incorporating of the PRT for the investigated section.

  15. How Does the Driver’s Perception Reaction Time Affect the Performances of Crash Surrogate Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yan; Qu, Xiaobo; Weng, Jinxian; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    With the merit on representing traffic conflict through examining the crash mechanism and causality proactively, crash surrogate measures have long been proposed and applied to evaluate the traffic safety. However, the driver’s Perception-Reaction Time (PRT), an important variable in crash mechanism, has not been considered widely into surrogate measures. In this regard, it is important to know how the PRT affects the performances of surrogate indicators. To this end, three widely used surrogate measures are firstly modified by involving the PRT into their crash mechanisms. Then, in order to examine the difference caused by the PRT, a comparative study is carried out on a freeway section of the Pacific Motorway, Australia. This result suggests that the surrogate indicators’ performances in representing rear-end crash risks are improved with the incorporating of the PRT for the investigated section. PMID:26398416

  16. How Equalization Techniques Affect the TCP Performance of MC-CDMA Systems in Correlated Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Leonardi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of several equalization techniques for multicarrier code division multiple access systems on the performance at both lower and upper layers (i.e., physical and TCP layers. Classical techniques such as maximal ratio combining, equal gain combining, orthogonality restoring combining, minimum mean square error, as well as a partial equalization (PE are investigated in time- and frequency-correlated fading channels with various numbers of interferers. Their impact on the performance at upper level is then studied. The results are obtained through an integrated simulation platform carefully reproducing all main aspects affecting the quality of service perceived by the final user, allowing an investigation of the real gain produced by signal processing techniques at TCP level.

  17. Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelle, Kyle A.; Anderson, Sean C.; Reynolds, John D.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Paquet, Paul C.; Darimont, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts impose considerable costs to people and wildlife worldwide. Most research focuses on proximate causes, offering limited generalizable understanding of ultimate drivers. We tested three competing hypotheses (problem individuals, regional population saturation, limited food supply) that relate to underlying processes of human-grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) conflict, using data from British Columbia, Canada, between 1960–2014. We found most support for the limited food supply hypothesis: in bear populations that feed on spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), the annual number of bears/km2 killed due to conflicts with humans increased by an average of 20% (6–32% [95% CI]) for each 50% decrease in annual salmon biomass. Furthermore, we found that across all bear populations (with or without access to salmon), 81% of attacks on humans and 82% of conflict kills occurred after the approximate onset of hyperphagia (July 1st), a period of intense caloric demand. Contrary to practices by many management agencies, conflict frequency was not reduced by hunting or removal of problem individuals. Our finding that a marine resource affects terrestrial conflict suggests that evidence-based policy for reducing harm to wildlife and humans requires not only insight into ultimate drivers of conflict, but also management that spans ecosystem and jurisdictional boundaries. PMID:27185189

  18. Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelle, Kyle A; Anderson, Sean C; Reynolds, John D; Cooper, Andrew B; Paquet, Paul C; Darimont, Chris T

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts impose considerable costs to people and wildlife worldwide. Most research focuses on proximate causes, offering limited generalizable understanding of ultimate drivers. We tested three competing hypotheses (problem individuals, regional population saturation, limited food supply) that relate to underlying processes of human-grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) conflict, using data from British Columbia, Canada, between 1960-2014. We found most support for the limited food supply hypothesis: in bear populations that feed on spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), the annual number of bears/km(2) killed due to conflicts with humans increased by an average of 20% (6-32% [95% CI]) for each 50% decrease in annual salmon biomass. Furthermore, we found that across all bear populations (with or without access to salmon), 81% of attacks on humans and 82% of conflict kills occurred after the approximate onset of hyperphagia (July 1(st)), a period of intense caloric demand. Contrary to practices by many management agencies, conflict frequency was not reduced by hunting or removal of problem individuals. Our finding that a marine resource affects terrestrial conflict suggests that evidence-based policy for reducing harm to wildlife and humans requires not only insight into ultimate drivers of conflict, but also management that spans ecosystem and jurisdictional boundaries. PMID:27185189

  19. The voice of emotion across species: how do human listeners recognize animals' affective states?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Scheumann

    Full Text Available Voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition is the ability to understand the emotional state of another species based on its voice. In the past, induced affective states, experience-dependent higher cognitive processes or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms have been discussed to underlie this ability in humans. The present study sets out to distinguish the influence of familiarity and phylogeny on voice-induced cross-taxa emotional perception in humans. For the first time, two perspectives are taken into account: the self- (i.e. emotional valence induced in the listener versus the others-perspective (i.e. correct recognition of the emotional valence of the recording context. Twenty-eight male participants listened to 192 vocalizations of four different species (human infant, dog, chimpanzee and tree shrew. Stimuli were recorded either in an agonistic (negative emotional valence or affiliative (positive emotional valence context. Participants rated the emotional valence of the stimuli adopting self- and others-perspective by using a 5-point version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM. Familiarity was assessed based on subjective rating, objective labelling of the respective stimuli and interaction time with the respective species. Participants reliably recognized the emotional valence of human voices, whereas the results for animal voices were mixed. The correct classification of animal voices depended on the listener's familiarity with the species and the call type/recording context, whereas there was less influence of induced emotional states and phylogeny. Our results provide first evidence that explicit voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition in humans is shaped more by experience-dependent cognitive mechanisms than by induced affective states or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms.

  20. The performance shaping factors influence analysis on the human reliability for NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an important step in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies and offers an advisability for concrete improvement of the man - machine - organization interfaces, reliability and safety. The goals of this analysis are to obtain sufficient details in order to understand and document all-important factors that affect human performance. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the human errors probabilities in view of the negative or positive effect of the human performance shaping factors (PSFs) for the mitigation of the initiating events which could occur in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Using THERP and SPAR-H methods, an analysis model of PSFs influence on the human reliability is performed. This model is applied to more important activities, that are necessary to mitigate 'one steam generator tube failure' event at Cernavoda NPP. The results are joint human error probabilities (JHEP) values estimated for the following situations: without regarding to PSFs influence; with PSFs in specific conditions; with PSFs which could have only positive influence and with PSFs which could have only negative influence. In addition, PSFs with negative influence were identified and using the DOE method, the necessary activities for changing negative influence were assigned. (authors)

  1. Medical, Psychophysiological, and Human Performance Problems During Extended EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: New Developments in the Assessment of the Risk of Decompression Sickness in Null Gravity During Extravehicular Activity; The Dynamic of Physiological Reactions of Cosmonauts Under the Influence of Repeated EVA Workouts, The Russian Experience; Medical Emergencies in Space; The Evolution from 'Physiological Adequacy' to 'Physiological Tuning'; Five Zones of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Conflicting Temperatures on the Human Body, Physiological Consequences; Human Performance and Subjective Perception in Nonuniform Thermal Conditions; The Hand as a Control System, Implications for Hand-Finger Dexterity During Extended EVA; and Understanding the Skill of Extravehicular Mass Handling.

  2. Inference of Human Affective States from Psychophysiological Measurements Extracted under Ecologically Valid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eBetella

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to standard laboratory protocols, the measurement of psychophysiological signals in real world experiments poses technical and methodological challenges due to external factors that cannot be directly controlled. To address this problem, we propose a hybrid approach based on an immersive and human accessible space called the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM, that incorporates the advantages of a laboratory within a life-like setting. The XIM integrates unobtrusive wearable sensors for the acquisition of psychophysiological signals suitable for ambulatory emotion research. In this paper, we present results from two different studies conducted to validate the XIM as a general-purpose sensing infrastructure for the study of human affective states under ecologically valid conditions. In the first investigation, we recorded and classified signals from subjects exposed to pictorial stimuli corresponding to a range of arousal levels, while they were free to walk and gesticulate. In the second study, we designed an experiment that follows the classical conditioning paradigm, a well-known procedure in the behavioral sciences, with the additional feature that participants were free to move in the physical space, as opposed to similar studies measuring physiological signals in constrained laboratory settings. Our results indicate that, by using our sensing infrastructure, it is indeed possible to infer human event-elicited affective states through measurements of psychophysiological signals under ecological conditions.

  3. Nonsense mutations in the human β-globin gene affect mRNA metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of premature translation termination mutations (nonsense mutations) have been described in the human α- and β-globin genes. Studies on mRNA isolated from patients with β0-thalassemia have shown that for both the β-17 and the β-39 mutations less than normal levels of β-globin mRNA accumulate in peripheral blood cells. (The codon at which the mutation occurs designates the name of the mutation; there are 146 codons in human β-globin mRNA). In vitro studies using the cloned β-39 gene have reproduced this effect in a heterologous transfection system and have suggested that the defect resides in intranuclear metabolism. The authors have asked if this phenomenon of decreased mRNA accumulation is a general property of nonsense mutations and if the effect depends on the location or the type of mutation. Toward this end, they have studied the effect of five nonsense mutations and two missense mutations on the expression of human β-globin mRNA in a heterologous transfection system. In all cases studied, the presence of a translation termination codon correlates with a decrease in the steady-state level of mRNA. The data suggest that the metabolism of a mammalian mRNA is affected by the presence of a mutation that affects translation

  4. Impact of human resource management practices on nursing home performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, K V; Wagar, T H

    2001-08-01

    Management scholars and practitioners alike have become increasingly interested in learning more about the ability of certain 'progressive' or 'high-performance' human resource management (HRM) practices to enhance organizational effectiveness. There is growing evidence to suggest that the contribution of various HRM practices to impact firm performance may be synergistic in effect yet contingent on a number of contextual factors, including workplace climate. A contingency theory perspective suggests that in order to be effective, HMR policies and practices must be consistent with other aspects of the organization, including its environment. This paper reports on empirical findings from research that examines the relationship between HRM practices, workplace climate and perceptions of organizational performance, in a large sample of Canadian nursing homes. Data from 283 nursing homes were collected by means of a mail survey that included questions on HRM practices, programmes, and policies, on human resource aspects of workplace climate, as well as a variety of indicators that include employee, customer/resident and facility measures of organizational performance. Results derived from ordered probit analysis suggest that nursing homes in our sample which had implemented more 'progressive' HRM practices and which reported a workplace climate that strongly values employee participation, empowerment and accountability tended to be perceived to generally perform better on a number of valued organizational outcomes. Nursing homes in our sample that performed best overall were found to be more likely to not only have implemented more of these HRM practices, but also to report having a workplace climate that reflects the seminal value that it places on its human resources. This finding is consistent with the conclusion that simply introducing HRM practices or programmes, in the absence of an appropriately supportive workplace climate, will be insufficient to attain

  5. Investigation of human-robot interface performance in household environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sven; Mirza, Fahad; Tuladhar, Yathartha; Alonzo, Rommel; Hingeley, Anthony; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    Today, assistive robots are being introduced into human environments at an increasing rate. Human environments are highly cluttered and dynamic, making it difficult to foresee all necessary capabilities and pre-program all desirable future skills of the robot. One approach to increase robot performance is semi-autonomous operation, allowing users to intervene and guide the robot through difficult tasks. To this end, robots need intuitive Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) that support fine motion control without overwhelming the operator. In this study we evaluate the performance of several interfaces that balance autonomy and teleoperation of a mobile manipulator for accomplishing several household tasks. Our proposed HMI framework includes teleoperation devices such as a tablet, as well as physical interfaces in the form of piezoresistive pressure sensor arrays. Mobile manipulation experiments were performed with a sensorized KUKA youBot, an omnidirectional platform with a 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) arm. The pick and place tasks involved navigation and manipulation of objects in household environments. Performance metrics included time for task completion and position accuracy.

  6. Reading performance is not affected by a prism induced increase of horizontal and vertical vergence demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel eDysli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Dyslexia is the most common developmental reading disorder that affects language skills. Latent strabismus (heterophoria has been suspected to be causally involved. Even though phoria correction in dyslexic children is commonly applied, the evidence in support of a benefit is poor. In order to provide experimental evidence on this issue, we simulated phoria in healthy readers by modifying the vergence tone required to maintain binocular alignment. MethodsVergence tone was altered with prisms that were placed in front of one eye in 16 healthy subjects to induce exophoria, esophoria, or vertical phoria. Subjects were to read one paragraph for each condition, from which reading speed was determined. Text comprehension was tested with a forced multiple choice test. Eye movements were recorded during reading and subsequently analysed for saccadic amplitudes, saccades per 10 letters, percentage of regressive (backward saccades, average fixation duration, first fixation duration on a word, and gaze duration.ResultsAcute change of horizontal and vertical vergence tone does neither significantly affect reading performance nor reading associated eye movements. Conclusion Prisms in healthy subjects fail to induce a significant change of reading performance. This finding is not compatible with a role of phoria in dyslexia. Our results contrast the proposal for correcting small angle heterophorias in dyslexic children.

  7. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J.; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on–1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on–3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased “voluntary activation.” In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT. PMID:27445844

  8. Thought waves remotely affect the performance (output voltage) of photoelectric cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dayong; Cao, Daqing

    2012-02-01

    In our experiments, thought waves have been shown to be capable of changing (affecting) the output voltage of photovoltaic cells located from as far away as 1-3 meters. There are no wires between brain and photoelectric cell and so it is presumed only the thought waves act on the photoelectric cell. In continual rotations, the experiments tested different solar cells, measuring devices and lamps, and the experiments were done in different labs. The first experiment was conducted on Oct 2002. Tests are ongoing. Conclusions and assumptions include: 1) the slow thought wave has the energy of space-time as defined by C1.00007: The mass, energy, space and time systemic theory- MEST. Every process releases a field effect electrical vibration which be transmitted and focussed in particular paths; 2) the thought wave has the information of the order of tester; 3) the brain (with the physical system of MEST) and consciousness (with the spirit system of the mind, consciousness, emotion and desire-MECD) can produce the information (a part of them as the Genetic code); 4) through some algorithms such as ACO Ant Colony Optimization and EA Evolutionary Algorithm (or genetic algorithm) working in RAM, human can optimize the information. This Optimizational function is the intelligence; 5) In our experiments, not only can thought waves affect the voltage of the output photoelectric signals by its energy, but they can also selectively increase or decrease those photoelectric currents through remote consciousness interface and a conscious-brain information technology.

  9. A case study to determine stress sources affecting the academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytaç Aydın

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal Tablo"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Job stress affects academicians in terms of performance, scientific production, job satisfaction and health. This effect may differ according to the academicians in the structure of the organization. It is possible to mention about positive stress if organization structure positively affects academician, but it is called negative stress if it negatively affects. Lack of fee and powers, injustice employee evaluation, not getting in return for work are important stress sources. In this study, some of the factors that affect stress levels (individual, organizational and physical environmental factors of academicians (professors, associate professors and assistant professors who work in Karadeniz Technical University are investigated by questionnaire method. The survey data is evaluated with Structural Equation Model (SEM which is prepared in statistical package programs SPSS 16.0 and AMOS 16.0 and the results are revealed. As a result, factors effecting academic members' stress levels are determined as individual and organizational factors (p<0,1. Thus, it is concluded that physical environmental factors such as noise, lightening and crowded place do not cause tension on academician

  10. Phosphoproteomics profiling of human skin fibroblast cells reveals pathways and proteins affected by low doses of ionizing radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High doses of ionizing radiation result in biological damage; however, the precise relationships between long-term health effects, including cancer, and low-dose exposures remain poorly understood and are currently extrapolated using high-dose exposure data. Identifying the signaling pathways and individual proteins affected at the post-translational level by radiation should shed valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms that regulate dose-dependent responses to radiation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified 7117 unique phosphopeptides (2566 phosphoproteins from control and irradiated (2 and 50 cGy primary human skin fibroblasts 1 h post-exposure. Semi-quantitative label-free analyses were performed to identify phosphopeptides that are apparently altered by radiation exposure. This screen identified phosphorylation sites on proteins with known roles in radiation responses including TP53BP1 as well as previously unidentified radiation-responsive proteins such as the candidate tumor suppressor SASH1. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that low and high doses of radiation affect both overlapping and unique biological processes and suggest a role for MAP kinase and protein kinase A (PKA signaling in the radiation response as well as differential regulation of p53 networks at low and high doses of radiation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results represent the most comprehensive analysis of the phosphoproteomes of human primary fibroblasts exposed to multiple doses of ionizing radiation published to date and provide a basis for the systems-level identification of biological processes, molecular pathways and individual proteins regulated in a dose dependent manner by ionizing radiation. Further study of these modified proteins and affected networks should help to define the molecular mechanisms that regulate biological responses to radiation at different radiation doses and elucidate the impact of low-dose radiation exposure on human health.

  11. Mammography test sets: Reading location and prior images do not affect group performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To examine how the location where reading takes place and the availability of prior images can affect performance in breast test-set reading. Materials and methods: Under optimized viewing conditions, 10 expert screen readers each interpreted a reader-specific set of images containing 200 mammographic cases. Readers, randomly divided into two groups read images under one of two pairs of conditions: clinical read with prior images and laboratory read with prior images; laboratory read with prior images and laboratory read without prior images. Region-of-interest (ROI) figure-of-merit (FOM) was analysed using JAFROC software. Breast side-specific sensitivity and specificity were tested using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests. Agreement between pairs of readings was measured using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. Results: Group performances between test-set readings demonstrated similar ROI FOMs, sensitivity and specificity median values, and acceptable levels of agreement between pairs of readings were shown (W = 0.75–0.79, p < 0.001) for both pairs of reading conditions. On an individual reader level, two readers demonstrated significant decreases (p < 0.05) in ROI FOMs when prior images were unavailable. Reading location had an inconsistent impact on individual performance. Conclusion: Reading location and availability of prior images did not significantly alter group performance

  12. Factors Affecting Performance of Stock Market: Evidence from South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangzeb

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the factor affecting performance of stock market in South Asia. The data used in this study were collected from the period of 1997 to 2010 of 3 South Asian countries namely, Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka. Regression results indicate that foreign direct investment and exchange rate have significant positive impact on performance of stock market in South Asian countries while; interest rate has negative and significant impact on performance of stock market in South Asia. Results also indicate the negative but insignificant impact of inflation on stock market performance in South Asia. It is recommended that in order to take the full advantage of stock market and carry on with the international markets well managed macroeconomic policies are necessary in which interest rates and inflation rate are thoroughly monitor and try to reduce the value as much possible. It gives the confidence to the investors as well as the industries. It is also recommended that some extra benefits were given to the foreign investors because we observed that the influence of foreign investors is strong in this region.

  13. How does domain replacement affect fibril formation of the rabbit/human prion proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yan

    Full Text Available It is known that in vivo human prion protein (PrP have the tendency to form fibril deposits and are associated with infectious fatal prion diseases, while the rabbit PrP does not readily form fibrils and is unlikely to cause prion diseases. Although we have previously demonstrated that amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and macromolecular crowding has different effects on fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs, we do not know which domains of PrPs cause such differences. In this study, we have constructed two PrP chimeras, rabbit chimera and human chimera, and investigated how domain replacement affects fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs.As revealed by thioflavin T binding assays and Sarkosyl-soluble SDS-PAGE, the presence of a strong crowding agent dramatically promotes fibril formation of both chimeras. As evidenced by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proteinase K digestion assays, amyloid fibrils formed by human chimera have secondary structures and proteinase K-resistant features similar to those formed by the human PrP. However, amyloid fibrils formed by rabbit chimera have proteinase K-resistant features and secondary structures in crowded physiological environments different from those formed by the rabbit PrP, and secondary structures in dilute solutions similar to the rabbit PrP. The results from transmission electron microscopy show that macromolecular crowding caused human chimera but not rabbit chimera to form short fibrils and non-fibrillar particles.We demonstrate for the first time that the domains beyond PrP-H2H3 (β-strand 1, α-helix 1, and β-strand 2 have a remarkable effect on fibrillization of the rabbit PrP but almost no effect on the human PrP. Our findings can help to explain why amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and why macromolecular crowding has different

  14. Affective-cognitive consistency of attitude as a moderator of the job satisfaction-performance relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deléne Visser

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Past research has often shown that job satisfaction and job performance are uncorrelated. The current study was an attempt to clarify the relationship by examining the role of affective-cognitive consistency (ACC to test whether attitudinal consistency affects the strength of the relationship. A secondary objective was to assess whether modified versions of the Overall Job Satisfaction Scale (OJS and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ, administered to 166 full-time employees from a variety of companies, may be regarded as affective and cognitive measures of job satisfaction respectively. This view was supported by means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic results. Overall job satisfaction was measured by a composite of the modified OJS and MSQ, and job performance was rated on a 10-point scale by the employees’ supervisors. Respondents’ scores on the modified OJS and MSQ were then used to form groups that were high or low in ACC. For employees who displayed high ACC regarding their job satisfaction attitudes, medium to large positive correlations between the job satisfaction measures and performance were obtained. In contrast, non-significant correlations were recorded for the low ACC groups. The hypothesis that ACC is a significant moderator of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance was therefore supported. Opsomming Vorige navorsing het dikwels getoon dat werktevredenheid en werkprestasie nie korreleer nie. Dié ondersoek was ’n poging om lig te werp op hierdie verwantskap deur die rol van affektiewe-kognitiewe konsekwentheid (AKK te ondersoek ten einde te toets of houdingkonsekwentheid die sterkte van die verwantskap beïnvloed. ’n Sekondêre doelwit was om te bepaal of gewysigde weergawes van die Overall Job Satisfaction Scale (OJS en die Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ, toegepas op 166 voltydse werknemers van ’n verskeidenheid ondernemings, as affektiewe en kognitiewe metings

  15. Health in the hot zone - How could global warming affect humans?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monastersky, R.

    1996-04-06

    A soon-to-be-released report from the World Health Organization examines the health effects of global warming, calling climate change one of the largest public health challenges for the upcoming century. The issue extends beyond tropical illness: deaths caused directly by heat, dwindling agricultural yields etc. could all affect human health. This article looks at the following health related effects and gives an overview of the scientific information available on each: temperature and mortality; tropical trouble, including vecorborne diseases and increase in susceptable populations; and waterborne problems such as cholera, harmful algal bloomes, food shortages.

  16. Does correlated color temperature affect the ability of humans to identify veins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we provide empirical evidence and demonstrate statistically that white illumination settings can affect the human ability to identify veins in the inner hand vasculature. A special light-emitting diode lamp with high color rendering index (CRI 84-95) was developed and the effect of correlated color temperature was evaluated, in the range between 2600 and 5700 K at an illuminance of 40±9  lx on the ability of adult humans to identify veins. It is shown that the ability to identify veins can, on average, be increased up to 24% when white illumination settings that do not resemble incandescent light are applied. The illuminance reported together with the effect of white illumination settings on direct visual perception of biosamples are relevant for clinical investigations during the night. PMID:26831595

  17. AFFECTIVE AND EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION: Game-Based and Innovative Learning Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Askim GULUMBAY, Anadolu University, TURKEY

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computersupported learning and human-computer interactions.Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cognitive sciences, various aspects of communication and human computer interaction, interface design andcomputer science on one hand and educators and game industry on the other, this should open gates to evolutionary changes of the learning industry. The major topics discussed are emotions, motivation, games and game-experience.

  18. Research into human factors affecting the railway system; Studien zu menschlichen Einflussfaktoren im Eisenbahnsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerl, Malte; Feldmann, Frederike; Rumke, Axel; Pelz, Markus [DLR e.V., Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Verkehrssystemtechnik

    2010-07-01

    The Institute for Transportation Systems (ITS) at the German Aerospace Center DLR in Braunschweig has for many years been conducting research into current and future topics relating to railway transportation. Supplementing the in-house technical infrastructure including e.g. RailSiTe {sup registered} (Rail Simulation and Testing) and RailDriVE {sup registered} (Rail Driving Validation Environment), a new test environment for Rail Human Factors Research has been established to investigate such factors as they affect locomotive drivers. The aim is to analyse current issues and new concepts regarding human-machine interaction and test them under conditions that are as true-to-life as possible without exposure to real-life safety-critical situations. The test environment allows for investigation across the spectrum, starting with workplace analysis and going on from potential modifications to existing user interfaces through to the analysis of prototype assistance systems. (orig.)

  19. Mechanisms for training security inspectors to enhance human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established qualification standards for protective force personnel employed at nuclear facilities [10 CFR Part 1046 (Federal Register)]. Training mechanisms used at Los Alamos to enhance human performance in meeting DOE standards include, but are not limited to, the following: for cardio-respiratory training, they utilize distance running, interval training, sprint training, pacing, indoor aerobics and circuit training; for muscular strength, free weights, weight machines, light hand weights, grip strength conditioners, and calistenics are employed; for muscular endurance, participants do high repetitions (15 - 40) using dumbbells, flex weights, resistive rubber bands, benches, and calisthenics; for flexibility, each training session devotes specific times to stretch the muscles involved for a particular activity. These training mechanisms with specific protocols can enhance human performance

  20. Measuring Human Performance within Computer Security Incident Response Teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, Jonathan T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Avina, Glory Emmanuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forsythe, James C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Human performance has become a pertinen t issue within cyber security. However, this research has been stymied by the limited availability of expert cyber security professionals. This is partly attributable to the ongoing workload faced by cyber security professionals, which is compound ed by the limited number of qualified personnel and turnover of p ersonnel across organizations. Additionally, it is difficult to conduct research, and particularly, openly published research, due to the sensitivity inherent to cyber ope rations at most orga nizations. As an alternative, the current research has focused on data collection during cyb er security training exercises. These events draw individuals with a range of knowledge and experience extending from seasoned professionals to recent college gradu ates to college students. The current paper describes research involving data collection at two separate cyber security exercises. This data collection involved multiple measures which included behavioral performance based on human - machine transactions and questionnaire - based assessments of cyber security experience.

  1. Effects of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine on human performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedtje, John F., Jr.; Oman, Charles M.; Letz, Richard; Baker, Edward L.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of two drugs used to prevent symptoms of motion sickness in the operational environment were examined in this study of human performance as measured by computer-based tests of cognitive and psychomotor skills. Each subject was exposed repetitively to five tests: symbol-digit substitution, simple reaction time, pattern recognition, digit span memory, and pattern memory. Although there have been previous reports of decreases in human performance in similar testing with higher dosages of scopolamine or dextroamphetamine, no significant decrements were observed with the operational-level combined dose used in this study (0.4 mg oral scopolamine and 5.0 mg oral dextroamphetamine.) The controversy over the use of combination drug therapy in this environnment is discussed along with the indications for further research based on the findings.

  2. Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuster, J.

    1998-01-01

    Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.

  3. Human Performance Optimization: Culture Change and Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A; OʼConnor, Francis G

    2015-11-01

    The term "Human Performance Optimization" (HPO) emerged across the Department of Defense (DoD) around 2006 when the importance of human performance for military success on the battlefield was acknowledged. Likewise, the term Total Force Fitness (TFF) arose as a conceptual framework within DoD in response to the need for a more holistic approach to the unparalleled operational demands with multiple deployments and strains on the United States Armed Forces. Both HPO and TFF are frameworks for enhancing and sustaining the health, well-being, and performance among our warriors and their families; they are fundamental to accomplishing our nation's mission. A demands-resources model for HPO is presented within the context of TFF to assist in operationalizing actions to enhance performance. In addition, the role leaders can serve is discussed; leaders are uniquely postured in the military chain of command to directly influence a culture of fitness for a ready force, and promote the concept that service members are ultimately responsible for their fitness and performance.

  4. Human Performance Optimization: Culture Change and Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A; OʼConnor, Francis G

    2015-11-01

    The term "Human Performance Optimization" (HPO) emerged across the Department of Defense (DoD) around 2006 when the importance of human performance for military success on the battlefield was acknowledged. Likewise, the term Total Force Fitness (TFF) arose as a conceptual framework within DoD in response to the need for a more holistic approach to the unparalleled operational demands with multiple deployments and strains on the United States Armed Forces. Both HPO and TFF are frameworks for enhancing and sustaining the health, well-being, and performance among our warriors and their families; they are fundamental to accomplishing our nation's mission. A demands-resources model for HPO is presented within the context of TFF to assist in operationalizing actions to enhance performance. In addition, the role leaders can serve is discussed; leaders are uniquely postured in the military chain of command to directly influence a culture of fitness for a ready force, and promote the concept that service members are ultimately responsible for their fitness and performance. PMID:26506199

  5. Control room human engineering influences on operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three general groups of factors influence operator performance in fulfilling their responsibilities in the control room: (1) control room and control system design, informational data displays (operator inputs) as well as control board design (for operator output); (2) operator characteristics, including those skills, mental, physical, and emotional qualities which are functions of operator selection, training, and motivation; (3) job performance guides, the prescribed operating procedures for normal and emergency operations. This paper presents some of the major results of an evaluation of the effect of human engineering on operator performance in the control room. Primary attention is given to discussion of control room and control system design influence on the operator. Brief observations on the influences of operator characteristics and job performance guides (operating procedures) on performance in the control room are also given. Under the objectives of the study, special emphasis was placed on the evaluation of the control room-operator relationships for severe emergency conditions in the power plant. Consequently, this presentation is restricted largely to material related to emergency conditions in the control room, though it is recognized that human engineering of control systems is of equal (or greater) importance for many other aspects of plant operation

  6. Dominant factors affecting temperature rise in simulations of human thermoregulation during RF exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical models of the human thermoregulatory system can be used together with realistic voxel models of the human anatomy to simulate the body temperature increases caused by the power absorption from radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. In this paper, the Pennes bioheat equation with a thermoregulatory model is used for calculating local peak temperatures as well as the body-core-temperature elevation in a realistic human body model for grounded plane-wave exposures at frequencies 39, 800 and 2400 MHz. The electromagnetic power loss is solved by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the discretized bioheat equation is solved by the geometric multigrid method. Human thermoregulatory models contain numerous thermophysiological and computational parameters—some of which may be subject to considerable uncertainty—that affect the simulated core and local temperature elevations. The goal of this paper is to find how greatly the computed temperature is influenced by changes in various modelling parameters, such as the skin blood flow rate, models for vasodilation and sweating, and clothing and air movement. The results show that the peak temperature rises are most strongly affected by the modelling of tissue blood flow and its temperature dependence, and mostly unaffected by the central control mechanism for vasodilation and sweating. Almost the opposite is true for the body-core-temperature rise, which is however typically greatly lower than the peak temperature rise. It also seems that ignoring the thermoregulation and the blood temperature increase is a good approximation when the local 10 g averaged specific absorption rate is smaller than 10 W kg−1.

  7. Approaching human performance the functionality-driven Awiwi robot hand

    CERN Document Server

    Grebenstein, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Humanoid robotics have made remarkable progress since the dawn of robotics. So why don't we have humanoid robot assistants in day-to-day life yet? This book analyzes the keys to building a successful humanoid robot for field robotics, where collisions become an unavoidable part of the game. The author argues that the design goal should be real anthropomorphism, as opposed to mere human-like appearance. He deduces three major characteristics to aim for when designing a humanoid robot, particularly robot hands: _ Robustness against impacts _ Fast dynamics _ Human-like grasping and manipulation performance   Instead of blindly copying human anatomy, this book opts for a holistic design me-tho-do-lo-gy. It analyzes human hands and existing robot hands to elucidate the important functionalities that are the building blocks toward these necessary characteristics.They are the keys to designing an anthropomorphic robot hand, as illustrated in the high performance anthropomorphic Awiwi Hand presented in this book.  ...

  8. Functional assessment of human coding mutations affecting skin pigmentation using zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurab R Tsetskhladze

    Full Text Available A major challenge in personalized medicine is the lack of a standard way to define the functional significance of the numerous nonsynonymous, single nucleotide coding variants that are present in each human individual. To begin to address this problem, we have used pigmentation as a model polygenic trait, three common human polymorphisms thought to influence pigmentation, and the zebrafish as a model system. The approach is based on the rescue of embryonic zebrafish mutant phenotypes by "humanized" zebrafish orthologous mRNA. Two hypomorphic polymorphisms, L374F in SLC45A2, and A111T in SLC24A5, have been linked to lighter skin color in Europeans. The phenotypic effect of a second coding polymorphism in SLC45A2, E272K, is unclear. None of these polymorphisms had been tested in the context of a model organism. We have confirmed that zebrafish albino fish are mutant in slc45a2; wild-type slc45a2 mRNA rescued the albino mutant phenotype. Introduction of the L374F polymorphism into albino or the A111T polymorphism into slc24a5 (golden abolished mRNA rescue of the respective mutant phenotypes, consistent with their known contributions to European skin color. In contrast, the E272K polymorphism had no effect on phenotypic rescue. The experimental conclusion that E272K is unlikely to affect pigmentation is consistent with a lack of correlation between this polymorphism and quantitatively measured skin color in 59 East Asian humans. A survey of mutations causing human oculocutaneous albinism yielded 257 missense mutations, 82% of which are theoretically testable in zebrafish. The developed approach may be extended to other model systems and may potentially contribute to our understanding the functional relationships between DNA sequence variation, human biology, and disease.

  9. Concurrent activities and instructed human fixed-interval performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, D; Keenan, M

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments explored the effects of two types of concurrent activity on human fixed-interval performance. Eight adult subjects were given access to either reading material or a working television set across three fixed-interval values (60 s, 300 s, and 600 s). During Experiment 1, 2 subjects produced "scalloped" patterns and reported no verbal regulation (e.g., counting) in the presence of the reading material, but shifted to low-rate patterns and reported verbal regulation when the readi...

  10. Season of conception in rural gambia affects DNA methylation at putative human metastable epialleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Waterland

    Full Text Available Throughout most of the mammalian genome, genetically regulated developmental programming establishes diverse yet predictable epigenetic states across differentiated cells and tissues. At metastable epialleles (MEs, conversely, epigenotype is established stochastically in the early embryo then maintained in differentiated lineages, resulting in dramatic and systemic interindividual variation in epigenetic regulation. In the mouse, maternal nutrition affects this process, with permanent phenotypic consequences for the offspring. MEs have not previously been identified in humans. Here, using an innovative 2-tissue parallel epigenomic screen, we identified putative MEs in the human genome. In autopsy samples, we showed that DNA methylation at these loci is highly correlated across tissues representing all 3 embryonic germ layer lineages. Monozygotic twin pairs exhibited substantial discordance in DNA methylation at these loci, suggesting that their epigenetic state is established stochastically. We then tested for persistent epigenetic effects of periconceptional nutrition in rural Gambians, who experience dramatic seasonal fluctuations in nutritional status. DNA methylation at MEs was elevated in individuals conceived during the nutritionally challenged rainy season, providing the first evidence of a permanent, systemic effect of periconceptional environment on human epigenotype. At MEs, epigenetic regulation in internal organs and tissues varies among individuals and can be deduced from peripheral blood DNA. MEs should therefore facilitate an improved understanding of the role of interindividual epigenetic variation in human disease.

  11. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy: Human error and critical tasks in remote afterloading brachytherapy and approaches for improved system performance. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L. [Pacific Science and Engineering Group, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Remote Afterloading Brachytherapy (RAB) is a medical process used in the treatment of cancer. RAB uses a computer-controlled device to remotely insert and remove radioactive sources close to a target (or tumor) in the body. Some RAB problems affecting the radiation dose to the patient have been reported and attributed to human error. To determine the root cause of human error in the RAB system, a human factors team visited 23 RAB treatment sites in the US The team observed RAB treatment planning and delivery, interviewed RAB personnel, and performed walk-throughs, during which staff demonstrated the procedures and practices used in performing RAB tasks. Factors leading to human error in the RAB system were identified. The impact of those factors on the performance of RAB was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance. Finally, the project identified and evaluated alternative approaches for resolving the safety significant problems related to human error.

  12. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy: Human error and critical tasks in remote afterloading brachytherapy and approaches for improved system performance. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote Afterloading Brachytherapy (RAB) is a medical process used in the treatment of cancer. RAB uses a computer-controlled device to remotely insert and remove radioactive sources close to a target (or tumor) in the body. Some RAB problems affecting the radiation dose to the patient have been reported and attributed to human error. To determine the root cause of human error in the RAB system, a human factors team visited 23 RAB treatment sites in the US The team observed RAB treatment planning and delivery, interviewed RAB personnel, and performed walk-throughs, during which staff demonstrated the procedures and practices used in performing RAB tasks. Factors leading to human error in the RAB system were identified. The impact of those factors on the performance of RAB was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance. Finally, the project identified and evaluated alternative approaches for resolving the safety significant problems related to human error

  13. Work-family enrichment and job performance: a constructive replication of affective events theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn; Kacmar, K Michele; Zivnuska, Suzanne; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

    2011-07-01

    Based on affective events theory (AET), we hypothesize a four-step model of the mediating mechanisms of positive mood and job satisfaction in the relationship between work-family enrichment and job performance. We test this model for both directions of enrichment (work-to-family and family-to-work). We used two samples to test the model using structural equation modeling. Results from Study 1, which included 240 full-time employees, were replicated in Study 2, which included 189 matched subordinate-supervisor dyads. For the work-to-family direction, results from both samples support our conceptual model and indicate mediation of the enrichment-performance relationship for the work-to-family direction of enrichment. For the family-to-work direction, results from the first sample support our conceptual model but results from the second sample do not. Our findings help elucidate mixed findings in the enrichment and job performance literatures and contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms linking these concepts. We conclude with a discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of our findings.

  14. Work-family enrichment and job performance: a constructive replication of affective events theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn; Kacmar, K Michele; Zivnuska, Suzanne; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

    2011-07-01

    Based on affective events theory (AET), we hypothesize a four-step model of the mediating mechanisms of positive mood and job satisfaction in the relationship between work-family enrichment and job performance. We test this model for both directions of enrichment (work-to-family and family-to-work). We used two samples to test the model using structural equation modeling. Results from Study 1, which included 240 full-time employees, were replicated in Study 2, which included 189 matched subordinate-supervisor dyads. For the work-to-family direction, results from both samples support our conceptual model and indicate mediation of the enrichment-performance relationship for the work-to-family direction of enrichment. For the family-to-work direction, results from the first sample support our conceptual model but results from the second sample do not. Our findings help elucidate mixed findings in the enrichment and job performance literatures and contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms linking these concepts. We conclude with a discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of our findings. PMID:21728437

  15. Performance of music elevates pain threshold and positive affect: implications for the evolutionary function of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R I M; Kaskatis, Kostas; MacDonald, Ian; Barra, Vinnie

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that music arouses emotional responses. In addition, it has long been thought to play an important role in creating a sense of community, especially in small scale societies. One mechanism by which it might do this is through the endorphin system, and there is evidence to support this claim. Using pain threshold as an assay for CNS endorphin release, we ask whether it is the auditory perception of music that triggers this effect or the active performance of music. We show that singing, dancing and drumming all trigger endorphin release (indexed by an increase in post-activity pain tolerance) in contexts where merely listening to music and low energy musical activities do not. We also confirm that music performance results in elevated positive (but not negative) affect. We conclude that it is the active performance of music that generates the endorphin high, not the music itself. We discuss the implications of this in the context of community bonding mechanisms that commonly involve dance and music-making. PMID:23089077

  16. Cognitive performance of Gottingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin in serum. However, higher levels of triglycerides were observed for minipigs fed the diets with high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose compared to minipigs fed a standard minipig diet. This might explain the observed impairments in spatial cognition. These findings suggest that high dietary intake of both fat and sugar may impair spatial cognition which could be relevant for mental functioning in humans.

  17. Transmission distortion affecting human noncrossover but not crossover recombination: a hidden source of meiotic drive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Odenthal-Hesse

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination ensures the correct segregation of homologous chromosomes during gamete formation and contributes to DNA diversity through both large-scale reciprocal crossovers and very localised gene conversion events, also known as noncrossovers. Considerable progress has been made in understanding factors such as PRDM9 and SNP variants that influence the initiation of recombination at human hotspots but very little is known about factors acting downstream. To address this, we simultaneously analysed both types of recombinant molecule in sperm DNA at six highly active hotspots, and looked for disparity in the transmission of allelic variants indicative of any cis-acting influences. At two of the hotspots we identified a novel form of biased transmission that was exclusive to the noncrossover class of recombinant, and which presumably arises through differences between crossovers and noncrossovers in heteroduplex formation and biased mismatch repair. This form of biased gene conversion is not predicted to influence hotspot activity as previously noted for SNPs that affect recombination initiation, but does constitute a powerful and previously undetected source of recombination-driven meiotic drive that by extrapolation may affect thousands of recombination hotspots throughout the human genome. Intriguingly, at both of the hotspots described here, this drive favours strong (G/C over weak (A/T base pairs as might be predicted from the well-established correlations between high GC content and recombination activity in mammalian genomes.

  18. Transmission distortion affecting human noncrossover but not crossover recombination: a hidden source of meiotic drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenthal-Hesse, Linda; Berg, Ingrid L; Veselis, Amelia; Jeffreys, Alec J; May, Celia A

    2014-02-01

    Meiotic recombination ensures the correct segregation of homologous chromosomes during gamete formation and contributes to DNA diversity through both large-scale reciprocal crossovers and very localised gene conversion events, also known as noncrossovers. Considerable progress has been made in understanding factors such as PRDM9 and SNP variants that influence the initiation of recombination at human hotspots but very little is known about factors acting downstream. To address this, we simultaneously analysed both types of recombinant molecule in sperm DNA at six highly active hotspots, and looked for disparity in the transmission of allelic variants indicative of any cis-acting influences. At two of the hotspots we identified a novel form of biased transmission that was exclusive to the noncrossover class of recombinant, and which presumably arises through differences between crossovers and noncrossovers in heteroduplex formation and biased mismatch repair. This form of biased gene conversion is not predicted to influence hotspot activity as previously noted for SNPs that affect recombination initiation, but does constitute a powerful and previously undetected source of recombination-driven meiotic drive that by extrapolation may affect thousands of recombination hotspots throughout the human genome. Intriguingly, at both of the hotspots described here, this drive favours strong (G/C) over weak (A/T) base pairs as might be predicted from the well-established correlations between high GC content and recombination activity in mammalian genomes. PMID:24516398

  19. Rapid and Quantitative Assay of Amyloid-Seeding Activity in Human Brains Affected with Prion Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Takatsuki

    Full Text Available The infectious agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are composed of amyloidogenic prion protein, PrPSc. Real-time quaking-induced conversion can amplify very small amounts of PrPSc seeds in tissues/body fluids of patients or animals. Using this in vitro PrP-amyloid amplification assay, we quantitated the seeding activity of affected human brains. End-point assay using serially diluted brain homogenates of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients demonstrated that 50% seeding dose (SD50 is reached approximately 10(10/g brain (values varies 10(8.79-10.63/g. A genetic case (GSS-P102L yielded a similar level of seeding activity in an autopsy brain sample. The range of PrPSc concentrations in the samples, determined by dot-blot assay, was 0.6-5.4 μg/g brain; therefore, we estimated that 1 SD50 unit was equivalent to 0.06-0.27 fg of PrPSc. The SD50 values of the affected brains dropped more than three orders of magnitude after autoclaving at 121°C. This new method for quantitation of human prion activity provides a new way to reduce the risk of iatrogenic prion transmission.

  20. Hypoxia and the Presence of Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Affect Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Ackerstaff

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor progression and metastasis are influenced by hypoxia, as well as by interactions between cancer cells and components of the stroma, such as endothelial cells. Here, we have used a magnetic resonance (MRcompatible invasion assay to further understand the effects of hypoxia on human prostate cancer cell invasion and metabolism in the presence and absence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Additionally, we compared endogenous activities of selected proteases related to invasion in PC-3 cells and HUVECs, profiled gene expression of PC-3 cells by microarray, evaluated cell proliferation of PC-3 cells and HUVECs by flow cytometry, under hypoxic and oxygenated conditions. The invasion of less-invasive DU-145 cells was not affected by either hypoxia or the presence of HUVECs. However, hypoxia significantly decreased the invasion of PC-3 cells. This hypoxia-induced decrease was attenuated by the presence of HUVECs, whereas under oxygenated conditions, HUVECs did not alter the invasion of PC-3 cells. Cell metabolism changed distinctly with hypoxia and invasion. The endogenous activity of selected extracellular proteases, although altered by hypoxia, did not fully explain the hypoxia-induced changes in invasion. Gene expression profiling indicated that hypoxia affects multiple cellular functions and pathways.

  1. Transient p53 Suppression Increases Reprogramming of Human Fibroblasts without Affecting Apoptosis and DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel A. Rasmussen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs has sparked great interest in the potential treatment of patients with their own in vitro differentiated cells. Recently, knockout of the Tumor Protein 53 (p53 gene was reported to facilitate reprogramming but unfortunately also led to genomic instability. Here, we report that transient suppression of p53 during nonintegrative reprogramming of human fibroblasts leads to a significant increase in expression of pluripotency markers and overall number of iPSC colonies, due to downstream suppression of p21, without affecting apoptosis and DNA damage. Stable iPSC lines generated with or without p53 suppression showed comparable expression of pluripotency markers and methylation patterns, displayed normal karyotypes, contained between 0 and 5 genomic copy number variations and produced functional neurons in vitro. In conclusion, transient p53 suppression increases reprogramming efficiency without affecting genomic stability, rendering the method suitable for in vitro mechanistic studies with the possibility for future clinical translation.

  2. GaAs wafer overlay performance affected by annealing heat treatment: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Black, Iain

    2002-07-01

    Further analysis on how wafer distortion affecting the overlay performance during annealing treatment in GaAs wafer fabrication was conducted quantitatively using MONO-LITH software. The experimental results were decomposed as wafer translation, scaling at X and Y direction, rotation and orthogonality. The grid residual was used to describe non- correctable distortion of the wafers, which fits the equations given below: Residual equals Measured - Modeled, which is not a modeled component. The Vector Map displays distribution of error vectors over the wafer or field for various components or overall effect. Based on the component analysis that the misalignment caused by translation and scaling can be compensated by heat treatment if the wafer is placed at a favorable orientation. This can help mitigate the effects of substrate quality in manufactory.

  3. Performance of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears as affected by planting density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus da Silveira Pasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears at two planting densities. The experiment was carried out during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013, and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in one-year-old orchards (2011/2012 of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears, trained in a central-leader system and planted in two densities (2,000 and 4,000 trees per hectare. The assessed parameters were: production per hectare, production per tree, yield efficiency, number of fruit per tree, average fruit weight, trunk diameter increment, fruit firmness, and soluble solid contents. The cumulative yield of 'Rocha' is greater at the higher planting density, whereas the yield efficiency of 'Santa Maria' increases at the lower planting density, as the trees get more mature. Trunk diameter of 'Rocha' also increases at the lower planting density. However, fruit quality parameters in both cultivars are little affected by planting density.

  4. Mating system affects population performance and extinction risk under environmental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesnar-Bielak, Agata; Skrzynecka, Anna M; Prokop, Zofia M; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-11-22

    Failure of organisms to adapt to sudden environmental changes may lead to extinction. The type of mating system, by affecting fertility and the strength of sexual selection, may have a major impact on a population's chances to adapt and survive. Here, we use experimental evolution in bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus robini) to examine the effects of the mating system on population performance under environmental change. We demonstrate that populations in which monogamy was enforced suffered a dramatic fitness decline when evolving at an increased temperature, whereas the negative effects of change in a thermal environment were alleviated in polygamous populations. Strikingly, within 17 generations, all monogamous populations experiencing higher temperature went extinct, whereas all polygamous populations survived. Our results show that the mating system may have dramatic effects on the risk of extinction under environmental change.

  5. Top Grafting Performance of Some Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones as Affected by Scion Budwood Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrusy Zakariyya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing budwood number is an efficient effort to overcome problemsrelated with limited scion materials. The objective of this research was to studythe effect of scion budwood number in some clones on the performance of graftedcocoa seedlings. The research was conducted at Kaliwining Research Station,Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember, Indonesia at an elevationof 48 m above sea level. Layout for this study used factorial with 2 factors inrandomized complete block design, with four replications for every treatment.The first factor was clone type, namely MCC 02 and Sulawesi 1; whereas the secondfactor was number of grafted scion budwood, namely one, two, and three graftedbudwoods. There was no interaction between clone and number of scion budwoodfor variables of shoot length, stem girth, content of total chlorophyll, chlorophylla, and chlorophyll b. Meanwhile, there was interaction for stomatal conductanceand stomatal diffusion resistance. Clone significantly affected photosynthesisand stomatal diffusion resistance, while number of scion budwood affected significantlythe shoot length. Photosynthesis activity of MCC 02 was higher comparedto Sulawesi 1. In average, stomatal diffusion resistance of Sulawesi 1 was higherthan MCC 02. The shoot length of one grafted budwood was higher than thetwo or three grafted budwood.

  6. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Performance of Environmental Impact Assessment Practices (EIA in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessment is used to detect changes that a proposed project may have on environment. The intent of present study is to investigate impact of institutional capacity and legal framework on performance of Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Pakistan such as screening, scoping and mitigation, environmental management plan and reporting. Sample of 200 EIA professionals have been selected by using random sampling approach from all provinces of Pakistan. Data has been collected through structured questionnaire and analysed by using AMOS 19 (Analysis of Moment Structures software. Results of path analysis indicated that institutional capacity and legal framework have significant direct impact on performance of all EIA practices in Pakistan. Model fit statistics such as GFI, RMR, NFI, IFI, TLI, RFI, CFI indicate the fitness of research model in this context. It has been suggested that there must be relevant and sufficient human resources that can uplift institutional capacity and legal framework must be well implemented because it will lead to enhanced performance of EIA practices in Pakistan.

  7. Personality traits affect teaching performance of attending physicians: results of a multi-center observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée A Scheepers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied effects of personality traits on job performance and academic performance in medicine. However, up till date, research in clinical teaching practice did not use quantitative methods and did not account for specialty differences. We empirically studied the relationship of attending physicians' personality traits with their teaching performance across surgical and non-surgical specialties. METHOD: We conducted a survey across surgical and non-surgical specialties in eighteen medical centers in the Netherlands. Residents evaluated attending physicians' overall teaching performance, as well as the specific domains learning climate, professional attitude, communication, evaluation, and feedback, using the validated 21-item System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ. Attending physicians self-evaluated their personality traits on a 5-point scale using the validated 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI, yielding the Five Factor model: extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, agreeableness and openness. RESULTS: Overall, 622 (77% attending physicians and 549 (68% residents participated. Extraversion positively related to overall teaching performance (regression coefficient, B: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10, P = 0.02. Openness was negatively associated with scores on feedback for surgical specialties only (B: -0.10, 95% CI: -0.15 to -0.05, P<0.001 and conscientiousness was positively related to evaluation of residents for non-surgical specialties only (B: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.22, p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Extraverted attending physicians were consistently evaluated as better supervisors. Surgical attending physicians who display high levels of

  8. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  9. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  10. Motion and emotion: depression reduces psychomotor performance and alters affective movements in caregiving interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Young

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronised, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functioning. Here we investigated the impact of psychomotor disturbance in depression on physical responsive behaviour in both an experimental and observational setting.Methods: In Experiment 1, we examined motor disturbance in depression in response to salient emotional sounds, using a laboratory-based effortful motor task. In Experiment 2, we explored whether psychomotor disturbance was apparent in real-life social interactions. Using mother-infant interactions as a model affective social situation, we compared physical behaviours of mothers with and without postnatal depression (PND.Results: We found impairments in precise, controlled psychomotor performance in adults with depression relative to healthy adults (Experiment 1. Despite this disruption, all adults showed enhanced performance following exposure to highly salient emotional cues (infant cries. Examining real-life interactions, we found differences in physical movements, namely reduced affective touching, in mothers with PND responding to their infants, compared to healthy mothers (Experiment 2.Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that psychomotor disturbance may be an important feature of depression that can impair social functioning. Future work investigating whether improvements in physical movement in depression could have a positive impact on social interactions would be of much interest.

  11. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (pwalking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (pwalking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (pwalking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based lighting regimen that favors for both production and welfare of Broilers. PMID:26954120

  12. Processes, Performance Drivers and ICT Tools in Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oškrdal Václav

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an insight to processes, performance drivers and ICT tools in human resources (HR management area. On the basis of a modern approach to HR management, a set of business processes that are handled by today’s HR managers is defined. Consequently, the concept of ICT-supported performance drivers and their relevance in the area of HR management as well as the relationship between HR business processes, performance drivers and ICT tools are defined. The theoretical outcomes are further enhanced with results obtained from a survey among Czech companies. This article was written with kind courtesy of finances provided by VŠE IGA grant „IGA – 32/2010“.

  13. Use of genotoxicity tests in a TIE to identify chemicals potentially affecting human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperial Oil operates a sour gas processing plant in southern Alberta that has, for the past several years, been the focus of considerable public and regulatory concern over perceived contamination of soils and groundwater on a nearby ranch. Elevated concentrations of DOC (∼140 mg/L) have been received in groundwater underlying the plant site. Two process-related chemicals, sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA), had been previously identified as the primary components of the DOC plume, although the chemicals associated with 30% of the DOC could not be identified. A risk assessment was initiated in 1994 to determine whether off-site migration of sulfolane and DIPA or of other unidentified contaminants poses a risks to human health and/or ecological receptors. One component of the risk assessment included conducting a TIE to help identify the chemical(s) in contaminated groundwater underlying the gas plant that might adversely affect human health. Three endpoints were utilized in the TIE: MicroTox, SOS-Chromotest and the Ames test. MicroTox was used since it exhibited a response to whole groundwater from the site, while the genotoxicity tests were used because DIPA reportedly causes a response in the Ames test and because of the concern over potential human health affects arising from other unidentified contaminants. Results of the TIE indicated that the chemicals causing the toxicity in the groundwater sample were water soluble compounds, with similar characteristics to the process chemicals used at the gas plant and detected at high concentrations in groundwater from the plant site. These results provided additional evidence to help focus the risk assessment on the chemicals sulfolane and diisopropanolamine

  14. Effectively Managing Nuclear Risk Through Human Performance Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. commercial nuclear industry has just completed an outstanding decade of plant performance. Safety levels and electric production are at unprecedented high levels and continue to exceed even high industry goals. Nuclear energy continues to keep the highest priority on performance improvement programs and highly trained and qualified people that maintain its record setting safety and reliability of operations. While the industry has maintained a high level of performance, the advent of deregulation and the consolidation of nuclear power plant ownership, as well as the current climate for concern about both rising energy costs and the availability of power, have raised the standard for nuclear energy's level of competitiveness in today's market place. The resulting challenge is how to more effectively manage risk and to improve performance even further in a generally high-performing industry. One of the most effective ways to develop this culture is to apply the principles of Hum an Performance Technology, or HPT. HPT is a relatively new field. Its principles are derived from the research and practice of behavioral and cognitive psychologists, instructional technologists, training designers, organizational developers, and various human resource specialists. Using the principles of HPT can help the nuclear industry successfully meet ever-changing environmental and business demands

  15. Experimental performance evaluation of human balance control models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huryn, Thomas P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Croft, Elizabeth A; Koehle, Michael S; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2014-11-01

    Two factors commonly differentiate proposed balance control models for quiet human standing: 1) intermittent muscle activation and 2) prediction that overcomes sensorimotor time delays. In this experiment we assessed the viability and performance of intermittent activation and prediction in a balance control loop that included the neuromuscular dynamics of human calf muscles. Muscles were driven by functional electrical stimulation (FES). The performance of the different controllers was compared based on sway patterns and mechanical effort required to balance a human body load on a robotic balance simulator. All evaluated controllers balanced subjects with and without a neural block applied to their common peroneal and tibial nerves, showing that the models can produce stable balance in the absence of natural activation. Intermittent activation required less stimulation energy than continuous control but predisposed the system to increased sway. Relative to intermittent control, continuous control reproduced the sway size of natural standing better. Prediction was not necessary for stable balance control but did improve stability when control was intermittent, suggesting a possible benefit of a predictor for intermittent activation. Further application of intermittent activation and predictive control models may drive prolonged, stable FES-controlled standing that improves quality of life for people with balance impairments. PMID:24771586

  16. Born to run. Studying the limits of human performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Andrew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is recognised that regular physical activity and a high level of fitness are powerful predictors of positive health outcomes. There is a long and rich history of significant feats of human endurance with some, for example, the death of the first marathon runner, Pheidippides, associated with negative health outcomes. Early studies on endurance running used X-ray and interview techniques to evaluate competitors and comment on performance. Since then, comparatively few studies have looked at runners competing in distances longer than a marathon. Those that have, tend to show significant musculoskeletal injuries and a remarkable level of adaptation to this endurance load. The TransEurope Footrace Project followed ultra-endurance runners aiming to complete 4,500 Km of running in 64 days across Europe. This pioneering study will assess the impact of extreme endurance on human physiology; analysing musculoskeletal and other tissue/organ injuries, and the body's potential ability to adapt to extreme physiological stress. The results will be of interest not only to endurance runners, but to anyone interested in the limits of human performance. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/78

  17. The impact of pre- and/or probiotics on human colonic metabolism: does it affect human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Preter, Vicky; Hamer, Henrike M; Windey, Karen; Verbeke, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Since many years, the role of the colonic microbiota in maintaining the host's overall health and well-being has been recognized. Dietary modulation of the microbiota composition and activity has been achieved by the use of pre-, pro- and synbiotics. In this review, we will summarize the available evidence on the modification of bacterial metabolism by dietary intervention with pre-, pro- and synbiotics. Enhanced production of SCFA as a marker of increased saccharolytic fermentation is well documented in animal and in vitro studies. Decreased production of potentially toxic protein fermentation metabolites, such as sulfides, phenolic and indolic compounds, has been less frequently demonstrated. Besides, pre-, pro- and synbiotics also affect other metabolic pathways such as the deconjugation of secondary bile acids, bacterial enzyme activities and mineral absorption. Data from human studies are less conclusive. The emergence of new analytical techniques such as metabolite profiling has revealed new pathways affected by dietary intervention. However, an important challenge for current and future research is to relate changes in bacterial metabolism to concrete health benefits. Potential targets and expected benefits have been identified: reduced risk for the metabolic syndrome and prevention of colorectal cancer. PMID:21207512

  18. 4-Methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (Erucin) from rocket plant dichotomously affects the activity of human immunocompetent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründemann, Carsten; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Lamy, Evelyn; Hanschen, Franziska S; Huber, Roman

    2015-03-15

    Isothiocyanates (ITC) from the Brassicaceae plant family are regarded as promising for prevention and treatment of cancer. However, experimental settings consider their therapeutic action without taking into account the risk of unwanted effects on healthy tissues. In the present study we investigated the effects of Eruca sativa seed extract containing MTBITC (Erucin) and pure Erucin from rocket plant on healthy cells of the human immune system in vitro. Hereby, high doses of the plant extract as well as of Erucin inhibited cell viability of human lymphocytes via induction of apoptosis to comparable amounts. Non-toxic low concentrations of the plant extract and pure Erucin altered the expression of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor but did not affect further T cell activation, proliferation and the release of the effector molecules interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-2 of T-lymphocytes. However, the activity of NK-cells was significantly reduced by non-toxic concentrations of the plant extract and pure Erucin. These results indicate that the plant extract and pure Erucin interfere with the function of human T lymphocytes and decreases the activity of NK-cells in comparable concentrations. Long-term clinical studies with ITC-enriched plant extracts from Brassicaceae should take this into account.

  19. The cross-mammalian neurophenomenology of primal emotional affects: From animal feelings to human therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-06-01

    The neural correlates of human emotions are easy to harvest. In contrast, the neural constitution of emotional feelings in humans has resisted systematic scientific analysis. This review summarizes how preclinical affective neuroscience initiatives are making progress in decoding the neural nature of such feelings in animal brains. This has been achieved by studying the rewarding and punishing effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subcortical emotional networks (labeled SEEING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC, and PLAY systems) that evoke distinct emotion action patterns, as well as rewarding and punishing effects in animals. The implications of this knowledge for development of new psychiatric interventions, especially depression, are discussed. Three new antidepressive therapeutics arising from this work are briefly noted: 1) DBS of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in humans, 2) reduction of psychological pain that may arise from excessive PANIC arousal, and 3) facilitation of social joy through the study of social play in rats The overall argument is that we may more readily develop new psychiatric interventions through preclinical models if we take animal emotional feelings seriously, as opposed to just behavioral changes, as targets for development of new treatments. PMID:26876723

  20. Laying performance and egg quality of blue-shelled layers as affected by different housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X L; Zheng, J X; Ning, Z H; Qu, L J; Xu, G Y; Yang, N

    2009-07-01

    Blue-shelled eggs are gaining popularity as the consumption demand diversifies in some countries. This study was carried out to investigate the laying performance and egg quality of the blue-shelled egg layers as well as the effects of different housing systems on egg production and quality traits. One thousand pullets from Dongxiang blue-shelled layers were divided into 2 even groups and kept in different housing systems (outdoor vs. cage). Daily laying performance was recorded from 20 to 60 wk of age. External and internal egg quality traits were examined at 26, 34, 42, and 50 wk. Yolk cholesterol concentration and whole egg cholesterol content were measured at 40 wk of age. Average laying rate from 20 to 60 wk for the cage (54.7%) was significantly higher than that of outdoor layers (39.3%). Among all of the egg quality traits, only eggshell color was affected by housing system. Interaction between housing system and layer age was found in egg weight, eggshell color, eggshell ratio, yolk color, and yolk weight. Meanwhile, cholesterol concentration in yolk was 8.64 +/- 0.40 mg/g in the outdoor eggs, which was significantly lower than that of eggs from the cage birds (10.32 +/- 0.48 mg/g; P marketing system, lower productivity could be balanced by a higher price for the better quality of blue-shelled eggs. PMID:19531721

  1. Sleep-deprivation effect on human performance: a meta-analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candice D. Griffith; Candice D. Griffith; Sankaran Mahadevan

    2006-05-01

    Human fatigue is hard to define since there is no direct measure of fatigue, much like stress. Instead fatigue must be inferred from measures that are affected by fatigue. One such measurable output affected by fatigue is reaction time. In this study the relationship of reaction time to sleep deprivation is studied. These variables were selected because reaction time and hours of sleep deprivation are straightforward characteristics of fatigue to begin the investigation of fatigue effects on performance. Meta-analysis, a widely used procedure in medical and psychological studies, is applied to the variety of fatigue literature collected from various fields in this study. Meta-analysis establishes a procedure for coding and analyzing information from various studies to compute an effect size. In this research the effect size reported is the difference between standardized means, and is found to be -0.6341, implying a strong relationship between sleep deprivation and performance degradation.

  2. Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eBarman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS. Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e. the myopia risk allele showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point towards pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans.

  3. Human erythrocytes and neuroblastoma cells are affected in vitro by Au(III) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwalsky, Mario, E-mail: msuwalsk@udec.cl [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Casilla 160C, Concepcion (Chile); Gonzalez, Raquel [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Casilla 160C, Concepcion (Chile); Villena, Fernando [Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Aguilar, Luis F.; Sotomayor, Carlos P. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Bolognin, Silvia; Zatta, Paolo [CNR Center on Metalloproteins, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2010-06-25

    Gold compounds are well known for their neurological and nephrotoxic implications. However, haematological toxicity is one of the most serious toxic and less studied effects. The lack of information on these aspects of Au(III) prompted us to study the structural effects induced on cell membranes, particularly that of human erythrocytes. AuCl{sub 3} was incubated with intact erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM) and molecular models of the erythrocyte membrane. The latter consisted of multibilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipids classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. This report presents evidence that Au(III) interacts with red cell membranes as follows: (a) in scanning electron microscopy studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that Au(III) induced shape changes at a concentration as low as 0.01 {mu}M; (b) in isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes Au(III) induced a decrease in the molecular dynamics and/or water content at the glycerol backbone level of the lipid bilayer polar groups in a 5-50 {mu}M concentration range, and (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that Au(III) in the 10 {mu}m-1 mM range induced increasing structural perturbation only to dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. Additional experiments were performed in human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y. A statistically significant decrease of cell viability was observed with Au(III) ranging from 0.1 {mu}M to 100 {mu}M.

  4. Human erythrocytes and neuroblastoma cells are affected in vitro by Au(III) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold compounds are well known for their neurological and nephrotoxic implications. However, haematological toxicity is one of the most serious toxic and less studied effects. The lack of information on these aspects of Au(III) prompted us to study the structural effects induced on cell membranes, particularly that of human erythrocytes. AuCl3 was incubated with intact erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM) and molecular models of the erythrocyte membrane. The latter consisted of multibilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipids classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. This report presents evidence that Au(III) interacts with red cell membranes as follows: (a) in scanning electron microscopy studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that Au(III) induced shape changes at a concentration as low as 0.01 μM; (b) in isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes Au(III) induced a decrease in the molecular dynamics and/or water content at the glycerol backbone level of the lipid bilayer polar groups in a 5-50 μM concentration range, and (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that Au(III) in the 10 μm-1 mM range induced increasing structural perturbation only to dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. Additional experiments were performed in human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y. A statistically significant decrease of cell viability was observed with Au(III) ranging from 0.1 μM to 100 μM.

  5. Investigating the impact of performance management on human resource performance across head offices of Agricultural bank branches in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Hamid Reza Torabi Shahidi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resource is one of the most precious assets across contemporary organizations and companies. For this reason, enterprises have to invest on them to promote and improve their employees’ performance. An effective mechanism to develop corporate and human performance is to design and establish a system of performance management so that it improves employees’ performance by determining explicit organizational objectives and coordinating them with individual goals.Current work aims to determine the impact of performance management on human resource performance across head offices of Agricultural Bank branches in Tehran (the main goal and prioritize among performance management components and human resource performance components and also present some procedures to improve human performance using performance management components (sub-goals.

  6. Astronaut Biography Project for Countermeasures of Human Behavior and Performance Risks in Long Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Akeem

    2012-01-01

    This final report will summarize research that relates to human behavioral health and performance of astronauts and flight controllers. Literature reviews, data archival analyses, and ground-based analog studies that center around the risk of human space flight are being used to help mitigate human behavior and performance risks from long duration space flights. A qualitative analysis of an astronaut autobiography was completed. An analysis was also conducted on exercise countermeasure publications to show the positive affects of exercise on the risks targeted in this study. The three main risks targeted in this study are risks of behavioral and psychiatric disorders, risks of performance errors due to poor team performance, cohesion, and composition, and risks of performance errors due to sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm. These three risks focus on psychological and physiological aspects of astronauts who venture out into space on long duration space missions. The purpose of this research is to target these risks in order to help quantify, identify, and mature countermeasures and technologies required in preventing or mitigating adverse outcomes from exposure to the spaceflight environment

  7. Ergonomics as aid tool to identify and to analyze factors that can affect the operational performance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of ergonomics has evolved around the world as one of the keys to understand human behavior in interaction with complex systems as nuclear power plant and to achieve the best match between the system and its users in the context of task to be performed. Increasing research efforts have yielded a considerable body of knowledge concerning the design of workstations, workplace, control rooms, human-system interfaces, user-interface interaction and organizational design to prevent worker discomfort, illness and also to improve productivity, product quality, ease of use and safety. The work ergonomics analysis consists of gathering a series of observation in order to better understand the work done and to propose changes and improvements in the working conditions. The work ergonomics analysis implies both the correction of existing situations (safety, reliability and production problems) and the development of new work system. Operator activity analysis provides a useful tool for the ergonomics approach, based on work ergonomics analysis. The operators will be systematically observed in their real work environment (control room) or in simulators. The focus is on description of the distributed regulated mechanisms (in the sense that operators work in crew), both in nominal and degraded situations, observing how operators regulate collectively their work during an increase in workload or when confronted with situations where incidents or accidents occur. Audio, video recorders and field notes can be used to collect empirical data, conversations and interactions that occur naturally within the work environment. Our research develops an applied ergonomics methodology, based on field studies, that permits to identify and analyze situations, factors that may affect the operational performance of nuclear power plants. Our contribution is related to the following technical topic: How best to learn from and share operational safety experience and manage changes during

  8. Recombinant human erythropoietin alpha improves the efficacy of radiotherapy of a human tumor xenograft, affecting tumor cells and microvessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevey, J. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Bereczky, B.; Gilly, R.; Kenessey, I.; Raso, E.; Simon, E.; Timar, J. [Dept. of Tumor Progression, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Dobos, J. [Dept. of Tumor Progression, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); National Koranyi Inst. of TBC and Pulmonology, Budapest (Hungary); Vago, A. [Central Lab., National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Kasler, M. [Head and Neck Surgery, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Doeme, B. [National Koranyi Inst. of TBC and Pulmonology, Budapest (Hungary); Tovari, J. [National Koranyi Inst. of TBC and Pulmonology, Budapest (Hungary); 1. Inst. of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    2008-01-15

    Background and purpose: tumor-induced anemia often occurs in cancer patients, and is corrected by recombinant human erythropoietins (rHuEPOs). Recent studies indicated that, besides erythroid progenitor cells, tumor and endothelial cells express erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) as well; therefore, rHuEPO may affect their functions. Here, the effect of rHuEPO{alpha} on irradiation in EPOR-positive human squamous cell carcinoma xenograft was tested. Material and methods: A431 tumor-bearing SCID mice were treated from the tumor implantation with rHuEPO{alpha} at human-equivalent dose. Xenografts were irradiated (5 Gy) on day 14, and the final tumor mass was measured on day 22. The systemic effects of rHuEPO{alpha} on the hemoglobin level, on tumor-associated blood vessels and on hypoxia-inducible factor-(HIF-)1{alpha} expression of the tumor xenografts were monitored. The proliferation, apoptosis and clonogenic capacity of A431 cancer cells treated with rHuEPO{alpha} and irradiation were also tested in vitro. Results: in vitro, rHuEPO{alpha} treatment alone did not modify the proliferation of EPOR-positive A431 tumor cells but enhanced the effect of irradiation on proliferation, apoptosis and clonogenic capacity. In vivo, rHuEPO{alpha} administration compensated the tumor-induced anemia in SCID mice and decreased tumoral HIF-1{alpha} expression but had no effect on tumor growth. At the same time rHuEPO{alpha} treatment significantly increased the efficacy of radiotherapy in vivo (tumor weight of 23.9 {+-} 4.7 mg and 34.9 {+-} 4.6 mg, respectively), mediated by increased tumoral blood vessel destruction. Conclusion: rHuEPO{alpha} treatment may modulate the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy not only by reducing systemic hypoxia and tumoral HIF-1{alpha} expression, but also by destroying tumoral vessels. (orig.)

  9. Editorial: Technology for higher education, adult learning and human performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhong Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is dedicated to technology-enabled approaches for improving higher education, adult learning, and human performance. Improvement of learning and human development for sustainable development has been recognized as a key strategy for individuals, institutions, and organizations to strengthen their competitive advantages. It becomes crucial to help adult learners and knowledge workers to improve their self-directed and life-long learning capabilities. Meanwhile, advances in technology have been increasingly enabling and facilitating learning and knowledge-related initiatives.. They have largely extended learning opportunities through the provision of resource-rich and learner-centered environment, computer-based learning support, and expanded social interactions and networks. Papers in this special issue are representative of ongoing research on integration of technology with learning for innovation and sustainable development in higher education institutions and organizational and community environments.

  10. Linseed, microalgae or fish oil dietary supplementation affects performance and quality characteristics of light lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus de la Fuente-Vazquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to improve the fatty acid profile of meat from light lamb, frequently reared in Spain and in other Mediterranean countries. A total of 44 light lambs fed different n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids sources were studied: control (C (palm oil, extruded linseed (L, extruded linseed mixed with microalgae (LM and fish oil (FO. The productive performance from 14.7 to 26.2 kg of live weights and meat quality characteristics during refrigerated storage were assessed. Lambs fed FO showed lower feed intake (p <0.001, average daily gain (p <0.001 and higher feed conversion ratio (p <0.001 than lambs from the other treatments. Fish oil meat had the lowest (p <0.01 protein proportion and the highest (p <0.001 C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 proportions, while L or LM produced the highest (p <0.001 C18:3n-3 deposition. Fish oil meat had higher (p <0.05 L* and lower (p <0.001 a* than meats from the other treatments. After 7 days of storage, FO meat showed the highest TBARS (p <0.001, while C meat showed similar value to 0 days of storage. Additionally, FO underwent higher microbial growth after 7 days of storage as compared to the other treatments. Dietary supplementation with L and LM leads to C18:3n-3 meat enrichment and to a microbial load and colour characteristics similar to those of C, without adverse effect on lamb performance. However the use of FO improves the fatty acid profile of meat, but negatively affects lamb performance and meat quality.

  11. An Investigation of the Combined Effect of Stress, Fatigue and Workload on Human Performance: Position Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    Stress, fatigue, and workload affect worker performance. NSF reported that 61% of respondents state losing concentration at work while 79% occasionally or frequently made errors as a result of being fatigued. Shift work, altered work schedules, long hours of continuous wakefulness, and sleep loss can create sleep and circadian disruptions that degrade waking fundions causing stress and fatigue. Review of the literature has proven void of information that links the combined effects of fatigue, stress, and workload to human performance. This paper will address which occupational factors within stress, fatigue, and workload were identified as occupational contributors to performance changes. The results of this research will be apglied to underlying models and algorithms that will help predict performance changes in control room operators.

  12. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  13. International Space Station Human Behavior and Performance Competency Model: Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    This document further defines the behavioral markers identified in the document "Human Behavior and Performance Competency Model" Vol. I. The Human Behavior and Performance (HBP) competencies were recommended as requirements to participate in international long duration missions, and form the basis for determining the HBP training curriculum for long duration crewmembers. This document provides details, examples, knowledge areas, and affective skills to support the use of the HBP competencies in training and evaluation. This document lists examples and details specific to HBP competencies required of astronauts/cosmonauts who participate in ISS expedition and other international long-duration missions. Please note that this model does not encompass all competencies required. While technical competencies are critical for crewmembers, they are beyond the scope of this document. Additionally, the competencies in this model (and subsequent objectives) are not intended to limit the internal activities or training programs of any international partner.

  14. Parametric analysis of variables that affect the performance of a desiccant dehumidification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Durfee, D.J.

    2000-07-01

    Desiccant dehumidification systems, which are used to reduce the moisture (latent load) of the conditioned air in buildings, are typically specified on the basis of grain depression (pounds of water removed per hour) for a given volumetric flow rate of air at a specified dry-bulb or wet-bulb temperature. While grain depression gives some indication of the performance of the system, it does not adequately describe the efficiency of the moisture removal process. Several operating parameters, such as desiccant wheel speed, regeneration temperature, volumetric air flow rate, wheel thickness, sector angle, and desiccant loading, affect the ability of the desiccant dehumidification system to remove moisture. There are so many design parameters that influence the operation of a desiccant system that it is difficult to quantify the impact from the interactions on system performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of varying some of these operating parameters on the performance of a desiccant dehumidification system and to report the results using more quantitative measures, such as latent capacity and latent coefficient of performance (COP), that better describe the efficiency of the moisture removal process. The results will be used to improve the understanding of the operation of desiccant systems and to optimize their performance by changing certain operating parameters or improving components. Two desiccant loadings were tested: one at normal production level and the other with 25% more desiccant applied to the wheel. For both desiccant loadings, the latent capacity and COP increased as desiccant wheel speed increased. As expected, latent capacity improved significantly as air flow rates increased. It is noted, however, that the efficiency (latent COP) was quite sensitive to air flow rate and showed a maximum at a particular flow rate that best matched the other operating/design conditions of the system. Finally, higher regeneration temperatures

  15. Exposure to phthalates affects calcium handling and intercellular connectivity of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Gillum Posnack

    Full Text Available The pervasive nature of plastics has raised concerns about the impact of continuous exposure to plastic additives on human health. Of particular concern is the use of phthalates in the production of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC products. Di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP is a commonly used phthalate ester plasticizer that imparts flexibility and elasticity to PVC products. Recent epidemiological studies have reported correlations between urinary phthalate concentrations and cardiovascular disease, including an increased risk of high blood pressure and coronary risk. Yet, there is little direct evidence linking phthalate exposure to adverse effects in human cells, including cardiomyocytes.The effect of DEHP on calcium handling was examined using monolayers of gCAMP3 human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, which contain an endogenous calcium sensor. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to DEHP (5 - 50 μg/mL, and calcium transients were recorded using a Zeiss confocal imaging system. DEHP exposure (24 - 72 hr had a negative chronotropic and inotropic effect on cardiomyocytes, increased the minimum threshold voltage required for external pacing, and modified connexin-43 expression. Application of Wy-14,643 (100 μM, an agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, did not replicate DEHP's effects on calcium transient morphology or spontaneous beating rate.Phthalates can affect the normal physiology of human cardiomyocytes, including DEHP elicited perturbations in cardiac calcium handling and intercellular connectivity. Our findings call for additional studies to clarify the extent by which phthalate exposure can alter cardiac function, particularly in vulnerable patient populations who are at risk for high phthalate exposure.

  16. Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, K.

    1992-01-01

    Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods

  17. Human System Simulation in Support of Human Performance Technical Basis at NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; alan mecham; william phoenix; Magdy Tawfik; Jeffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    This paper focuses on strategies and progress toward establishing the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Human Systems Simulator Laboratory at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a consortium of Idaho State Universities. The INL is one of the National Laboratories of the US Department of Energy. One of the first planned applications for the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is implementation of a dynamic nuclear power plant simulation (NPP) where studies of operator workload, situation awareness, performance and preference will be carried out in simulated control rooms including nuclear power plant control rooms. Simulation offers a means by which to review operational concepts, improve design practices and provide a technical basis for licensing decisions. In preparation for the next generation power plant and current government and industry efforts in support of light water reactor sustainability, human operators will be attached to a suite of physiological measurement instruments and, in combination with traditional Human Factors Measurement techniques, carry out control room tasks in simulated advanced digital and hybrid analog/digital control rooms. The current focus of the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is building core competence in quantitative and qualitative measurements of situation awareness and workload. Of particular interest is whether introduction of digital systems including automated procedures has the potential to reduce workload and enhance safety while improving situation awareness or whether workload is merely shifted and situation awareness is modified in yet to be determined ways. Data analysis is carried out by engineers and scientists and includes measures of the physical and neurological correlates of human performance. The current approach supports a user-centered design philosophy (see ISO 13407 “Human Centered Design Process for Interactive Systems, 1999) wherein the context for task performance along with the

  18. Self-Evaluation Accuracy and Satisfaction with Performance: Are there Affective Costs or Benefits of Positive Self-Evaluation Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciss, Susanne; Koerndle, Hermann; Dresel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how self-evaluation biases may influence satisfaction with performance. A review of theoretical positions suggests there are two views, both of which are supported by studies involving laboratory tasks. The first view predicts affective costs, and the second affective benefits of positive self-evaluation bias. We test the…

  19. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-rich sake protein (SP to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC, and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, and uric acid (UA were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  20. PFOS affects posterior swim bladder chamber inflation and swimming performance of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaars, A; Stinckens, E; Vergauwen, L; Bervoets, L; Knapen, D

    2014-12-01

    Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is one of the most commonly detected perfluorinated alkylated substances in the aquatic environment due to its persistence and the degradation of less stable compounds to PFOS. PFOS is known to cause developmental effects in fish. The main effect of PFOS in zebrafish larvae is an uninflated swim bladder. As no previous studies have focused on the effect of PFOS on zebrafish swim bladder inflation, the exact mechanisms leading to this effect are currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the exposure windows during early zebrafish development that are sensitive to PFOS exposure and result in impaired swim bladder inflation in order to specify the mechanisms by which this effect might be caused. Seven different time windows of exposure (1-48, 1-72, 1-120, 1-144, 48-144, 72-144, 120-144h post fertilization (hpf)) were tested based on the different developmental stages of the swim bladder. These seven time windows were tested for four concentrations corresponding to the EC-values of 1, 10, 80 and 95% impaired swim bladder inflation (EC1=0.70 mg L(-1), EC10=1.14 mg L(-1), EC80=3.07 mg L(-1) and EC95=4.28 mg L(-1)). At 6 days post fertilization, effects on survival, hatching, swim bladder inflation and size, larval length and swimming performance were assessed. For 0.70 mg L(-1), no significant effects were found for the tested parameters while 1.14 mg L(-1) resulted in a reduction of larval length. For 3.07 and 4.28 mg L(-1), the number of larvae affected and the severity of effects caused by PFOS were dependent on the time window of exposure. Exposure for 3 days or more resulted in significant reductions of swim bladder size, larval length and swimming speed with increasing severity of effects when the duration of exposure was longer, suggesting a possible effect of accumulated dose. Larvae that were only exposed early (1-48 hpf) or late (120-144 hpf) during development showed no effects on the studied endpoints

  1. A novel human body exergy consumption formula to determine indoor thermal conditions for optimal human performance in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Olesen, Bjarne W.;

    2013-01-01

    . The results show that human body exergy consumption calculated by either of these formulas reaches a minimum under the same thermal condition. It is shown that this is in accordance with expectation. The relation between human performance and human body exergy consumption was studied by analyzing the data...... obtained in simulated office environments in winter. The results show that human body exergy consumption and human performance are inversely as operative temperature changes from 17 to 28°C or human thermal sensation changes from −1.0 to +1.4, and that optimum thermal comfort cannot be expected to lead...... to optimal human performance, as has so often been assumed. According to the second law of thermodynamics, it makes sense that optimal human performance coincides with minimum human body exergy consumption and that this should occur under thermal conditions in which human thermal sensation is close...

  2. Factores que afectan al rendimiento en carreras de fondo. [Factors affecting long-distance running performance].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ogueta-Alday

    2016-07-01

    and runners are interested on learning about the factors that affect long-distance running performance. Facing this new reality, scientific literature has been concerned about the aforementioned factors, and the amount of studies has considerably grown. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to analyse factors affecting long-distance running performance from different points of view. Literature review was performed through 3 different databases (Medline, SportDiscus and Google Scholar and the factors were classified into 5 main groups, subdivided into different sections: 1- environmental (air/wind, temperature, humidity, altitude and slope of the ground, 2- training-related (endurance, resistance, training in hot environments and in altitude, 3- physiological (VO2max, thersholds, running economy, age, gender, muscle fibre type, fatigue and race, 4- biomechanical (anthropometry, leg-stiffness, flexibility, foot strike pattern, footwear, foot orthoses and spatio-temporal parameters and 5- psychological (intervention strategies, direction of attention and music. Even though the influence of some of these factors on running performance in quite well-known, the influence of some psychological (direction of attention and music and biomechanical factors (foot strike pattern and spatio-temporal parameters is still unclear. There are few studies or the results cannot be generalized. Future studies and the progress of new technologies and measurement tools will provide a better understanding.

  3. Does cannabis affect dopaminergic signaling in the human brain? A systematic review of evidence to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Musa Basser; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2015-08-01

    A significant body of epidemiological evidence has linked psychotic symptoms with both acute and chronic use of cannabis. Precisely how these effects of THC are mediated at the neurochemical level is unclear. While abnormalities in multiple pathways may lead to schizophrenia, an abnormality in dopamine neurotransmission is considered to be the final common abnormality. One would thus expect cannabis use to be associated with dopamine signaling alterations. This is the first systematic review of all studies, both observational as well as experimental, examining the acute as well as chronic effect of cannabis or its main psychoactive ingredient, THC, on the dopamine system in man. We aimed to review all studies conducted in man, with any reported neurochemical outcomes related to the dopamine system after cannabis, cannabinoid or endocannabinoid administration or use. We identified 25 studies reporting outcomes on over 568 participants, of which 244 participants belonged to the cannabis/cannabinoid exposure group. In man, there is as yet little direct evidence to suggest that cannabis use affects acute striatal dopamine release or affects chronic dopamine receptor status in healthy human volunteers. However some work has suggested that acute cannabis exposure increases dopamine release in striatal and pre-frontal areas in those genetically predisposed for, or at clinical high risk of psychosis. Furthermore, recent studies are suggesting that chronic cannabis use blunts dopamine synthesis and dopamine release capacity. Further well-designed studies are required to definitively delineate the effects of cannabis use on the dopaminergic system in man. PMID:26068702

  4. HOW MICRORNAS AFFECT THE EXPRESSION OF HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGENG IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Carmel Kempers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G on Fetal Extravillous Trophoblast (EVT cells during pregnancy plays an important role in preventing the fetus from rejection by suppressing the maternal immune system. Decreased expression levels of HLA-G have already shown to be associated with several complications of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia. However, it remains largely unknown how HLA-G gene expression is regulated with regard to its function and its complications. Polymorphisms and microRNAs affect HLA-G gene expression and the formation of isoforms. Interestingly, three microRNAs, miR-148a, miR 148b and miR-152, downregulate HLA-G expression with functional consequences. Since HLA-G expression levels are reduced in pre-eclampsia without a known cause, we hypothesize that these microRNAs are involved in the development of pre-eclampsia. This review discusses how microRNAs can affect HLA-G gene expression and its functions. Additionally, the role of microRNAs in the development of pre-eclampsia will be reviewed.

  5. Improving Emergency Response and Human-Robotic Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I. Gertman; David J. Bruemmer; R. Scott Hartley

    2007-08-01

    Preparedness for chemical, biological, and radiological/nuclear incidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs) includes the deployment of well trained emergency response teams. While teams are expected to do well, data from other domains suggests that the timeliness and accuracy associated with incident response can be improved through collaborative human-robotic interaction. Many incident response scenarios call for multiple, complex procedure-based activities performed by personnel wearing cumbersome personal protective equipment (PPE) and operating under high levels of stress and workload. While robotic assistance is postulated to reduce workload and exposure, limitations associated with communications and the robot’s ability to act independently have served to limit reliability and reduce our potential to exploit human –robotic interaction and efficacy of response. Recent work at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on expanding robot capability has the potential to improve human-system response during disaster management and recovery. Specifically, increasing the range of higher level robot behaviors such as autonomous navigation and mapping, evolving new abstractions for sensor and control data, and developing metaphors for operator control have the potential to improve state-of-the-art in incident response. This paper discusses these issues and reports on experiments underway intelligence residing on the robot to enhance emergency response.

  6. Improving Emergency Response and Human-Robotic Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparedness for chemical, biological, and radiological/nuclear incidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs) includes the deployment of well trained emergency response teams. While teams are expected to do well, data from other domains suggests that the timeliness and accuracy associated with incident response can be improved through collaborative human-robotic interaction. Many incident response scenarios call for multiple, complex procedure-based activities performed by personnel wearing cumbersome personal protective equipment (PPE) and operating under high levels of stress and workload. While robotic assistance is postulated to reduce workload and exposure, limitations associated with communications and the robot's ability to act independently have served to limit reliability and reduce our potential to exploit human -robotic interaction and efficacy of response. Recent work at the Idaho National Laboratory INL on expanding robot capability has the potential to improve human-system response during disaster management and recovery. Specifically, increasing the range of higher level robot behaviors such as autonomous navigation and mapping, evolving new abstractions for sensor and control data, and developing metaphors for operator control have the potential to improve state-of-the-art in incident response. This paper discusses these issues and reports on experiments underway intelligence residing on the robot to enhance emergency response

  7. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jiawen [Molecular Radiobiology Laboratory, Division of Cellular and Molecular Research (Singapore); Itahana, Koji, E-mail: koji.itahana@duke-nus.edu.sg [Cancer and Stem Cell Biology Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Singapore); Baskar, Rajamanickam, E-mail: r.baskar@nccs.com.sg [Molecular Radiobiology Laboratory, Division of Cellular and Molecular Research (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre (Singapore)

    2015-02-27

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G{sub 1}/S or G{sub 2}/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G{sub 0}, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its

  8. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G1/S or G2/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G0, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its known role in radio-resistance

  9. Enhancement of human cognitive performance using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Bruce; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2014-01-15

    Here we review the usefulness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in modulating cortical networks in ways that might produce performance enhancements in healthy human subjects. To date over sixty studies have reported significant improvements in speed and accuracy in a variety of tasks involving perceptual, motor, and executive processing. Two basic categories of enhancement mechanisms are suggested by this literature: direct modulation of a cortical region or network that leads to more efficient processing, and addition-by-subtraction, which is disruption of processing which competes or distracts from task performance. Potential applications of TMS cognitive enhancement, including research into cortical function, rehabilitation therapy in neurological and psychiatric illness, and accelerated skill acquisition in healthy individuals are discussed, as are methods of optimizing the magnitude and duration of TMS-induced performance enhancement, such as improvement of targeting through further integration of brain imaging with TMS. One technique, combining multiple sessions of TMS with concurrent TMS/task performance to induce Hebbian-like learning, appears to be promising for prolonging enhancement effects. While further refinements in the application of TMS to cognitive enhancement can still be made, and questions remain regarding the mechanisms underlying the observed effects, this appears to be a fruitful area of investigation that may shed light on the basic mechanisms of cognitive function and their therapeutic modulation.

  10. Interaction of procedural factors in human performance on yoked schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, C P; Shillingford, S W; Miller, H L; Baier, P S

    2000-11-01

    The differential effects of reinforcement contingencies and contextual variables on human performance were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, adult human subjects operated a joystick in a video game in which the destruction of targets was arranged according to a yoked variable-ratio variable-interval schedule of reinforcement. Three variables were examined across 12 conditions: verbal instructions, shaping, and the use of a consummatory response following reinforcement (i.e., depositing a coin into a bank). Behavior was most responsive to the reinforcement contingencies when the consummatory response was available, responding was established by shaping, and subjects received minimal verbal instructions about their task. The responsiveness of variable-interval subjects' behavior varied more than that of variable-ratio subjects when these contextual factors were altered. Experiment 2 examined resistance to instructional control under the same yoked-schedules design. Conditions varied in terms of the validity of instructions. Performance on variable-ratio schedules was more resistant to instructional control than that on variable-interval schedules. PMID:11218225

  11. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xujie [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bachhuka, Akash [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Vasilev, Krasimir [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); School of Advanced Manufacturing, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH{sub 2}), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH{sub 3}), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH{sub 2}) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH{sub 3}). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH{sub 2} modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH{sub 3} modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  12. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lillian L. M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Jacobs, Gregory R.; Thomas, Rachel J.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260–330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  13. Human resources management in fitness centers and their relationship with the organizational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo García Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human capital is essential in organizations providing sports services. However, there are few studies that examine what practices are carried out and whether they, affect sports organizations achieve better results are. Therefore the aim of this paper is to analyze the practices of human resource management in private fitness centers and the relationship established with organizational performance.Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaire to 101 managers of private fitness centers in Spain, performing exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and linear regressions between the variables.Findings: In organizations of fitness, the findings show that training practices, reward, communication and selection are positively correlated with organizational performance.Research limitations/implications: The fact that you made a convenience sampling in a given country and reduce the extrapolation of the results to the market.Originality/value: First, it represents a contribution to the fact that there are no studies analyzing the management of human resources in sport organizations from the point of view of the top leaders. On the other hand, allows fitness center managers to adopt practices to improve organizational performance.

  14. Changes in Carbon Electrode Morphology Affect Microbial Fuel Cell Performance with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. P. Sanchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of biofilm-electrodes is crucial for microbial fuel cell current production because optimal performance is often associated with thick biofilms. However, the influence of the electrode structure and morphology on biofilm formation is only beginning to be investigated. This study provides insight on how changing the electrode morphology affects current production of a pure culture of anode-respiring bacteria. Specifically, an analysis of the effects of carbon fiber electrodes with drastically different morphologies on biofilm formation and anode respiration by a pure culture (Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were examined. Results showed that carbon nanofiber mats had ~10 fold higher current than plain carbon microfiber paper and that the increase was not due to an increase in electrode surface area, conductivity, or the size of the constituent material. Cyclic voltammograms reveal that electron transfer from the carbon nanofiber mats was biofilm-based suggesting that decreasing the diameter of the constituent carbon material from a few microns to a few hundred nanometers is beneficial for electricity production solely because the electrode surface creates a more relevant mesh for biofilm formation by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

  15. Performing the Bakla in The Care Divas: Crossdressing, Affective Labor, and the Glimpse of the Cosmopolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiatco, Anril Pineda

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a close reading of The Care Divas, a Filipino musical revolving around the struggle of five Filipino caregivers in Israel who also struggle with their sexual identities as bakla (Filipino homosexual). The analysis is both an affirmation and a critique of the performance. In the affirmation, the musical is argued to present a social reality that is intended for and in need of interrogation: the Filipino bakla. The musical implicitly features the bakla as a cosmopolitan. At the outset, this cosmopolitan disposition comes from the fact that the characters are migrant workers (caregivers). But more importantly, the cosmopolitan character is from a responsibility toward the other anchored within a genuine caring as implicated in the affective labor of these caregiver characters. In the critique, the essay marks some problematic limitations in the treatment of the bakla. In doing so, the musical, despite its attempt to present a social reality, is a problem play, a social drama touching social issues--realistic in approach, but the representation seems like an editorial. In the final analysis, The Care Divas is argued to seemingly fail because artists are not able to see the complexity of their chosen subject in a bigger picture. PMID:26291029

  16. Study of Various Factors Affecting Performance of Multi-Core Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Chaturvedi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in Integrated Circuit processing allow for more microprocessor design options. As ChipMultiprocessor system (CMP become the predominant topology for leading microprocessors, criticalcomponents of the system are now integrated on a single chip. This enables sharing of computationresources that was not previously possible. In addition the virtualization of these computation resourcesexposes the system to a mix of diverse and competing workloads. On chip Cache memory is a resource ofprimary concern as it can be dominant in controlling overall throughput. This Paper presents analysis ofvarious parameters affecting the performance of Multi-core Architectures like varying the number ofcores, changes L2 cache size, further we have varied directory size from 64 to 2048 entries on a 4 node, 8node 16 node and 64 node Chip multiprocessor which in turn presents an open area of research on multicoreprocessors with private/shared last level cache as the future trend seems to be towards tiledarchitecture executing multiple parallel applications with optimized silicon area utilization and excellentperformance.

  17. Human performance tools in nuclear power plants. Introduction, implementation and experiences; Human Performance Tools in Kernkraftwerken. Einfuehrung, Umsetzung und Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexheimer, Kai; Bassing, Gerd [Dexcon Consulting GmbH, Neuhausen (Switzerland); Kreuzer, Peter [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Essenbach (Germany). Kernkraftwerk Isar

    2015-06-01

    The basis of safe nuclear power plant operation (NPP) and a strong safety culture is the professional application of Human Performance Optimisation Tools (HPO). HPO trainings have been carried out by German NPPs for a number of years and recently also by Swiss NPPs. This article describes the origination, the bases, experiences and thereby the special features of the HPO training programme applied by German NPP operators. Moreover, this article provides an outlook on future developments - in particular when considering the requirements of the ongoing phase out of nuclear energy in Germany.

  18. Performance engineering method for workflow systems : an integrated view of human and computerised work processes

    OpenAIRE

    Brataas, Gunnar

    1996-01-01

    A method for designing workflow systems which satisfy performance requirements is proposed in this thesis. Integration of human and computerised performance is particularly useful for workflow systems where human and computerised processes are intertwined. The proposed framework encompasses human and computerised resources. Even though systematic performance engineering is not common practice in information system development, current, best practice shows that performance engineering of softw...

  19. Physical activity in the school setting: cognitive performance is not affected by three different types of acute exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediatepositive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, thetype of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents isnot fully understood. Therefore, this controlled st

  20. Affect and Managerial Performance: A Test of the Sadder-but-Wiser vs. Happier-and-Smarter Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staw, Barry M.; Barsade, Sigal G.

    1993-01-01

    Provides a comparative test of two psychological theories concerning the relationship between affect and performance. Used managerial simulations to test whether people with positive dispositions perform better or worse on both decisional and interpersonal tasks. Results support the happier-and-smarter, as opposed to the sadder-but-wiser,…

  1. Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis: Benefits and Challenges of Simulating Human Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    To date, there has been considerable work on dynamic event trees and other areas related to dynamic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The counterpart to these efforts in human reliability analysis (HRA) has centered on the development of specific methods to account for the dynamic nature of human performance. In this paper, the author posits that the key to dynamic HRA is not in the development of specific methods but in the utilization of cognitive modeling and simulation to produce a framework of data that may be used in quantifying the likelihood of human error. This paper provides an overview of simulation approaches to HRA; reviews differences between first, second, and dynamic generation HRA; and outlines potential benefits and challenges of this approach.

  2. Neuronal Substrates Underlying Performance Variability in Well-Trained Skillful Motor Task in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Uehara, Shintaro; Hirose, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Naito, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Motor performance fluctuates trial by trial even in a well-trained motor skill. Here we show neural substrates underlying such behavioral fluctuation in humans. We first scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants repeatedly performed a 10 s skillful sequential finger-tapping task. Before starting the experiment, the participants had completed intensive training. We evaluated task performance per trial (number of correct sequences in 10 s) and depicted brain regions where the activity changes in association with the fluctuation of the task performance across trials. We found that the activity in a broader range of frontoparietocerebellar network, including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices, and left cerebellar hemisphere, was negatively correlated with the task performance. We further showed in another transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) experiment that task performance deteriorated, when we applied anodal tDCS to the right DLPFC. These results indicate that fluctuation of brain activity in the nonmotor frontoparietocerebellar network may underlie trial-by-trial performance variability even in a well-trained motor skill, and its neuromodulation with tDCS may affect the task performance. PMID:27516909

  3. Effect of Changing Weight and Mass on Human Performance in a Lunar Prototype Spacesuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steve; Lee, Lesley; Gemhardt, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Physical effort, compensation, and controllability in a spacesuit can be affected by suit mass and gravity level. Because of limitations in certain reduced-gravity simulators and the finite selection of lunar prototype suits, it is difficult to ascertain how a change in suit mass affects suited human performance. One method of simulating a change in mass is to vary the total gravity-adjusted weight (TGAW), which is defined as the sum of the suit mass and subject mass, multiplied by the gravity level. PURPOSE: To determine if two methods of changing TGAW during parabolic flight - changing suit mass or gravity level - affect subjective ratings of suited human performance equally.METHODS: A custom weight support structure was connected to a lunar prototype spacesuit, allowing the addition of mass to the suit while maintaining a near-constant center of mass. In the varied-weight (VW) series, suit mass (120 kg) was constant at 0.1-g, 0.17-g, and 0.3-g, yielding TGAWs of 196, 333, and 588 N, assuming an 80-kg subject. In the varied-mass (VM) series, gravity level was constant at 0.17-g and suit mass was 89, 120, and 181 kg, yielding TGAWs of 282, 333, and 435 N. The 333 N condition was common to both series. Direct comparison was not possible due to limited adjustability of suit mass and limited options for parabolic profiles. Five astronaut subjects (80.311.8 kg) completed 4 different tasks (walk, bag pickup, lunge, and shoveling) in all conditions and provided ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and the gravity compensation and performance scale (GCPS) upon completion of each task. RESULTS: Where VM and VW series overlapped, RPE and GCPS trend lines were similar. Mean RPE and GCPS at 333 N was 8.4 and 3.7. Mean RPE and GCPS for VM was 7.8 and 3.8 for 282 N and 9.8 and 4.1 for 435 N. Extrapolation of the VM trend to match VW TGAWs 196 and 588 N predicts an RPE of 6.5 and 12.3 and GCPS of 4.4 and 5.9, whereas the measured VW values for RPE were 8.1 and 9.8 and GCPS were

  4. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will describe the human health and performance issues that are anticipated for the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEA). Humans are considered a system in the design of any such deep-space exploration mission, and exploration of NEA presents unique challenges for the human system. Key factors that define the mission are those that are strongly affected by distance and duration. The most critical of these is deep-space radiation exposure without even the temporary shielding of a nearby large planetary body. The current space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) restrict mission duration to 3-10 months depending on age and gender of crewmembers and stage of the solar cycle. Factors that affect mission architecture include medical capability; countermeasures for bone, muscle, and cardiovascular atrophy during continuous weightlessness; restricted food supplies; and limited habitable volume. The design of a habitat that can maintain the physical and psychological health of the crew and support mission operations with limited intervention from Earth will require an integrated research and development effort by NASA s Human Research Program, engineering, and human factors groups. Limited abort and return options for an NEA mission are anticipated to have important effects on crew psychology as well as influence medical supplies and training requirements of the crew. Other important factors are those related to isolation, confinement, communication delays, autonomous operations, task design, small crew size, and even the unchanging view outside the windows for most of the mission. Geological properties of the NEA will influence design of sample handling and containment, and extravehicular activity capabilities including suit ports and tools. A robotic precursor mission that collects basic information on NEA surface properties would reduce uncertainty about these aspects of the mission as well as aid in design of mission architecture and

  5. Human resource systems and employee performance in Ireland and the Netherlands: A test of the complementarity hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    J. Horgan; Muhlau, P.

    2006-01-01

    A central claim of strategic HRM is the notion that the way a firm manages its workforce affects its corporate performance. In particular, 'high performance human resource management', a systematic approach toward HR management consisting of internally consistent HR dimensions that develop the skill and motivation of the workforce, is considered to contribute to the 'bottom-line' of companies. The benefits are attributed generally to 'complementarities' among the constituent dimensions. In th...

  6. Implications Of Human Resource Variables On Supply Chain Performance And Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Marwah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a conceptual model indicating the effect of Human Resource (HR variables on supply chain (SC performance and to suggest best approach suited for Indian manufacturing organizations, in general, and automotive industries, in particular. This study is a part of a larger research project exploring SC related practices. The methodology of critical evaluation involved literature review of empirical research articles on performance measurement, SCM and HR practices. A critical analysis is carried out so as to identify research gaps in content of effect of HR on performance measurement of supply chains, as well as to propose directions for future research. A conceptual model is also proposed. Critical investigation of selected articles led to an idea that there can be significant effect of the role of human involvement on overall SC Performance. It is to be seen that how various parameters, taken from the literature review, affect SC performance and ultimately contributing to its competitiveness. The study is limited to supply chains of the automotive industries and their ancillaries located in Malwa region of M.P., India. Further research can be carried out by using data of various supply chains located in other parts of India to generalize the research. Also, other sectors and industries can be included.

  7. Drinking and flying: does alcohol consumption affect the flight and echolocation performance of phyllostomid bats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara N Orbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. To understand if consumption of ethanol by bats alters their access to food and general survival requires examination of behavioural responses to its ingestion, as well as assessment of interspecific variation in those responses. We predicted that bats fed ethanol would show impaired flight and echolocation behaviour compared to bats fed control sugar water, and that there would be behavioural differences among species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We fed wild caught Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Carollia sowelli, Glossophaga soricina, and Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae sugar water (44 g of table sugar in 500 ml of water or sugar water with ethanol before challenging them to fly through an obstacle course while we simultaneously recorded their echolocation calls. We used bat saliva, a non-invasive proxy, to measure blood ethanol concentrations ranging from 0 to >0.3% immediately before flight trials. Flight performance and echolocation behaviour were not significantly affected by consumption of ethanol, but species differed in their blood alcohol concentrations after consuming it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The bats we studied display a tolerance for ethanol that could have ramifications for the adaptive radiation of frugivorous and nectarivorous bats by allowing them to use ephemeral food resources over a wide span of time. By sampling across phyllostomid genera, we show that patterns of apparent ethanol tolerance in New World bats are broad, and thus may have been an important early step in the evolution of frugivory and nectarivory in these animals.

  8. Exposure to Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles Differently Affect Swimming Performance and Survival in Two Daphnid Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artells, Ester; Issartel, Julien; Auffan, Mélanie; Borschneck, Daniel; Thill, Antoine; Tella, Marie; Brousset, Lenka; Rose, Jérôme; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Thiéry, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The CeO2 NPs are increasingly used in industry but the environmental release of these NPs and their subsequent behavior and biological effects are currently unclear. This study evaluates for the first time the effects of CeO2 NPs on the survival and the swimming performance of two cladoceran species, Daphnia similis and Daphnia pulex after 1, 10 and 100 mg.L−1 CeO2 exposures for 48 h. Acute toxicity bioassays were performed to determine EC50 of exposed daphnids. Video-recorded swimming behavior of both daphnids was used to measure swimming speeds after various exposures to aggregated CeO2 NPs. The acute ecotoxicity showed that D. similis is 350 times more sensitive to CeO2 NPs than D. pulex, showing 48-h EC50 of 0.26 mg.L−1 and 91.79 mg.L−1, respectively. Both species interacted with CeO2 NPs (adsorption), but much more strongly in the case of D. similis. Swimming velocities (SV) were differently and significantly affected by CeO2 NPs for both species. A 48-h exposure to 1 mg.L−1 induced a decrease of 30% and 40% of the SV in D. pulex and D. similis, respectively. However at higher concentrations, the SV of D. similis was more impacted (60% off for 10 mg.L−1 and 100 mg.L−1) than the one of D. pulex. These interspecific toxic effects of CeO2 NPs are explained by morphological variations such as the presence of reliefs on the cuticle and a longer distal spine in D. similis acting as traps for the CeO2 aggregates. In addition, D. similis has a mean SV double that of D. pulex and thus initially collides with twice more NPs aggregates. The ecotoxicological consequences on the behavior and physiology of a CeO2 NPs exposure in daphnids are discussed. PMID:23977004

  9. Human Computer Confluence in Rehabilitation: Digital Media Plasticity and Human Performance Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Digital media plasticity evocative to embodied interaction is presented as a utilitarian tool when mixed and matched to target human performance potentials specific to nuance of development for those with impairment. A distinct intervention strategy trains via alternative channeling of external...... tool-kits for individualized interventions to supplement traditional approaches and strategies. Conclusions point to how required informal/non-formal training of such plastic approaches requires formal accreditation to realize potentials and adoptions....

  10. The performance of the Hydromorphological Index of Diversity (HMID) in a hydropower affected meandering river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähly, Severin; Bourqui, Pierre; Franca, Mario J.; Robinson, Christopher; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2016-04-01

    More than half of the Swiss electricity is produced by hydropower. Large price fluctuations cause severe hydropeaking flow regimes due to corresponding production fluctuations, which undisputedly have a negative impact on aquatic biota. Water diversion due to dams on the other hand imposes downstream residual flow regimes. The absence of flood events and regular sediment supply disrupts sediment dynamics and disconnects floodplains, which are habitats of high value, from its main channel. The residual-flow controlled reach at the Sarine river in western Switzerland is the subject of the present study. The Sarine meanders strongly and the river reach under analysis has a bed incision of locally more than 100 m. Its incision provokes the isolation of the river which is consequently minimally touched by human structures and shows a natural geomorphology. Since the construction of a dam upstream this reach in 1948, aiming at the water abstraction to hydropower, vegetation could establish and the active floodplain decreased its area, as airborne images show. Nevertheless, it is classified as a floodplain of national importance and it has been under protection since 1992. It is supposed to be a valuable habitat for a wide range of organisms. The Hydromorphological Index of Diversity (HMID) is a simple tool for quantifying the habitat richness in a river reach, taking into account the mean values and the variation of water depth and flow velocity. For channelized rivers, HMID values from up to 5 are expected, while morphological pristine sites with a high spatial variability of water depth and velocity show values of 9 or higher. For the residual flow of the Sarine River, flow depth and velocity were measured using ADCP and ADV. The results are compared with a nearby natural reference river and the outcome of a 2D numerical simulation. Finally, the behaviour and limitations of the HMID, in a hydropower affected river, are discussed. In the close future an artificial flood

  11. Young Workers' Job Self-Efficacy and Affect: Pathways to Health and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ralph; Loughlin, Catherine; Zweig, David

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 195 young workers responds to calls for the study of healthy work at discrete life stages. Based on social cognitive and affective events theories and using structural equation modeling, results indicated that both perceived job self-efficacy and job-related affect fully mediate the relationship between interpersonal…

  12. Restricted environmental stimulation technique improves human performance: rifle marksmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabasz, A; Barabasz, M; Bauman, J

    1993-06-01

    This study controlled for relaxation and guided imagery confounds noted in much previous research on enhancement of human performance using the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST). Dry flotation REST was used where subjects lay ("floated") on a salt-water-filled bladder in a sound-attenuated, light-free chamber. 9 men and 3 women in a rifle marksmanship training course, exposed to dry-flotation REST, showed significantly higher rifle marksmanship scores than the university students who as matched controls were exposed to relaxation (9 men and 3 women). Further, only the former showed a significant pre- to posttest improvement in scores, which suggests REST's positive effects on marksmanship go beyond the induction of relaxation by hypnosis. The results support hypotheses summarized in 1982 by Barabasz regarding potentiation by REST of internally generated imagery and subsequent improvement observed in a nonREST posttest environment. PMID:8321601

  13. Effects of Extreme Sleep Deprivation on Human Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Tran; Kimberly R. Raddatz; Elizabeth T. Cady; Bradford Amstutz; Pete D. Elgin; Christopher Vowels; Gerald Deehan

    2007-04-01

    Sleep is a fundamental recuperative process for the nervous system. Disruption of this homeostatic drive can lead to severe impairments of the operator’s ability to perceive, recognize, and respond to emergencies and/or unanticipated events, putting the operator at risk. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive understanding of how sleep deprivation influences human performance is essential in order to counter fatigue or to develop mitigation strategies. The goal of the present study was to examine the psychological effects of prolonged sleep deprivation (approx. 75 hrs) over a four-day span on a general aviation pilot flying a fixed-based flight simulator. During the study, a series of tasks were employed every four hours in order to examine the pilot’s perceptual and higher level cognitive abilities. Overall, results suggest that the majority of cognitive and perceptual degradation occurs between 30-40 hours into the flight. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.

  14. Pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to gallium in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Gallium is an iron mimetic which has recently been repurposed as an antibacterial agent due to its capability to disrupt bacterial iron metabolism. In this study, the antibacterial activity of gallium nitrate [Ga(NO3)3] was investigated in complement-free human serum (HS) on 55 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS was dependent on the bacterial ability to acquire iron from serum binding proteins (i.e., transferrin). The extent of serum protein degradation correlated well with P. aeruginosa growth in HS, while pyoverdine production did not. However, pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa strains were unable to grow in HS and overcome iron restriction, albeit capable of releasing proteases. Predigestion of HS with proteinase K promoted the growth of all strains, irrespective of their ability to produce proteases and/or pyoverdine. The MICs of Ga(NO3)3 were higher in HS than in an iron-poor Casamino Acids medium, where proteolysis does not affect iron availability. Coherently, strains displaying high proteolytic activity were less susceptible to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. Our data support a model in which both pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. The relatively high Ga(NO3)3 concentration required to inhibit the growth of highly proteolytic P. aeruginosa isolates in HS poses a limitation to the potential of Ga(NO3)3 in the treatment of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections. PMID:26149986

  15. Naturally occurring variants of human Α9 nicotinic receptor differentially affect bronchial cell proliferation and transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chikova

    Full Text Available Isolation of polyadenilated mRNA from human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D revealed the presence of multiple isoforms of RNA coded by the CHRNA9 gene for α9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR. BEP2D cells were homozygous for the rs10009228 polymorphism encoding for N442S amino acid substitution, and also contained mRNA coding for several truncated isoforms of α9 protein. To elucidate the biologic significance of the naturally occurring variants of α9 nAChR, we compared the biologic effects of overexpression of full-length α9 N442 and S442 proteins, and the truncated α9 variant occurring due to a loss of the exon 4 sequence that causes frame shift and early termination of the translation. These as well as control vector were overexpressed in the BEP2D cells that were used in the assays of proliferation rate, spontaneous vs. tobacco nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK-induced cellular transformation, and tumorigenicity in cell culture and mice. Overexpression of the S442 variant significantly increased cellular proliferation, and spontaneous and NNK-induced transformation. The N442 variant significantly decreased cellular transformation, without affecting proliferation rate. Overexpression of the truncated α9 significantly decreased proliferation and suppressed cellular transformation. These results suggested that α9 nAChR plays important roles in regulation of bronchial cell growth by endogenous acetylcholine and exogenous nicotine, and susceptibility to NNK-induced carcinogenic transformation. The biologic activities of α9 nAChR may be regulated at the splicing level, and genetic polymorphisms in CHRNA9 affecting protein levels, amino acid sequence and RNA splicing may influence the risk for lung cancer.

  16. The Presence of Asthma, the Use of Inhaled Steroids, and Parental Education Level Affect School Performance in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakiris, A.; Iordanidou, M.; E. Paraskakis; Tsalkidis, A.; Rigas, A.; Zimeras, S.; C. Katsardis; A. Chatzimichael

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Childhood asthma is a frequent cause of absenteeism that affects school performance. We aimed to investigate the impact of asthma on absenteeism and school performance level of elementary and high school students. Methods. Data about sociodemographics, absenteeism, and academic achievement were obtained from 1539 students attending 98 schools in Greece. School performance was assessed for the last two years of school attendance using parents' and teachers' reports and grade point a...

  17. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) affects hyaluronan synthesis in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Manuela; Bartolini, Barbara; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; Moretto, Paola; Deleonibus, Sara; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Wight, Thomas N; Hascall, Vincent C; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2013-10-11

    Thickening of the vessel in response to high low density lipoprotein(s) (LDL) levels is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased hyaluronan (HA) deposition in the neointima. Human native LDL trapped within the arterial wall undergoes modifications such as oxidation (oxLDL). The aim of our study is to elucidate the link between internalization of oxLDL and HA production in vitro, using human aortic smooth muscle cells. LDL were used at an effective protein concentration of 20-50 μg/ml, which allowed 80% cell viability. HA content in the medium of untreated cells was 28.9 ± 3.7 nmol HA-disaccharide/cell and increased after oxLDL treatment to 53.9 ± 5.6. OxLDL treatments doubled the transcripts of HA synthase HAS2 and HAS3. Accumulated HA stimulated migration of aortic smooth muscle cells and monocyte adhesiveness to extracellular matrix. The effects induced by oxLDL were inhibited by blocking LOX-1 scavenger receptor with a specific antibody (10 μg/ml). The cholesterol moiety of LDL has an important role in HA accumulation because cholesterol-free oxLDL failed to induce HA synthesis. Nevertheless, cholesterol-free oxLDL and unmodified cholesterol (20 μg/ml) induce only HAS3 transcription, whereas 22,oxysterol affects both HAS2 and HAS3. Moreover, HA deposition was associated with higher expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (CHOP and GRP78). Our data suggest that HA synthesis can be induced in response to specific oxidized sterol-related species delivered through oxLDL.

  18. Maternal dietary Alpine butter intake affects human milk: fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschi, Isabelle; Collomb, Marius; Rist, Lukas; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Folkers, Gerd; von Mandach, Ursula

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of CLA by lactating women affects the composition of their milk, but the pattern of the different CLA isomers is still unknown. We determined the effects of short maternal supplementation with CLA-rich Alpine butter on the occurrence of FA and CLA isomers in human milk. In an open randomized controlled study with a two-period cross-over design, milk FA and CLA isomer concentrations were measured on postpartum days > or = 20 in two parallel groups of lactating women before, during, and after consumption of defined quantities of Alpine butter or margarine with comparable fat content (10 d of butter followed by 10 d of margarine for one group, and vice versa in the other). In the 16 women who completed the study (8/group), Alpine butter supplementation increased the C16 and C18 FA, the sum of saturated FA, the 18:1 trans FA, and the trans FA with CLA. The CLA isomer 18:2 c9,t11 increased by 49.7%. Significant increases were also found for the isomers t9,t11, t7,c9, t11,c13, and t8,c10 18:2. The remaining nine of the total 14 detectable isomers showed no changes, and concentrations were <5 mg/100 g fat. A breastfeeding mother can therefore modulate the FA/CLA supply of her child by consuming Alpine butter. Further studies will show whether human milk containing this FA and CLA isomer pattern acts as a functional food for newborns. PMID:16149737

  19. Tyroserleutide tripeptide affects calcium homeostasis of human hepatocarcinoma BEL-7402 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zheng; LU Rong; LI Guoli; ZHAO Lan; GAO Weizhen; CHE Xuchun; JIAN Xu; ZHOU Chunlei; YAO Zhi

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to observe the effects of tyroserleutide (tyrosyl-seryl-leucine, YSL) on the growth of human hepatocarcinoma BEL-7402 that was transplanted into nude mice, and explore its anti-tumor mechanism preliminarily. YSL, at doses of 80 μg·kg-1·d-1, 160μg·kg-1·d-1 and 320μg·kg-1·d-1 significantly inhibited the growth of the human hepatocarcinoma BEL-7402 tumor in nude mice, producing inhibition of 21.66%, 41.34%, and 34.78%, respectively. Ultra structure of BEL-7402 tumor in nude mice showed that YSL could induce tumor cells apoptosis and necrosis, cell organelle mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum damage, and calcium overload. By confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry, we found that 10 μg/mL YSL rapidly induced an increase of the concentration of cytoplasmic free calcium in BEL-7402 cells in vitro, and maintained high concentrations of cytoplasmic free calcium for 1 h. Then the calcium concentration began to decrease after 2 h, and was lower than that of the control group at 4 h and 24 h (p<0.05). YSL also decreased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential of BEL-7402 cells in vitro, but had no effect on the calcium homeostasis or mitochondrial transmembrane potential of Chang liver hepatocytes. So affecting calcium homeostasis, then inducing apoptosis and necrosis may be a mechanism by which YSL inhibits the tumor growth in animal model.

  20. Bioaerosols from a Food Waste Composting Plant Affect Human Airway Epithelial Cell Remodeling Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wei Chang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 102 conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM, with coarse particles (2.5–10 μm having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5–2.5 μm. After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21WAF1/CIP1 gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers.

  1. Genetic factors affecting gene transcription and catalytic activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanqing; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Gamazon, Eric R; Mirkov, Snezana; Chen, Peixian; Wu, Kehua; Sun, Chang; Cox, Nancy J; Cook, Edwin; Das, Soma; Ratain, Mark J

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to discover cis- and trans-acting factors significantly affecting mRNA expression and catalytic activity of human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Transcription levels of five major hepatic UGT1A (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6 and UGT1A9) and five UGT2B (UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B10, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17) genes were quantified in human liver tissue samples (n = 125) using real-time PCR. Glucuronidation activities of 14 substrates were measured in 47 livers. We genotyped 167 tagSNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in UGT1A (n = 43) and UGT2B (n = 124), as well as the known functional UGT1A1*28 and UGT2B17 CNV (copy number variation) polymorphisms. Transcription levels of 15 transcription factors (TFs) known to regulate these UGTs were quantified. We found that UGT expression and activity were highly variable among the livers (median and range of coefficient of variations: 135%, 74-217% and 52%, 39-105%, respectively). CAR, PXR and ESR1 were found to be the most important trans-regulators of UGT transcription (median and range of correlation coefficients: 46%, 6-58%; 47%, 9-58%; and 52%, 24-75%, respectively). Hepatic UGT activities were mainly determined by UGT gene transcription levels. Twenty-one polymorphisms were significantly (FDR-adjusted P transcription and testosterone glucuronidation rate, in addition to that attributable to the UGT2B17 CNV. Our study discovered novel pharmacogenetic markers and provided detailed insight into the genetic network regulating hepatic UGTs.

  2. Accumulation of distinct prelamin A variants in human diploid fibroblasts differentially affects cell homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candelario, Jose; Borrego, Stacey [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Reddy, Sita, E-mail: sitaredd@usc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Comai, Lucio, E-mail: comai@usc.edu [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear lamina that plays a major role in the structural organization and function of the nucleus. Lamin A is synthesized as a prelamin A precursor which undergoes four sequential post-translational modifications to generate mature lamin A. Significantly, a large number of point mutations in the LMNA gene cause a range of distinct human disorders collectively known as laminopathies. The mechanisms by which mutations in lamin A affect cell function and cause disease are unclear. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested that alterations in the normal lamin A pathway can contribute to cellular dysfunction. Specifically, we and others have shown, at the cellular level, that in the absence of mutations or altered splicing events, increased expression of wild-type prelamin A results in a growth defective phenotype that resembles that of cells expressing the mutant form of lamin A, termed progerin, associated with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS). Remarkably, the phenotypes of cells expressing elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A can be reversed by either treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors or overexpression of ZMPSTE24, a critical prelamin A processing enzyme, suggesting that minor increases in the steady-state levels of one or more prelamin A intermediates is sufficient to induce cellular toxicity. Here, to investigate the molecular basis of the lamin A pathway toxicity, we characterized the phenotypic changes occurring in cells expressing distinct prelamin A variants mimicking specific prelamin A processing intermediates. This analysis demonstrates that distinct prelamin A variants differentially affect cell growth, nuclear membrane morphology, nuclear distribution of lamin A and the fundamental process of transcription. Expression of prelamin A variants that are constitutively farnesylated induced the formation of lamin A aggregates and dramatic changes in nuclear membrane morphology, which led to reduced

  3. Toward quantifying robustness-performance tradeoffs in coupled natural-human systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, R.; Anderies, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of robustness has increasingly been applied to coupled natural-human systems, but its systematic quantification is lacking. Here, through a simple model, we mathematically operationalize a conceptual framework (Anderies, Janssen, & Ostrom, Ecology & Society 2004) that couples resource, human, and infrastructure together. The model links how micromotivators—derived from resource availability, infrastructure functionality, and outside opportunities—affect resulting societal outcomes. Conditions under which the coupled system is sustainable or collapses are clearly derived in terms of the system's social and biophysical factors. Based on these conditions, we can quantitatively describe the tradeoffs between system performance and its robustness against fluctuation of external forcings. In this talk, model development and preliminary results are briefly reported, and potential future analyses discussed. This work is a first step toward systematically quantifying robustness, which is needed if the concept of robustness is to be used in a more meaningful way and achieve more tangible policy outcomes.

  4. Can the usage of human growth hormones affect facial appearance and the accuracy of face recognition systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jake; Martin, Michael; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2014-06-01

    In law enforcement and security applications, the acquisition of face images is critical in producing key trace evidence for the successful identification of potential threats. The goal of the study is to demonstrate that steroid usage significantly affects human facial appearance and hence, the performance of commercial and academic face recognition (FR) algorithms. In this work, we evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art FR algorithms on two unique face image datasets of subjects before (gallery set) and after (probe set) steroid (or human growth hormone) usage. For the purpose of this study, datasets of 73 subjects were created from multiple sources found on the Internet, containing images of men and women before and after steroid usage. Next, we geometrically pre-processed all images of both face datasets. Then, we applied image restoration techniques on the same face datasets, and finally, we applied FR algorithms in order to match the pre-processed face images of our probe datasets against the face images of the gallery set. Experimental results demonstrate that only a specific set of FR algorithms obtain the most accurate results (in terms of the rank-1 identification rate). This is because there are several factors that influence the efficiency of face matchers including (i) the time lapse between the before and after image pre-processing and restoration face photos, (ii) the usage of different drugs (e.g. Dianabol, Winstrol, and Decabolan), (iii) the usage of different cameras to capture face images, and finally, (iv) the variability of standoff distance, illumination and other noise factors (e.g. motion noise). All of the previously mentioned complicated scenarios make clear that cross-scenario matching is a very challenging problem and, thus, further investigation is required.

  5. Culture temperature affects human chondrocyte messenger RNA expression in monolayer and pellet culture systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ito

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy has been explored for articular cartilage regeneration. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising cell-based technique for repairing articular cartilage defects. However, there are several issues such as chondrocyte de-differentiation. While numerous studies have been designed to overcome some of these issues, only a few have focused on the thermal environment that can affect chondrocyte metabolism and phenotype. In this study, the effects of different culture temperatures on human chondrocyte metabolism- and phenotype-related gene expression were investigated in 2D and 3D environments. Human chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer or in a pellet culture system at three different culture temperatures (32°C, 37°C, and 41°C for 3 days. The results showed that the total RNA level, normalized to the threshold cycle value of internal reference genes, was higher at lower temperatures in both culture systems. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and citrate synthase (CS, which are involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, respectively, were expressed at similar levels at 32°C and 37°C in pellet cultures, but the levels were significantly lower at 41°C. Expression of the chondrogenic markers, collagen type IIA1 (COL2A1 and aggrecan (ACAN, was higher at 37°C than at 32°C and 41°C in both culture systems. However, this phenomenon did not coincide with SRY (sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9, which is a fundamental transcription factor for chondrogenesis, indicating that a SOX9-independent pathway might be involved in this phenomenon. In conclusion, the expression of chondrocyte metabolism-related genes at 32°C was maintained or enhanced compared to that at 37°C. However, chondrogenesis-related genes were further induced at 37°C in both culture systems. Therefore, manipulating the culture temperature may be an advantageous approach for regulating human chondrocyte metabolic activity and

  6. Cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of human adipose tissue stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Seong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Ko, Young Jong; Chun, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of cell density on the proliferation activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) over time in culture. Passage #4 (P4) and #12 (P12) AT-MSCs from two donors were plated at a density of 200 (culture condition 1, CC1) or 5000 (culture condition 2, CC2) cells cm(-2) . After 7 days of incubation, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs cultured in CC1 were thin and spindle-shaped, whereas those cultured in CC2 had extensive cell-to-cell contacts and an expanded cell volume. In addition, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs in CC1 divided more than three times, while those in CC2 divided less than once on average. Flow cytometric analysis using 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester dye showed that the fluorescence intensity of AT-MSCs was lower in CC1 than in CC2. Furthermore, expression of proliferation-associated genes, such as CDC45L, CDC20A and KIF20A, in P4 AT-MSCs was higher in CC1 than in CC2, and this difference was also observed in P12 AT-MSCs. These data demonstrated that cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of MSCs, suggesting that it is feasible to design a strategy to prepare suitable MSCs using specific culture conditions.

  7. Cigarette Smoke Affects ABCAl Expression via Liver X Receptor Nuclear Translocation in Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sticozzi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous tissue is the first barrier against outdoor insults. The outer most layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC, is formed by corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix (cholesterol, ceramide and fatty acids. Therefore, the regulation of lipids and, in particular, of cholesterol homeostasis in the skin is of great importance. ABCA1 is a membrane transporter responsible for cholesterol efflux and plays a key role in maintaining cellular cholesterol levels. Among the many factors that have been associated with skin diseases, the environmental stressor cigarette smoke has been recently studied. In the present study, we demonstrate that ABCA1 expression in human cells (HaCaT was increased (both mRNA and protein levels after CS exposure. This effect was mediated by the inhibition of NFkB (aldehydes adducts formation that allows the translocation of liver X receptor (LXR. These findings suggest that passive smoking may play a role in skin cholesterol levels and thus affect cutaneous tissues functions.

  8. Gut Microbiota Profiling: Metabolomics Based Approach to Unravel Compounds Affecting Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernocchi, Pamela; Del Chierico, Federica; Putignani, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is composed of a huge number of different bacteria, that produce a large amount of compounds playing a key role in microbe selection and in the construction of a metabolic signaling network. The microbial activities are affected by environmental stimuli leading to the generation of a wide number of compounds, that influence the host metabolome and human health. Indeed, metabolite profiles related to the gut microbiota can offer deep insights on the impact of lifestyle and dietary factors on chronic and acute diseases. Metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics are some of the meta-omics approaches to study the modulation of the gut microbiota. Metabolomic research applied to biofluids allows to: define the metabolic profile; identify and quantify classes and compounds of interest; characterize small molecules produced by intestinal microbes; and define the biochemical pathways of metabolites. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are the principal technologies applied to metabolomics in terms of coverage, sensitivity and quantification. Moreover, the use of biostatistics and mathematical approaches coupled with metabolomics play a key role in the extraction of biologically meaningful information from wide datasets. Metabolomic studies in gut microbiota-related research have increased, focusing on the generation of novel biomarkers, which could lead to the development of mechanistic hypotheses potentially applicable to the development of nutritional and personalized therapies. PMID:27507964

  9. Experimental Evidence for Anomalous Retroactive Influences on Human Cognition and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bem, Daryl J.

    2011-11-01

    Six experiments are described that take well-established psychological effects on human cognition and affect and "time-reverse" them so that the individual's responses are obtained before the putatively causal stimulus events occur. Two of the experiments tested for the retroactive facilitation of recall: It is well known that rehearsing or practicing a set of verbal materials enhances an individual's ability to recall them on a subsequent test. In our experiments, participants were first shown 48 common words one at a time and were then asked to recall as many of those words as they could. They were then given practice exercises on a randomly selected subset of those words. The results show that participants recalled more of the words they later practiced than the control words they did not practice. Two experiments on retroactive priming provide evidence for retroactive influence on an individual's response times when judging the pleasantness or unpleasantness of visual stimuli. Finally, two experiments provide evidence for the retroactive habituation to emotionally arousing visual stimuli. Each of the six experiments yielded statistically significant results, with a combined z = 3.66, p = .0001, and an effect size (d) of 0.25. The six experiments are a subset of nine retroactive influence experiments reported in Bem [1] that yielded a combined z = 6.66, p = 1.34×10-11, and an effect size of 0.22.

  10. Gut Microbiota Profiling: Metabolomics Based Approach to Unravel Compounds Affecting Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernocchi, Pamela; Del Chierico, Federica; Putignani, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is composed of a huge number of different bacteria, that produce a large amount of compounds playing a key role in microbe selection and in the construction of a metabolic signaling network. The microbial activities are affected by environmental stimuli leading to the generation of a wide number of compounds, that influence the host metabolome and human health. Indeed, metabolite profiles related to the gut microbiota can offer deep insights on the impact of lifestyle and dietary factors on chronic and acute diseases. Metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics are some of the meta-omics approaches to study the modulation of the gut microbiota. Metabolomic research applied to biofluids allows to: define the metabolic profile; identify and quantify classes and compounds of interest; characterize small molecules produced by intestinal microbes; and define the biochemical pathways of metabolites. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are the principal technologies applied to metabolomics in terms of coverage, sensitivity and quantification. Moreover, the use of biostatistics and mathematical approaches coupled with metabolomics play a key role in the extraction of biologically meaningful information from wide datasets. Metabolomic studies in gut microbiota-related research have increased, focusing on the generation of novel biomarkers, which could lead to the development of mechanistic hypotheses potentially applicable to the development of nutritional and personalized therapies. PMID:27507964

  11. Molecular basis of human transcobalamin II deficiency in an affected family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, N.; Seetharam, S.; Seetharam, B. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Transcobalamin II (TC II) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease leading to cobalamin (Cbl, Vitamin B{sub 12}) deficiency. Patients with this disorder fail to absorb and transport Cbl across cellular membranes and develop Cbl deficiency, symptoms of which include failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, impaired immunodefence and neurological disorders. The molecular basis for this disease is not known. By means of Southern blotting and sequence analysis of TC II, cDNA amplified from fibroblasts of an affected child and his parents, we have identified two mutant TC II alleles. The maternally derived allele had a gross deletion, while the paternally derived allele had a 4-nucleotide ({sup 1023}TCTG) deletion which caused a reading frame shift and generation of a premature termination codon, 146 nucleotides downstream from the deletion. Both these deletions caused markedly reduced levels of TC II mRNA and protein. In addition, these two deletions were unique to this family and were not detected in four other unrelated TC II deficient patients who also exhibited the same (TC II protein/mRNA deficiency) phenotypes. Based on this study we suggest, (1) that the molecular defect in the most common form of human TC II deficiency (lack of immunoprecipitable plasma TC II) is heterogeneous and (2) these mutations cause TC II mRNA and protein deficiency leading to defective plasma transport of Cbl and the development of Cbl deficiency.

  12. African dust carries microbes across the ocean: are they affecting human and ecosystem health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric transport of dust from northwest Africa to the western Atlantic Ocean region may be responsible for a number of environmental hazards, including the demise of Caribbean corals; red tides; amphibian diseases; increased occurrence of asthma in humans; and oxygen depletion (eutrophication) in estuaries. Studies of satellite images suggest that hundreds of millions of tons of dust are trans-ported annually at relatively low altitudes across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean Sea and southeastern United States. The dust emanates from the expanding Sahara/Sahel desert region in Africa and carries a wide variety of bacteria and fungi. The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the NASA/Goddard Spaceflight Center, is conducting a study to identify microbes--bacteria, fungi, viruses--transported across the Atlantic in African soil dust. Each year, millions of tons of desert dust blow off the west African coast and ride the trade winds across the ocean, affecting the entire Caribbean basin, as well as the southeastern United States. Of the dust reaching the U.S., Florida receives about 50 percent, while the rest may range as far north as Maine or as far west as Colorado. The dust storms can be tracked by satellite and take about one week to cross the Atlantic.

  13. A dynamic evolution model of human opinion as affected by advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gui-Xun; Liu, Yun; Zeng, Qing-An; Diao, Su-Meng; Xiong, Fei

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new model to investigate the dynamics of human opinion as affected by advertising, based on the main idea of the CODA model and taking into account two practical factors: one is that the marginal influence of an additional friend will decrease with an increasing number of friends; the other is the decline of memory over time. Simulations show several significant conclusions for both advertising agencies and the general public. A small difference of advertising’s influence on individuals or advertising coverage will result in significantly different advertising effectiveness within a certain interval of value. Compared to the value of advertising’s influence on individuals, the advertising coverage plays a more important role due to the exponential decay of memory. Meanwhile, some of the obtained results are in accordance with people’s daily cognition about advertising. The real key factor in determining the success of advertising is the intensity of exchanging opinions, and people’s external actions always follow their internal opinions. Negative opinions also play an important role.

  14. Calcium signalling in human neutrophil cell lines is not affected by low-frequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbach, Lieke A; Philippi, John G M; Cuppen, Jan J M; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

    2015-09-01

    We are increasingly exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields (LF EMFs) by electrical devices and power lines, but if and how these fields interact with living cells remains a matter of debate. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of LF EMF exposure on calcium signalling in neutrophils. In neutrophilic granulocytes, activation of G-protein coupled receptors leads to efflux of calcium from calcium stores and influx of extracellular calcium via specialised calcium channels. The cytoplasmic rise of calcium induces cytoskeleton rearrangements, modified gene expression patterns, and cell migration. If LF EMF modulates intracellular calcium signalling, this will influence cellular behaviour and may eventually lead to health problems. We found that calcium mobilisation upon chemotactic stimulation was not altered after a short 30 min or long-term LF EMF exposure in human neutrophil-like cell lines HL-60 or PLB-985. Neither of the two investigated wave forms (Immunent and 50 Hz sine wave) at three magnetic flux densities (5 μT, 300 μT, and 500 μT) altered calcium signalling in vitro. Gene-expression patterns of calcium-signalling related genes also did not show any significant changes after exposure. Furthermore, analysis of the phenotypical appearance of microvilli by scanning electron microscopy revealed no alterations induced by LF EMF exposure. The findings above indicate that exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal or Immunent LF EMF will not affect calcium signalling in neutrophils in vitro.

  15. FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE SALES PERFORMANCE OF PT SKP (A CASE STUDY OF SALES FORCE OF MOORLIFE INDONESIA IN JABODETABEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Djoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the factors that affect the performance of sales in the direct selling business in PT Srirara Kanaka Pratama (PT SKP. Direct selling is part of a growing sector of small and medium businesses, especially in creating alternative jobs. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the main factors that affect the performance of sales in PT SKP in Jabodetabek area and formulate its managerial implications. This study used a descriptive analysis to look at the characteristics of the respondent and a multiple linear regression analysis to identify factors that affect the sales performance in PT SKP. The number of respondents in this study is 60 active members. The study results showed that the factors affecting the sales performance in PT SKP are incentives and rewards from sold products. For the managerial implementation in order to improve the sales performance of its members, PT SKP will provide more interesting incentives or bonuses and increase the number of members who receive bonuses as well as the amount of bonuses by creating programs and activities supporting such a condition. It will also create more attractive products of higher selling power as a reward to increase the motivation of members in order to increase sales.Keywords: direct selling, sales performance, multiple linear regression, PT SKP

  16. Predicting the Impacts of Intravehicular Displays on Driving Performance with Human Performance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane Kuhl; Wojciechowski, Josephine; Samms, Charneta

    2012-01-01

    A challenge facing the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), as well as international safety experts, is the need to educate car drivers about the dangers associated with performing distraction tasks while driving. Researchers working for the U.S. Army Research Laboratory have developed a technique for predicting the increase in mental workload that results when distraction tasks are combined with driving. They implement this technique using human performance modeling. They have predicted workload associated with driving combined with cell phone use. In addition, they have predicted the workload associated with driving military vehicles combined with threat detection. Their technique can be used by safety personnel internationally to demonstrate the dangers of combining distracter tasks with driving and to mitigate the safety risks.

  17. Elevated CO2 Affects Predator-Prey Interactions through Altered Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bridie J. M. Allan; Paolo Domenici; McCormick, Mark I.; Sue-Ann Watson; Munday, Philip L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) affects how fishes perceive their environment, affecting behavioral and cognitive processes leading to increased prey mortality. However, it is unclear if increased mortality results from changes in the dynamics of predator-prey interactions or due to prey increasing activity levels. Here we demonstrate that ocean pCO2 projected to occur by 2100 significantly effects the interactions of a predator-prey pair of common ree...

  18. Differences in navigation performance and postpartal striatal volume associated with pregnancy in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisofsky, Nina; Wiener, Jan; de Condappa, Olivier; Gallinat, Jürgen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Kühn, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by prolonged exposure to high estrogen levels. Animal studies have shown that estrogen influences navigation strategies and, hence, affects navigation performance. High estrogen levels are related to increased use of hippocampal-based allocentric strategies and decreased use of striatal-based egocentric strategies. In humans, associations between hormonal shifts and navigation strategies are less well studied. This study compared 30 peripartal women (mean age 28years) to an age-matched control group on allocentric versus egocentric navigation performance (measured in the last month of pregnancy) and gray matter volume (measured within two months after delivery). None of the women had a previous pregnancy before study participation. Relative to controls, pregnant women performed less well in the egocentric condition of the navigation task, but not the allocentric condition. A whole-brain group comparison revealed smaller left striatal volume (putamen) in the peripartal women. Across the two groups, left striatal volume was associated with superior egocentric over allocentric performance. Limited by the cross-sectional study design, the findings are a first indication that human pregnancy might be accompanied by structural brain changes in navigation-related neural systems and concomitant changes in navigation strategy. PMID:27614142

  19. Differences in navigation performance and postpartal striatal volume associated with pregnancy in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisofsky, Nina; Wiener, Jan; de Condappa, Olivier; Gallinat, Jürgen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Kühn, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by prolonged exposure to high estrogen levels. Animal studies have shown that estrogen influences navigation strategies and, hence, affects navigation performance. High estrogen levels are related to increased use of hippocampal-based allocentric strategies and decreased use of striatal-based egocentric strategies. In humans, associations between hormonal shifts and navigation strategies are less well studied. This study compared 30 peripartal women (mean age 28years) to an age-matched control group on allocentric versus egocentric navigation performance (measured in the last month of pregnancy) and gray matter volume (measured within two months after delivery). None of the women had a previous pregnancy before study participation. Relative to controls, pregnant women performed less well in the egocentric condition of the navigation task, but not the allocentric condition. A whole-brain group comparison revealed smaller left striatal volume (putamen) in the peripartal women. Across the two groups, left striatal volume was associated with superior egocentric over allocentric performance. Limited by the cross-sectional study design, the findings are a first indication that human pregnancy might be accompanied by structural brain changes in navigation-related neural systems and concomitant changes in navigation strategy.

  20. A new perspective on human reward research: how consciously and unconsciously perceived reward information influences performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedelius, Claire M; Veling, Harm; Custers, Ruud; Bijleveld, Erik; Chiew, Kimberly S; Aarts, Henk

    2014-06-01

    The question of how human performance can be improved through rewards is a recurrent topic of interest in psychology and neuroscience. Traditional, cognitive approaches to this topic have focused solely on consciously communicated rewards. Recently, a largely neuroscience-inspired perspective has emerged to examine the potential role of conscious awareness of reward information in effective reward pursuit. The present article reviews research employing a newly developed monetary-reward-priming paradigm that allows for a systematic investigation of this perspective. We analyze this research to identify similarities and differences in how consciously and unconsciously perceived rewards impact three distinct aspects relevant to performance: decision making, task preparation, and task execution. We further discuss whether conscious awareness, in modulating the effects of reward information, plays a role similar to its role in modulating the effects of other affective information. Implications of these insights for understanding the role of consciousness in modulating goal-directed behavior more generally are discussed. PMID:24399682

  1. Does Fiscal Austerity Affect Decision Makers’ Use and Perception of Performance Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Bækgaard, Martin; Houlberg, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    of performance information is tested using survey and documentary data from Danish municipalities. The article concludes that politicians who face high fiscal austerity use performance information to a lesser extent than colleagues who face less fiscal austerity, thus indicating the use of performance...

  2. Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of MUC7 12-mer, a human salivary mucin-derived peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobek Libuse A

    2007-11-01

    60°C did not affect the activity. Conclusion MUC7 12-mer peptide is effective anticandidal agent at physiological concentrations of variety of ions in the oral cavity. These results suggest that, especially in combination with EDTA, it could potentially be applied as an alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of human oral candidiasis.

  3. E-Cigarette Affects the Metabolome of Primary Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Aug

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are widely believed to be safer than conventional cigarettes and have been even suggested as aids for smoking cessation. However, while reasonable with some regards, this judgment is not yet supported by adequate biomedical research data. Since bronchial epithelial cells are the immediate target of inhaled toxicants, we hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes may affect the metabolome of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC and that the changes are, at least in part, induced by oxidant-driven mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of e-cigarette liquid (ECL on the metabolome of HBEC and examined the potency of antioxidants to protect the cells. We assessed the changes of the intracellular metabolome upon treatment with ECL in comparison of the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC with mass spectrometry and principal component analysis on air-liquid interface model of normal HBEC. Thereafter, we evaluated the capability of the novel antioxidant tetrapeptide O-methyl-l-tyrosinyl-γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine (UPF1 to attenuate the effect of ECL. ECL caused a significant shift in the metabolome that gradually gained its maximum by the 5th hour and receded by the 7th hour. A second alteration followed at the 13th hour. Treatment with CSC caused a significant initial shift already by the 1st hour. ECL, but not CSC, significantly increased the concentrations of arginine, histidine, and xanthine. ECL, in parallel with CSC, increased the content of adenosine diphosphate and decreased that of three lipid species from the phosphatidylcholine family. UPF1 partially counteracted the ECL-induced deviations, UPF1's maximum effect occurred at the 5th hour. The data support our hypothesis that ECL profoundly alters the metabolome of HBEC in a manner, which is comparable and partially overlapping with the effect of CSC. Hence, our results do not support the concept of harmlessness of e-cigarettes.

  4. How Has Human-induced Climate Change Affected California Drought Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Hoerling, M. P.; Aghakouchak, A.; Livneh, B.; Quan, X. W.; Eischeid, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    The current California drought has cast a heavy burden on statewide agriculture and water resources, further exacerbated by concurrent extreme high temperatures. Furthermore, industrial-era global radiative forcing brings into question the role of long-term climate change on CA drought. How has human-induced climate change affected California drought risk? Here, observations and model experimentation are applied to characterize this drought employing metrics that synthesize drought duration, cumulative precipitation deficit, and soil moisture depletion. The model simulations show that increases in radiative forcing since the late 19th Century induces both increased annual precipitation and increased surface temperature over California, consistent with prior model studies and with observed long-term change. As a result, there is no material difference in the frequency of droughts defined using bivariate indicators of precipitation and near-surface (10-cm) soil moisture, because shallow soil moisture responds most sensitively to increased evaporation driven by warming, which compensates the increase in the precipitation. However, when using soil moisture within a deep root zone layer (1-m) as co-variate, droughts become less frequent because deep soil moisture responds most sensitively to increased precipitation. The results illustrate the different land surface responses to anthropogenic forcing that are relevant for near-surface moisture exchange and for root zone moisture availability. The latter is especially relevant for agricultural impacts as the deep layer dictates moisture availability for plants, trees, and many crops. The results thus indicate the net effect of climate change has made agricultural drought less likely, and that the current severe impacts of drought on California's agriculture has not been substantially caused by long-term climate changes.

  5. In vitro study on human cytomegalovirus affecting early pregnancy villous EVT's invasion function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xiao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is the most common pathogen in uterus during pregnancy, which may lead to some serious results such as miscarriage, stillbirth, cerebellar malformation, fetus developmental retardation, but its pathogenesis has not been fully explained. The hypofunction of extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVT invasion is the essential pathologic base of some complications of pregnancy. c-erbB-2 is a kind of oncogene protein and closely linked with embryogenesis, tissue repair and regeneration. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP is one of the key enzymes which affect EVT migration and invasion function. The expression level changes of c-erbB-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 can reflect the changes of EVT invasion function. Results To explore the influence of HCMV on the invasion function of EVT, we tested the protein expression level changes of c-erbB-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in villous explant cultured in vitro infected by HCMV, with the use of immunohistochemistry SP method and western blot. We confirmed that HCMV can reproduce and spread in early pregnancy villus; c-erbB-2 protein mainly expressed in normal early pregnancy villous syncytiotrophoblast (ST remote plasma membrane and EVT, especially remote EVT cell membrane in villous stem cell column, little expressed in ST proximal end cell membrane and interstitial cells; MMP-2 protein primarily expressed in early pregnancy villous EVT endochylema and rarely in villous trophoblast (VT, ST and interstitial cells; MMP-9 protein largely expressed in early pregnancy villous mesenchyme, EVT and VT endochylema. Compared with control group, the three kinds of protein expression level in early pregnancy villus of virus group significantly decreased (P Conclusion HCMV can infect villus in vitro and cause the decrease of early pregnancy villous EVT's invasion function.

  6. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coor...

  7. Differences in Cortical Activity between Methamphetamine-Dependent and Healthy Individuals Performing a Facial Affect Matching Task

    OpenAIRE

    Payer, Doris E.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Monterosso, John R.; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W.; London, Edythe D.

    2007-01-01

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the ...

  8. How Personal Attribute Affect Students’ Performance in Undergraduate Accounting Course. A Case of Adult Learner in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Noah J. Masasi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether personal attribute affect students’ performance in undergraduate accounting course. It examines the relationship between variable personal attribute (gender, job, employment, marital status, children, relatives and age) and the overall average grade performance. The researcher conducted this study at the Open University of Tanzania, an Open Distance Learning (ODL) university. Using descriptive statistics, person correlation coefficient and reg...

  9. Impaired Performance Criteria and Human Helplessness: Time to Give Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Irwin N.; And Others

    The view that humans fail to solve certain types of problems because they are helpless and passive originated from a series of studies with animals; subsequent research attempted to replicate the findings of the learned helplessness behavior with humans. In an attempt to replicate and extend the Hiroto and Seligman (1975) study of humans exposed…

  10. Cognition-based and affect-based trust as mediators of leader behavior influences on team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-07-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based trust and team psychological safety. Transformational leadership influenced team performance indirectly through cognition-based trust. Cognition-based trust directly influenced team potency and indirectly (through affect-based trust) influenced team psychological safety. The effects of leader behavior on team performance were fully mediated through the trust in leader variables and the team psychological states. Servant leadership explained an additional 10% of the variance in team performance beyond the effect of transformational leadership. We discuss implications of these results for research on the relationship between leader behavior and team performance, and for efforts to enhance leader development by combining knowledge from different leadership theories. PMID:21299271

  11. Cognition-based and affect-based trust as mediators of leader behavior influences on team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-07-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based trust and team psychological safety. Transformational leadership influenced team performance indirectly through cognition-based trust. Cognition-based trust directly influenced team potency and indirectly (through affect-based trust) influenced team psychological safety. The effects of leader behavior on team performance were fully mediated through the trust in leader variables and the team psychological states. Servant leadership explained an additional 10% of the variance in team performance beyond the effect of transformational leadership. We discuss implications of these results for research on the relationship between leader behavior and team performance, and for efforts to enhance leader development by combining knowledge from different leadership theories.

  12. Timing of examinations affects school performance differently in early and late chronotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Zerbini, Giulia; Siersema, Anne; Pieper, Amy; Merrow, Martha; Hut, Roelof A.; Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Circadian clocks of adolescents typically run lateincluding sleep timesyet adolescents generally are expected at school early in the morning. Due to this mismatch between internal (circadian) and external (social) times, adolescents suffer from chronic sleep deficiency, which, in turn, affects acade

  13. Co-creating & Co-performing Tourism of Affects, Emotions, Feelings and Senses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina; van Hoven, Bettina; Hoskins, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    “What do emotions do?” asks Sara Ahmed. Emotions, feelings, senses and affects are complex, slippery concepts. They shape, circulate between and connect bodies, they belong to individuals and to collectivities alike, they reside inside, within us and outwith when they are released outwards towards o

  14. The Relationship between Affective Response to Social Comparison and Academic Performance in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrens, Maike J. P. W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Lubbers, Miranda J.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to study the relationship between affective responses to social comparison and test scores among high school students. Our analyses showed that three types of responses to social comparison could be distinguished: an empathic, constructive, and destructive response. Whereas girls scored higher on empathic…

  15. Nonmusic Majors' Cognitive and Affective Responses to Performance and Programmatic Music Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; Cassidy, Jane W.; Byo, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Compares the effects of different kinds of visual presentations, and music alone, on university nonmusic students' affective and cognitive responses to music. Separate groups of students listened to classical music excerpts, either by themselves, or with video accompaniment. They rated the music on Likert-type scales and responded to open-ended…

  16. Transitional Information in Spatial Serial Memory: Path Characteristics Affect Recall Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Elford, Greg; Mayberry, Murray

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of stimulus characteristics in a visuospatial order reconstruction task in which participants were required to recall the order of sequences of spatial locations. The complexity of the to-be-remembered sequences, as measured by path crossing, path length, and angles, was found to affect serial memory, in terms of both…

  17. Oceanographic and climatic factors differentially affect reproduction performance of Antarctic skuas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, S.M.; Reinhardt, K.; Ritz, M.S.; Janicke, T.; Montalti, D.; Peter, H.-U.

    2007-01-01

    We studied how environmental conditions affect reproduction in sympatric skua species that differ in their reliance on marine resources: the exclusively marine foraging south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki, the terrestrially foraging brown skua C. antarctica lonnbergi and mixed species pairs with

  18. An Integrated Model to Explain How Corporate Social Responsibility Affects Corporate Financial Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Shien Lin; Ruei-Yuan Chang; Van Thac Dang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on financial performance has important implications for enterprises, communities, and countries, and the significance of this issue cannot be ignored. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated model to explain the influence of CSR on financial performance with intellectual capital as a mediator and industry type as a moderator. Empirical results indicate that intellectual capital mediates the relationship between CSR and financial perform...

  19. How Does Outsourcing Affect Performance Dynamics? Evidence from the Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Novak; Scott Stern

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of vertical integration on the dynamics of performance over the automobile product development lifecycle. Building on recent work in organizational economics and strategy, we evaluate the relationship between vertical integration and different performance margins. Outsourcing facilitates access to cutting-edge technology and the use of high-powered performance contracts. Vertical integration allows firms to adapt to unforeseen contingencies and customer feedback...

  20. An Integrated Model to Explain How Corporate Social Responsibility Affects Corporate Financial Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Shien Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR on financial performance has important implications for enterprises, communities, and countries, and the significance of this issue cannot be ignored. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated model to explain the influence of CSR on financial performance with intellectual capital as a mediator and industry type as a moderator. Empirical results indicate that intellectual capital mediates the relationship between CSR and financial performance, and industry type moderates the direct influence of CSR on financial performance. Such results have critical implications for both academia and practice.