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Sample records for affecting hepatic vldl

  1. Acute central neuropeptide Y administration increases food intake but does not affect hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL production in mice.

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    Janine J Geerling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Central neuropeptide Y (NPY administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-triglyceride (TG in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, for which well-established mouse models are available, we set out to validate the effect of NPY on hepatic VLDL-TG production in mice, to ultimately investigate whether NPY, by increasing VLDL production, contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Male C57Bl/6J mice received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. cannula into the lateral (LV or third (3V ventricle of the brain. One week later, after a 4 h fast, the animals received an intravenous (i.v. injection of Tran(35S (100 µCi followed by tyloxapol (500 mg/kg body weight; BW, enabling the study of hepatic VLDL-apoB and VLDL-TG production, respectively. Immediately after the i.v. injection of tyloxapol, the animals received either an i.c.v. injection of NPY (0.2 mg/kg BW in artificial cerebrospinal fluid; aCSF, synthetic Y1 receptor antagonist GR231118 (0.5 mg/kg BW in aCSF or vehicle (aCSF, or an i.v. injection of PYY3-36 (0.5 mg/kg BW in PBS or vehicle (PBS. RESULTS: Administration of NPY into both the LV and 3V increased food intake within one hour after injection (+164%, p<0.001 and +367%, p<0.001, respectively. NPY administration neither in the LV nor in the 3V affected hepatic VLDL-TG or VLDL-apoB production. Likewise, antagonizing central NPY signaling by either PYY3-36 or GR231118 administration did not affect hepatic VLDL production. CONCLUSION: In mice, as opposed to rats, acute central administration of NPY increases food intake without affecting hepatic VLDL production. These results are of great significance when extrapolating findings on the central regulation of hepatic VLDL production between species.

  2. Acute Central Neuropeptide Y Administration Increases Food Intake but Does Not Affect Hepatic Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (Vldl) Production in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerling, J.J.; Wang, Y.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Central neuropeptide Y (NPY) administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for athe

  3. VLDL hydrolysis by hepatic lipase regulates PPARδ transcriptional responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PPARs (α,γ,δ are a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate energy balance, including lipid metabolism. Despite these critical functions, the integration between specific pathways of lipid metabolism and distinct PPAR responses remains obscure. Previous work has revealed that lipolytic pathways can activate PPARs. Whether hepatic lipase (HL, an enzyme that regulates VLDL and HDL catabolism, participates in PPAR responses is unknown. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using PPAR ligand binding domain transactivation assays, we found that HL interacted with triglyceride-rich VLDL (>HDL≫LDL, IDL to activate PPARδ preferentially over PPARα or PPARγ, an effect dependent on HL catalytic activity. In cell free ligand displacement assays, VLDL hydrolysis by HL activated PPARδ in a VLDL-concentration dependent manner. Extended further, VLDL stimulation of HL-expressing HUVECs and FAO hepatoma cells increased mRNA expression of canonical PPARδ target genes, including adipocyte differentiation related protein (ADRP, angiopoietin like protein 4 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4. HL/VLDL regulated ADRP through a PPRE in the promoter region of this gene. In vivo, adenoviral-mediated hepatic HL expression in C57BL/6 mice increased hepatic ADRP mRNA levels by 30%. In ob/ob mice, a model with higher triglycerides than C57BL/6 mice, HL overexpression increased ADRP expression by 70%, demonstrating the importance of triglyceride substrate for HL-mediated PPARδ activation. Global metabolite profiling identified HL/VLDL released fatty acids including oleic acid and palmitoleic acid that were capable of recapitulating PPARδ activation and ADRP gene regulation in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These data define a novel pathway involving HL hydrolysis of VLDL that activates PPARδ through generation of specific monounsaturated fatty acids. These data also demonstrate how integrating cell biology with metabolomic approaches provides insight

  4. VLDL Hydrolysis by Hepatic Lipase Regulates PPARδ Transcriptional Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jonathan D.; Oligino, Eric; Rader, Daniel J; Saghatelian, Alan; Plutzky, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background PPARs (α,γ,δ) are a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate energy balance, including lipid metabolism. Despite these critical functions, the integration between specific pathways of lipid metabolism and distinct PPAR responses remains obscure. Previous work has revealed that lipolytic pathways can activate PPARs. Whether hepatic lipase (HL), an enzyme that regulates VLDL and HDL catabolism, participates in PPAR responses is unknown. Methods/Principal Finding...

  5. VLDL Hydrolysis by Hepatic Lipase Regulates PPARδ Transcriptional Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jonathan D.; Eric Oligino; Rader, Daniel J; Alan Saghatelian; Jorge Plutzky

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: PPARs (α,γ,δ) are a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate energy balance, including lipid metabolism. Despite these critical functions, the integration between specific pathways of lipid metabolism and distinct PPAR responses remains obscure. Previous work has revealed that lipolytic pathways can activate PPARs. Whether hepatic lipase (HL), an enzyme that regulates VLDL and HDL catabolism, participates in PPAR responses is unknown. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDIN...

  6. GLP-1 receptor activation inhibits VLDL production and reverses hepatic steatosis by decreasing hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat-fed APOE*3-Leiden mice.

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    Edwin T Parlevliet

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In addition to improve glucose intolerance, recent studies suggest that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonism also decreases triglyceride (TG levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonism on very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-TG production and liver TG metabolism. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The GLP-1 peptide analogues CNTO3649 and exendin-4 were continuously administered subcutaneously to high fat diet-fed APOE*3-Leiden transgenic mice. After 4 weeks, hepatic VLDL production, lipid content, and expression profiles of selected genes involved in lipid metabolism were determined. RESULTS: CNTO3649 and exendin-4 reduced fasting plasma glucose (up to -30% and -28% respectively and insulin (-43% and -65% respectively. In addition, these agents reduced VLDL-TG production (-36% and -54% respectively and VLDL-apoB production (-36% and -43% respectively, indicating reduced production of VLDL particles rather than reduced lipidation of apoB. Moreover, they markedly decreased hepatic content of TG (-39% and -55% respectively, cholesterol (-30% and -55% respectively, and phospholipids (-23% and -36% respectively, accompanied by down-regulation of expression of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis (Srebp-1c, Fasn, Dgat1 and apoB synthesis (Apob. CONCLUSION: GLP-1 receptor agonism reduces VLDL production and hepatic steatosis in addition to an improvement of glycemic control. These data suggest that GLP-receptor agonists could reduce hepatic steatosis and ameliorate dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Reduction of VLDL secretion decreases cholesterol excretion in niemann-pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic mice.

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    Stephanie M Marshall

    Full Text Available An effective way to reduce LDL cholesterol, the primary risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is to increase cholesterol excretion from the body. Our group and others have recently found that cholesterol excretion can be facilitated by both hepatobiliary and transintestinal pathways. However, the lipoprotein that moves cholesterol through the plasma to the small intestine for transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE is unknown. To test the hypothesis that hepatic very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL support TICE, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO were used to knockdown hepatic expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP, which is necessary for VLDL assembly. While maintained on a high cholesterol diet, Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic (L1Tg mice, which predominantly excrete cholesterol via TICE, and wild type (WT littermates were treated with control ASO or MTP ASO. In both WT and L1Tg mice, MTP ASO decreased VLDL triglyceride (TG and cholesterol secretion. Regardless of treatment, L1Tg mice had reduced biliary cholesterol compared to WT mice. However, only L1Tg mice treated with MTP ASO had reduced fecal cholesterol excretion. Based upon these findings, we conclude that VLDL or a byproduct such as LDL can move cholesterol from the liver to the small intestine for TICE.

  8. Reduction of VLDL secretion decreases cholesterol excretion in niemann-pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephanie M; Kelley, Kathryn L; Davis, Matthew A; Wilson, Martha D; McDaniel, Allison L; Lee, Richard G; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Rudel, Lawrence L; Brown, J Mark; Temel, Ryan E

    2014-01-01

    An effective way to reduce LDL cholesterol, the primary risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is to increase cholesterol excretion from the body. Our group and others have recently found that cholesterol excretion can be facilitated by both hepatobiliary and transintestinal pathways. However, the lipoprotein that moves cholesterol through the plasma to the small intestine for transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) is unknown. To test the hypothesis that hepatic very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) support TICE, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) were used to knockdown hepatic expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), which is necessary for VLDL assembly. While maintained on a high cholesterol diet, Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic (L1Tg) mice, which predominantly excrete cholesterol via TICE, and wild type (WT) littermates were treated with control ASO or MTP ASO. In both WT and L1Tg mice, MTP ASO decreased VLDL triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol secretion. Regardless of treatment, L1Tg mice had reduced biliary cholesterol compared to WT mice. However, only L1Tg mice treated with MTP ASO had reduced fecal cholesterol excretion. Based upon these findings, we conclude that VLDL or a byproduct such as LDL can move cholesterol from the liver to the small intestine for TICE.

  9. Increased hepatic VLDL secretion, lipogenesis, and SREBP-1 expression in the corpulent JCR:LA-cp rat.

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    Elam, M B; Wilcox, H G; Cagen, L M; Deng, X; Raghow, R; Kumar, P; Heimberg, M; Russell, J C

    2001-12-01

    The corpulent JCR:LA-cp rat (cp/cp) is a useful model for study of the metabolic consequences of obesity and hyperinsulinemia. To assess the effect of hyperinsulinemia on VLDL secretion in this model, we measured rates of secretion of VLDL in perfused livers derived from cp/cp rats and their lean littermates. Livers of cp/cp rats secreted significantly greater amounts of VLDL triglyceride and apolipoprotein, compared with lean littermates. The content of apoB, apoE, and apoCs in both perfusate and plasma VLDL was greater in the cp/cp rat, as was the apolipoprotein (apo)C, apoA-I, and apoA-IV content of plasma HDL. Triglyceride content was also greater in cp/cp livers, as was hepatic lipogenesis and expression of lipogenic enzymes and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). Hepatic mRNAs for apoE, and apoA-I were higher in livers of cp/cp rats. In contrast, the steady state levels of apoC-II, apoC-III, and apoB mRNAs were unchanged. Thus, livers of obese hyperinsulinemic cp/cp JCR:LA-cp rats secrete a greater number of VLDL particles that are enriched in triglyceride, apoE, and apoC. Greater secretion of VLDL in the cp/cp rat in part results from higher endogenous fatty acid synthesis, which in turn may occur in response to increased expression of the lipogenic enzyme regulator SREBP-1c.

  10. Short-term overexpression of DGAT1 or DGAT2 increases hepatic triglyceride but not VLDL triglyceride or apoB production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar, John S.; Stone, Scot J.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Tow, Bryan; Billheimer, Jeffrey T.; Wong, Jinny S.; Hamilton, Robert L.; Farese, Robert V.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Increased triglyceride synthesis resulting from enhanced flux of fatty acids into liver is frequently associated with VLDL overproduction. This has led to the common belief that hepatic triglyceride synthesis can directly modulate VLDL production. We used adenoviral vectors containing either murine

  11. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) controls hepatic VLDL-triglyceride secretion in rats via the sympathetic nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinstroop, E.; Pei, L.; Ackermans, M.T.; Foppen, E.; Borgers, A.J.F.; Kwakkel, J.; Alkemade, A.; Fliers, E.; Kalsbeek, A.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive secretion of triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-TG) contributes to diabetic dyslipidemia. Earlier studies have indicated a possible role for the hypothalamus and autonomic nervous system in the regulation of VLDL-TG. In the current study, we investigated whether the auto

  12. IFNL4 affects clearance of hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have discovered a new human interferon gene, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4), that affects clearance of the hepatitis C virus. They also identified an inherited genetic variant within IFNL4 that predicts how people respond to treatment for hepatit

  13. Hepatitis C comorbidities affecting the course and response to therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the outcome of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is profoundly influenced by a variety of comorbidities. Many of these comorbidities have a significant influence on the response to antiviral therapy. These comorbidities negatively affect the course and outcome of liver disease, often reducing the chance of achieving a sustained virological response with PEGylated interferon and ribavirin treatments. Comorbidities affecting response to antiviral therapy reduce compliance and adherence to inadequate doses of therapy. The most important comorbidities affecting the course of CHC include hepatitis B virus coinfection, metabolic syndrome, and intestinal bacterial overgrowth.Comorbidities affecting the course and response to therapy include schistosomiasis, iron overload, alcohol abuse, and excessive smoking. Comorbidities affecting response to antiviral therapy include depression,anemia, cardiovascular disease, and renal failure.

  14. Hepatitis B and alcohol affect survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda L. Wong; Whitney M. Limm; Naoky Tsai; Richard Severino

    2005-01-01

    AIM: In the USA, Hawaii has the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and a diverse population.It is an ideal place to characterize HCC in the context of ethnicity/risk factors.METHODS: A total of 262 cases of HCC (1992-2003) were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, ethnicity, birthplace, viral hepatitis, alcohol use, diabetes, smoking and risk factors for viral hepatitis such as intravenous drug abuse (IVDA), transfusions, tattoos and vertical transmission. Tumor stage, Child's class, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score, α-fetoprotein level, treatment and survival were recorded.RESULTS: Gender, age, viral hepatitis, alcohol, IVDA, and diabetes differed significantly in Asians, non-Asians and Pacific Islanders. There were also specific differences within Asian subgroups. Alpha-fetoprotein, smoking, transfusions, stage and resectability did not differ between groups. Asians were more likely to have hepatitis B, while non-Asians were more likely to have hepatitis C. Factors that decreased survival included hepatitis B, alcohol, elevated alpha-fetoprotein, CLIP >2 and increased Child's class. When Asians were combined with Pacific Islanders, median survival (1.52 years vs 3.54 years), 1- and 3-year survival was significantly worse than those for non-Asians. After Cox regression analysis for hepatitis B and alcohol, there was no difference in survival by ethnicity.CONCLUSION: Various ethnicities have different risk factors for HCC. Hepatitis B, alcohol, and α-fetoprotein are more important factors for survival than ethnicity.

  15. Positional distribution of decanoic acid: Effect on chylomicron and VLDL TAG structures and postprandial lipemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yli-Jokipii, K.M.; Schwab, U.S.; Tarvonen, R.L.;

    2004-01-01

    Although medium-chain FA (MCFA) are mainly absorbed via the portal venous system, they are also incorporated into chylomicron TAG; therefore, the positional distribution of MCFA in TAG is likely to affect their metabolic fate. We studied chylomicron and VLDL TAG structures, as well as the magnitu...... or in FFA concentrations. Thus, the positional distribution of MCFA in TAG affects their metabolic fate, but the magnitude of postprandial lipemia does not seem to be dependent on the positional distribution of MCFA in the ingested fat....

  16. Impaired Insulin Suppression of VLDL-Triglyceride Kinetics in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marianne K; Nellemann, Birgitte; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with glucose and lipid metabolic abnormalities. However, insulin suppression of VLDL-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) kinetics is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine VLDL-TG, glucose and palmitate kinetics during fasting and hyperin...

  17. Perinephric and epididymal fat affect hepatic metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shlomo, Shani; Einstein, Francine H; Zvibel, Isabel; Atias, Dikla; Shlomai, Amir; Halpern, Zamir; Barzilai, Nir; Fishman, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether the perinephric and epididymal visceral fat (PEVF) depot under short-term excess nutrient protected the liver by trapping nutrient-derived nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs) or had deleterious effects on hepatic triglycerides (TGs) accumulation and insulin resistance due to adipokine secretion. Young rats pre-emptively underwent surgical PEVF removal or sham operations and were fed with either high-fat diet (HFD) (PEVF-HFD) or regular chow (RC) (PEVF-RC) for 3 days. Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Liver TG, serum NEFA, and fat-derived adipokines were assessed. Insulin and lipogenesis signaling were assessed by western blots. Pre-emptive PEVF removal significantly decreases insulin-induced suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) both in RC and in HFD-fed rats. In accordance with the clamp results, hepatic TG accumulation is also significantly reduced by PEVF excision both in RC and HFD-fed rats. These results are further validated by insulin signaling results, which show that pre-emptive PEVF removal increases phosphorylation of hepatic Akt, irrespective of diet. Notably, high levels of serum leptin induced by HFD are significantly reduced by pre-emptive PEVF excision. Additionally, expression of lipogenic enzyme p-acetyl-CoA-carboxylase, denoting reduced lipogenesis, is increased in the PEVF-HFD rats. In conclusion, PEVF has a deleterious effect on the liver as a source of insulin resistance-inducing adipokines irrespective of diet, and does not serve as a buffer for excess nutrients. PMID:21818154

  18. Dietary protein deficiency affects n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids hepatic storage and very low density lipoprotein transport in rats on different diets.

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    Bouziane, M; Prost, J; Belleville, J

    1994-04-01

    Fatty livers and the similarity between the skin lesions in kwashiorkor and those described in experimental essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency have led to the hypothesis that protein and EFA deficiencies may both occur in chronic malnutrition. The relationship between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and hepatic lipid composition was studied after 28 d of protein depletion to determine the interactions between dietary protein levels and EFA availability. Rats were fed purified diets containing 20 or 2% casein and 5% fat as either soybean oil rich in EFA, or salmon oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, or hydrogenated coconut oil poor in EFA. Animals were divided into six groups, SOC (20% casein + 5% soybean oil), SOd (2% casein + 5% soybean oil), COC (20% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), COd (2% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), SAC (20% casein + 5% salmon oil) and SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil). After 28 d, liver steatosis and reduced VLDL-phospholipid contents (P oil diets and lower with the hydrogenated coconut oil diets. Furthermore, independent of the oil in the diet, protein deficiency decreased linoleic and arachidonic acids in VLDL phospholipids. Conversely, despite decreased proportions of EPA at low protein levels, DHA levels remained higher in rats fed salmon oil diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Effect of sepsis on VLDL kinetics: responses in basal state and during glucose infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gram-negative sepsis on the kinetics and oxidation of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acids was assessed in conscious dogs in the normal state and 24 h after infusion of live Escherichia coli. VLDL, labeled with [2-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]palmitic acid, was used to trace VLDL kinetics and oxidation, and [1-13C]palmitic acid bound to albumin was infused simultaneously to quantify kinetics and oxidation of free fatty acid (FFA) in plasma. Sepsis caused a fivefold increase in the rate of VLDL production (RaVLDL). In the control dogs, the direct oxidation of VLDL-fatty acids was not an important contributor to their overall energy metabolism, but in dogs with sepsis, 17% of the total rate of CO2 production could be accounted for by VLDL-fatty acid oxidation. When glucose was infused into dogs with insulin and glucagon levels clamped at basal levels (by means of infusion of somatostatin and replacement of the hormones), RaVLDL increased significantly in the control dogs, but it did not increase further in dogs with sepsis. The authors conclude that the increase in triglyceride concentration in fasting dogs with gram-negative sepsis is the result of an increase in VLDL production and that the fatty acids in VLDL can serve as an important source of energy in sepsis

  20. Effect of sepsis on VLDL kinetics: responses in basal state and during glucose infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, R.R.; Shaw, J.H.; Durkot, M.J.

    1985-06-01

    The effect of gram-negative sepsis on the kinetics and oxidation of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acids was assessed in conscious dogs in the normal state and 24 h after infusion of live Escherichia coli. VLDL, labeled with (2-/sup 3/H)glycerol and (1-/sup 14/C)palmitic acid, was used to trace VLDL kinetics and oxidation, and (1-/sup 13/C)palmitic acid bound to albumin was infused simultaneously to quantify kinetics and oxidation of free fatty acid (FFA) in plasma. Sepsis caused a fivefold increase in the rate of VLDL production (RaVLDL). In the control dogs, the direct oxidation of VLDL-fatty acids was not an important contributor to their overall energy metabolism, but in dogs with sepsis, 17% of the total rate of CO2 production could be accounted for by VLDL-fatty acid oxidation. When glucose was infused into dogs with insulin and glucagon levels clamped at basal levels (by means of infusion of somatostatin and replacement of the hormones), RaVLDL increased significantly in the control dogs, but it did not increase further in dogs with sepsis. The authors conclude that the increase in triglyceride concentration in fasting dogs with gram-negative sepsis is the result of an increase in VLDL production and that the fatty acids in VLDL can serve as an important source of energy in sepsis.

  1. Effect of Alternative Splicing of VLDL Receptor on its Ligand Binding and Internalization Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionVery low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-R) is a main receptor mediating the uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein(TRL), so it is in all probability to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis (AS). On account of alternative splicing of O-linked carbohydrate chains in extracellular fragment, VLDL-R can be classified into two isoforms: VLDL-RⅠ with O-linker sugar region, while VLDL-RⅡ without this domain~([1]). But so far, the difference of their function and biological...

  2. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010349 Relationships between serum hepatitis B virus load in mothers,free maternal DNA in peripheral blood of newborns and hepatitis B virus infection of newborns. WEI Junni(魏俊妮),et al. Dept Epidemiol,Shanxi Med Univ,Taiyuan 030001. Chin J Infect Dis 2010;28(5):297-300. Objective To study the relationships between serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level

  3. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930140 Hepatocyte stimulator peptide and itsclinical significance in viral hepatitis.ZHOUWeiping(周卫平),et al.Instit Viral Hepatitis,Chongqing Med Univ,630010.Chin J InternMed 1992;31(10):626-628.Hepatocyte stimulator peptide(HSP)is anewly developed hepatic stimulator substance.Its monoclonal antibodies have been obtained inour laboratory.In this study,HSP was deter-mined in the sera of 315 subjects including pa-

  4. Fresh frozen plasma transfusion does not affect outcomes following hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshito; Tomimaru; Hiroshi; Wada; Shigeru; Marubashi; Shogo; Kobayashi; Hidetoshi; Eguchi; Yutaka; Takeda; Masahiro; Tanemura; Takehiro; Noda; Koji; Umeshita; Yuichiro; Doki; Masaki; Mori; Hiroak; Nagano

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion affects outcomes following hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of liver function,postoperative complications and cancer prognosis.METHODS:We retrospectively compared the incidence of postoperative complications between 204 patients who underwent hepatectomy for HCC with routine FFP transfusion in an early period (1983-1993,Group A) and 293 with necessity for FFP transfusion during a later period (1998-2006,Group B),an...

  5. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920691 The determination of serum hepa-titis B virus DNA by polymerase chain rea-ction in hepatitis B patients treated withalpha-interferon. XU. Jianye(徐建业), et al.Centr Lab, Chongqing Cancer Instit, 630030.Chin J Intern Med, 1992; 31(5): 278-280. To clarify the status of HBV in serum of

  6. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970349 Primary structure and variability of partialsequences in nonstructural gene 5 region of hepatitis Gvirus, CHANG Jinhong(常锦红), et al. Hepatol Instis,People’s Hosp, Beijing Med Univ, Beijing, 100044. NatlMed J China 1997; 77(3): 178-182. Objective: To sequence partial genome of hepatitis G

  7. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009209 Effects of chronic hepatitis B virus infection on human hepatic cytochrome P450 2C9.ZHO Fuping(周福平),et al.Dept Infect Dis,Shanghai Changzheng Hosp,Shanghai 200003.Chin J Infect Dis,2009;27(2):94-98.

  8. Turnover of VLDL-apoliporprotein b in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) has been known to be associated with apolipoprotein (Apo) and lipid abnormalities, leading to accelerated atherosclerosis (AS). This work is aimed at studying the lipoprotein (LP) metabolism of CRF patients in order to elucidate how this metabolism is linked with AS. The fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of ApoB in very low density lipoprotein (vLDL) was determined by using endogenous 15N-glycine labeling and GC-MS analysis in 5 patients with CRF. Plasma lipid profiles of CRF patients were also studied. The FSR of vLDL-ApoB obtained by this method was 3.19 ± 0.43%/day in CRF patients, while that in the normal subjects (5.6 ± 0.45%/day) was significantly higher (P<0.0001). The CRF patients also had reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol (34.6 ± 4.6% mg/dl) in comparison with the control (63.2 ± 4.6 mg/dl)

  9. Role of VLDL Receptor in the Process of Foam Cell Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈伸; 吴凡; 田俊; 李映红; 王燕; 王宇哲; 宗义强

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The role of very low density lipoprotein receptor (LVLDR) in the process of foam cell formation was investigated. After the primary cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages were incubated with VLDL, β-VLDL or low density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively for 24 h and 48 h, foam cells formation was identified by oil red O staining and cellular contents of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were determined. The mRNA levels of LDLR, LDLR related protein (LRP)and VLDLR were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results demonstrated that VLDL, βVLDL and LDL could increase the contents of TG and TC in macrophages. Cells treated with VLDL or β-VLDL showed markedly increased expression of VLDLR and decreased expression of LDLR, whereas LRP was up-regulated slightly. For identifying the effect of VLDL receptor on cellular lipid accumulation, Idl-A7-VR cells, which expresses VLDLR and trace amount of LRP without functional LDLR, was used to incubate with lipoproteins for further examination. The results elucidated that the uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein mediated by VLDLR plays an important role in accumulation of lipid and the formation of foam cells.

  10. Factors affecting response to hepatitis b vaccine among hemodialysis patients in a large Saudi Hemodialysis Center

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    Khalid Al Saran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the response to hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccination in patients on hemodialysis (HD and to identify the factors that could affect this response. This retrospective study was carried out during the period from January 2009 to December 2009 in the Prince Salman Center for Kidney Diseases (PSCKD, Riyadh, and included 144 patients (78 males and 66 females on regular HD, all of whom received hepatitis B vacci-nation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the level of hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb: Responders group (>10 IU/L and non-responders group (<10 IU/L. The study looked at the factors that may affect the responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccination, like gender, age, co-existence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, dialysis adequacy that was evaluated by urea reduction ratio (URR and Kt/V, hemoglobin level, albumin level, protein catabolic rate (PCR, body mass index (BMI, subjective global nutritional status (SGA and HbA1c. There were 129 patients (89.6% in the responders group including 69 males and 60 females and 15 patients (10.4% in the non-responders group including nine males and six females. The mean age in the responders group and the non-responders group was 50.56 ± 15.35 and 56.87 ± 12.52 years, respectively (P = 0.128. The mean value of the PCR was 1.03 ± 0.17 and 0.88 ± 0.17 g/kg/day in the responders group and non-responders group, respectively (P = 0.002. There was no statically significant difference between the two groups regarding the presence or absence of HCV infection, age, gender, diabetes mellitus, URR, Kt/V, hemoglobin level and albumin level. We report a high response rate (89% for HBV vaccination in our HD patients. The PCR was the only factor that affected the response to HBV vaccination in these patients.

  11. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005226 Characteristics of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in hepatitis B patients. FAN Zhen-ping(范振平),et al. Center Bio Ther, Instit Infect Dis, 302 Hosp Chin PLA, Beijing 100039. World Chin J Digestol, 2005;13(2): 194-197. Objective: To characterize the T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of patients with acute and chronic hepatitis B, and to explore their relations with the disease state. Methods: Peripheral blood

  12. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  13. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008312 Impact of hepatitis B virus infection on the activity of hematopoietic stem cell.SHI Yanmei(石雁梅),et al.Dept Infect Dis,1st Clin Coll,Harbin Med Univ,Harbin 150001.Chin J Infect Dis 2008;26(4):197-201.Objective To study the impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV)infection on the activity of cord hematopoieticstem cells.Methods CD34+cells were isolated from healthy human cord blood by mini MACS.Cells were

  14. VLDL-activated cell signaling pathways that stimulate adrenal cell aldosterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ying-Ying; Rainey, William E; Johnson, Maribeth H; Bollag, Wendy B

    2016-09-15

    Aldosterone plays an important role in regulating ion and fluid homeostasis and thus blood pressure, and hyperaldosteronism results in hypertension. Hypertension is also observed with obesity, which is associated with additional health risks, including cardiovascular disease. Obese individuals have high serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), which has been shown to stimulate aldosterone production; however, the mechanisms underlying VLDL-induced aldosterone production are still unclear. Here we demonstrate in human adrenocortical carcinoma (HAC15) cells that submaximal concentrations of angiotensin II and VLDL stimulate aldosterone production in an additive fashion, suggesting the possibility of common mechanisms of action. We show using inhibitors that VLDL-induced aldosterone production is mediated by the PLC/IP3/PKC signaling pathway. Our results suggest that PKC is upstream of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation previously observed with VLDL. An understanding of the mechanisms mediating VLDL-induced aldosterone production may provide insights into therapies to treat obesity-associated hypertension. PMID:27222295

  15. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008449 A cross-sectional survey of occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected patients. MA Jianxin(马建新), et al.Dept Infect Dis, Shanghai Public Health Clin Center, Shanghai 201508. Chin J Intern Med 2008;47(7):574-577. Objective To assess the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HIV-infected patients.

  16. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008079 Relationship of HBV genotype and bcp and pc mutations with HBV DNA rebound after lamivudine therapy. SU Minghua(苏明华), et al. Dept Infect Dis Clin Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Nanning 530027. World Chin J Digestol 2007;15(33):3507-3513. Objective To investigate the relationship of HBV gene mutations with HBV DNA rebound after lamivudine therapy. Methods Twenty-seven hepatitis B patients with HBV DNA rebound after

  17. Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in a Patient Affected by Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Poggi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The currently recommended treatment for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV is pegilated interferon α (IFN α plus ribavirin. Despite the numerous benefits of this therapy, there is an increasing concern regarding his tolerance. Among the most common side effects, interferon may trigger the onset or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases. When chronic hepatitis C coexists with an autoimmune disorder, it is not clear whether using interferon is better than avoiding it. We evaluated the disease state of a 55-year old female affected by sistemic sclerosis (SSc, during and after therapy with IFNα pegilated plus ribavirin for chronic HCV infection. We were worried about the potential worsening of the autoimmune disease during the therapy, but we were confident that we would give our patient a short course of peginterferon and ribavirin. A mild, asymptomatic worsening of lung SSc was observed during IFN administration, without life threatening symptoms. After 24 months follow up we observed the maintenance of the virological response and a good control of the rheumatological disease. Thus, in liver disease at high risk of progression and concomitant SSc, the antiviral therapy with IFNα is a feasible approach.

  18. Marijuana Use in Hepatitis C Infection does not Affect Liver Biopsy Histology or Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marijuana smoking is prevalent among hepatitis C virus-infected patients. The literature assessing the influence of marijuana on liver disease progression and hepatitis C virus antiviral treatment outcomes is conflicting.

  19. How dietary arachidonic- and docosahexaenoic- acid rich oils differentially affect the murine hepatic transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Matthew A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Herein, we expand our previous work on the effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA on the murine hepatic transcriptome using novel statistical and bioinformatic approaches for evaluating microarray data. The analyses focuses on key differences in the transcriptomic response that will influence metabolism following consumption of FUNG (rich in 20:4n6, FISH (rich in 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3 and COMB, the combination of the two. Results Using a variance-stabilized F-statistic, 371 probe sets (out of 13 K probe sets in the Affymetrix Mu11K chip set were changed by dietary treatment (P Conclusion Distinct transcriptomic, signaling cascades, and predicted affects on murine liver metabolism have been elucidated for 20:4n6-rich dietary oils, 22:6n3-rich oils, and a surprisingly distinct set of genes were affected by the combination of the two. Our results emphasize that the balance of dietary n6 and n3 LC-PUFA provided for infants and in nutritional and neutraceutical applications could have profoundly different affects on metabolism and cell signaling, beyond that previously recognized.

  20. The Binding Ability Analysis of the Normal VLDL Receptor and Its Mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Shen; FENG Ning; LIU Zhiguo; ZHOU Hua; DENG Yaozu; FENG Zongchen

    2001-01-01

    The ligand-binding domain of VLDL receptor contains eight imperfectly similar repeats.To discuss the contribution of each repeat to ligand binding, the RT-PCR technique was used to clone the VLDLR-cDNA from the heart muscle of Chinese people. Two recombinants were further constructed, which contained the full-length cDNA of VLDLR and the mutant lacking repeats 1-5.CHO cell line was transfected with two recombinants. The expression of VLDLR gene could be detected by RT-PCR from the CHO cells transfected with pCD-VR. The results of binding experiments showed that the ability of the CHO cells transfected with the full-length cDNA of VLDL-R binding DiI-labeled β-VLDL was higher than that of the CHO cells transfected with the mutant. Our findings indicated that human VLDL-R gene could be expressed effectively on CHO cells, and the receptor was almost inactivated when repeats1-5 were deleted.

  1. Cancer history and other personal factors affect quality of life in patients with hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Charlene

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC have been found to have reduced quality of life, little is known about how other characteristics affect their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of other characteristics, including history of cancer, on quality of life in patients with CHC. Methods One hundred forty patients from clinics at three hospitals in New York City completed a detailed epidemiologic interview about demographic and lifestyle characteristics and the SF-36 measuring health-related quality of life. We compared results from our patients to normative data using t-tests of differences between means. We used multivariate analyses to determine other personal and health-related factors associated with quality of life outcomes. Results Compared to normative data, these patients had reduced quality of life, particularly on physical functioning. The summary Physical Component Score (PCS was 45.4 ± 10.6 and the Mental Component Score (MCS was 48.2 ± 11.1, vs norms of 50 ± 10.0; p-values were Conclusion Several health and lifestyle factors independently influence quality of life in CHC patients. Different factors are important for men and women.

  2. Post-heparin LPL activity measurement using VLDL as a substrate: a new robust method for routine assessment of plasma triglyceride lipolysis defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Di Filippo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Determination of lipoprotein lipase (LPL activity is important for hyperchylomicronemia diagnosis, but remains both unreliable and cumbersome with current methods. Consequently by using human VLDL as substrate we developed a new LPL assay which does not require sonication, radioactive or fluorescent particles. METHODS: Post-heparin plasma was added to the VLDL substrate prepared by ultracentrifugation of heat inactivated normolipidemic human serums, diluted in buffer, pH 8.15. Following incubation at 37°c, the NEFA (non esterified fatty acids produced were assayed hourly for 4 hours. LPL activity was expressed as µmol/l/min after subtraction of hepatic lipase (HL activity, obtained following LPL inhibition with NaCl 1.5 mmol/l. Molecular analysis of LPL, GPIHBP1, APOA5, APOC2, APOE genes was available for 62 patients. RESULTS: Our method was reproducible (coefficient of variation (CV: intra-assay 5.6%, inter-assay 7.1%, and tightly correlated with the conventional radiolabelled triolein emulsion method (n = 26, r = 0.88. Normal values were established at 34.8 ± 12.8 µmol/l/min (mean ± SD from 20 control subjects. LPL activities obtained from 71 patients with documented history of major hypertriglyceridemia showed a trimodal distribution. Among the 11 patients with a very low LPL activity (10 µmol/l/min. CONCLUSION: This new reproducible method is a valuable tool for routine diagnosis and reliably identifies LPL activity defects.

  3. Risk factors affecting the mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus: a meta analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-hua; SHAO Zhong-jun; WANG Zong-ren; Ma Jing; LONG Yin; YAO Ju-feng

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To search for risk factors that affect mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus(HBV). Methods:To obtain studies eligible for meta-analysis, China biological medicine discs and MEDLINE citations were surveyed. Mother HBV DNA or HBeAg positivity,neonate HBeAg positivity,mode of delivery, threatened abortion and threatened premature abor were processed with meta analysis.Criteria for selection of published studies for meta analysis were based on principle by Abdolmaleky HM[1].Odds ratio (OR) was calculated and summarized by fixed effect model or random-effects model using RevMan software. The heterogeneity of the group of Ors was assessed using an x2 test. The significance of he pooled OR was determined by the u-test. The strength of association was assessed using the OR.An OR>1. 0 indicated a positive association between the risk factor and neonate HBV infection. Results:After meta analysis of factors concerned, a significant association was found between the positivity of HBeAg in mother and neonate, of HBV DNA in other peripheral serum, and HBV mother-to-infant transmission, with a pooled OR equal to 19.43 (95% CI=8.77-43.06), 36.5 (95% CI=19.85-67.11),and 36.5 (95 % CI= 19.85-67.11) respectively. Mode of delivery, threatened abortion and threatened premature labor proved not to be of risk factors on the mother-to-infant transmission of HBV. Conclusion:Mother HBV DNA or HBeAg positivity and neonate HBeAg positivity were proved to be of risk factors affecting the transmission of HBV from mother to fetal.

  4. Overproduction of a kinetic subclass of VLDL-apoB, and direct catabolism of VLDL-apoB in human endogenous hypertriglyceridemia: an analytical model solution of tracer data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, R.P.; Allen, R.C.; Schade, D.S.

    1983-10-01

    To investigate the participation of the major apoprotein involved in triglyceride transport in the pathogenesis of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia, five kinetic studies of apoprotein B were conducted in volunteer normolipidemic subjects and six studies in four patients with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia. The transport of apoprotein B within four kinetic subclasses of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) was studied by injection of (/sup 75/Se)selenomethionine. A 24-fold increase in the entry of newly synthesized apoprotein B at the initial kinetic subclass of the four-compartment VLDL delipidation sequence characterized the hypertriglyceridemic studies relative to normal subjects. Moreover, approximately 75 mg/kg per day of VLDL-B turnover reflected direct catabolism independent of conversion to IDL and/or to LDL, in contrast to the 8 mg/kg per day observed in controls. IDL-B was derived from VLDL-B in both normal and hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and was responsible for greater than 70% of all LDL-B synthesis. LDL-B pool size and turnover were indistinguishable in hypertriglyceridemic subjects from that observed in normal subjects. These studies suggest that two kinetic phenomena may characterize the pathophysiology of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia: a) over-production of apoB within a kinetic subclass of VLDL and b) preferential catabolism of hypertriglyceridemic VLDL without prior conversion to IDL/LDL.

  5. Premarital screening programmes for haemoglobinopathies, HIV and hepatitis viruses: review and factors affecting their success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, Fahad M; O'Brien, Sarah J

    2009-01-01

    This literature review is a comprehensive summary of premarital (prenuptial) screening programmes for the most prevalent hereditary haemoglobinopathies, namely thalassaemia and sickle cell disease, and the important infections HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and hepatitis viruses B and C (HBV and HCV). It describes the background to premarital screening programmes and their value in countries where these diseases are endemic. The use of premarital screening worldwide is critically evaluated, including recent experiences in Saudi Arabia, followed by discussion of the outcomes of such programmes. Despite its many benefits, premarital testing is not acceptable in some communities for various legal and religious reasons, and other educational and cultural factors may prevent some married couples following the advice given by counsellors. The success of these programmes therefore depends on adequate religious support, government policy, education and counselling. In contrast to premarital screening for haemoglobinopathies, premarital screening for HIV and the hepatitis viruses is still highly controversial, both in terms of ethics and cost-effectiveness. In wealthy countries, premarital hepatitis and HIV testing could become mandatory if at-risk, high-prevalence populations are clearly identified and all ethical issues are adequately addressed. PMID:19349527

  6. Effects of insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation on hepatic mRNA expression levels of apoB, MTP and L-FABP in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, Nobito; Kato, Masaki; TANAKA, MASATAKE; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Takao, Shinichiro; KOHJIMA, MOTOYUKI; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Enjoji, Munechika; Nakamuta, Makoto; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, which is known to be associated with insulin resistance (IR). NAFLD occurs when the rate of hepatic fatty acid uptake from plasma and de novo fatty acid synthesis is greater than the rate of fatty acid oxidation and excretion as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). To estimate the effects of IR on hepatic lipid excretion, mRNA expression levels of genes involved in VLDL assembly were analyze...

  7. Right hepatic lobe donation adversely affects donor life insurability up to one year after donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissing, Matthew H; Hayashi, Paul H

    2005-07-01

    There are no data regarding hepatic lobe donation effects on donor life insurability. Two investigators called 10 agents of 10 different large life insurance companies. One investigator gave a fictitious profile: Caucasian man, 33 years old, nonsmoker, without medical problems (control profile [CP]). The other investigator used the same profile with a history of uncomplicated right lobe donation 12 months earlier (donor profile [DP]). Investigators asked for premium quotes on a $100,000 term life policy. No medical testing or record review was allowed. Investigators were blinded to the results of each other's calls. Agents were unaware of the study. We documented underwriting decisions, premiums quoted, stipulations, number of phone calls, and phone time. All 10 companies would pursue underwriting CP at their lowest, "preferred" rate. Five would do the same for DP. Two might underwrite DP at a more expensive "standard" rate, but a "preferred" rate would be less likely. One would underwrite DP at the "standard" rate; one would not underwrite DP. One agent did not return follow-up calls (DP insurability premiums were lower for CP vs. DP ($189/yr. vs. $202/yr., P = 0.56). Median number of phone calls required was 1 for CP and 3 for DP (P = 0.01). Mean telephone minutes were 4.2 for CP and 8.0 for DP (P = 0.004). In conclusion, right hepatic lobe donation decreases life insurability 1 year after uncomplicated donation. Donors can expect some increased difficulty obtaining life insurance, but they should find a company willing to pursue underwriting. The premium paid may be slightly higher.

  8. OCT1 mediates hepatic uptake of sumatriptan and loss-of-function OCT1 polymorphisms affect sumatriptan pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, J; Kuron, D; Faltraco, F; Knoch, T; Dos Santos Pereira, J N; Abu Abed, M; Prukop, T; Brockmöller, J; Tzvetkov, M V

    2016-06-01

    The low bioavailability of the anti-migraine drug sumatriptan is partially caused by first-pass hepatic metabolism. In this study, we analyzed the impact of the hepatic organic cation transporter OCT1 on sumatriptan cellular uptake, and of OCT1 polymorphisms on sumatriptan pharmacokinetics. OCT1 transported sumatriptan with high capacity and sumatriptan uptake into human hepatocytes was strongly inhibited by the OCT1 inhibitor MPP(+) . Sumatriptan uptake was not affected by the Met420del polymorphism, but was strongly reduced by Arg61Cys and Gly401Ser, and completely abolished by Gly465Arg and Cys88Arg. Plasma concentrations in humans with two deficient OCT1 alleles were 215% of those with fully active OCT1 (P = 0.0003). OCT1 also transported naratriptan, rizatriptan, and zolmitriptan, suggesting a possible impact of OCT1 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of other triptans as well. In conclusion, OCT1 is a high-capacity transporter of sumatriptan and polymorphisms causing OCT1 deficiency have similar effects on sumatriptan pharmacokinetics as those observed in subjects with liver impairment. PMID:26659468

  9. A RARE of hepatic Gck promoter interacts with RARα, HNF4α and COUP-TFII that affect retinoic acid- and insulin-induced Gck expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yang; Zhu, Bing; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Guoxun

    2014-09-01

    The expression of hepatic glucokinase gene (Gck) is regulated by hormonal and nutritional signals. How these signals integrate to regulate the hepatic Gck expression is unclear. We have shown that the hepatic Gck expression is affected by Vitamin A status and synergistically induced by insulin and retinoids in primary rat hepatocytes. We hypothesized that this is mediated by a retinoic acid responsive element (RARE) in the hepatic Gck promoter. Here, we identified the RARE in the hepatic Gck promoter using standard molecular biology techniques. The single nucleotide mutations affecting the promoter activation by retinoic acid (RA) were also determined for detail analysis of protein and DNA interactions. We have optimized experimental conditions for performing electrophoresis mobility shift assay and demonstrated the interactions of the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα), retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) in the rat nuclear extract with this RARE, suggesting their roles in the regulation of Gck expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that recombinant adenovirus-mediated overexpression of RARα, HNF4α and COUP-TFII, but not RXRα, significantly increased their occupancy in the hepatic Gck promoter in primary rat hepatocytes. Overexpression of RARα, HNF4α and COUP-TFII, but not RXRα, also affected the RA- and insulin-mediated Gck expression in primary rat hepatocytes. In summary, this hepatic Gck promoter RARE interacts with RARα, HNF4α and COUP-TFII to integrate Vitamin A and insulin signals. PMID:24973045

  10. A high protein diet during pregnancy affects hepatic gene expression of energy sensing pathways along ontogenesis in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    Full Text Available In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. The underlying programming of fetal development was shown to be associated with an increased risk of degenerative diseases in adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome. There are clues that diet-dependent modifications of the metabolism during fetal life can persist until adulthood. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptomes show short-term and long-term changes depending on the maternal diet. To this end pregnant German landrace gilts were fed either a high protein diet (HP, 30% CP or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP throughout pregnancy. Hepatic transcriptome profiles of the offspring were analyzed at prenatal (94 dpc and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dpn. Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, mRNA expression levels of genes related to energy metabolism, N-metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, lipid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and stress/immune response were affected either in a short-term or in a long-term manner. Gene expression profiles at fetal stage 94 dpc were almost unchanged between the diets. The gestational HP diet affected the hepatic expression profiles at prenatal and postnatal stages. The effects encompassed a modulation of the genome in terms of an altered responsiveness of energy and nutrient sensing pathways. Differential expression of genes related to energy production and nutrient utilization contribute to the maintenance of development and growth performance within physiological norms, however the modulation of these pathways may be accompanied by a predisposition for metabolic disturbances up to adult stages.

  11. Citrus Flavanones Affect Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation in Rats by Acting as Prooxidant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Polimeni Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus flavonoids have a wide range of biological activities and positive health effects on mammalian cells because of their antioxidant properties. However, they also act as prooxidants and thus may interfere with metabolic pathways. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of three citrus flavanones, hesperidin, hesperetin, and naringenin, on several parameters linked to fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria, peroxisomes, and perfused livers of rats. When exogenous octanoate was used as substrate, hesperetin and naringenin reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio and stimulated the citric acid cycle without significant changes on oxygen uptake or ketogenesis. When fatty acid oxidation from endogenous sources was evaluated, hesperetin and naringenin strongly reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio. They also inhibited both oxygen uptake and ketogenesis and stimulated the citric acid cycle. Hesperidin, on the other hand, had little to no effect on these parameters. These results confirm the hypothesis that citrus flavanones are able to induce a more oxidised state in liver cells, altering parameters related to hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The prooxidant effect is most likely a consequence of the ability of these substances to oxidise NADH upon production of phenoxyl radicals in the presence of peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide.

  12. Circulating Elastin Fragments Are Not Affected by Hepatic, Renal and Hemodynamic Changes, But Reflect Survival in Cirrhosis with TIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. J.; Lehmann, J; Leeming, D J;

    2015-01-01

    before TIPS with higher levels in the hepatic vein. Interestingly, the circulating ELM levels remained unchanged after TIPS. The circulating levels of ELM in portal and hepatic veins correlated with platelet counts and inversely with serum sodium. Hepatic venous levels of ELM were higher in CHILD C...... compared to CHILD A and B and were associated with the presence of ascites. Patients with high levels of ELM in the hepatic veins before TIPS showed poorer survival. In multivariate analysis ELM levels in the hepatic veins and MELD were independent predictors of mortality in these patients. CONCLUSION...

  13. Molecular Pathogenesis of Liver Steatosis Induced by Hepatitis C Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun; Cheng; Min; Li; Ping; Gao; Jin-ling; Dong; Qi; Wang

    2012-01-01

    Liver steatosis is a pathological hallmark in patients with chronic hepatitis C(CHC).Increased lipid uptake,decreased lipid secretion,increased lipid synthesis and decreased lipid degradation are all involved in pathogenesis of steatosis induced by hepatitic C virus(HCV) infection.Level of low density lipoprotein receptor(LDL-R) and activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor(PPAR) α is related to liver uptake of lipid from circulation,and affected by HCV.Secretion via microsomal triglyceride transfer protein(MTTP),and formation of very low density lipoprotein(VLDL) have been hampered by HCV infection.Up-regulation of lipid synthesis related genes,such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein(SREBP)-1,SREBP-2,SREBP-1c,fatty acid synthase(FASN),HMG CoA reductase(HMGCR),liver X receptor(LXR),acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1(ACC1),hepatic CB(1) receptors,retinoid X receptor(RXR) α,were the main stay of liver steatosis pathogenesis.Degradation of lipid in liver is decreased in patients with CHC.There is strong evidence that heterogeneity of HCV core genes of different genotypes affect their effects of liver steatosis induction.A mechanism in which steatosis is involved in HCV life cycle is emerging.

  14. Hydrophobicity of reactive site loop of SCCA1 affects its binding to hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Chen; Tong Cheng; Chen-Yu Xu; Ting Wu; Shan-Hai Ou; Tao Zhang; Jun Zhang; Ning-Shao Xia

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of SCCA2 and other SCCA1 molecules in the process of hepatitis B virus (HBV) binding to mammalian cells.METHODS: SCCA1 and SCCA2 were isolated from HepG2. Binding protein (BP) genes were obtained through PCR. Recombinant baculoviruses expressing SCCA1, SCCA2, BP, and different mutants were constructed and utilized to infect mammalian cells to investigate the binding ability of infected cells to HBV.RESULTS: A SCCA1 gene (A1) was isolated from HepG2, but it appeared to lack the binding ability of infected cells to HBV. Two mutants, A1-BP and BP-A1, were constructed by interchanging the carboxyl terminal of A1 and BP. Cells expressing A1-BP showed an increased virus bindingcapacity, but not BP-A1. Comparison of A1 sequence with the sequence of BP indicated the presence of only three amino acid changes in the carboxyl terminal, two of them were found in the reactive site loop (RSL) of SCCA1. Primary structure assay revealed that the hydrophobicity of BP and AJ515706 in this domain was strong, but A1 was relatively weak. Changing the aa349 of A1 from low hydrophobic glutamic acid to high hydrophobic valine enhanced HBV binding. In contrast, HBV binding was reduced by changing the aa349 of BP from valine to glutamic acid. CONCLUSION: The reslts suggest that the hydrophobicity of RSL of SCCA1 may play an important role in HBV binding to cells.

  15. Cellular DNA repair cofactors affecting hepatitis B virus infection and replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhao; Ning-Bo Hou; Ting Song; Xiang He; Zi-Rui Zheng; Qing-Jun Ma; Li Li; Yan-Hong Zhang; Hui Zhong

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether hepatitis B virus (HBV)infection activates DNA damage response and DNA repair cofactors inhibit HBV infection and replication.METHODS: Human hepatocyte cell line HL7702 was studied. Immunoblotting was performed to test the expression of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-Rad3-related protein (ATR), p21 and the level of phosphorylation of Chk1, p53, H2AX, ATM in HBV-infected or non-infected-cells. Special short RNAi oligos was transfected to induce transient ATR knockdown in HL7702. ATR-ATM chemical inhibitors caffeine (CF) and theophylline (TP), or Chk1 inhibitor 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN01) was studied to determine whether they suppress cellular DNA damage response and MG132 inhibits proteasome.RESULTS: The ATR checkpoint pathway, responding to single-strand breaks in DNA, was activated in response to HBV infection. ATR knockdown cells decreased the HBV DNA yields, implying that HBV infection and replication could activate and exploit the activated DNA damage response. CF/TP or UCN01 reduced the HBV DNA yield by 70% and 80%, respectively. HBV abrogated the ATR-dependent DNA damage signaling pathway by degrading p21, and introduction of the p21 protein before HBV infection reduced the HBV DNA yield. Consistent with this result, p21 accumulation after MG132 treatment also sharply decreased the HBV DNA yield.CONCLUSION: HBV infection can be treated with therapeutic approaches targeting host cell proteins by inhibiting a cellular gene required for HBV replication or by restoring a response abrogated by HBV, thus providing a potential approach to the prevention and treatrnent of HBV infection.

  16. Lipoprotein Lipase S447X variant associated with VLDL, LDL and HDL diameter clustering in the MetS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Hemant K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous analysis clustered 1,238 individuals from the general population Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs Network (GOLDN study by the size of their fasting very low-density, low-density and high-density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, HDL using latent class analysis. From two of the eight identified groups (N = 251, ~75% of individuals met Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Both showed small LDL diameter (mean = 19.9 nm; however, group 1 (N = 200 had medium VLDL diameter (mean = 53.1 nm while group 2 had very large VLDL diameter (mean = 65.74 nm. Group 2 additionally showed significantly more insulin resistance (IR, and accompanying higher waist circumference and fasting glucose and triglycerides (all P LPL gene variants: D9N (rs1801177 and S447X (rs328. Findings Mixed linear models that controlled for age, sex, center of data collection, and family pedigree revealed no differences between the two groups for the D9N polymorphism (P = .36. However, group 2 contained significantly more carriers (25% of the 447X variant than group 1 (14%; P = .04. Conclusions This was the first study this kind to show an association between LPL and large VLDL particle size within the MetS, a pattern associated with higher IR. Future work should extend this to larger samples to confirm these findings, and examine the long term outcomes of those with this lipoprotein diameter pattern.

  17. Increased VLDL in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased LDL results from increased synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain-van der Velden, M; Kaysen, GA; Barrett, HA; Stellaard, F; Gadellaa, MM; Voorbij, HA; Reijngoud, DJ; Rabelink, TJ

    1998-01-01

    Increased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased low density lipoprotein (LDL) results from increased synthesis. Hyperlipidemias a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome that has been associated with increased risk for ischemic heart dis

  18. Fine-mapping and genetic analysis of the loci affecting hepatic iron overload in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guo

    Full Text Available The liver, as the major organ for iron storage and production of hepcidin, plays pivotal roles in maintaining mammalian iron homeostasis. A previous study showed that Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs on chromosome 7 (Chr7 and 16 (Chr16 may control hepatic non-heme iron overload in an F2 intercross derived from C57BL/6J (B6 and SWR/J (SWR mice. In this study, we aimed to validate the existence of these loci and identify the genes responsible for the phenotypic variations by generating congenic mice carrying SWR chromosome segments expanding these QTLs (D7Mit68-D7Mit71 and D16Mit125-D16Mit185, respectively. We excluded involvement of Chr7 based on the lack of iron accumulation in congenic mice. In contrast, liver iron accumulation was observed in Chr16 congenic mice. Through use of a series of subcongenic murine lines the interval on Chr16 was further fine-mapped to a 0.8 Mb segment spanning 11 genes. We found that the mRNA expression pattern in the liver remained unchanged for all 11 genes tested. Most importantly, we detected 4 missense mutations in 3 candidate genes including Sidt1 (P172R, Spice1(R708S, Boc (Q1051R and Boc (S450-insertion in B6 allele in the liver of SWR homozygous congenic mice. To further delineate potential modifier gene(s, we reconstituted seven candidate genes, Sidt1, Boc, Zdhhc23, Gramd1c, Atp6v1a, Naa50 and Gtpbp8, in mouse liver through hydrodynamic transfection. However, we were unable to detect significant changes in liver iron levels upon reconstitution of these candidate genes. Taken together, our work provides strong genetic evidence of the existence of iron modifiers on Chr16. Moreover, we were able to delineate the phenotypically responsible region to a 0.8 Mb region containing 11 coding genes, 3 of which harbor missense mutations, using a series of congenic mice.

  19. Xenobiotic-contaminated diets affect hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications for liver steatosis in Sparus aurata juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradonna, F; Nozzi, V; Santangeli, S; Traversi, I; Gallo, P; Fattore, E; Mita, D G; Mandich, A; Carnevali, O

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic effects induced by feed contaminated with a lower or a higher concentration of -nonylpnenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP) or bisphenol A (BPA), three environmental endocrine disruptors, were assessed in juvenile sea bream liver. Histological analysis demonstrated that all these three xenobiotics induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. These findings prompted analysis of the expression of the major molecules involved in lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (which is encoded by ppars), fatty acid synthase (encoded by fas), lipoprotein lipase (encoded by lpl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by hsl). The enzymes encoded by ppars and fas are in fact responsible for lipid accumulation, whereas lpl- and hsl- encoded proteins play a pivotal role in fat mobilization. The three xenobiotics modulated ppar mRNA expression: pparα mRNA expression was induced by the higher dose of each contaminant; pparβ mRNA expression was upregulated by the lower doses and in BPA2 fish ppary mRNA overexpression was induced by all pollutants. These data agreed with the lipid accumulation profiles documented by histology. Fas mRNA levels were modulated by the two NP doses and the higher BPA concentration. Lpl mRNA was significantly upregulated in all experimental groups except for BPA1 fish while hsl mRNA was significantly downregulated in all groups except for t-OP2 and BPA1 fish. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, the primary stress biomarker, were correlated with the levels of pepck mRNA level. This gene encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is one of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Pepck mRNA was significantly overexpressed in fish exposed to NP2 and both t-OP doses. Finally, the genes encoding cyclooxygenase 2 (cox2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5 lox), the products of which are involved in the inflammatory response, transcriptions were significantly upregulated in NP and BPA fish, whereas they were unchanged in t

  20. Intermittent hypoxia and isoniazid plus rifampicin affect hepatic ultrastructure in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Run-hua; ZENG Yi-ming; CHEN Xiao-yang

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic intermittent hypoxia is the most important pathophysiologic feature of sleep apnea syndrome.The present study aimed to determine whether chronic intermittent hypoxia,which is associated with sleep apnea syndrome,can cause or increase damage to liver cell ultrastructure induced by isoniazid and rifampicin in mice.Methods Based on a 2x2 full factorial design consisting of two factors of chronic intermittent hypoxia and isoniazid plus rifampicin,32 male C57B6J mice were randomized into the control group,the chronic intermittent hypoxia group,the isoniazid plus rifampicin group,and the chronic intermittent hypoxia + isoniazid plus rifampicin group.Twelve weeks after treatment,we examined the ultrastructure of liver cells and quantitatively analyzed mitochondrial morphology in C57B6J mice.Results Chronic intermittent hypoxia did not significantly affect the ultrastructure of liver cells.The main effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia did not lead to an increase of mean profile area or mean perimeter of mitochondria,and a decrease of numerical density on area of mitochondria (all P >0.05).Isoniazid plus rifampicin significantly affected liver cell ultrastructure.The main effect of isoniazid plus rifampicin resulted in an increase of mean profile area and mean perimeter of mitochondria,and a decrease of numerical density on area of mitochondria (all P <0.05).Moreover,there was a positive interaction among the chronic intermittent hypoxia and the isoniazid plus rifampicin groups for mean profile area,mean perimeter,and numerical density on area of mitochondria (all P<0.05).Conclusion Chronic intermittent hypoxia and isoniazid plus rifampicin treatment lead to synergistic liver cell ultrastructural injury.

  1. Imaging of hepatic low density lipoprotein receptors by radionuclide scintiscanning in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettinger, M; Corbett, J R; Schneider, W J; Willerson, J T; Brown, M S; Goldstein, J L

    1984-12-01

    The low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mediates the cellular uptake of plasma lipoproteins that are derived from very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Most of the functional LDL receptors in the body are located in the liver. Here, we describe a radionuclide scintiscanning technique that permits the measurement of LDL receptors in the livers of intact rabbits. 123I-labeled VLDL were administered intravenously, and scintigraphic images of the liver and heart were obtained at intervals thereafter. In seven normal rabbits, radioactivity in the liver increased progressively between 1 and 20 min after injection, while radioactivity in the heart (reflecting that in plasma) decreased concomitantly. In Watanabe-heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, which lack LDL receptors on a genetic basis, there was little uptake of 123I-labeled VLDL into the liver and little decrease in cardiac radioactivity during this interval. These findings demonstrate that the LDL receptor is necessary for the hepatic uptake of VLDL-derived lipoproteins in the rabbit. Two conditions that diminish hepatic LDL receptor activity, cholesterol-feeding and prolonged fasting, also reduced the uptake of 123I-labeled VLDL in the liver as measured by scintiscanning. The data suggest that radionuclide scintiscanning can be used as a noninvasive method to quantify the number of LDL receptors expressed in the liver in vivo. PMID:6594702

  2. Intracerebroventricular neuropeptide Y infusion precludes inhibition of glucose and VLDL production by insulin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A.M. van den; Voshol, P.J.; Karnekamp, B.N.; Buijs, R.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Pijl, H.

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for inhibition of endogenous glucose production. The downstream mechanisms that are responsible for the effects of hypothalamic insulin receptor activation on hepatic fuel flux remain to be determined. To establish whether

  3. Factors affecting the accuracy of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP in assessing hepatic steatosis in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Sik Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP can measure hepatic steatosis. However, factors affecting its accuracy have not been described yet. This study investigated predictors of discordance between liver biopsy (LB and CAP. METHODS: A total of 161 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease who underwent LB and CAP were enrolled prospectively. Histological steatosis was graded as S0 (66% of hepatocytes. Cutoff CAP values were calculated from our cohort (250, 301, and 325 dB/m for ≥ S1, ≥ S2, and S3. Discordance was defined as a discrepancy of at least two steatosis stages between LB and CAP. RESULTS: The median age (102 males and 59 females was 49 years. Repartition of histological steatosis was as follows; S0 26.1% (n = 42, S1 49.7% (n = 80, S2 20.5% (n = 33, and S3 3.7% (n = 6. In multivariate linear regression analysis, CAP value was independently associated with steatosis grade along with body mass index (BMI and interquartile range/median of CAP value (IQR/MCAP (all P<0.05. Discordance was identified in 13 (8.1% patients. In multivariate analysis, histological S3 (odd ratio [OR], 9.573; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.207-75.931; P = 0.033 and CAP value (OR, 1.020; 95% CI, 1.006-1.034; P = 0.006 were significantly associated with discordance, when adjusting for BMI, IQR/MCAP, and necroinflammation, reflected by histological activity or ALT level. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high grade steatosis or high CAP values have a higher risk of discordance between LB and CAP. Further studies are needed to improve the accuracy of CAP interpretation, especially in patients with higher CAP values.

  4. Restriction of dietary protein does not promote hepatic lipogenesis in lean or fatty pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Marta S; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Pinto, Rui M A; Prates, José A M

    2016-04-01

    The influence of genotype (lean v. fatty) and dietary protein level (normal v. reduced) on plasma metabolites, hepatic fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of lipid-sensitive factors is reported for the first time, using the pig as an experimental model. The experiment was conducted on forty entire male pigs (twenty lean pigs of Large White×Landrace×Pietrain cross-breed and twenty fatty pigs of Alentejana purebreed) from 60 to 93 kg of live weight. Each pig genotype was divided into two subgroups, which were fed the following diets: a normal protein diet (NPD) equilibrated for lysine (17·5 % crude protein and 0·7 % lysine) and a reduced protein diet (RPD) not equilibrated for lysine (13·1 % crude protein and 0·4 % lysine). The majority of plasma metabolites were affected by genotype, with lean pigs having higher contents of lipids, whereas fatty pigs presented higher insulin, leptin and urea levels. RPD increased plasma TAG, free fatty acids and VLDL-cholesterol compared with NPD. Hepatic total lipids were higher in fatty pigs than in the lean genotype. RPD affected hepatic fatty acid composition but had a slight influence on gene expression levels in the liver. Sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1 was down-regulated by RPD, and fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were affected by the interaction between genotype and diet. In pigs fed RPD, FADS1 was up-regulated in the lean genotype, whereas FABP4 increased in the fatty genotype. Although there is a genotype-specific effect of dietary protein restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism, lipogenesis is not promoted in the liver of lean or fatty pigs. PMID:26927728

  5. Hepatic Metabolic, Inflammatory, and Stress-Related Gene Expression in Growing Mice Consuming a Low Dose of Trans-10, cis-12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (trans-10, cis-12-CLA fed to obese and nonobese rodents reduces body fat but leads to greater liver mass due to steatosis. The molecular mechanisms accompanying such responses remain largely unknown. Our study investigated the effects of chronic low trans-10, cis-12-CLA supplementation on hepatic expression of 39 genes related to metabolism, inflammation, and stress in growing mice. Feeding a diet supplemented with 0.3% trans-10, cis-12-CLA (wt/wt basis for 6 weeks increased liver mass and concentration of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs in liver, while adipose tissue mass decreased markedly. These changes were accompanied by greater expression of genes involved in LCFA uptake (Cd36, lipogenesis, and triacylglycerol synthesis (Acaca, Gpam, Scd, Pck1, Plin2. Expression of these genes was in line with upregulation of the lipogenic transcription factor Srebf1. Unlike previous studies where higher >0.50% of the diet doses of trans-10, cis-12-CLA were fed, we found greater expression of genes associated with VLDL assembly/secretion (Mttp, Cideb, ketogenesis (Hmgcs2, Bdh1, and LCFA oxidation (Acox1, Pdk4 in response to trans-10, cis-12-CLA. Dietary CLA, however, did not affect inflammation- and stress-related genes. Results suggested that a chronic low dose of dietary CLA increases liver mass and lipid accumulation due to activation of lipogenesis and insufficient induction of LCFA oxidation and VLDL assembly/secretion.

  6. Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, H; Grala, T M; Vailati Riboni, M; Cardoso, F C; Verkerk, G; McGowan, J; Macdonald, K; Webster, J; Schutz, K; Meier, S; Matthews, L; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2015-02-01

    Calving body condition score (BCS) is an important determinant of early-lactation dry matter intake, milk yield, and disease incidence. The current study investigated the metabolic and molecular changes induced by the change in BCS. A group of cows of mixed age and breed were managed from the second half of the previous lactation to achieve mean group BCS (10-point scale) that were high (HBCS, 5.5; n=20), medium (MBCS, 4.5; n=18), or low (LBCS, 3.5; n=19). Blood was sampled at wk -4, -3, -2, 1, 3, 5, and 6 relative to parturition to measure biomarkers of energy balance, inflammation, and liver function. Liver was biopsied on wk 1, 3, and 5 relative to parturition, and 10 cows per BCS group were used for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR. Cows in HBCS and MBCS produced more milk and had greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate postpartum than LBCS. Peak concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate and greater hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations were recorded in HBCS at wk 3. Consistent with blood biomarkers, HBCS and MBCS had greater expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (CPT1A, ACOX1), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), and hepatokines (FGF21, ANGPTL4), whereas HBCS had the lowest expression of APOB (lipoprotein transport). Greater expression during early lactation of BBOX1 in MBCS and LBCS suggested greater de novo carnitine synthesis. The greater BCS was associated with lower expression of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling axis genes (GHR1A, IGF1, and IGFALS) and greater expression of gluconeogenic genes. These likely contributed to the higher milk production and greater gluconeogenesis. Despite greater serum haptoglobin around calving, cows in HBCS and MBCS had greater blood albumin. Cows in MBCS, however, had a higher albumin:globulin ratio, probably indicating a less pronounced inflammatory status and better liver function. The marked decrease in expression of NFKB1

  7. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  8. Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Chylomicron and VLDL Synthesis and Secretion in Caco-2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Wang; Qiaowei Lin; Peipei Zheng; Lulu Li; Zhengxi Bao; Feiruo Huang

    2014-01-01

    The present research was undertaken to determine the effects of EPA (20 : 5 n-3) and DHA (22 : 6 n-3) on chylomicron and VLDL synthesis and secretion by Caco-2 cells. Cells were incubated for 12 to 36 h with 400  μ M OA, EPA, and DHA; then 36 h was chosen for further study because EPA and DHA decreased de novo triglycerides synthesis in a longer incubation compared with OA  (P 0.05). Compare...

  9. Characteristics of treatment naive chronic hepatitis B in Bangladesh: Younger populations are more affected; HBeAg-negatives are more advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Shahinul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Bangladesh is a densely populated country with intermediate endemicity for chronic hepatitis B (CHB. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical, virological and histological character of CHB patients and to examine the relationship between these indices. Materials and Methods: One thousand and twenty-two patients of CHB fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were (1 HBsAg positive for at least 6 months, (2 HBeAg-positive or negative and (3 hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA positive. Patients with detectable antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis Delta virus (HDV or hepatitis C virus (HCV, with previous antiviral treatment, overt cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, were excluded. Of these, 191 patients were randomly selected for liver biopsy and were evaluated for analysis. Results: In the 191 patients, male to female ratio was 4.6:1; age distribution was 26.5 ± 8.5 (mean ± standard deviation years. One hundred and seventy-eight (93.2% patients were under 40 years. Sixty-eight (35.6% patients were HBeAg-negative, had less DNA load, and were significantly older, more fibrotic and cirrhotic ( P < 0.001. Correlation was not found between DNA level and histological activity. Histological activity was not correlated with ALT level in HBeAg-positive patients ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: CHB affects the younger population in Bangladesh. HBeAg-positive CHB was associated with more fibrosis and cirrhosis. Serum HBV DNA levels do not correlate with the severity of histological lesions in all patients. Evaluation by liver biopsy remains gold standard for taking decision of treatment.

  10. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Lisa; Kant, Ravi; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Bothner, Brian; Zlotnick, Adam

    2015-11-20

    Hepatitis B virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty hepatitis B virus (HBV) T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage when compared with CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-electron microscopy studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at five-fold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at five-fold, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the hepatitis B virus lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle. PMID:26405031

  11. Dietary Available Phosphorus Affected Growth Performance, Body Composition, and Hepatic Antioxidant Property of Juvenile Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile yellow catfish to study the effects of dietary available phosphorus (P on growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property. Six pellet diets were formulated to contain graded available P levels at 0.33, 0.56, 0.81, 1.15, 1.31, and 1.57% of dry matter, respectively. Triplicate tanks with each tank containing 60 juveniles (3.09 ± 0.03 g were fed one of the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate, feeding rate, and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher at 0.81% dietary available P. Efficiency of P utilization distinctly decreased with increasing P level. Body lipid content significantly decreased while body ash and feces P content significantly increased with increasing P level. Quadratic regression analysis indicated that vertebrae P content was maximized at 1.21% dietary available P. Fish fed 1.57% dietary available P had highest activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase and malonaldehyde content. In conclusion, decreasing dietary available P increased P utilization efficiency and body lipid content while decreased vertebrae P content. Juvenile yellow catfish were subjected to oxidative damage under the condition of high dietary P content (1.57%, and the damage could not be eradicated by their own antioxidant defense system.

  12. Expression of the very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r), an apolipoprotein-E receptor, in the central nervous system and in Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, R.H.; Chung, Haeyong; Rebeck, G.W.; Hyman, B.T. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r) is a cell-surface molecule specialized for the internalization of multiple diverse ligands, including apolipoprotein E (apoE)-containing lipoprotein particles, via clathrin-coated pits. Its structure is similar to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-r), although the two have substantially different systemic distributions and regulatory pathways. The present work examines the distribution of VLDL-r in the central nervous system (CNS) and in relation to senile plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD). VLDL-r is present on resting and activated microglia, particularly those associated with senile plaques (SPs). VLDL-r immunoreactivity is also found in cortical neurons. Two exons of VLDL-r mRNA are differentially spliced in the mature receptor mRNA. One set of splice forms gives rise to receptors containing (or lacking) an extracellular O-linked glycosylation domain near the transmembrane portion of the molecule. The other set of splice forms appears to be brain-specific, and is responsible for the presence or absence of one of the cysteine-rich repeat regions in the binding region of the molecule. Ratios of the receptor variants generated from these splice forms do not differ substantially across different cortical areas or in AD. We hypothesize that VLDL-r might contribute to metabolism of apoE and apoE/A{beta} complexes in the brain. Further characterization of apoE receptors in Alzheimer brain may help lay the groundwork for understanding the role of apoE in the CNS and in the pathophysiology of AD. 43 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Analysis of affecting factors of non(low)-response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults%成人接种乙肝疫苗无/弱免疫应答的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静茹; 张荣贞; 曹志然

    2013-01-01

    The immunization of hepatitis B vaccine is the most effective measure to prevent hepatitis B infection, but some adults have no response to the hepatitis B vaccine. This article analyses the affective aspects of non(low)-response after the adult human body vaccination of hepatitis B vaccine, which reviews the human body factors, the vaccine factors and the vaccination factors.%接种乙肝疫苗是预防乙型肝炎病毒感染的有效措施,但有部分成年人接种乙型肝炎疫苗后往往不产生有效的保护性免疫应答。现从机体因素、疫苗因素、接种因素三个方面综述分析了成人接种乙肝疫苗后无/弱免疫应答的影响因素。

  14. Osthole prevents anti-Fas antibody-induced hepatitis in mice by affecting the caspase-3-mediated apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Toshihiro; Kawasaki, Toru; Hino, Okio

    2003-02-15

    Fas (Apo-1/CD95) ligand, which is a type II membrane protein, is a major inducer of apoptosis. Osthole is a coumarin derivative present in medicinal plants. The effect of osthole on hepatitis induced by anti-Fas antibody in mice was studied. Pretreatment of mice with osthole (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) caused by anti-Fas antibody (175 microg/kg, i.v.). Administration of osthole to mice even at a dose of 10 mg/kg significantly inhibited of anti-Fas antibody-induced elevation of plasma ALT. Capase-3 is a cysteine protease, and treatment of mice with anti-Fas antibody caused an elevation of caspase-3 activity at 3.5 and 6 hr. Pretreatment of mice with osthole (100 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the elevation of caspase-3 activity caused by anti-Fas antibody. However, the addition of osthole (up to 10(-4)M) to a liver cytosol fraction isolated from mice treated with anti-Fas antibody did not inhibit caspase-3 activity in vitro. Thus, treatment of mice with osthole inhibited caspase-3 activity by an effect upstream of caspase-3 activation. The livers of mice treated with anti-Fas antibody contained apoptotic and dead cells; osthole attenuated the development of this apoptosis and cell death. The present results show that osthole prevented anti-Fas antibody-induced hepatitis by inhibiting the Fas-mediated apoptotic pathway. PMID:12566097

  15. Ripened dairy products differentially affect hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue oxidative stress markers in obese and type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Lucie; Everard, Amandine; le Ruyet, Pascale; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D

    2012-02-29

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of dairy products may contribute to a reduced incidence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. The fatty acid composition in milk fat, the duration of ripening, and the complexity of the food matrices are important factors that may interfere with the physiological impact. In this study, we treated genetic obese and type 2 diabetic mice (db/db) for 4 weeks with different dairy (cheese-based) products, differing by the duration of ripening (0, 15, or 35 days). We found that 35 days ripened product significantly improved glucose tolerance, an effect associated with a decreased adipose tissue lipid peroxide markers (TBARS and NAPDH-oxidase mRNA expression), without affecting body weight, food intake, and fat mass. Both fermented matrices significantly decreased the hepatic lipid content, without modifying plasma triglycerides or plasma total cholesterol. These data suggest that dairy products issued from longer ripening positively impact glucose tolerance, hepatic steatosis, and adipose tissue oxidative stress. Further investigations are warranted to decipher the interactions between milk products fermentation, lipids, and host metabolism. PMID:22300436

  16. Impact of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Infection on Triglyceride Concentration in Serum Lipoprotein Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Nagano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol level is a characteristic feature of dyslipidemia in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. However, abnormality in serum triglyceride (TG has not been fully investigated. To clarify the impact of HCV genotype 1b (G1b infection and advanced fibrosis on serum TG profiles, TG concentrations in lipoprotein fractions were examined in fasting sera from 185 subjects with active or cleared HCV infection by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum lipoproteins were fractionated into four classes: chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Then, the significance of HCV G1b infection on TG levels in each lipoprotein fraction was determined using multiple regression models. We found that active HCV G1b infection was positively associated with high HDL-TG levels and low VLDL-TG levels, independent of other factors included in the regression model. In VLDL sub-fractions, active HCV infection was only found to be associated with low levels of large VLDL-TG. Similarly, advanced liver fibrosis in chronic HCV G1b infection was associated with high levels of LDL-TG, HDL-TG, and small VLDL-TG, independent of other clinical factors. These findings indicate that active HCV G1b infection and advanced fibrosis are closely associated with abnormal serum TG profiles.

  17. The coffee diterpene cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate of large VLDL apolipoprotein B in healthy normolipidemic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de B.; Caslake, M.J.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Bedford, D.; Demacker, P.N.; Katan, M.B.; Packard, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Cafestol is a diterpene in unfiltered coffee that raises plasma triacylglycerol in humans. Objective: We studied whether cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate or by decreasing the fractional catabolic rate of VLDL1 [Svedberg flotation unit (Sf) 60-40

  18. The juxtamembrane sequence of the Hepatitis C virus polymerase can affect RNA synthesis and inhibition by allosteric polymerase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y; Lin, X; Fan, B; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Kao, C C

    2015-08-01

    The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B), is anchored in the membrane through a C-terminal helix. A sequence of ca. 12 residues that connects the catalytically competent portion of the RdRp and the C-terminal helix, the juxtamembrane sequence (JMS), has a poorly defined role in RdRp function in a large part since it is translated from a cis-acting RNA element (CRE) that is essential for HCV replication. Using a HCV replicon that transposed a second copy of CRE to the 3' UTR of the HCV replicon, we demonstrate that amino acid substitutions in the JMS were detrimental for HCV replicon replication. Substitutions in the JMS also resulted in a defect in de novo-initiated RNAs synthesis in vitro and in a cell-based reporter assay. A nonnucleoside inhibitor of the NS5B that binds to the catalytic pocket was less potent in inhibiting NS5B in the presence of JMS mutations. The JMS mutants exhibit reduced stability in thermodenaturation assays, suggesting that the JMS helps confer a more stable conformation to NS5B that could impact RNA synthesis. PMID:25895103

  19. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; de Sain-van der Velden, MGM; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2003-01-01

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets

  20. A lipidomics study reveals hepatic lipid signatures associating with deficiency of the LDL receptor in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong Yu; Quan, Chao; Hu, Chunxiu; Xie, Bingxian; Du, Yinan; Chen, Liang; Yang, Wei; Yang, Liu; Chen, Qiaoli; Shen, Bin; Hu, Bian; Zheng, Zhihong; Zhu, Haibo; Huang, Xingxu; Xu, Guowang; Chen, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) plays a critical role in the liver for the clearance of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Its deficiency causes hypercholesterolemia in many models. To facilitate the usage of rats as animal models for the discovery of cholesterol-lowering drugs, we took a genetic approach to delete the LDLR in rats aiming to increase plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). An LDLR knockout rat was generated via zinc-finger nuclease technology, which harbors a 19-basepair deletion in the seventh exon of the ldlr gene. As expected, deletion of the LDLR elevated total cholesterol and total triglyceride in the plasma, and caused a tenfold increase of plasma LDL-C and a fourfold increase of plasma very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C). A lipidomics analysis revealed that deletion of the LDLR affected hepatic lipid metabolism, particularly lysophosphatidylcholines, free fatty acids and sphingolipids in the liver. Cholesterol ester (CE) 20:4 also displayed a significant increase in the LDLR knockout rats. Taken together, the LDLR knockout rat offers a new model of hypercholesterolemia, and the lipidomics analysis reveals hepatic lipid signatures associating with deficiency of the LDL receptor. PMID:27378433

  1. Differential channelling of liver lipids in relation to susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in the goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, D; Salichon, M R; Guy, G; Peresson, R

    1999-10-01

    In response to overfeeding for the production of "foie gras," the Poland goose differs from the Landes goose by a lesser susceptibility to hepatic steatosis, resulting in a lower accumulation of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG), together with a greater exportation of hepatic phospholipid (PL) in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) (Fournier et al., 1997). A study was designed 1) to compare the liver composition in overfed and nonoverfed geese of the two breeds of geese and 2) to determine whether the differential channelling of lipids in response to overfeeding is reflected in the PL and fatty acid profiles of the different hepatic lipids, whether stored or secreted. In nonoverfed geese, there were no breed-related differences in liver weight (approximately 90 to 100 g), hepatic lipid content (3 to 4%), and lipid and PL composition. However, plasma VLDL and HDL of the Landes breed contained a higher phosphatidylcholine (PC) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio than those of the Poland breed (20.7 and 33.8 vs 12.6 and 25.6 in VLDL and HDL, respectively). After 14 d of overfeeding, hepatic PL profiles were identical in the two breeds and similar to that in control livers; choline-containing PL accounted for 95% of total PL. In contrast, plasma HDL concentrations of the Landes geese were lower than those of the Poland geese (9.4 vs 12.9 g/L) and their PC:PE (13.6%) and PL-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content (25%) were decreased compared with the Poland geese (21.2 and 30%). It is likely that the higher susceptibility to fatty liver of the Landes breed involves a differential channelling of PL, resulting in a greater hepatic retention of PC and PUFA that are necessary for plasma membrane growth and cell hypertrophy.

  2. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  3. Synbiotic food consumption reduces levels of triacylglycerols and VLDL, but not cholesterol, LDL, or HDL in plasma from pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Teibeh; Shakeri, Hossein; Abedi, Fatemeh; Sabihi, Sima-Sadat; Alizadeh, Sabihe-Alsadat; Asemi, Zatolla

    2014-02-01

    To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of synbiotic food consumption on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress among pregnant women. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a synbiotic food on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was performed among 52 primigravida pregnant women, aged 18 to 35-year-old at their third trimester. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic (n = 26) or control food (n = 26) for 9 weeks. The synbiotic food consisted of a probiotic viable and heat-resistant Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10⁷ CFU) and 0.04 g inulin (HPX)/g as the prebiotic. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods two times a day. Biochemical measurements including blood lipid profiles, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total glutathione (GSH) were conducted before and after 9 weeks of intervention. Consumption of a synbiotic food for 9 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in serum TAG (P = 0.04), VLDL (P = 0.04) and a significant rise in plasma GSH levels (P = 0.004) compared to the control food. No significant effects of the synbiotic food consumption on serum TC, LDL, HDL and plasma TAC levels (P > 0.05) were observed. Trial registry code: http://www.irct.ir . IRCT201212105623N3. PMID:24271261

  4. Feeding the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(omega)nitroarginine elevates serum very low density lipoprotein and hepatic triglyceride synthesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, T; Ohnomi, S; Khedara, A; Kato, N; Ogawa, H; Yanagita, T

    1999-05-01

    This study was conducted to study the influence of dietary L-N(omega)nitroarginine (L-NNA), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, on serum lipids and lipoproteins and on the activities of enzymes related to lipid metabolism in rats. Feeding rats a diet containing 0.2 g/kg L-NNA for 5 weeks elevated serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, phospholipid, and free fatty acid and reduced serum nitrate (an oxidation product of NO). The elevation in serum triglyceride was mainly due to the elevation in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride. Contents of cholesterol and phospholipid in the VLDL fraction also were elevated by L-NNA. L-NNA treatment caused significantly higher activity of hepatic microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (the rate-limiting enzyme in triglyceride synthesis) and lower activity of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation). Activities of hepatic enzymes responsible for fatty acid synthesis such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and fatty acid synthase were unaffected by L-NNA. The activity of hepatic microsomal phosphocholine cytidyltransferase (the rate-limiting enzyme in phosphatidylcholine synthesis) was reduced significantly by L-NNA. Our results suggest that lower NO production caused the elevations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis by higher esterification of fatty acid and lower fatty acid oxidation, leading to an enrichment of VLDL triglyceride. PMID:15539300

  5. Maternal chocolate and sucrose soft drink intake induces hepatic steatosis in rat offspring associated with altered lipid gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Maj; Nilsson, C.; Rosendal, A.;

    2014-01-01

    to decrease. Litter size reduction in offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams further increased body weight and adiposity, and up-regulated genes involved in hepatic mitochondrial lipid oxidation and VLDL transport compared with all other groups. Litter size reduction did not have any impact on body...... until weaning, giving four dietary groups. Results: At postnatal day 1, offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams were heavier and had increased hepatic triglycerides (TG), hepatic glycogen, blood glucose and plasma insulin compared with offspring from chow-fed dams. Hepatic genes involved in lipid...... weight gain and adiposity in offspring born to chow-fed dams. Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation of chocolate and soft drink during gestation and lactation contributes to early onset of hepatic steatosis associated with changes in hepatic gene expression and lipid handling. © 2013...

  6. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter V; Larsen, Bodil K; Holm, Jørgen; Gómez-Requeni, Pedro; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2016-08-01

    Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works as a signalling factor in different metabolic pathways. The study investigated the effect of increasing dietary methionine intake on the intermediary metabolism in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout. For this purpose, five diets were formulated with increasing methionine levels from 0.60 to 1.29% dry matter. The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine concentrations. The transcript levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 a), gluconeogenesis (fructose-1,6-biphosphatase) and amino acid catabolism (alanine amino transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase) were significantly affected by the increase in dietary methionine. Changes in gene expression reflected to some extent the decrease in ammonia excretion (P=0.022) and in the hepatosomatic index (HSI; Ptrout responded in a dose-dependent manner to increasing levels of dietary methionine. PMID:27105833

  7. A Calcium-Deficient Diet in Rat Dams during Gestation and Nursing Affects Hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 Expression in the Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Junji; Yamanouchi, Sohsaku; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    Background Prenatal malnutrition can affect the phenotype of offspring by changing epigenetic regulation of specific genes. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that calcium (Ca) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome. We hypothesized that pregnant female rats fed a Ca-deficient diet would have offspring with altered hepatic glucocorticoid-related gene expression and that lactation would modify these alterations. Methodology We determined the effects of Ca deficiency during pregnancy and/or lactation on hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (Hsd11b1) expression in offspring. Female Wistar rats consumed either a Ca-deficient (D: 0.008% Ca) or control (C: 0.90% Ca) diet ad libitum from 3 weeks preconception to 21 days postparturition. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered to the same or opposite dams and divided into the following four groups: CC, DD, CD, and DC (first letter: original mother's diet; second letter: nursing mother's diet). All offspring were fed a control diet beginning at weaning (day 21) and were killed on day 200±7. Serum insulin and adipokines in offspring were measured using ELISA kits. Principal Findings In males, mean levels of insulin, glucose, and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were higher in the DD and DC groups than in the CC group. We found no difference in HOMA-IR between the CC and CD groups in either males or females. Expression of Hsd11b1 was lower in male DD rats than in CC rats. Hsd11b1 expression in male offspring nursed by cross-fostered dams was higher than that in those nursed by dams fed the same diet; CC vs. CD and DD vs. DC. In females, Hsd11b1 expression in DC rats was higher than that in CC rats. Conclusions These findings indicated that maternal Ca restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation alters postnatal growth, Hsd11b1 expression, and insulin resistance in a sex-specific manner. PMID:24427280

  8. Effects of insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation on hepatic mRNA expression levels of apoB, MTP and L-FABP in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Nobito; Kato, Masaki; Tanaka, Masatake; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Takao, Shinichiro; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Enjoji, Munechika; Nakamuta, Makoto; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2011-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, which is known to be associated with insulin resistance (IR). NAFLD occurs when the rate of hepatic fatty acid uptake from plasma and de novo fatty acid synthesis is greater than the rate of fatty acid oxidation and excretion as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). To estimate the effects of IR on hepatic lipid excretion, mRNA expression levels of genes involved in VLDL assembly were analyzed in NAFLD liver. Twenty-two histologically proven NAFLD patients and 10 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. mRNA was extracted from liver biopsy samples and real-time PCR was performed to quantify the expression levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and liver fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP). Hepatic expression levels of the genes were compared between NAFLD patients and control subjects. In NAFLD patients, we also examined correlations between expression levels of the genes and metabolic factors, including IR, and the extent of obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation. Hepatic expression levels of apoB, MTP and L-FABP were significantly up-regulated in NAFLD patients compared to control subjects. The expression levels of MTP were correlated with those of apoB, but not with those of L-FABP. In the NAFLD liver, the expression levels of MTP were significantly reduced in patients with HOMA-IR >2.5. In addition, a significant reduction in MTP expression was observed in livers with advanced steatosis. Enhanced expression of genes involved in VLDL assembly may be promoted to release excess lipid from NAFLD livers. However, the progression of IR and hepatic steatosis may attenuate this compensatory process.

  9. Korean pine nut oil replacement decreases intestinal lipid uptake while improves hepatic lipid metabolism in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuang; Park, Soyoung; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Sunhye

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Consumption of pine nut oil (PNO) was shown to reduce weight gain and attenuate hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of PNO on both intestinal and hepatic lipid metabolism in mice fed control or HFD. MATERIALS/METHODS Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed control diets containing 10% energy fat from either Soybean Oil (SBO) or PNO, or HFD containing 15% energy fat from lard and 30% energy fat from SBO or PNO for 12 weeks. Expression of genes related to intestinal fatty acid (FA) uptake and channeling (Cd36, Fatp4, Acsl5, Acbp), intestinal chylomicron synthesis (Mtp, ApoB48, ApoA4), hepatic lipid uptake and channeling (Lrp1, Fatp5, Acsl1, Acbp), hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) lipolysis and FA oxidation (Atgl, Cpt1a, Acadl, Ehhadh, Acaa1), as well as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly (ApoB100) were determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS In intestine, significantly lower Cd36 mRNA expression (P metabolism; mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and VLDL assembly. CONCLUSIONS PNO replacement in the diet might function in prevention of excessive lipid uptake by intestine and improve hepatic lipid metabolism in both control diet and HFD fed mice.

  10. Factors affecting the introduction of new vaccines to poor nations: a comparative study of the Haemophilus influenzae type B and hepatitis B vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharona Glatman-Freedman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A major effort to introduce new vaccines into poor nations of the world was initiated in recent years with the help of the GAVI alliance. The first vaccines introduced have been the Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib and the hepatitis B (Hep B vaccines. The introduction of these vaccines during the first phase of GAVI's operations demonstrated considerable variability. We set out to study the factors affecting the introduction of these vaccines. The African Region (AFRO, where new vaccines were introduced to a substantial number of countries during the first phase of GAVI's funding, was selected for this study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: GAVI-eligible AFRO countries with a population of 0.5 million or more were included in the study. Countries were analyzed and compared for new vaccine introduction, healthcare indicators, financial indicators related to healthcare and country-level Governance Indicators, using One Way ANOVA, correlation analysis and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA. Introduction of new vaccines into AFRO nations was associated primarily with high country-level Governance Indicator scores. The use of individual Governance Indicator scores, as well as a combined Governance Indicator score we developed, demonstrated similar results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study results indicate that good country-level governance is an imperative pre-requisite for the successful early introduction of new vaccines into poor African nations. Enhanced support measures may be required to effectively introduce new vaccines to countries with low governance scores. The combined governance score we developed may thus constitute a useful tool for helping philanthropic organizations make decisions regarding the type of support needed by different countries to achieve success.

  11. Vegetable oils affect the composition of lipoproteins in sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Maria José; Torstensen, Bente E; Robaina, Lidia; Montero, Daniel; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the dietary fatty acid profile on the lipoprotein composition in sea bream fed different vegetable oils. Six experimental diets were formulated combining fish oil with three vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed) in order to obtain 60-80 % (w/w) fish-oil replacement. VLDL, LDL and HDL in plasma samples were obtained by sequential centrifugal flotation. The lipid class, protein content and fatty acid composition of each lipoprotein fraction were analysed. HDL was the predominant lipoprotein in sea bream plasma containing the highest proportion of protein (34 %) and phosphatidylcholine. LDL presented a high content of cholesterol, whereas triacylglycerol comprised a larger proportion of VLDL. The lipid class of the lipoprotein fractions was affected by the dietary vegetable oils. Thus, a high dietary inclusion of soyabean and linseed oil (80 %) increased the cholesterol in HDL and LDL in comparison to fish oil. Similarly, the triacylglycerol concentration of VLDL was increased in fish fed 80 % soyabean and linseed oils owing to the low n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content of these diets. Lipoprotein fatty acid composition easily responded to dietary fatty acid composition. VLDL was the fraction more affected by dietary fatty acid, followed by LDL and HDL. The n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content increased in the order VLDL less than LDL and less than HDL, regardless of dietary vegetable oils.

  12. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Hepatitis B vaccine: Why get vaccinated?Hepatitis B vaccine can prevent hepatitis B, and the serious consequences of hepatitis ...

  13. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  14. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis viruses B and C can cause both acute and chronic infections. Chronic hepatitis B and C are serious health problems. They can lead to: Cirrhosis (suh-ROH-suhs) Liver failure Liver cancer Return to top How is viral ...

  15. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  16. The Herbal Compound “Diwu Yanggan” Modulates Liver Regeneration by Affecting the Hepatic Stem Cell Microenvironment in 2-Acetylaminofluorene/Partial Hepatectomy Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Bin Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological Relevance. “Diwu Yanggan” (DWYG has been reported to regulate liver regeneration, modulate the immune response, ameliorate liver injury, kill virus, ameliorate liver fibrosis, and suppress hepatic cancer. However, its mechanisms are still unknown. Objectives. To investigate the effects of DWYG on oval cell proliferation in 2-AAF/PH rats and determine its mechanism. Methods. Wistar rats were randomly distributed into normal group, sham group, vehicle group, and DWYG group. Hepatic pathological changes were examined by H&E staining. The oval cell markers CD34, AFP, CK-19 and hematopoietic cell markers CD45, Thy1.1, and hepatocyte marker ALB were examined with immunohistochemistry. The percentage of CD34/CD45 double-positive cells in bone marrow was detected by flow cytometry. Cytokine levels were measured with the Bio-plex suspension array system. Results. DWYG significantly increased the survival rates of 2-AAF/PH rats and promoted liver regeneration. Furthermore, DWYG increased the ratio of CD34/CD45 double-positive cells on days 10 and 14. In addition, DWYG gradually restored IL-1, GRO/KC, and VEGF levels to those of the normal group. Conclusions. DWYG increases 2-AAF/PH rat survival rates, suppresses hepatic precarcinoma changes, and restores hepatic tissue structure and function. DWYG may act by modulating the hepatic microenvironment to support liver regeneration.

  17. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  18. High-fat meal effect on LDL, HDL, and VLDL particle size and number in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering drugs and diet network (GOLDN: an interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straka Robert J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial lipemia (PPL is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease but these changes have not been well described and characterized in a large cohort. We assessed acute changes in the size and concentration of total and subclasses of LDL, HDL, and VLDL particles in response to a high-fat meal. Participants (n = 1048 from the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN Study who ingested a high-fat meal were included in this analysis. Lipids were measured at 0 hr (fasting, 3.5 hr, and 6 hr after a standardized fat meal. Particle size distributions were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analyses were stratified by baseline triglycerides (normal vs. elevated and gender. The effect of PPL on changes in lipoprotein subclasses was assessed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results Postprandially, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, and triglycerides increased regardless of baseline triglyceride status, with the largest increases in VLDL-C and TG; however, those with elevated triglycerides demonstrated larger magnitude of response. Total LDL particle number decreased over the 6-hour time interval, mostly from a decrease in the number of small LDL particles. Similarly, total VLDL particle number decreased due to reductions in medium and small VLDL particles. Large VLDL particles and chylomicrons demonstrated the largest increase in concentration. HDL particles demonstrated minimal overall changes in total particle number. Conclusions We have characterized the changes in LDL and VLDL particle number, and their subclass patterns following a high-fat meal.

  19. Compared with saturated fatty acids, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates increase atherosclerosis and VLDL cholesterol levels in LDL receptor-deficient, but not apolipoprotein E-deficient, mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, M; Velez-Carrasco, W; Hudgins, L C; Breslow, J L

    2001-11-01

    Heart-healthy dietary recommendations include decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, the relative benefit of replacing SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or carbohydrates (CARB) is still being debated. We have used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRKO) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoEKO) mice to measure the effects of four isocaloric diets enriched with either SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or CARB on atherosclerotic lesion area and lipoprotein levels. In LDLRKO mice, compared with the SFA diet, the MUFA and CARB diets significantly increased atherosclerosis in both sexes, but the PUFA diet had no effect. The MUFA and CARB diets also increased very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and VLDL-C levels in females. Analysis of data from LDLRKO mice on all diets showed that atherosclerotic lesion area correlated positively with VLDL-C levels (males: r = 0.47, P diet, the CARB diet significantly decreased VLDL-C in males and the MUFA, PUFA, and CARB diets decreased VLDL-C and the CARB diet decreased LDL-C in females. In summary, in LDLRKO mice the replacement of dietary SFA by either MUFA or CARB causes a proportionate increase in both atherosclerotic lesion area and VLDL-C. There were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerotic lesion area in apoEKO mice. These results are surprising and suggest that, depending on the underlying genotype, dietary MUFA and CARB can actually increase atherosclerosis susceptibility, probably by raising VLDL-C levels through a non-LDL receptor, apoE-dependent pathway. PMID:11606787

  20. Transcriptional modulation of hepatic lipoprotein assembly and secretion : coordinate regulation of the liver-fatty acid binding protein and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein genes

    OpenAIRE

    Spann, Nathanael J.

    2006-01-01

    Hepatic production of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins provides a means to transport essential lipids and fat-soluble nutrients to peripheral tissues for utilization and storage. Liver-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) bind fatty acids and glycerolipids, respectively and facilitate their transfer into the VLDL assembly and secretion pathway. Sequence analysis reveals that the proximal promoter regions of L-FABP and MTP contain...

  1. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  2. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  3. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Rajko

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an unresolving, hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of periportal hepatitis on histologic examination, tissue autoantibodies in serum, and hypergammaglobulinemia. By international consensus, the designation autoimmune hepatitis has replaced alternative terms for the condition. Three types of autoimmune hepatitis have been proposed based on immunoserologic findings. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) (or both) in serum. Seventy percent of patients with type 1 of autoimmune hepatitis are women. This type is the most common form and accounts for at least 80% of cases. Type 2 is characterized by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) in serum. Patients with this type of autoimmune hepatitis are predominantly children. Type 3 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) in serum. There are no individual features that are pathognomonic of autoimmune hepatitis, and its diagnosis requires the confident exclusion of other conditions. The large majority of patients show satisfactory response to corticosteroid (usually prednisone or prednisolone) therapy. For the past 30 years it has been customary to add azathioprine as a "steroid sparing" agent to allow lower doses of steroids to be used and remission, once achieved, can be sustained in many patients with azathioprine alone after steroid withdrawal. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis who have decompensated during or after corticosteroid therapy are candidates for liver transplantation.

  4. ABHD5/CGI-58, the Chanarin-Dorfman Syndrome Protein, Mobilises Lipid Stores for Hepatitis C Virus Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyres, Gabrielle; Welsch, Kathrin; Gerold, Gisa; Gentzsch, Juliane; Kahl, Sina; Vondran, Florian W. R.; Kaderali, Lars; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles closely mimic human very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) to evade humoral immunity and to facilitate cell entry. However, the principles that govern HCV association with VLDL components are poorly defined. Using an siRNA screen, we identified ABHD5 (α/β hydrolase domain containing protein 5, also known as CGI-58) as a new host factor promoting both virus assembly and release. ABHD5 associated with lipid droplets and triggered their hydrolysis. Importantly, ABHD5 Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome mutants responsible for a rare lipid storage disorder in humans were mislocalised, and unable to consume lipid droplets or support HCV production. Additional ABHD5 mutagenesis revealed a novel tribasic motif that does not influence subcellular localization but determines both ABHD5 lipolytic and proviral properties. These results indicate that HCV taps into the lipid droplet triglyceride reservoir usurping ABHD5 lipase cofactor function. They also suggest that the resulting lipid flux, normally devoted to VLDL synthesis, also participates in the assembly and release of the HCV lipo-viro-particle. Altogether, our study provides the first association between the Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome protein and an infectious disease and sheds light on the hepatic manifestations of this rare genetic disorder as well as on HCV morphogenesis. PMID:27124600

  5. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Hepatitis Print A A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Hepatitis About Hepatitis The word hepatitis simply means an inflammation of ...

  6. Organohalogens in A Whale-Blubber-Supplemented Diet Affects Hepatic Retinol and Renal Tocopherol Concentrations in Greenland Sled Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, M.; Sonne, C.; Jakobsen, Jette;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the plasma, liver, and kidney status of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (-tocopherol) in two groups of Greenland sled dogs (Canis familiaris), with a total number of 16 bitches and 8 pups. The dogs were fed either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata...... polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB]). Retinol was approximately 18% and -tocopherol 22% higher in the diet of the exposed dogs compared to controls. In adipose tissue, mean of sigma OHC was 92 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and 5005 ng/g lw for all control (n = 12) and exposed dogs (n = 10), respectively. Hepatic retinol...... observed between kidney retinol and sigma-chlordane-related compounds (sigma CHL) and dieldrin concentrations. Hepatic -tocopherol concentrations were significantly lower in exposed compared to controls, most likely due to a combination by OHC exposure and high dietary intake of unsaturated fatty acids...

  7. Cell-death-inducing DFFA-like Effector B Contributes to the Assembly of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Particles and Interacts with HCV NS5A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Yao, Wenxia; Li, Leike; Li, Xinlei; Hu, Longbo; Mai, Runming; Peng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) uses components of the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) pathway for assembly/release. We previously reported that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) participates in HCV assembly/release through downstream factors those participate in VLDL assembly/secretion. Cell-death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB) is an important regulator of the VLDL pathway. CIDEB is required for entry of HCV particles from cell culture (HCVcc), but the effects of CIDEB on the post-entry steps of the HCV lifecycle are unclear. In the present study, we determined that CIDEB is required for HCV assembly in addition to HCVcc entry. Furthermore, CIDEB interacts with the HCV NS5A protein, and the N terminus of CIDEB and the domain I of NS5A are involved in this interaction. Moreover, CIDEB silencing impairs the association of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) with HCV particles. Interestingly, CIDEB is also required for the post-entry stages of the dengue virus (DENV) life cycle. Collectively, these results indicate that CIDEB is a new host factor that is involved in HCV assembly, presumably by interacting with viral protein, providing new insight into the exploitation of the VLDL regulator CIDEB by HCV. PMID:27282740

  8. Investigating the Effect of HBV Amplification Affected by APRIL Serum and IgD Expression on the B Cells of Liver in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bastani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Host immune responses are considered as an an important factor concerning the progression of HBV infection. B cells population following Hepatitis B infection has received scant attention. A Poroliferation-Inducing Ligand (APRIL can be introduced as a stimulator of B cell activities. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the proportion of IgD positive B lymphocytes in liver as well as to determine the level of APRIL serum in relation to the clinical findings in chronic hepatitis B patients. Methods: Fifty-seven subjects suffering from chronic hepatitis B(CHB were selected, who  attended the Hepatitis Clinic of Shariati Hospital. APRIL ELISA kit was used in order to measure the APRIL serum concentration. HBV DNA was quantified by RealArtTM HBV LC PCR. Liver biopsy sections were stained with immunohistochemistry in order to indentify IgD. Results: The mean score of liver fibrosis and inflammation was reported 4.20 according to the modified histologic activity index system. The mean score for patients with liver IgD positive B-cells was 1.9. Moreover, linear regression analysis showed that increasing the score of intrahepatic IgD positive B cells was propotionate to the increase of HBV DNA amplification, whereas it revealed a negative relationship with the APRIL serum level. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that IgD positive B-cells imply the presence of naïve B cells, more within patients who had higher level of HBV DNA. Moreover, higher score of IgD positive B cells population was negatively related with the serum level of APRIL.

  9. Large supplements of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide increase tissue NAD+ and poly(ADP-ribose) levels but do not affect diethylnitrosamine-induced altered hepatic foci in Fischer-344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T M; Rawling, J M; Roebuck, B D; Kirkland, J B

    1995-06-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) is a homopolymer of ADP-ribose units synthesized from NAD+ on nuclear acceptor proteins and is known to be involved in DNA repair. It is not known whether large oral doses of the clinically utilized NAD precursors nicotinic acid or nicotinamide affect poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism or the cellular response to DNA damage. In our first study, using Fischer-344 rats, 2 wk of dietary nicotinic acid supplementation (500 and 1000 mg/kg diet) caused elevated levels of NAD+ in the blood, liver, heart and kidney, while nicotinamide caused elevated levels only in the blood and liver, compared with controls fed a diet containing 30 mg/kg nicotinic acid. Both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, at 1000 mg/kg diet, caused elevations in liver NAD+, by 44 and 43%, respectively. Only nicotinamide, however, elevated liver poly(ADP-ribose) (63% higher than control group). Following treatment with the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine, higher levels of hepatic NAD+ were observed in rats fed both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide at 1000 mg/kg diet, but only nicotinic acid supplementation caused a greater accumulation of hepatic poly(ADP-ribose) (61% higher than control group). Neither of the dietary treatments significantly affected the proportion of the liver occupied by placental glutathione-S-transferase positive foci. These results show that poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis is not directly responsive to hepatic NAD+ levels during niacin supplementation, and that the mechanisms of action of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are different. The observed changes in poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism do not appear to cause any change in susceptibility to chemically induced carcinogenesis in this organ.

  10. Lycopene stabilizes lipoprotein levels during D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide induced hepatitis in experimental rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheik Abdulazeez Sheriff; Thiruvengadam Devaki

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of lycopene on lipoprotein metabolism during D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-Gal/LPS) induced hepatitis in experimental rats. Methods: The efficacy of lycopene was validated during D-Gal/LPS induced hepatitis by analyzing the activity of lipid metabolizing enzymes such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL), lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL). Lipo protein analyses were done by the estimation of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). Results: The toxic insult of D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-Gal/LPS) in experimental group of animals reduces the normal values of lipid metabolizing enzymes due to liver injury. The significant drop in the levels of HDL and concomitant increase in the values of VLDL and LDL were observed. The pretreatment of lycopene restore these altered values to near normal level in experimental group of animals. Conclusions: In the light of results, it can be concluded that administration lycopene stabilizes the lipoprotein levels by regulating the lipid metabolizing enzymes through its antioxidant defense and helps to maintain the normal lipid metabolism during toxic injury in liver.

  11. A multicenter prospective study on the risk of acquiring liver disease in anti-hepatitis C virus negative patients affected from homozygous beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, D; Zanella, A; Farma, E; De Mattei, C; Bosoni, P; Zappa, M; Picone, A; Mozzi, F; Rebulla, P; Cappellini, M D; Allain, J P; Sirchia, G

    1998-11-01

    Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis has been recently reduced, transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia patients may still develop liver disease due to viral infection or iron overload. We assessed the frequency and causes of liver dysfunction in a cohort of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) negative thalassemics. Of 1,481 thalassemics enrolled in 31 centers, 219 (14.8%) tested anti-HCV- by second-generation assays; 181 completed a 3-year follow-up program consisting of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) measurement at each transfusion and anti-HCV determination by third-generation enzyme-immunoassay (EIA-3) at the end of study. Serum ferritin levels were determined at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Ten patients were anti-HCV+ by EIA-3 at the end of follow-up. Of them, seven were already positive in 1992 to 1993 when the initial sera were retested by EIA-3, one tested indeterminate by confirmatory assay, and two had true seroconversion (incidence, 4. 27/1,000 person years; risk of infection, 1/7,100 blood units, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1 in 2,000-1 in 71,000 units). At baseline, 67 of 174 thalassemics had abnormal ALT. Of those with normal ALT, seven subsequently developed at least one episode of moderate ALT increase (incidence, 24.6/1,000 person-years). All of the 20 patients with ferritin values >/=3,000 ng/mL had clinically relevant ALT abnormalities, as compared with 53 of 151 with <3,000 ng/mL (P < .005). Hepatic dysfunction is still frequent in thalassemics. Although it is mainly attributable to siderosis and primary HCV infection, the role of undiscovered transmissible agents cannot be excluded.

  12. Networking for Overcoming on Viral Hepatitis in Middle East and Central Asia: Asian Hepatitis Network

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Moayed Alavian

    2007-01-01

    Chronic liver disease is an important health challenge in the world, where hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the main causes of liver insufficiency. HBV infection is a serious global health problem, with two billion people infected worldwide, and 350 million suffering from chronic HBV infection. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) affects more than 400 million people globally, of whom 75% are Asians (1). Hepatitis B infection is the 10th leading cause of death worldwide,...

  13. SEN virus does not affect treatment response in hepatitis C virus coinfected patients but SEN virus response depends on SEN virus DNA concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdurrahman Sagir; Ortwin Adams; Oliver Kirschberg; Andreas Erhardt; Tobias Heintges; Dieter H(a)ussinger

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the effect of SEN virus (SENV) infection on a combination therapy including interferon alfa (IFN-α) or pegylated-IFN with ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis and the effect of a combination therapy on SENV.METHODS: SENV DNA was determined by polymerase chain reaction in serum samples from 95 patients with chronic hepatitis C. Quantitative analysis was done for SENV H DNA.RESULTS: Twenty-one (22%) of 95 patients were positive for SENV DNA. There was no difference in clinical and biochemical parameters between patients with HCV infection alone and coinfected patients. The sustained response rate for HCV clearance after combination therapy did not differ between patients with SENV (52%) and without SENV (50%, n.s.). SENV DNA was undetectable in 76% of the initially SENV positive patients at the end of follow-up. SENV H response to combination therapy was significantly correlated with SENV DNA level (P=0.05).CONCLUSION: SENV infection had no influence on the HCV sustained response rate to the combination therapy.Response rate of SENV to the combination therapy depends on SENV DNA level.

  14. Lipid synthesis and secretion in HepG2 cells is not affected by ACTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson-Ehle Peter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apolipoprotein B (apoB containing lipoproteins, i.e. VLDL, LDL and Lp(a, are consequently lowered by ACTH treatment in humans. This is also seen as reduced plasma apoB by 20-30% and total cholesterol by 30-40%, mostly accounted for by a decrease in LDL-cholesterol. Studies in hepatic cell line (HepG2 cells showed that apoB mRNA expression is reduced in response to ACTH incubation and is followed by a reduced apoB secretion, which may hypothesize that ACTH lowering apoB containing lipoproteins in humans may be mediated by the inhibition of hepatic apoB synthesis. This was recently confirmed in vivo in a human postprandial study, where ACTH reduced transient apoB48 elevation from the small intestine, however, the exogenic lipid turnover seemed unimpaired. In the present study we investigated if lipid synthesis and/or secretion in HepG2 cells were also affected by pharmacological levels of ACTH to accompany the reduced apoB output. HepG2 cells were incubated with radiolabelled precursors ([14C]acetate and [3H]glycerol either before or during ACTH stimuli. Cellular and secreted lipids were extracted with chloroform:methanol and separated by the thin layer chromatography (TLC, and [14C]labelled cholesterol and cholesteryl ester and [3H]labelled triglycerides and phospholipids were quantitated by the liquid scintillation counting. It demonstrated that ACTH administration did not result in any significant change in neither synthesis nor secretion of the studied lipids, this regardless of presence or absence of oleic acid, which is known to stabilize apoB and enhance apoB production. The present study suggests that ACTH lowers plasma lipids in humans mainly mediated by the inhibition of apoB synthesis and did not via the reduced lipid synthesis.

  15. Delta Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fulya Gunsar

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires HBsAg for replication and transmission. It can cause acute or chronic hepatitis. Chronic infection with HDV is one of the most severe and difficult to treat forms of viral hepatitis. It has been estimated that there is a total of 15-20 million HDV carriers in the world. This review focuses on two fundamental aspects of HDV infection. On the one hand, epidemiological data are summarized, which are essential to understand the re...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2016 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  19. Autoimmune hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sjogren syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus Thyroiditis Type 1 diabetes Ulcerative colitis Autoimmune hepatitis may occur in family members of people with autoimmune diseases. There may be a genetic cause. This disease is most common in young girls ...

  20. Hepatic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild and include: Breath with a musty or sweet odor Change in sleep patterns Changes in thinking ... 24411831 . Nevah MI, Fallon MB. Hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopumonary syndrome, and systemic complications of liver disease. ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  2. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Indian subcontinent) Reside or work in a prison or correctional facility People with end-stage renal ... to monitor and reduce their drinking behavior. Glossary Definitions of terms commonly used with viral hepatitis and ...

  3. 慢性乙型肝炎合并肝脂肪变的相关因素及对肝脏炎症和纤维化的影响%Correlating factors of chronic viral hepatitis B patients with liver steatosis and the affects of hepatic steatosis to liver inflammation and fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强春倩; 徐学彩; 王莉; 刘友德; 郎振为; 邹志强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with hepatic steatosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and clarify the affects of hepatic steatosis to liver inflammation and fibrosis . Methods 306 consecutive CHB patients with satisfied liver biopsy were included in this study , who were admitted to our hospital from July 2008 to December 2009. 165 cases with steatosis 5% in hepatocytes were divided to CHB associated with steatosis group. Association of gender, age, body mass index (BMI) , blood lipid and blood sugar with hepatic steatosis were analyzed by logistic regression. The relationship of steatotic degree with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis were analyzed. Results Higher BMI and male sex were the factors associated with steatosis in CHB [ OR{95% C/)were 1. 269( 1.161-1. 387)and 1.938(1.089-3.447), respectively]. The degree of hepatic steatosis has no relation to the grades of inflammation and fibrotic stages (x =6. 374 ,P =0. 605 and X = 8. 428 ,P =0. 393 ). Conclusions Higher BMI and male sex are the factors associated with steatosis in CHB. Liver steatosis does not aggravate hepatic inflammation and fibrosis .%目的 探讨慢性乙型肝炎合并肝脂肪变的相关因素及发生脂肪变对肝脏炎症和纤维化的影响.方法 病例选自2008年7月至2009年12月有肝活组织检查的慢性乙型肝炎患者306例,肝组织中脂肪变肝细胞<5%小叶内肝细胞者为慢性乙型肝炎组,共有165例.脂肪变肝细胞>5%小叶内肝细胞者为慢性乙型肝炎合并脂肪肝组,共有141例.用t检验比较两组患者血糖、血脂和体重指数的差异,对肝脂肪变可能相关因素如性别、年龄、体重指数、血脂、血糖等进行Logistic多因素回归分析,用x2检验分析不同程度的肝脂肪变对肝脏炎症、纤维化的影响.结果 高体重指数和男性是慢性乙型肝炎患者合并肝细胞脂肪变的危险因素,脂肪变的程度与肝脏炎症和纤维化分级无相关性(x2 =6.374,P

  4. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also the most common type in jails and prisons. What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a ... risk for Hepatitis C because many people in jails or prisons already have Hepatitis C. • The most ...

  5. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  6. Hepatitis A FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis A FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  7. Protect Yourself from Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Liver Guard Your Liver Protect Yourself From Hepatitis Hepatitis can make you feel as if you have ... viruses that attack your lungs and respiratory system; hepatitis is a liver disease. Some forms of hepatitis ...

  8. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis D virus ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is found only in people who carry the hepatitis B virus. HDV may make liver ... B virus but who never had symptoms. Hepatitis D infects about 15 million people worldwide. It occurs ...

  9. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 10 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  10. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  11. FXR-dependent reduction of hepatic steatosis in a bile salt deficient mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunne, Cindy; Acco, Alexandra; Duijst, Suzanne; de Waart, Dirk R; Paulusma, Coen C; Gaemers, Ingrid; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J

    2014-05-01

    It has been established that bile salts play a role in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Accordingly, overt signs of steatosis have been observed in mice with reduced bile salt synthesis. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism of hepatic steatosis in mice with bile salt deficiency due to a liver specific disruption of cytochrome P450 reductase. In this study mice lacking hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase (Hrn) or wild type (WT) mice were fed a diet supplemented with or without either 0.1% cholic acid (CA) or 0.025% obeticholic acid, a specific FXR-agonist. Feeding a CA-supplemented diet resulted in a significant decrease of plasma ALT in Hrn mice. Histologically, hepatic steatosis ameliorated after CA feeding and this was confirmed by reduced hepatic triglyceride content (115.5±7.3mg/g liver and 47.9±4.6mg/g liver in control- and CA-fed Hrn mice, respectively). The target genes of FXR-signaling were restored to normal levels in Hrn mice when fed cholic acid. VLDL secretion in both control and CA-fed Hrn mice was reduced by 25% compared to that in WT mice. In order to gain insight in the mechanism behind these bile salt effects, the FXR agonist also was administered for 3weeks. This resulted in a similar decrease in liver triglycerides, indicating that the effect seen in bile salt fed Hrn animals is FXR dependent. In conclusion, steatosis in Hrn mice is ameliorated when mice are fed bile salts. This effect is FXR dependent. Triglyceride accumulation in Hrn liver may partly involve impaired VLDL secretion. PMID:24548803

  12. [Hepatitis in dogs; a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothuizen, J; van den Ingh, T S

    1998-04-15

    As with most liver diseases, the symptoms of hepatitis in dogs are nearly always aspecific: the dogs eat less, are apathetic, sometimes have polyuria/polydipsia, and sometimes have diarrhoea. Hepatoencephalopathy and ascites only occur with these symptoms in very advanced stages of chronic hepatitis. Only a part of the dogs have jaundice. Because of these aspecific symptoms, the diagnosis hepatitis is often not taken into consideration, even though the presence of a liver disease can be easily detected by measuring plasma concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and bile acids, one or both of which are elevated. The diagnosis is confirmed by histological examination of a liver biopsy sample. The most common forms of hepatitis are non-specific reactive hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis. Non-specific reactive hepatitis is a reaction against endotoxin as a result of sepsis or an increased gastrointestinal absorption. Treatment is directed to the primary process. Leptospirosis also causes non-specific reactive hepatitis, but then renal insufficiency is the most prominent feature. The diagnosis is made not on the basis of a liver biopsy but on the basis of increased IgM titres against Leptospira. Immediate treatment with antibiotics and infusions at the first signs (jaundice and uraemia) can save the animal's life. Acute hepatitis can develop as a result of infection, toxins, or liver hypoxia. There is no specific treatment, but adequate recovery often occurs with supportive treatment. Corticosteroids are contraindicated. Chronic hepatitis, which can lead to cirrhosis, is the most common form of hepatitis. It is an autoimmune inflammatory reaction that is usually caused by a virus infection but sometimes by poisoning (intoxication). Long treatment with prednisolone or azathioprine is usually successful, but early recognition of the disease increases the likelihood of success. Nowadays, chronic hepatitis due to hepatic copper accumulation in Beddlington

  13. Gold-198 and rose bengal marked with iodine-131 in the diagnostic of hepatic vesicular affections; L'or{sup 198} et le rose bengale marque a l'iode{sup 131} dans le diagnostic des affections hepatovesiculaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manambelona Razafimalaza, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-06-15

    Colloidal gold-198 makes it possible to obtain clear images of hepatic parenchyma; the examination can be repeated from different angles thus demonstrating the presence of pathologically inert regions, whether they be hydatic cysts, abscesses or neoplasia. The study of the disappearance curve for the colloid, together with a measurement of the blood volume, makes it possible also to calculate the hepatic flow. Using Rose Bengal marked with iodine-131, it is possible to obtain images of the liver and of the bile ducts, and to follow the elimination of the dye in the intestines. The simultaneous recording of the disappearance curves for the blood and of the appearance of the dye in the intestines constitutes an useful working test which is particularly sensible for evaluating the permeability of the bile ducts and, to a certain degree, the site of an obstruction. (author) [French] L'or colloidal-198 permet d'obtenir avec nettete des images du parenchyme hepatique; l'examen peut etre repete sous plusieurs incidences mettant ainsi en evidence les zones muettes pathologiques, qu'il s'agisse de kystes hydatiques, d'abces ou de neoplasies. L'etude de la courbe d'epuration du colloide completee par une mesure du volume sanguin offre en outre la possibilite de calculer le debit hepatique. A l'aide du rose bengale marque a l'iode-131, il est possible d'obtenir des images du foie et de la vesicule biliaire, et de suivre l'elimination intestinale du colorant. L'enregistrement simultane des courbes d'epuration sanguine et d'apparition intestinale constitue une epreuve fonctionnelle particulierement sensible pour apprecier la permeabilite des voies biliaires et dans une certaine mesure le site d'une obstruction. (auteur)

  14. Senescence marker protein-30/superoxide dismutase 1 double knockout mice exhibit increased oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Kondo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide anion radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30 is a gluconolactonase that functions as an antioxidant protein in mammals due to its involvement in ascorbic acid (AA biosynthesis. SMP30 also participates in Ca2+ efflux by activating the calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-pump. To reveal the role of oxidative stress in lipid metabolism defects occurring in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis, we generated SMP30/SOD1-double knockout (SMP30/SOD1-DKO mice and investigated their survival curves, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, amounts of hepatic oxidative stress, and hepatic protein levels expressed by genes related to lipid metabolism. While SMP30/SOD1-DKO pups had no growth retardation by 14 days of age, they did have low plasma and hepatic AA levels. Thereafter, 39% and 53% of male and female pups died by 15–24 and 89 days of age, respectively. Compared to wild type, SMP30-KO and SOD1-KO mice, by 14 days SMP30/SOD1-DKO mice exhibited: (1 higher plasma levels of triglyceride and aspartate aminotransferase; (2 severe accumulation of hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol; (3 higher levels of superoxide anion radicals and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in livers; and (4 decreased mRNA and protein levels of Apolipoprotein B (ApoB in livers – ApoB is an essential component of VLDL secretion. These results suggest that high levels of oxidative stress due to concomitant deficiency of SMP30 and/or AA, and SOD1 cause abnormal plasma lipid metabolism, hepatic lipid accumulation and premature death resulting from impaired VLDL secretion.

  15. Hepatic autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Peter; Hother-Nielsen, Ole; Beck-Nielsen, Henning;

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increased glycogenolysis, simulated by galactose's conversion to glucose, on the contribution of gluconeogenesis (GNG) to hepatic glucose production (GP) was determined. The conversion of galactose to glucose is by the same pathway as glycogen's conversion to glucose, i.e., glucose 1...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  17. Hepatitis A vaccine associated with autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PA Berry; G Smith-Laing

    2007-01-01

    To describe a case of probable relapsing autoimmune hepatitis associated with vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV). A case report and review of literature were written concerning autoimmune hepatitis in association with hepatitis A and other hepatotropic viruses. Soon after the administration of formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, a man who had recently recovered from an uncharacterized but self-limiting hepatitic illness,experienced a severe deterioration (AST 1687 U/L, INR 1.4). Anti-nuclear antibodies were detectable, and liver biopsy was compatible with autoimmune hepatitis. The observation supports the role of HAV as a trigger of autoimmune hepatitis. Studies in helper T-cell activity and antibody expression against hepatic proteins in the context of hepatitis A infection are summarized, and the concept of molecular mimicry with regard to other forms of viral hepatitis and autoimmunity is briefly explored.

  18. Hepatitis A vaccine associated with autoimmune hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, PA; Smith-Laing, G

    2007-01-01

    To describe a case of probable relapsing autoimmune hepatitis associated with vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV). A case report and review of literature were written concerning autoimmune hepatitis in association with hepatitis A and other hepatotropic viruses. Soon after the administration of formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, a man who had recently recovered from an uncharacterized but self-limiting hepatitic illness, experienced a severe deterioration (AST 1687 U/L, INR 1.4...

  19. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  20. 玫瑰茄提取物对极低密度脂蛋白氧化修饰的作用%Effect of Extractives of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on Oxidative Modification of VLDL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡太平; 陈伟强

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察玫瑰茄提取物对Cu2+介导的极低密度脂蛋白(VLDL)氧化修饰的影响.方法 采用一次性密度梯度离心法分离人血VLDL,用Cu2+进行体外氧化修饰,给药组在温育前加入一定浓度(终浓度:1.5 mg/ml)的玫瑰茄提取物,分别检测脂蛋白中丙二醛(MDA)及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性.结果 玫瑰茄提取物可显著降低氧化型极低密度脂蛋白(ox-VLDL)中MDA的含量,明显提高脂蛋白中SOD活性.结论 玫瑰茄提取物可显著抑制Cu2+诱导的VLDL氧化修饰.

  1. Minor components of pomace olive oil enhance VLDL-receptor expression in macrophages when treated with postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabello-Moruno, R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pomace olive oil (POO is rich in minor components, which can modulate the composition of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL and their uptake by macrophages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of postprandial TRL obtained after the ingestion of meals containing POO or refined olive oil (ROO on foam cell formation, one of the initial steps of atherogenesis. Meals were administered to 9 healthy men and TRL were isolated from serum 4h after the intake. POO intake led to TRL with lower triglyceride/apo B48 and triglyceride/apo B100 ratios compared to ROO. Upon incubation of THP-1 macrophages with the TRL, an increase in the intracellular triglyceride content and foam cell formation was observed. Compared to ROO-TRL, the only receptor involved in lipoprotein uptake that showed changes in the mRNA expression after treatment with POO-TRL was the VLDL-receptor (VLDLr. In conclusion, the intake of POO modified the composition of human TRL, which increased the VLDLr gene expression in macrophages. However, the changes were not sufficient to enhance foam cell formation.El aceite de orujo de oliva (AOO es rico en componentes menores que pueden modular la composición de lipoproteínas ricas en triglicéridos postprandiales (TRL y su captación por macrófagos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar los efectos de TRL obtenidas después de la ingesta de comidas que contenían AOO o aceite de oliva refinado (AOR sobre la formación de células espumosas, uno de los pasos iniciales de la aterogénesis. Las comidas fueron administradas a 9 hombres sanos y las TRL fueron aisladas del suero sanguíneo 4h después de la ingesta. La ingesta de AOO dio lugar a TRL con menor ratio triglicéridos/apo B48 y triglicéridos/apo B100 en comparación con AOR. Tras la incubación de macrófagos THP-1 con las TRL, se observó un aumento en el contenido de triglicéridos intracelular y la formación de células espumosas. En

  2. Hepatic Focal Nodular Hyperplasia: A Benign Incidentaloma or a Marker of Serious Hepatic Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    G. Muguti; Tait, N; Richardson, A; Little, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Amongst 17 patients with hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) encountered at Westmead Hospital between 1981 and 1990, FNH was found in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in three (3/ 17), one male and two females, one of whom also had peliosis and an hepatic adenoma. FNH was also found in association with other conditions which may affect hepatic function, structure or circulation, including chronic obstructive airways disease (2), congestive cardiomyopathy (1), ch...

  3. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  4. Living with Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B (HBV) infections. Back to top Living With Hepatitis C In past years, many individuals learned that they have HCV from a blood test during a routine physical or because they attempted ...

  5. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. ... at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed by the CDC and get a personalized ...

  6. Preventing hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  7. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  8. Hepatitis C FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... URL - Redirecting ... Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance Populations & ...

  9. Hepatitis B FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... date URL - redirecting ... Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance ...

  10. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis B Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HBV Tests; Hep B; anti-HBs; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody; HBsAg; Hepatitis ...

  11. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  12. The role of rumen-protected choline in hepatic function and performance of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Arash; D'Occhio, Michael J; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2016-07-01

    High-producing dairy cows enter a period of negative energy balance during the first weeks of lactation. Energy intake is usually sufficient to cover the increase in energy requirements for fetal growth during the period before calving, but meeting the demand for energy is often difficult during the early stages of lactation. A catabolic state predominates during the transition period, leading to the mobilisation of energy reserves (NEFA and amino acids) that are utilised mainly by the liver and muscle. Increased uptake of mobilised NEFA by the liver, combined with the limited capacity of hepatocytes to either oxidise fatty acids for energy or to incorporate esterified fatty acids into VLDL results in fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. This metabolic disturbance can affect the general health, and it causes economic losses. Different nutritional strategies have been used to restrict negative effects associated with the energy challenge in transition cows. The provision of choline in the form of rumen-protected choline (RPC) can potentially improve liver function by increasing VLDL exportation from the liver. RPC increases gene expression of microsomal TAG transfer protein and APOB100 that are required for VLDL synthesis and secretion. Studies with RPC have looked at gene expression, metabolic hormones, metabolite profiles, milk production and postpartum reproduction. A reduction in liver fat and enhanced milk production has been observed with RPC supplementation. However, the effects of RPC on health and reproduction are equivocal, which could reflect the lack of sufficient dose-response studies. PMID:27138530

  13. Modulation of VLDL triglyceride metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijland, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by excessive fat storage and is associated with various diseases like cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (DM2), thereby being a serious problem of public health. Excessive energy intake is an important cause of obesity since excess energy is primarily stored as

  14. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    acute, fatal infections in ducklings with a rapid decline within 1-2 hr and clinical and pathologic signs virtually indistinguishable from DHAV. DAstV-1 has only been recognized in the United Kingdom and recently in China, while DAstV-2 has been reported in ducks in the United States. FAdV, the causative agent of inclusion body hepatitis, is a Group I avian adenovirus in the genus Aviadenovirus. The affected birds have a swollen, friable, and discolored liver, sometimes with necrotic or hemorrhagic foci. Histologic lesions include multifocal necrosis of hepatocytes and acute hepatitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies in the nuclei of the hepatocytes. THV is a picornavirus that is likely the causative agent of turkey viral hepatitis. Currently there are more questions than answers about THV, and the pathogenesis and clinical impacts remain largely unknown. Future research in viral hepatic diseases of poultry is warranted to develop specific diagnostic assays, identify suitable cell culture systems for virus propagation, and develop effective vaccines. PMID:27610716

  15. Prolonged acute hepatitis A mimicking autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rintaro Mikata; Osamu Yokosuka; Fumio Imazeki; Kenichi Fukai; Tatsuo Kanda; Hiromitsu Saisho

    2005-01-01

    AIM: We report a case with a prolonged course of hepatitisA, with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) higher than 500 IU/Lfor more than 2 mo.METHODS: A middle-aged woman had an elevated IgG level of more than 2 000 mg/dL, positive arti-nudear antibodies (ANA) and anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), but no evidence of persistent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Liver biopsy findings were compatible with prolonged acute hepatitis, although acute onset of autoimmune hepatitis could not be ruled out.RESULTS: It was assumed that she developed a course of hepatitis similar to autoimmune hepatitis triggered by HAV infection. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment was initiated and a favorable outcome was obtained. CONCLUSION: We describe a case of a middle-aged woman who showed a prolonged course of acute hepatitis A mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Treatment with UDCAproved to be effective.

  16. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) Print A A A Text Size What's ... There are several different types of hepatitis . Hepatitis B is a type that can move from one ...

  17. Hepatitis C: a current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, G C

    1995-03-01

    This article covers several dilemmas posed by hepatitis C for the family physician. It is proposed that patients with known risk factors, such as injecting drug use or blood transfusion, be treated for an anti HCV. The problems of counselling the patient with an incidental positive anti HCV test are discussed; at present, the history of risk factors and liver test results are the most important aspects as there is no gold standard for hepatitis C diagnosis. Family and sexual transmission of HCV are rare; only mothers with extremely high levels of HCV viraemia are likely to transmit HCV to their offspring. Decisions about interferon treatment for hepatitis C require consideration of the natural history of this disease, the chances of a long-term response to treatment, and the adverse affects of interferon. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma is proposed for patients who already have cirrhosis. PMID:7717894

  18. Auto immune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven, Nicole Mf; de Boer, Ynto S; Mulder, Chris Jj; van Nieuwkerk, Carin Mj; Bouma, Gerd

    2016-05-21

    To provide an update of the latest trends in epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostics, complications and treatment of auto immune hepatitis (AIH). A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the search terms: "auto immune hepatitis", "clinical presentation", "symptoms", "signs", "diagnosis", "auto antibodies", "laboratory values", "serology", "histopathology", "histology", "genetics", "HLA genes", "non-HLA genes", "environment", "epidemiology", "prevalence", "incidence", "demographics", "complications", "HCC", "PBC", "PSC", "corticosteroid", "therapy", "treatment", "alternative treatment". English-language full-text articles and abstracts were considered. Articles included reviews, meta-analysis, prospective retrospective studies. No publication date restrictions were applied. AIH is an immune meditated progressive inflammatory liver disease that predominantly affects middle-aged females but may affect people of all ages. The clinical spectrum of AIH is wide, ranging from absent or mild symptoms to fulminant hepatic failure. The aetiology of AIH is still unknown, but is believed to occur as the consequence of an aberrant immune response towards an un-known trigger in a genetically susceptible host. In the absence of a gold standard, diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, biochemical and histopathological criteria. Immunosuppressive treatment has been the cornerstone of treatment since the earliest description of the disease in 1950 by Waldenström. Such treatment is often successful at inducing remission and generally leads to normal life expectancy. Nevertheless, there remain significant areas of unmet aetiological a clinical needs including fundamental insight in disease pathogenesis, optimal therapy, duration of treatment and treatment alternatives in those patients unresponsive to standard treatment regimens. PMID:27217697

  19. High-fat meal effect on LDL, HDL, and VLDL particle size and number in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering drugs and diet network (GOLDN): an interventional study

    OpenAIRE

    Straka Robert J; Tsai Michael Y; Hopkins Paul N; Kabagambe Edmond K; Oberman Albert; Glasser Stephen P; Wojczynski Mary K; Ordovas Jose M; Arnett Donna K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Postprandial lipemia (PPL) is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease but these changes have not been well described and characterized in a large cohort. We assessed acute changes in the size and concentration of total and subclasses of LDL, HDL, and VLDL particles in response to a high-fat meal. Participants (n = 1048) from the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study who ingested a high-fat meal were included in this analysis. Lipids were m...

  20. Hepatitis B virus reactivation and hepatitis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with resolved hepatitis B receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy:risk factors and survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Lin Chen; De-Hui Zou; Li-Yang Hu; Michael Lucas Wirian; Qing-Qing Cai; Jie Chen; Hui-Lan Rao; Ying Guo; Hui-Qiang Huang; Liang Zhang; Jian-Yong Shao; Tong-Yu Lin; Wen-Qi Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been reported in B-cel lymphoma patients with resolved hepatitis B (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]-negative and hepatitis B core antibody [HBcAb]-positive). This study aimed to assess HBV reactivation and hepatitis occurrence in diffuse large B-cel lymphoma (DLBCL) patients with resolved hepatitis B receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy compared with HBsAg-negative/HBcAb-negative patients to identify risk factors for HBV reactivation and hepatitis occurrence and to analyze whether HBV reactivation and hepatitis affect the survival of DLBCL patients with resolved hepatitis B. Methods:We reviewed the clinical data of 278 patients with DLBCL treated with rituximab-containing therapy between January 2004 and May 2008 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, China. Predictive factors for HBV reactivation, hepatitis development, and survival were examined by univariate analysis using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test and by multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model. Results:Among the 278 patients, 165 were HBsAg-negative. Among these 165 patients, 6 (10.9%) of 55 HBcAb-positive (resolved HBV infection) patients experienced HBV reactivation compared with none (0%) of 110 HBcAb-negative patients (P=0.001). Patients with resolved hepatitis B had a higher hepatitis occurrence rate than HBsAg-negative/HBcAb-negative patients (21.8%vs. 8.2%, P=0.013). HBcAb positivity and elevated baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were independent risk factors for hepatitis. Among the 55 patients with resolved hepatitis B, patients with elevated baseline serum ALT or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were more likely to develop hepatitis than those with normal serum ALT or AST levels (P=0.037, P=0.005, respectively). An elevated baseline AST level was an independent risk factor for hepatitis in these patients. Six patients with HBV reactivation recovered after immediate antiviral therapy, and

  1. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  2. Hepatitis B Blood Tests: FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working on ... people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 10 Other Languages . Resource Video See More ...

  3. Total Lipid Profile, Faecal Cholesterol, very Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-C, Atherogenic Index (A.I and Percent Atherosclerosis with Aqueous Fruit Extract of Solanum macrocarpum in Chronic Triton-Induced Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodipo O. Adebola

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of the aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum on the total lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and low density liprotein cholesterol (LDL-C], faecal cholesterol, very low density lipoproteincholesterol (VLDL-C, atherogenic index (A.I and percent atherosclerosis on chronic titron-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The increase in HDL-C was dose-dependent and statistically significant (p0.05 with increase in extract dose for both total cholesterol and triglycerides throughout the period of study while the decrease in LDL-C was significant (p0.05. The results shows that the plant may be capable of reducing circulating lipids in chronic triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats probably by reducing absorption of lipids, thus, reducing hyperlipidemia. At the same time, the aqueous fruit extract probably has the potential to reduce the risk of development of heart diseases since VLDL-C has been shown to be beneficial and indicative of a lower risk of coronary heart diseases. Also, a reduction in percent atherosclerosis is desirable as this implies that atherosclerosis is reduced.

  4. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  5. Understanding hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, C K

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects over 170 million people worldwide and is a common cause for liver transplantation in Canada. The prevalence of HCV infection in the dialysis population is estimated to be 20% to 50%. Today, intravenous drug use remains the most common route of transmission. The risk of acquiring HCV infection in patients on long-term hemodialysis is expected to decrease because of the screening of blood products for HCV. The diagnostic tests for hepatitis C include anti-HCV, HCV RNA, serum ALT levels, and liver biopsy. Liver biopsy is the definitive diagnostic procedure. Of patients acutely infected with the virus 50% to 85% will become carriers. HCV infection progresses slowly and the minority of patients develop cirrhosis over 20 years. The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma is increased once cirrhosis is present. The current standard of treatment that employs interferon and ribavirin has its limitations and is not indicated for many patients groups, such as patients on long-term hemodialysis. Interferon monotherapy is possible but is poorly tolerated by patients on dialysis. Patient and family education, as well as counselling, are important in that patients infected with HCV should be partners with health care providers in the management of their disease. PMID:11785189

  6. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  7. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  8. Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Antikchi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF is a rare disease that primarily involves hepatobiliary and renal systems. It is characterized by hepatic fibrosis, portal hypertension and renal cystic disease. We present a 22 years old man with fever, abdominal pain, icterus and hematemesis. On complete work up of the patient and liver with kidney biopsy, the diagnosis was congenital hepatic fibrosis.

  9. Hepatitis B in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guglielmo Borgia; Maria Aurora Carleo; Giovanni Battista Gaeta; Ivan Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects about 350 million individuals worldwide.Management of HBV infection in pregnancy is difficult because of several peculiar and somewhat controversial aspects.The aim of the present review is to provide a tool that may help physicians to correctly manage HBV infection in pregnancy.This review focuses on (1) the effect of pregnancy on HBV infection and of HBV infection on pregnancy; (2) the potential viral transmission from mother to newborn despite at-birth prophylaxis with immunoglobulin and vaccine; (3) possible prevention of mother-to-child transmission through antiviral drugs,the type of antiviral drug to use considering their efficacy and potential teratogenic effect,and the timing of their administration and discontinuation; and (4) the evidence for the use of elective caesarean section vs vaginal delivery and the possibility of breastfeeding.

  10. Dietary methionine level affects growth performance and hepatic gene expression of GH-IGF system and protein turnover regulators in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed plant protein-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jorgen;

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary level of methionine were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed five plant-based diets containing increasing content of crystalline methionine (Met), in a six week growth trial. Changes in the hepatic expression of genes related to i...

  11. Acute inhibition of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase does not affect gluconeogenesis but directs gluconeogenic flux toward glycogen in fasted rats - A pharmacological study with the chlorogenic acid derivative S4048

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, TH; van der Sluijs, FH; Wiegman, CH; Baller, JFW; Gustafson, LA; Burger, HJ; Herling, AW; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Reijngoud, DJ

    2001-01-01

    Effects of acute inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase activity by the chlorogenic acid derivative S4048 on hepatic carbohydrate fluxes were examined in isolated rat hepatocytes and in vivo in rats. Fluxes were calculated using tracer dilution techniques and mass isotopomer distribution analysis in pl

  12. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  13. Acute viral hepatitis morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis E virus infection: Uzbekistan surveillance data

    OpenAIRE

    Margolis Harold S; Onischenko Gennady G; Yashina Tatiana L; Brown Matthew S; Favorov Michael O; Sharapov Makhmudkhan B; Chorba Terence L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH). To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV) during documented AVH epidemics, trends in AVH-associated mortality rate (MR) per 100,000 over a 15-year period and reported incidence of AVH over a 35-year period were examined. Methods Reported AVH incidence data from 1971 to 2005 and AVH-associated mortality data from 1981 to 1995...

  14. Hepatic fat accumulation and regulation of FAT/CD36: an effect of hepatic irradiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martius, Gesa; Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is known to induce inflammation and affect fat metabolic pathways. The current study investigates hepatic fat accumulation and fatty acid transportation in a rat model of single dose liver irradiation (25-Gy). Rat livers were selectively irradiated in-vivo (25-Gy), sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Hepatic lipids were studied by colorimetric assays in liver and serum. Intracellular lipids, protein and mRNA were studied by Nile red staining, immunohistology, Western Blot ana...

  15. Fulminant hepatic failure in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R; Chapman, A R; Reid, G T; Hayes, P C

    2015-01-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure is liver disease that causes encephalopathy within 8 weeks of onset of symptoms or within 2 weeks of onset of jaundice in a patient without prior evidence of liver disease. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 is an autoimmune autosomal-recessive condition causing parathyroid and adrenal insufficiency, alopecia, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, ectodermal dystrophy and, rarely, hepatitis. Although the liver can be affected as a consequence of the autoimmune process, the spectrum of disease activity is varied. Autoimmune hepatitis develops in 10-20% of patients and successful liver transplantation has been reported in pediatric patients who failed immunosuppressive treatment. We report fulminant hepatic failure in an adult patient with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 who responded to medical treatment and did not require liver transplantation. We highlight the diagnostic scoring system for autoimmune hepatitis and the referral criteria for liver transplantation in fulminant hepatic failure.

  16. Opuntia ficus indica (nopal) attenuates hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; López-Romero, Patricia; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Nopal, a cactus plant widely consumed in the Mexican diet, is considered a functional food because of its antioxidant activity and ability to improve biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nopal consumption on the development of hepatic steatosis and hepatic oxidative stress and on the regulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing 4% nopal for 7 wk. Rats fed the nopal-containing diet had ∼50% lower hepatic TG than the control group as well as a reduction in hepatomegaly and biomarkers of hepatocyte injury such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Attenuation of hepatic steatosis by nopal consumption was accompanied by a higher serum concentration of adiponectin and a greater abundance of mRNA for genes involved in lipid oxidation and lipid export and production of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and microsomal TG transfer proteins in liver. Hepatic reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation biomarkers were significantly lower in rats fed nopal compared with the control rats. Furthermore, rats fed the nopal diet had a lower postprandial serum insulin concentration and a greater liver phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT):AKT ratio in the postprandial state. This study suggests that nopal consumption attenuates hepatic steatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL synthesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving liver insulin signaling in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. PMID:23014486

  17. Opuntia ficus indica (nopal) attenuates hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; López-Romero, Patricia; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Nopal, a cactus plant widely consumed in the Mexican diet, is considered a functional food because of its antioxidant activity and ability to improve biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nopal consumption on the development of hepatic steatosis and hepatic oxidative stress and on the regulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing 4% nopal for 7 wk. Rats fed the nopal-containing diet had ∼50% lower hepatic TG than the control group as well as a reduction in hepatomegaly and biomarkers of hepatocyte injury such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Attenuation of hepatic steatosis by nopal consumption was accompanied by a higher serum concentration of adiponectin and a greater abundance of mRNA for genes involved in lipid oxidation and lipid export and production of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and microsomal TG transfer proteins in liver. Hepatic reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation biomarkers were significantly lower in rats fed nopal compared with the control rats. Furthermore, rats fed the nopal diet had a lower postprandial serum insulin concentration and a greater liver phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT):AKT ratio in the postprandial state. This study suggests that nopal consumption attenuates hepatic steatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL synthesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving liver insulin signaling in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

  18. Hepatitis B vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, Luisa; Paladini, Sara; Galli, Cristina; Raimondo, Giovanni; Pollicino, Teresa; Zanetti, Alessandro R

    2015-01-01

    such mutants have the potential to infect both naïve and immunized people, negatively affecting the efficacy of both the antiviral treatment and the vaccination programs. Despite concern, at present the overall impact of vaccine escapes mutants seems to be low and they do not pose a public health threat or a need to modify the established hepatitis B vaccination programs. The development of novel NAs with a high barrier to resistance is warranted. PMID:25483515

  19. Autophagy in Hepatic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic fibrosis is usually associated with chronic liver diseases caused by infection, drugs, metabolic disorders, or autoimmune imbalances. Effective clinical therapies are still lacking. Autophagy is a cellular process that degrades damaged organelles or protein aggregation, which participates in many pathological processes including liver diseases. Autophagy participates in hepatic fibrosis by activating hepatic stellate cells and may participate as well through influencing other fibrogenic cells. Besides that, autophagy can induce some liver diseases to develop while it may play a protective role in hepatocellular abnormal aggregates related liver diseases and reduces fibrosis. With a better understanding of the potential effects of autophagy on hepatic fibrosis, targeting autophagy might be a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis in the near future.

  20. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

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    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  1. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling of the liver. ...

  2. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  3. Delta Hepatitis in Denver

    OpenAIRE

    Rector, William G.; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Penley, Kent A.; Judson, Franklyn N.

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the mid-United States is not well defined. We tested 65 patients seen between 1983 and 1986 with HBV infection in Denver for evidence of coexisting HDV infection. Five patients had anti-delta (δ) antibody. The prevalence of HDV infection was higher in patients with chronic hepatitis B (4/37) than in patients with acute hepatitis B (1/28). The prevalence of HDV infection in male homosexual...

  4. Evaluation of the lipid profile between individuals with hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Tita Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic profiles correlate with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and are prognostic for the viral response. However, little is known about the association between lipid profiles and viral load in chronic patients carrying HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the viremia and viral genotype on lipid metabolism by observing the variations in serum lipoprotein and apolipoprotein B, to assess whether HCV predisposes individuals to lipid imbalance and favors the appearance of vascular complications. A sample group of 150 chronic HCV patients with viral genotypes 1, 2 or 3 and a control group of 20 healthy adults (10 men and 10 women, all aged from 20 to 50 years were studied. The serum lipid profile of the chronic patients was analyzed and compared to that of the control group. The highdensity lipoprotein (HDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglyceride levels of the sample group were lower than those of the control group, while the low-density lipoprotein (LDL and apolipoprotein B levels of the patients were higher. These differences were more significant in patients carrying genotype 3a. There was a positive correlation between the viremia and the changes in apolipoprotein B levels in patients carrying genotype 1b. It was inferred that the risk of developing vascular complications raised in HCV patients. As 90% of LDL protein is composed of apolipoprotein B, the plasmatic concentration of the latter indicates the number of potentially atherogenic particles. Therefore, the lipid profile monitoring may aid in the diagnosis of hepatic infection severity and equally act as a good prognostic marker.

  5. Alopecia Due to Hepatitis Virus Infections (Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C)

    OpenAIRE

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is an important problem in medical trichology. Sometimes, alopecia can be due to complicated etiologies including infections. In this article, the details of alopecia due to some important hepatitis viral infections (hepatitis B and hepatitis C) were specifically focused.

  6. Hepatic disorder in Zika virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global problem. This arbovirus infection can cause acute ilness and affect fetus in utero. However, there can be other additional clinical manifestation including to the hepatic disorder. In this short commentary article, the author brielfy discusses on the liver problem due to Zika virus infection.

  7. Effect of acute negative and positive energy balance on basal very-low density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bellou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute reduction in dietary energy intake reduces very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG concentration. Although chronic dietary energy surplus and obesity are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, the effect of acute overfeeding on VLDL-TG metabolism is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute negative and positive energy balance on VLDL-TG metabolism in healthy women. DESIGN: Ten healthy women (AGE: 22.0±2.9 years, BMI: 21.2±1.3 kg/m(2 underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: i isocaloric feeding (control ii hypocaloric feeding with a dietary energy restriction of 2.89±0.42 MJ and iii hypercaloric feeding with a dietary energy surplus of 2.91±0.32 MJ. The three diets had the same macronutrient composition. RESULTS: Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentrations decreased by ∼26% after hypocaloric feeding relative to the control trial (P = 0.037, owing to decreased hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate (by 21%, P = 0.023 and increased VLDL-TG plasma clearance rate (by ∼12%, P = 0.016. Hypercaloric feeding increased plasma glucose concentration (P = 0.042 but had no effect on VLDL-TG concentration and kinetics compared to the control trial. CONCLUSION: Acute dietary energy deficit (∼3MJ leads to hypotriglyceridemia via a combination of decreased hepatic VLDL-TG secretion and increased VLDL-TG clearance. On the other hand, acute dietary energy surplus (∼3MJ does not affect basal VLDL-TG metabolism but disrupts glucose homeostasis in healthy women.

  8. Hepatitis B-Related Concerns and Anxieties Among People With Chronic Hepatitis B in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Richmond, Jacqui; Ngo, Naomi; Lucke, Jayne; Wallace, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Background The psychological wellbeing of people with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) may be negatively affected due to the chronic and transmissible nature of the disease, and possible serious complications (e.g. cirrhosis and liver cancer). There are limited data investigating concerns and anxieties among people living with CHB. Objectives This study examined feelings about having hepatitis B among people with CHB, including hepatitis B-related concerns and anxieties. Patients and Methods Using convenience sampling, people with CHB attending four public liver clinics and one general practice in three Australian jurisdictions between April and September 2013 completed a self-administered questionnaire about their feelings about having hepatitis B. Results Ninety-three people completed the survey. Mean age was 45 years, 57% were men, and 93% were born overseas (75% from Asia). Seventy-six percent of participants reported having hepatitis B-related concerns and anxieties. The most common concerns were of developing liver cancer (57%), and infecting other people (53%). Thirty-five percent of participants were unwilling to talk to anyone about their hepatitis B while 25% changed how they lived as a result of having hepatitis B. Lower educational level was associated with feeling scared of hepatitis B (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR]: 4.04; 95%CI: 1.09, 14.90; P = 0.04), and an unwillingness to talk to anyone about hepatitis B (adjusted OR: 4.41; 95%CI: 1.09, 17.83; P = 0.04). Very good English proficiency was associated with a higher likelihood of participants changing how they lived (adjusted OR: 12.66; 95%CI: 2.21, 72.42; P psychological support needs as an essential component of comprehensive care.

  9. Dynamic regulation of hepatic lipid droplet properties by diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Crunk

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLD are organelle-like structures that function in neutral lipid storage, transport and metabolism through the actions of specific surface-associated proteins. Although diet and metabolism influence hepatic CLD levels, how they affect CLD protein composition is largely unknown. We used non-biased, shotgun, proteomics in combination with metabolic analysis, quantitative immunoblotting, electron microscopy and confocal imaging to define the effects of low- and high-fat diets on CLD properties in fasted-refed mice. We found that the hepatic CLD proteome is distinct from that of CLD from other mammalian tissues, containing enzymes from multiple metabolic pathways. The hepatic CLD proteome is also differentially affected by dietary fat content and hepatic metabolic status. High fat feeding markedly increased the CLD surface density of perilipin-2, a critical regulator of hepatic neutral lipid storage, whereas it reduced CLD levels of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, an enzyme regulator of homocysteine levels linked to fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Collectively our data demonstrate that the hepatic CLD proteome is enriched in metabolic enzymes, and that it is qualitatively and quantitatively regulated by diet and metabolism. These findings implicate CLD in the regulation of hepatic metabolic processes, and suggest that their properties undergo reorganization in response to hepatic metabolic demands.

  10. Hepatitis A related acute liver failure by consumption of contaminated food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Heng; Haagsma, Elizabeth B; Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; van den Berg, Arie P; Metselaar, Herold J; de Knegt, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    We present a patient with no medical history admitted for jaundice and dark coloured urine. Further investigations revealed hepatitis A related acute liver failure while the patient had no travel history, nor contact with infected individuals. After admission, the patient deteriorated fulfilling the King's College criteria for acute liver failure. Two days after admission, he underwent liver transplantation and recovered. Careful investigation identified imported semi-dried tomatoes as the source of the hepatitis A infection. This patient was part of a foodborne hepatitis A outbreak in the Netherlands in 2010 affecting 13 patients. Virus sequence analysis of our patient's virus showed a strain commonly found in Turkey. Hepatitis A related acute liver failure is rare, but is associated with a poor prognosis. In developed countries, the incidence of hepatitis A is low, but foodborne outbreaks are emerging. Further, we review the literature on recent foodborne hepatitis A outbreaks in developed countries, hepatitis A related acute liver failure, and hepatitis A vaccine.

  11. Hepatic angiosarcoma: CT findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余日胜; 章士正; 华建明

    2003-01-01

    @@ Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is very difficult if the patient does not have any history of exposure to specific carcinogens including thorotrast, arsenicals and vinyl chloride monomer. We describe CT findings in two cases of hepatic angiosarcoma in combination with a review of the literature.

  12. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  13. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  14. SPECIAL DOSES OF HEPATITIS B VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Jobin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is spread through contact with the blood. It might suffer loss of appetite or tiredness, muscle or stomach pains, diarrhea or vomiting, or yellow skin or eyes people chronically affected cause liver cancer. Different doses can be treated the diseases like i.m, B.M. In different age group different doses are recommended according to schedule .Adverse effect are cause very rarely, some people can have a serious allergic reaction to the vaccine.

  15. Hepatitis G virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasiliy Ivanovich Reshetnyak; Tatiana Igorevna Karlovich; Ljudmila Urievna Ilchenko

    2008-01-01

    A number of new hepatitis viruses (G,TT,SEN) were discovered late in the past century.We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV),disclosed in the late 1990s,has been rather well studied.Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus.HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient.Until now,the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections,hematological diseases,and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an "accidental tourist" that is of no significance.The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV,and its induced experimental infection,as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine.

  16. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  17. Autoimmune hepatitis triggered by acute hepatitis A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroto Tanaka; Hiroto Tujioka; Hiroki Ueda; Hiroko Hamagami; Youhei Kida; Masakazu Ichinose

    2005-01-01

    The patient was a 57-year-old woman presenting with jaundice as the chief complaint. She began vomiting on July 10, 2003.Jaundice was noted and admitted to our hospital for thorough testing. Tests on admission indicated severe hepatitis, based on: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 1 076 IU/L; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 1 400 IU/L; total bilirubin (TB), 20.9 mg/dL; and prothrombin time rate (PT%), 46.9%. Acute hepatitis A (HA) was diagnosed based on negative hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus RNA and positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M HA antibody, but elevation of anti-nuclear antigen (×320) and IgG (3 112 mg/dL) led to suspicion of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Plasma exchange was performed for 3 d from July 17, and steroid pulse therapy was performed for 3 d starting on July 18, followed by oral steroid therapy. Liver biopsy was performed on August 5, and the results confirmed acute hepatitis and mild chronic inflammation. Levels of AST and ALT normalized,so dose of oral steroid was markedly reduced. Steroid therapy was terminated after 4 mo, as the patient had glaucoma. Starting 3 mo after cessation of steroid therapy,levels of AST and ALT began to increase again. Another liver biopsy was performed and AIH was diagnosed based on serum data and biopsy specimen. Oral steroid therapy was reinitiated. Levels of AST and ALT again normalized.The present case was thus considered to represent AIH triggered by acute HA.

  18. A Rare Hepatic Tumor; Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Akyildiz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary sarcomas of the liver account for about 1% of all liver tumors. Two basic histological forms of these sarcomas are hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and angiosarcoma. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a tumor of vascular origin that involves soft tissues and organs. Primary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver was first described by Ishak in 1984 and has an incidence of 1/100,000. We present a 68-year-old female case referred to the pathology department with an initial diagnosis of cholangiocellular carcinoma and diagnosed with primary hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with review of the literature.

  19. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  20. Hepatic Lipogenesis Associated with Biochemical Changes in Overfed Landaise Geese and China Xupu Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-you; HE Rui-guo; HUANG Chou-shen; LI Xiang; ZHOU Qi-an; WANG Cheng; ZHAO Na; ZHOU Shi-xia

    2006-01-01

    This experiment studied hepatic lipogenesis associated with biochemical changes in overfed Landaise Geese and China Xupu geese. Twenty healthy male Landaise geese and 20 healthy male Xupu geese, hatched on the same day under the same feeding conditions, were selected as experimental animals. The animals were divided into two groups and each breed served as an experimental group. Per goose of per experimental group served for a repeat. Brown rice was selected as test diet. After overfeeding for 21 d and then slaughtering, the biochemical changes of hepatic lipogenesis in the genetic susceptibility to fatty liver were evaluated. These results showed that (1) the weight of fatty liver of the two breeds of geese were 801 and 375 g (P<0.05), respectively. There were no differences on the abdominal fat pat, filet total and filet pectoralis major in the two breeds experimental of the geese group (P<0.05) and no difference on body and filet skin plus subcutaneous adipose tissue (P>0.05) was found; (2) in these two breeds of geese, there were no differences on very-lowdensity lipoprotein (VLDL), cholesteryl esters (CE) (P< 0.05), free cholesterol (FC), triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL) and protein (P<0.05); (3) there were no differences on activities of malic enzyme (ME), glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH), acetyl-CoA-carboxylas (ACX), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and mRNA level of ME in the two experimental breeds of geese groups (P < 0.05); (4) test in Landaise geese group showed that there was no significant correlation with the specific enzymatic activities, while in Xupu geese group, the liver weight was negatively correlated to the specific activity of ACX and positively to that of ME; (5) in these overfed geese, ME activity appeared to be a major factor involved in the genetic susceptibility to hepatic steatosis and it determined the hepatic lipogenesis capacity.

  1. Mechanisms and significance of liver steatosis in hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Negro

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of liver damage associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is thought to be largely immunomediated.However,some frequent histopathological features,such as steatosis,suggest a direct cytopathic effect of HCV.The direct responsibility of HCV in the pathogenesis of steatosis is shown by:(1) the association with HCV genotype 3 infection,suggesting that some viral sequences are involved in the intracellular accumulation of lipids;(2) the correlation between severity of steatosis and HCV replication levels; (3) association between response to treatment and disappearance of steatosis. Experimental studies have shown that the nucleocapsid protein of HCV (core protein) is capable and sufficient to induce lipid accumulation in hepatocytes.Moreover, the observation that chronic hepatitis C patients have reduced serum levels of ApoB suggests an interference with the very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly, although other mechanisms are possible. In patients with sustained virological response induced by antiviral therapy, such levels are normalized. Other observations suggest that the pathogenesis of steatosis in chronic hepatitis C is not solely due to HCV. The origin of the mild steatosis observed in most patients may be metabolic, since its severity correlates with body mass index and insulin resistance. Most studies have shown a correlation between presence and/or severity of steatosis and fibrosis stage, but it is unclear whether this effect is direct or mediated by the associated insulin resistance,increased susceptibility to apoptosis, or by inflammatory cytokines. Finally, steatosis negatively influences the rate of response to antiviral treatment, as confirmed by large clinical trials. Management of steatosis in chronic hepatitis C requires knowledge of its pathogenesis and may involve both life-style changes and pharmacological interventions, although the latter remain largely experimental.

  2. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K;

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  3. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  4. Pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) leads to a wide spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from an asymptomatic carrier state to self-limited acute or fulminant hepatitis to chronic hepatitis with progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Infection with HBV is one of the most common viral diseases affecting man. Both viral factors as well as the host immune response have been implicated in the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of HBV infection. In this review, we will discuss the impact of virus-host interactions for the pathogenesis of HBV infection and liver disease. These interactions include the relevance of naturally occurring viral variants for clinical disease, the role of virus-induced apoptosis for HBV-induced liver cell injury and the impact of antiviral immune responses for outcome of infection.

  5. Hepatitis C virus and type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Negro; Mahnaz Alaei

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the relationship between hepat it is Cvirus (HCV) infect ion and glucose metabolism derangements. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that the chronic HCV infection is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The direct effect of HCV on the insulin signaling has been analyzed in experimental models. Although currently available data should be considered as preliminary, HCV seems to affect glucose metabolism via mechanisms that involve cellular pathways that have been implicated in the host innate immune response. IR and T2D not only accelerate the histological and clinical progression of chronic hepatitis C, but also reduce the early and sustained virological response to interferonalpha-based therapy. Thus, a detailed knowledge of themechanisms underlying the HCV-associated glucose metabolism derangements is warranted, in order to improve the clinical management of chronic hepatitis C patients.

  6. A review of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of published literature on viral hepatitis infections in Pakistan is presented. A total of 220 abstracts available in the Pakmedinet and Medline have been searched. All relevant articles were reviewed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan. Two hundred and three (203) relevant articles/abstracts including twenty nine supporting references are included in this review. Of the articles on prevalence of hepatitis infection, seven were related to Hepatitis A, fifteen to Hepatitis E while the remaining articles were on frequency of hepatitis B and C in different disease and healthy population groups. These included eight studies on healthy children, three on vertical transmission, nineteen on pregnant women, fifteen on healthy individuals, six on army recruits, thirty one on blood donors, thirteen on health care workers, five on unsafe injections, seventeen on high risk groups, five on patients with provisional diagnosis of hepatitis, thirty three on patients with chronic liver disease, four on genotypes of HBV and five on genotypes of HCV. This review highlights the lack of community-based epidemiological work as the number of subjects studied were predominantly patients, high risk groups and healthy blood donors. High level of Hepatitis A seroconversion was found in children and this viral infection accounts for almost 50%- 60% of all cases of acute viral hepatitis in children in Pakistan. Hepatitis E is endemic in the country affecting mostly the adult population and epidemic situations have been reported from many parts of the country. The mean results of HBsAg and Anti-HCV prevalence on the basis of data aggregated from several studies was calculated which shows 2.3% and 2.5% prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV in children, 2.5% and 5.2% among pregnant women, 2.6% and 5.3% in general population, 3.5% and 3.1% in army recruits, 2.4% and 3.6% in blood donors, 6.0% and 5.4% in health care workers, 13.0% and 10.3% in high risk groups

  7. Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) for detection of hepatitis B virus in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis B is a blood-borne viral disease which affects more than 250 million people world-wide, mostly in the third world. The disease can cause fatal liver cancer in adult life, if infected when young. This deals with the laboratory techniques used in the detection of hepatitis B virus of the donor blood. Natural blood transfusion service of Sri Lanka screens the hepatitis B surface antigen using the RIA technique to find out whether the normal healthy donors without a history of hepatitis are infected with hepatitis B virus

  8. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  9. Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝菁华; 石军; 任万华; 韩国庆; 朱菊人; 王书运; 谢英渤

    2002-01-01

    Objective To document morphological changes in hepatic microcirculation in liver tissue with hepatitis B and the pathogenesis of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances. Methods Liver tissue samples were obtained from patients with hepatitis B by liver biopsy. These samples were examined with a light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances existed in patients with hepatitis B, including those with normal liver function, manifested by red blood cell aggregation in sinusoids seen under light microscope and sinusoidal capillarization seen under electron microscope. Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells were seen in 26 out of 53 cases. Intimate contacts were found between lymphocyte/Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells. Conclusions Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances exist in patients with hepatitis B .The appearance of Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells may be a key step in the development of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances.

  10. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sudeep

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG. However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce plasma lipids without inducing a fatty liver. Methods Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group were used for this experiment. Initially all guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 0.08 g/100 g dietary cholesterol for 3 wk. After this period, animals were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control, 0.0005 or 0.0015 g/100 g of MTPi for 4 wk. A diet containing 0.05 g/100 g of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was used as the positive control. At the end of the 7th week, guinea pigs were sacrificed to assess drug effects on plasma and hepatic lipids, composition of LDL and VLDL, hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Results Plasma LDL cholesterol and TG were 25 and 30% lower in guinea pigs treated with MTPi compared to controls (P Conclusion These results suggest that JTT-130 could have potential clinical applications due to its plasma lipid lowering effects with no alterations in hepatic lipid concentrations.

  11. Non-invasive means of measuring hepatic fat content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjeev R Mehta; E Louise Thomas; Jimmy D Bell; Desmond G Johnston; Simon D Taylor-Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis affects 20% to 30% of the general adult population in the western world. Currently, the technique of choice for determining hepatic fat deposition and the stage of fibrosis is liver biopsy. However, it is an invasive procedure and its use is limited, particularly in children. It may also be subject to sampling error. Non-invasive techniques such as ultrasound, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) can detect hepatic steatosis, but currently cannot distinguish between simple steatosis and steatohepatitis, or stage the degree of fibrosis accurately. Ultrasound is widely used to detect hepatic steatosis, but its sensitivity is reduced in the morbidly obese and also in those with small amounts of fatty infiltration. It has been used to grade hepatic fat content, but this is subjective. CT can detect hepatic steatosis, but exposes subjects to ionising radiation, thus limiting its use in longitudinal studies and in children. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) techniques using chemical shift imaging have provided a quantitative assessment of the degree of hepatic fatty infiltration, which correlates well with liver biopsy results in the same patients. Similarly, in vivo 1H MRS is a fast, safe, non-invasive method for the quantification of intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) levels. Both techniques will be useful tools in future longitudinal clinical studies, either in examining the natural history of conditions causing hepatic steatosis(e.g. non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), or in testing new treatments for these conditions.

  12. Impact of hepatitis B virus infection on hepatic metabolic signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yi-Xian; Huang, Chen-Jie; Yang, Zheng-Gang

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of epidemiologic research has demonstrated that metabolic derangement exists in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, indicating that there are clinical associations between HBV infection and host metabolism. In order to understand the complex interplay between HBV and hepatic metabolism in greater depth, we systematically reviewed these alterations in different metabolic signaling pathways due to HBV infection. HBV infection interfered with most aspects of hepatic metabolic responses, including glucose, lipid, nucleic acid, bile acid and vitamin metabolism. Glucose and lipid metabolism is a particular focus due to the significant promotion of gluconeogenesis, glucose aerobic oxidation, the pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid synthesis or oxidation, phospholipid and cholesterol biosynthesis affected by HBV. These altered metabolic pathways are involved in the pathological process of not only hepatitis B, but also metabolic disorders, increasing the occurrence of complications, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver steatosis. Thus, a clearer understanding of the hepatic metabolic pathways affected by HBV and its pathogenesis is necessary to develop more novel therapeutic strategies targeting viral eradication. PMID:27688657

  13. Impact of hepatitis B virus infection on hepatic metabolic signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yi-Xian; Huang, Chen-Jie; Yang, Zheng-Gang

    2016-09-28

    A growing body of epidemiologic research has demonstrated that metabolic derangement exists in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, indicating that there are clinical associations between HBV infection and host metabolism. In order to understand the complex interplay between HBV and hepatic metabolism in greater depth, we systematically reviewed these alterations in different metabolic signaling pathways due to HBV infection. HBV infection interfered with most aspects of hepatic metabolic responses, including glucose, lipid, nucleic acid, bile acid and vitamin metabolism. Glucose and lipid metabolism is a particular focus due to the significant promotion of gluconeogenesis, glucose aerobic oxidation, the pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid synthesis or oxidation, phospholipid and cholesterol biosynthesis affected by HBV. These altered metabolic pathways are involved in the pathological process of not only hepatitis B, but also metabolic disorders, increasing the occurrence of complications, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver steatosis. Thus, a clearer understanding of the hepatic metabolic pathways affected by HBV and its pathogenesis is necessary to develop more novel therapeutic strategies targeting viral eradication. PMID:27688657

  14. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  15. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  16. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  17. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  18. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  19. Hepatic rupture in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of hepatic rupture in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia and eclampsia) is rarely made preoperatively. Diagnostic imaging can be utilized in some patients to confirm the preoperative diagnosis. Since hematoma formation precedes hepatic rupture, then, when diagnostic modalities such as sonography and computed tomography identify patients with hematomas, these patients are at risk of rupture, and should be hospitalized until the hematomas resolve

  20. Hepatitis B dan Permasalahannya

    OpenAIRE

    Zain, Lukman Hakim

    2008-01-01

    Pada tahun 1965, Blumberg dan kawan- kawan di Philadelphia menemukan suatu antibodi pada pasien yang ditransfusi yang berasal dari suku Aborigin Australia, sehingga ant igen tersebut dikenal dengan nama Antigen Australia. Pada tahun 1977, Blumberg mendapat hadiah nobel untuk penemuannya itu. Sekarang antigen tersebut dikenal dengan nama hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Hepatitis B merupakan penyakit infeksi pada jaringan hati yang disebabkan oleh virus yang berasal da...

  1. Hepatic stem cell niches

    OpenAIRE

    Kordes, Claus; Häussinger, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell niches are special microenvironments that maintain stem cells and control their behavior to ensure tissue homeostasis and regeneration throughout life. The liver has a high regenerative capacity that involves stem/progenitor cells when the proliferation of hepatocytes is impaired. In recent years progress has been made in the identification of potential hepatic stem cell niches. There is evidence that hepatic progenitor cells can originate from niches in the canals...

  2. Hepatitis C in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a serious public health problem all over the world. It is caused by a single stranded RNA virus. Most acute infections are subclinical, but in 75% of individuals, infection leads to a chronic hepatitis, which in some cases can progress to cirrhosis and occasionally development of hepatoma. It has wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review article deals with the overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, management and prevention.

  3. Hepatic-directed Therapies in Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Andrew S

    2016-02-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract have a propensity for producing hepatic metastases. Most GI NETs arise from the foregut or midgut, are malignant, and can cause severe debilitating symptoms adversely affecting quality of life. Aggressive treatments to reduce symptoms have an important role in therapy. Patients with GI NETs usually present with inoperable metastatic disease and severe symptoms from a variety of hormones and biogenic amines. This article describes intra-arterial hepatic-directed therapies for metastases from NETs, a group of treatments in which the therapeutic and/or embolic agents are released intra-arterially in specific hepatic vessels to target tumors. PMID:26614377

  4. Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Hepatic Steatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓威

    2004-01-01

    @@ Hepatic steatosis is not a nosologic entity, but a kind of fatty degeneration of the liver caused mainly by obesity and alcoholism, followed by nutritional disorder, diabetes, drug intoxication, pregnancy and heredity. The incidence of hepatic steatosis in Chinese adults is about 15-20%. It can affect the liver function, and develops into hepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver. As more than 25% patients are asymptomatic or with nonspecific symptoms, a timely and correct diagnosis and treatment is very important in clinical practice.

  5. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  6. Association between Celiac Disease and Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Ashish; Reddy, Chandrasekhar; Duseja, Ajay; Chawla, Yogesh; Radha K. Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease affects the proximal small intestine and is caused by a local immune response to dietary gluten. Celiac disease usually presents with chronic diarrhea; however, presentations with elevated hepatic transaminase levels in blood or with iron-deficiency anemia have been described. Celiac disease has been reported to be associated with autoimmune liver diseases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can also initiate autoimmune disease process. Therefore, HCV infection and celiac disease may occu...

  7. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  8. Hepatitis viruses: Changing patterns of human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, R H

    1994-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a disease of antiquity, but evidence for more than one etiologic agent has been recognized only since the 1940s, when two viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus) were thought to account for all disease. In the past 20 years, three additional hepatitis agents (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus) have been discovered, and there is evidence for at least one additional virus. Each of the five recognized hepatitis viruses belongs to a different...

  9. Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, and VDRL seroprevalence of blood donors in Mersin, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Seva; YAPICI, Gülçin; Şaşmaz, Caferi Tayyar; KURT, Ahmet Öner; BUĞDAYCI, Resul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and affecting factors of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), anti human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV), and VDRL in blood donors in Mersin. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive study. All blood centers in Mersin were included in the study. The medical records of 30,716 blood donors were evaluated. The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, linear-by-linear ass...

  10. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  11. 营养限制与补偿对蒙古育成羯羊肝脏关键酶活性的影响%Feed Restriction and Realimentation Affect Activities of Hepatic Key Enzymes in Mongolia Growing Wethers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永霞; 侯先志; 王海荣; 高爱武; 李俊良; 杨金丽

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of feed restriction and realimentation on the activities of hepatic key enzymes in Mongolia growing wethers. Forty three-month-old growing wethers with an average body weight of (14. 72 ± 1. 10) kg were selected and divided into 2 groups (control group and restricted group). The feeding trial included a 60-d feed restriction period and a 90-d feed realimentation period. The metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) content in diets were 8. 62 MJ/kg and 5.7% for restricted group and were 10. 88 MJ/kg and 15. 0% for the control group during the feed restriction period. All growing wethers were offered the same diet (ME: 9. 75 MJ/kg; CP: 12% ) during the feed realimentation period. At the end of feed restriction and realimentation period, the activities of hexokinase (HK) , pyruvate ki-nase ( PK) , lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH) , fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase ( FBP1) , malate dehydrogenase (MDH) , α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase ( GAPDH) , alanine aminotransferase ( ALT) , aspartate amin-otransferase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) in liver in each group were examined. The results showed that the activities of hepatic HK, ALT, AST, GLDH of restricted group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P 0. 05). These results indicate that the activities of key enzymes in the glycolysis and protein metabolism are decreased, and the activities of key enzymes in gluconeogenesis and lipolysis are increased. That may be related to the strengthening of fat mobilization during the feed restriction period. The activities of key enzymes in protein metabolism are decreased which means to decrease protein metabolism during the feed restriction period. At the end of realimentation period, the activities of key enzymes in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism are recovered to the level of control group, while the activities of hepatic PK and key enzymes in fat synthesis and protein

  12. Quasispecies of Hepatitis B Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun; Cheng; Min; Quan; Min; Li; Shun-ai; Liu; Qi; Wang

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) circulates in blood and replicates in the presence of quasispecies. During HBV replication, HBV DNA polymerase lacks fidelity and proofreading function partly because its exonuclease activity is either absent or deficient. Therefore, HBV genome is mutated with unusually high frequency. And these mutations can affect more than one open reading frame due to overlapping genes. Otherwise, natural substitutions, deletions or insertions involving the Cp/ENⅡ locus in the X gene can significantly alter the extent of viral replication activity. Particular selection pressures such as host immune system and antiviral therapy readily select out escape mutants from this pre-existing quasispecies pool. Antiviral drug resistance in chronic hepatitis B(CHB) can be caused by the viral mutation frequency, the intrinsic mutability of the antiviral target site, the selective pressure exerted by the drug, the magnitude and rate of virus replication, the overall replication fitness of the mutant, the genetic barrier of the compound and the availability of replication space. Potent inhibition of HBV replication could be able to prevent the development of drug resistance because mutagenesis is replication dependent. Viral load may decline to a point where the continued production of quasispecies with the potential to resist new drug treatments no longer occurs, if viral replication can be suppressed for a sufficient length of time.

  13. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,781 (2013) Number of new ...

  14. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  15. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  16. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  17. Hepatitis virus vaccines: present status.

    OpenAIRE

    Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extraordinary progress toward the development of vaccines for the prevention of type A and type B hepatitis. The successful propagation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 was followed by the preparation of experimental live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines that have been shown to induce antibody in marmosets and chimpanzees and protect immunized marmosets against challenge with hepatitis A virus. The first human immunization trials will begin in ...

  18. Historical reflections on autoimmune hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Ian R.

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), initially known as chronic active or active chronic hepatitis (and by various other names), first came under clinical notice in the late 1940s. However, quite likely, chronic active hepatitis (CAH) had been observed prior to this and was attributed to a persistently destructive virus infection of the liver. An earlier (and controversial) designation in 1956 as lupoid hepatitis was derived from associated L.E. cell test positivity and emphasized accompanying multisy...

  19. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  20. Hepatic angiography: Portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portal hypertension is usually a manifestation of underlying hepatic parenchymal disease, although it may be secondary to portal or hepatic venous thrombosis and rarely to hyperdynamic portal states. Portal hypertension may present as encephalopathy, ascites, jaundice, hepatic failure, or catastrophic upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Radiologic investigation should include indirect or direct measurements of portal pressure, assessment of portal venous perfusion, visualization of collaterals, and demonstration of arterial and venous anatomy for potential shunt procedure. Following survival of initial variceal bleeding, the most effective procedure to prevent recurrent hemorrhage is a shunt to decompress the varices. The decision whether to intervene medically or surgically during the acute hemorrhagic episode as well as the type of shunt used to prevent future hemorrhage is the subject of continuing controversy

  1. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkering, Frank

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to be caused by hepatitis B and none by hepatitis A. One or more viruses other than hepatitis A or B were suspected to be the cause of the remaining 75% of post-transfusion hepatitis. Initially, this...

  2. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashis Mukhopadhya

    2008-11-01

    Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India and an important pathogen causing liver disease in India. The high risk of chronicity of this blood-borne infection and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma underscores its public health importance. Blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic interventions by infected needles are two preventable modalities of spread of hepatitis C infection. In addition, risk factor modification by reducing the number of intravenous drug users will help curtail the prevalence of this infection. This review summarizes the extent, nature and implications of this relatively new pathogen in causing disease in India.

  3. Complementary and alternative medications in hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dina; L; Halegoua-De; Marzio; Jonathan; M; Fenkel

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C(CHC) infection affects almost 3% of the global population and can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma in a significant number of those infected. Until recently, the only treatments available were pegylated interferon and ribavirin, which traditionally were not very effective and have considerable side effects. For this reason, interest in complementary and alternative medications(CAM) in the management of hepatitis C has been investigated. Some CAM has demonstrated therapeutic potential in chronic hepatitis C treatment. Unfortunately, some CAM has been shown to have the potential to cause drug-induced liver injury. This article will review and evaluate many of the natural molecules that interact with the hepatitis C virus(HCV) life cycle and discuss their potential use and safety in HCV therapy, as well as highlight some important interactions between medical and complementary treatments.

  4. Hepatitis C and insulin action: An intimate relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has beenshown to be linked to a higher prevalence of type 2diabetes compared with the general population or withpatients with chronic hepatitis B infection and diabetesis the most common extra-hepatic manifestation ofHCV. The HCV-diabetes association is due to insulinresistance (IR) that occurs early in the course of thedisease even in patients without or with minimal fibrosis.The mechanisms for HCV-induced IR are only partlyunderstood and include a direct inhibitory effect of HCVon insulin signaling pathway. IR in chronic HCV resultsin an increased progression rate of hepatic fibrosis,cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Some but notall studies found that IR reduces the response rate tointerferon/ribavirin therapy. Whether IR affects theresponse to the new direct-acting antiviral treatments isstill unknown.

  5. Pattern recognition receptor responses in children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ida Louise; Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Paludan, Søren Riis;

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects the expression and function of Toll like receptors (TLRs), but data on TLR function in HBV infection are mainly from adult patients. The natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is distinctly different in children...

  6. 13.3.Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920335 Prognostic evaluation of severe vir-al hepatitis.WU Yuzhang (吴玉章),et al.DeptEpidemic,3rd Milit Med Univ,Chongqing 630038.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31(1):18-20.The Cox’s regression model was used for

  7. Hepatitis A FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... there are poor sanitary conditions or poor personal hygiene. The food and drinks most likely to be contaminated are ... restaurant has Hepatitis A. However, if an infected food handler is infectious and has poor hygiene, the risk goes up for patrons of that ...

  8. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease.

  9. Hepatitis C in Hemophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthouwer, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hemophilia. In our study with a follow-up of 35 years, we found that the risk for end-stage liver disease (liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver-related death) was 12% for HIV negative, and 35% for HIV coinfected patient

  10. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism unde

  11. Hepatitis B e Antigen-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2006-12-01

    increase HBV replication. The significant nucleotide and amino acid divergence in the core promoter and precore region and its link to hepatitis B disease activity is well documented in some studies for example Bozdaie et al31 suggested that an active immune response of the host to viral epitopes localized in core promoterregion may play an essential role and may thus have clinical significant(32-35. But some studies (36 found that no significant correlation exists between core promoter and precore mutations, viral replication and liver damage in chronic hepatitis B infection. Briefly different studies found different results.These findings suggest that geographical differences represented possibly by both viral (e.g. the predominant HBV genotype and host factors (e.g. HLA type? may influence the occurrence of these mutations (31.In 2002, Funk et al reviewed 50 of 281 research articles potentially related to e-CHB by a literature search; and suggested some major sources of variability in these articles. Apart from the geographical location and predominant HBV genotype, various factors may affect the prevalence of e-CHB including gender, age, treatment history, and duration of infection. Because all of these factors vary between studies, comparing the results of one study with another or combining the results of several studies from the same region may not be appropriate. In order to better understand the complex interplay between these factors and the development of e-CHB, sufficiently large studies using multivariate techniques to adjust for these potential confounders are needed (13. It is important to know whether determination of precore and core promoter mutations may help in predicting the different outcomes along the course of HBeAg to anti HBe seroconversion (37. But to date no clinical or virological factor has been identified which accurately predicts the risk of disease in patients with e-CHB.ManagementSome studies suggest that the HBeAg negative variants may be

  12. Ekstrahepatiske manifestationer af hepatitis C-virus-infektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Malene

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C does not only affect the liver, but also manifests outside the liver. The skin, kidneys and nervous system are often involved due to mixed cryoglobulinaemia. Porphyria cutanea tarda, lymphoma and thyroid diseases among others can also attend a chronic infection, but the exact pathogen......Hepatitis C does not only affect the liver, but also manifests outside the liver. The skin, kidneys and nervous system are often involved due to mixed cryoglobulinaemia. Porphyria cutanea tarda, lymphoma and thyroid diseases among others can also attend a chronic infection, but the exact...

  13. Hepatitis C und Psyche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C ist ein globales gesundheitliches Problem und eine der häufigsten infektiösen Erkrankungen weltweit. Nur die Hälfte der Betroffenen leidet nach einer Infektion unter Symptomen, die sie ärztliche Hilfe aufsuchen läßt, weshalb es oft Zufallsbefunde sind, die zu einer Diagnose führen. Die häufigsten Beschwerden der Betroffenen in frühen Stadien der Erkrankung sind unspezifisch und führen zu einer reduzierten Lebensqualität mit verminderter Leistungsfähigkeit und psychischer Beeinträchtigung. Wird dann die Diagnose gestellt, fühlen sich die Patienten durch die infektiöse Erkrankung häufig stigmatisiert, manche leiden unter immensen Schuldgefühlen und viele erleben ihre Erkrankung als fatal. In zahlreichen Studien konnte gezeigt werden, daß Patienten mit Hepatitis C unter einer deutlich reduzierten Lebensqualität sowie häufigen Depressionen und Angstsymptomen leiden, welche durch die derzeit gängige Therapie der Hepatitis C mit Interferon-alpha und Ribavirin zusätzlich induziert oder noch verstärkt werden können. Aber mehrere Studien weisen auch darauf hin, daß die Lebensqualität der Betroffenen weniger mit dem Grad der Hepatitis als mit den psychosozialen Folgen wie der psychiatrischen Co-Morbidität, dem Krankheitsverstehen und den krankheitsbezogenen Sorgen wie Stigmatisierung korreliert. Umso wichtiger scheint nach Mitteilung der Diagnose die Evaluation der psychosozialen Situation der Betroffenen. Abgesehen von einer medikamentösen Therapie der Hepatitis ist es entsprechend dem bio-psycho-sozialen Modell der Erkrankung daher wichtig, bei Bedarf eine integrierte psychosomatische Betreuung anzubieten und/oder eine interdisziplinäre Kooperation mit FachärztInnen der Psychiatrie zu etablieren.

  14. Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

    Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

  15. Operative treatment of hepatic trauma in Vachira Phuket Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanaprasan, Thanong

    2005-03-01

    Descriptive study of an 8-year period, 211 patients with hepatic trauma were studied retrospectively. Most of the patients were male (81.5%). Patients mainly affected were in the third decade of life (46.9%) with an age range of 2 to 65 years old (Mean 26.1 +/- 9.8). Fifty four percent resulted from blunt and 46.4% from penetrating injuries. The most common cause of injuries was motorcycle accidents (41.2%). The injuries were graded by the hepatic injury scale (grades I to VI). There were 22 (10.4%), 62 (29.4%), 70 (33.2%), 27 (12.8%), 28 (13.3%) and 2 (0.9%) patients with grade I, II, III, IV, V and VI hepatic injuries, respectively. Forty seven percent of patients were in shock when they first arrived at the emergency room. One hundred and sixty five patients (78.2%) had 375 associated injuries. Seventy three percent of patients had low grade hepatic injuries (grades I to III), the remainder (27%) had high grade hepatic injuries (grades IV to VI). Operative treatment of hepatic injuries varied according to degree of injury. Low grade hepatic injuries amenable to relatively simple operative treatment. Nineteen deaths (12.3%) occurring in this group were attributed to the commonly encountered associated injuries inside and outside the abdomen, which were more frequently seen after blunt trauma (89.5%). High-grade hepatic injuries required major techniques. Thirty four of these patients died (59.6%), death was related to the injury itself (91.2%), which were more frequently seen after blunt trauma (85%). During operation, suture ligature of the bleeding point, or hepatorrhaphy stopped the bleeding in most circumstances. Perihepatic packing was a useful procedure when termination of the operation was considered necessary in order to prevent the development of hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy. Perihepatic packing was used for treatment of 73% of high grade hepatic injuries and yielded 65.5% survival rate. The results were 59 patients had complication (morbidity

  16. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J;

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  17. The Economic Burden of Hepatitis A, B, and C in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Changwoo; Choi, Hyung-Yun; Shim, Jae-Jun; Park, So-Youn; Lee, Kyung Suk; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Oh, In-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis in South Korea is relatively high compared to that in other high-income countries. For this reason, viral hepatitis infection not only affects the population's health, but also impacts national healthcare costs. This study was performed in order to estimate the individual economic costs of the hepatitis A, B, and C viruses as well as to determine, using nationally representative data, the trends in South Korea with respect to these viruses during the 2008-2011 period. The study found that the prevalence of hepatitis A had decreased, but those of hepatitis B and C had increased overall. The mortality rate of hepatitis C was higher than that of the other two types. The mortality rate of hepatitis B had changed little, whereas that of hepatitis C had risen. The total cost of hepatitis A had decreased, from US $62.2 million to US $45.7 million, although a notable exception occurred in 2009, when the cost was US $126.6 million. Conversely, the total cost of hepatitis B had increased rapidly during the same period, from US $501.4 million to US $607.8 million. Finally, the total cost of hepatitis C had also increased from US $63.9 million to US $90.7 million. The direct costs of hepatitis A, B, and C were estimated to account for approximately 35.5%, 46.6%, and 58.0% of the total, respectively. These findings demonstrate the economic burden associated with hepatitis A, B, and C, and demonstrate the need to establish an effective prevention and management policy for future planning in South Korea.

  18. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Kuo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old Taiwanese man presented with dark urine for 5 days before admission to hospital and with fever on the 2nd day of admission to hospital. Laboratory studies showed acute hepatitis with hyperbilirubinemia. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection was diagnosed. The fever subsided after treatment with ceftriaxone and cefepime. His serum bilirubin reached its peak value on the 3rd week after admission to hospital and then gradually returned to the normal range. To the best of our knowledge, acute hepatitis E coinfection with nontyphoidal salmonella has not been reported previously.

  19. Fulminant hepatic failure secondary to primary hepatic angiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Aisien, Efe; Mba, Benjamin; Chennuri, Rohini; Sekosan, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  20. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  1. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  2. Gut microbiota and hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Radha K

    2013-06-01

    There is a strong relationship between liver and gut; while the portal venous system receives blood from the gut, and its contents may affect liver functions, liver in turn, affects intestinal functions through bile secretion. There is robust evidence that the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is linked to alterations in gut microbiota and their by-products such as ammonia, indoles, oxindoles, endotoxins, etc. In the setting of intestinal barrier and immune dysfunction, these by-products are involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis including HE and systemic inflammation plays an important role. Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics may exhibit efficacy in the treatment of HE by modulating the gut flora. They improve derangement in flora by decreasing the counts of pathogenic bacteria and thus improving the endotoxemia, HE and the liver disease. Current evidence suggest that the trials evaluating the role of probiotics in the treatment of HE are of not high quality and all trials had high risk of bias and high risk of random errors. Therefore, the use of probiotics for patients with HE cannot be currently recommended. Further RCTs are required. This review summarizes the main literature findings about the relationships between gut flora and HE, both in terms of the pathogenesis and the treatment of HE.

  3. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased

  4. Primary hepatic sarcomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ri-Sheng; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Biao; Wang, Liu-Hong [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiu-Fang [Zhejiang Medical College, Teaching and Research Group of Radiology, Hangzhou (China)

    2008-10-15

    Primary hepatic sarcomas are rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose clinically. Different primary hepatic sarcomas may have different clinical, morphologic, and radiological features. In this pictorial review, we summarized computed tomography (CT) findings of some relatively common types of hepatic sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE), liposarcoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES), leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), and carcinosarcoma (including cystadenocarcinosarcoma). To our knowledge, hepatic cystadenocarcinosarcoma has not been described in the English literature. The CT findings in our case are similar to that of cystadenocarcinoma, a huge, multilocular cystic mass with a large mural nodule and solid portion. The advent of CT has allowed earlier detection of primary hepatic sarcomas as well as more accurate diagnosis and characterization. In addition, we briefly discuss the MRI findings and diagnostic value of primary hepatic sarcomas. (orig.)

  5. 13.3.Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930316 An etiological study on fulminant viralhepatitis.ZHAO Yourong (赵有容),et al.Chongqing Med Univ,630010.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31(11):686—688.Viral markers were studied in 79 cases of vi-ral hepatitis with hepatic failure.The resultswere shown as follows:8 cases were positivefor anti—HAV IgM (10.12%);76 cases posi-tive for HBsAg or anti—HBc IgM (96.20%)and 41 cases positive for anti—HCV antibodies(51.89%).Among those with anti—HCV posi-tive,35 cases were co-infected with HBV,5cases with HAV and/or HCV,only one was in-

  6. Hepatic surgical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Mirilas, Petros

    2004-04-01

    The liver, the largest organ in the body, has been misunderstood at nearly all levels of organization, and there is a tendency to ignore details that do not fit the preconception. A complete presentation of the surgical anatomy of the liver includes the study of hepatic surfaces, margins, and fissures; the various classifications of lobes and segments; and the vasculature and lymphatics. A brief overview of the intrahepatic biliary tract is also presented.

  7. Cholestatic hepatitis with intravenous ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderpal Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced liver injury is a major health problem. Its predominant forms include acute hepatitis, cholestasis, and a mixed pattern. Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin and is widely used in the postoperative period due to its wider spectrum, longer half-life, and better tissue penetrability. Earlier cases of high aminotransferase levels and hepatitis have also been reported with the use of ceftriaxone. Here we report a case of cholestatic hepatitis with intravenous ceftriaxone.

  8. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-01-01

    Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, ...

  9. The right hepatic artery syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazumi Miyashita; Katsuya Shiraki; Takeshi Ito; Hiroki Taoka; Takeshi Nakano

    2005-01-01

    Various benign and malignant conditions could cause biliary obstruction. Compression of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) by right hepatic artery was reported as a right hepatic artery syndrome but all cases were compressed EBD from stomach side. Our case compressed from dorsum was not yet reported, so it was thought to be a very rare case. We present here the first case of bile duct obstruction due to the compression of EBD from dorsum by right hepatic artery.

  10. Cytomegalovirus hepatitis and myopericarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leire Zubiaurre; Eva Zapata; Luis Bujanda; María Castillo; Igor Oyarzabal; Maria A Gutiérrez-Stampa; Angel Cosme

    2007-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in inmunocompetent hosts generally is asymptomatic or may present as a mononucleosis syndrome but rarely can lead to severe organ complications. We report a case of simultaneous hepatic and pericardic CMV infection in a 36-year old immunocompetent man. He was admitted to coronary unit with fever, chest pain radiated to shoulders,changes on electrocardiogram with diffuse ST elevation and modest laboratory elevations in the MB fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB) of 33.77 μg/L (0.1-6.73), serum cardiac troponin T of 0.904 ng/mL (0-0.4), creatine kinase of 454 U/L (20-195) and myoglobin of 480.4 μg/L (28-72). Routine laboratory test detected an elevation of aminotransferase level: alanine aminotransferase 1445 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase 601 U/L. We ruled out other causes of hepatitis with normal results except IgM CMV. The patient was diagnosed with myopericarditis and hepatitis caused by cytomegalovirus and started symptomatic treatment with salicylic acid. In few days the laboratory findings became normal and the patient was discharged.

  11. INFLUENCE OF PERI-ARTERIAL HEPATIC DENERVATION ON THE GLYCEMIC RESPONSE TO EXERCISE IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LINDFELDT, J; BALKAN, B; VANDIJK, G; SCHEURINK, A; AHREN, B; STEFFENS, AB

    1993-01-01

    Exercise is known to increase hepatic glucose production. Previous studies have suggested that the sympathetic nerves only marginally contribute to this process. This study examined whether increased catecholamine response or increased adrenoceptor sensitivity might have affected previous results sh

  12. Aetiopathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Vergani; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani

    2008-01-01

    The histological hallmark of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a dense portal mononuclear cell infiltrate that invades the surrounding parenchyma and comprises T and B lymphocytes,macrophages,and plasma cells.An unknown but powerful stimulus must be promoting the formation of this massive inflammatory cellular reaction that is likely to initiate and perpetuate liver damage.An autoimmune attack can follow different pathways to inflict damage on hepatocytes.Liver damage is likely to be orchestrated by CD4+T lymphocytes recognizing an autoantigenic liver peptide.To trigger an autoimmune response,the peptide must be embraced by an HLA class Ⅱ molecule and presented to naive CD4+T helper (Th0) cells by professional antigen presenting cells,with the co-stimulation of ligand-ligand fostering interaction between the two cells.Th0 cells become activated,differentiate into functional phenotypes according to the cytokines prevailing in the microenvironment and the nature of the antigen,and initiate a cascade of immune reactions determined by the cytokines produced by the activated T cells.Th1 cells,arising in the presence of the macrophage-derived interleukin (IL)-12,secrete mainly IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ),which activate macrophages,enhance expression of HLA class Ⅰ (increasing liver cell vulnerability to a CD8+T cell cytotoxic attack),and induce expression of HLA class Ⅱ molecules on hepatocytes.Th2 cells,which differentiate from Th0 if the microenvironment is rich in IL-4,produce mainly IL-4,IL-10,and IL-13 which favour autoantibody production by B lymphocytes.Physiologically,Th1 and Th2 antagonize each other.Th17 cells,a recently described population,arise in the presence of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and IL-6 and appear to have an important effector role in inflammation and autoimmunity.The process of autoantigen recognition is strictly controlled by regulatory mechanisms,such as those exerted by CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells,which derive from Th0

  13. Segmental Difference of the Hepatic Fibrosis from Chronic Viral Hepatitis due to Hepatitis B versus C Virus Infection: Comparison Using Dual Contrast Material-Enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Ho; Yu, Jeong Sik; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    We wanted to identify the geographic differences in hepatic fibrosis and their associations with the atrophy-hypertrophy complex in patients with chronic viral hepatitis using the dual-contrast material-enhanced MRI (DC-MRI) with gadopentetate dimeglumine and ferucarbotran. Patients with chronic C (n = 22) and B-viral hepatitis (n = 35) were enrolled for determining the subjective grade of fibrosis (the extent and thickness of fibrotic reticulations) in the right lobe (RL), the caudate lobe (CL), the medial segment (MS) and the lateral segment (LS) of the liver, with using a 5-grade scale, on the gradient echo T2-weighted images of DC-MRI. The fibrosis grades of different segments were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by post-hoc analysis to establish the segment-by-segment differences. The incidences of two pre-established morphologic signs of cirrhosis were also compared with each other between the two groups of patients. There were significant intersegmental differences in fibrosis grades of the C-viral group (p = 0.005), and the CL showed lower fibrosis grades as compared with the grades of the RL and MS, whereas all lobes were similarly affected in the B-viral group (p = 0.221). The presence of a right posterior hepatic notch was significantly higher in the patients with intersegmental differences of fibrosis between the RL and the CL (19 out of 25, 76%) than those without such differences (6 out of 32, 19%) (p < 0.001). An expanded gallbladder fossa showed no significant relationship (p = 0.327) with the segmental difference of the fibrosis grades between the LS and the MS. The relative lack of fibrosis in the CL with more advanced fibrosis in the RL can be a distinguishing feature to differentiate chronic C-viral hepatitis from chronic B-viral hepatitis and this is closely related to the presence of a right posterior hepatic notch.

  14. Hepatite E Hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Paraná

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da hepatite E (VHE é o segundo vírus de transmissão fecal-oral com hepatotropismo confirmado, após o vírus da hepatite A. As grandes epidemias de hepatite das décadas de 50 e 60 na Índia foram causadas pelo VHE. Observaram-se surtos da infecção na África Central, América Latina, Oriente Médio e Repúblicas independentes da ex-União Soviética. O quadro clínico da doença assemelha-se ao de outras hepatites virais. Não há casos descritos de hepatite E crônicas. Cerca de 20% das mulheres que adquirem a doença durante a gravidez desenvolvem formas graves, com insuficiência hepática fulminante. Confirma-se o diagnóstico quando se encontra no soro anticorpos (método de ELISA das classes IgM (fase aguda e/ou IgG (curados. O imunoblot e o PCR-RNA podem ser usados quando necessário. Não há tratamento específico. O uso de imunoglobulina hiperimune tem sido aconselhado por alguns autores. A prevenção se faz pelos cuidados higiênicos e dietéticos habituais. Não há vacina eficaz contra a doença.Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the second most frequent hepatotropic virus transmitted via fecal-oral route, following closely behind hepatitis A virus. The great epidemics of hepatitis described during the 50s and 60s, in India, were caused by this virus. Epidemic bursts have also been described in Central Africa, Latin America, Middle East and in the independent Republics of the ex-Soviet Union. The clinical features of the disease do not differ from those reported for other viral hepatitides. There have been no cases of chronic hepatitis E reported. Around 20% of women infected during pregnancy develop a severe form of hepatitis which courses to liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis is confirmed when antibodies (using ELISA of the IgM class (acute phase and/or IgG (infected and cured are found in the serum. Immunoblot and PCR-RNA may be used as necessary. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis E. Hyperimmune serum has

  15. Prevention and management of chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection affects an estimated 370 million people worldwide. HBV is endemic throughout the world, and insidiously causes liver damage over years and decades without any warning symptoms or signs. Up to 25-35% of infected individuals eventually die due to complications of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC induced by HBV. Screening those individuals at risk of acquiring hepatitis B, and universal vaccination for prevention, would help in limiting the spread and public health repercussions of the virus. Although many new antiviral therapies have been developed for the management of hepatitis B, they still do not offer the possibility of cure. Most individuals who begin oral suppressive therapy will be indefinitely treated. Continuous suppression of HBV replication in individuals with advanced liver disease prolongs life, decreases the need for liver transplantation, and potentially reduces the risk for HCC. In this clinical review, we present a practical approach to prevention of HBV, its natural history and life cycle, as well as its management.

  16. Prevalence and epidemiology of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Kirsten Muri

    2002-08-01

    The incidence and characteristics of AIH differ in various geographic regions. Based on limited epidemiologic studies, the incidence of type 1 AIH among Caucasoid populations of Europe and North America ranges from 0.1 to 1.9/100,000/year. The disease is considerably less frequent in Japan. The relative proportion of AIH among cases with chronic hepatitis is low in regions with a high prevalence of viral hepatitis. Type 2 AIH is more frequent in southern Europe than in northern Europe, the United States, and Japan. The occurrence of anti-SLA/LP is also higher in European than in Japanese patients with type 1 AIH. The frequency of HLA markers that affect susceptibility to AIH varies between ethnic groups. DRB1*0301 (DR3) and DRB1*0401 (DR4) are the major risk factors for type 1 AIH in white European and North American populations. DRB1*0405 (DR4) is the principal risk factor in Japanese and adult Argentine patients with type 1 AIH, and DRB1*0404 (DR4) is the main susceptibility allele in Mestizo Mexicans. Children may have different clinical manifestations than adults, and the diagnoses of type 2 AIH, autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, and APS1 should be considered. Uniform application of diagnostic criteria formulated by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group should strengthen future epidemiologic studies and extend awareness of AIH to yet unstudied minority groups.

  17. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  18. Chronic hepatitis C is a common associated with hepatic granulomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ned Snyder; Juan G Martinez; Shu-Yuan Xiao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the most frequent etiologies of hepatic epithelioid granulomas, and whether there was an association with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Both a retrospective review of the pathol-ogy database of liver biopsies at our institution from 1996 through 2006 as well as data from a prospective study of hepatic fibrosis markers and liver biopsies from 2003 to 2006 were reviewed to identify cases of hepatic epithelioid granulomas. Appropriate charts, liver biopsy slides, and laboratory data were reviewed to determine all possible associations. The diagnosis of HCV was based on a positive HCV RNA. RESULTS: There were 4578 liver biopsies and 36 (0.79%) had at least one epithelioid granuloma. HCV was the most common association. Fourteen patients had HCV, and in nine, there were no concurrent condi-tions known to be associated with hepatic granulomas. Prior interferon therapy and crystalloid substances from illicit intravenous injections did not account for the finding. There were hepatic epithelioid granulomas in 3 of 241 patients (1.24%) with known chronic HCV enrolled in the prospective study of hepatic fibrosis markers. CONCLUSION: Although uncommon, hepatic granu-Iomas may be part of the histological spectrum of chronic HCV. When epithelioid granulomas are found on the liver biopsy of someone with HCV, other clini-cally appropriate studies should be done, but if nothing else is found, the clinician can be comfortable with an HCV association.

  19. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Infections and Hepatitis B Vaccination in Pediatric Patients on Haemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Mustafa; Aksu, Nejat; Caner KABASAKAL; Cura, Alphan

    1993-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence hepatitis B surfage antigen other hepatitis B markers anti HCV antibodies the variations during the course of haemodialysis and immun response to a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in children with chronic renal failure on haemodialysis nbsp; 54 patients 26 males and 28 females median age 12 1±2 7 years range 5 16 years treated with haemodialysis for median of 12 9±13 9 months were studied All hepatitis markers were detected in serum by an e...

  20. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions,and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accuracy for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. Based on available data, the performance of simple tests derived from routine laboratory parameters appears to be similar to that of more complex and expensive fibrosis panels. Transient elastography seems more accurate than blood tests for diagnosing cirrhosis.

  1. Links between human LINE-1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tomoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 80% of liver cancers, the third most frequent cause of cancer mortality. The most prevalent risk factors for HCC are infections by hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Findings suggest that hepatitis virus-related HCC might be a cancer in which LINE-1 retrotransposons, often termed L1, activity plays a potential role. Firstly, hepatitis viruses can suppress host defense factors that also control L1 mobilization. Secondly, many recent studies also have indicated that hypomethylation of L1 affects the prognosis of HCC patients. Thirdly, endogenous L1 retrotransposition was demonstrated to activate oncogenic pathways in HCC. Fourthly, several L1 chimeric transcripts with host or viral genes are found in hepatitis virus-related HCC. Such lines of evidence suggest a linkage between L1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related HCC. Here, I briefly summarize current understandings of the association between hepatitis virus-related HCC and L1. Then, I discuss potential mechanisms of how hepatitis viruses drive the development of HCC via L1 retrotransposons. An increased understanding of the contribution of L1 to hepatitis virus-related HCC may provide unique insights related to the development of novel therapeutics for this disease.

  2. Hepatitis E:An overview and recent advances in vaccine research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Wang; Hui Zhuang

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an unclassified, small, nonenveloped RNA virus, as a causative agent of acute hepatitis E that is transmitted principally via the fecal-oral route. The virus can cause large water-born epidemics of the disease and sporadic cases as well. Hepatitis E occurs predominantly in developing countries, usually affecting young adults, with a high fatality rate up to 15-20% in pregnant women.However, no effective treatment currently exists for hepatitis E, and the only cure is prevention. But so far there are no commercial vaccines for hepatitis E available in the world.Although at least four major genotypes of HEV have been identified to date, only one serotype of HEV is recognized.So there is a possibility to produce a broadly protective vaccine. Several studies for the development of an effective vaccine against hepatitis E are in progress and the best candidate at present for a hepatitis E vaccine is a recombinant HEV capsid antigen expressed in insect cells from a baculovirus vector. In this article, the recent advances of hepatitis E and the development of vaccine research for HEV including recombinant protein vaccine, DNA vaccine and the recombinant hepatitis E virus like particles (rHEV VLPs) are briefly reviewed.

  3. Opposing Effects of Prednisolone Treatment on T/NKT Cell- and Hepatotoxin-mediated Hepatitis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyo-Jung; Won, Young-Suk; Park, Ogyi; Feng, Dechun; Gao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Prednisolone is a corticosteroid that has been used to treat inflammatory liver diseases, such as autoimmune hepatitis and alcoholic hepatitis. However, the results have been controversial, and how prednisolone affects liver disease progression remains unknown. In the current study, we examined the effect of prednisolone treatment on several models of liver injury, including T/NKT cell hepatitis induced by concanavalin A (ConA) and α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), and hepatotoxin-mediated hep...

  4. The why and wherefore of hepatic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover VPB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vijay PB Grover, Joshua M Tognarelli, Nicolas Massie, Mary ME Crossey, Nicola A Cook, Simon D Taylor-Robinson Liver Unit, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Hepatic encephalopathy is a common neuropsychiatric abnormality, which complicates the course of patients with liver disease. It was probably first described by Hippocrates over 2000 years ago, who said that "those whose madness arises from phlegm are quiet and neither shout nor make a disturbance, while those whose madness arises from bile shout, play tricks and will not keep still, but are always up to some mischief". He was presumably describing the differences between patients with pneumonia and acute liver failure. Despite the fact that the syndrome was probably first recognized thousands of years ago, the exact pathogenesis still remains unclear. Furthermore, a precise definition of the syndrome is lacking, as are definitive methods of diagnosing this condition. It is important as both patients with cirrhosis and the general population with whom they interact may be affected as a consequence. At a minimum, the individual may be affected by impaired quality of life, impaired ability to work, and slowed reaction times, which are relevant to the population at large if affected individuals operate heavy machinery or drive a car. Pathogenic mechanisms, diagnostic tools, and treatment options are discussed. Keywords: hepatic encephalopathy, cirrhosis, ammonia, pathology, treatment, rifaximin, lactulose

  5. Hepatitis A behaviour in Yaguajay Municipality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Iluminada Hernández Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective-descriptive study was made to characterize the behavior of “Hepatitis A” in Yaguajay Municipality in the period between 2006 and 2007, in which were included all the patients that were notified by Declaration Card (EDO. For collecting data, EDO cards were analized; as well as the endemic accumulative and the annual chronological series. The prevalence of this disease was determined in health areas and small population, so as to establish a geographic stratification. The disease was characterized by social-demographic variables (sex, age, home and also the seasonally of Hepatitis A. As a result all the disease prognosis in both years were over the expectation and are regarded as “Normal”, this disease behavior was higher in Meneses and Mayajigua areas representing the majority of the community population The most affected ages were under 10, from 11 to 20 and from 21 to 29. Females and the urban area registered the highest amount of cases. The seasonally was different in both years. As a conclusion we can say that the Epidemic was characterized by a wide geographical distribution where Jarahueca and Perea were the most affected communities; causing injuries in male sex, affected ages were babies, teenagers and young adults, the seasonally behaved differently in both years.

  6. Surgical management of hepatic hydatid disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Vagholkar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis is strictly a zoonosis. Humans are an accidental host. The disease is endemic in rural agricultural areas. However if acquired by humans, it can cause extensive spread affecting a wide range of organs with predilection for the liver. Managing such cases requires a sound fundamental knowledge of the parasite and its pathogenicity. It is essential that surgeons who deal with such cases have a good working knowledge of the disease. The approaches to hepatic hydatids with respect to the principles of surgical treatment are presented in this article. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 1834-1837

  7. Genomic Diversity of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Associated With Fulminant Hepatitis B Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Context After five decades of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV vaccine discovery, HBV is still a major public health problem. Due to the high genetic diversity of HBV and selective pressure of the host immune system, intra-host evolution of this virus in different clinical manifestations is a hot topic of research. HBV infection causes a range of clinical manifestations from acute to chronic infection, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Among all forms of HBV infection manifestations, fulminant hepatitis B infection possesses the highest fatality rate. Almost 1% of the acutely infected patients develop fulminant hepatitis B, in which the mortality rate is around 70%. Evidence Acquisition All published papers deposited in Genbank, on the topic of fulminant hepatitis were reviewed and their virological aspects were investigated. In this review, we highlight the genomic diversity of HBV reported from patients with fulminant HBV infection. Results The most commonly detected diversities affect regulatory motifs of HBV in the core and S region, indicating that these alterations may convert the virus to an aggressive strain. Moreover, mutations at T-cell and B-cell epitopes located in pre-S1 and pre-S2 proteins may lead to an immune evasion of the virus, likely favoring a more severe clinical course of infection. Furthermore, point and frame shift mutations in the core region increase the viral replication of HBV and help virus to evade from immune system and guarantee its persistence. Conclusions Fulminant hepatitis B is associated with distinct mutational patterns of HBV, underlining that genomic diversity of the virus is an important factor determining its pathogenicity.

  8. Genomic Diversity of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Associated With Fulminant Hepatitis B Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Thomas; Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, Samad; Tacke, Frank; Maes, Piet; Van Ranst, Marc; Pourkarim, Mahmoud Reza

    2015-01-01

    Context: After five decades of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccine discovery, HBV is still a major public health problem. Due to the high genetic diversity of HBV and selective pressure of the host immune system, intra-host evolution of this virus in different clinical manifestations is a hot topic of research. HBV infection causes a range of clinical manifestations from acute to chronic infection, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Among all forms of HBV infection manifestations, fulminant hepatitis B infection possesses the highest fatality rate. Almost 1% of the acutely infected patients develop fulminant hepatitis B, in which the mortality rate is around 70%. Evidence Acquisition: All published papers deposited in Genbank, on the topic of fulminant hepatitis were reviewed and their virological aspects were investigated. In this review, we highlight the genomic diversity of HBV reported from patients with fulminant HBV infection. Results: The most commonly detected diversities affect regulatory motifs of HBV in the core and S region, indicating that these alterations may convert the virus to an aggressive strain. Moreover, mutations at T-cell and B-cell epitopes located in pre-S1 and pre-S2 proteins may lead to an immune evasion of the virus, likely favoring a more severe clinical course of infection. Furthermore, point and frame shift mutations in the core region increase the viral replication of HBV and help virus to evade from immune system and guarantee its persistence. Conclusions: Fulminant hepatitis B is associated with distinct mutational patterns of HBV, underlining that genomic diversity of the virus is an important factor determining its pathogenicity. PMID:26288637

  9. Hepatitis B and skin: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and its complications have become a global health problem. The spectrum of HBV infection ranges from asymptomatic carrier state to chronic hepatitis. It is usually preceded by constitutional symptoms. It has a wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review includes the pathogenesis along with the pathophysiology with their clinical significance and overview of the treatment.

  10. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  11. Acute viral hepatitis morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis E virus infection: Uzbekistan surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis Harold S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH. To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV during documented AVH epidemics, trends in AVH-associated mortality rate (MR per 100,000 over a 15-year period and reported incidence of AVH over a 35-year period were examined. Methods Reported AVH incidence data from 1971 to 2005 and AVH-associated mortality data from 1981 to 1995 were examined. Serologic markers for infection with hepatitis viruses A, B, D, and E were determined from a sample of hospitalized patients with AVH from an epidemic period (1987 and from a sample of pregnant women with AVH from a non-epidemic period (1992. Results Two multi-year AVH outbreaks were identified: one during 1975–1976, and one during 1985–1987. During 1985–1987, AVH-associated MRs were 12.3–17.8 per 100,000 for the general population. Highest AVH-associated MRs occurred among children in the first 3 years of life (40–190 per 100,000 and among women aged 20–29 (15–21 per 100,000. During 1988–1995 when reported AVH morbidity was much lower in the general population, AVH-associated MRs were markedly lower among these same age groups. In 1988, AVH-associated MRs were higher in rural (21 per 100,000 than in urban (8 per 100,000 populations (RR 2.6; 95% CI 1.16–5.93; p Conclusion In the absence of the availability of confirmatory testing, inferences regarding probable hepatitis epidemic etiologies can sometimes be made using surveillance data, comparing AVH incidence with AVH-associated mortality with an eye to population-based viral hepatitis control measures. Data presented here implicate HEV as the probable etiology of high mortality observed in pregnant women and in children less than 3 years of age in Uzbekistan during 1985–1987. High mortality among pregnant women but not among children less than 3 years has been observed in

  12. Hepatitis E. virus is prevalent in the Danish pig population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; De Deus, N.;

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in humans from developing countries, but evidence increases that also in industrialized countries locally acquired HEV infections acor. The disease usually affects young adults and has a relatively high mortality in inf...... with swine or ingestion of undercooked swine meat. The aim of this study was to clarify if HEV is prevalent in the Danish pig population. Presence of HEV was examined by detection of HEV by real time RT-PCR or serological screening for HEV antibodies....

  13. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    de Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G.; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A.

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  14. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Glavind

    Full Text Available Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC, as well as to clinical disease severity.We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC, i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score.The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01, and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05. The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05.Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up-regulation observed in other stressful

  15. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavind, Emilie; Aagaard, Niels Kristian; Grønbæk, Henning; Møller, Holger Jon; Orntoft, Nikolaj Worm; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Thomsen, Karen Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC), as well as to clinical disease severity. Methods We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC), i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Results The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01), and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05). The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05). Conclusions Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up

  16. Immunogenicity of Leishmania-derived hepatitis B small surface antigen particles exposing highly conserved E2 epitope of hepatitis C virus

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnota, Anna; Tyborowska, Jolanta; Peszyńska-Sularz, Grażyna; Gromadzka, Beata; Bieńkowska-Szewczyk, Krystyna; Grzyb, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem worldwide, affecting an estimated 2–3 % of human population. An HCV vaccine, however, remains unavailable. High viral diversity poses a challenge in developing a vaccine capable of eliciting a broad neutralizing antibody response against all HCV genotypes. The small surface antigen (sHBsAg) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has the ability to form highly immunogenic subviral particles which are currently used as an efficient anti...

  17. Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Çelikbilek; Kemal Deniz; Edip Torun; Tarık Artış; Ersin Özaslan; Ökkeş İbrahim Karahan; Tahir Ercan Patıroğlu; Ömer Özbakır

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor containing an intimate mixture of carci-nomatous and sarcomatous elements. Reports on risk factors, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of the tumor as well as the experience in its treatment are limited. METHOD: We present a case of primary carcinosarcoma of the liver in a 69-year-old man who complained of right hypochondrial pain and weight loss for two months. RESULTS:  Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 14×12 cm mass in segments 7-8 and 4 of the liver with vena hepatica invasion. An ultrasonography-guided biopsy showed osteoid tissue without osteoblastic rimming. Vascular structures accompanied the osteoid tissue. The patient underwent surgery after a diagnosis of hemangioma. Intraoperative frozen sections revealed a carcinosarcoma associated with an osteosarcoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma components. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative diagnosis of this rare primary hepatic malignant tumor may be difficult by biopsy owing to intratumoral heterogeneity. Highly mature areas of the osteosarcomatous component may lead to misdiagnosis of metaplastic bone tissue. Clinicopathologic features of this rare entity are discussed.

  18. Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tram T.; Martin, Paul

    2001-12-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for 40% of cases of chronic liver disease in the United States and is now the most common indication for liver transplantation. Estimates suggest that 4 million people (1.8%) of the American population are or have been infected with HCV. Currently, the treatment of choice for patients with chronic HCV infection is recombinant interferon alfa with ribavirin. Pegylated interferons are a promising new development, and in combination with ribavirin, they will rapidly become the standard of care. The goals of therapy are to slow disease progression, improve hepatic histology, reduce infectivity, and reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Sustained virologic response, which generally implies the absence of viremia for 6 months or more following completion of therapy, is increasingly being regarded as a cure, with evidence of slowing or even regression of fibrosis on follow-up liver biopsy. A number of factors have been shown to be predictive of a sustained response, including viral genotype other than 1, low serum HCV RNA levels, absence of cirrhosis, younger age, female gender, and shorter duration of infection. Disease severity as assessed by liver biopsy, comorbidities, and possible contraindications to therapy should be weighed in the decision to begin treatment. Counseling patients regarding transmission, natural history, and drug and alcohol abstinence also should be included in management. Close monitoring should be done during treatment for side effects of interferon, including depression and bone marrow suppression. Hemolytic anemia is the major side effect of ribavirin. PMID:11696276

  19. 76 FR 46181 - World Hepatitis Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... viral hepatitis. Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, and can cause a lifetime of health issues for people who contract it. Hepatitis B and C viruses are the cause of a growing number of new liver cancer cases and liver transplants. In the United States, hepatitis is a leading infectious cause...

  20. Delta hepatitis: another concern for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, J A

    1986-01-01

    Delta hepatitis is a defective virus dependent on hepatitis B virus for replication and transmission. Delta hepatitis infection is becoming more prevalent in the United States, especially in parenteral drug abusers; several outbreaks have occurred. Infection control procedures and the hepatitis B vaccine can protect the dental staff from infection and transmission. PMID:3455994

  1. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; Manheimer, E; Tsutani, K;

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem world-wide. Medicinal herbs are increasingly being used for hepatitis C.......Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem world-wide. Medicinal herbs are increasingly being used for hepatitis C....

  2. Massive hepatic cyst presenting as right-sided heart failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, A

    2010-01-30

    A 70-year-old woman presented with clinical features of right heart failure. Cardiopulmonary investigations included an echocardiogram, which showed a hepatic cyst compromising venous return and affecting right atrial filling and a CT abdomen showed a 15.5 x 11.5 cm-cystic mass involving the right hepatic lobe and compressing the right atrium. Percutaneous drainage of the cyst was performed. This led to complete resolution of symptoms but these recurred as the fluid re-accumulated. Subsequent definitive treatment with excision of the cyst was undertaken with symptomatic cure. This case is the first report of a hepatic cyst presenting as right heart due to compression of the right atrium.

  3. Hepatitis E. virus is prevalent in the Danish pig population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; De Deus, N.;

    such as USA, Europe, Japan and China. There is increasing evidence for the zoonotic origin of infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4. Swine HEV sequences closely related to human HEV sequences have been detected in many countries and in several cases the source of infection has been linked to contact......Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in humans from developing countries, but evidence increases that also in industrialized countries locally acquired HEV infections acor. The disease usually affects young adults and has a relatively high mortality...... in infected pregnant women. HEV sequences worldwide can be classified into four major genotypes. Genotypes 1 and 2 are causing the majority of HEV infections in humans in hyper-endemic areas. In contrast, HEV genotypes 3 and 4 identified in cases of human hepatitis with increasing prevalence in countries...

  4. Parvovirus B19 induced hepatic failure in an adult requiring liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Darin S Krygier; Urs P Steinbrecher; Martin Petric; Siegfried R Erb; Stephen W Chung; Charles H Scudamore; Andrzej K Buczkowski; Eric M Yoshida

    2009-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 induced acute hepatitis and hepatic failure have been previously reported,mainly in children.Very few cases of parvovirus induced hepatic failure have been reported in adults and fewer still have required liver transplantation.We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent woman who developed fulminant hepatic failure after acute infection with Parvovirus B19 who subsequently underwent orthotopic liver transplantation.This is believed to be the first reported case in the literature in which an adult patient with fulminant hepatic failure associated with acute parvovirus B19 infection and without hematologic abnormalities has been identified prior to undergoing liver transplantation.This case suggests that Parvovirus B19 induced liver disease can affect adults,can occur in the absence of hematologic abnormalities and can be severe enough to require liver transplantation.

  5. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis. PMID:21913675

  6. Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, and Safety of Hepatitis C Virus Drugs in Patients with Liver and/or Renal Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, Elise J; de Kanter, Clara T M M; van Hoek, Bart; Arends, Joop E; Drenth, Joost P H; Burger, David M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients often suffer from liver cirrhosis, which can be complicated by renal impairment. Therefore, in this review we describe the treatment possibilities in HCV patients with hepatic and renal impairment. Cirrhosis alters the structure of the liver, which affects d

  7. Hepatic fibrosis in Kabuki syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Valerio; Marcellini, Matilde; Devito, Rita; Capolino, Rossella; Viola, Laura; Digilio, M Cristina

    2004-01-15

    Kabuki (Niikawa-Kuroki) syndrome (KS) is characterized by a distinctive face, mental retardation, growth deficiency, skeletal anomalies, dermatoglyphic abnormalities, palatal anomalies, congenital heart defects, and urogenital malformations. Congenital hepatic abnormalities have been sporadically described in patients with KS from the literature, consisting of extrahepatic biliary atresia, neonatal sclerosing cholangitis, and severe neonatal jaundice. We report here on an additional patient with a congenital abnormality of the liver consisting of hepatic fibrosis. To our knowledge, idiopathic congenital hepatic fibrosis has not been reported in KS. Thus, our observation expands the spectrum of liver malformations found in KS with the inclusion of hepatic fibrosis and supports the evidence that hepatic abnormalities may not be uncommon in KS. Clinician should be advised to search for the specific facial anomalies of KS in patients with syndromic congenital hepatic diseases, and KS should be added to the list of previously recognized multiple congenital anomaly syndromes with hepatic involvement. Due to the frequent association with congenital heart malformations, KS should be considered in the evaluation of patients with neonatal liver disease and cardiac malformation. Due to the expression patterns of Notch genes, involvement of the Notch signaling pathway in the development of heart and liver anomalies in KS should be considered. PMID:14699623

  8. Hepatitis B immunization in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M H; Goldstein, M A

    1995-10-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology of hepatitis B in the United States, previous vaccination strategy, and reasons for its failure and issues leading to the recommendation to vaccinate all adolescents. A review of specific hepatitis B virus risk behaviors of adolescents and barriers to vaccinating adolescents is covered. Strategies that favor successful completion of the immunization series are also examined. Hepatitis B infection is an important public health concern for adolescents. The previous vaccine strategy to immunize only individuals though to be at high risk was unsuccessful, especially because providers of care could not identify these individuals. Furthermore, many individuals thought not to be at high risk for infection were exposed through contacts which could not be identified. Challenges to immunization of adolescents include logistical issues, patient education, cost of the vaccine, and patient compliance. Several of these issues can be addressed by a school-based hepatitis B immunization program. The body of evidence and national policy is rapidly changing to support the recommendation that all adolescents receive the hepatitis B immunization series. The series would be most effective if administered during the middle-school years. A universal adolescent hepatitis B vaccination program would result in the most immediate health benefits and acceleration toward the eradication of hepatitis B in the United States. PMID:8580124

  9. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    . Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...... and cultural festivals, both practices indicate that design is implemented as means of creating affective spaces in the city. Both cases show how immaterial production of affects and emotions in the city can be seen in relation to economic potential and urban development. Finally, I will discuss whether urban......Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play...

  10. Liver scintigraphy of fulminant hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liver scintigraphies of five patients with fulminant hepatitis were examined. Scintiphotos using sup(99m)Tc-phytate were taken within two weeks after the onset. Scintiphotos of 12 normal subjects, 11 cases with acute hepatitis, 17 cases with liver cirrhosis were served as control. Their scintiphotos showed reduction of the size, well-maintained uptake, mostly homogenous RI distribution, and no left lobe enlargement, which could differentiate them from the chronic liver dysfunction. In one of the cases chronological changes in liver scintigraphy were observed. The size of the liver was reduced progressively until the 16th day and re-enlarged at the 30th day and thereafter. Three indices [S/W, (R + L)/W, and L/R] were calculated. S: area of liver, R or L: longitudinal length of the right or left lobe, W: body width. Relative size of the liver expressed by S/W or (R + L)/W showed significant reduction in fulminant hepatitis compared with acute hepatitis. However, they were not different significantly from those of normal subjects. Except for liver cirrhosis, L/R (left lobe swelling index) did not show significant differences among fulminant hepatitis, normal subjects, and acute hepatitis. These indices were also useful in follow-up study of the liver scintigraphy. The liver scintigraphy in the early phase of fulminant hepatitis seems to reflect the degree of massive hepatic necrosis. It is also useful to differentiate chronic hepatic failure. Apparant reduction in scintigraphical liver size seems to suggest poor prognosis, however, it should also kept in mind that the size of the liver in this condition might change quite rapidly and greatly. (author)

  11. Hepatic Resection Using a Water Jet Dissector

    OpenAIRE

    H. U. Baer; Stain, S. C.; Guastella, T.; G. J. Maddern; Blumgart, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity in major hepatic resection is often related to hemorrhage. A high pressure, high velocity water jet has been developed and has been utilized to assist in hepatic parenchymal transection. Sixty-seven major hepatic resections were performed for solid hepatic tumors. The tissue fracture technique was used in 51 patients (76%), and the water jet dissector was used predominantly in 16 patients (24%). The extent of hepatic resection using each technique was similar. The ...

  12. Failure to incriminate hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E viruses in the aetiology of fulminant non-A non-B hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mutimer, D; Shaw, J.; Neuberger, J; Skidmore, S.; Martin, B.(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland); Hubscher, S; McMaster, P; Elias, E

    1995-01-01

    Sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis is the most common indication for liver transplantation in patients presenting with fulminant and subacute liver failure. This study used serological, histological, and molecular biological techniques to examine specimens from 23 consecutive patients transplanted for sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis. No evidence was found of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis E virus, or 'cryptic' hepatitis B virus infection.

  13. Wilson's Disease and Hepatic Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐荣华; 薛峥; 叶启发

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To investigate the changes in neurological symptoms and signs, as well as serum copper,serum ceruloplasmin after hepatic transplantation in patients with Wilson's disease, neurological symptoms and signs, serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin before and after hepatic transplantation in18 patients with Wilson's disease were observed, and those changes were followed up in 20 non-oper ative controls treated with penicillamine. Our results showed that the neurological symptoms and signs, serum copper and serum ceruloplasmin were improved in the operative group but deteriorated in the non-operative control group. Our study showed that hepatic transplantation is better than peni cillamine in the treatment of Wilson's disease.

  14. Treating hepatitis C - what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alex J; Holmes, Jacinta A

    2015-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C infection causes cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is the most common indication for liver transplantation. Hepatitis C is curable and complications can be prevented. Until recently, treatment regimens involved peginterferon alfa. Although effective, their widespread use is limited by treatment-related toxicity. A number of direct-acting drugs for hepatitis C, such as sofosbuvir, have recently been developed and target multiple steps in the viral life cycle. These drugs are used in combination in interferon-free regimens. Short courses are highly effective with minimal toxicity. PMID:26843711

  15. Hepatology after Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, J Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The ∼90% probability of curing individual patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)using direct-acting antivirals represents one of the most dramatic medical success stories of the modern era, and the journey from viral discovery to treatment occurred over just ∼25 years. The realities of the global burden of disease (2-3% of the world's population is infected), limited access to care and cost of treatment mean that HCV will continue to be a major problem for the next 25 years. But what if HCV (and hepatitis B) could be eradicated? Since liver transplantation and HCV management have been the mainstays of academic hepatology practice, where do we go from here? Unfortunately, we are in an era where the incidence and prevalence of liver diseases around the globe is increasing, and death from complications of cirrhosis is now among the top 10 causes in most countries; so hepatologists are expected to play a major role in the future. Despite remarkable progress, success at the population level is limited by the resource-intensive nature of caring for patients with end-stage disease. Accordingly, the major advances in the next decade are likely to focus on (i) the earlier identification of individuals and populations at higher risk for liver diseases, and (ii) initiation in high-risk populations of specific strategies for early detection and treatment of fibrosis, cancer and cirrhosis. The answers will lie in large part in the further exploration of the human genome in carefully phenotyped patients. Risk variants in the PNPLA3 gene represent the best example to date. The risk variants are common and are enriched in certain populations around the globe; and individuals that possess risk variants are more likely to have liver injury from fatty liver disease (even as children), alcohol and viral hepatitis. Further, those with liver injury are more likely to progress to cirrhosis and hepatoma. Similarly, in those with established liver disease, use of biomarkers and other

  16. Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) due to acute hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Bilal Bin; Arshad, Rozina; Khurhsid, Saima; Masood, Junaid; Nazir, Farhan; Tahira, Maham

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatitis C (HCV) infection has been identified as an important cause of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), characterized by rapid deterioration of liver function from massive hepatic necrosis leading to encephalopathy and multi-organ failure. We admitted a female patient at Shalamar Hospital with jaundice, fever, encephalopathy and coagulopathy of short duration with no history of any comorbidity. Her hepatitis viral screen revealed positive anti HCV. Her viral loads were also high. A diagnosis of FHF due to acute HCV infection was made. Patient was treated conservatively and improved gradually. In summary, acute HCV can cause FHF and should be ruled out in patients with FHF of unknown cause in an endemic country for HCV like Pakistan.

  17. [Molecular diagnosis of hepatitis C and hepatitis B infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidovec Lepej, Snjezana; Dusek, Davorka; Budimir, Jelena; Vince, Adriana

    2009-12-01

    Molecular methods are a well-established part of routine diagnostic work-up in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Confirmation of active viral replication in infected patients is based on detection and/or quantification of viral genome in serum by molecular assays. Diagnostic algorithm for hepatitis C includes detection and/or quantification of HCV RNA in serum of infected patients and HCV genotyping. Diagnostic work-up in patients with hepatitis B includes quantification of HBV DNA in serum, HBV genotyping, and determination of resistance to nucleoside and nucleotide analogues. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the standard recommended molecular method for quantification of HCV RNA and HBV DNA in clinical samples. Due to superior sensitivity, real-time PCR assays can provide both qualitative detection of viral genome and quantification. Molecular diagnosis of HCV and HBV infections in clinical laboratories should be limited to certified standardized assays. PMID:20198893

  18. Extrahepatic collaterals and liver damage in embolotherapy for ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshitsugu Tajima; Tamotsu Kuroki; Ryuji Tsutsumi; Ichiro Sakamoto; Masataka Uetani; Takashi Kanematsu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of extrahepatic collaterals to the liver on liver damage and patient outcome after embolotherapy for the ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery.METHODS: We reviewed 9 patients who underwent transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for the ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following major hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery between June 1992 and April 206. We paid special attention to the extrahepatic arterial collaterals to the liver which may affect post-TAE liver damage and patient outcome.RESULTS: The underlying diseases were all malignancies, and the surgical procedures included hepatopancreatoduodenectomy in 2 patients, hepatic resection with removal of the bile duct in 5, and pancreaticoduodenectomy in 2. A total of 11 pseudoaneurysm developed: 4in the common hepatic artery, 4 in the proper hepatic artery, and 3 in the right hepatic artery. Successful hemostasis was accomplished with the initial TAE in all patients, except for 1. Extrahepatic arterial pathways to the liver, including the right inferior phrenic artery, the jejunal branches, and the aberrant left hepatic artery,were identified in 8 of the 9 patients after the completion of TAE. The development of collaterals depended on the extent of liver mobilization during the hepatic resection,the postoperative period, the presence or absence of an aberrant left hepatic artery, and the concomitant arterial stenosis adjacent to the pseudoaneurysm. The liver tolerated TAE without significant consequences when at least one of the collaterals from the inferior phrenic artery or the aberrant left hepatic artery was present. One patient, however, with no extrahepatic collaterals died of liver failure due to total liver necrosis 9 d after TAE.CONCLUSION: When TAE is performed on ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm, reduced collateral pathways to the liver created by the primary surgical procedure and a short postoperative interval may

  19. The hepatic-arterial/portal-venous scintiangiogram in alcoholic hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to identify abnormalities in the hepatic-arterial/portal-venous scintiangiogram (SA) in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). SA's were performed in 35 patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), 8; acute alcoholic hepatitis superimposed on cirrhosis (A/C), 14; and cirrhosis (C), 13. Posterior flows were done with a bolus of 10 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid with computer time-activity curves over the liver and left kidney. Curves were analyzed for per cent of hepatic arterial (HA) and portal venous contribution using the slope ratio method. Hepatic arterialization was estimated from the angle of the HA component of the curve. Reversal of the relative contribution of the hepatic and portal components of total flow were seen in all groups. Although quite severe in AH, the degree of reversal could not be used to differentiate among the groups. The average HA angle in AAH was 48.3 +- 8.1, in A/C 41.5 +- 10.6, and in C 30.4 +- 12.1. In reviewing the data of only those in the acute clinical phase of AH and not the recovery phase (1 AAH, 3 A/C) and those without other causes of alteration in hepatic arterialization (1 hepatoma, 1 portalcaval shunt, 6 renal failure), the average HA angle in AAH was 50.1 +- 6.6, 45.4 +- 8.2 in A/C, and 23.2 +- 4.2 in C. In 6 with renal failure (2 C, 2AAH, 2 A/C) the HA angle ws 52.7 +- 5.7. In all cases cirrhosis could be differentiated from both A/C (P=.05) and AAH (P<.01) using the HA angle. In absence of renal failure, portal shunt, or hepatoma, P was <.01 in both comparisons

  20. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  1. Hepatic tumor volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate CT quantification of hepatic tumor volume in sequential CT studies of oncology patients could provide a reliable morphologic marker of disease response to chemotherapy. At present, estimates of morphologic response are based on number and size of individual lesions. In this paper three-dimensional (3D) technique is presented. A filtering program is applied to all two-dimensional (2D) sections to increase signal-to-noise ratio while maintaining boundary delineation. A CT number histogram of normal and abnormal intrahepatic tissue derived from a representative 2D section is applied in sequence to contiguous 2D sections in 3D space. A user graphics tool is available to correct for false delineation

  2. Hepatic encephalopathy: historical remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, Piero

    2015-03-01

    The history of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is briefly reviewed since the beginning of western medicine by Hippocrates. For about 2000 years the main evidence was the mere association between jaundice, fever and delirium. A clear link between delirium and cirrhosis was proven in the 17th century by Morgagni. In subsequent times the focus was manly the descriptions of symptoms and the only pathophysiological improvement was the evidence that jaundice, per se, does not alter brain function. Only at the end of the 19th century Hann et al proved the role of portal-systemic shunt and pf nitrogenous derivates in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. A terrific development of knowledge occurred in the last 60 years, after the works of Sherlock in London. Nowadays some consensus about HE was reached, so that new developments will likely occur. PMID:26041956

  3. Update on autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Teufel; Peter R Galle; Stephan Kanzler

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a necroinflammatory liver disease of unknown etiology that occurs in children and adults of all ages. Characteristics are its autoimmune features, hyperglobulinemia (IgG), and the presence of circulating autoantibodies, as well as a response to immunosuppressant drugs. Current treatment consists of prednisone and azathioprine and in most patients this disease has become very treatable. Over the past 2 years, a couple of new insights into the genetic aspects, clinical course and treatment of AIH have been reported, which will be the focus of this review. In particular, we concentrate on genome-wide microsatellite analysis, a novel mouse model of AIH, the evaluation of a large AIH cohort for overlap syndromes,suggested novel criteria for the diagnosis of AIH, and the latest studies on treatment of AIH with budenoside and mycophenolate mofetil.

  4. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: A hospital based study

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, P; Prakash, S.; Gupta, S; Singh, K.P.; Shrivastava, S; Singh, D. D.; Singh, J; Jain, A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Settings and Design: Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I v...

  5. Resection of Giant Hepatic Cavernous Hemangiomas after Dissection of the Third Porta Hepatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAOXiaoping; ZHOUWeiping; WANGYi; WUMengchao; JINGLiang

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To estabhsh a novel and safe operation technique for the resection of giant hepatic cavernous hemangiomas involving the retro-hepatic vena cava.Methods:After ligating the hepatic artery of affected lobe, the short hepatic veins at the third porta hepatis were dissected and ligated individually to separate the tumor from the retrohepatic vena cava, followed by the resection of the tumor under intermittent interruption of the porta hepatis.Results:A total of 62 giant hepatic cavernous hemangiomas were successfully resected without hepatic vascular exclusion. Right and caudate lobectomies were done in 27 cases, right hemihepatectornies in 5 cases, right upper segnentectomies in 7 cases, right posterior lobectomies in 7 cases, extended left and caudate lobectomies in 10 cases, and caudate lobectomies in 6 cases. The blood transfusion requirement during operation was 1 400 ml on average. All did well postoperatively during a follow up of 4 - 84 months.Conclusion:It is safe and feasible to resect giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma following dissection of the third porta hepatis. Duringoperation the key step is dissection of the short hepatic veins.

  6. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  7. The functional hepatic volume assessed by 99mTc-GSA hepatic scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Ishikawa, N; Takeda, T; Tanaka, Y; Pan, X Q; Sato, M; Todoroki, T; Hatakeyama, R; Itai, Y

    1995-11-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the functional hepatic volume by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-galactosyl serum albumin (99mTc-GAS) was evaluated. 99mTc-GSA planar scintigraphic images were obtained dynamically and the hepatic SPECT imaging was then performed in 25 patients with hepatobiliary tumors. The patients were divided into 4 groups with normal hepatic function, and mild, moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction. The functional hepatic volume determined by SPECT was compared with the morphological hepatic volume determined by compute tomography. The ratio of the hepatic volumes obtained by the two methods was calculated. The mean hepatic volume ratio was 96.6 +/- 2.3% in the normal hepatic function group and 95.9 +/- 2.2% in the mild dysfunction group (n.s.). In both the moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction groups, the hepatic volume ratio was smaller than that in the normal group (87.9 +/- 5.2%, p hepatic volume ration and various indices of reserve hepatic function, such as LHL15 (r = 0.83, p hepatic volume ratio is proportional to the severity of hepatic dysfunction, and suggest that the functional hepatic volume measured with 99mTc-GSA faithfully reflects the functioning hepatocyte mass. 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy and hepatic SPECT therefore provide information regarding global and regional reserve hepatic function. PMID:8770291

  8. Treatment strategy for hepatic trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-Yong Yu; Qu-Jin Li; Jian-Ping Gong

    2016-01-01

    Liver is one of the organs with the highest injury rate,and in recent decades,the guidelines for the treatment of liver trauma have changed considerably.Now,there is a growing consensus that the most important step is diagnosis and depending upon the degree of severity,non-operative therapy is the main treatment method for hepatic trauma if conditions permit.For serious hepatic trauma patients such as those with hemodynamic instability,they should be operated upon as soon as possible.Regardless of the surgical options,doctors should control damage to patients and try to prevent complications.New therapies such as hepatic artery embolization and liver transplantation have been more and more used for the treatment of serious hepatic damage in clinics.

  9. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  10. Defective mutations of hepatitis D viruses in chronic hepatitis D patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaw-Ching Wu; Sheng-Chieh Hsu; Shen-Yung Wang; Yi-Hsiang Huang; I-Jane Sheen; Hsuan-Hui Shih; Wan-Jr Syu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To verify whether "defective" mutations existed in hepatitis D virus (HDV).METHODS: Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg)-codingsequences were amplified using Pfu DNA polymerases with proof-reading activities from sera of five patients with chronic hepatitis D. Multiple colonies were sequenced for each patient. Pfu analyzed a total of 270 HDV clones.Three representative defective HDV clones were constructed in expression plasmids and transfected into a human hepatoma cell line. Cellular proteins were extracted and analyzed by Western blot.RESULTS: Four of five cases (80%) showed defective HDV genomes in their sera. The percentage of defective genomes was 3.7% (10/270). The majority (90%) of the defective mutations were insertions or deletions that resulted in frameshift and abnormal stop translation of the HDAg. The predicted mutated HDAg ranged from 45amino acids to >214 amino acids in length. Various domains of HDAg associated with viral replication or packaging were affected in different HDV isolates. Western blot analysis showed defected HDAg in predicted positions.CONCLUSION: "Defective" viruses do exist in chronic HDV infected patients, but represented as minor strains. The clinical significance of the "defected" HDV needs further study to evaluate.

  11. Autoimmune Hepatitis and Celiac Disease: Case Report Showing an Entero-Hepatic Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tovoli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder primarily targeting the small bowel, although extraintestinal extensions have been reported. The autoimmune processes can affect the liver with manifestations such as primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis. We describe a 61-year-old woman with celiac disease and an increased levels of aminotransferases. The persistence of increased levels of aminotransferases after 1 year of gluten-free diet and the positivity for an anti-nuclear and anti-double-strand DNA antibodies led to a misdiagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus-related hepatitis. Based on these findings the patient was placed on steroids, which after a few months were stopped because of the onset of diabetes mellitus. Soon after steroid withdrawal, the patient had a marked increase in aminotransferases and γ-globulins, and a liver biopsy revealed chronic active hepatitis. A course of three months of steroids and azathioprine normalized both biochemical and clinical parameters. Currently the patient is symptom-free and doing well. In conclusion, a hypertransaminasemia persisting after a gluten-free diet should be interpreted as a sign of coexisting autoimmune liver disease. Any autoantibody positivity (in this case to ANA and anti-dsDNA should be carefully considered in order to avoid misdiagnosis delaying appropriate clinical management.

  12. Vertical hepatitis C virus transmission:Main questions and answers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grazia; Tosone; Alberto; Enrico; Maraolo; Silvia; Mascolo; Giulia; Palmiero; Orsola; Tambaro; Raffaele; Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus(HCV) affects about 3% of the world’s population and peaks in subjects aged over 40 years. Its prevalence in pregnant women is low(1%-2%) in most western countries but drastically increases in women in developing countries or with high risk behav-iors for blood-transmitted infections. Here we review clinical, prognostic and therapeutic aspects of HCV in-fection in pregnant women and their offspring infected through vertical transmission. Pregnancy-related im-mune weakness does not seem to affect the course of acute hepatitis C but can affect the progression of chronic hepatitis C. In fact, postpartum immune res-toration can exacerbate hepatic inflammation, thereby worsening the liver disease, particularly in patients with liver cirrhosis. HCV infection increases the risk of gestational diabetes in patients with excessive weight gain, premature rupture of membrane and caesarean delivery. Only 3%-5% of infants born to HCV-positive mothers have been infected by intrauterine or perinatal transmission. Maternal viral load, human immunode-ficiency virus coinfection, prolonged rupture of mem-branes, fetal exposure to maternal infected blood con-sequent to vaginal or perineal lacerations and invasive monitoring of fetus increase the risk of viral transmis-sion. Cesarean delivery and breastfeeding increases the transmission risk in HCV/human immunodeficiency virus coinfected women. The consensus is not to offer antivi-ral therapy to HCV-infected pregnant women because it is based on ribavirin(pregnancy category X) because of its embryocidal and teratogenic effects in animal spe-cies. In vertically infected children, chronic C hepatitis is often associated with minimal or mild liver disease and progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma is lower than in adults. Infected children may be treated after the second year of life, given the adverse effects of current antiviral agents.

  13. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats--compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2012-11-01

    Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P < 0.05) levels of total cholesterol, LDL+ VLDL cholesterol, Apo B and triglycerides in serum and tissues compared to rats fed CO, OO and SFO, while HDL-cholesterol and Apo A1 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in serum of rats fed VCO than other groups. Hepatic lipogenesis was also down regulated in VCO fed rats, which was evident from the decreased activities of enzymes viz., HMG CoA reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. In addition, VCO significantly (P < 0.05) increased the activities of lipoprotein lipase, lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase and enhanced formation of bile acids. Results demonstrated hypolipidemic effect of VCO by regulating the synthesis and degradation of lipids.

  14. Microwave Ablation of Hepatic Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Ziemlewicz, Tim J.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lee, Fred. T.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an extremely promising heat-based thermal ablation modality that has particular applicability in treating hepatic malignancies. Microwaves can generate very high temperatures in very short time periods, potentially leading to improved treatment efficiency and larger ablation zones. As the available technology continues to improve, microwave ablation is emerging as a valuable alternative to radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. This article rev...

  15. SEROPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS IN HEPATIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Amtul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C virus among hepatic disorder patients. Various hepatic disorders like Hepatitis, cirrhosis & HCC cause multi organ failure leading to death. The most important viral cause of hepatic disorders after HBV is HCV. Hence this study is conducted to aid in early detection & treatment & its prevention in community. The study is conducted on 100 confirmed hepatic disorder patients from Gastro intestinal ward of Osmania General Hospital, Hydera bad. ELISA was done at Osmania General Hospital & Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad PCR was done at Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad. Third generation ELISA containing an antigen derived from the Non - structural NS5 region which encodes as RNA polymerase was used. Principle of the test: Sandwich principle - Enzyme immune assay. Guanidine Isothyocyanite Method (GITC of PCRELISA: Total No: of anti HCV antibody positive cases in our study were 5% &HBV +HCV cases were 1%.All positive cases were abov e the age of 40 yrs.HCV positivity ratio among Male: Female was1:1.45.HCV was detected to be maximum in HCC (20%.followed by Hepatitis (9% & then Cirrhosis (7%. PCR: All the 5 anti HCV antibody positive cases detected by ELISA were also detected to be p ositive for HCV - RNA by RT - PCR in all samples. The sample positive for HBV+HCV by ELISA also showed positive for HBV DNA by PCR and HCV RNA by RT - PCR Various hepatic disorders like CAH, Cirrhosis and HCC caused by HBV and HCV have become a major public heal th problem throughout the world.HCC is one of the ten most common cancers in the world and is the only cancer which can be prevented by vaccination.HCV infection can be transmitted by blood transmission, injectable drugs, perinatally, improperly sterilized dialysis equipment, unprotected sex with infected partner specially MSM group and with other STDs & HIV Hence this study is conducted to aid in early detection and treatment and its prevention in community Comparison of

  16. Subacute fulminant hepatic failure with intermittent fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-Xin Chen; Bo Liu; Yong Hu; Joyce E. Johnson; Yi-Wei Tang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Viral hepatitis B accounts for over 80%of acute hepatic failures in China and the patients die mainly of its complications. A patient with hepatic failure and fever is not uncommon, whereas repeated fever is rare. METHODS:A 32-year-old female was diagnosed with subacute hepatic failure and hepatitis B viral infection because of hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy, hepatic encephalopathy, serum anti-HBs-positive without hepatitis B vaccination, and typical intrahepatic pathological features of chronic hepatitis B. Plasma exchange was administered twice and she awoke with hyperbilirubinemia and discontinuous fever. RESULTS:Urethritis was conifrmed and medication-induced fever and/or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (Gram-negative bacillus infection) was suspected. The patient was treated with antibiotics, steroids and a Chinese herbal medicine, matrine, for three months and she recovered. CONCLUSION:The survival rate of patients with hepatic failure might be improved with comprehensive supporting measures and appropriate, timely management of com-plications.

  17. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  18. Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan Azadmanesh

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHepatitis C virus (HCV is an important cause of chronic liver disease. HCV causes 20% of acute hepatitis cases, 70% of all chronic hepatitis cases, 40% of all cases of liver cirrhosis, 60% of hepatocellular carcinomas, and 30% of liver transplants in Europe(1. It is also recognized as the leading cause of liver transplantation in the world(2. Only 20% of infected individuals will recover from this viral infection, while the rest become chronically infected(3. While the majority of chronically infected individuals never exhibit symptoms, approximately 10-30% of these patients will eventually develop cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, both of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality(4.More than 170 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HCV. According to WHO report in 2002, chronic liver diseases were responsible for 1.4 million deaths, including 796,000 due to cirrhosis and 616,000 due to primary liver cancer. At least 20% of these deaths are probably attributable to HCV infection- more than 280,000 deaths(5, 6. The prevalence of chronic HCV infection in general population varies greatly in different parts of the world, being estimated between 0.1 and 5%, with a peak prevalence of 20- 25% in Egypt. HCV prevalence seems to be less than 1% in Iran, which is much lower than most of the neighboring countries(7. HCV was the first virus discovered by molecular cloning method without the direct use of biologic or biophysical methods. This was accomplished by extracting, copying into cDNA, and cloning all the nucleic acid from the plasma of a chimpanzee infected with non- A, non-B hepatitis by contaminated factor XIII concentrate(8. The HCV genome is a positive-sense, singlestranded RNA genome approximately 10 kb long. It has marked similarities to those of members of the genera Pestivirus and Flavivirus. Different HCV isolates from around the world show substantial nucleotide sequence variability

  19. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  20. Chlormezanone-induced fulminant hepatitis in a pregnant woman: successful delivery and liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourliere, M; Le Treut, Y P; Manelli, J C; Botta-Fridlund, D; Bertolino, J G; Boubli, L; Sanson, D; Pol, B; Bricot, R; Gauthier, A P

    1992-01-01

    The case of a 29 year old woman affected by fulminant hepatitis during the third trimester of pregnancy, after a 3 week administration of chlormezanone is reported. Following induced Caesarean delivery, the patient underwent an orthotopic liver transplantation. The mother and her baby were in good condition 26 months after liver transplantation. In this case, chlormezanone was probably responsible for the fulminant hepatitis. PMID:1611024

  1. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus among young prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Ataie; Zary Nokhodian; Behrooz Ataei; Nazila Kassaian; Majid Yaran; Razieh Hassannejad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Juveniles in custody are affected by sexually transmitted infections due to risky behaviors. Therefore, they have a disproportionate burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this study, the prevalence and associated characteristics of hepatitis B and HIV infections were assessed in young prisoners. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, prevalence of HBV and HIV infections was assessed among young prisoners during 2008-2009. A che...

  2. Health related quality of life assessment in patients with hepatitis: a case of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Awan, Masood Sarwar; Waqas, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad Amir; Abbas, Faisal

    2011-01-01

    The intention of this study is to dig out the demographic, medical, economic and psychosocial factors that affect the health related quality of life of the hepatitis B and C patient in district Sargodha. 120 patients of hepatitis B and C virus were interviewed. WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was followed for the construction of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument. Age of the patient, disease severity, use of drug, pain, depression, financial hindrance and threat of death negatively a...

  3. Investigating HIV/AIDS Patients’ Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Negin Esmaeilpour; Nahid Mirzaei; Reza Chaman; Mehrnaz Rasoulinejad; Mahboobeh Haji-Abdolbaghi; Maryam Roham; SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi; Seyyed Mostafa Hosseini; Mazeyar Parsa; Ladan Payvar- Mehr; Hamid Emadi-Koochak

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Because of the increased risk of chronicity of hepatitis B in HIV infected patients, immunization against HBV is recommended in patients infected with human immune deficiency virus. This study aims at determining the factors which affect the response to HBV vaccination in Iranian HIV positive adults, compared with a healthy control group. Methods: From April 2007 to May 2008, 50 HIV+ and 50 healthy control subjects who were seronegative for HBV received 3 doses of hepatitis B va...

  4. Visualization of Gene Mutation Complicated Pattern of Hepatitis B Virus Based on Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Shi-huang; XIAO Xuan; DING Yong-sheng; HUANG Zhen-de

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus shows instantaneous and high rate mutations in biological experiments, some sorts of which affect the efficiency of virus replication greatly through enhancing or depressing the viral replication, while others have no influence at all. Taking advantage of prominent features of cellular automata, we simulate the effect of hepatitis B virus gene mutation on its replication efficiency. The computer simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of our novel model by comparing with the results of biological experiments.

  5. Effects of hepatitis B virus infection on human sperm chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Huang; Tian-Hua Huang; Huan-Ying Qiu; Xiao-Wu Fang; Tian-Gang Zhuang; Hong-Xi Liu; Yong-Hua Wang; Li-Zhi Deng; Jie-Wen Qiu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the level of sperm chromosome aberrations in male patients with hepatitis B, and to directly detect whether there are HBV DNA integrations in sperm chromosomes of hepatitis B patients.METHODS: Sperm chromosomes of 14 tested subjects (5healthy controls, 9 patients with HBV infection, including 1with acute hepatitis B, 2 with chronic active hepatitis B, 4with chronic persistent hepatitis B, 2 chronic HBsAg carriers with no clinical symptoms) were prepared using interspecific in vitro fertilization between zona-free golden hamster ova and human spermatozoa, and the frequencies of aberration spermatozoa were compared between subjects of HBV infection and controls. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to sperm chromosome spreads was carried out with biotin-labeled full length HBV DNA probe to detect the specific HBV DNA sequences in the sperm chromosomes.RESULTS: The total frequency of sperm chromosome aberrations in HBV infection group (14.8%, 33/223) was significantly higher than that in the control group (4.3%,5/116). Moreover, the sperm chromosomes in HBV infection patients commonly presented stickiness, clumping, failure to staining, etc, which would affect the analysis of sperm chromosomes. Specific fluorescent signal spots for HBV DNA were seen in sperm chromosomes of one patient with chronic persistent hepatitis. In 9 (9/42) sperm chromosome complements containing fluorescent signal spots, one presented 5 obvious FISH spots, others presented 2 to 4signals. There was significant difference of fluorescence intensity among the signal spots. The distribution of signal sites among chromosomes was random.CONCLUSION: HBV infection can bring about mutagenic effects on sperm chromosomes. Integrations of viral DNA into sperm chromosomes which are multisites and nonspecific, can further increase the instability of sperm chromosomes. This study suggested that HBV infection can create extensively hereditary effects by alteration genetic constituent and

  6. [Vaccination against hepatitis A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, F; Di Biase, A R; Viola, L

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatitis A, a disease endemic in various countries, is in a state of continuous change. Adults are more exposed to infection and considering the frequent absence of immunity, in contrast to children in whom the disease is almost always asymptomatic, the disease is often serious and prolonged with a mortality of up to 2.5%. The mode of transmission of HAV is predominantly the fecal-oral route; the virus is isolated during the prodromic period of the disease from the feces, blood, bile and seminal fluid. The virus can also be found in saliva (OMS '95); in addition it may also be transmitted by the maternal-fetal route. The HAV infects cells in vitro but does not cause a direct cytopathic effect. At the beginning of the acute phase of the disease the production of anti-HAV antibodies is of the IgM type followed later by IgG. Some studies have shown a potential role of cellular immunity in clearance of the virus from the hepatocytes and in the pathogenesis of the infection of HAV. The efficacy of immunoglobulin serum in the prevention of hepatitis A has been demonstrated since 1944. As regards active immunity two types of vaccinations have been prepared. One with live attenuated HAV carried by either bacteria or virus. The other, killed inactivated HAV, HAV capsule, antigenic subunit, synthetic peptides, anti-idiotypes or virosomes. The recent literature describe the vaccine produced by Merck Sharp & Dohme and by Smith Kline Beecham (SKB); both vaccines are made from HAV, grown in vitro, inactivated with formalin and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The protection of the vaccine begins 14 days after administration and lasts from one month to one year. Numerous studies have been conducted which have shown that the vaccine is effective when given in 2 doses and confers protection against HAV for at least one year. The results have shown that the vaccination causes seroconversion in approximately 100% of subjects, and does not cause serious side

  7. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  8. Lipiodol-TAE and hepatic blood flow in radiation hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma, Kazuyoshi; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Fukuoka, Haruhito (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1991-06-01

    A 58-year-old man with biliary tract cancer associated with obstructive jaundice was treated with radiation therapy. The area encompassing the common bile duct and the porta hepatis was irradiated with 2 Gy per fraction to a total dose of 40 Gy. One day after the completion of irradiation, Lipiodol-transcatheter arterial embolization (Lipiodol-TAE) was performed. The irradiated field was seen as contrast media accumulation on hepatic arteriography and as defect shadow on superior mesenteric arteriography. Retention of Lipiodol, injected from the hepatic artery, was not seen in the irradiated field. Hepatic parenchyma exposed to irradiation was shown as low density area on CT performed 28 days after Lipiodol-TAE. The irradiated field was gradually enhanced on serial CT scans, and was seen as high density area on delayed scans. These radiologic appearances lead to the diagnosis of radiation hepatitis in this patient. A review of the literature, in addition to these findings, revealed that sinusoid blood flow in radiation hepatitis is delayed, depending on arterial blood, and that peribiliary plexus is strongly involved in hemodynamics of arterially injected Lipiodol. (N.K.).

  9. Severity of depression in hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess and compare the severity of depression in chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and healthy subjects. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad from July 2011 to February 2012. Methodology:A total of 206 subjects were divided in three groups. Group-I (chronic hepatitis C, n = 95), group-II (chronic hepatitis B, n = 29) and group-III (healthy subjects, n = 82). They were matched for age, gender and socioeconomic status and were compared for frequency and severity of depression as measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Some degree of depression was noted in all groups. Frequency of depression was 72.6% in group-I, 58.6% in group-II and 37.8% in group-III (p value < 0.001). Conclusion: Both CHC and CHB had high frequency of some degree of depression. Hepatitis C patients had more depressive features than CHB. It is worthwhile to do more close mental health observation in them. A multidisciplinary team including a psychiatric specialist can help in this approach. (author)

  10. Imaging of hepatic low density lipoprotein receptors by radionuclide scintiscanning in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Huettinger, M; Corbett, J R; Schneider, W J; Willerson, J T; Brown, M S; Goldstein, J L

    1984-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mediates the cellular uptake of plasma lipoproteins that are derived from very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Most of the functional LDL receptors in the body are located in the liver. Here, we describe a radionuclide scintiscanning technique that permits the measurement of LDL receptors in the livers of intact rabbits. 123I-labeled VLDL were administered intravenously, and scintigraphic images of the liver and heart were obtained at intervals ther...

  11. Oral manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the oral region predominantly or exclusively. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the oral mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694

  12. Oral manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara

    2014-06-28

    Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the oral region predominantly or exclusively. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the oral mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694

  13. Juvenile autoimmune hepatitis: Spectrum of the disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe; Maggiore; Silvia; Nastasio; Marco; Sciveres

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile autoimmune hepatitis(JAIH) is a progressive inflammatory liver disease, affecting mainly young girls, from infancy to late adolescence, characterized by active liver damage, as shown by high serum activity of aminotransferases, by elevated immunoglobulin G levels, high titers of serum non organ-specific andorgan-specific autoantibodies, and by interface hepatitis on liver biopsy. It is a multifactorial disease of unknown etiology in which environmental factors act as a trigger in genetically predisposed individuals. Two types of JAIH are identified according to the autoan-tibody panel detected at diagnosis: AIH-1, characterized by the presence of anti-smooth muscle antibody and/or antinuclear antibody and AIH-2, by anti-liver-kidney microsomal antibody type 1 and/or by the presence of anti-liver cytosol type 1 antibody. Epidemiological distribution, genetic markers, clinical presentation and pattern of serum cytokines differentiate the two types of AIH suggesting possible pathogenetic mechanisms. The most effective therapy for AIH is pharmacological suppression of the immune response. Treatment should be started as soon as the diagnosis is made to avoid severe liver damage and progression of fibrosis. The aim of this review is to outline the most significant and peculiar features of JAIH, based largely on our own personal database and on a review of current literature.

  14. Hepatitis B virus morphogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) particle consists of an envelope containing three related surface proteins and probably lipid and an icosahedral nucleocapsid of approximately 30 nm diameter enclosing the viral DNA genome and DNA polymerase. The capsid is formed in the cytosol of the infected cell during packaging of an RNA pregenome replication complex by multiple copies of a 21-kDa C protein. The capsid gains the ability to bud during synthesis of the viral DNA genome by reverse transcription of the pregenome in the lumen of the particle. The three envelope proteins S,M, and L shape a complex transmembrane fold at the endoplasmic reticulum, and form disulfide-linked homoand heterodimers. The transmembrane topology of a fraction of the large envelope protein L changes posttranslationally, therefore, the N terminal domain of L (preS) finally appears on both sides of the membrane.During budding at an intracellular membrane, a short linear domain in the cytosolic preS region interacts with binding sites on the capsid surface. The virions are subsequently secreted into the blood. In addition, the surface proteins can bud in the absence of capsids and form subviral lipoprotein particles of 20 nm diameter which are also secreted.

  15. Hepatitis C virus proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean Dubuisson

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes a single polyprotein,which is processed by cellular and viral proteases to generate 10 polypeptides. The HCV genome also contains an overlapping +1 reading frame that may lead to the synthesis of an additional protein. Until recently,studies of HCV have been hampered by the lack of a productive cell culture system. Since the identification of HCV genome approximately 17 years ago, structural,biochemical and biological information on HCV proteins has mainly been obtained with proteins produced by heterologous expression systems. In addition, some functional studies have also been confirmed with replicon systems or with retroviral particles pseudotyped with HCV envelope glycoproteins. The data that have accumulated on HCV proteins begin to provide a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the major steps of HCV life cycle. Moreover,the knowledge accumulated on HCV proteins is also leading to the development of antiviral drugs among which some are showing promising results in early-phase clinical trials. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functions and biochemical features of HCV proteins.

  16. Hepatitis B virus replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including human hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Despite this kinship to retroviruses, there are fundamental differences beyond the fact that hepadnavirions contain DNA instead of RNA. Most peculiar is the initiation of reverse transcription: it occurs by protein-priming, is strictly committed to using an RNA hairpin on the pgRNA,ε, as template, and depends on cellular chaperones;moreover, proper replication can apparently occur only in the specialized environment of intact nucleocapsids.This complexity has hampered an in-depth mechanistic understanding. The recent successful reconstitution in the test tube of active replication initiation complexes from purified components, for duck HBV (DHBV),now allows for the analysis of the biochemistry of hepadnaviral replication at the molecular level. Here we review the current state of knowledge at all steps of the hepadnaviral genome replication cycle, with emphasis on new insights that turned up by the use of such cellfree systems. At this time, they can, unfortunately,not be complemented by three-dimensional structural information on the involved components. However, at least for the s RNA element such information is emerging,raising expectations that combining biophysics with biochemistry and genetics will soon provide a powerful integrated approach for solving the many outstanding questions. The ultimate, though most challenging goal,will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development.

  17. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J;

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  18. Latent hepatitis B is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Arvind; May, Elizabeth; Ehrinpreis, Murray; Mutchnick, Milton

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the potential association between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), cirrhosis and latent hepatitis B (LHB) infection, defined as the absence of detectable serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the presence of hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb).

  19. Acute hepatitis associated with autochthonous hepatitis E virus infection--San Antonio, Texas, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A; Drobeniuc, Jan; Sanchez, Roger; Heseltine, Gary; Alsip, Bryan; Kamili, Saleem; Hu, Dale J; Guerra, Fernando; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2011-10-01

    Locally acquired hepatitis E infection is increasingly being observed in industrialized countries. We report 2 cases of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in the United States. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3a related to US-2 and swine hepatitis E virus strains was isolated from one of the patients, indicating potential food-borne or zoonotic transmission. PMID:21896699

  20. Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Chuanfang; Gong, Yan; Brok, Jesper;

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen.......To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen....

  1. Bivalent inactivated hepatitis A and recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Jiri

    2007-12-01

    Hepatitis A and B remain serious global public health problems. Monovalent vaccines against hepatitis A and B have been available for many years. Since 1996, licenses have been gradually introduced for different formulations and immunization schedules of the first combined vaccines against both diseases. Twinrix Adult (with conventional and accelerated schedules) is available for the immunization of individuals aged 16 years or older in Europe and 18 years or older the USA. Twinrix Pediatric, with its three-dose schedule, and AmBirix, with its two-dose schedule, are licensed in Europe for ages 1-15 years. These vaccines offer a single injection for satisfactory protection against hepatitis A and B and an excellent safety and reactogenicity profile in comparison with monovalent vaccines. This article focuses on immunogenicity of the vaccines and proposes expert opinion and future directions in this field.

  2. Methionine- and choline-deficient diet induces hepatic changes characteristic of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Marcolin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a disease with a high incidence, difficult diagnosis, and as yet no effective treatment. So, the use of experimental models for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induction and the study of its routes of development have been studied. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to develop an experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a methionine- and choline-deficient diet that is manufactured in Brazil so as to evaluate the liver alterations resulting from the disorder. METHODS: Thirty male C57BL6 mice divided in two groups (n = 15 were used: the experimental group fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet manufactured by Brazilian company PragSoluções®, and the control group fed a normal diet, for a period of 2 weeks. The animals were then killed by exsanguination to sample blood for systemic biochemical analyses, and subsequently submitted to laparotomy with total hepatectomy and preparation of the material for histological analysis. The statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for independent samples, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The mice that received the methionine- and choline-deficient diet showed weight loss and significant increase in hepatic damage enzymes, as well as decreased systemic levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and VLDL. The diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was performed in 100% of the mice that were fed the methionine- and choline-deficient diet. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed some degree of macrovesicular steatosis, ballooning, and inflammatory process. None of the animals which were fed the control diet presented histological alterations. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed significantly increased lipoperoxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH activity. CONCLUSION: The low cost and easily accessible methionine- and choline-deficient diet explored in this study is highly effective in

  3. Necrotizing hepatitis in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, L; O'Connor, M; Premanandan, C

    2014-11-01

    An adult male domestic pigeon (Columba livia) was presented for necropsy following natural death after a period of chronic weight loss and severe intestinal ascariasis. Histopathologic examination of the liver found moderate to marked, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis with large, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy of affected hepatocytes demonstrated numerous intra- and perinuclear icosahedral virions arranged in a lattice structure, consistent with adenoviral infection.

  4. Peliosis hepatic: a possible diagnosis; Peliosis hepatica: un diagnostico posible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixandre, A.; Ruiz, A.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Ruiz, F. [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset y Hospital de la Malvarrosa. Valencia (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Peliosis is a rarely occurring bening pathology which generally, but not exclusively, affects the liver. it is characterized by the presence of blood-filled lacunae. Presented is a case of peliosis hepatis confirmed through laparoscopy with biopsy in a 67-year-old woman with associated chronic hepatopathy. The echography was not specific, with a focal hepatic enhancement of non-uniform arboraceous clusteres morphology being observed in the TC. (Author) 19 refs.

  5. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Immunizations Hepatitis B One family's struggles with hepatitis B We provide this video in a variety of formats and lengths for use by your organization free-of-charge. Branded videos contain ...

  6. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Immunizations Hepatitis B One family's struggles with hepatitis B We provide this video in a variety of ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  7. Epclusa Approved for Chronic Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_159609.html Epclusa Approved for Chronic Hepatitis C Combination drug treats six major forms of ... to treat the six major strains of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Epclusa combines sofosbuvir, FDA-approved ...

  8. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  9. Coinfection of TT virus and response to interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B or C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Chih Lai; Ruey-Tyng Hu; Sien-Sing Yang; Chi-Hwa Wu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the serum positive percentage of TTvirus (TTV) in patients with chronic hepatitis B or C and theresponse of the coinfected TTV to interferon (IFN) duringIFN therapy for chronic hepatitis B and C.METHODS: We retrospectively studied the serum samples of70 patients with chronic hepatitis who had received IFN-alfatherapy from January 1997 to June 2000, which included 40cases of hepatitis B and 30 hepatitis C. All the patients hadbeen followed up for at least 6 months after the end of IFNtherapy. The serum TTV DNA was detected using thepolymerase chain reaction (PCR) before and every monthduring the course of IFN treatment.RESULTS: TTv infection was detected in 15 % (6/40) of thechronic hepatitis B group and 30 % (9/30) of the chronichepatitis C group. Loss of serum TTV DNA during IFNtherapy occurred in 3 of 6 patients (50 % ) and 6 of 9 (67 % )of hepatitis B and C groups, respectively. Seronegativity ofTTV was found all during the first month of IFN therapy inthe 9 patients. There was no correlation between theseroconversion of TTv and the biochemical changes of thepatients.CONCLUSION: TTV is not infrequently coinfectsd in patientswith chronic hepatitis B and C in Taiwan, and more thanhalf of the TTv infections are IFN-sensitive. However, theloss of serum TTV DNA does not affect the clinical course ofthe patients with chronic hepatitis B or C.

  10. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis B virus associated hepatic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Ming Wang; Ying-Zi Tang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major global health issue, and the prognosis of patients with HBV-associated fulminant hepatic failure is extremely poor. The application of antiviral therapies has led to signiifcant improvements in patient outcomes. This article aimed to review the current strategies in antiviral treatment of HBV-associated fulminant hepatic failure. DATA SOURCES: Literature search was conducted using PubMed on the related subjects. Part of the data was from the most recent work of the authors' laboratory. RESULTS: Hepatitis B immunoglobulin in prevention of recurrent HBV infection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been proven effective. However, its cost is high, and signiifcant side effects have been found to induce viral mutations. Lamivudine has a potent suppression for HBV replication and an excellent safety proifle in decompensated cirrhotic patients, but its major drawback is the high rate of drug-resistance. Adefovir is effective for lamivudine-resistance strains in the post-OLT situation, and its drug-resistance rate is relatively low. Combination therapies such as hepatitis B immunoglobulin combined with lamivudine and lamivudine combined with adefovir have been widely adopted for prophylaxis against HBV recurrence of infection after OLT. Entecavir, telbivudine, tenofovir and other newer agents have been widely used in antiviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of HBV-associated ful-minant hepatic failure is being transformed by developments in antiviral therapy. However, it should be noticed that HBV is controlled but never eliminated, and drug-resistance still remains a major issue. Hopefully, newer strategies may help to solve these problems.

  11. Diagnosis and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Fulminant Hepatic Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Sudha; McGuire, Brendan M

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with cerebral edema (CE), increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and subsequent neurologic complications; it is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in fulminant hepatic failure. The goal of therapy should be early diagnosis and treatment of HE with measures to reduce CE. A combination of clinical examination and diagnostic modalities can aid in prompt diagnosis. ICP monitoring and transcranial Doppler help diagnose and monitor response to treatment. Transfer to a transplant center and intensive care unit admission with airway management and reduction of CE with hypertonic saline, mannitol, hypothermia, and sedation are recommended as a bridge to liver transplantation.

  12. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  13. Insulin Protects against Hepatic Damage Postburn

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Kraft, Robert; Song, Juquan; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Cox, Robert A.; Brooks, Natasha C; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Burn injury causes hepatic dysfunction associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress/UPR leads to hepatic apoptosis and activation of the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, leading to vast metabolic alterations. Insulin has been shown to attenuate hepatic damage and to improve liver function. We therefore hypothesized that insulin administration exerts its effects by attenuating postburn hepatic ER stress and subs...

  14. Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王细文; 梁平; 李洪艳

    2004-01-01

    @@ Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma is defined as a malignant hepatic tumour containing both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Strictly, it should be distinguished from collision tumour and carcinoma with foci of spindle-shaped epithelial cells. Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma is rare, and less than 11 adequately documented cases have been reported. In this article, a case of primary hepatic carcinosarcoma was discussed as to its potential histogenesis.

  15. ACTUALLY TREATMENT OF THE HEPATIC MALIGNANT TUMORS

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tarcoveanu

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of the hepatic malignant tumors is a challenge for every surgeon. In present days there are a lot of techniques with different indications and results. These methods and their efficacity are presented in some recent papers. Hepatic resection is the gold standard treatment for hepatic malignancies with a decreasing postoperative morbidity and mortality. But only 10 - 20% of the patients with hepatic malignancies are able to be operated. For the other patients the treatment is pal...

  16. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  17. Morphologic Features of Extrahepatic Manifestations of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaibin M. Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the prototypic complications of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the liver. However, hepatitis C virus also affects a variety of other organs that may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C infection include a multitude of disease processes affecting the small vessels, skin, kidneys, salivary gland, eyes, thyroid, and immunologic system. The majority of these conditions are thought to be immune mediated. The most documented of these entities is mixed cryoglobulinemia. Morphologically, immune complex depositions can be identified in small vessels and glomerular capillary walls, leading to leukoclastic vasculitis in the skin and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in the kidney. Other HCV-associated entities include porphyria cutanea tarda, lichen planus, necrolytic acral erythema, membranous glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, insulin resistance, sialadenitis, sicca syndrome, and autoimmune thyroiditis. This paper highlights the histomorphologic features of these processes, which are typically characterized by chronic inflammation, immune complex deposition, and immunoproliferative disease in the affected organ.

  18. Hepatite C Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Strauss

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que cerca de 3% da população mundial esteja infectada pelo vírus da hepatite C. Todos os que receberam transfusão de sangue ou seus componentes e os usuários de drogas podem estar infectados. Procedimentos odontológicos, médicos, tatuagem ou acupuntura também constituem fatores de risco. A infecção se cronifica em até 85% dos indivíduos, com evolução assintomática durante anos ou décadas e apresentação clínica variada. Para o diagnóstico, a determinação do anti-VHC revela-se muito sensível e a confirmação se faz pela determinação do RNA-VHC no sangue; o estadiamento da doença e a avaliação da atividade inflamatória pela biópsia hepática. O tratamento objetiva deter a progressão da doença hepática através da inibição da replicação viral. Devido à baixa eficácia terapêutica aliada a importantes efeitos colaterais do interferon e da ribavirina, esses medicamentos encontram indicações e contra-indicações específicas. Vários fatores preditivos de resposta ao tratamento, principalmente a carga viral e o genótipo do VHC, mostram-se úteis na avaliação dos pacientes.It has been estimated that 3% of the world population is infected with the hepatitis C virus. Those who are blood product recipients or have been illicit drug users are at risk. Dental and medical procedures as well as tattooing and acupuncture are also risk factors. Chronic infection occurs in up to 85% of infected cases but they may remain without symptoms during years or even decades, and clinical presentation varies. Determination of anti-HCV in sera is a fairly sensitive tool for the diagnosis, and confirmation requires the identification of HCV-RNA. Staging of the liver disease as well as definition of its present activity can be graded by liver biopsy. The aim of treatment is to stop the progression of the hepatic disease by inhibiting viral replication. Due to the low therapeutic efficacy combined with important side

  19. Hepatitis B virus replication in acute glomerulonephritis with chronic active hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cadrobbi, P; Bortolotti, F; Zacchello, G.; Rinaldi, R; Armigliato, M; Realdi, G

    1985-01-01

    A 3 year old boy who had chronic active hepatitis type B with features of ongoing liver damage and active virus replication, developed acute membranous glomerulonephritis two years after the clinical onset of liver disease, when both hepatitis B e antigen and antibody were detectable in serum. After withdrawal of short term steroid treatment and resolution of hepatitis B virus replication, both glomerulonephritis and chronic hepatitis went into remission. Some months later hepatitis B surface...

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis B seromarkers and hepatitis C antibodies in blood donors in Basra, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rubaye, Ali; Tariq, Ziad; Alrubaiy, Laith

    2016-01-01

    Background Transfusion-caused hepatitis remains a major problem in Iraq. Therefore, testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and antibodies to hepatitis C antigen (anti-HCV) is a very important preventative measure. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus seromarkers among blood donors as a foundation for safe blood transfusion in Iraq. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was con...

  1. DIAGNOSTIC UTILITY OF USG-GUIDED FNAC IN HEPATIC LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha P. Meena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is an easy, rapid, minimally invasive and a cost effective diagnostic method for detecting benign and malignant lesions of liver. AIM The main aim of the present study was to establish the incidence of various hepatic lesions and to find out adequacy and utility of the procedure. MATERIAL AND METHOD A total of 174 cases were included in the study from Government Medical College, Kota and associated hospitals. All cases diagnosed to have single or multiple hepatic mass lesions on USG were included in the study. RESULTS Most common age group affected by hepatic lesion was 51-60 years (34.0%. 91.4% cases were having adequate aspirates. 95.6% of the total diagnosed cases were malignant and among malignant cases majority were metastatic. CONCLUSION USG-guided FNAC is a very useful procedure in the diagnosis of hepatic lesions as the procedure is simple and safe. Thus, FNAC is a simple and effective diagnostic tool in our hand.

  2. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Kenya, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Kathleen N; Kim, Andrea A; Umuro, Mamo; Drobenuic, Jan; Williamson, John M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fields, Barry S; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2016-08-01

    Current estimates put the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Kenya at 5-8%. We determined the HBV infection prevalence in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative Kenyan adult and adolescent population based on samples collected from a national survey. We analyzed data from HIV-negative participants in the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the HBV infection prevalence. We defined past or present HBV infection as presence of total hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), and chronic HBV infection (CHBI) as presence of both total HBcAb and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). We calculated crude and adjusted odds of HBV infection by demographic characteristics and risk factors using logistic regression analyses. Of 1,091 participants aged 15-64 years, approximately 31.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.0-35.3%) had exposure to HBV, corresponding to approximately 6.1 million (CI = 5.4-6.8 million) with past or present HBV infection. The estimated prevalence of CHBI was 2.1% (95% CI = 1.4-3.1%), corresponding to approximately 398,000 (CI = 261,000-602,000) with CHBI. CHBI is a major public health problem in Kenya, affecting approximately 400,000 persons. Knowing the HBV infection prevalence at baseline is important for planning and public health policy decision making and for monitoring the impact of viral hepatitis prevention programs. PMID:27273644

  3. Cloning and Expression of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Kazemi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a major cause of both acute and chronic liver disease. It is estimated that there are 350 million carriers of the virus in the world, and a high proportion will develop serious liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was cloning and expression hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg gene to design a DNA vaccine.Methods: In this study, we amplified the HBsAg gene from Iranian patients. The gene was cloned in pGEMEX-1 expression vector and recombinant plasmid was transformed in to JM109 E. coli strain and induced by IPTG.Results: We amplified, cloned and expressed hepatitis B virus surface antigen successfully and expressed protein was serologically assayed using gel diffusion and western blot analysis. Gene was sequenced and submitted to GenBank. Conclusions: The cloned HBsAg gene is ready for using in experimental DNA vaccine animal study. There are some mutations on this recombinant protein (T45D, Y206C and S207R which will affect on folding and function of recombinant protein.Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus, HBsAg, Recombinant Protein, Vaccine

  4. Progression of chronic hepatitis and preneoplasia in Helicobacter hepaticus-infected A/JCr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Arlin B; Boutin, Samuel R; Whary, Mark T; Sundina, Nataliya; Ge, Zhongming; Cormier, Kathleen; Fox, James G

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus infection induces sustained inflammation and carcinoma of the liver in A/JCr mice, and serves as a model of human cancers associated with viral hepatitis and H. pylorichronic gastritis. Here we describe the pathogenesis of premalignant disease in A/JCr mice infected with H. hepaticus. We inoculated dams intragestationally and/or pups postnatally, and evaluated offspring at 3, 6, or 12 months. Mice infected at or before 3 weeks of age, but not at 12 weeks, developed disease. Male mice were most affected, but expressed a bimodal pattern of susceptibility. Males exhibited lobular necrogranulomatous and interface (chronic active) hepatitis, while females usually developed intraportal (chronic persistent) hepatitis. Portal inflammation was slowly progressive, with tertiary lymphoid nodule development by 12 months. Hepatic bacterial load and preneoplastic lesions, including clear and tigroid cell foci of cellular alteration, were correlated with lobular hepatitis severity. No extrahepatic surrogate disease marker reliably predicted individual hepatitis grade. In conclusion, gender and bacterial exposure timing are key determinants of H. hepaticus disease outcomes. Intrahepatic inflammation is driven by local signals characterized by a vigorous but nonsterilizing immune response. Continued study of chronic hepatitis progression may reveal therapeutic targets to reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Soo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Cho, On Koo; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Kwang Su [Hanyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma is a rare tumor, most frequently occurring in liver parenchyma. We recently encountered an exophytic hepatic leiomyosarcoma ; CT scans indicated an indistinct border, with the parenchyme of the liver and parenchymal beaking suggesting a primary hepatic mass. We present an unusual case of primary leiomyosarcoma which showed exophytic growth.

  6. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  7. Clinical application of hepatic CT perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhong; Wen-Jing Wang; Jian-Rong Xu

    2009-01-01

    Complicated changes occur in hemodynamics of hepatic artery and vein, and portal vein under various kinds of pathologic status because of distinct double hepatic blood supply. This article reviews the clinical application of hepatic computed tomography perfusion in some liver diseases.

  8. Studies on Hepatitis B vaccination in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. del Canho (Riwka)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1982-1989, 705 infants born to HBsAg positive mothers entered the Dutch neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program and received passive-active hepatitis B immunization, according to 6 schedules, varying in time of onset vaccination, dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBlg) and type a

  9. Drug-induced hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amacher, David E; Chalasani, Naga

    2014-05-01

    Several drugs have been associated with the potential for drug-induced hepatic steatosis (DIHS) and/or phospholipidosis (DIPL), a lysosomal storage disorder. Drug-induced hepatic steatosis is generally a chronic but reversible affliction and may involve drug accumulation in the liver. Fat accumulation may be either macrovesicular or microvesicular in nature. Commonly used medications associated with DIHS include amiodarone, valproate, tamoxifen, methotrexate, and some chemotherapeutic and antiretroviral agents. Two recently approved medications for the treatment of hereditary homozygous hypercholesterolemia have also been noted to cause hepatic steatosis. For some compounds such as methotrexate and tamoxifen, the underlying metabolic risk factors such as obesity and metabolic syndrome may exacerbate their potential to cause DIHS and its progression. In this article, the authors discuss the preclinical screening and mechanisms of DIHS and DIPL, and review specific examples of drugs commonly used in clinical practice that are known to cause DIHS. PMID:24879984

  10. Aminoadamantanes for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamers, Mieke H; Broekman, Mark; Drenth, Joost Ph;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Around 3% of the world's population (approximately 160 million people) are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. The proportion of infected people who develop clinical symptoms varies between 5% and 40%. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin...... response in genotype 1 infected patients to at least 70%. There is therefore an unmet need for drugs that can achieve a higher proportion of sustained virological response. Aminoadamantanes are antiviral drugs used for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial...... and harmful effects of aminoadamantanes for patients with chronic hepatitis C infection by conducting a systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised clinical trials, as well as trial sequential analyses. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled...

  11. Serological profile of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyper-endemic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoola Ayobanji

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Located in the south western part of Saudi Arabia, the Gizan region is largely a rural community in which hepatitis B and chronic liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma are highly prevalent. Aim of study: To determine the relative frequencies of acute hepatitis A, B, C and E in acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyperendemic hepatitis B infection. Methods and materials: In a prospective study 246 consecutive patients (179 males and 67 females diagnosed in a 2-year period were tested for markers of Hepatitis A virus (HAV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis E virus (HEV. Results: Of the patients tested, 131 (53.3% were children (< 10 years, and 42 (17% were 11 - 20 years in age. Ig M anti -HAV, IgM anti-HBV, anti- HCV and IgM anti-HEV were positive in 37%, 19.1%, 3.7% and 13.7% respectively. Markers of these viruses were absent in 24.4%. Among 131 children (< 10 years the commonest cause of AVH was HAV occurring in 57.3% of the cases. In adults (> 21 years HBV was found in 35.6% and IgM anti -HAV was detected in only 6.8%. In contrast to the age- related decline in the frequency of acute HA, the proportion of acute HE were similar in all age groups (13.7% in children, 16.7% in adolescents and 11.0% in adults. Conclusion: The study indicated that HAV is still a common cause of AVH particularly among children in Gizan. Acute 1-113 had a low occurrence among the children, evidently as a consequence of the integration of HB vaccine into the Saudi Arabian national EPI, 10 years ago. With the availability of combined HB and HA vaccines, It should be possible to graft the vaccination against HAV on to the existing program in Saudi Arabia. Affecting 13.4% of the group studied, sporadic HEV constitute a significant cause of AVH in this population. Until HEV vaccine becomes widely available, its prevention would be mainly by the improvement of socio - economic and hygienic standards of the population.

  12. Hepatitis C virus infection and apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Fischer; Thomas Baumert; Hubert E Blum

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis is central for the control and elimination of viral infections. In chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection,enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis and upregulation of the death inducing ligands CD95/Fas, TRAIL and TNFα occur.Nevertheless, HCV infection persists in the majority of patients. The impact of apoptosis in chronic HCV infection is not well understood. It may be harmful by triggering liver fibrosis, or essential in interferon (IFN)induced HCV elimination. For virtually all HCV proteins,pro- and anti-apoptotic effects have been described,especially for the core and NS5A protein. To date, it is not known which HCV protein affects apoptosis in vivo and whether the infectious virions act pro- or antiapoptotic. With the availability of an infectious tissue culture system, we now can address pathophysiologically relevant issues. This review focuses on the effect of HCV infection and different HCV proteins on apoptosis and of the corresponding signaling cascades.

  13. Insulin resistance and hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuel Romero-Gómez

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the major feature of the metabolic syndrome and depends on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In chronic hepatitis C, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus are more often seen than in healthy controls or chronic hepatitis B patients.Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promotes insulin resistance, mainly by increased TNF production together with enhancement of suppressor of cytokine (SOC-3); both events block PI3K and Akt phosphorylation. Two types of insulin resistance could be found in chronic hepatitis C patients: "viral" and "metabolic" insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in chronic hepatitis C is relevant because it promotes steatosis and fibrosis. The mechanisms by which insulin resistance promotes fibrosis progression include: (1) steatosis, (2) hyperleptinemia, (3) increased TNF production, (4) impaired expression of PPARy receptors. Lastly, insulin resistance has been found as a common denominator in patients difficult-to-treat like cirrhotics, overweight, HIV coinfected and Afro-American.Insulin resistance together with fibrosis and genotype has been found to be independently associated with impaired response rate to peginterferon plus ribavirin.Indeed, in genotype 1, the sustained response rate was twice (60%) in patients with HOMA ≤ 2 than patients with HOMA > 2. In experiments carried out on Huh-7cells transfected by full length HCVRNA, interferon alpha blocks HCV replication. However, when insulin (at doses of 128 μU/mL, similar that seen in the hyperinsulinemic state) was added to interferon, the ability to block HCV replication disappeared, and the PKR synthesis was abolished. In summary, hepatitis C promotes insulin resistance and insulin resistance induces interferon resistance,steatosis and fibrosis progression.

  14. INFEKSI VIRUS HEPATITIS B DAN HEPATITIS C PADA PENDERITA HEPATITIS KRONIS DAN HEMODIALISIS DI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Yuwono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus Hepatitis C dan Hepatitis B merupakan penyebab hepatitis kronik aktif yang dapat berkembang menjadi hepatoselular karsinoma. Untuk mengetahui peranan kedua jenis virus tersebut sebagai penyebab hepatoselular karsinoma, telah dilakukan pemeriksaan HbsAg, anti-VHC dan RNA-VHC pada 17 penderita hepatitis kronis. 19 Pasien hemodialisis dan 198 donor darah PMI. Pemeriksaan HbsAg dilakukan dengan RPHA Cell: pemeriksaan anti-VHC dengan dipstik anti-VHC kit diagnotik produksi NTB Mataram, Lombok. Deteksi RNA-VHC dilakukan dengan teknik RT-PCR, menggunakan primer spesifik untuk daerah 5'NCR. Hasil pemeriksaan menunjukkan bahwa pada penderita hepatitis kronis ditemukan 5 orang (23,5% positif HbsAg dan 1 orang (5,8% anti-VHC. Pada penderita hemodialisis ditemukan 14 orang (73,6% positif anti-VHC, persentase anti-VHC meningkat sesuai dengan meningkatnya frekuensi hemodialisis. Pada donor darah PMI ditemukan 5 orang (2,2% positif HbsAg dan tidak satupun ditemukan anti-VHC positif.

  15. [Clinical practice guideline for diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis virus hepatitis B. Grupo Colaborativo en Hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This guide sets out the technical criteria for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis secondary to viral hepatitis B. The guide intend to reduce the morbidity and mortality of this disease. The Guide give practical definitions to help understand the terminology, describe epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical aspects and the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B. Finally the guide give recommendations for the management including special circumstances such as patients with cirrhosis, patients coinfected with HIV or coinfected with hepatitis C. The recommendations of the guide become the national guide for the management of chronic hepatitis B

  16. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (January 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 12 of 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2014), EMBASE (1974 to January 2014), and Science Citation Index-Expanded (1900 to January 2014). Manual searches in reference...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...

  17. Ceftriaxone-induced toxic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Peker; Eren Cagan; Murat Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury encompasses a spectrum of clinical disease ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. The advantages of a long half-life, wide spectrum, high tissue penetration rate, and a good safety profile,make ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin,a frequent choice in the treatment of childhood infections. Previous studies have reported a few cases of high aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, along with three cases ofhepatitis caused by ceftriaxone. Here, we report a case of drug-induced toxic hepatitis in a patient who was treated with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillitis.

  18. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S;

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  19. Hepatitis B Infection and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güçlü E et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection varies geographically, from high (>8%, intermediate (2-7% to low (<2% prevalence. The predominant routes of transmission vary according to the endemicity of the HBV infection. In areas with high HBV endemicity, perinatal transmission is the main route of transmission, whereas in areas with low HBV endemicity, sexual contact amongst high-risk adults and using shared needles amongst injection drug users are the predominant route. Three main strategies have been approved to be effective in preventing HBV infection. They are behavior modification, passive immunoprophylaxis, and active immunization.

  20. [Microbiological diagnosis of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Roberto; Aguilera, Antonio; Córdoba, Juan; Fuertes, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Liver inflammation or hepatitis has many different causes, both infectious and non-infectious. Among the former, viral infection is responsible for at least half of all hepatitis worldwide. Different viruses have been described with primary tropism for liver tissue. These microorganisms have been successively named with letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E and G. The aim of this paper is to review this heterogeneous group of viruses in its most basic aspects, including clinical implications, treatment, main control, and prophylactic measures and, of special interest, diagnostic approaches, both serological and molecular, which are used for their detection, quantification and characterization. PMID:25742731

  1. Hepatitis C and liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert S.

    2005-08-01

    Liver transplantation is a life-saving therapy to correct liver failure, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma arising from hepatitis C infection. But despite the successful use of living donors and improvements in immunosuppression and antiviral therapy, organ demand continues to outstrip supply and recurrent hepatitis C with accelerated progression to cirrhosis of the graft is a frequent cause of graft loss and the need for retransplantation. Appropriate selection of candidates and timing of transplantation, coupled with better pre- and post-transplant antiviral therapy, are needed to improve outcomes.

  2. The value of hepatic diffusion-weighted MR imaging in demonstrating hepatic congestion secondary to pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevindir Isa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congestive hepatomegaly might be the first sign for pulmonary hypertension. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value obtained with quantitative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI is affected by liver fibrosis and perfusion. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of DW-MRI in cooperation with biochemical markers, ultrasonography (US and echocardiography (TTE in determining the degree of hepatic congestion secondary to pulmonary hypertension (PHT. Methods 35 patients with PHT and 26 control subjects were included in the study. PHT was diagnosed if pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP was measured above 35 mmHg with TTE. Study group was classified into mild and moderate PHT. DW-MRI was performed with b-factors of 0, 500 and 1000 sec/mm². Mean ADC, ADC-II (Average of the ADC values of right lobe anterior and posterior segments, US, TTE and blood biochemical parameters of both groups were compared. Results There exists a positive correlation between liver size and the diameters of vena cava inferior, right atrium, right hepatic vein(RHV, mid-hepatic vein(MHV, left hepatic vein(LHV (p Conclusions Congestion due to moderate PHT might be diagnosed with DW-MRI. As PASP increase; mean ADC and ADC-II values increase.

  3. Influence of Hepatic Inflammation on FibroScan Findings in Diagnosing Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianghua; Xu, Cheng; He, Dengming; Zhang, Huiyan; Xia, Jie; Shi, Dairong; Kong, Lingjun; He, Xiaoqin; Wang, Yuming

    2015-06-01

    Hepatic inflammation may affect the performance of FibroScan. This prospective study investigated the influence of hepatic inflammation on liver stiffness measurement (LSM) values by assessing FibroScan and liver biopsy findings in 325 patients with chronic hepatitis B. Liver fibrosis and inflammation were classified into five stages (S0-S4) and grades (G0-G4) according to the Scheuer scoring system. LSM values were correlated with fibrosis stage and inflammation grade (r = 0.479, p 0.05). For inflammation grades G0, G1, G2 and G3, areas under receiver operating characteristic curves of FibroScan for significant fibrosis were 0.8267 (p < 0.001), 0.6956 (p < 0.001), 0.709 (p = 0.0012) and 0.6947 (p = 0.137), respectively. Inflammation has a significant influence on LSM values in patients with chronic hepatitis B with mild fibrosis, but not in those with significant fibrosis.

  4. Influence of the invasion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by hepatitis B virus on immune response of the patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Tong-jing; ZHANG Lian; HOU Jin-lin; ZHANG Ming-xia; YANG Jie; LUO Kang-xian

    2001-01-01

    To explore the influence of HBV invasion into peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) on the immune response of patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: The cytokine levels in the culture supernatant of PBMC from 56 patients with chronic hepatitis B were determined by ELISA, and PCR was employed to amplify the HBV DNA. Results: The levels of IFN-γ in patients with hepatitis B was lower than thoset of the control, but the difference was not statistically significant, while the levels of IL-4 were significantly higher than those of the control (P<0.01). The serum levels of HBV DNA were negatively correlated with that of IFN-y in culture supernatants of PBMC. Thirty-five patients positive of HBV DNA in the PBMCs were identified from 56 patients with hepatitis B,and their IFN-γ level proved to be significantly different. Conclusions: Th2 cell-mediated immune response is predominant in chronic hepatitis B which is associated with the chronicity of HBV infection. HBV invasion into the PBMCs may affect Th1 and Th2 cell-mediated immune response of the patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  5. Histopathology of hepatitis C in children, a systematic review: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indolfi, Giuseppe; Guido, Maria; Azzari, Chiara; Resti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C in children is usually considered a clinically mild and slowly progressive disease. Few pediatric studies focused on histopathology of children with hepatitis C are available. Those available show, overall, a wide spectrum of findings ranging from normal liver to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the studies that explored histopathology in children with hepatitis C. Factors affecting the presence and the degree of necroinflammation, fibrosis and steatosis and the risk of progression to advanced liver disease were extensively evaluated. Insights on the possible role of histopathology findings in the decision-making process of whether or not to treat children with hepatitis C are provided.

  6. Relationships between hepatic trace element concentrations, reproductive status, and body condition of female greater scaup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badzinski, S.S.; Flint, P.L.; Gorman, K.B.; Petrie, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    We collected female greater scaup (Aythya marila) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska during two breeding seasons to determine if concentrations of 18 trace elements in livers and eggs were elevated and if hepatic concentrations correlated with body condition or affected reproductive status. Fifty-six percent, 5%, and 42% of females, respectively, had elevated hepatic cadmium (Cd: >3 ??g g-1 dry weight [dw]), mercury (Hg: >3 ??g g-1 dw), and selenium (Se: >10 ??g g-1 dw). Somatic protein and lipid reserves were not correlated with hepatic Cd or Hg, but there was a weak negative correlation between protein and Se. Hepatic Cd, Hg, and Se were similar in females that had and had not initiated egg production. In a sample of six eggs, 33% and 100%, respectively, contained Se and Hg, but concentrations were below embryotoxicity thresholds. We conclude that trace element concentrations documented likely were not adversely impacting this study population. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Current research of hepatic cirrhosis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Xian Yao; Shu-Lin Jiang; Dong-Mei Yao

    2005-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is a common disease that poses a serious threat to public health, and is characterized by chronic,progressive and diffuse hepatic lesions preceded by hepaticfibrosis regardless of the exact etiologies. In recent years,considerable achievements have been made in China in research of the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and especially the treatment of hepatic fibrosis, resulting in much improved prognosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. In this paper, the authors review the current status of research in hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and their major complications.

  8. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  9. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  10. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  11. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  12. Correlation of hepatic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with fatty liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    Liver demonstrates heterogeneous FDG uptake and sometimes it shows abnormally increased uptake even though there is no malignant tissue. However, there was no previous study to correlate these various pattern of hepatic FDG uptake with benign liver disease. Therefore, we evaluated the significance of hepatic FDG uptake associated with various clinical factors including fatty liver, liver function tests and lipid profiles. We reviewed a total of 188 patients (male/female: 120/68, mean age: 50 {+-} 9) who underwent PET/CT for screening of malignancy. Patients with DM, impaired glucose tolerance, previous severe hepatic disease or long-term medication history were excluded. The FDG uptake in liver was analyzed semi-quantitatively using ROI on transaxial images (segment 8) and we compared mean standardized uptake value (SUV) between fatty liver and non-fatty liver group. We also evaluated the correlation between hepatic FDG uptake and various clinical factors including serum liver function test (ALT, AST), {gamma} -GT, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration. The effect of alcoholic history and body mass index on hepatic FDG uptake was analyzed within the fatty liver patients. The hepatic FDG uptake of fatty liver group was significantly higher than that of non-fatty liver group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration showed significant correlation with hepatic FDG uptake. However, there was no significant correlation between other factors (ALT, AST, and {gamma} -GT) and FDG uptake. Also there was no difference of mean SUV between normal and abnormal groups on the basis of alcoholic history and body mass index within fatty liver patients. Fatty liver and high serum triglyceride concentration were the independent factors affecting hepatic FDG uptake according to multivariate analysis. In conclusion, hepatic FDG uptake was strongly correlated with fatty liver and serum triglyceride concentration.

  13. The why and wherefore of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Vijay Pb; Tognarelli, Joshua M; Massie, Nicolas; Crossey, Mary Me; Cook, Nicola A; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a common neuropsychiatric abnormality, which complicates the course of patients with liver disease. It was probably first described by Hippocrates over 2000 years ago, who said that "those whose madness arises from phlegm are quiet and neither shout nor make a disturbance, while those whose madness arises from bile shout, play tricks and will not keep still, but are always up to some mischief ". He was presumably describing the differences between patients with pneumonia and acute liver failure. Despite the fact that the syndrome was probably first recognized thousands of years ago, the exact pathogenesis still remains unclear. Furthermore, a precise definition of the syndrome is lacking, as are definitive methods of diagnosing this condition. It is important as both patients with cirrhosis and the general population with whom they interact may be affected as a consequence. At a minimum, the individual may be affected by impaired quality of life, impaired ability to work, and slowed reaction times, which are relevant to the population at large if affected individuals operate heavy machinery or drive a car. Pathogenic mechanisms, diagnostic tools, and treatment options are discussed. PMID:26719720

  14. Acute hepatitis C: Prospects and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    More than 170 million people worldwide have chronic hepatitis C. Acute hepatitis C is rarely diagnosed because it is commonly asymptomatic. Most infected patients are unaware of their condition until the symptoms of chronic infection manifest. Treatment of acute hepatitis C is something of a paradox because spontaneous resolution is possible and many patients do not have symptoms.However, several factors provide a rationale for treating patients who have acute hepatitis C. Compared with acute hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis C is associated with a worse prognosis, the need for more intensive treatment,longer treatment duration, and a decrease in successful treatment outcomes. Conversely, early intervention is associated with improved viral eradication, using a regimen that is better tolerated, less expensive, more convenient, and of shorter duration than the currently approved combination therapies for chronic hepatitis C.

  15. Transfusion-associated hepatitis before the screening of blood for hepatitis risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engle, Ronald E; Bukh, Jens; Alter, Harvey J;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The true incidence of transfusion-associated hepatitis (TAH) before blood screening is unknown. Our aims were to reevaluate blood recipients receiving unscreened blood and analyze hepatitis viruses circulating more than 45 years ago. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cryopreserved serum samples......%) developed biochemical evidence of hepatitis; of these, 20 (67%) were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) alone, four (13%) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) alone, and six (20%) with both viruses. Among the 36 patients who did not develop hepatitis, four (11%) were newly infected with HCV alone, nine (25......%) with HBV alone, and one (3%) with both viruses. Overall, 100% of patients with hepatitis and 39% of those without hepatitis were infected with HBV and/or HCV; one patient was also infected with hepatitis E virus. The donor carrier rate for HBV and/or HCV was estimated to be more than 6%; contemporaneously...

  16. Studies on acute hepatic insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. de Groot (Gerrit Harmen)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractAcute hepatic failure (AHF) is one of the most dramatic situations that a clinical physician can encounter. It is also one of the most frustating since death is the result in a large majority of the cases, despite all efforts of the medical and nursing staffs. Although a wide variety of

  17. [Autoimmune hepatitis induced by isotretionine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Rojas, Patricia; Gallegos Lopez, Roxana; Ciliotta Chehade, Alessandra; Scavino, Yolanda; Morales, Alejandro; Tagle, Martín

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a teenage patient with the diagnosis of drug induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient is a 16 years old female, with the past medical history of Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism controlled with levothyroxine, who started treatment with Isotretionin (®Accutane) 20 mg q/12 hours for a total of 3 months for the treatment of severe acne. The physical examination was within normal limits and the results of the laboratory exams are: Baseline values of ALT 28 U/L, AST 28 U/L. Three months later: AST 756 U/L, ALT 1199U/L, alkaline phosphatase 114 U/L, with normal bilirrubin levels throughout the process. The serology studies were negative for all viral hepatitis; ANA titers were positive (1/160) and igG levels were also elevated. A liver biopsy was performed, and was compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Corticosteroid therapy was started with Prednisone 40 mg per day one week after stopping the treatment with isotretionin, observing an improvement in the laboratory values. We describe this case and review the world literature since there are no reported cases of Isotretinoin-induced autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27131947

  18. Hepatic adenomas: comprehensive imaging diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the US, CT and MR imaging findings and diagnosis of hepatic adenomas. Methods: The comprehensive imaging features in 6 patients with 6 hepatic adenomas confirmed pathologically were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with pathologic findings. Results: One case was diagnosed correctly, four cases were mistaken for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), and one case was mistaken for focal nodular hyperplasia. US: six lesions were hypoechoic with hypo-halo in four lesions, and there was low velocity arterial and venous flow within the six lesions. CT: six lesions were hypodense with pseudo capsule in four lesions, and the four lesions showed slight enhancement during arterial and portal venous phases, and one lesion showed moderate enhancement during arterial phase and slight enhancement during portal venous phase. MRI: six lesions had heterogeneously high signal intensity on T1WI and T2WI, and the high intensity on T1WI remained unchanged after using fat saturation. Two lesions showed strong enhancement during arterial phase and slight enhancement during portal venous and delayed phases, and three lesions showed slight enhancement during arterial, portal venous, and delayed phases. Pseudo capsule detected in six lesions showed slight enhancement on portal venous or delayed phases. Conclusion: The comprehensive imaging findings of hepatic adenomas were nonspecific. The presence of pseudo capsule, heterogeneous high signal intensity on T1WI, and the high intensity remained unchanged after using fat saturation may help make a correct diagnosis of hepatic adenoma

  19. New perspectives in occult hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente Carre(n)o; Javier Bartolomé; Inmaculada Castillo; Juan Antonio Quiroga

    2012-01-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection,defined as the presence of HCV RNA in liver and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of detectable viral RNA in serum by standard assays,can be found in anti-HCV positive patients with normal serum levels of liver enzymes and in anti-HCV negative patients with persistently elevated liver enzymes of unknown etiology.Occult HCV infection is distributed worldwide and all HCV genotypes seem to be involved in this infection.Occult hepatitis C has been found not only in anti-HCV positive subjects with normal values of liver enzymes or in chronic hepatitis of unknown origin but also in several groups at risk for HCV infection such as hemodialysis patients or family members of patients with occult HCV.This occult infection has been reported also in healthy populations without evidence of liver disease.Occult HCV infection seems to be less aggressive than chronic hepatitis C although patients affected by occult HCV may develop liver cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma.Thus,anti-HCV negative patients with occult HCV may benefit from antiviral therapy with pegylatedinterferon plus ribavirin.The persistence of very low levels of HCV RNA in serum and in PBMCs,along with the maintenance of specific T-cell responses against HCV-antigens observed during a long-term follow-up of patients with occult hepatitis C,indicate that occult HCV is a persistent infection that is not spontaneously eradicated.This is an updated report on diagnosis,epidemiology and clinical implications of occult HCV with special emphasis on anti-HCV negative cases.

  20. Clinical studies on inferior right hepatic veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xing; Hong Li; Wei-Guo Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Many small veins are called accessory, short hepatic veins in addition to the right, middle and left hepatic veins. The size of these veins varied from a pinhole to 1 cm; the size of inferior right hepatic veins (IRHVs) is thicker than that of short hepatic veins or more than 1 cm occasionally. Adults have a higher incidence rate of the IRHV. DATA SOURCES:A literature search of the PubMed database was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS:The size of IRHVs is related to the size of the right hepatic vein, i.e. the larger the diameter of the right hepatic vein, the smaller the diameter of the IRHVs, and vice versa. The IRHVs are divided into superior, medial and inferior groups, separately named the superior, medial and inferior right hepatic veins according to the position of the IRHV entering the inferior vena cava. The superior right hepatic vein mainly drains the superior part of segmentⅦ, and the medial right hepatic vein drains the middle part of segmentⅦ. A thicker IRHV mainly drains segmentⅥ and the inferior part of segmentⅦ and a thinner IRHV drains the inferior part of segmentⅤ. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical signiifcance of these studies on IRHVs is varied: (1) Hepatic caudate lobe resection could be introduced after study on the veins of that lobe. (2) It is very important to identify the draining region of the IRHV for guiding hepatic segmentectomy. The postero-inferior area of the right lobe can be preserved along with the hypertrophic IRHV even if the entire main right hepatic vein is resected during segmentectomy ofⅦ andⅧwith right hepatic vein resection for patients with primary liver cancer. (3) The ligation of the major hepatic vein for the treatment of juxtahepatic vein injury is recommended because of severe hemorrhagic shock and dififculty in

  1. HEPATIC STEATOSIS: AN AETIOHISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shrikrishna Metkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fatty liver disease, i.e. hepatic steatosis defined as hepatic lipid accumulation greater than 5-10% of liver weight. 1-3 has become a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. Morphologically fatty liver is of two types: microvesicular and macrovesicular. Macrovesicular steatosis is a chronic condition associated with various risk factors like alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, obesity, etc. The aim of present study was to analyse various aetiological factors associated with macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and find its correlation with the grade of steatosis. METHODOLOGY This retrospective and prospective study was conducted in histopathology laboratory of a tertiary health care centre in Mangalore, Karnataka, from 2009 to 2014; 120 cases of liver biopsies and autopsy liver tissue of adults (≥18 years showing histologically confirmed macrovesicular steatosis in >10% hepatocytes were analysed for aetiology and grade of steatosis. RESULT Hepatic steatosis was observed mainly in middle aged (31-50 years males. ALD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH were most common causes followed by infections like TB, HCV, HBV, HIV and other causes like CPC (Chronic Passive Congestion liver and drugs. Spearmen’s correlation coefficient was used to analyse correlation between aetiology and grade of steatosis. ALD and NASH were most common causes for severe steatosis. ALD and NASH were also common causes for mild-to-moderate grade of steatosis. Mainly moderate-to-severe steatosis was found in association with TB, HCV, HBV, HIV. CPC cases predominantly showed moderate steatosis. The correlation between aetiology and grade of steatosis was found to be statistically significant. Drug induced steatosis was mostly severe grade, but the number of cases were too less to consider it statistically significant. CONCLUSION Various causes like ALD, NASH, TB, HCV, HBV and HIV infections, CPC and rarely drugs should be considered in

  2. How to Treat Pain in the Hepatic Region Due to Chronic Hepatitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宗广

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chronic viral hepatitis type B and C both have the symptoms of pain in the hepatic region, asthenia, poor appetite, abdominal fullness, among which pain in the hepatic region is the most commonly seen. According to the author's clinical experience, treatment based on accurate TCM differentiation can not only eliminate pain in the hepatic region but also restore the hepatic function at the same time. Differentiation includes analysis of the nature of the hepatic pain and the accompanying symptoms, and the treatment is aimed at the differentiated symptoms. The following are methods of treatment.

  3. Is autoimmune hepatitis a frequent finding among HCV patients with intense interface hepatitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosilene; G; Badiani; Vitória; Becker; Renata; M; Perez; Carla; AL; Matos; Lara; B; Lemos; Valéria; P; Lanzoni; Luis; Eduardo; C; Andrade; Alessandra; Dellavance; Antonio; Eduardo; B; Silva; Maria; Lucia; G; Ferraz

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the overlap of autoimmune hepatitis in hepatitis C virus(HCV)-infected patients with intense interface hepatitis.METHODS:Among 1759 patients with hepatitis C submitted to liver biopsy,92(5.2%) presented intense interface hepatitis.These patients were evaluated regarding the presence of antinuclear antibody(ANA),anti-smooth muscle antibody(SMA) and anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody(LKM-1),levels of γ-globulin and histological findings related to autoimmune hepatitis(plasma cell infiltrate...

  4. Oxymatrine liposome attenuates hepatic fibrosis via targeting hepatic stellate cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning-Li Chai; Qiang Fu; Hui Shi; Chang-Hao Cai; Jun Wan; Shi-Ping Xu; Ben-Yan Wu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the potential mechanism of ArgGly-Asp (RGD) peptide-labeled liposome loading oxymatrine (OM) therapy in CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in METHODS:We constructed a rat model of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis and treated the rats with different formulations of OM.To evaluate the antifibrotic effect of OM,we detected levels of alkaline phosphatase,hepatic histopathology (hematoxylin and eosin stain and Masson staining) and fibrosis-related gene expression of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-2,tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 as well as type Ⅰ procollagen via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.To detect cell viability and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs),we performed 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-diphenytetrazoliumromide assay and flow cytometry.To reinforce the combination of oxymatrine with HSCs,we constructed fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated Arg-Gly-Asp peptide-labeled liposomes loading OM,and its targeting of HSCs was examined by fluorescent microscopy.RESULTS:OM attenuated CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis,as defined by reducing serum alkaline phosphatase (344.47 ± 27.52 U/L vs 550.69 ± 43.78 U/L,P < 0.05),attenuating liver injury and improving collagen deposits (2.36% ± 0.09% vs 7.70% ± 0.60%,P < 0.05) and downregulating fibrosis-related gene expression,that is,MMP-2,TIMP-1 and type Ⅰ procollagen (P < 0.05).OM inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis of HSCs in vitro.RGD promoted OM targeting of HSCs and enhanced the therapeutic effect of OM in terms of serum alkaline phosphatase (272.51 ± 19.55 U/L vs 344.47 ± 27.52 U/L,P < 0.05),liver injury,collagen deposits (0.26% ± 0.09% vs 2.36% ± 0.09%,P < 0.05) and downregulating fibrosis-related gene expression,that is,MMP-2,TIMP-1 and type Ⅰ procollagen (P < 0.05).Moreover,in vitro assay demonstrated that RGD enhanced the effect of OM on HSC viability and apoptosis.CONCLUSION:OM attenuated hepatic fibrosis by

  5. Pharmacotherapy for hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsamran, Paula V; Kim, Jiwon W; Cupo Abbott, Jennifer; Rosenblatt, Angela

    2010-06-18

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a challenging clinical complication of liver dysfunction with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities that range from mild disturbances in cognitive function and consciousness to coma and death. The pathogenesis of HE in cirrhosis is complex and multifactorial, but a key role is thought to be played by circulating gut-derived toxins of the nitrogenous compounds, most notably ammonia. Therapeutic treatment options for HE are currently limited and have appreciable risks and benefits associated with their use. Management of HE primarily involves avoidance of precipitating factors, limitation of dietary protein intake, and administration of various ammonia-lowering therapies such as non-absorbable disaccharides and select antimicrobial agents. Non-absorbable disaccharides, such as lactulose, have traditionally been regarded as first-line pharmacotherapy for patients with HE. However, multiple adverse events have been associated with their use. In addition, recent literature has questioned the true efficacy of the disaccharides for this indication. Neomycin, metronidazole and vancomycin may be used as alternative treatments for patients intolerant or unresponsive to non-absorbable disaccharides. Antimicrobials reduce bacterial production of ammonia and other bacteria-derived toxins through suppression of intestinal flora. Neomycin has been reported to be as effective as lactulose, and similar efficacy has been reported with vancomycin and metronidazole for the management of HE. However, the adverse effects frequently associated with these antimicrobials limit their use as first-line pharmacological agents. Neomycin is the most commonly used antimicrobial for HE and, although poorly absorbed, systemic exposure to the drug in sufficient amounts causes hearing loss and renal toxicity. Long-term neomycin therapy requires annual auditory testing and continuous monitoring of renal function. Long-term use of metronidazole has been

  6. Effect of transforming growth factor beta and bone morphogenetic proteins on rat hepatic stellate cell proliferation and trans-differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Shen; Guo-Jiang Huang; Yue-Wen Gong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore different roles of TGF-β (transforming growth factor beta) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)in hepatic stellate cell proliferation and trans-differentiation.METHODS: Hepatic stellate cells were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Sub-cultured hepatic stellate cells were employed for cell proliferation assay with WST-1 reagent and Western blot analysis with antibody against smooth muscle alpha actin (SMA).RESULTS: The results indicated that TGF-β1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation at concentration as low as 0.1 ng/ml, but both BMP-2 and BMP-4 did not affect cell proliferation at concentration as high as 10 ng/ml. The effect on hepatic stellate cell trans-differentiation was similar between TGFβ1 and BMPs. However, BMPs was more potent at transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells than TGF-β1. In addition, we observed that TGF-β1 transient reduced the abundance of SMA in hepatic stellate cells.CONCLUSION: TGF-β may be more important in regulation of hepatic stellate cell proliferation while BMPs may be the major cytokines regulating hepatic stellate cell transdifferentiation.

  7. Transient nephritis during resolution phase of acute virale hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus is a causative agent of hepatitis. Viral E hepatitis is responsible for various clinical manifestations. However, immune reactions due to hepatitis E virus are rarely encountered. A case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis E virus is reported her.

  8. Hepatitis C: What to Expect When Getting Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C What to Expect When Getting Tested Getting tested for Hepatitis C • A blood test, called a Hepatitis C Antibody Test, is used to find out if someone has ever been infected with Hepatitis C. • The Hepatitis C Antibody Test, sometimes called the ...

  9. Experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey P

    2005-10-01

    The lengthy history of efforts to understand the pathogenesis and means of preventing and controlling both hepatitis A and B is noteworthy for many exceptional scientific achievements. Among these are the development of vaccines to prevent the spread of infection through induction of active immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The first plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1981 and was replaced by recombinant hepatitis B vaccines in 1986 and 1989. Vaccines to prevent HAV infection were licensed in the United States in 1995 and 1996. Subsequently, combination vaccines that included both hepatitis A and B vaccine components, or the hepatitis B component in combination with other commonly administered vaccines, were licensed in the United States. Despite significant reductions in hepatitis-related morbidity and mortality that have resulted from widespread use of these vaccines, vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality still occur. The purposes of this article are to review clinical trial and other experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines in healthy individuals as well as in those with chronic liver disease, infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, or requiring hemodialysis; describe the impact that these vaccines and national recommendations for vaccination have had on reducing the incidence of HAV and HBV infection; and recommend expansion of these recommendations to include universal vaccination of adults as a means of further reducing the burden of viral hepatitis.

  10. [Latest Treatment of Viral Hepatitis--Overcoming Hepatitis C and Reactivation of Hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), discovered as causative viruses of post-transfusion hepatitis, become persistent infections, leading to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For HCV, recent IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies have increased sustained virological response (SVR) rates and reduced adverse events. IFN-based therapies, still the standard of care in Asian countries, are influenced by IL28B genetic variants and the liver fibrosis stage, but the DAA combinations obscure the influence of these factors. These new therapies can eradicate HCV and prevent HCC development. On the other hand, it is difficult to eradicate HBV completely. Although HBV infection can be prevented by vaccination, reactivation of HBV following anti-cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy is a well-known complication. HBV reactivation has been reported to be associated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab-containing chemotherapy and TNF-α inhibitor-containing immunosuppressive therapy in HBV-resolved patients. Our prospective observational study revealed that monthly monitoring of HBV DNA was useful for preventing HBV reactivation-related hepatitis among B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection following rituximab-steroid-chemo, suggesting that preemptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring should be recommended. Recently, highly sensitive HBsAg detection by Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ may be useful for several clinical applications. The sensitivity of this assay (5 mIU/mL) was approximately 10-fold higher than Abbott ARCHITECT, but still lower than HBV-DNA assays. The convenient HBsAg-HQ may be useful for detecting occult HBV infection and HBV reactivation in relatively low-risk groups except for those receiving rituximab-steroid-chemo. [

  11. Hepatic resection and regeneration. Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic surgery has been performed on condition that the liver regenerates after hepatic resection, and the development of liver anatomy due to Glisson, Rex, and Couinaud has thrown light on hepatic surgery Understanding of feeding and drainage vessels became feasible for systemic hepatic resection; however, it seems to have been the most important problem to control the bleeding during hepatic resection. New types of devices such as cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) and Microwave coagulation were exploited to control blood loss during hepatic surgery. Pringle maneuver for exclusion feeding vessels of the liver and the decrease of central venous pressure during anesthesia enabled further decrease of blood loss. Nowadays, 3D-CT imaging may depict feeding and drainage vessels in relation to liver mass, and surgeons can simulate hepatic surgery in virtual reality before surgery, allowing hepatectomy to be performed without blood transfusion. Thus, hepatic resection has been a safe procedure, but there's been a significant research on how much of the liver can be resected without hepatic failure. A prediction scoring system based on ICGR15, resection rates, and age is mostly reliable in some criteria. Even if hepatectomy is performed with a good prediction score, the massive bleeding and associated infection may induce postoperative hepatic failure, while the criteria of postoperative hepatic failure have not yet established. Hepatic failure is supposed to be induced by the apoptosis of mature hepatocytes and necrosis originated from microcirculation disturbance of the liver. Prostaglandin E1 for the improvement of microcirculation, steroid for the inhibition of cytokines inducing apoptosis, and blood purification to exclude cytokines have been tried separately or concomitantly. New therapeutic approaches, especially hepatic regeneration from the stem cell, are expected. (author)

  12. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati

  13. An outbreak of infectious hepatitis in commercially reared ostriches associated with Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, C.P.; On, S.L.W.; Gibson, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    A disease causing high morbidity and mortality was observed in young ostriches from six properties in southeast Queensland, Australia. The disease affected birds from 2-8 weeks of age and was characterised clinically by bright-green urates and pathologically by severe necrotic hepatitis. The liver...... lesions resembled those of vibrionic hepatitis in other avian species. Campylobacter coli was isolated from the livers of affected ostriches from five of the six properties. Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from birds from the remaining property. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-based (PFGE...... biochemical test results and PFGE clearly distinguished the C. jejuni strain isolated from the geographically remote farm from the outbreak of C. coli type. We believe this to be the first definitive report of avian hepatitis associated with C. coli....

  14. Hepatitis A outbreak in Ba subdivision, Fiji, October–December 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneley Getahun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A cluster of suspected hepatitis A cases was notified to the Fiji Ministry of Health on 22 October 2013. An outbreak investigation team was mobilized to confirm the existence of an outbreak of hepatitis A and advise appropriate public health interventions. Methods: A case definition for the outbreak investigation was established, and standardized data collection tools were used to collect information on clinical presentation and risk factors. An environmental assessment was also conducted. Results: There were 160 clinical cases of hepatitis A of which 15 were laboratory-confirmed. The attack rate was 349 per 10 000 population in the Nukuloa nursing zone; there were no reported deaths. Residents of the Nukuloa settlement were 6.6 times more likely to present with symptomatic hepatitis A infection (95% confidence interval: 3.8–12.6 compared with residents of another village with a different water supply. Discussion: This is the first significant hepatitis A outbreak documented in Ba subdivision and possibly in Fiji. Enhanced surveillance of hepatitis A may reveal other clusters in the country. Improving the primary water source dramatically reduced the occurance of disease in the affected community and adjacent areas.

  15. Valproic Acid Increases the Hepatic Differentiation Potential of Salivary Gland Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakova, O S; Ashapkin, V V; Shtratnikova, V Y; Kutueva, L I; Vorotelyak, E A; Borisov, M A; Terskikh, V V; Gvazava, I G; Vasiliev, A V

    2015-01-01

    The studies of cell plasticity and differentiation abilities are important problems in modern cellular biology. The use of histone deacetylase inhibitor - valproic acid is a promising approach to increasing the differentiation efficiency of various cell types. In this paper we investigate the ability of mouse submandibular salivary gland cells to differentiate into the hepatic direction and the effect of valproic acid on the efficiency of this differentiation. It was shown that the gene expression levels of hepatocyte markers (Aat, Afp, G6p, Pepck, Tat, Cyp3a13) and liver-enriched transcription factors (Hnf-3α, Hnf-3β, Hnf-4α, Hnf-6) were increased after differentiation in salivary gland cells. Valproic acid increases the specificity of hepatic differentiation, reducing the expression levels of the ductal (Krt19, Hhex1, Cyp7a1) and acinar (Ptf1a) markers. After valproic acid exposure, the efficiency of hepatic differentiation also increases, as evidenced by the increase in the gene expression level of Alb and Tdo, and increase in urea production by differentiated cells. No change was found in DNA methylation of the promoter regions of the genes; however, valproic acid treatment and subsequent hepatic differentiation largely affected the histone H3 methylation of liver-enriched genes. Thus, mouse submandibular salivary gland cells are capable of effective differentiation in the hepatic direction. Valproic acid increases the specificity and efficiency of the hepatic differentiation of these cells.

  16. Effect of L-arginine on calcium in hepatic mitochondrion in rats with obstructive jaundice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu-Sheng Lin; Hui-Lai Miao; Xiao-Guang Gong; Shi-Ting Bao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:There is much debate over the regulation of mitochondrial calcium overload and reducing the impairment of energy metabolism in hepatic cells. It has not been reported whether L-arginine (L-Arg) can affect hepatic mitochondrial calcium overload. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of L-Arg on Ca2+ handling of hepatic mitochondrion in rats with obstructive jaundice and to clarify its possible mechanism. METHODS: Seventy-two male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation+normal saline group (SO group), common bile duct ligation+normal saline group (BDL group), and common bile duct ligation+L-Arg group (L-Arg group). The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Ca2+ in rat hepatic mitochondrion were examined at the 7th, 14th and 21st day after operation. RESULTS: The Ca2+ and MDA levels of hepatic mitochondrion increased signiifcantly but their SOD content decreased markedly at each time point in the BDL group. Except at the 21st day, the Ca2+and MDA, contents of hepatic mitochondrion were signiifcantly lower, and SOD concentrations were higher in the L-Arg group than those in the BDL group at the 7th and 14th day (P CONCLUSION: L-Arg has a protective effect on mitochondrion in the early and mid stages of obstructive jaundice.

  17. RMP Plays Distinct Roles in the Proliferation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells and Normal Hepatic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sijun; Wang, Hongmin; Guo, Yunlan; Chen, Shaomu; Zhang, Mei-Yin; Shen, Jian; Yu, Huijun; Miao, Jingcheng; Wang, Hui-Yun; Wei, Wenxiang

    2013-01-01

    RMP has been shown to function in the transcription regulation through association with RNA polymerase (RNAP) II subunit RPB5. It also has been shown to be required for the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells with an antiapoptotic property. In this article, we further demonstrate that RMP displays distinct features in HCC cells compared with normal hepatic cells. RMP expression is remarkably increased in various cancer cell lines including HCC cells when compared with normal cells. Depletion of RMP could inhibit the proliferation of HCC cells, but not the normal hepatic cells. RMP significantly prevented apoptosis of HCC cells in SMMC-7721 and HepG2, but had little effect on apoptosis in the normal hepatic cells. The mechanisms of RMP's distinct features rely on different responsive expressions of apoptosis factors induced by RMP in HCC and hepatic cells. Either overexpression or depletion of RMP significantly affected the expression of apoptosis factors in HCC cells. However, normal hepatic cells showed a tendency to resist RMP for the regulation of apoptosis. In the clinical samples, the increased expression of RMP in HCCs was also observed when compared with the matched non-tumor tissues from 30 HCC patients. The different expression levels of and distinct responses to RMP between HCC and hepatic cells suggest that RMP might serve as not only a biomarker for the diagnosis of HCC, but also a potential target for the HCC therapy. PMID:23847445

  18. Psychological Reactions among Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B: a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis B is the most prevalent type of viral hepatitis. Psychological reactions among patients with hepatitis B infection is considerably different and affects their decision about treating and following up the disease. The present study aims at explaining the psychological demonstrations experienced by these patients. Methods: In this qualitative study, a total of 18 patients with hepatitis B (8 women and 10 men were selected by purposive sampling method. Data were collected by unstructured in-depth interviews during 2014-2015 in the medical centers of three cities in Iran. All interviews were recorded, typed and analyzed by the conventional content analysis approach. Results: By analyzing the data, the main theme including psychological instability, with three sub-themes were emerged: grief reaction (stupor, denial, anger and aggression, emotional challenges (worry and apprehension, contradiction with beliefs, fear of deprivation, fear of stigma, waiting for death and prognosis ambiguity and inferiority complex (social withdrawal, sense of humiliation and embarrassment and sense of guilt and blame were acquired. Conclusion: The findings indicate that patients with hepatitis B experience various psychological reactions that need to be controlled and managed by themselves or healthcare providers. Thus, implementation of health interventions with emphasis on psychological care to prevent problems and execution of educational and consultation programs about hepatitis especially by medical centers and mass media is seems necessary.

  19. Scrub typhus hepatitis confirmed by immunohistochemical staining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong-Hoon Chung; Sung-Chul Lim; Na-Ra Yun; Sung-Heui Shin; Choon-Mee Kim; Dong-Min Kim

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (O.tsutsugamushi).We report herein the case of a woman who presented with fever and elevated serum levels of liver enzymes and who was definitively diagnosed with scrub typhus by histopathological examination of liver biopsy specimens,serological tests and nested polymerase chain reaction.Immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal anti-O.tsutsugamushi antibody showed focally scattered positive immunoreactions in the cytoplasm of some hepatocytes.This case suggests that scrub typhus hepatitis causes mild focal inflammation due to direct liver damage without causing piecemeal necrosis or interface hepatitis.Thus,scrub typhus hepatitis differs from acute viral hepatitis secondary to liver damage due to host immune responses,which causes severe Iobular disarray with diffuse hepatocytic degeneration,necrosis and apoptosis as well as findings indicative of hepatic cholestasis,such as hepatic bile plugs or brown pigmentation of hepatocytes.

  20. Psoriasis and hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Katayama, I; Nishioka, K

    1995-11-01

    We have analyzed 8 patients (6 men and 2 women, aged 52 to 70 years) with psoriasis associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among 79 psoriatic patients. Psoriasis preceded in 6 cases. One patient had generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), and the others had psoriasis vulgaris (PV). The psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score ranged from 2.7 to 32.4. Two of the patients were treated with interferon-gamma. Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in all cases by second generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent and recombinant immunoblot assay. HCV messenger RNA was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in the tissue sections of the lesions of 1 of the patients with PV and the patient with GPP, providing evidence for active viral replication in the skin lesion. HCV-related chronic active hepatitis might cause several immunological abnormalities. It is suggested that this infection might be one of the triggering factors of psoriasis.

  1. Hepatic erythropoietin response in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise M; Fenger, Mogens; Olsen, Niels V;

    2016-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (EPO) is produced in the liver during fetal life, but after birth the production shifts to the kidneys. The liver maintains a production capacity of 10% of the total EPO-production, but can be up-regulated to 100%. Previous studies have demonstrated both elevated...... in the hepatic, renal and femoral veins and artery. All patients were clinically, biochemically, and hemodynamically characterized. Results The median arterial EPO concentrations in the cirrhotic patients and controls were 7.1 mIU/mL (range 3.5-179) and 7.2 mIU/mL (range 3.8-15.3), respectively. In the patient......, or hemodynamic characteristics. This suggests that hepatic EPO synthesis is not enhanced in cirrhosis, but larger scale studies are needed to clarify this question....

  2. Management of blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letoublon, C; Amariutei, A; Taton, N; Lacaze, L; Abba, J; Risse, O; Arvieux, C

    2016-08-01

    For the last 20 years, nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt hepatic trauma (BHT) has been the initial policy whenever this is possible (80% of cases), i.e., in all cases where the hemodynamic status does not demand emergency laparotomy. NOM relies upon the coexistence of three highly effective treatment modalities: radiology with contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) and hepatic arterial embolization, intensive care surveillance, and finally delayed surgery (DS). DS is not a failure of NOM management but rather an integral part of the surgical strategy. When imposed by hemodynamic instability, the immediate surgical option has seen its effectiveness transformed by development of the concept of abbreviated (damage control) laparotomy and wide application of the method of perihepatic packing (PHP). The effectiveness of these two conservative and cautious strategies for initial management is evidenced by current experience, but the management of secondary events that may arise with the most severe grades of injury must be both rapid and effective. PMID:27519150

  3. Pregnant woman with fulminant hepatic failure caused by hepatitis B virus infection:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Bo Yang; Xiao-Mao Li; Zhong-Jie Shi; Lin Ma

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To report the experience in successfully treating pregnant women with severe hepatitis.METHODS: Comprehensive medical treatments were performed under strict monitoring.RESULTS: Pregnant woman with severe hepatitis was successfully rescued.CONCLUSION: Vital measures taken in the treatment of pregnant women with severe hepatitis include termination of the pregnancy at a proper time and control of various complications, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy and infection.

  4. Abnormal right hepatic artery injury resulting in right hepatic atrophy: diagnosed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Martino Valter; Ferrarese Alessia; Bindi Marco; Marola Silvia; Gentile Valentina; Rivelli Matteo; Ferrara Yuri; Enrico Stefano; Berti Stefano; Solej Mario

    2015-01-01

    An intact hepatic artery is the gateway to successful hepato-biliary surgery. Introduction of laproscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has stimulated a renewed interest in the anatomy of hepatic artery. In this case report we have highlighted importance of variations of right hepatic artery in terms of origin and course We present a rare asymptomatic case of liver atrophy due to an intraoperative lesion of right hepatic artery. We also performed a literature review about surgical vascular lesions and...

  5. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Gambia and the role of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Davies-Russell, Angela; Fielder, Mark; Jewell, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Hepatocellular Carcinoma is the commonest form of cancer in The Gambia, and although Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are known risk factors, accurate baseline data on Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C distribution in the region are limited. Similarly data including information on the involvement of the viruses in HCC remains unknown. The current study was undertaken to estimate the risk of HCC in relation to HCV and HBV in The Gambia. Methods Thirteen patients with histological proven histor...

  6. Hepatitis in skunks caused by the virus of infectious canine hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstad, L; Ramsden, R; Berry, T J; Binn, L N

    1975-10-01

    Two cases of acute, fatal, hepatitis occurred in young, striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) trapped in southern Ontario. Histologically, lesions in the liver were similar to infectious canine hepatitis. A virus was isolated which produced large intranuclear inclusions in dog kidney cell cultures. These inclusions were Feulgen-positive and fluoresced green with acridine orange stain. The skunk hepatitis isolate was identified as the virus of infectious canine hepatitis by virus neutralization tests. PMID:172663

  7. Fulminant hepatitis B in an infant born to a hepatitis Be antibody positive, DNA negative carrier.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanclaire, J; Cornu, C.; Sokal, E M

    1991-01-01

    A boy was born to a mother who was a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier. She was hepatitis Be (HBe) antibody positive and HBe antigen and HBV-DNA negative. The boy had not received hepatitis B vaccine and died from fulminant hepatitis at 3 months of age. This case demonstrates the need to vaccinate babies of HBe antibody positive, HBe antigen negative carriers.

  8. Chronic hepatitis in chimpanzee carriers of hepatitis B virus: morphologic, immunologic, and viral DNA studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Shouval, D.; Chakraborty, P R; Ruiz-Opazo, N.; Baum, S.; Spigland, I; Muchmore, E; Gerber, M. A.; Thung, S. N.; Popper, H.; Shafritz, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Years after infection with hepatitis B virus, chimpanzees may have manifestations of the carrier state as described in man. In addition to serologic evidence for persistent viral infection, percutaneous liver biopsy specimens showed hepatitis B virus surface antigen in the cytoplasm and hepatitis B virus core antigen in the nucleus. Four carrier animals had portal inflammatory reaction as seen in human chronic persistent hepatitis. Viral DNA was demonstrated in nucleic acid extracts of liver ...

  9. Adipokines and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Li; Lin Ding; Waseem Hassan; Daoud Abdelkader; Jing Shang

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes various adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Recent studies have shown that these factors might provide a molecular link between increased adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity. Since hepatic insulin resistance plays the key role in the whole body insulin resistance, clarificatio...

  10. Historical reflections on autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian R Mackay

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH),initially known as chronic active or active chronic hepatitis (and by various other names),first came under clinical notice in the late 1940s.However,quite likely,chronic active hepatitis (CAH) had been observed prior to this and was attributed to a persistently destructive virus infection of the liver.An earlier (and controversial) designation in 1956 as lupoid hepatitis was derived from associated L.E.cell test positivity and emphasized accompanying multisystem features and immunological aberrations.Young women featured prominently in early descriptions of CAH.AIH was first applied in 1965 as a descriptive term.Disease-characteristic autoantibodies were defined from the early 1960s,notably antinuclear antibody (ANA),smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and liver-kidney microsomal (LKM) antibody.These are still widely used diagnostically but their relationship to pathogenesis is still not evident.A liver and disease specific autoantigen has long been searched for but unsuccessfully.Prolonged immunosuppressive therapy with predisolone and azathioprine in the 1960s proved beneficial and remains standard therapy today.AIH like many other autoimmune diseases is associated with particular HLA alleles especially with the "ancestral" B8,DR3 haplotype,and also with DR4.Looking forwards,AIH is one of the several enigmatic autoimmune diseases that,despite being (relatively) organ specific,are marked by autoimmune reactivities with non-organ-specific autoantigens.New paradigms are needed to explain the occurrence,expressions and pathogenesis of such diseases.

  11. Hepatic osteodystrophy and liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vedat; Goral; Mehmet; Simsek; Nuriye; Mete

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between hepatic osteodystrophy and osteoporosis in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Bone mineral density of the patients (n = 55) and that of the control group (n = 30) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All the women in the study were premenopausal. Deoxypyridinoline, pyridinoline and urinary Ca 2+ were measured as bone destruction markers, while alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured as bone ...

  12. Autoimmune Hepatitis and PSC Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Diego; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina

    2008-02-01

    This article describes the connection between autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The two conditions have chronicity, liver inflammation, and a positive autoimmune serology in common; they differ in terms of gender distribution and bile duct damage. There is evidence suggesting that AIH and PSC are immune-mediated diseases. PSC and AIH could lie within the spectrum of the same disease process. Future studies should determine how frequently AIH evolves to PSC.

  13. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  14. Desperately seeking hepatitis C virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Moreno-Otero

    2008-01-01

    Spanish investigators described recently the so-called occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, emphasizing the detection of genomic and antigenomic HCV RNA strands in liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Therefore, the persistence of viral replication in occult HCV infection should be considered as a putative source of infection among family members and patients undergoing invasive procedures, transfusion or transplantation. Additionally, the most worrisome finding is that an occult HCV infection may persist in patients with sustained virological response.

  15. NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT FOR FULMINANT HEPATITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Figueira, Estela Regina; Rocha Filho, Joel Avancini; Souto Nacif, Lucas; Carneiro D'Albuquerque, Luiz; Linetzky Waitzberg, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la hepatitis fulminante se asocia a un exacerbado hipercatabolismo, la hipoglicemia y la hiperamonemia están acompañadas por la liberación de citocinas proinflamatorias y hormonas catabólicas en la circulación sistémica, empeorando la condición clínica del paciente. El apoyo nutricional es un elemento crucial para la recuperación de estos pacientes. Objetivos: el objetivo de esta revisión es actualizar el apoyo nutricional para la hepatitis fulminante. Métodos: la revisión se llevó a cabo mediante la búsqueda electrónica en Medline-PubMed, utilizando malla de términos. Resultados y discusión: no hay muchos datos disponibles sobre el apoyo nutricional para lahepatitis fulminante o fallo hepático agudo. Las estrategias de intervención nutricional inicial se centran en el control de los trastornos metabólicos de la hepatitis fulminante descritos anteriormente, que deben ser individualizadas de acuerdo a la gravedad de la situación clínica del paciente. Energía y proteína se pueden proporcionar en cantidades de 25‑40 kcal / kg / día y 0,8-1,2 g / kg / día, respectivamente. La terapia nutricional enteral está indicada en pacientes con encefalopatía avanzada o para aquellos que no pueden ser adecuadamente alimentados por vía oral. Se debe obtener una euglicemia y la ingesta de proteínas puede estar basada en fórmulas de BCAA. Los lípidos se pueden administrar como suplemento energético con precaución. Una terapia nutricional adecuada puede potencialmente reducir la morbilidad y la mortalidad de los pacientes con hepatitis fulminante.

  16. Effect of hepatic blood flow alteration on the therapeutic effect of cryoablation in VX2 hepatic tumor rabbit: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of alteration of blood flow in the hepatic artery on the therapeutic effect of cryoablation in VX2 hepatic tumor rabbit model. Methods: Thirty rabbits with VX2 hepatic tumor were divided into three groups according to hepatic artery blood flow: complete occlusion of the hepatic artery(group A), partial occlusion of the hepatic artery (group B), and no occlusion of the hepatic artery (group C). With conventional CT scan and perfusion scan, the values of blood flow (BF) and blood volume(BV) of VX2 tumor were computed and the differences among the three groups were analyzed. After cryoablation, the animals were euthanized and the livers were removed. The hepatic tissue from the cryoablation area and surrounding area underwent both methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTY) diaphorase staining and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The gross pathology and histopathological changes were observed. Results: (1)The BF and BV in the three groups were: (7.23 + 2. 15 ) ml·100 g-1·min-1 and (1.63±0.52) ml/100 g in group A; (32.65±6.12) ml·100 g-1·min-1 and (9.32±2.63) ml/100 g in group B; (61.34±12.15) ml·100 g-1·min-1 and (17.51± 3.14) ml/100 g in group C, respectively. There were significant differences among the three groups in the BF and BV (F value was 452.16 and 421.33 in the BF and BV, respectively, P <0.01); (2) The maximum diameter of cryoablation-induced necrosis was (2.3±0.3)cm in group A, (1.5±0.2) cm in group B, and (0.8±0.1) cm in group C, respectively. The difference was significant among the groups (F value was 315.32,P <0.01). (3) There were well-defined frozen areas, bordering areas and normal surrounding areas in MTT staining. In group C, positive staining around some blood vessels could be seen. Conclusion: Alteration of the blood flow in the hepatic artery can affect the cryoablation efficacy. With the decrease of hepatic artery blood flow, the efficacy of cryoablation on liver tumor increased

  17. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Jacob, Karl; Zachoval, Reinhart

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive ou...

  18. Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports in the literature of hepatitis as a manifestation of Parvovirus B19 infection. We describe a case of Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis diagnosed based on a positive serologic test (IgM and molecular detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patient presenting with acute hepatitis of unknown etiology.

  19. Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Perrini, S; B. Guidi; Torelli, P; A. Forte

    2014-01-01

    There are few reports in the literature of hepatitis as a manifestation of Parvovirus B19 infection. We describe a case of Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis diagnosed based on a positive serologic test (IgM) and molecular detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patient presenting with acute hepatitis of unknown etiology.

  20. Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a hepatic pseudoaneurysm following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a child. It arose from a hepatic artery that was ligated during surgery and was supplied by collaterals from the superior right branch. Because of the risk of hepatic infarction and recanalization of the pseudoaneurysm by new collaterals, the authors decided not to occlude the superior right branch, but to embolize the aneurysm itself with cyanoacrylate. Since the intra-arterial approach was not feasible, a transhepatic puncture was successfully performed. (orig.)

  1. Scintigraphic finding of a silent hepatic haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borse, Rohan; Mahapatra, G N; Meht, Rajeev; Plumber, Saifee; Dhuri, Sandeep; Ali, Sarfaraz

    2010-10-01

    Hepatic haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of liver. Most of them remain asymptomatic and are detected incidentally. Tc 99m RBC blood pool imaging is highly specific diagnostic modality of choice for hepatic haemangioma as its hypervascular nature may create equivocal result on CT or MRI. The sensitivity and specificity increases using SPECT especially in lesion less than 2 cm. Therefore all patients suspected of having hepatic haemangioma should undergo Tc 99m blood pool imaging. PMID:21510118

  2. Outbreak of hepatitis E with bimodal peak in rural area of Bhavnagar, India, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devang A Raval

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Rise in the number of jaundice cases were reported on 24 th of June 2010, in Dhola village, India. We investigated the outbreak to identify the source of infection and to facilitate control measures. Materials and Methods : We confirmed the outbreak by reviewing the rate of acute viral hepatitis in the year 2009-10. We defined a case of acute hepatitis as an acute illness with (a discrete onset of symptoms and (b jaundice or elevated serum aminotransferase levels, since March 2010 in Dhola village. We described the outbreak in terms of time, place, and person. We tested 20 blood samples of the case patient for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag, and immunoglobulin M (IgM antibody for hepatitis A and E. We collected water samples for the bacteriological examination, and to test free chlorine in the water. Results : A total of 137 cases (attack rate 27.2/1000 were reported in this outbreak from March to August 2010. The attack rate was highest among the age group of 20-29 years. The attack rate was significantly higher in male (35/1000 than in female (18/1000. Out of 20 case-patients, 19 were found positive for hepatitis E virus (HEV IgM antibodies. The water samples taken from households contained more than 10 coliforms in 100 ml sample. The relative risk of developing hepatitis E among people using pipeline water against those using ground water was 3.23 (95% CI of RR 1.59, 6.57. Conclusion : Outbreak that affected Dhola village was due to hepatitis E virus. Fecal contamination of water was the most likely source of this bimodal outbreak of hepatitis E.

  3. Hepatitis C in hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Smaragdi Marinaki; John N Boletis; Stratigoula Sakellariou; Ioanna K Delladetsima

    2015-01-01

    Despite reduction of hepatitis C prevalence afterrecognition of the virus and testing of blood products,hemodialysis (HD) patients still comprise a high riskgroup. The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV)infection in dialysis is not fully understood whilethe clinical outcome differs from that of the generalpopulation. HD patients show a milder liver diseasewith lower aminotransferase and viral levels depicted bymilder histological features on liver biopsy. Furthermore,the "silent" clinical course is consistent with a slowerdisease progression and a lower frequency of cirrhosisand hepatocellular carcinoma. Potential explanations forthe "beneficial" impact of uremia and hemodialysis onchronic HCV infection are impaired immunosurveillanceleading to a less aggressive host response to the virusand intradialytic release of "hepatoprotective" cytokinessuch as interferon (IFN)-α and hepatocyte growthfactor. However, chronic hepatitis C is associated witha higher liver disease related cardiovascular and allcausemortality of HD patients. Therapy is indicated inselected patients groups including younger patients withlow comorbidity burden and especially renal transplantcandidates, preferably after performance of a liverbiopsy. According to current recommendations, choice oftreatment is IFN or pegylated interferon with a reportedsustained viral response at 30%-40% and a withdrawalrate ranging from 17% to 30%. New data regardingcombination therapy with low doses of ribavirin whichprovide higher standard variable rates and good safetyresults, offer another therapeutic option. The newprotease inhibitors may be the future for HCV infectedHD patients, though data are still lacking.

  4. Problems in diagnosing viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, F; Colloredo Mels, G; Bellati, G; Ideo, G; Oliveri, F; Colombatto, P; Brunetto, M R

    1993-01-01

    The most reliable method of making a specific aetiological diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis would be to identify virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes responsible for the killing of virus infected hepatocytes in each patient's liver. Unfortunately, this can not be proposed for routine diagnosis and surrogate tests are required. The detection of virus markers, and even of the virus itself, does not imply that liver damage is caused by virus infection. Indirect markers of the host's antiviral immunoresponse have to be used to confirm more specifically the diagnosis of viral hepatitis. IgM antibodies against viral antigens implicated in the elimination of the virus seem to be suitable alternative candidates. Significant changes in the serum values of viraemia and aminotransferases occur within a few days, while a significant variation in liver histology takes much longer. Only the kinetics of the highly variable parameters can be used for an appropriate study of the relationship between viraemia, antiviral immunoresponse, and liver cell necrosis. Quantitative and dynamic analyses of hepatitis virus markers seem the most suitable and reliable methods of monitoring the patients eligible for antiviral treatment and identifying the most appropriate time to start this. PMID:8314490

  5. Zafirlukast-induced acute hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chien-Wei; Wu, Jaw-Ching; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Shin; Chang, Full-Young; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2002-11-01

    Zafirlukast, a competitive cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, is a new class of asthma medications. It has shown an adverse event profile similar to that of placebo. Herein, we present a 69-year-old female patient who suffered from general malaise, poor appetite, nausea and jaundice after 3 months of zafirlukast therapy for asthma. She had no past history of liver disease, nor history of alcoholism, herb medication, blood transfusion, acupuncture, tattoo or recent traveling history. Liver biochemistries revealed elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartase aminotransferase levels up to 481 U/L and 212 U/L, respectively. Moreover, peak serum total bilirubin level was elevated to 34.8 mg/dL during admission. Serum viral hepatitis marker, antinuclear antibody, anti-mitochondrial antibody and anti-smooth muscle antibody were all negative. Her general condition and liver biochemistries improved gradually after zafirlukast was discontinued. Roussel Uclaf causality assessment for adverse drug reaction confirmed the diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury. This case reminds us that zafirlukast is a potentially hepato-toxic drug. If clinical manifestations of hepatitis develop, patients should be managed cautiously and closely monitored for liver biochemistries. If drug-induced hepatitis is suspected, medication should be discontinued immediately to prevent further liver injury. PMID:12583521

  6. Fulminant hepatic failure from hepatitis E in a non-pregnant female traveller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris, Robert B; Keystone, Jay S

    2016-04-01

    A non-pregnant Canadian woman returning from India presented with a 1-week history of jaundice and malaise. Subsequently, she developed fulminant hepatic failure caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV can cause fulminant hepatic failure, most commonly in pregnant women and those with chronic liver disease; however, all travellers are at risk. PMID:27069000

  7. Fulminant hepatic failure from hepatitis E in a non-pregnant female traveller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris, Robert B; Keystone, Jay S

    2016-04-01

    A non-pregnant Canadian woman returning from India presented with a 1-week history of jaundice and malaise. Subsequently, she developed fulminant hepatic failure caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV can cause fulminant hepatic failure, most commonly in pregnant women and those with chronic liver disease; however, all travellers are at risk.

  8. Fulminant hepatic failure after intravenous injection of sublingual buprenorphine in a patient with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Janine; Mujumdar, Avik; Angus, Peter; Gow, Paul

    2015-08-01

    A 20-year-old indigenous Australian male was admitted to the intensive care unit with fulminant hepatic failure secondary to intravenous use of buprenorphine, which had been prescribed sublingually for opioid dependence. Intravenous buprenorphine-induced hepatitis is well recognized, however, life-threatening fulminant hepatic failure has not previously been reported.

  9. Hepatic segmentectomy combined with major hepatic vein resection for preser ving remnant liver lobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xing; Hong Li; Wei-Guo Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impairment of liver function is the most serious complication that occurs after liver resection or in cirrhotic liver. Postoperative hepatic failure, which is mainly preceded by insufifcient remnant liver function and/or postoperative septic complications, is the major cause of hospital mortality. This study was undertaken to evaluate hepatic segmentectomy combined with major hepatic vein (MHV) resection for preserving the remnant liver lobe in the treatment of resectable primary liver cancer. METHODS: From 1997 to 2007, six patients with primary liver cancer underwent hepatic segmentectomy with MHV resection, and three patients with hepatic vein injury had ligation of the MHV. The remnant liver lobe was preserved after hepatic segmentectomy combined with MHV resection or ligation. RESULTS: The preserved liver lobe with normal structure could maintain hepatic function and showed no evidence of atrophy or swelling after hepatic segmentectomy combined with MHV resection or ligation. CONCLUSIONS: After the right inferior hepatic vein is conifrmed, and the MHV is occluded experimentally before hepatic segmentectomy combined with MHV resection, progressively deteriorating congestion does not occur in the preserved segment. Ligation or resection of the two MHVs must be avoided in patients with hepatic cirrhosis who have to undergo hepatic segmentectomy combined with MHV resection. Ligation of the MHV in patients with juxtahepatic vein injury is a simple and effective therapeutic modality.

  10. "Pseudotumoral" hepatic pattern in acute alcoholic hepatitis:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea Tenca; Sara Massironi; Agostino Colli; Guido Basilisco; Dario Conte

    2009-01-01

    In acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH),a "pseudotumoral" appearance of the liver parenchyma on computed tomography (CT) scan has been reported.The main findings are hypervascularized areas closely similar to those observed in large hepatocellular carcinomas.We report a case of a patient affected by AAH with an unusual appearance of these "pseudotumoral" areas on CT scan,close resembling a metastatic cancer rather than a primary hepatocellular carcinoma.In fact,in contrast with previous reports,the picture was characterized by the presence of many inhomogeneous,hypoattenuated areas highlighted during both pre-and post-contrast phases.Moreover,we report the first description of "pseudotumoral" lesions on ultrasound scan.This patient was successfully treated with corticosteroids,even if many controversies still exist regarding their efficacy in this setting.

  11. Studies on Hepatitis B vaccination in neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Canho, Riwka

    1993-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1982-1989, 705 infants born to HBsAg positive mothers entered the Dutch neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program and received passive-active hepatitis B immunization, according to 6 schedules, varying in time of onset vaccination, dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBlg) and type and dose of vaccine. 118 (17%) of the mothers were also HBeAg positive. This thesis describes the protective efficacy and long-term immunogenicity of passive-active hepatitis B immunization over a p...

  12. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  13. Safety of Curcuma aromatica oil gelatin microspheres administered via hepatic artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Gui Deng; Zhi-Feng Wu; Wei-Ying Li; Zhi-Gang Yang; Gang Chang; Fan-Zhe Meng; Li-Li Mo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety of Curcuma aromatica oilgelatin microspheres (CAO-GMS) infused via hepatic artery against primary liver cancer.METHODS: The safety of CAO-GMS was evaluated in view of its acute toxicity in rats, long-term toxicity in Beagle dogs and general pharmacology in rats and mongrel dogs. RESULTS: The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of CAO-GMS infusedvia the hepatic artery was 17.19 mg/kg, and the serum biochemical indices of dying rats after the administration changed markedly while those of survived rats did not. Subsequent pathological examination of the tissues from the dead rats indicated improper embolism. Similar edema and small necrotic foci in the hepatic Iobule were found in the hepatic tissue of rats receiving 10 and 5 mg/kg CAO GMS and GMS 60 d after the last administration, while not in the rats of the blank control group, indicating that microspheres infused via the hepatic artery may induce irreversible liver damage dose-dependently. General pharmacological study showed that the activities (postureand gait), respiration frequency, blood pressure or heart rate of the dogs were not affected by CAO-GMS, nor were salivation, tremor or pupil changes of the rats observed or their balancing ability compromised, suggesting CAO-GMSinfused via the hepatic artery did not significantly affect the nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. CONCLUSION: CAO-GMS embolization administered via the hepatic artery is safe but undesired embolization induced by vascular variation should be given due attention in its clinical application. Individualized embolization dosage and super-selective catheterization technique are recommended to avoid undesired embolism and reduce complications.

  14. Hepatic Steatosis Following Pancreatic Surgery: A Swedish Centers Experience with Demographics, Risks and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Ivanics

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of fatty changes in the liver ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Certain patients may develop hepatic steatosis following pancreatic resections. The aim of our study was to investigate factors possibly associated with steatosis after pancreatic resection and to see if the survival of patients was influenced by its development. Methods 182 consecutive patients that underwent pancreatic surgery (between 2010-2013 in a Swedish high volume pancreatic center were retrospectively reviewed from the preoperative work-up until at least 6 months postoperatively. Pre-versus postoperative values of Hounsfield Units were checked on CT scans and utilized as a proxy for development of hepatic steatosis. Demographic data and a number of possible risk factors were recorded together with survival after surgery. Results 17 percent of our patient group developed hepatic steatosis within the first year of surgery. The development of steatosis occurred significantly more frequently in females and in patients over the age of 70. Hepatic steatosis was positively associated with increased levels of alanine amino transferase (ALT after surgery. No association was noted between grade of weight loss and steatosis. Nor were there any correlations between the incidence of steatosis and the type of operation. Post-operative hepatic steatosis did not adversely affect overall survival. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that certain demographic and laboratory values are associated with the development of hepatic steatosis after pancreatic resections. However, despite its development, hepatic steatosis is of no apparent clinical significance and does not affect overall survival following pancreatic surgery.

  15. Hepatic and biliary ascariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup K Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis mainly contributes to the global helminthic burden by infesting a large number of children in the tropical countries. Hepato-biliary ascariasis (HBA is becoming a common entity now than in the past owing to the frequent usage of ultrasonograms and endoscopic diagnostic procedures in the clinical practice. There are a variety of manifestations in HBA and diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion in endemic areas coupled with subsequent confirmation by sonographic or endoscopic demonstration of the worm. Most of them present with acute abdomen and jaundice. Oriental or recurrent pyogenic cholangiopathy is possibly the result of HBA, commonly encountered in South-East Asian countries. Conservative treatment with anthelminthic agents is used in the majority. Failure to respond to medical therapy usually indicates the need for endoscopic or surgical interventions. Overall, mortality is low and prognosis is good, but many epidemiological and immunological aspects of Ascaris infection are unclear, meaning our understanding the disease and infection still remains incomplete. Therefore, it is difficult to definitely put down a fixed modality of treatment for HBA. This underscores the need for further studies as ascariasis has the potential to adversely affect the national socio-economy by compromising the health of children and adults alike with its sheer number.

  16. 5-azacytidine promotes terminal differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun; Cui, Jiejie; He, Tongchuan; Bi, Yang

    2015-08-01

    5-azacytidine (5-azaC) is known to induce cardiomyocyte differentiation. However, its function in hepatocyte differentiation is unclear. The present study investigated the in vitro capability of 5-azaC to promote maturation and differentiation of mouse embryonic hepatic progenitor cells, with the aim of developing an approach for improving hepatic differentiation. Mouse embryonic hepatic progenitor cells (HP14.5 cells) were treated with 5-azaC at concentrations from 0 to 20 μmol/l, in addition to hepatocyte induction culture medium. Hepatocyte induction medium induces HP14.5 cell differentiation. 5-azaC may enhance the albumin promotor-driven Gaussia luciferase (ALB-GLuc) activity in induced HP14.5 cells. In the present study 2 μmol/l was found to be the optimum concentration with which to achieve this. The expression of hepatocyte-associated factors was not significantly different between the group treated with 5-azaC alone and the control group. The mRNA levels of ALB; cytokeratin 18 (CK18); tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT); and cytochrome p450, family 1, member A1 (CYP1A1); in addition to the protein levels of ALB, CK18 and uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) in the induced group with 5-azaC, were higher than those in the induced group without 5-azaC, although no significant differences were detected in expression of the hepatic stem cell markers, DLK and α-fetoprotein, between the two groups. Treatment with 5-azaC alone did not affect glycogen synthesis or indocyanine green (ICG) metabolic function in HP14.5 cells, although it significantly increased ICG uptake and periodic acid-Schiff-positive cell numbers amongst HP14.5 cells. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that treatment with 5-azaC alone exerted no effects on the maturation and differentiation of HP14.5 cells. However, 5-azaC exhibited a synergistic effect on the terminal differentiation of induced hepatic progenitor cells in association with a hepatic induction medium. PMID

  17. Concurrent quantitation of the A and D genotypes of hepatitis B virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanic, Nikola; Stanojevic, Boban; Tanic, Nasta; Schaefer, Stephan; Niesters, Hubert G. M.; Bozic, Milena; Dimitrijevic, Bogomir

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health problem associated with severe liver disorders. Viral load and HBV genotype affect the clinical outcome, guide antiviral therapy and provide long term prognosis for HBV infected patients. Various types of detection and quantitation assays are curr

  18. HLA Preferences for Conserved Epitopes: A Potential Mechanism for Hepatitis C Clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, X.; Hoof, I.; Baarle, D. van; Kesmir, C.; Textor, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections affect more than 170 million people worldwide. Most of these individuals are chronically infected, but some clear the infection rapidly. Host factors seem to play a key role in HCV clearance, among them are the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules. Certa

  19. Natural history of hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Yiu-Kuen But; Ching-Lung Lai; Man-Fung Yuen

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of cancer death in the world. It has great regional differences in the pathology and epidemiology. The variation is greatly influenced by the aetiologies of the disease. Hepatitis B and C infection are the most important risk factors. HCC incidence rates are higher but in decreasing trend in developing countries. However, the figures in the developed countries are contrary. Successful hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination programs, better food hygiene, increased global hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and population migration are the possible explanations. A number of clinical and pathogenic differences exist between HBV- and HCV-related HCC. HBV infection leads to the development of HCC through direct and indirect pathways as it has the ability to integrate into the host genome affecting cellular signaling and growth control. HCV causes HCC mainly through indirect pathways: chronic inflammation, cell deaths and proliferation. As a result, HCC is almost exclusively found in cirrhotic HCV patients while HCC is sometimes found in HBV patients without significant liver cirrhosis. Due to the different severities of liver cirrhosis and HCC extent, therapeutic strategies from resection, liver transplantation to symptoms palliation are available. Poorly differentiated histology, lack of fibrous capsule, large tumour size, early vascular invasion and elevated serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) are the features for more aggressive disease. Combined with markers of liver reserve and performance status, accurate scoring systems and models have been developed to predict patients' survival and match best treatment option.

  20. Foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A, November 2007-January 2008, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D; Fretz, R; Buchner, G; König, C; Perner, H; Sollak, R; Tratter, A; Hell, M; Maass, M; Strasser, M; Allerberger, F

    2009-04-01

    An outbreak of hepatitis A affecting 21 residents of an Austrian city occurred from the end of November 2007 until mid-January 2008. A case series investigation suggested the consumption of food purchased from supermarket X as the common link. A food handler employed in the delicatessen department of that supermarket had been serologically diagnosed with hepatitis A on 28th November 2007. During the infectious period of approximately 3 weeks, he worked on 11 days. Interviews with the other cluster cases revealed that the hepatitis A virus (HAV)-infected food handler did not practice appropriate hand hygiene. The investigation revealed no other possible source of infection. We hypothesize that the food of the delicatessen department contaminated by the HAV-infected food handler during his infectious period was the source of the outbreak. The district public health authority recommended the reinforcement of hygiene precautions, i.e., access to viricidal hand disinfectant and the use of disposable gloves and single-use paper towels, in the involved supermarket. The federal ministry of health recommended HAV vaccination for all food handlers in food production and gastronomy companies; this recommendation was included in the Austrian national vaccination plan 2008, even though the vaccination of food handlers is costly and its cost-effectiveness is not proven. Appropriate and regular hand hygiene, particularly after toilet visits, is the most effective measure for preventing HAV transmission.

  1. Foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A, November 2007-January 2008, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D; Fretz, R; Buchner, G; König, C; Perner, H; Sollak, R; Tratter, A; Hell, M; Maass, M; Strasser, M; Allerberger, F

    2009-04-01

    An outbreak of hepatitis A affecting 21 residents of an Austrian city occurred from the end of November 2007 until mid-January 2008. A case series investigation suggested the consumption of food purchased from supermarket X as the common link. A food handler employed in the delicatessen department of that supermarket had been serologically diagnosed with hepatitis A on 28th November 2007. During the infectious period of approximately 3 weeks, he worked on 11 days. Interviews with the other cluster cases revealed that the hepatitis A virus (HAV)-infected food handler did not practice appropriate hand hygiene. The investigation revealed no other possible source of infection. We hypothesize that the food of the delicatessen department contaminated by the HAV-infected food handler during his infectious period was the source of the outbreak. The district public health authority recommended the reinforcement of hygiene precautions, i.e., access to viricidal hand disinfectant and the use of disposable gloves and single-use paper towels, in the involved supermarket. The federal ministry of health recommended HAV vaccination for all food handlers in food production and gastronomy companies; this recommendation was included in the Austrian national vaccination plan 2008, even though the vaccination of food handlers is costly and its cost-effectiveness is not proven. Appropriate and regular hand hygiene, particularly after toilet visits, is the most effective measure for preventing HAV transmission. PMID:18850121

  2. Alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis C: A frequently underestimated combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebastian Mueller; Gunda Millonig; Helmut K Seitz

    2009-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represent, either alone or in combination, more than two thirds of all patients with liver disease in the Western world. This review discusses the epidemiology and combined impact of ALD and HCV on the progression of liver disease. ALD and HCV affect the progression of liver disease to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a synergistic manner. Thus, the risk for HCC increases five times with a daily alcohol consumption of 80 g; in the presence of HCV it is increased 20-fold, and a combination of both risk factors leads to a more than 100-fold risk for HCC development. Alcohol consumption also decreases the response to interferon treatment which is probably due to a lack of compliance than a direct effect on HCV replication. Several molecular mechanisms are discussed that could explain the synergistic interaction of alcohol and HCV on disease progression. They include modulation of the immune response and apoptosis, increased oxidative stress via induction of CYP2E1 and the hepatic accumulation of iron. Thus, both HCV and alcohol independently cause hepatic iron accumulation in > 50% of patients probably due to suppression of the liver-secreted systemic iron hormone hepcidin. A better understanding of hepcidin regulation could help in developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat the chronic disease in the future. For now, it can be generally concluded that HCV-infected patients should abstain from alcohol and alcoholics should be encouraged to participate in detoxification programs.

  3. Hepatic histological alterations and biochemical changes induced by sildenafil overdoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrar, Bashir Mahmoud; Almansour, Mansour Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Sildenafil is used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and is helping millions of men around the world to achieve and maintain a long lasting erection. Fifty healthy male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used in the present study and exposed daily to sildenafil (0, 1, 3, 6, 9 mg/kg) for 5 days per week for 7 weeks to investigate the biochemical changes and alterations in the hepatic tissues induced by this drug overdosing. In comparison with respective control rabbits, sildenafil overdoses elevated significantly (p-value<0.05, ANOVA test) alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone and total protein, while creatinine and urea were lowered with no significant alteration was observed in uric acid and luteinizing hormone concentration. Also sildenafil provoked hepatocytes nuclear alterations, necrosis, hydropic degeneration, bile duct hyperplasia, Kupffer cells hyperplasia, inflammatory cells infiltration, hepatic vessels congestion and evident partial depletion of glycogen content. The results show that subchronic exposure to sildenafil overdoses exhibits significant biochemical and alterations in the hepatic tissues that might affect the functions of the liver and other vital organs. PMID:26639481

  4. Evaluation of Hepatitis B Vaccination among Lichen Planus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balighi, K; Daneshpazhooh, M; Nasimi, M; Loloee, S; Asadi, A; Azizpour, A

    2016-07-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. Many reports in the literature have described hepatitis B vaccine as a predisposing factor for LP. This study was performed to determine the rate of previous vaccination against hepatitis B in LP patients. This was a cross sectional study on LP patients. Diagnosis of LP was confirmed by histological examination. Data were gathered by dermatology residents based on a checklist designed to guide their interview. Blood samples were tested for HBsAB titer, HBsAg, HCV Ab and liver function tests. One hundred & twenty four (124) patients entered the study. Females were 2.72 times more affected. The mean age of patients was 45.63 years (age range; 18-88). Forty-four (35.5%) patients had been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Lichen planus during the first six months of vaccination occurred in only one patient. Our findings bring into question the causative role of HBV vaccine in LP incidence in our population. PMID:27612905

  5. Hepatitis C virus-related lymphoproliferative disorders: An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Linda Zignego; Carlo Giannini; Clodoveo Ferri

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health problem affecting 3% of the world's population (about 180 million) and a cause of both hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, whose prototype is mixed cryoglobulinemia, represent the most closely related as well as the most investigated HCV-related extrahepatic disorder. The association between extrahepatic (lymphoma) as well as hepatic malignancies (hepatocellular carcinoma) has justified the inclusion of HCV among human cancer viruses. HCV-associated manifestations also include porphyria cutanea tarda,lichen planus, nephropathies, thyreopathies, sicca syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, diabetes,chronic polyarthritis, sexual dysfunctions, cardiopathy/atherosclerosis, and psychopathological disorders.A pathogenetic link between HCV virus and some lymphoproliferative disorders was confirmed by their responsiveness to antiviral therapy, which is now considered the first choice treatment. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection with particular attention to B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Available pathogenetic hypotheses and suggestions about the most appropriate, currently available, therapeutic approaches will also be discussed.

  6. Adiponectin and thiazolidinedione targets CRTC2 to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Sil; Ryu, Dongryeol; Lee, Min Woo; Hong, Sungpyo; Koo, Seung Hoi

    2009-08-31

    During fasting periods, hepatic glucose production is enhanced by glucagon to provide fuels for other organs. This process is mediated via cAMP-dependent induction of the CREB regulated transcriptional coactivator (CRTC) 2, a critical transcriptional activator for hepatic gluconeogenesis. We have previously shown that CRTC2 activity is regulated by AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) family members. Here we show that adiponectin and thiazolidinedione directly regulate AMPK to modulate CRTC2 activity in hepatocytes. Adiponectin or thiazolidinedione lowered glucose production from primary hepatocytes. Treatment of both reagents reduced gluconeogenic gene expression as well as cAMP-mediated induction of CRE reporter, suggesting that these reagents directly affect CREB/CRTC2- dependent transcription. Furthermore, adiponectin or thiazolidinedione mediated repression of CRE activity is largely blunted by co-expression of phosphorylation defective mutant CRTC2, underscoring the importance of serine 171 residue of this factor. Taken together, we propose that adiponectin and thiazolidinedione promote the modulation of AMPK-dependent CRTC2 activity to influence hepatic gluconeogenesis.

  7. Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5-+g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state

  8. Modulators of hepatic lipoprotein metabolism identified in a search for small-molecule inducers of tribbles pseudokinase 1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek M Nagiec

    Full Text Available Recent genome wide association studies have linked tribbles pseudokinase 1 (TRIB1 to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. Based on the observations that increased expression of TRIB1 reduces secretion of VLDL and is associated with lower plasma levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, higher plasma levels of HDL cholesterol and reduced risk for myocardial infarction, we carried out a high throughput phenotypic screen based on quantitative RT-PCR assay to identify compounds that induce TRIB1 expression in human HepG2 hepatoma cells. In a screen of a collection of diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS-derived compounds, we identified a series of benzofuran-based compounds that upregulate TRIB1 expression and phenocopy the effects of TRIB1 cDNA overexpression, as they inhibit triglyceride synthesis and apoB secretion in cells. In addition, the compounds downregulate expression of MTTP and APOC3, key components of the lipoprotein assembly pathway. However, CRISPR-Cas9 induced chromosomal disruption of the TRIB1 locus in HepG2 cells, while confirming its regulatory role in lipoprotein metabolism, demonstrated that the effects of benzofurans persist in TRIB1-null cells indicating that TRIB1 is sufficient but not necessary to transmit the effects of the drug. Remarkably, active benzofurans, as well as natural products capable of TRIB1 upregulation, also modulate hepatic cell cholesterol metabolism by elevating the expression of LDLR transcript and LDL receptor protein, while reducing the levels of PCSK9 transcript and secreted PCSK9 protein and stimulating LDL uptake. The effects of benzofurans are not masked by cholesterol depletion and are independent of the SREBP-2 regulatory circuit, indicating that these compounds represent a novel class of chemically tractable small-molecule modulators that shift cellular lipoprotein metabolism in HepG2 cells from lipogenesis to scavenging.

  9. Enhanced hepatic apoA-I secretion and peripheral efflux of cholesterol and phospholipid in CD36 null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Yue

    Full Text Available CD36 facilitates oxidized low density lipoprotein uptake and is implicated in development of atherosclerotic lesions. CD36 also binds unmodified high and very low density lipoproteins (HDL, VLDL but its role in the metabolism of these particles is unclear. Several polymorphisms in the CD36 gene were recently shown to associate with serum HDL cholesterol. To gain insight into potential mechanisms for these associations we examined HDL metabolism in CD36 null (CD36(-/- mice. Feeding CD36(-/- mice a high cholesterol diet significantly increased serum HDL, cholesterol and phospholipids, as compared to wild type mice. HDL apolipoproteins apoA-I and apoA-IV were increased and shifted to higher density HDL fractions suggesting altered particle maturation. Clearance of dual-labeled HDL was unchanged in CD36(-/- mice and cholesterol uptake from HDL or LDL by isolated CD36(-/- hepatocytes was unaltered. However, CD36(-/- hepatocytes had higher cholesterol and phospholipid efflux rates. In addition, expression and secretion of apoA-I and apoA-IV were increased reflecting enhanced PXR. Similar to hepatocytes, cholesterol and phospholipid efflux were enhanced in CD36(-/- macrophages without changes in protein levels of ABCA1, ABCG1 or SR-B1. However, biotinylation assays showed increased surface ABCA1 localization in CD36(-/- cells. In conclusion, CD36 influences reverse cholesterol transport and hepatic ApoA-I production. Both pathways are enhanced in CD36 deficiency, increasing HDL concentrations, which suggests the potential benefit of CD36 inhibition.

  10. Hepatitis B virus taxonomy and hepatitis B virus genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnavirus family. Hepadnaviruses can be found in both mammals (orthohepadnaviruses) and birds (avihepadnaviruses).The genetic variability of HBV is very high. There are eight genotypes of HBV and three clades of HBV isolates from apes that appear to be additional genotypes of HBV. Most genotypes are now divided into subgenotypes with distinct virological and epidemiological properties. In addition, recombination among HBV genotypes increases the variability of HBV. This review summarises current knowledge of the epidemiology of genetic variability in hepadnaviruses and, due to rapid progress in the field,updates several recent reviews on HBV genotypes and subgenotypes.

  11. Diurnal variation of hepatic antioxidant gene expression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qiao Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to examine circadian variations of hepatic antioxidant components, including the Nrf2- pathway, the glutathione (GSH system, antioxidant enzymes and metallothionein in mouse liver. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult mice were housed in light- and temperature-controlled facilities for 2 weeks, and livers were collected every 4 h during the 24 h period. Total RNA was isolated, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis. Hepatic mRNA levels of Nrf2, Keap1, Nqo1 and Gclc were higher in the light-phase than the dark-phase, and were female-predominant. Hepatic GSH presented marked circadian fluctuations, along with glutathione S-transferases (GST-α1, GST-µ, GST-π and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1. The expressions of GPx1, GST-µ and GST-π mRNA were also higher in females. Antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1, catalase (CAT, cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 and heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1 showed circadian rhythms, with higher expressions of Cox-2 and CAT in females. Metallothionein, a small non-enzymatic antioxidant protein, showed dramatic circadian variation in males, but higher expression in females. The circadian variations of the clock gene Brain and Muscle Arnt-like Protein-1(Bmal1, albumin site D-binding protein (Dbp, nuclear receptor Rev-Erbα (Nr1d1, period protein (Per1 and Per2 and cryptochrome 1(Cry1 were in agreement with the literature. Furthermore, acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is more severe when administered in the afternoon when hepatic GSH was lowest. CONCLUSIONS: Circadian variations and gender differences in transcript levels of antioxidant genes exist in mouse liver, which could affect body responses to oxidative stress at different times of the day.

  12. Clinical presentation and genotype of hepatitis delta in Karachi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tariq Moatter; Zaigham Abbas; Sabhita Shabir; Wasim Jafri

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinical presentation and genotypes of delta hepatitis in local population.METHODS: In this prospective study, 39 consecutive patients who were positive for HBsAg and hepatitis D virus (HDV) antibody were included. The patients were divided in two groups on the basis of presence or absence of HDV RNA and a comparative study was done. Genotype of HDV was determined in PCR positive patients.RESULTS: Overall there is male dominance, in which 34 patients out of 39 (87.2%) were male. Twenty (51%) patients were from the adjacent areas of three provinces; Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan indicating the higher prevalence of delta hepatitis in this mid region of Pakistan. Patients of all age groups were affected with delta hepatitis (median 31.5 years, range 12-75).HDV RNA was detectable in 23 patients (59%). All the HDV strains belonged to genotype Ⅰ. HBV DNA was detectable only in 3 cases who were also HBeAg and HDV RNA positive. Patients with detectable HDV RNA were younger than patients with undetectable RNA; mean age 29.7 ± 12.8 years vs 36.8 ± 15.2.There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical presentation and routine biochemical profile of patients with detectable or undetectable HDV RNA.Clinical cirrhosis was present in 19 (49%) patients; 12 with detectable RNA and 7 with undetectable HDV RNA (P = 0.748). Decompensated disease was seen in eight patients; five and three respectively from each group.Four patients with undetectable RNA and two patients with detectable RNA had normal ALT and ultrasound abdomen.CONCLUSION: HDV may infect at any age, usually young adult males. Genotype Ⅰ is prevalent. With time some of the patients become HDV RNA negative or asymptomatic carrier. Most of the patients have suppressed HBV DNA replication. Significant numbers of patients have cirrhosis.

  13. Clinical expression of insulin resistance in hepatitis C and Bvirus-related chronic hepatitis: Differences and similarities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcello Persico; Mario Masarone; Vincenzo La Mura; Eliana Persico; Francesco Moschella; Monica Svelto; Savino Bruno; Roberto Torella

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of the clinical parameters of insulin resistance and diabetes in patients affected by chronic hepatitis C (CHC) or chronic hepatitis B (CHB).METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 852 consecutive patients (726 CHC and 126 CHB) who had undergone liver biopsy. We recorded age, sex, ALT, type 2 diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome (MS), body mass index (BMI), and apparent disease duration (ADD).RESULTS: Age, ADD, BMI, prevalence of MS and diabetes in patients with mild/moderate liver fibrosis were significantly higher in CHC. However, the degree of steatosis and liver fibrosis evaluated in liver biopsies did not differ between CHC and CHB patients. At multivariate analysis, age, sex, BMI, ALT and diabetes were independent risk factors for liver fibrosis in CHC,whereas only age was related to liver fibrosis in CHB.We also evaluated the association between significant steatosis (> 30%) and age, sex, BMI, diabetes, MS and liver fibrosis. Diabetes, BMI and liver fibrosis wereassociated with steatosis > 30% in CHC, whereas only age and BMI were related to steatosis in CHB.CONCLUSION: These data may indicate that hepatitis C virus infection is a risk factor for insulin resistance.

  14. Viral Hepatitis and Diabetes: Clinical Implications of Diabetes Prevention Through Hepatitis Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnchanasorn, Rudruidee; Ou, Horng-Yih; Lin, James; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chiu, Ken C

    2016-10-01

    Viral hepatitis has been posited to play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Thus, prevention of viral hepatitis through vaccination has the potential to reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes. We have shown that successful hepatitis B vaccination reduces the risk of diabetes by 33 %. Although diabetes can be prevented by behavior modification and pharmaceutical agents, these require significant personal commitment and cost. In contrast, diabetes prevention through hepatitis B vaccination would require little personal commitment and relatively low cost. In this review, we discuss hepatitis viruses A, B, and C and their interaction with diabetes; explore the potential underlying mechanisms and potential for hepatitis vaccination to reduce diabetes; and estimate the medical expense savings that would result from such an intervention. Given the projected increase of diabetes prevalence in the developing regions, where hepatitis B is endemic, exploration of such an intervention is very timely. PMID:27620495

  15. Hepatitis C virus: Promising discoveries and new treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Padilla, Marina Aiello; Caserta, Leonardo Cardia; Miotto, Noelle; Vigani, Aline Gonzalez; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2016-07-28

    Despite advances in therapy, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains an important global health issue. It is estimated that a significant part of the world population is chronically infected with the virus, and many of those affected may develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. The virus shows considerable variability, a characteristic that directly interferes with disease treatment. The response to treatment varies according to HCV genotype and subtype. The continuous generation of variants (quasispecies) allows the virus to escape control by antivirals. Historically, the combination of ribavirin and interferon therapy has represented the only treatment option for the disease. Currently, several new treatment options are emerging and are available to a large part of the affected population. In addition, the search for new substances with antiviral activity against HCV continues, promising future improvements in treatment. Researchers should consider the mutation capacity of the virus and the other variables that affect treatment success. PMID:27605875

  16. Cryoglobulinemia in elderly patients with HCV-related chronic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco; Giuseppe; Foschi; Anna; Chiara; Dall’Aglio; Arianna; Lanzi; Giorgio; Marano; Sara; Savini; Pietro; Andreone; Mauro; Bernardi; Giuseppe; Francesco; Stefanini

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection affects about 3% of the world’s population and often leads to chronic liver disease.In some industrialized countries,HCV prevalence increases with age,but the optimal management of older patients has not been accurately defined.HCV infection can also lead to lymphoproliferative disorders,the most common being mixed cryoglobulinemia(MC),and also for this condition that frequently affects elderly patients,the optimal therapeutic strategy is still debated.We report the case of a 77-year-old Caucasian woman with HCV-related chronic hepatitis and cutaneous manifestations consisting of urticaria and pruritus related to MC resistant to antihistamines.The patient underwent a treatment with interferon and ribavirin.Such a treatment led to early biochemical and virological response associated with the resolution of cryoglobulinemia and cutaneous symptoms.After the end of treatment,HCV replication relapsed,but cryoglobulinemia and cutaneous symptoms did not recur.In the absence of definite treatment guidelines in this particular context,our experience suggests that the presence of symptoms related to HCV-infection that deeply affect patient quality of life warrants antiviral therapy even beyond the age limits that currently exclude patients from treatment.

  17. Oral psoriasis in a patient with hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Nishioka, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of 65-year-old patient with psoriasis vulgaris who developed a psoriatic manifestation on his lower lip, along with typical features of psoriasis on his trunk and extremities. Mucous membranes, palate and tongue were not affected. A biopsy specimen from lip showed acanthosis of the epidermis with parakeratosis, and mild cellular infiltrates in the upper dermis. He was also suffering from type C hepatitis, however, he had not been treated with interferons. Oral psoriasis involving the lip is extremely rare. PMID:11809602

  18. Co-ordination of hepatic and adipose tissue lipid metabolism after oral glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Simonsen, L; Wiggins, D;

    1999-01-01

    The integration of lipid metabolism in the splanchnic bed and in subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after ingestion of a 75 g glucose load was studied by Fick's principle in seven healthy subjects. Six additional subjects were studied during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Release of non......-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) from adipose tissue and splanchnic NEFA extraction followed a similar time-course after oral glucose, and there was a highly significant relationship between adipose tissue NEFA release and splanchnic NEFA uptake. There was no immediate inhibition of splanchnic very low density...... lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol (TAG) output when plasma insulin levels increased after glucose. Adipose tissue extraction of VLDL-TAG tended to vary in time in a manner similar to splanchnic VLDL-TAG output and the two were significantly related. The area-under-curves (AUC) for splanchnic extraction...

  19. Hepatic infarction following abdominal interventional procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara H

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the incidence, background, and progress of hepatic infarction following interventional procedures, cases of hepatic infarction following interventional procedures at our department during the last decade were identified by reviewing the clinical records of 1982 abdominal angiography and interventional procedures and records of abdominal CT. Nine episodes (0.5% in 8 patients were identified as hepatic infarction following an interventional procedure. Five episodes were preceded by embolization of the hepatic or celiac artery at emergency angiography for postoperative bleeding with hemorrhagic shock. Three episodes followed the elected interventional procedure for hepatocellular carcinoma, and the remaining episode occurred after 12 months of chemoinfusion through an indwelling catheter in the hepatic artery and portal vein. Hepatic arterial occlusion in all episodes and portal venous flow abnormality in 5 episodes were observed on angiography. Four patients whose liver function was initially impaired died of hepatic infarction, although the extent of the disease on CT did not appear to be related to the mortality. Multiple risk factors, including arterial insufficiency, were observed in each patient. The incidence of hepatic infarction following interventional procedures in this series was low but sometimes fatal, and occurred most frequently in emergency embolization in hemorrhagic shock.

  20. History and Global Burden of Viral Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Hubert E

    2016-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1989, 5 hepatotropic viruses have been discovered that are the major causes of viral hepatitides worldwide: hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis delta virus and hepatitis E virus. Their epidemiology and pathogenesis have been studied in great detail. Furthermore, the structure and genetic organization of their DNA or RNA genome including the viral life cycle have been elucidated and have been successfully translated into important clinical applications, such as the specific diagnosis, therapy and prevention of the associated liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevalence of acute and chronic viral hepatitis A-E shows distinct geographic differences. The global burden of disease (prevalence, incidence, death, disability-adjusted life years) has been analyzed in seminal studies that show that the worldwide prevalence of hepatitis A-E has significantly decreased between 1990 and 2013. During the same time, the incidence of HBV-related liver cirrhosis and HCC, respectively, also decreased or increased slightly, the incidence of the HCV-related liver cirrhosis remained stable and the incidence of HCV-related HCC showed a major increase. During the coming years, we expect to improve our ability to prevent and effectively treat viral hepatitis A-E, resulting in the control of these global infections and the elimination of their associated morbidities and mortalities. PMID:27170381